The worlds olio written by the Right Honorable, the Lady Margaret Newcastle.
Newcastle, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of, 1624?-1674.
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The Worlds Olio. LIB. III. PART III.

Much Praise makes a Physician think himself Learned.

IT is a strange thing to see into what great Errours Men will run; as suppose a Person shall find out, or have it by Receipt, a rare Medicine, as to cure one Disease, which is curable; and for the Fame of this one Medicine, shall have a whole Country flock to him for Me∣dicines for their several Diseases, and shall not be perswaded from it; and at last perswade him, as Self-love is easily per∣swaded, to practice that he hath no skill in; and so kill more by his Ignorance, than his Medicine can qure by its Virtue.

Of Physicians.

IT is almost impossible for all Physicians to know all Disea∣ses, and their Remedies, as they prosess to do, by their ge∣neral Practices; for we find, to learn a mean Art, it is the study and service of seven Years; and certainly it is much more difficulty to know Diseases, which are like Faces, not any one alike; Besides, Diseases lye so hid in the Body of an Animal, as they are never perfectly known, but guess'd at; and to know the Cure of a Disease, is as hard, as to know the Disease; and in∣deed we can never know a perfect Cure, unless we could know the undoubted Cause. But Physicians should watch, as Philoso∣phers, the Stars, with Observations, and in time they may guess so well, as seldom to fail of a Remedy. Wherfore it were good, that every particular Physician should be bound by a Law to study onely a single Disease, and the Cure thereof, and not to con∣found Page  180 their Brains with tearms and names of Diseases, and to kill the Patient, by being ignorant of the Cause. But let every Disease, go to a proper Physician; for though there be a mul∣titude of Diseases, yet there are more Physicians: but such is the sad Condition, that they rather adventure to Chance, or Luck, than Skill; for Diseases are like several Countenances in Faces: though there be one and the same kinds of Faces, as Man-kind, Horse-kind, and Cow-kind, yet every Horse-face is not alike; nor every Mans Face is not alike; so Diseases: as Pox-kind, and Plague-kind, and Feaver-kind: yet all Fea∣vers are not alike, nor Plagues, nor Pox; for they are different in degrees; wherefore one and the same Medicine will not cure one kind of Disease, but the Medicine must differ, as the Disease: for as the Countenance of the Disease changeth, so must the Me∣dicine. But it is harder to take the degrees of Diseases, than to draw a Picture to the Life, for it is hard to know in what Degree a Disease is in.

But the Second Part of my Philosophical Fancies will treat more at large of Diseases, and their Cures.

The Motion of the Blood.

THE most Renowned and most Learned Physician, Doctor Harvey, hath found out the Circulation of the Blood, by his industrious study, so methinks it should be very beneficial to∣wards the health of Man, to find out the Motion of the Blood, as it runs, whether it hath one intermixing Motion as it runs; or whether the Blood doth not do as the Water seems to do, which going in a swift source, where the following Drops are as great Strangers to the leading Drops, as the situation of either Pole: for though the hinder Drops press forwards, and drive on the former, like Crouds of People, one shuffling another, yet they do not seem to intermix, or incorporate, but rather seem to break, and divide into parts; for if they should intermix, and incorpo∣rate one drop into another, their intermixing Motion would hinder their running Motion so much, as it would be scarce per∣ceivable how it went forward; and if the Blood do not inter∣mix, then some Veins may have foul and corrupted Blood, and some very pure Blood, which we many times see; which makes me think it doth not intermix; if so, we may take out our good Blood, and leave our bad behind us, not knowing where the Corrupted Blood lyeth; and this Corrupted Blood may infect the Vital Parts, as it runs along. This makes some, that when they let Blood in Feavers, they are never the better, because that Vein was not open where it lay: so that Physicians had better strike two or three Veins, and venture the loss of Good Blood, than miss the Bad, for it may corrupt all the rest, though not by intermixing, yet by corrupting the Liver as it floweth.

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Of letting Blood.

THere are more Diseases come in having too much Blood, than too little: for when the Veins are too full, the Blood hath no liberty to run out, and for want of Motion corrupts, which Corruption bursts out into Small-Pox, Fistaloes, Kings Evils, and many such like Diseases. But if the Humour thrusts not Outwards, it corrupts the Inward Parts, as, the Liver, the Lungs, or else breeds Imposthumes, and many such Diseases. But if there be much Blood, and thin, then by the agitation it grows hot, or else by the many Spirits in much Blood, it begets too much Motion, Motion Heat, and Heat and Motion fires the Blood, and inflames the Spirits, which causeth Feavers of all sorts, Frenzies, and Consumptions; for there may be as well too much Motion in the Body, as too little. But when the Parts of the Body are congeal'd, or tyed up with Cold, then the Blood * cannot run, nor the Spirits work, but Motion ceaseth, and the ceasing of Natural Motion is Death. Or if the Blood run too fast about, and the Spirits work too hard, by reason of too much Heat, they wast out themselves, by reason of too much Labour, * and so are worn out, like the Wheels of a Clock; for the Clock ceaseth to go, when the Wheels are broken.

Of Diet.

THere is nothing preserves Health more, and lengthens Life, than due and just proportion of Diet, according to the strength of the Stomack: for one should eat so, that the Body should feed upon the Meat, and not the Meat to feed upon the Body, as it doth with those that eat more than they can di∣gest, for the Superfluity makes Slough and Slime in the Body, which Slime drowns the Spirits, slackens the Nerves, corrupts the Blood, and weakens the Body; besides, it bringeth many Diseases. Neither should one eat so little, as to let the Body feed upon it self; for much Fasting dryes the Blood, heats the Body, and fires the Spirits, which Fire once getting into the Ar∣teries, is seldome or never cured, being a Hective Feaver. But it is as hard to know a just proportion to the strength of the Sto∣mack, as to keep it when they know it. This Knowledge comes by observing the Stomack, for at some times the Stomack re∣quires more than at other times, although the Appetite may be less, when the Stomack is empty, or it is requirable to give it more: for some have such weak Appetites, as they sterve their Bodies, because they would not displease their Tast; or else eat such things as would yield no Nourishment: for there is a great difference between the Appetite and the Stomack. Others, their Appetites are so sharp, and their Stomacks so weak, as it digests not the third part of what it receives: But he that loves Page  182 Pleasure more than Health, and Life, let him follow Epicures; and they that think the Severity of the Body is the way to Eter∣nal Life, let them turn Anchorets: but they that think they may use all things that are lawfull, without 2 prejudice to the Soul, and would have Health and Life, to use them long, let them follow Observation and Moderation.

The Reason why one and the same Quantity * of Physick shall purge some to Death, and others it shall never move, or at least not to that degree.

THE Reason is, That one and the same Quality and Quantity of Purging Medicines works so different in se∣veral Bodies, and at several Times, in one and the same Body, is caused by the Validity and Solidity of the Humour: for the Bodies of Animals are like to several Grounds, some Dusty and Dry, some Stony and Hard, some Tuff and Clammy, as Clay, some Muddy and Dirty, others Washy and Wet; which causeth Husbandmen to yoke more Oxen, or Harness, more Horses, to adde Strength, not onely when their Draughts are heavily laden, but when the Waies are ill, and uneasy to tra∣vel in: for in some Waies ten Horses will not draw so easy as one in other Waies, or in Winter as in Summer, but are forced to whip and lash, to tug and pull: so are Bodies, where Physick, like Horses, or Oxen, doth pull and gripe the Guts, to draw out clammy Flegm; where, in Light and Sanguine Bodies, the Phy∣sick runs fast, and the Humours follow easily; or in Melancholy, and Dry Waies, where the Humour is so hard, as the Physick rather beats upon it, than penetrates or divides it, and at last be∣comes Lame, and Weak, as Horses which are foundred; but Cholerick Bodies are like Sandy Waies, where the Humours like Dust, fly about. But there must be several sorts of Physick given to several Constitutions, as Husbandmen sow several sorts of Grain; as, some Humours must be digged up with Penetra∣ting Medicines, other Humours plowed up with Fomenting Me∣dicines; some Humours harrowed with Extenuating Medicines, others raked as with Drawing and Attractive Medicines; some must be watered with Solable and Sucking Medicines, others must be manured and nourished with fine Light-Meats, and Gelly Broths; others must be comforted with the hot Sun of Cordials. Thus if Bodies be not husbanded according to the Nature Constitution of the Soyl, they will never have a suf∣ficient Stock of Health to pay Life, their Land lord, his Rent; and Death will seize upon their Lease, as forfeited to him before the Rent-day.

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Of Purging Drugs.

ALL Purging Drugs have more of the penetrating or sub∣dividing Quality, than attractive, or drawing: for it is not the gathering together the Humours, that casts forth, or purgeth forth, but the cutting or dividing them, which loosens them, and dissolves; and the Cause of Fluxes in Bodies, is, that Na∣ture hath bred a Drug in the Body which is a penetrating and subdividing Humour.

Of Opium.

Opium works upon the Spirits, as Drugs do upon the Liver, in the Body; it is good in Feavers, for in all Feavers the Spirits are like Wanton Bodies, which run and play so much, untill they have put themselves into a Fiery Heat: But dull Opi∣um corrects them, like a grave Tutor; wherefore Opium should be good for Mad-men, moderately taken.

Of Animal Spirits.

THE Animal Spirits are the Radical Vapour in the Body, produced from the Natural Heat, and Radical Moysture: but Obstruction, which comes by Superfluity, stops the Natural Heat, hindring the Extenuating Faculty and Corruption which is caused by Superfluous Moysture; and Unnatural Heat damps the Natural, and drowns the Radical Moysture, by which the Animal Spirits become weak. This is the reason, that those Diseases that come by Obstruction, or Corrupted Humours, make the Body faint and lazy, and the Mind dull and melancholy.

Of Heat and Cold.

HEat and Cold produce many times one and the same Effect: for as Cold draws all Spirits inward, so Heat thrusts all Spirits outwards: for Cold is like a Hook, to pull Heat inward; and Heat like a Spear, or a Staff, to thrust outward; As for example, From Wine is distilled Aqua vitae, or the like, which are Spirits by the means of Fire; and Wine in a Barrel, if it be much frozen, will cause all the Spirits in the Barrel to gather to∣gether in the midst, and no Spirits are left in that which is frozen; as likewise in extreme Fear, all Spirits will be drawn to the Heart, as the Center, insomuch as all the rest of the Members will have none left to support them, as they become useless; and in great Heats the Spirits go to the Outward Parts, and leave the Inward Parts so voyd, as they become saint and exhausted, for want of their help.

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The Difference of Heat and Cold in the Spring and Autumn.

THE Face of the Earth is like the Hearth of a Chimney, and the Sun as the Fire that lyeth thereon; that is the rea∣son that the Spring is not so warm as the Autumn, or the Au∣tumn so cold as the Spring, because the Sun is not so hot in the Winter to heat the Earth, as in the Summer: for as the Hearth of a Chimney will require some time to be heated, after the Fire is laid thereon, so it will retain a Heat sometimes, after the Fire is taken therefrom.

Likewise this is the reason, that it is coldest just before the break of Day, because at that time the Sun hath been longest absent: for there is some Heat in the Night, though but weak; not but that the Night may be hot, when the Day hath been cold: but then that Heat proceeds rather from the Bowels of the Earth, than the Beams of the Sun; for though the Sun may have a Constant Heat, yet his Beams have not, as we may ob∣serve, some Summer Daies are much colder than others; for some Daies may be hotter when the Sun is Oblick, than when it is Perpendicular over our Heads, by reason that cold and moyst Vapours may arise from the Earth, and as it were quench the Violent Heat in the Beams of the Sun; and Wind may cool the Heat also, or Clouds may obstruct the Heat, as a Skreen set be∣fore the Fire: yet neither Wind, nor Vapour, nor Clouds, can alter the Heat inherent in the Sun, &c.

Diseases curable and uncurable.

THere are some sorts of Dropsies that are caused by Obstru∣ction, and some sorts of Consumptions caused by Evil Di∣gestion, and so Diseases of all sorts that are curable: but if any Vital Part be perished, it is not Physick, nor good Diet, nor change of Air, nor any Evacuation or Restoratives, that can make that part whole again that is perished, no not Nature it self; for when her Work is finished, she cannot mend it; for if she makes it Imperfect, it will continue so: for Nature is like a Clay Potter, that if his Pot be made awry, if once confirmed and hardened with Heat, he cannot alter it.

Of the Sickness in the Spring.

THE Reason there are more sick in the Spring than in the Winter, is, that the Pores of the Body being closer shut in Winter, by the Contraction of the Cold, than in any other Season, keeps in the Fire, the Smoke, and Vapour, that should, and would if it could, issue out: But the Parts being stopp'd, Page  185 having not a sufficient Vent to transport a proportionable Quan∣tity, it lyes and corrupts; for want of Agitation, the Quantity increasing, it overcharges the Body, that by such time the Spring is arrived, the Body is so distempered, as it falls sick, the Cor∣ruption having bred a Malignity that infects the Noble Parts.

For the Body having more Vapour than the Natural Heat can digest, makes it not onely corrupt, for want of a sufficient Heat to purifie it, but that Corruption quenches out the Natural Heat, which causeth Agues; and begets an Unnatural Heat, which causeth Feavers, and the like Diseases; and the Corruption causeth the Small-Pox, Meazels, Imposthumes, Soar Throats, and many such kinds of Diseases.

But when this Distemper of the Body is joyned to the like Corrupted Vapours drawn from the Earth, it is most commonly deadly, and produceth great Plagues the Summer following, the Body being then like Rotten Wood, which is quickly set on Fire, and soon burnt out.

But if the Body hath a Sufficiency of Natural Heat to clarifie the Vapour, that arises from the Stomack, and Bowels, and to dry up the Superfluous Moysture, the Body is safe from Danger: but if the Body have more Heat than Moysture, it feeds upon the Noble Parts, and causeth Hective Feavers.

But Hective Feavers are seldome cured by the stoppage of the Pores: for the Natural Heat in the Body is like External Fire, which is extinguished if it be stopp'd, and hath not Vent.

But there are several sorts, or kinds, or manners of Unnatural Heat, caused by Obstructions, and other Accidents; as there is a Smothering Heat in the Body, caused by Obstructions; and there is a Smoking Heat of the Body, caused by too violent Ex∣ternal Motions. or such Meats that actually heat; also a Fiery Heat in the Body, caused by too much, and too strong Interior Motion: but these Heats, that are Moyst Heats, and Unnatural, cause Corruption.

Of the Sickness in Autumn.

THE Reason there is more Sickness in Autumn than in Sum∣mer, is, that the Powers of the Sun abating, let fall by de∣grees all the Dregs and Dross of that Vapour it drew up from the Earth, when it was in its full Strength; which having more power to draw, than to digest, the Superfluity corrupts; which Corruption falls back upon the Earth, infecting the Air, also the Bodies of Men, and many times Beasts: yet the Infecti∣on is received, or infects, according as the Bodies are tempted: For if the Bodies are full of Humours, and the Blood corrupt, the Air is apt to catch hold, as having a Sympathy each to other, for as the old Proverb is, Like will to like; and those Bodies, and also those Meats, that are moyst, are most apt to corrupt: for Heat and Moysture are said to be the Father and Mother to Page  186 Curruption, which causeth those that eat much Fruits and Herbs in the Summer time, to fall into Fluxes, and Feavers, and the like Diseases, in the Autumn; for those Humours that are bred in the Summer, the Body strives to cast forth in Autumn, like a Child birth; for when the Humours are come to such a Growth, the Body is in travel with painfull Throbs, and strives to be de∣livered; where some are soon delivered of their Burthen, o∣thers dye in their Labour.

Diseases of the Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter.

THE Diseases in the Spring are Agues, Small-Pox, Meazels, Imposthumes, and the beginning of Plagues; for all the Malignity that was tunn'd up in the Body in the Winter, is set abroch in the Spring, by the returning Sun, whose Beams, though weak, yet peirce, like small Gimlets, or Spiggots, all the Pores of the Earth, and the Creatures thereon. The Diseases in the Summer, are Phrenzies, by reason the Heat burns and inflames the Spirits; and Plagues, by reason the Heat inflames those Malignant and Corrupted Humours that the Winter hath bred by Obstructions, like Houses that are musty, and fusty, and smoky, and foul, for want of Air to sweeten them; and full of Spiders, and Cobwebs, and Flyes, and Moths, bred from the dusty dirty Filth therein, for want of Vent to purge them, for the Winter shuts up all the Windows and Dores, which are the Pores; likewise the Blood corrupts, and the Body is apt to rot, like Linnen, that is laid up damp, or in a moyst place; for the Rheums that are subject to be in the Winter, corrupt and rot the Lungs, and the Vital Parts of the Body; likewise Sweat∣ings and Faintings are Summer-diseases, by reason the Natural Moysture is rarified so thin, and the Pores open so wide, as it evaporates all out, even the Radical Moysture, and the Vital Spi∣rits issue out therewith.

The Diseases of Autumn are Fluxes, by reason the Summer breeds sharp Humours, with the Heat and the Drought; be∣sides, the Diets of Men are crude and raw in that Season, as eat∣ing of Fruits, Roots, Herbs, and the like. Also this Season is subject to Meagrums, and Feavers, which are also caused by sharp Humours; likewise Head-akes, and Vomitings, caused by sharp Chorerick Humours, which the Summer Diet breeds; likewise Plurisies, that are caused by burnt or corrupted Blood, which is bred by too much Heat, or an Unnatural Heat, and a Supersluity of Moysture; also Collicks, by reason the Summer rarifies the Vapours into Wind, which causeth not onely in the Bodies of Men great Collicks, but in the Bowels of the Earth, which causeth Earthquakes, and great Tempestuous Winds in the Air; for in this Season of the Year there are greater Winds Page  187 than in any Season, and hold the longest: for though in March, when the Pores of the Earth are first opened, as I may say, by the returning Sun, whereupon the thinnest Matter will first fly out, yet those Winds are neither so strong, so long, nor so fre∣quent, as those in Autumn.

The Diseases of the Winter are Coughs and Rheums, by reason the Pores being closer drawn, and the Air grosser and thicker in Winter, it doth as it were daub rather up, like Morter upon a Wall that hath Holes and Crevises, than enter in; which causeth a closer Stoppage; which Stoppage causeth Dew, and Distilla∣tions: for the Heat and Moysture stewing together, the Body becomes like a Still, or rather like a Pot, or Vessel, that is close covered, which hath Meat, or some Liquid Substance in it, where by Heat, the Moysture thereof, is rarified into Vapour and ascending to the Cover, and at the Top as the Cover there∣on, finding a Depress, straight gathers into a Dew, and so into Drops; then falls, having a sufficient Vent, like Showers of Rain, where some run through the Pipes of the Nostrils, other∣some through the Gutter of the Throat, and some fall streight down on the Stomack, as the Earth: for as it is the Nature of Vapour to spread, and to ascend, as being Light and Thin; so it is the Nature of Water to descend, or to run streight forth, by reason it is more Solid, and Weightier likewise.

Likewise Coughs are Followers and Attendants of Rheums, which by tickling those Parts where it falls or trickles along, causeth a straining, and so a coughing, though many times Wind produceth the same Effect by a tickling touch. Also Sneezing is an Attendant to Rheum and Wind, and causing a tickling on the Brain, or in the Nose: for indeed Sneezing is nothing but a Cough through the Nose, as through the Throat. Likewise Tooth-aches are caused by Rheums: for the Rheum falling there∣on, rots the Bones, or makes Holes therein; like as Water, conti∣nually dropping on a hard Stone, works a Passage thorow. Also Soar Throats are caused by Rheums; but that is when the Rheum is sharp or salt. Then Winter is subject to cause Apoplexies, Le∣thargies, numb Palsies, and Gangrenes, that are caused by the stoppage of the Pores, which, as I said, are not only drawn closer by Cold, which makes the Skin thicker and harder, but by the gross and thin Air, which is contracted into a more Solid Body by Cold. Thus the breathing Passages of the Body being stopp'd, there flyes up so much grosser Vapours to the Head, as * choaks the Brain, and smothers the Vital Spirits there; and the Body having less Vent in Winter than in Summer, grows so full of Humours, as obstructs the Nerves and Muscles, with cold, clammy, or hard baked Flegm, as they cannot stir with a sen∣sible Motion; for in the Nerves and Muscles doth the Sense of Touching live; and where they cease from moving, those Parts are dead and numm'd. Gangrenes are produc'd by the benum∣ming of the Spirits, as when the Spirits are congeal'd to Ice, Page  188 which causeth in very cold Countryes, as Russia, or the like, to have their Noses and Fingers fall off from their Faces and Hands. Likewise, if the Spirits are quenched out with too much Moysture, or their Motions hindered by some Obstruction, or as it were corrupted by some Blow, Bruise, or Wound, those Parts, for want of Lifes Motion, gangrene, and so rot off. Likewise Fi∣staloes are subject to this Season, because this Season being sub∣ject to breed Rheums of all Sorts and Natures, according as the Humours are in the Body, so it breeds that sharp Rheum which makes Fistaloes: for that Humour is as sharp as Vitriol or Aqua fortis, and it doth in the Body as Vitriol and Aqua fortis doth on Metal, running about, and eating holes quite thorow. Also this Season is subject to hard white Swellings, bred by cold, clammy, or tough Humours. The Stone and the Gout reign in every Season, but not in every Age: for though Children have the Stone many times, yet seldome or never the Got: But the Gout, although its not the Stone in the Toe, yet it is an Humour which is of the Nature of Lime, which is somewhat of a Brimstony, Hard, Dry, Bitumenous Humour.

Of Cold and Hot Diseases.

A Cold Disease is apter for Cure than a Hot: for Cold Diseases are like Raw Flesh, that the Frost hath gotten hold of, and makes it unlike it self, by reason of the Ice hardning of it; but Warmness dissolves it, and then it comes to it self again; but by Excessive Heat, it is as if one should boyl or rost a piece of Flesh; for when a piece of Flesh is boyled, rosted, baked, or the like, one shall never make it as it was, which is, to be raw again.

Of Apoplexies, and the like.

AN Apoplexy is a dead Palsie in the Brain, and a Lethar∣gy, a numb Palsie in the Brain; And the reason many times why dead and numb Palsies, when it takes them on one Side, ruin the Legs, or Arms, and yet live, is, because it hath not touched the Vital Parts, which is caused by some Obstruction in the Veins, or some of the Nerves, which either is by gross and thick Blood, or hard and crusted Flegm, or cold and clammy Flegm: But if it be in the Head, which we call Apoplexies, it is either caused by a Cold Humour in the Brain, which doth as it were congeal and freez up the Spirits; or by a Malignant Va∣pour, proceeding from the Stomack, or Bowels, which Vapour choaks or smothers up the Spirits. And indeed the greatest Ene∣my to the Brain is the Vapour that proceeds from the Ill-affected Bowels, or Stomack: for Vapour, being Smoke, ascends up∣ward to the Head, which is the Chimney of the Body, where the Smoke vents out; for the Bowels may be compared to the Page  189 Hearth; the Stomack to the Pot, or Furnace; the Meat to the Fuel; the Heart to the Fire, or Flame, which is fed by the Li∣ver, or Oily Substance; the Lungs the Bollows, to keep it alive; the Head, as I said, the Chimney, to gather up the Smoke; the Nose, Mouth, and Ears, the Tunnels from whence it issues out: for if the Nose and Mouth be stopped, the Fire of Life goeth out, and not having Reviving Air, it is choked with its own Smoke: for though the Pores of the Body do evaporate some of the Smoke, yet that is onely the thin and subtiller Part; but if the Pores of the Body be stopped by a Cold, the Body shall grow Feaverish with it, so that many times it sets the House on Fire; and when the Head is Idle and Frantick, it is because the Head, which is the Chimney-top, is set on Fire by the Feaver: but the Vapour that ascends to the Head, is either a great Friend or Enemy to the Wit; for a Gross Vapour chokes the Wit, a Thin Sharp Vapour quickens it, a Cold Vapour congeals it, a Hot Vapour inflames it, and several sorts of Vapour make va∣riety of Wit, and the several Figures, and Works, and Forms, that that Vapour, which is a Smoke, raiseth up, cause se∣veral Imaginations, and Fancies, by giveng several Motions to the Brain.

Of a Feaver.

A Feaver is like a Stack of Hay that is laid up half wet, and half dry; This Moysture and Drought being met toge∣ther, strive for Preheminency, the Drought would drink up the Moysture, and the Moysture would dissolve the Drought; and if their Strength be equal, and the Strife be without inter∣mission, the Stack is set on Fire, caused by an equal, swift, con∣tinuated Motion, which consumes all, if it be not quenched out by a fresh Recruit of Moysture: for Drought takes the part of Fire, being the Child of Heat, which Heat is the Child of Fire, and so is the Grandmother of Drought. Thus a Feaver is caused by the Humours of the Body, which being not well tempered, sets the Barn, which is the Body, on Fire, by the Corruption therein; for Heat and Moysture are the Parents to Corruption. But there is a Natural Heat and Moysture, which produceth Legitimate Issues; and there is also an Adulterate Heat and Moysture, from whence proceed Bastardly Diseases, which are as Numerous, as Natural Children.

Of Feavers in the Blood.

BUT in Feavers, where onely the Heat causeth the Blood to boyl, and so to become scalding hot, when the Feaver is ta∣ken away, that is, when the bitter and sharp Humours are cast out of the Body by some Evacuation, or that the Fire is quenched out with some cooling Julips, the Blood will be the same again, Page  190 without any alteration, as Water is; onely in the boyling, the Blood may wast and evaporate forth of the Body through the Pores, as Water doth forth of the Vessel it is boyling in: But if the Blood be corrupted, or mix'd with Humours, as Water is often with Mud, there is no way but letting it forth, drawing it out of the Veins, that the Heart and the Liver, as the Springs, * may send in more, which may be Fresh and Clear, into the Veins again, unless those Springs be corrupted, and then there is no Remedy, for then Death will alter the Course of Life in that Body.

Sleeping and Waking.

SLeeping and Waking are the flowing and ebbing of Va∣pour: for when Vapour flows to the Extreme Parts, it causeth Sleep, as it were, for a time; Or filling up all the Out∣ward Senses, as Water doth a Pipe, or a Vessel, or as Wind doth a Bladder, where nothing can be received therein, untill they be empty: so no Outward Objects can enter in at the Five Senses, untill the Vapour wherewith they are filled be dispers'd; or falling back, by contracting into a Lesser Compass; which when they are contracted or dispers'd, they wake; so that Va∣pour in the Body is as necessary for Life, as Food; And indeed Food is the chief Cause of Vapour; for Heat and Moysture make Vapour; and like as Food, received into the Body, doth either distemper or nourish it, so doth Vapour that slows in the Body, make Sleep sound and easy, or trouble some and unquiet; for Malignant and Corrupted Vapours are like Malignant and Cor∣rupted Humours: for as Malignant Humours cause the Body to be sick or painfull, so Malignant Vapours cause Sleeps to be full of Dreams, Startlings, and often Wakings; though many times Dreams are caused by Rarified Vapours, like a Wind which blows upon the Brain, causing many Motions therein; or rather furrows the Grosser Vapours, causing them to role in Billows and Waves, hindring them from flowing easy and smooth; which Tempestuous Winds beat the Vapours backward, as it were, or drive them from the utmost Extent, which hinders the Senses from being thorowly fill'd, which causeth not so sound Sleeps: for when the Senses are not fill'd, the Vapours are like Water in a Vessel not half full, which when it is quite full, there is little or no Motion; though the Vessel be moved, the Water stirs not much: but when it is but half full, or three parts, when the Vessel is stirred, it flashes and sprinkles about.

Of not Sleeping in Feavers.

THE reason those that are in great Feavers, or the like hot Disease, cannot sleep, is, that the Heat being too strong for the Moysture, it rarifies it so thin, as it is like the forementioned Page  191 Wind, which, instead of stopping, causeth Waking Dreams, that is, Frantick Fancies; for there is as Natural a Degree of this Vapour, as there is a Natural Temper proper to every Animal Body; Or else it burns the Body, and dryes up the Na∣tural Moysture so much, as there can arise no Vapour therefrom: for it is to be observed, that the dryest Constitution sleeps the least, and those sleeps they have are short.

One and the same Cause differs in the same Effect of Sleep.

SOme and the same things, or Acts, will cause Sleep, or put by Sleep; as for the Passions, sometimes Grief, Joy, Anger, and the like, will cause Sleep, othertimes hinder it; the reason is, according as the Passions work inwards, or extend outwards: for when the Passions settle or move most inwards, they draw all the Vapours backwards; and when they flow outwards, they carry Vapours with them; and as Passions many times carry out Vapours, so Vapours many times carry out Passions, as we may observe by the Effects, as Sighing, Groaning, and Weeping, as Railing, Threatning, Cursing, Fighting, Laughing, Hooping, Hollowing, Praising, Singing, and Dancing, which are all Ex∣teriour Motions: But where they work inward, the Heart beats, or works, and the Brain thinks stronglyer than the Natural Con∣stitution requires; which Motion causeth Unnatural Heat, which drinks up the Vapours; or else the Brain, or the Heart, are so strongly bound to an Object, and holding as it were so fast thereon, as it draws all the Powers of Life to assist therein: This causeth Deep Musing, Heart-griping, fix'd Eyes, and slow Pul∣ses, which draws the Vapours so much inward, as almost extin∣guisheth the Fire of Life, and smothers the Understanding, starves the Body, and makes the Senses unusefull; and many times the Slow Motions congeal the Vapours, like Ice, making them unapt to slow. As for Exteriour Action, much Labour or Exercise causeth them to flow, or produceth Sleep to those that have Gross Bodies, and too Thick Vapours (for the Vapours may be too Thick as well as too Thin) for the use of Rest in these Bodies and Constitutions, much exerciseth and rarifieth the Va∣pours to such a Degree, as makes a General Aptness to flow to the Extreme Parts, wherewith the Senses are stopp'd, as being full, which otherwise would not be so apt to slow; but to Lean Bodies, and Dry Constitutions, much Labour and Exercise ei∣ther contracts the Vapour into so Gross a Body, as it cannot slow; or rarifies that little Vapour they have, so thin, as it eva∣porates out by Insensible Inspirations, or the Unnatural Drought and Heat drinks it up, so as there is no Vapour to fill the Senses to a Repose.

Page  192

Of Agues.

AGues are half Sisters to Feavers, which are like Fuel half dry, set on Fire by Accidental Motions, and not kindled by a Natural Course: This Fuel half dry, is Humour half con∣cocted; the other part raw, and undigested, which is like Hay, or the like, not dryed enough by the Sun: so Digestion wants Natural Heat to dry, which is, to concoct the Superfluous Moy∣sture: for when the Moysture is too much for the Heat, although it be not sufficient to quench it out, yet it doth damp and smother in the Heat, staying the Quickness of the Motion, blunting the Edge and Sharpness, allaying the Penetrating Faculty; and the Heat being not strong enough to drink up the Superfluous Moy∣sture at once, but onely hath so much strength as to rarify it into Vapour, which Vapour is Smoke, which Smoke is thinner and thicker, according to the quantity and quality of the Moysture, or as the Heat and Moysture doth predominate; for when the Heat is Master, the Vapour is so thin, as it flashes into a Flame, as Lightning from a Cloud, which is an Intermixing Feaver; but when the Moysture is Mistris, and predominates, the Vapour is more Gross; which Gross Vapour doth not onely quench out that Flame caused by the Unnatural Heat, but stops and hin∣ders the Extenuating Faculty of the Natural Heat, like as a Cloud should obscure the Sun, obstructing his Beams, which disperseth his Heat by the Line of his Light, which causeth the Air to be Dark and Cold. Thus in the midst of Summer, when the Sun is at the height of his Glory, a Dark Cloud, made of Vapour, will cause the Complexion of his Light to be of a Black Pale, and the Body of the Day to be Cold; But when the Sun breaks thorow by degrees, he dissipates those Black and Sullen Clouds, rarifying the thinner part into Wind, and the thicker condenses into Water; the one bloweth over, the other showers down: So those that have Agues, their Flesh looks with a blue, black, pale, and is very cold to the Touch; but when the Na∣tural Heat dissipates, that Cold and Gross Vapour that is raised from a raw, or half concocted Humour, the thinnest part spreads about the Body, like the Wind, getting into every Cranny, Corner, or Part of the Body, as Veins, Arteries, Muscles, Sin∣news, putting the Body into a Violent and Unnatural Motion, which is the Shaking Fit; and when the Rarified Vapour is spent, the Shaking Fit ceaseth, and goes over; and then the Pa∣tient entreth into a Burning Heat; for the Unnatural Heat, which was involved in the Grosser Vapour, as Fire in Clouds, which lightens and thunders, begins to break thorow, especially when it is helped by the Sun, which is as the Natural Heat of the Body; the Body, as the Air, grows soultry hot, and the Heat dissipating those Foggy and Cloudy Vapours in the Region of the Body, condenseth the Gross Parts into Water, which issueth Page  193 forth in Sweat, as Showers of Rain. Thus when the Vapours are dispersed, and breathed out of the Body, thorow the Pores of the Skin, or otherwise, the Body is like the Air, Serene and Clear, untill there are more Vapours ascended from the cor∣rupted and half concocted Humours, which sometimes ga∣ther sooner, and sometimes are longer before they are ga∣thered into Clouds again: This is the reason some have Quo∣tidians, Tertians, Double-tertians, and Quartans.

Of a Hectick Feaver.

MOST Hectick Feavers are caused by an Excessive Heat in the Arteries, which Heat is more difficult to quench, than to stop a prickt Artery: for in this case letting Blood doth more harm than good, by reason that the Moysture of the Blood strives to quench the Fire therein, or at least to temper the Heat thereof; for it is Wet that puts out Fire, not Cold; for hot Water will as soon put out Fire, as cold Water. Neither can the keeping in the Blood cure the sick Patient, it may some short time retard Life from expiring; the reason is, because the Ex∣cessive Heat not onely corrupts the Blood, and melts the Fat of the Body, but it doth evaporate Life forth, like boyling Water, that consumes in Smoke. Thus it becomes an Incurable Disease, when once the Heat overpowers the Moysture.

Of Coughs.

THere are many several sorts of Coughs; some proceeding from a Superfluity of Moysture, others from too much Heat; some from a Corruption of Humours, others from a De∣cay of the Inward Parts; others from sudden Colds upon great Heats, and some proceed from Wind, likewise from sharp salt Rheums, and some from fresh Rheums. Those that proceed from a Superfluity of Moysture, are strong Coughs, that raise up Flegm: for in that sort of Coughs, when the Stomack is full of Humours, the Flegm riseth highest, like the Scum of a Pot on the Fire, or like Whites of Eggs that are put into any hot Li∣quor; and when the Stomack is hot, it boyls up like a seething Liquor, which boyling or seething provokes to strain; which straining is not so violent, as to vomit: for those sorts of Coughs are of the nature of vomiting, as in straining, or striving, or shuffing upward; but by reason it is not so violent a Motion as Vomiting is, it onely provokes to Cough, bringing up Flegm, or Water, with the Motion thereof. After the like manner are such sort of Coughs as proceed from Corrupt Humour, and most commonly are the Fore-runners of the Small Pox, Meazels, or the like Diseases.

But Coughs that proceed from a great Heat, either in the Sto∣mack, or Bowels; the reason is, that the Heat causeth a great Page  194 Vapour, which Vapour ascending to the Head, there gathers into Clouds of Water, where dissolving, it falls back again, like Showers of Rain, where it sometimes falls in pouring Showers, other times like mizzling Rain. And the fuller of Moysture the Body is, the greater Showers of Rain fall down. This stopping the Passages of the Throat, causeth a straining and striving in the Throat, as when any thing goeth awry, or Crums or Bones lye in the Throat, or stop the Wind-pipe: for every part of the Body, if it be bound, or hurt, will strive and strain to help it self. But if the Constitution of the Body be Naturally or Accidentally Dry, the Vapour is thinner, and then it ariseth, like a steam in a Still, or Limbeck, where the Head, like the top of a Still or Limbeck, gathers that steam into a Dew, which falleth back in distilling Drops; which Drops trickling down the Throat, as Tears on the Cheeks, do rather tickle the Throat, than stop the Wind-pipe, or strain the Throat: but if the Rheum be sharp, or salt, it causeth a gentle smart, which is of such a kind of touch as tickling is; provokes a faint or weak Cough.

But Coughs that proceed from a decay of Parts, are, when any part of the Body is corrupted it becomes less solid; as from being a Solid Flesh, to be of a Jelly Substance, which dissolves with the least Heat, melting by degrees away; and as it melts, it falls into liquid Drops, which Drops tickle or smart those parts they fall or trickle on: for by reason the Inward Parts are as it were raw, or very thin skinned, they make it sensible of the least touch; besides, there is a faint strife, when the dissolved part falls from the other, which strife tickling, causeth a Cough; but the Cough is more or less, according as the part dissolves. But these tickling Coughs are the most dangerous Coughs, for the one causeth a Consumption, the other is caused by a Consum∣ption: for when these tickling Coughs proceed from the Body, they are caused from a Consuming Part, that melts and dissolves by degrees; but when it is Distillation from the Head, it cor∣rupts Parts by falling thereon, like as Water, with a constant dropping, will penetrate thorow a Stone; much more may a Constant Distillation corrupt a Spungie Matter, as Flesh; and according as the Rheums are fresh, salt, or sharp, the Parts decay flower or faster: for salt, or sharp Rheums, ulcerate the Parts, and destroy them soon.

Also Wind will cause a tickling in the Throat, as a tickling in the Nose, which causeth Coughs; for Sneezing is but a Cough thorow the Nose: but when Wind riseth thorow the Wind∣pipe, it causeth a Chine-cough; for as long as the Wind ascends, the Patient cannot draw in Air, but coughs so long, without drawing in of the Breath, till they are black in the Face, being as it were choak'd or strangled, or rather smothered almost to Death.

As for Remedies, those Coughs that proceed from a Super∣sluity of Moysture, or from Corrupted Humours, there must be Page  193 applyed purging Medicines, and letting of Blood: but for Coughs that proceed from Decayed Parts, there is no help for them: for when the Intrals are corrupted, and wasted, they cannot be restored again, nor made as they were before; nor can they be healed up, if they be ulcerated, as the Outward Parts of the Body can; for we cannot come so easily to lay Plasters, and Pultesses, to draw out the Corruption, and Putrified Humour from the Sounder Parts, that are not corrupted; yet there may be given, or taken, such Medicines, as may prolong or retard the hasty Wast; which Medicines must be cooling and clensing, as Julips made of Burrage-water, Plantain-water, with Sirrop of Suckery, and Sirrop of Burrage, and Bugloss, and the like; Also, Broths with Cooling Herbs, as Strawberry-leaves, Vio∣let, Suckery, and the like. But no Hot Sirrops, nor no Sharp Herbs, as Sorrel, and the like; nor no Hot Herbs, as Thyme, Rosemary, Winter-Savery, Marjerum, or the like.

Also I should think Almond-milk should be very good; for the French barley, that is boyled in the Water, is both cooling and clensing, and quenches out the Fiery Heat; and Almonds are healing and smothering. But in these Diseases, Physicians do most commonly give those Medicines which are very per∣nicious, as Mithridate, Brimstone, Saffron, Licquerish, and Hot Cordials; those Hot Medicines, instead of comforting those Decayed Parts, rather inflame them; and the Heat therein dis∣solves and melts them more hastily away.

But those Medicines are more proper for those that are stopped in their Stomack or Head by Cold, which hath congealed the Vapour into Icy Contraction, Hot Medicines rarifie it thin a∣gain; although many times Cold causeth an Unnatural Heat, by stopping by Contraction the Pores of the Flesh, keeping in, and hindring the Smoke of the Body from breathing forth; which Smoke smothers the Inward Parts, causing thereby a Suffocating Stoppage; whereupon Cold Medicines give the Pa∣tient more ease than Hot, as it hath been found by Experience.

But for those Coughs that proceed from a tickling Rheum from the Head, the best Remedies are Issues; the next is letting a little Blood; the third, to give the Patient Cooling Medi∣cines, such as I named before, especially Almond-milk; for it doth not onely quench the Unnatural Heat, but it allayes and tempers the salt and sharp Vitriols that are most commonly mix∣ed in those Rheums: Yet there must alwaies be a care, that they do not weaken the Stomack by over-cooling Drinks: wherefore they must drink but a little at a time, and at certain times, as, not upon a full Stomack, but when the Stomack is most empty, for then it works better Effects, and hinders not Digestion. Like∣wise in Consumptive-coughs, the Patient must not use any Vio∣lent Exercise, so as to heat the Body, but must use Moderate Ex∣ercises. Likewise their Meats must be light of Digestion, and rather to eat Boyl'd-meat than rosted, and rather Flesh-meat Page  196 than Spoon-meat; provided, that they be Fine Meats, as Pullet, Chicken, young Turkyes, Partridges, and the like; young Rabbits are also good, and Pigs, Lamb, and the like; but not to eat too much at one time, nor to eat untill they feel the Meat di∣gested; * for Ill Digestion causeth an Unnatural Heat, and breeds the Body full of sharp Humours.

As for Chine-coughs, those Medicines must be applyed, as do expell Wind, and to purge away the raw and unconcocted Hu∣mour that produce Wind.

Of the Disease called the Small-Pox.

SMall Pox, or the like Diseases, are caused either by Super∣fluity of Humours: for the Body having more than it can discharge, it lyes and corrupts; Or else by an Evil Diet, or an Ill Digestion, which breeds more Humours than Good Nourish∣ment; or by great Heats, or sudden Colds. Of this Disease many dye, that would otherwise live, if they were rightly or∣dered in their Sickness; unless the Corruption hath taken hold on the Noble Parts, before it begins to break forth, and then there is no Cure; Otherwise I believe it is as easy a Cure, as any Disease, if Moderation be used: for those that strive hastily to throw out the Corruption by forcible Medicines, as those Me∣dicines that are hot, do like those that take out Dirt out of a Ditch, not taking time to sling it far enough; and to disperse it several waies, throw it on a high Heap, on the Verge, or Edge of the Ditch; and being too great a Quantity to consist in one Body, or to keep one place, falls back again, carrying some part of the Bank, or Earth it lay on, along with it: So in the Diseases of the Small-Pox, striving to cast out the Corruption, it falls with greater Violence, and deadly Effects, back again. Besides, most commonly this Disease is accompanied with a Feaver, and all hot Medicines increase a Feaver, and many times it is a Feaver that kils, and not the Pox; And it is to be observed, that where one lives, that hath very Hot Medicines applyed to him, ten will dye. But in these Diseases there must be applyed gentle dilating Medicines; and those that are smoothing and healing, as Possets made with very small Alc, with Figs, Rasins, and Lickerish boyled therein: Also a little letting Blood is very good, espe∣cially if they be Feaverish, although some account it deadly, but certainly it is a safe Remedy. As for Purging Medicines, they are very dangerous, for drawing in the Humour; but a Vomit is not amiss, for that doth rather cast forth, than draw inward; neither must they keep them too hot in their Beds, nor too cold, but of a temperate heat.

Gargarizing is also very good in this Disease, for it doth not onely purge the Head of Corrupted Humours, where it is most commonly over-charged, but it keeps the Throat safe, and clear from Scabs, or at least mollifies them.

Page  197

Of Violent Actions.

ALL Dry Bodies may use more Violent Exercises, with less Danger, than Moyst, where Heat and Moysture produceth Corruption; where to Dry Bodies, the Heat onely makes it more dry, but not corrupts: The onely Danger is, Violent Exercise to Dry Bodies may wast the Radical Moysture, or in∣flame the Spirits, which produceth Frantick Feavers: But when a Moyst Body is over-heated, the Blood is apt to putrisie, the Humours to corrupt, the Fat to melt, Vapours to arise; this pro∣duceth Small-Pox, Meazels, Plurisies, Collicks, and very often Consumptions, by disordering or melting the Noble Parts in the Body; but especially, if a sudden Cold be taken upon a great Heat, for the sudden Cold strikes the Heat so violently in∣ward, as Extraordinary Motion doth either set the Body on Fire, or melts it, as Metal in a Furnace, producing an Unnatural Heat in the Arteries, and inflames the Vital Spirits therein, which produceth incurable Hectick Feavers.

The Effects of Sickness.

SIckness will destroy that in one Week, that Time will not do in twenty Years: for Sickness will make Youth look Old and Decrepid; when Health makes Age look Young and Spritly. Sickness burns up the Body, Time wears out the Body, and Riot tears out the Body.

Of the Senses.

AS all Objects and Sounds that go through the Eye and Ear, must first strike, and make such a Motion in the Brain, be∣fore the Mind is sensible thereof; so any thing that toucheth the Body, goeth first thorow the Pores of the Skin and Flesh, and strikes upon the Nerves; which Nerves are little Strings, or Pipes, full of Brain; those spread all over the Body; and when those are moved, as the Brain is in the Skull, then the Body is sen∣sible; And that is the reason, that when the Flesh is bound, or press'd up hard close, it is numb, and hath no feeling, be∣cause those Pores where it was bound, or press'd, are stopped, and are no more sensible of touch, than the Eye, or Ear, or Nose, when they are stopped, are sensible of Outward Objects, or Sound, or Sent. Thus stoppinig the Pores of the Body is as it were Blind, or Deaf, Sensless and Tastless; and this is the rea∣son, that when any one is sick, or distempered, they cannot eat their Meat, because the Pores of the Spungie Tongue are stop∣ped, either by Weakness, Cold, or Drought.

Page  198

The Senses of the Body equalized with the Senses of the Soul.

AS the Body hath five Senses, Seeing, Hearing, Smelling, Tasting, and Touching; so hath the Soul: for Knowledge is as the Sense of Touch; Memory, as the Sense of Sight; Rea∣son, as the Sense of Hearing; Understanding, as the Sense of Tast; and Imagination, as the Sense of Smelling, as being the most Acry Sense.

Of Objects.

THere are three Imperfections in Sight, as, the Dimness of Age or Weakness, Purblind, and Squint; Age makes all things look misty, as if there were a Veil before their Eyes; and Purblind makes all things look level, or plain, without the distinction of Parts; a Squint makes all things look double: But to look perfect and clear, is, that the two Eyes make a Tri∣angular Point upon the Object; or else the Eyes are like Burning-Glasses, which draw all the Lines of Objects to a Point, making themselves the Center.

Of Touch.

ALL Pleasure and Pain is Touch, and every several part of the Body hath a several Touch; for not onely the various Outward Causes give several Touches, but every several part receives a several Touch; and as the General Sense throughout the whole Body is Touch, so every Particular Sense, as all Ob∣jects touch the Eyes, all Sounds touch the Ears, all Sent toucheth the Nose, all Meat toucheth the Tongue, and all those strike and move, and so touch the Brain. And though all Touches are Motions, yet all are several Motions, according to the several Parts: for all Pain comes by cross and perturbant Motions, all Pleasure by even and regular Motions, and every particular Sense may receive Pleasure or Pain, without affecting or dis∣affecting, or indeed a notice to the rest of the Senses; for the particular Senses take no notice of each other. And, as I said, every several part of an Animal hath a several Touch, and a se∣veral Tast; the Loyn doth not tast like the Breast, nor the Breast like the Loyn, nor the Shoulder like the Breast, nor the Neck like the Shoulder, nor the Head like the Neck. So in Vegeta∣bles, the Fruit not like the Leaves, nor the Leaves like the Rind. Thus the Objects, as well as the Senses, are different.

Page  199

Of Pleasure and Pain.

THere are onely two General Pleasures, and two General Pains, all the rest are according to Delectation, or Relucta∣tion; the two General Pleasures, are, Quiet in the Mind, and Ease in the Body; the two General Maladies, are, Trouble in Mind, and Pain in the Body: But Slavery can be no Bondage, if the Mind can be content withall; yet the Mind cannot be pleased, if the Body be in Pain; it may be Patient, but not Con∣tent: for Content is when the Mind desires not change of the Condition of the Life.

The Cause of Tears and Laughter.

ANY Extraordinary Motion in the Spirits causeth Tears, for all Motions heat according to their Degrees, and Heat doth rarifie and separate the thinnest Substance from the thickest, as Chymists know right well; and all very thin Bodies are flu∣ent, and, as I may say, agil; and all that are fluent and agil, seek passage and vent: So as a Man in this may be similiz'd to a Still, as, the Atteries for the Furnace of the Still, where the Fire, which is Motion, is put in; the Heart, the Pan of the Still, where the several Passions, as several Herbs, are put in; the Head, the Cover of the Still, where the Vapour of herby Passions ascends; the Eyes, the Spout where it runs, or drops forth. Laughter is produced, as Tears are, by Extraordinary Motions, by which Extreme Laughter will cause Tears.

Of Tears.

SOme say, Tears are the Juice of the Mind, pressed with Grief: But Tears proceed from Joy, as well as from Sor∣row; and they are increased by the Moysture of the Brain; in some the Spring is dryed. But all Passions are apt to pump out Tears, as Extreme Sorrow, which contracts and congeals, by drawing all inward; and the reason why Tears be salt, is, be∣cause the Head is a Limbeck, which extracts the thinner part from the thicker, which thicker is purged by the Nose and Mouth: But Tears, which are the Essence of Spirits, become a kind of a Vitriol.

Of Musicians being sometimes Mad.

THE reason why Musicians are so often Mad, is not alwaies Pride, bred by the conceit of their rare Art and Skill, but by the Motion of the Musick, which is swifter than the ordinary Motion of the Brain, and by that reason distempers the Brain, by increasing the Motion of the Brain to the Motion of the Page  200 Fiddle; which puts the Brain so out of tune, as it is very seldom tuneable again; and as a Ship is swallowed by a Whirlpit in the Sea, so is Reason drown'd in the Whirlpit of the Brain.

Comparing the Spleen to a Loadstone.

THE Spleen is like a Loadstone, which draws Steel unto it; and as the Loadstone is as it were nourished by Steel, so the Spleen is opened and clensed.

Of Physick.

THE reason why most Men are addicted to the taking of much Physick, is, out of love to Life, thinking that Physick prolongs it.

I Am about to publish an Additional Part, to joyn with my Book of Philosophical Fancies, which, by reason some part treats of Diseases, I recommend to Physicians; I mean not Em∣piricks, or Mountebanks, such as take the Name, and never stu∣died the Science, whose Practice is rather to kill than to cure, which disgraceth that Noble Profession: But I mean those that are Studious and Learned, such as have been bred in the Famous Universities, and have received the Honour of Learning, as Batchellers and Masters of Art, or Doctors, by which Ho∣nourable Title they are allow'd to practice, as having arrived to the height of that Science. To these Honourable and Learned Persons I offer up that Work to their Grave Judgements, knowing from them it shall never receive Injury, nor Affronts of Scorn, nor Rudeness: for those that are Learned, and Under∣standing, are Just, and Civil, not wresting the words crookedly, nor reading them impatiently, but weighing the Rational Pro∣babilities justly, measuring the Sense rightly, applying the Use aptly, esteeming the Owners respectfully, and commending them civilly; When those that are Ignorant, condemn and cry down all they understand not; and the rudely spightfull, or the spight∣fully rude, strive to detract and disgrace all those they think worthy of Praise or Commendation.

Of Fruits.

MOST are of Opinion that Fruits are cold, which we find contrary by the Effect; for Wine which is made of Fruits is hot, as of Grapes, Rasberies, Cherries, Strawberrie∣Wine; and Sider and Perry, which are made of Apples and Pears is hot like Wine too; for it will make a man drunk if he drink enough of it, as well as Grape-wine or of any other Fruit; but some will say it is the spirits that are prest out which are in the Liquor, and by lying the spirits grow stronger, and so be∣come Page  201 hot, which otherwise were not; but I answer to that, that the pressing with the Teeth makes the Liquor not less hot than another Press doth, and for the Age it may grow the hotter for being sharpened; but we find that it is very hot in the Press or Vat, for the very Steam where they are prest, will make men drunk, and they will go into the Liquor new prest, finding a be∣nefit in curing cold Diseases; but no question some Fruits are hotter than others (though none are cold) by having more or less spirits; but all spirits have a sufficiency of spirits to heat, and the spirits lye in the Liquor, not in the Solid parts, for all spirits dwell in the thinnest Bodies or Parts, and are the subtillest in Operation; now may the solid part of Fruit be cooling, when the spirits, which are the thinnest Juice, are hot, as being baked, roasted, or boiled; where the effect of the Fire hath evapoura∣ted that Heat: But this Opinion is begot, by seeing many wo∣men, which eat much Fruit, become pale and sickly; so men, by drinking much Wine, will become pale and full of Diseases, and many times will have the contrary operation of Comple∣xions, and become very Red, though the inward cause is all one: for in some it soaks and dries up all the Blood, or rarifies too thin, which makes the Face pale; and in others it burns and crusts the Blood, which makes the Face Red and Pimpled, so that it dries the Body by the Vitriol Humour, and burns the Bo∣dy by the unnatural Heat therein. Another Opinion why they hold them cold, is, by the often Surfets many fall into by the much eating of it; and the reason they give, is, because it is so cold it cannot digest. I answer, that Surfets are caused by the Quantity, and not so much by the Quality: for there are many that surfet of strong Wines, by over-charging their Stomacks therewith; and so in all Meats, which otherwise are good and wholsome, if not immoderately taken, but according to their di∣gesting Stomacks: for some will surfet of that Quantity, as o∣thers shall not with ten times more; such difference is in the Na∣tures and Constitutions of Men. There are many things by the effect cooling, by being applyed outwardly, which applying in∣wardly, work the contrary: for Vinegar cooleth outward In∣slammations, but shal increase an inward one, being too tender for so sharp a Medicine; and all things that corrode, make too much Motion, and all Motion heats. All Limmons, Citrons, Oranges, Pomegranates, Barberies, Currans, and the like, are accounted very cooling, being inwardly taken, and also very wholsome, which may be very good and effectual, being applyed to such Diseases as require a sharp Medicin, thogh not cooling: But if they were cooling by their nature, as there is no great reason to believe it, having as much Spirits as other Fruits have, by reason of their fulness of Liquor, though I do not say that all sorts of Liquor are full of Spirits, but such Liquors of such Natures; yet by the effect inwardly it heats, for the very corroding Quality inflames the Blood more than the Nature can cool; for all things that are Page  202 sharp, have an ingraving Quality or Faculty, not onely to cut away Rotten and Superfluous Humours, but to eat upon the Noble Parts.

Of Roots.

ROots are more nourishing than Fruits, by reason they have in a degree as much moysture as Fruit, and have not that acuteness which Fruits have, which cause not so many Spirits, but are soberer in their operations, and firmer: for whatsoever hath much Spirits, can never nourish much, because it grows too near the nature of Fire; but it fits and prepares for Nourishment, knitting, clensing, and strengthening the Digestive Parts; but those things nourish most, where Heat and Moysture are equally mix'd, which Roots come nearer to than Fruits.

Of Herbs.

ONE would think there should be but little nourishment in Herbs, by reason they are so much inclining to the nature of the Earth, which is of a drying Quality; but we find it other∣wise by the feeding and fatning of Beasts, which live upon the Herbs of the Field. But some may say, that that which will nourish Beasts, will starve Men, as Hay, and the Leaves of Trees, and the like: But I answer, It is onely Custome which hath made it not agreeable with the Stomacks of Men, and by that reason maketh ill digestion, and so nourisheth not. But it is not alwaies the Meat that causeth ill or no nourishment, but some∣times the Stomack: for an Ill Stomack shall corrupt Wholsome Meats, and a Good digestive-Stomack shall convert Unwholsome Meat to Good Nourishment, but may endanger the Stomack in using it often, not being accustomed to it before. But of all Ve∣getables, there are none that have so many and so excellent Qua∣lities as Herbs, not onely for curing both inward and outward Diseases, but in preventing Diseases, besides the nourishment of Men and Beasts.

But there are many that will choose places for their Habita∣tions to live in, for the Air, though they be incommoded much otherwise, and want the Varieties of Pleasures to entertain their Lives withall: for many think Long-life, though it be spent dully, Pleasure enough. But the Trouble and Care to keep Health, and the Fear to lose it, makes the Life not onely dull, having their Thoughts onely imployed upon that, but trouble∣some, and full of vexation, with barring themselves of those things that otherwise they would willingly enjoy. Thus we make Life worse than Death, if truly considered: for Death frights more than hurts. But some will say, that may be, if Death would come before Sickness; but it is to avoyd Pain, not to Page  203 prolong Life: But I answer, The troublesome care of keeping't, is worse than the Disease it self; for the Disease of the Body will take away the Pain in a short time, but a Disease of the Mind dwels with a Man his whole Life.

Of Situation for Healths.

THose that would choose a Situation for Health, the Soyl is more to be considered than the Air, though Ill Air is bad; but Unwholsome Air comes from Unwholsome Grounds, by the Vapours that arise from the Earth, and the Sun many times clarifies the Air but in part: for many times in Moorish places the Vapours may be too hard for the Sun; and if the Sun can∣not be alwaies sufficient to clarisie the Air, how should it purifie the Earth, that is so solid? unless you will say, the Sun is a Chy∣mist to draw Spirits, and those Spirits subtil to the hurt of the Body; but when the Sun hath that power, as to make the Spirit of Air, as I may call it, being refined to that degree, as it be∣comes a Cordial and a Refresher of the Spirits of all things: But when it hath onely so much power as to draw up Vapour, which is the thin and watrish part of the Earth, or as I may say, the Sweat of the Earth, which is sometimes hot, and sometimes cold, having not the power of purifying, but condenseth it, and makes it thicker, and so becomes the Shadow of another Earth, and makes us as if we lived between two Earths, onely the upper is thinner than the undermost: for although the Sun is the Life to all things, out and upon the Earth, by his Light and Heat, yet he is not so to the Bowels of the Earth; for we find by experience, that a thin Wall will keep out the light of the Sun, and the depth of a Cellar shall keep out the heat of the Sun: for in the hottest Day, if one go down into a Vault, he shall be so cold, as he will desire to come into the Sun again: so as we plainly find, that the Sun doth not make Heat in the Earth, but that the Earth hath Heat of her own, and her own Heat, with the moyst Veins that are in her, produceth those numerous Varieties, which, some she casts forth, and some she keeps in: for those Varieties she casts forth, are more of a nature than those she keeps within; for those she bars forth, are Fruits and Plants, and the like, which onely lye skin-deep, as one may say; but those she keeps within her Bowels, are more solid and firm: for by experience of Gold, and other Metals, we find, that she is hottest in her Bowels, for they are alwaies found deep and low; certainly it must be a great Heat that must purifie a Metal to that degree that Gold is: So that Gold, other Metals, and whatsoever else lyes deep within her, are not beholding to the Sun for their Maturities, as Fruits and Plants are: And we see those things cast forth are sickly and fading, and those she keeps in are lasting and durable; which would make one think, the Earth hath a more powerfull Heat than the Sun, because her Effects are greater than the Suns, Page  204 setting his Light aside. The Sun ripens the Fruit of the Face of the Earth, it agitates and lightens the Air, whereby we see and breath: but the Earth is the Mother of all Vegetables, Ani∣mals, and Minerals, and could produce a sufficiency of her self, without the Heat of the Sun. But, as I was saying before, it is the Nature of the Soyl that not onely causeth Ill Airs, but Ill Nourishment; I mean not Ill in it self, but being wrongly ap∣plyed: for a Thick Air to a Sharp Constitution, is wholsomer than a Subtiller and Thinner Air is; so a Glutenous is to a Sharp Constitution better than a Salt and Penetrating Soyl is: So as you may compare the Natures of several Soyls to the Na∣tures of several Humours and Constitutions; as there are some Soyls apt to breed Melancholy, others Choler, some Flegmatick and Gross Humors, and some Sanguin; I mean not only dwelling upon such Soyls, but eating of the Fruits and Meats thereof: for the Sun doth not alwaies mature the Fruits of the Earth to such a degree as to make them wholsom, especially when there is a Vi∣cious Nature bred in the Earth: for some Ground is apt to breed the Rot to some kind of Cattel, others the Murrain, and so se∣veral Diseases; and as we see in Low Places, all their Fruit is waterish, and their Meat spungier than in the High-land Coun∣try, though the Sun be in equal degrees; and in Islands it is more apt to be, than in the Continents; and therefore some parts of the Earth require much more Heat of the Sun than others do. And again, in some places the Earth hardly requires the Sun at all, unless it be to see the Fruits; and this alteration is not onely in several Regions of the World, but in Neighbour∣ing Patches also; as, we shall see one Field very Fruit full, and the next Field to it very Barren, as some Stony, some Clayey, some Chalky, and so sundry others; some are fit to bear Wheat, others Barley, some onely Rye or Oats, some Tares, Branck, and Hemp; some again so barren, as they will bear no∣thing but Broom and Brakes; some Grounds feed great fat and firm Cattle, others great but spungie, some lean and little; and several feedings will give several tasts to one and the same kind of Cattel and Fruit, so as they may be distinguished in what Grounds they grew, or were fed in. But some Cattel or Plants will not thrive upon every Soyl, though rich and good, being not proper to their Natures, or to their Breedings; so it is with Men: for Custome may make that wholsome, which otherwise would shorten Life; and that is good for one Constitution, which would be pernicious to another; so as they must match Grounds to Bodies.

Page  205

Of Favorites to Princes, or Princes par∣ticular Privy Counsellers.

A Prince that hath a particular Favourite, or Privy Coun∣seller, spins out the life of his Heroick Fame with his Favours: for what Errours soever are committed in Govern∣ment, the Faults are laid to the Princes charge, as the chief Head and Ruler, and all the Good Actions are attributed to the Fa∣vorites wise Counselling: for if Money and Arms be raised, they will say it is the Favorites popularity, not the Princes power.

If Armies march orderly, pitch methodically, fight succes∣fully, they will say it is the Favourites conduct, not the Princes prudence, skill, nor courage.

If good and beneficial Laws be made, they will say they were propounded by the Favorite, and onely enacted by the Prince; that they come from the Favorites head, not the Princes heart.

If the Virtuous be rewarded, and Offenders reprieved, or pardoned, they will say it is the Favorites policy, not the Princes bounty or clemency.

In short, Nothing shall be prudently, justly, valiantly, or wisely done, but shall be thought in the present, and published in the future, that all was done by the counsel of the Favorite, especially if Fortune changes her Countenance from Frowns to Smiles, when he is in Favour.

But a Wise Prince makes his own Breast the Cabinet∣chamber, his own Thoughts his Privy Counsellers, his own Judgement his Particular Favorite, and his own Arm his Chief Commander: But Good Fortune gives Fame an Applause, and Bad Fortune makes Fame go upon Crutches.

The Inventory of Iudgements Common∣wealth, the Author cares not in what World it is established.

THis Commonwealth to be composed of Nobility, Gen∣try, Burgesses, and Pezants, in which are comprized Souldiery, Merchantry, Artificers, Labourers, Com∣manders, Officers, Masters, Servants, Magistrates, Divines, Lawyers, &c.

This Commonwealth to be governed by one Head or Go∣vernour, as a King, for one Head is sufficient for one Body: for several Heads breed several Opinions, and several Opinions breed Disputations, and Disputations Factions, and Factions breed Wars, and Wars bring Ruin and Desolation: for it is Page  206 more safe to be governed, though by a Foolish Head, than a Factious Heart.

Item, That this Royal Ruler to swear to the People to be Carefull and Loving, as well as the People swear Duty and Fi∣delity.

The Contracts betwixt the King and people should be these.

Item, That the Militia be put in the Royal Hand: for since Power lyes in the Militia, the Militia ought to lye in the Kingly Power; for, without Power, Authority and Justice are as Cy∣phers, which signifie nothing.

For which the King shall contract by Promise and Oath, ne∣ver to give Honours but to the Meritorious.

Item, That if there should be any Dispute betwixt the Royal Command, and the Publick Subjection, there should be two Men chosen, the one for one side, and the other for the other; these to be approved of, both for their Honesty, Wisdome, and Courage, as neither to fear Power, nor Censure, to be free from Bribes, Self-ends, Passions and Partiality, Experienced and Known Men in the Kingdome, or at least as able as any therein, to decide all Differences, and conclude all Disputes, and pre∣sent all Grievances to the Royal Power, and return his Will, Pleasure, and Desires to the People: for Great Counsels do rather insnarl all Publick Business, than rectifie Errours, by rea∣son of their Various Opinions, and Humoursome Differences, with their Covetous Byasses, and Popular Ambitions.

Item, That the Royal Ruler shall contract with the People, ne∣ver to give Honours, either for Favour, or sell them for Gain, but to reward the Meritorious, and grace the Virtuous; which will stop the Mouth of Murmure, temper the Spleen of Malice, clear the Eyes of Spight, and encourage Noble Endeavours.

Item, All those that keep not up the Dignity of their House by the Ceremony of the Titles, shall be dishonoured and degra∣ded, as base, and unworthy thereof, in neglecting the Mark of their own, or their Ancestors Merits.

Item, All those that speak against Honour, or Titles, or give them not the due respect, shall never be created thereunto.

Item, It shall be Death for any Herald at Arms to give Arms for Price, or Favour, but to those are worthy thereof, as those that have purchased them by their Merits.

Item, All those that speak against their Native Country, or tell Defects or Weaknesses, or rail or dishonour their Country∣men, shall be banished therefrom, or thereout.

Page  207Item, That the Royal Ruler shall have no particular Fa∣vorite, they being for the most part Expensive, Proud, Scorn∣full, and Mischievous, making difference betwixt the King and People, by fomenting Errours untill they make them seem Crimes, and creating Jealousies, by making doubts of the Peo∣ples Fidelity; and Favourites most commonly tread upon the Necks of the Nobility, and ride upon the Backs of the Gentry, and pick the Purse of the Commonalty, justle Justice out by Bribery, and many times unthrone Royalty through Envy to them, which causeth a hatred to the Prince, for perchance per∣ceiving this Favorite neither to have Worth nor Merit, onely a Flattering Tongue, that inchants a Credulous Prince. Therefore a Prince should have no Favorite but Justice, no Privy Coun∣seller but his own Breast, his Intention never to be disclosed but when he puts it in Execution.

Item, This Royal Ruler to have none of those they call their Cabinets, which is a Room filled with all useless curiosities, which seems Effeminate, and is so Expensive, bestowing infinite Sums, almost to the impoverishing of a Kingdome, only to fill a Room with little cut, carved Statues, and Models of Stones and Metals; as also divers Toyes made of Amber, Cornelion, Agats, Chry∣stals, and divers sorts of Shels, and the like; which Room might be better imployed, and to more use, in placing Famous and Learned Authors Works, as a Library, which the whole King∣dome may draw Knowledge and Understanding from, and the Money imployed to more famous Curiosities than Shels, or the like, As in stately Monuments, which shews a Kingdome in a Flourishing Condition, and gives it a Noble Grace, and makes it a Wonder abroad, and a subject of Discourse amongst Stran∣gers, inviting curious and inquisitive Travellers from all Nations to view the Structures thereof.

Besides, It makes a Prince seem Effeminate, which is a dis∣grace to the Commonwealth, and Forein Nations will despise it, when they see or hear that the Prince is so mean a Spirit, as to take delight in Toyes, spending their time in looking on Shels, Beads, and Babies. For those of Heroick Spirits take Delight to see their Souldiers in Arms, to view their Fortifications, Forts, and Frontiers, to behold their Stately Architecture, Na∣vigable Rivers, their Safe Havens, Sailing Ships, with their Rich Fraights.

Likewise, They delight in Crowns, Scepters, and Thrones, by which they hold Power, and keep up Authority, making Obedience, Fear, and Subjection; making it their Pastime to hear Sutes, to decide Causes, to give Justice. And their Sports like the old Olympick Games.

Page  208 After these Contracts between the Sovereign and the People, there follow the Laws and Decrees in the Commonwealth.

As first, concerning the Clergy.

Item, That those that exercise the Divine Function, be not preferred for Learning, but for Life, as being honest in their Parish, or Diocese, not exacting more Tythes than their due; also Exemplary in their Actions, Sober in their Behaviour.

Item, That no Divine shall study Controversy, or at least not to dispute, but to preach according to the Doctrine that is al∣lowed to be believed and followed: for Learned Disputes and Controversies are apt to smother a Lively Faith, and quench out a Flaming Zeal.

Item, That no Sermons shall be preached, by reason they do more harm than good, troubling the Conscience of the Fear∣full, the Heads of the Ignorant, and the Ears of the Wise: But there shall be Prayers said in every Parish-Church once a Day, and the Moral Laws, the Divine Laws, and the National Laws, with their threatning punishments, and promising rewards, shall be read and repeated once a Week.

Item, That no Physician shall be allowed to study more than one Disease, or at least practice the Cure but of one, lest they make by their half-knowledge and understanding, a Confusion in the Body for want of Experience.

Item, That all Sutes shall be heard, pleaded and decided in the space of half a Year.

Item, It shall be Death for any to sell Land that is any waies engaged, or entangled, lest it should ruin the Buyer thereof.

Item, That all Landlords and Freeholders shall be bound to plant Timber for Ships, Hemp for Sails, and Tow for Cordage, if the Land be an Isle.

Item, There shall be a set Stipend for Wages, Fees, Rewards, Sales, or Purchases; also of all Merchandizes, that Cosenages, Briberies, Extortions, and the like, may be eschewed.

Item, That none shall execute the Function of two several Trades, nor be imployed in more than in one Office, lest they should perform none well.

Item, That no Alchymy-Lace, nor Stuffs, nor Counterfeit Pearls, Diamonds, and the like, shall be worn, nor sold, unless the Counterfeit be sold at as high a price as the Right, or the Page  209 Right to be sold at as low a rate as the Counterfeit; and as dif∣ferent Sexes are distinguished by their Habits, so different Habits should distinguish different Qualities, Professions, and Degrees.

Item, That all degrees of Titles shall be distinguished by their Habits and Ceremonies, as well as by their Arms, Titles, Pa∣tents, and Creations.

Item, No Men shall wear Swords in time of Peace but Gen∣tlemen, and in the Wars there shall be some differences of Arms to make distinction.

Item, That no Officer, neither in Martial Command, nor Civil Government, shall be chosen or imployed, but such as have Abilities to execute their Authorities, and able to discharge their Duties.

Item, Rewards shall be as frequent as Punishments, lest In∣dustry should grow careless, and the Flame of Heroick Spirits be quenched out.

Item, None shall make Great Feasts, and Sumptuous Enter∣tainments, but for Forein Persons of Quality, or Strangers that travel to see the Kingdome, where they may see the Plenty, Riches, and Magnificence thereof, that they may not despise it when they return to their own Native Country, but give cause to renown it in their Relations.

Item, All Detracting or Slandering Tongues shall be clipt and the more the Detraction or Slander is, the greater slices shall be cut therefrom.

Item, That the People shall have set times of Recreation, to ease them from their Labours, and to refresh their Spirits.

Item, That all Noble Youths shall be bred by Experienced Age, to perswade, admonish, and correct by Grave Authority, instructed by Virtuous Examples, taught Honourable Prin∣ciples, and the practice of Heroick Actions; their onely Play∣fellows shall be the Muses; the Grave and Sober Companions, the Sciences; the Domestick Servants, and Acquaintance, the profitable and usefull Arts for the Life of Man.

As for the generality of Youth, they shall be bred to Silent Attentions, Sober Demeanors, Humble Obediences, Handsome Customes, and Gracefull Arts: As for the meaner sort of Youth, to Trades of Arts, and Arts of Trades, for the use and benefit of the Commonwealth.

Page  210Item, No Children shall speak before their Parents, no Servants before their Masters, no Scholars before their Tutors, no Subject before the Prince, but either to answer to their Que∣stions, to deliver a Message, or to know their will and pleasure, to declare their Grievances, to ask pardon for Faults committed, or to present an humble request in the most humblest manner, unless they command them to discourse freely to them, yet not without a respect to their Presence and Authority.

Item, For the Generality, none shall speak but to ask rational, dutifull, and humble Questions, to request just Demands, to dis∣course of probable Arguments, to defend Right and Truth, to divulge Virtue, to praise the Meritorious, to pray to Heaven, to ask Mercy, to move Pity, to pacisie Grief, to asswage Anger, to make an Atonement, and to instruct the Ignorant.

Item, All shall be accounted Wise, that endure patiently, that live peaceably, that spend prudently, that speak sparingly, that judge charitably, that wish honestly, and that obey Au∣thority.

Item, All Men that may live quietly at home, and travel to no purpose, or that neglect their own Affairs to follow the Af∣fairs of other Men, or decide those Mens Quarrels they shall have no thanks for, or live upon hopes of great Fortunes, of high Favours, when they may feed upon present Comfort, and enjoy humble Delights in that Estate and Condition they possess, shall wear a Fools Cap, and a Motly Coat.

Item, That none shall live at a greater Expence than their Estate will allow and maintain.

Item, That all Spendthrifts shall be condemned for Fools, all Gamesters for idle Miscreants, all Drunkards for Mad∣men; a Bedlam provided for the Drunkards, a Bridewell for Gamesters, and an Hospital with Long Coats for Spend∣thrifts.

Item, All Men that beget Children shall strive to provide for them, by their Thrifty Managements, or Industrious Labours.

Item, No Man shall Father a Whores Child, or Children, unless he were sure he were the Father, which few can tell; otherwise it makes a Wise Man seem a Fool, as being facile.

Item, It shall be accounted not only a double Crime, but a Baseness equal to Cowardise, and a disgrace equal to a Cuckold, Page  211 for a Gentleman to court, or make love to a Common Whore, who is an Alms- Tub of Corruption; but if a Gentleman must or will have a Whore, let him have one of his own making, and not feed upon Reversions.

Item, That no Husband shall keep a Houshold Friend, lest he should make love to his Wife, and he become a Cuckold thereby.

Item, No married man or Master of a Family, shall kiss or make love to his Maid, nor Serving-men to their Mistrisses, lest they should grow idly Amorous, impertinently Bold, rudely Saucy, neglecting their Duty to their Mistris or Master, through scornfull Pride.

Item, In all publike Company all Husbands shall use their Wives with Respect, unless they dishonor themselves with the neglect thereof.

Item, No Husband nor Wife, although but a day married, shall kiss each other in publick, lest it turn the Spectators from a lawfull and wholsome Appetite of Marriage, to a gluttonous Adultery, or weakning the Appetite so much as to cause a Loa∣thing, or an aversion to the Wedlock Bed.

Item, No Wife shall entertain an Admiring Servant, lest her Husbands and her own Reputation be lost or buried in his ad∣miring Courtships; nor their Hearts to receive and return Love to none but their Husbands, no not Platonick love, for the Conversation of Souls, is a great temptation to Amorous Friend∣ship; indeed the Soul of a Platonick Lover is a Baud to the Body.

Item, That Dancing be commendable as a gracefull Art in Maids or Batchelors, but shall be accounted an Effeminacy for married Men, a May-Game for Old men, and & Wanton Light∣nes for Married Women.

Item, That no woman of quality should receive Visits or give Visits, but in publick Meetings, nor have any whisperings or private Conference, that her Actions might have sufficient Witnesse, and her Discourses a generall Audience.

Item, That none shall marry against their own liking or free choice, lest they make their Marriage an excuse for Adultery.

Item, It shall be allowed for Maids to entertain all Hono∣rable, as Matrimonial Suters, untill such time as she hath made choice of one of them to settle her Affections upon; for it is Page  212 good reason one should take time and observe Humors, before they bind themselves in Wedlock Bonds, for when once bound nothing but Death can part them; but when they are once marri∣ed, their Ears to be sealed from all Loves pleadings, prote∣stings, Vows making, high praises, and Complementall phrases.

Item, That none shall keep a Mistris above halfe a year, but change, lest she grow more imporious than a Wife made of a Widow.

Item, All Lovers shall be licensed to bragg or speak well of themselves to their Mistris, when they have done no meritori∣ous Actions to speak for them.

Item, All those that have Beauty enough to make a Lover, if they have not wit to keep a Lover, shall be accounted no bet∣ter than a senseless Statue.

Item, It shall not be, as it is in these Daies, accounted a prise or purchase amongst Ladies, to get either by their Wit or Beauty, admiring Servants, especially if they be of amorous natures; for then Nature drives them to her Beauty or Wit, more than her Wit or Beauty draws them to it.

Item, All those that are proud without a cause, it shall be a sufficient cause to be scorned.

Item, Eloquence shall not be imployed nor pleaded in Amo∣rous Discourses, nor to make Falshood to appear like Truth; but to dress and adorn Vertue that she may be accepted and en∣tertained by those that will refuse and shun her acquaintance if she be clad in plain Garments.

Item, There shall none condemn another Language, nor ac∣count another to be better, if it be Significant, Copious and E∣loquent, such as the English Tongue is.

Item, All passionate Speeches, or Speeches to move passion, shall be expressed in Number.

Item, That all Natural Poets shall be honored with Title, esteemed with Respect, or enriched for the Civilizing of a Nation, more than Contracts, Laws or Punishments, by Soft Numbers, and pleasing Phansics; and also guard, a Kingdom more than Walls or Bulworks, by creating Heroick Spirits with Illustrious Praises, inflaming the Mind with Noble Ambition:

Page  213

Noble Souls, and Strong Bodies.

THough Noble Souls, and great Wits, dwell not constantly, nor are allwaies created in Strong Bodies, yet if Nature did choose her Materials, match her Works, and order her Crea∣tures rightly and Sympathetically, Strong Bodies should have noble Souls, large Capacities, and great Wits; for Weak Bodies many times are a defect in Nature, as much as shallow Wits, or irrational Souls: But surely, if the chief and first Na∣ture would work methodically, and not seem as if she wrought at randome, and to produce by Chance, as she doth; if Educa∣tion and Custome, which is a second Nature, had not such a prevalent power to disturb and obstruct her; and though E∣ducation and Custome, may and doth somtimes rectify some Defects, and help Life; yet it doth more often puzzle Life, and incumber Natures Works, putting Nature out of the right ways with False Principles, Foolish Customes, and ill Educati∣on; this is the reason natural Wits are many times lost, not having time or leasure to exercise them, or use them (as I may say) or for want of variety of Subjects or Objects to better them; or dull'd by tedious and unprofitable Studies, or quenched out by base Servitude or Subjection: Also clear Understandings are darke∣ned, sound and strong Judgments weakened, and false Judg∣ments given, and vain Conceptions and erroneous Opinions Maintaind or Believed, for want of the True and the Right Waies.

Likewise the streught of the Body oftimes is weakened and effeminated by Luxurie, Curiosity, and Idleness; which cau∣seth Noble Souls, Large Capacities, Clear Understandings, Fine Fancies, and Quick Wits to dwell many times, nay most commonly, in weak Bodies; for the better sort have most com∣monly more Plenty than Health, the one devouring the other; when the Meaner sort have meager Souls, and barren Brains; Rude Dispositions, and Rough Natures; have strong Limbs, strengthned by Exercise, and maintained by Labour; health∣full bodies kept in repair by Temperance, caused by scarcity and Poverty; contented minds, bred by Low Fortunes, and Humble Desires; when Wealth and Dignity create Vain Glo∣ry and Pride: yet many times small Fortunes and great Wits agree best together, but Noble Minds and Great Estates do the most good. But in this Age, although it be the Iron Age, yet those men that have Effeminate Bodies, as tender Youth, loose Limbs, smooth Skins, fair Complexions, fantastical Garbs, affected Phrases, strained Complements, factious Natures, de∣tracting Tongues, mischievous Actions, and the like, are admired, and commended more, or thought wiser than those that have Cenerous Souls, Heroick Spirits, Ingenuous Wits, prudent Fore-cast, Experienced Years, Manly Forms, Grace∣full Page  214 Garbes, Edifying Discourses, Temperate Lives, Sober Actions, Noble Natures, and Honest Hearts: but in former years it was otherwaies; for Heroick Spirits in Masculine Forms had double praise, as is expressed in the Grecian and Trojan Warrs; and Princes were bred to labour as much as Pesants; for though their Labour might be different, the one being Ser∣vile, the other Free, yet the Burthen and pains-taking might be Equal; though they carried not Pedlars Packs, nor Porters Burthens, yet they carried thick and heavy Arms; and if they handled not the Sithe, Pitch-Fork, and Flail, yet they handled the Sword, the Spear, the Dart, the Bow, the Sling, and the like; and if they knew not how to Mow, to Reap, and to Thrash, yet they knew how to Assault, to Defend, and to Fight; and though they digged not the Gold out of the Mines, yet they digged Fortisications out of the Earth; and if they set not Flowers on Banks, or sowed Seeds in Furrows, or ingrafted Slips, or planted Trees to grow, yet they set Armies in battail Array, and sowed Lives in Adventures, ingrafted Honor to the Stock of their Predeceslors, and planted Fame to grow high in after A∣ges; and though they drive not the Asses, yet they mannage the Horses, and if they want the Art to Yoak Oxen, they want not the wisdome to Yoak the Vulgar with strickt Laws; and if they will not drive a Flock of Sheep to the Fold, they can lead a Number of Men to the Warrs; and if they cannot build a House, yet they can storm a City: Thus galiant labours may strengthen the Bodies of Honorable Breed and Noble Minds, freely and industriously, without a Bondage or Slavery; nay they may Row in Gallies, yet not be subject to the Whip or Chains. But as Masculine Bodies and Heroick Souls had a double esteem, so Effeminate Bodies and timorous Spirits, or rather Natures, had a double despising, as witness Paris of Troy; but most Nations in those Ages, spent their time in usefull Arts, not in vain Dressings; they wore Horse-Tails in Head-pieces for Terrour, not Light Feathers for Shew; their Pride lay in their Arms, not in their Clothes; in their Strength, not in their Beau∣ty; in their Victories, not in their Dancings; in their Prudence, not in their Vanities; their Wealth was spent in Hospitality, not in Prodigality; their Discourse was to Instruct, not to make Sport; neither in former years was Old-ages counsel refused for Youths Advice; Age was accounted an Honour, and respect was given to the Silver Hairs, Youth, an Effeminacy, pittying their Follies; And Youth in former Ages learnt with Patience, what Age taught with Judgement; and with Pains, what Skill taught with Industry; As to drive Charriots, ride Horses, bear Arms, hold Shields, throw Darts, to Fence, to wrastle, to Skir∣mish, to train Men, to pitch Camps, to set Armies, to guide Ships; Not to Dance, to Sing, to Fiddle, to paint, to powder, as many men do now adaies; Youth did then listen with attenti∣on to Grave Instructions, and receive reproofs with Submission, Page  215 kept silence with sober Countenance obeyed with willing hearts and ready hands, where now adaies Youth is bold and rude, talks loud, speaks Nonsence, slights Age, scorns Councels, laug's at Reproofes, glories in Vices, and hates Virtue. Tis true many will go into the War and kill one another, though many times they run away; but it is rather Rashnes that sights, than true Va∣lour, where Fortune gives the Victory, and not Pallas, or ra∣ther Time, for those that run first away lose the day: Thus in former Ages were Bodies and Minds matcht; but I speak of Stength, to shew that Women that are bred, tender, idle and ignorant (as I have been) are not likely to have much Wit; nor is it fit they should be bred up to Masculine Actions, yet it were ve∣ry fit and requisit they should be bred up to Masculine Understan∣dings; it is not fit for Women to practice the behaviour of Men, yet it is fit that Women should practice the Fortitude of Men; But Women now adaies affecting a Masculincy, as despising their own Sex, practise the behaviour of Men, not the spirits of Men; nor their Herroick Behaviour, but their Wilde, Loose, Rude, Rough or foolish attected Behaviour; they practise the Masculine Confidency or Boldness, and forget the Esseminate Modesty; the Masculine Vice, and forget the Esseminate Vir∣tues; as to talke Impudently, to Swagger, to Swear, to Game, to Drink, to Revell, to make Factions, but they practice not Silence, Sobriety, Reservedness, Abstinency, Patience or the like; they practice the Masculine Cruelty, quitting their ten∣der and gentle Natures, their sweet and pleasing Dispositions: But these Actions and Humours are so far from preferring our Sex to a higher Degree, that they do debase and make us worse than other Creatures be; but I beseech my Readers to believe I speak not of Envy or Spight, for I am guilty of neither, but out of a grieved love to my own Sex, nor of any particular Nations, but of the World in general, I mean as much as I have heard of; likewise that my Readers will not mistake me, as to think I belive, that great Giantly Bodies, or strong course Clowns have the greatest Wit and deepest Understanding, for we see to the contrary most common∣ly, they being the most Ignorant Fools, and Cowardly spirits; but I mean that if they had large strong healthfull bodies, which might be obtained by Heroick Labours and Exersises, and if their spirits were answerable to their bodies, which might be in∣fused by good Education, they might have a double or treble Por∣tion of Rational Understanding; but most commonly large Bo∣dies are like populated Kingdomes that are Barren for want of Cultivating, and becomes defensless and open to an Enemy, for want of Fortification, which is Fortitude; for Fortitude is an Overflow, or a Superabounding of Spirits, when Fear is a Scarcity or Contracting thereof; the like of Wit and Under∣standing; for from the Quantity and Agilness of the spirits in the Brain produceth Wit, and from the Quantity and Strength of Page  216 the Spirits in the Brain, produceth Understanding; But if I were to choose a Sex, I had rather be a Pigmy, stuft with rational spirits, than a Giant empty thereof: but a Middle Stature is most becoming, a Little the most Agil, and a Great the most Dreadfull, like a private Family; for a small Family hath the least Expence, a Great Family the most Disorder, a Compe∣tent Family the best Governed: Or like Marriage, a Beautifull Wife Delights most, a Witty Wife pleaseth best, a Chast Wife makes a man the Happiest.

So a Valiant Husband is most Esteemed, a Wise Husband best beloved, and an Honest Husband makes a Wife the happiest; when a Coward is scorned, a Fool despised, and an Inconstant Husband hated.

The like is a Cholerick Wife, an Unconstant Wife, and a Sluttish Wife.

IT is strange to observe the forgetfulness, or the boldness, or the foolishness of many men in the World, that will not only take Learned Mens Opinions and Arguments, and discourse of them as if they were their own, to the very Authors them∣selves, word for word, which shews Ridiculous and Mad; but most times they will gravely write them, as if they were never writ or divulged before, by which Actions one would think they were of Kin to the Jackanapes.

Others are as Base as those are Ridiculously Foolish, which will bribe the Printer or Bookseller, to let them see such Copies, and so will steal out their best Phansies, or Opinions, or Arguments, and print them before the others come out; wherefore, it is just in the Readers, to examine the Grounds; for if any have done so unworthy an Act, the Theft will be as easily seen, for it will appear in the Face, lying but skin-deep, but never come neer the Fundamental parts; wherefore all Writers that Strike, Justle, or Imbraee one another, and that are pub∣lished or Printed in a short space of time of one another, are to be examined, to find out the Right and Truth, and to con∣demn the Thief and punish the Crime with Reproach and Infa∣my.