The worlds olio written by the Right Honorable, the Lady Margaret Newcastle.
Newcastle, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of, 1624?-1674.

The Inventory of Iudgements Common∣wealth, the Author cares not in what World it is established.

THis Commonwealth to be composed of Nobility, Gen∣try, Burgesses, and Pezants, in which are comprized Souldiery, Merchantry, Artificers, Labourers, Com∣manders, Officers, Masters, Servants, Magistrates, Divines, Lawyers, &c.

This Commonwealth to be governed by one Head or Go∣vernour, as a King, for one Head is sufficient for one Body: for several Heads breed several Opinions, and several Opinions breed Disputations, and Disputations Factions, and Factions breed Wars, and Wars bring Ruin and Desolation: for it is Page  206 more safe to be governed, though by a Foolish Head, than a Factious Heart.

Item, That this Royal Ruler to swear to the People to be Carefull and Loving, as well as the People swear Duty and Fi∣delity.

The Contracts betwixt the King and people should be these.

Item, That the Militia be put in the Royal Hand: for since Power lyes in the Militia, the Militia ought to lye in the Kingly Power; for, without Power, Authority and Justice are as Cy∣phers, which signifie nothing.

For which the King shall contract by Promise and Oath, ne∣ver to give Honours but to the Meritorious.

Item, That if there should be any Dispute betwixt the Royal Command, and the Publick Subjection, there should be two Men chosen, the one for one side, and the other for the other; these to be approved of, both for their Honesty, Wisdome, and Courage, as neither to fear Power, nor Censure, to be free from Bribes, Self-ends, Passions and Partiality, Experienced and Known Men in the Kingdome, or at least as able as any therein, to decide all Differences, and conclude all Disputes, and pre∣sent all Grievances to the Royal Power, and return his Will, Pleasure, and Desires to the People: for Great Counsels do rather insnarl all Publick Business, than rectifie Errours, by rea∣son of their Various Opinions, and Humoursome Differences, with their Covetous Byasses, and Popular Ambitions.

Item, That the Royal Ruler shall contract with the People, ne∣ver to give Honours, either for Favour, or sell them for Gain, but to reward the Meritorious, and grace the Virtuous; which will stop the Mouth of Murmure, temper the Spleen of Malice, clear the Eyes of Spight, and encourage Noble Endeavours.

Item, All those that keep not up the Dignity of their House by the Ceremony of the Titles, shall be dishonoured and degra∣ded, as base, and unworthy thereof, in neglecting the Mark of their own, or their Ancestors Merits.

Item, All those that speak against Honour, or Titles, or give them not the due respect, shall never be created thereunto.

Item, It shall be Death for any Herald at Arms to give Arms for Price, or Favour, but to those are worthy thereof, as those that have purchased them by their Merits.

Item, All those that speak against their Native Country, or tell Defects or Weaknesses, or rail or dishonour their Country∣men, shall be banished therefrom, or thereout.

Page  207Item, That the Royal Ruler shall have no particular Fa∣vorite, they being for the most part Expensive, Proud, Scorn∣full, and Mischievous, making difference betwixt the King and People, by fomenting Errours untill they make them seem Crimes, and creating Jealousies, by making doubts of the Peo∣ples Fidelity; and Favourites most commonly tread upon the Necks of the Nobility, and ride upon the Backs of the Gentry, and pick the Purse of the Commonalty, justle Justice out by Bribery, and many times unthrone Royalty through Envy to them, which causeth a hatred to the Prince, for perchance per∣ceiving this Favorite neither to have Worth nor Merit, onely a Flattering Tongue, that inchants a Credulous Prince. Therefore a Prince should have no Favorite but Justice, no Privy Coun∣seller but his own Breast, his Intention never to be disclosed but when he puts it in Execution.

Item, This Royal Ruler to have none of those they call their Cabinets, which is a Room filled with all useless curiosities, which seems Effeminate, and is so Expensive, bestowing infinite Sums, almost to the impoverishing of a Kingdome, only to fill a Room with little cut, carved Statues, and Models of Stones and Metals; as also divers Toyes made of Amber, Cornelion, Agats, Chry∣stals, and divers sorts of Shels, and the like; which Room might be better imployed, and to more use, in placing Famous and Learned Authors Works, as a Library, which the whole King∣dome may draw Knowledge and Understanding from, and the Money imployed to more famous Curiosities than Shels, or the like, As in stately Monuments, which shews a Kingdome in a Flourishing Condition, and gives it a Noble Grace, and makes it a Wonder abroad, and a subject of Discourse amongst Stran∣gers, inviting curious and inquisitive Travellers from all Nations to view the Structures thereof.

Besides, It makes a Prince seem Effeminate, which is a dis∣grace to the Commonwealth, and Forein Nations will despise it, when they see or hear that the Prince is so mean a Spirit, as to take delight in Toyes, spending their time in looking on Shels, Beads, and Babies. For those of Heroick Spirits take Delight to see their Souldiers in Arms, to view their Fortifications, Forts, and Frontiers, to behold their Stately Architecture, Na∣vigable Rivers, their Safe Havens, Sailing Ships, with their Rich Fraights.

Likewise, They delight in Crowns, Scepters, and Thrones, by which they hold Power, and keep up Authority, making Obedience, Fear, and Subjection; making it their Pastime to hear Sutes, to decide Causes, to give Justice. And their Sports like the old Olympick Games.

Page  208 After these Contracts between the Sovereign and the People, there follow the Laws and Decrees in the Commonwealth.

As first, concerning the Clergy.

Item, That those that exercise the Divine Function, be not preferred for Learning, but for Life, as being honest in their Parish, or Diocese, not exacting more Tythes than their due; also Exemplary in their Actions, Sober in their Behaviour.

Item, That no Divine shall study Controversy, or at least not to dispute, but to preach according to the Doctrine that is al∣lowed to be believed and followed: for Learned Disputes and Controversies are apt to smother a Lively Faith, and quench out a Flaming Zeal.

Item, That no Sermons shall be preached, by reason they do more harm than good, troubling the Conscience of the Fear∣full, the Heads of the Ignorant, and the Ears of the Wise: But there shall be Prayers said in every Parish-Church once a Day, and the Moral Laws, the Divine Laws, and the National Laws, with their threatning punishments, and promising rewards, shall be read and repeated once a Week.

Item, That no Physician shall be allowed to study more than one Disease, or at least practice the Cure but of one, lest they make by their half-knowledge and understanding, a Confusion in the Body for want of Experience.

Item, That all Sutes shall be heard, pleaded and decided in the space of half a Year.

Item, It shall be Death for any to sell Land that is any waies engaged, or entangled, lest it should ruin the Buyer thereof.

Item, That all Landlords and Freeholders shall be bound to plant Timber for Ships, Hemp for Sails, and Tow for Cordage, if the Land be an Isle.

Item, There shall be a set Stipend for Wages, Fees, Rewards, Sales, or Purchases; also of all Merchandizes, that Cosenages, Briberies, Extortions, and the like, may be eschewed.

Item, That none shall execute the Function of two several Trades, nor be imployed in more than in one Office, lest they should perform none well.

Item, That no Alchymy-Lace, nor Stuffs, nor Counterfeit Pearls, Diamonds, and the like, shall be worn, nor sold, unless the Counterfeit be sold at as high a price as the Right, or the Page  209 Right to be sold at as low a rate as the Counterfeit; and as dif∣ferent Sexes are distinguished by their Habits, so different Habits should distinguish different Qualities, Professions, and Degrees.

Item, That all degrees of Titles shall be distinguished by their Habits and Ceremonies, as well as by their Arms, Titles, Pa∣tents, and Creations.

Item, No Men shall wear Swords in time of Peace but Gen∣tlemen, and in the Wars there shall be some differences of Arms to make distinction.

Item, That no Officer, neither in Martial Command, nor Civil Government, shall be chosen or imployed, but such as have Abilities to execute their Authorities, and able to discharge their Duties.

Item, Rewards shall be as frequent as Punishments, lest In∣dustry should grow careless, and the Flame of Heroick Spirits be quenched out.

Item, None shall make Great Feasts, and Sumptuous Enter∣tainments, but for Forein Persons of Quality, or Strangers that travel to see the Kingdome, where they may see the Plenty, Riches, and Magnificence thereof, that they may not despise it when they return to their own Native Country, but give cause to renown it in their Relations.

Item, All Detracting or Slandering Tongues shall be clipt and the more the Detraction or Slander is, the greater slices shall be cut therefrom.

Item, That the People shall have set times of Recreation, to ease them from their Labours, and to refresh their Spirits.

Item, That all Noble Youths shall be bred by Experienced Age, to perswade, admonish, and correct by Grave Authority, instructed by Virtuous Examples, taught Honourable Prin∣ciples, and the practice of Heroick Actions; their onely Play∣fellows shall be the Muses; the Grave and Sober Companions, the Sciences; the Domestick Servants, and Acquaintance, the profitable and usefull Arts for the Life of Man.

As for the generality of Youth, they shall be bred to Silent Attentions, Sober Demeanors, Humble Obediences, Handsome Customes, and Gracefull Arts: As for the meaner sort of Youth, to Trades of Arts, and Arts of Trades, for the use and benefit of the Commonwealth.

Page  210Item, No Children shall speak before their Parents, no Servants before their Masters, no Scholars before their Tutors, no Subject before the Prince, but either to answer to their Que∣stions, to deliver a Message, or to know their will and pleasure, to declare their Grievances, to ask pardon for Faults committed, or to present an humble request in the most humblest manner, unless they command them to discourse freely to them, yet not without a respect to their Presence and Authority.

Item, For the Generality, none shall speak but to ask rational, dutifull, and humble Questions, to request just Demands, to dis∣course of probable Arguments, to defend Right and Truth, to divulge Virtue, to praise the Meritorious, to pray to Heaven, to ask Mercy, to move Pity, to pacisie Grief, to asswage Anger, to make an Atonement, and to instruct the Ignorant.

Item, All shall be accounted Wise, that endure patiently, that live peaceably, that spend prudently, that speak sparingly, that judge charitably, that wish honestly, and that obey Au∣thority.

Item, All Men that may live quietly at home, and travel to no purpose, or that neglect their own Affairs to follow the Af∣fairs of other Men, or decide those Mens Quarrels they shall have no thanks for, or live upon hopes of great Fortunes, of high Favours, when they may feed upon present Comfort, and enjoy humble Delights in that Estate and Condition they possess, shall wear a Fools Cap, and a Motly Coat.

Item, That none shall live at a greater Expence than their Estate will allow and maintain.

Item, That all Spendthrifts shall be condemned for Fools, all Gamesters for idle Miscreants, all Drunkards for Mad∣men; a Bedlam provided for the Drunkards, a Bridewell for Gamesters, and an Hospital with Long Coats for Spend∣thrifts.

Item, All Men that beget Children shall strive to provide for them, by their Thrifty Managements, or Industrious Labours.

Item, No Man shall Father a Whores Child, or Children, unless he were sure he were the Father, which few can tell; otherwise it makes a Wise Man seem a Fool, as being facile.

Item, It shall be accounted not only a double Crime, but a Baseness equal to Cowardise, and a disgrace equal to a Cuckold, Page  211 for a Gentleman to court, or make love to a Common Whore, who is an Alms- Tub of Corruption; but if a Gentleman must or will have a Whore, let him have one of his own making, and not feed upon Reversions.

Item, That no Husband shall keep a Houshold Friend, lest he should make love to his Wife, and he become a Cuckold thereby.

Item, No married man or Master of a Family, shall kiss or make love to his Maid, nor Serving-men to their Mistrisses, lest they should grow idly Amorous, impertinently Bold, rudely Saucy, neglecting their Duty to their Mistris or Master, through scornfull Pride.

Item, In all publike Company all Husbands shall use their Wives with Respect, unless they dishonor themselves with the neglect thereof.

Item, No Husband nor Wife, although but a day married, shall kiss each other in publick, lest it turn the Spectators from a lawfull and wholsome Appetite of Marriage, to a gluttonous Adultery, or weakning the Appetite so much as to cause a Loa∣thing, or an aversion to the Wedlock Bed.

Item, No Wife shall entertain an Admiring Servant, lest her Husbands and her own Reputation be lost or buried in his ad∣miring Courtships; nor their Hearts to receive and return Love to none but their Husbands, no not Platonick love, for the Conversation of Souls, is a great temptation to Amorous Friend∣ship; indeed the Soul of a Platonick Lover is a Baud to the Body.

Item, That Dancing be commendable as a gracefull Art in Maids or Batchelors, but shall be accounted an Effeminacy for married Men, a May-Game for Old men, and & Wanton Light∣nes for Married Women.

Item, That no woman of quality should receive Visits or give Visits, but in publick Meetings, nor have any whisperings or private Conference, that her Actions might have sufficient Witnesse, and her Discourses a generall Audience.

Item, That none shall marry against their own liking or free choice, lest they make their Marriage an excuse for Adultery.

Item, It shall be allowed for Maids to entertain all Hono∣rable, as Matrimonial Suters, untill such time as she hath made choice of one of them to settle her Affections upon; for it is Page  212 good reason one should take time and observe Humors, before they bind themselves in Wedlock Bonds, for when once bound nothing but Death can part them; but when they are once marri∣ed, their Ears to be sealed from all Loves pleadings, prote∣stings, Vows making, high praises, and Complementall phrases.

Item, That none shall keep a Mistris above halfe a year, but change, lest she grow more imporious than a Wife made of a Widow.

Item, All Lovers shall be licensed to bragg or speak well of themselves to their Mistris, when they have done no meritori∣ous Actions to speak for them.

Item, All those that have Beauty enough to make a Lover, if they have not wit to keep a Lover, shall be accounted no bet∣ter than a senseless Statue.

Item, It shall not be, as it is in these Daies, accounted a prise or purchase amongst Ladies, to get either by their Wit or Beauty, admiring Servants, especially if they be of amorous natures; for then Nature drives them to her Beauty or Wit, more than her Wit or Beauty draws them to it.

Item, All those that are proud without a cause, it shall be a sufficient cause to be scorned.

Item, Eloquence shall not be imployed nor pleaded in Amo∣rous Discourses, nor to make Falshood to appear like Truth; but to dress and adorn Vertue that she may be accepted and en∣tertained by those that will refuse and shun her acquaintance if she be clad in plain Garments.

Item, There shall none condemn another Language, nor ac∣count another to be better, if it be Significant, Copious and E∣loquent, such as the English Tongue is.

Item, All passionate Speeches, or Speeches to move passion, shall be expressed in Number.

Item, That all Natural Poets shall be honored with Title, esteemed with Respect, or enriched for the Civilizing of a Nation, more than Contracts, Laws or Punishments, by Soft Numbers, and pleasing Phansics; and also guard, a Kingdom more than Walls or Bulworks, by creating Heroick Spirits with Illustrious Praises, inflaming the Mind with Noble Ambition: