ORATIONS OF DIVERS SORTS, Accommodated to DIVERS PLACES. VVritten by the thrice Noble, Illustrious and excellent Princess, the Lady Marchioness OF NEWCASTLE.
LONDON, Printed Anno Dom. 1662.
TO THE LADY MARCHIONESS OF NEWCASTLE On her Book of Orations.
TO HIS EXCELLENCIE THE LORD MARQUIS OF NEWCASTLE.
I Have mentioned in my other Books, that I think it not fit I Should Dedi∣cate unto your Lordship the Single parts of my Works, before I de∣dicate all the parts in the Whole; yet I cannot chuse but declare to the World how happy I and my works are in your Approvement, which makes the pastime of my Writing very Delightfull; besides, it makes me confident and resolute to put them to the Press, and so to the Publik view, in despite of these Critical times and Censorious age, which is apt to find fault with every Action, let it be never so innocent or harmlesse, or with any Work although good and Page [unnumbered] profitable, yet they will sting spiteful Aspersions on them: But I have heard your Lordship say, that most men Believe themselves not Wise if they find no Fault with their Neighbours Acti∣ons, and that it is as Easie to find Fault, as it is Hard to do Well; It seems such men have more Evil in their Natures, than fustice in their Censures; but your Lordship, who is full of Truth and Generosity, Reason and Knowledge, will give your Opinion Clearly and Uprightly, and my Works having your Approbation, I re∣gard not the Dislike of other men, for I have Dedicated my Self and all my Actions to your Lordship, as becomes
Your Lordships honest Wife and humble Servant M. Newcastle.
TO THE READERS OF MY VVORKS.
I Know not how to Please All, that are pleased to Read my Works; for do what I can, Some will find Fault; and the worst is, that those Faults or Imperfections, I accuse my-self of in my Praefa∣tory Epistles, they fling back with a double strength against my poor harmless Works, which shewes their Malice and my Truth: And as for my Playes, which they say are not made up so exactly as they should be, as having no Plots, Designs, Catastrophes and such like I know not what, I ex∣pressed in the Epistles praefixed before my Playes, that I had not Skil nor Art to Form them, as they should be, for that Work was like a Taylors Work to make Cloaths: But many that find such Faults, are not so good as a Taylor, but meet Botchers or Brokers, to Patch and Set several Old and New Pieces together to make up a Play, which I never did, for I thank my Fates, all is not only New, but my Own, what I have Presented to the World; But this Age is so Censorious, that the Best Poets are found Fault with, wherefore it is an Honour to my Writings, which are so much Inferiour to theirs; Nei∣ther can their Dislikes Deterr me from Writing, for I Write to Please my Self, rather than to Please such Crabbed Readers. Yet all my Readers have not been so Cross nor Cruel, for there are Many, to whom my Endeavours and Works are Ac∣ceptable, and the more Honour it is to my Works, as being Approved and Known by Worthy and Judicious Men, and Noble Persons; But many Men have more Ill Natures to Find Page [unnumbered] Faults with their Neighbours, than Virtue to Mend Faults in Themselves; also they are apt to Censure Other mens Wit, and yet have None of their Own; the truth is, they are a sort of Persons that in Playes preferr Plots before Wit, and Scenes before Humours; in Poëms, Rime before Similizing, and Num∣bers before Distinguishing; in Theology, Faction before Faith, and Sophistry before Truth; in Philosophy, Old Authors be∣fore New Truths, and Opinions before Reason; And in Ora∣tions, they preferr Artificial Connexions, before Natural Eloquence: All which makes them Foolish, Censorious, and Unjust Judges. Wherefore, I desire, these my Orations may not be Read by such Humour'd men, but by the Just and VVife, which will be a Satisfaction to me.
'Tis Probable, had I been a Learned Scholar, I might have Written my Orations more Short than I have done, but yet some of them are so short, that had they been shorter, they would not have been of Force to Perswade, whereas the In∣tention of an Orator, or Use of Orations, is to Perswade the Auditors to be of the Orators Opinion or Belief, and it is not Probable, that Forcible Arguments or Perswasions can be Con∣tain'd in two or three Lines of VVords; Also had I been a Learned Scholar, I might have Written them more Compen∣diously, and not so Loose, but I affect Freedome and Ease, even in my Works, of VVritings; Besides, I have Observ'd, that whatsoever is Bound or Knit Close, is difficult to Disclose, and for VVritings, whatsoever is very Compendious, requires some Study to Conceive and Understand the Sense and Defign of the Authors Meaning: But I hope that Defect or want of Lear∣ning, will not Blemish my VVork, nor Obstruct the Sense of my Orations, nor Puzzle the Understanding of the Reader. Only one thing more I desire my Noble Readers, as to Observe that most of my Orations are General Orations, viz. such as may be spoken in any Kingdome or Government, for I suppose, that in All, at least in Most Kingdomes and Governments there are Souldiers, Magistrates, Privy-Counsellours, Lawyers, Prea∣chers, and University Scholars.
VVe have, its true, gotten a Foolish Custom both in our VVriting and Speaking, to Indeavour more to Match or Marry VVords together, than to Match and Marry Sense: and Reason Page [unnumbered] together, which is strange, we should Preferr Shaddows before Substances, or the Spig or Tap before the Liquor, for VVords are but to Conveigh the Sense of an Cration to the Ears, and so into the Understanding of the Hearers, like as Spouts do VVine into Bottels; and who, that is VVise, will Regard what the Vessel is, so it be VVholsome and Clean? for should not we believe those to be Fools, that had rather have Foul VVater out of a Golden Vessel, than Pure VVine out of Earthen or VVoodden Vessels? the like may be said for VVords and Sense, for who, that is VVise, would Choose Choice VVords before Profitable Reasons? VVherefore, Noble Readers, let me Ad∣vise you to Leave this Custom in VVriting and Speaking, or rather be Silently Wife, than Foolish in Rhetorick.
I have Indeavoured in this Book to Express Perfect Orators, that Speak Perfect Orations, as to Cause their Auditors to Act, or Believe, according to the Orators Opinion, Judgement, Design, or Desire; But before I did put this my Book forth, Know, Noble Readers, I did Inquire, to find whether any Person had Composed and Put out a Whole Book of Pure and Perfect Orations, but I could neither hear of, nor see any such Works of any Person that Composed and Set forth to the Publick View, a Book of Pure Orations, Composed out of One Orators Own Fancy, Wit, and Eloquence. 'Tis true, I have heard of Single Orations, made by Single Persons, in Single Parts; Also I have seen Orations mixt with History, wherein the Substance of the History is the Ground of their Orations; Also I have seen two Translations call'd Orations, but they are rather Orations in Name than in Reality, for their Nature is History, the One contains Relations of several Countries, in the Other are Relations from several Princes of their Acti∣ons, or Fortunes, or Both, Exprest in an Orators Style; yet those are not Perfect or Right Orations, but Adulterated, or rather Hermophrodites. But perchance my Readers will say, I Understand not True Orations; If I do not, I am Sorry for, and ask their Pardon for Speaking what I Understand not. But I desire, Noble Readers, you will not think or believe, I speak to Illustrate my Own VVorks, and to Detract from the VVorks of Others, for upon my Conscience I Speak and VVrite as I Believe, and if I Commit an Error in this Belief, I ask your Page [unnumbered] Pardon, and if you Excuse me, I shall take it for a Favour and Obligation.
I have Written Orations and Speeches of all Sorts, and in all Places sit for Orations, Speeches, or particular Discourses; and first imagining my Self and You to be in a Metropolitan City, I invite you into the Chief Market-place, as the most Populous place, where usually Orations are Spoken, at least they were so in Older times, and there you shall hear Crations Concerning Peace and Warr; but the Generality of the People being more apt to make Warr, than to keep Peace, I desire you to Arm your Selves, supposing you to be of the Masculine Sex, and of Valiant Heroical Natures, to enter into the Field of Warr; and fince Warrs bring Ruine and Destruction to One or Some Parties, if not to All, and Loss causes men to De∣sire Peace, out of Warr I bring you into great Disorders, caused by the Ruins Warrs have made, which I am Sorry for, yet it Must be so, the Fates have Decreed it; and Misery cau∣sing men to be Prudent and Industrious, by which they come to Flourish again, at least their Successors, and to shew you their Industry, I bring you out of the Field of Warr into a New-built City, where you must stay the Building of it, for it will be Built Soon, having Many Labourers, and after it is Built, there being a Large Market-place, you may stand or sit with Ease and hear the Orations that are there Spoken; and by Reason, there are some Causes or Cases to be Pleaded, I shall indeavour to Perswade you, after some time of Refreshment, at your own Homes, to go into the Courts or Halls of Judica∣ture; after these Causes are Judged or at least Pleaded, I shall desire you, to Adorn your Selves fit for the Court, then to Wait upon the Kings Majesty, and if you be Privy-Counsel∣lours, or have any Business or Petitions at the Council-Table, by the Kings Permission you may Enter into the Council∣Chamber; but great Monarchs having Many Subjects, whereof some are more Active than Wise, and more apt to Complain than to Obey, you may hear the Petitions of the Subjects, and the Speeches or Orations of the Soveraign, and after a good Agreement, Unity, and Love, you may Rest your Selves in Peace, untill such time as your Charity calls you forth to Visit the Sick, and when as Death hath Releas'd those Sick Persons Page [unnumbered] of their Pains, Humanity will perswade you to wait on their Dead Corps to the Grave, and after some Tears showred on their Graves, and having Dried your Eyes, and Heard some Ser∣mons of Reproof and Instructions, you will be Invited as Bridal-Guests to see some Men and VVomen United in Holy Matrimony; after the VVedding Ceremonies are ended, you may, as formerly you have done, go into the Market-place again, and hear what Orations there are Spoken, wherein one short Oration concerning the Liberty of Women hath so An∣ger'd that Sex, as after the Mens Orations are ended, they Privately Assemble together, where three or four take the place of an Orator, and Speak to the rest; the only Difficulty will be, to get Undiscovered amongst them, to hear their Pri∣vate Conventicles; but if you regard not what Women say, you may Ride to a Country Market-Town, and hear a Com∣pany of Gentlemen associate together their Discourse and Pastime; and if you like not their Pastime, then you may Walk into the Fields of Peace, to Receive the Sweet and Healthfull Air, or to View the Curious and Various VVorks of Nature, and for Variety of Pastime, you may stand or sit under a Spreading Tree, and hear the Country Clowns or Peasants speak, concerning their own Affairs and Course of Life; in which Shady place, Sweet Air, and Happiness of Peace I leave you, unless you will Travel to see the Government or rather Disorders in other States or Kingdomes, to which Observation I will VVait upon you, and when all is in Peace, before we re∣turn Home, we will, if you Please, enter some of their Colle∣ges, and hear some School-Arguments, after which return, I shall Kiss your Hands and take my Leave.
M. Newcastle.Page [unnumbered]Page [unnumbered]
A PRAEFACTORY ORATION.
YOu know, that there is difference be∣tween Orations of fancy, and Orations of business, as also difference between Orations of publick imployments, and private divertisements; The one sort requires Rational perswasions, the other only Elo∣quent expressions: and as there are different Subjects of Orations, so there are different Places for Orations; and the Subjects of my Orations be∣ing of the most serious and most concernable actions and accidents amongst Mankind, and the Places most common and publick, it hath caused me to Write my Orations rather to benefit my Auditors, than to delight them. But by reason I have not been bred, being a Woman, to publick Affairs, Associations, or Negotiations, it is not to be ex∣pected I should speak or write wisely., the truth is, it were more easie and more proper for one of my Page [unnumbered] Sex, to speak or write wittily than wisely; but 'tis probable, my Auditors will think or judge, that I have done neither. Yet I can assure you, Noble Auditors, I have done my indeavour, and my desire was and is, that every several Oration may be acceptable to your Minds, profitable to your Lives, and delightful to your Hearing.Page 1
ORATIONS To CITIZENS in a chief City concerning Peace and Warr.
An Oration for Warr.
BE not Offended, Noble Citizens, if I labour to perswade my Country, to make Heroick Warrs, since it is neither safe, profitable, nor honou∣rable for it, to live in sluggish Peace: for in Peace you become ignorant of the Arts in War, and living sluggishly, you lose the cou∣rage of men, and become Effeminate, and having neither skil nor courage, you cannot expect safe∣ty: for should you chance to have Enemies, you would not have abilities to help your selves, having neither Experience by practice, nor Cou∣rage by use and custom; for custom and use work much upon the natures of men. And as for Arms, in times of Peace they lie like Garments out of fashion, never worn, but despised and laught at as ridiculous things, and men of action like as arms, they jear and make a mock of. Thus Page 2 Martial men and arms in time of Peace are scor∣ned, although in time of Warrs they only are a Kingdomes safety, to guard it from their Ene∣mies. Indeed, Peace spoils both youth and age, it makes the one sort Covetous, the other Wan∣ton: for aged men study only to get Wealth; the young men how to spend it. Besides, it makes the Poor men Richmen's Asses, and Rich men Poor men's Burdens. Also peace makes old men Fools, and young men Cowards: for in long times of Peace grave Counsels are meer gossi∣ping meetings, rather idely to talk, than wisely to advise, they propound many things, but re∣solve not any, debate not, but conclude, and sometimes find faults, but never help to mend them. The truth is, for the most part, they ra∣ther make errors, than help to rectifie defects, and in Warrs they had rather suffer calamity, than stir for necessity; Neither will they be∣lieve they are in danger, untill their Enemies be at their Gates. And as for youth, Peace quenches out their Heroick spirits and noble ambitions: for their only ambition is their Mi∣stresses favours, and they will go to no other Warrs, but Venus, where Cupid is General, where they only make Love-skirmishes, and are shot through their hearts with glances from their Mistresses eyes. Thus Peace makes men like Beasts: for in peace they feed like Swine, sport like Apes, live like Goats, and may be brought to the Shambles like silly Sheep. Nay, it makes men not only Live, but Die like Beasts, having Page 3 neither spirits, skil nor conduct to defend them∣selves, or fight an Enemy. And how should it be otherwise, when as the young men are only armed with Vanity, march with Pride, intrench with Luxury, fight with Bacchus, and are over∣come by Venus? Thus we may observe, that all which causes Peace, and takes away the courage of young Vigorous men, rots their Bodies with excess, and corrupts their Blood with idleness, by which their Spirits are quenched, their Strengths weakned, their Minds softned, and their Natures become effeminate, which makes their Lives vacant, and when they die, they are buried in Oblivion: for Fame lives in Heroick actions. And surely it is better for Noble men, to have Fame than Wealth, and for young Gal∣lants to have Honour than gay Cloaths, and more honour to have Scarrs, than black Patches, to fight with an Enemy, than to dance with a Lady, to march to a Battel, than to tread a Mea∣sure. And for the meaner sort, it is better for them to wear honourable Arms, than to bear slavish Burdens; and how happy is that man, that can raise himself from a low Birth, to a glo∣rious Renown? Thus from the Noblest to the meanest, Warr is the way to advance them to honour, if the common Souldiers fight with courage, and the Nobles command and direct with skil, for which their Posterity will glory in their Valours, Poets will sing their Praises, Historians write their Acts, and Fame keep their Records, that after ages may know, what He∣roick Page 4 men they were; and as for Kingdomes, those are safest that are protected by Mars.
An Oration for Peace.
THe Oration that was last spoken unto you, hath stirr'd your spirits and incumber'd your thoughts with Warrs, and your desire for Warr is such, that you will not only seek for Enemies, but make Enemies to fight with, which is neither Heroick nor Just, to fight with those that have done you no injury or wrong; and what can be a more unworthy Act, than to assault peaceable Neighbours? it cannot be call'd an honourable Warr, but a base Outrage; like as Pirats at Sea, so you will be Robbers at Land, taking that from others, which you have no right to. But say you have some slight injuries done you, If you were wise, you had better wink at small faults than make Warrs, which will ex∣haust your Treasures, wast your Strength, de∣populate your Nation, and leave your Lands un∣manured. Besides, Warrs corrupt all good manners, nay, even good natures, making the one rude, and the other cruel; and though long Warrs may make men Martial, Skilfull, and may highten their courage, yet neither skil nor courage can alwayes bear away Victory, espe∣cially from a powerfull Enemy, unless Fortune be on their side. The truth is, Fortune is the Page 5 chief Actor and decider in Warrs; and who that are wise, will trust their Goods, Lives and Liberties to Fortunes disposal, if they may choose? Wherefore they are either fools or mad, that will make Warr, when they may live in Peace. And give me leave to tell you, that it is not the way to keep our Country safe, to make Warrs abroad, but to make our Country strong with Forts on the Frontiers, and Ships on the Seas that beat on our shores, and to practise our men with training, not fighting; and it is easier to keep out an Enemy, than to Conquer an enemies Kingdome: for at home we have all Provisions needfull and near at hand, when in a forein Country we shall be to seek. But say, good fortune may inrich us, yet ill fortune will absolutely ruine us: I answer, Warr inriches few, for it makes spoil of all; the truth is, War is a great devourer, for it consumes almost all that is consumable, wheresoever it comes, and is like a Glutton, that eats much, and yet is very lean; for most commonly the under Souldiers are very poor, and the Commanders only rich in fame, yet not, unless they have good fortune, otherwise if they have ill fortune, they are usu∣ally scorn'd, at least but pittied, but never praised. Wherefore it is neither Courage nor Conduct, that gets fame in the Warrs, but Fortune that gives it, and she many times gives glorious fame to Cowards and Fools, and blemishes, at least obscures the worth and merit of Wise and Vali∣ant men. Wherefore, let me perswade you not Page 6 to follow unjust and inconstant Fortune to the Warrs, but to live at home in Peace with Mi∣nerva and Pallas, the one will defend you, the other will imploy you, and both will make you happy in present Life, and will give you Fame and Renown according to your desert, that your memory may live in after-ages.
An Oration against Warr.
I Perceive, all this Nation, or the most part, their minds are hot, and their spirits inflam'd through an over-earnest desire to be in Warr, which expresses you have surfeited with the de∣licious fruits of Peace, which hath made your reason, judgement and understanding sick and faint, so that it desires a change, as from rest to trouble, from plenty to scarcity, from palaces to tents, from safety to danger, from gay apparel to bloody wounds, from freedom to slavery, all which Warr will bring upon you. The truth is, Warr is more likely to kill you, than cure your surfeit: for Warr is a dangerous Physick, and the more dangerous, by reason your Ene∣mies must be your Physicians. But let me ad∣vise you, to cure your selves with Temperance and Prudence, by which you will flourish with Wealth, and grow strong with Wisdom: for wealth and wisdome is the health and strength of a Common-wealth, which will preserve it Page 7 from destruction, For what is the strength of a Kingdome, but Riches and wise Government? and what exhausts the one, and confounds the other more than Warr? which for the most part is in Fortune's power, to order as she pleases, and Fortune in VVarrs hath power to puzzle the wise, and impoverish the rich. Where∣fore, Noble Country-men, do not make your selves beggers and fools in VVarring actions, and ruine not your Country through the ambi∣tion of pre-eminence or applause, or through the ill nature of Revenge; But be wise and rich with Peace, by which you will become impregnable against your Enemies, and happy amongst your selves; for certainly VVarr is better to hear of, than to feel; for though in VVarrs you may Cover much, yet in the end In joy but little, you may have high Designs, but you are not sure to have prosperous Success, and instead of being Conquerers, be Conquered, instead of being Masters, become Slaves. But to conclude, it were more happy to lie Peaceable in the Grave with our Fore-fathers, than to live in the tur∣moils of VVarr with our Enemies.
An Oration perswading to the breach of Peace with their Neighbour-Nation.
OUr Neighbours, the U. G. have done us many injuries contrary to the Articles of Page 8 Agreement made betwixt our Nation, by which they have broken the Peace; but yet we, out of Laziness or Fearfull natures, suffer them to make Riots, and never stirr against them, when we are so far from being Abusers, as we suffer our selves to be Abused. 'Tis true, the first shews us to be Honest Men, but the last proves us to be Fools, if not Cowards, which, if our Enemies know, (for now they are but a proving, making a trial of us,) they will over∣come us without Resistance, and will in∣slave us in our own Territories, so that we shall labour for our Enemies, and have no Profit our selves. Thus whilst we sit still, we shall have a Yoak cast on us, we shall be bound in Fetters, and they injoy their own and our Liberties, which rather than suffer or yield to, were a thousand times better to Dye; Wherefore, bethink your¦selves, and consider the danger, be not so sur∣prised, as not to be able to help your selves; and if you be Wise and Valiant, as I hope you are, you will be VVatchful and Active; let not your Enemies tread you into the Earth, like dull Worms, or drive you into Bondage, like silly Sheep into a Pinfold, but rather be as the subtil Serpents, and dreadfull Lions, to take your ad∣vantages, and make them your prey; Suffer them not to be your Vulturs, but be their Ea∣gles, let them not feed on our ruins, but be you their Emperours to Command them, make them march under your Banners, and suffer them not to lead you as Slaves.
An Oration against the breaking of Peace, with their Neighbour-Nation.
I Perceive, you desire, or rather are resolved, to be no longer in Peace, but to make Warr on the U. G. for some slight injuries, which per∣chance could not be avioded: for there is no Friendship between Man and Man, or the dea∣rest natural affections betwixt Brethren, or Pa∣rents and Children, or Husbands and VVives, but will give some occasions, either by VVords or Actions, or both, to take exceptions, and to be angry with each other; and should they for some small Offences, or indiscreet Actions, break off all Bonds of Friendship or Natural af∣fection, Or should they indeavour to destroy each others Lives, this would be Inhumane, Unnatural, Uncharitable, Unjust, and Irreligi∣ous; and if neer and dear Friends cannot live without Exceptions and Faults, much less can two several Nations under two several Govern∣ments. And give me leave to tell you, that if it be not Wicked, yet it will be very Unwise to ha∣zard your Lives, Liberties, Possessions, and Ha∣bitations, in Warr, only to be revenged for some few abuses or faults, that should rather be wink∣ed at, than taken notice of; But should you be Victorious, though it is probable you may be Overcome, yet you will be in the end of the Page 10 Warr but like Chymists, who to make some grains of Gold spend many thousand, or at least hundred pounds, and ruine their Estates and Posterity through Covetousness; so will you through Anger, and desire of Revenge, lose ma∣ny thousand Lives, and impoverish the State; but Experience will tell you, that Anger and Rashness for the most part cause Repentance, whereas Patience and Discretion many times bring men out of great Evils; and though Warrs begin Flantingly and Boastingly, yet commonly they end Miserably and Dejectedly, at least of one side, if not on both, and the Soul∣diers are more certain to have Wounds or Death, than Victory and Spoils: and though Covetousness and Revenge is their hire, yet Loss and Slavery is many times their reward; they advance with Hopes, but draw back with Doubts, and are oppress'd with Fears. But you imagine, you shall be Victorious, otherwise you would not make Warr, for Imagination can easily and suddenly Conquer all the World; yet you will find it not so in action as in thought, it is one thing to fight a Battel in the Brain, and an other thing to fight a Battel in the Field: and if I might advise you, you should fight only with Thoughts and not with Arms, with Sup∣posed, not with Real Enemies. But to conclude, this Warlike Preparation or Resolution is not only inconsiderable and Foolish, but Mad, as to leave and forsake your delicious Pleasures, sweet Delights, happy Contents, dear Friends, and Page 11 safe Habitations, which you injoy in Peace, to put your selves into many Inconveniences, much Troubles, great Hazards, dangerous Adven∣tures, and uncertain Successes in Warrs.
An Oration to prevent Civil Warr.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
GIve me leave to tell you, I do fore-see a Ci∣vil Warr, if not timely hindred or preven∣ted; the chief signs of this Warr are Vanity, Pride, Luxury, Ambition, Corruption, Extor∣sion, Envy, Faction and Poverty. As for Vani∣ty, Pride, and Luxury, they are amongst our young Nobles; Envy, Ambition, and Faction, amongst our States-men; Corruption and Extor∣sion, amongst our Magistrates and Officers, and Poverty is amongst our Commons, as also in our Common and Publick Treasury; All which will bring our City and Kingdome to ruine, if the Disorders and Grievances be not timely re∣ctified. Wherefore Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men, prevent your own ruine, by refor∣ming your own State both of publick and pri∣vate Mis-demeanors; but the chief Rectifiers must be the States-men, Magistrates, and Offi∣cers; for wise States-men and good Magistrates will not only indeavour to abolish Vanity and Luxury by their frugal Examples, but by their wise and severe Laws; for without strict and severe Laws, wise Government cannot be; also Page 12 wise States-men and honest Magistrates will in∣deavour to fill the publick Treasury by just and regular means, and not their private Purses by Extorsion and Corruption, for the one relieves the Poor, the other starves them, and not only relieves the Poor, but is a means to supply the publick Wants, to guard the publick State, and to keep the publick Peace; all which makes wise and honest States-men and Magistrates to be provident to Inrich, and sparing to Spend the publick Treasure, that the publick State may have Means and Wealth for necessary occasi∣ons. Also wise States-men and Magistrates will imploy the Common people to keep them from Want and Idleness, which will keep them in Order and Peace; But the greatest good, and greatest scarcity in a Common-wealth, is wise States-men and just Magistrates, which are free from private Interest and ambition of particular Power, not making their self designs the gene∣ral ruine: but such men, if any such there be, ought to be chosen out from the rest of the Peo∣ple, to Govern and Rule so, that Prudence, Fortitude, Justice and Temperance, as also Cha∣rity, Love, and Unity, may be the Bond and Se∣curity of the publick Weal, which I pray the Gods to give you, and bless you with Peace, Plenty, and Tranquillity.
An Oration to send out Colonies.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
GIve me leave to tell you, that both the Young and Aged Men in this Nation spend their times idlely; the one sort Sleeps away their time, the other Playes it away. But it may be said, that Rest is proper for Aged men, and Plea∣sure for Young men; I answer, Rest to the bodies of Aged men doth well, and Action for Young men; but Aged men might imploy their Brains in Counsels, and Young men their Arms in Warrs; for aged Brains are wisest, and Young mens Bodies strongest, and both may be im∣ployed in the Service of this Nation. But this Nation is like a man that increases his Issue, and doth not increase his Estate: for this Nation grows Populous, but the Men not Industrious to inlarge it. The truth is, we have more Men, than Means to maintain them, or Business to imploy them, which makes them Idle, having nothing to Husband or Manage, and Idleness will in time make them Evil; Wherefore, if some of the wise Aged men, send not some of the Young strong men, to make Warrs abroad, to imploy or inrich them, or to destroy them, they will make Warrs at home, and destroy themselves and others for want of wealth and imployment: for this Nation is like a Body over-grown, or rather full of Humours, which requires Evacu∣ation. Page 14 Wherefore, send some to Sea, others to march by Land, to seek new Habitations, and to Conquer Nations; and men of Fortune will be more willing to go, than you to send them, if you help them with necessaries to begin the Warr; and they having nothing to lose, nor nothing to live on, will Fight without Fear, and therefore probably destroy their Enemies with∣out Favour, that they may come to be absolute Conquerers.
An Oration concerning Shipping.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
YOu know, that this Country is an Island, and therefore it is well to put you in mind of the Proverb, which saies, Take care of your Ships, and look well to your Tacklings, other∣wise you can have no safety: for the strength of an Island are Ships, which are the guard to de∣fend it, not empty unrigged Ships in your Ha∣vens, but good strong Ships well Mann'd on the Seas; for to have Ships only in your Havens will be no security; besides, it spoils both Ships and Mariners for want of use and practice. Thus the close Havens destroy more Ships and Mari∣ners, than the open Seas: for that which makes good Mariners is Navigation, and the more Stroms they have been in, the more Experience they have gained. It is true, 'tis a laborious and dangerous Profession, but yet it is Expedient, Page 15 both for security and profit, to those that inha∣bit an Island; for Islands commonly have more Men than Land, and therefore require Provi∣sions from abroad, besides many things for Plea∣sure and Delight. But though Islands be not so Spacious as Continents, yet they are for the most part Richer, for Shipping of Burdens is profita∣ble, although Shipping of Warr is chargeable; and perchance you will say, that the Charge of the one sort eats out the Profit of the other, un∣less you can make them serve for both, as for Traffick, and for Warr, which in my opinion cannot well be done; for Ships for Warr will be too heavy and unwieldy for Burden, and too bigg for Speed, as also too slow for Flight; for Merchants do seldome Fight, if they can possibly Flye, not only that their Wealth makes them fearful, but their Rich fraights would be spoiled, although they should not be taken from them. But howsoever, Safety is to be preferr'd before Wealth, wherefore Ships of Warr are to be considered before Ships of Burdens, and that there be good Mariners and Ship-masters for both; and not only to repair Ships, but to build Ships yearly, that you may be so strong, as to be Masters of the Seas; also to pay well your poor laborions Mariners, and carefull and skifull Ship-masters, who keep you in Safety, and bring you Riches and forein Rarities and Curiosities for Pleasure and Delight; although they be but Poor themselves, and have less or as little Plea∣sure as Riches, being for the most part accompa∣nied Page 16 with Dangers and Fears, as much as with Want and Necessity; the truth is, they often∣times indure great Extremities; for in a Strom they fight for Life, and in a Calm they starve for Want; for they fight not like those that fight at Land, as Men with Men, but they fight with the blustring VVinds and raging VVaves, where, although they get the Victory, yet they are sure to be Losers, their Ships being VVoun∣ded, and their Tacklings tatter'd and torn, and every thing out of Order; besides, their Spirits are spent, and their Limbs sore, and their whole Bodies wearied and tyr'd with Labour, having nothing to Refresh them, but Joy that they were not Drown'd. VVherefore, Mariners deserve more pay and thanks, than Land-Souldiers, who fight with Men equall to them, not with the Elements above and beneath them, as VVind and VVater, which are strong, fierce, and de∣vouring: Besides, when Land Soldiers get a Victory, they are Inriched with the spoil, re∣freshing themselves with Luxurious Pleasures, Sporting and Feasting; whereas poor Mariners and Sea-men are forc'd to Fast rather than to Feast, having never much Plenty, but after a Storm more Scarcity, their Provision being spoiled by their Enemies, the Elements. But to conclude, the Sea-men want pay, and their Ships repairing, for which you must disburse a suffici∣ent summ of Money to mend the one, and to relieve the other, who deserve not only Pay, but Reward to encourage them.
An Oration for Contribution.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
IT seems you are Covetous, but not Prudent, that you are so loath to raise, and so slow to pay Contribution-Money towards the main∣tenance of the Army, which is to fight not only for your Lives and Liberties, but to protect your Goods, and that every man may without Disturbance injoy his own: but you are so Co∣vetous, that rather than you would part with Some, you will endanger the Whole; and as you are Covetous, so you are Fearfull, for you will neither maintain poor Souldiers, that are wil∣ling to fight for you, nor yet go to the VVarrs, to fight for your selves; you Fear your Enemies, and yet will take no care to Overcome them. And give me leave to tell you, that your Cove∣tousness and Fear doth make you Treacherous; for if you will neither help with your Purse, nor your Person, you betray your Country to the Enemies power, also your old Parents, tender VVives, and young Children, that cannot help themselves, all which you betray to Slavery, leaving them for a prey to the Enemy; and not only your fertil Country, and shiftless Friends, and neer Allies, but your own Lives; for it seems by your Covetousness and Cowardliness, that you had rather have your Throats cut, than part with your Money, or fight in your own De∣fence, Page 18 which is a strange Madness, as to be afraid to Dye, and yet to take no care, to provide for your Safety, nor to have Courage to fight for your Lives. The best that can be said or thought of you, is, that you relie upon base hopes, as that the Enemy may spare your Lives to inslave your Persons: But I can only say this, that either you must Fight your selves, or Main∣tain others, or else others will take what you have, to maintain themselves, to defend their Country.
An Oration to perswade a City, not to yield to their Enemies.
I Do not doubt your Courage in Resisting and Fighting your Enemies, nor your Patience in Sufferance, nor your Care in Watching, nor your Industry in Labouring, nor your Prudence in Ordering, and all for the defence of your City, which is besieged by your Enemies, which you indeavour to keep out by all possible means, spa∣ring neither your Limbs nor your Lives; nor do I fear the power of your Enemies, for, whilst your Courages, Strengths, Patience and Industries be united together, it is more proba∣ble, you will raise the Siege, than the Enemies take this City; for though your Victuals be scarce, and your Ammunition wasted, yet your Temperance doth supply the scarcity of the one, Page 19 and your Courage the want of the other; Only that I fear will make you yield upon any con∣ditions, is the Love to your Wives, Daughters, Mothers, Kinswomen, and femal Friends, and not so much their safety, for so long as your Lives last, you will defend them, but if you yield to your Enemies, by yielding to the Wo∣mens Effeminate fears, if your Enemies do not say or think you base Cowards, they will say or think you facil Fools. For give me leave to tell you, that, though men of Honour, as Va∣liant men, will Fight for the safety and protecti∣on of Women, not only for those that are neer Allied to them, but for those that are neither of their Country nor Kinn; Yet no man that would keep the Reputation of Valour, will quit that Honour for a Womans sake, no, although it be to save his Daughter, Wife, or Mother from their Enemies: for a Gallant man dreads more the name of a Coward than any thing in the world; and it is no dishonour to a Man, to have his Wife taken and abused by his Enemy, when he could not Honourably help her; for Force is no Dishonour, but a Base free Act; for a man cannot be forced to be a Coward, nor a chast Woman to be a Whore, they may both have Misfortunes, Injuries, and Hatefull abuses done to them, but not Wicked, Base, or Ignoble minds. VVherefore, let me perswade you for your own Honour's sake, not to yield through the VVomens desires; let not their tears move you, nor their intreaties perswade you; for if Page 20 you yield, though upon the assurance of your Lives and Liberties, where will you wander to seek an Habitation? for if you could not keep your own City and Wealth, it is not likely you will get the like from other men; alas your Neighbours will shut their Gates and Doors a∣gainst you, for Poverty and Misfortune hath not many Friends or Hosts, for few are so Hospita∣ble as to entertain either; and you will not only find Charity cold, but those that have envied you in your Prosperity, will despise you in your Adversity, and what Masculine spirits can bear such misery, as Neglect, Want, and Scorn, and the Infamy of yielding Courages? Wherefore, it is better to Dye in the Defence of your own City, and be Renowned for your Valour and Constancy in after-ages, wherein your Lives, Acts and Deaths will be mentioned to your Ho∣nour and Renown.
An Oration for those, that are slain in the Warrs, and brought home to be Buried.
YOu lament over the Corps of your Friends, slain in the Warrs, shedding your tears and breathing your sighs on their Hearses. 'Tis true, they are natural Showers and Zephyrus's airs of loving Affections and passionate Hearts; yet give me leave to tell you, you have more cause to Re∣joyce than Grieve: First, that their Death begets Page 21 their Renowns, and is an Honour to their Me∣mory to Dye in the Service of their Country; for all men, that have Worth and Merit, would willingly, nay, gladly Dye, to save their Coun∣try, or for the Honour of their Country, and all Wise men will gladly quit a present, frail and uncertain Life, to live Eternally in the memory of the present and future Ages, in whose me∣mories their Actions live like Glorified bodies, and Purified souls; for thus they become from Terrestrial to be Celestial. The next cause you have to Rejoyce, is, that their Bodies are brought home as a witness of their Victory, and their Deaths are their Triumphs, which are a∣dorned and set out with numerous and glorious Praises; besides, they have the happiness to be inurned with their Fore-fathers, where by a na∣tural Instinct or Sympathy, they may mutually intermix and perchance transmigrate together; and since they Fought Valiantly, and Died Honourably, they shall be buried Happily, and will be remembred Eternally, and have an ever∣lasting Fame, rejoyce with Musick, Bells and Bonfires, and offer unto the Gods Oblations of Thanksgiving.
ORATIONS IN THE FIELD OF WARR.
An Oration from a Besieged City, ready to yield, or else to be taken.
I Am come here to intreat you, that are our Over-powerfull Enemies, to be our Mercifull Saviours, that though you are determined, to de∣stroy our City, and possess our Goods, yet you would be pleased to spare the Lives of the Inhabitants; for what profit will it be, to destroy numbers of defenceless and powerless Persons, only to satisfie your fury, which will be satisfied with Time better than with Blood? for though our blood may quench your present Rage, yet it may afterwards clog your Consciences, and cause a sorrowfull Re∣pentance, which may disturb the Peace of your Page 23 Minds, wherein your thoughts will be in a per∣petual Warr: for to Kill us after our Submission, and when we have made a Satisfaction for our faults, in yielding up our City and Goods with∣out any further resistance, our Deaths will be but Murders; so that you will blemish your Conquest, from being Noble and Generous Con∣querers, to be Cruel and Inhumane Murderers; whereas the sparing of our Lives will be accep∣table to God, Nature, and Mankind, and the Trumpet of your Fame will sound sweetly and harmoniously in the Ears of After-ages, where you will get as much love and praises for your Clemency and Mercy, as admiration and re∣nown for your Valours and Conducts; where∣as your Cruelty will sound so harshly with such discords, as it will beget dislike, and so much hate, as to bury all your Valour and Wis∣dome in Fortunes partial and unjust favours, ascribing that to her, She had no right to Chal∣lenge.
A Common Souldiers Oration, to take the City by Force.
VVE have been long at the Siege of this City, where we have not only been obedient to our Commanders, carefull, watch∣full, and laborious, as also Valiant in assaulting, regarding not our Limbs, nor Lives, but we have Page 24 patiently indured want of Victuals, and yet for all this, the Town being ready to be taken, our Commanders intend to rob us of the Spoils, which by the Law of Arms ought to be ours, as a Reward; for those that Venture most, ought to have the Greatest shares in the Conquest, and the Common Souldiers venturing more than the Commanders, ought to have the Spoil: For though they Direct, yet it is we that Fight, and win the Victory. Wherefore, let us not suffer them to make a Composition, but enter the Town by Force, and plunder it, otherwise the Com∣manders or rather the General alone will be the only gainer, and all the rest losers; and shall one man go away with the Wealth, when as the poor Common Souldiers are naked and almost starved for Want? Shall our sick and wounded friends, that cannot remove, or be removed, nor help themselves, be left as a prey to those, which they have holpen to Conquer with the loss of their Blood and Limbs? For no doubt, but those new-made Friends will be their deadly Ene∣mies, and cut their Throats when we are gone and left them. Thus we shall betray our friends, and lose our shares, if they make Peace and enter not the Town by assault: for to take a Town by Force, is a gain to the common Souldiers, but little or none to the General or great Comman∣ders; but to take a Town by Composition, is a gain to the General and chief Commanders, but not to the Common Souldiers; for we shall lye without the Gates, whilst they are receiv'd in Page 25 Triumph, where they will Feast, whilst we do Fast, and will be inriched with Treasures, but we remain in Want.
An Oration to those Souldiers that are against an Agreement with the Citizens.
LEt me tell you, that you speak against your own Profit, when you speak against com∣pounding and agreeing with the Besieged Citi∣zens: for it is not only Human and Charitable, Generous and Noble, to spare the Lives of Yielding and conquered Enemies, but Profita∣ble; for their Lives will serve you, and their Industry maintain you; wherefore it is better, to spare their Lives, and make Peace with them, also to take their Money, and spare their cum∣bersome and combustible Goods, which will trouble your carriage, and hinder your march; Neither can you make so much profit of them, as they will give you for them. And as for their City, and Lives, it were a great folly, to Kill and Destroy them to no purpose, unless to satisfie your Bloody minds, and furious Rage; for Death and Destruction will bring you not any Profit; but if you give them their Lives, and let their City stand, they will give you a con∣stant and setled Contribution towards your maintenance, also they will be Surgeons, Phy∣sicians, and Nurses to our sick and wounded Page 26 Souldiers, by which means they may recover their former health and strength again, and be able to do their Country more Service; but if they be left behind us, and none to take care of them, nor Men to help them, nor Houses to lodge in, they must of necessity perish in great misery; and we have no reason to fear they will be Cruel to them, because they know we shall Return to revenge their Cruelty: Besides, they will be very carefull of them, and kind and helpfull to them, to keep Peace, and to Merit our favours; for Conquerers are alwayes flat∣tered, obeyed, and served with ceremony, in∣dustry, and fidelity, so long as Fortune favours them. Thus you know by what I have spoken, that it is the best for the Common Souldiers and Commanders to spare the City and Citizens. And now give me leave to tell you, that you are Unjust Judges of me, your Generals actions, and evil Censurers and malicious Accusers, to accuse my Prudence for my Souldiers, of Covetous∣ness for my self, and my carefull love for my Sick and wounded Souldiers, of an insensible and cruel Neglect, whereas you might more truly accuse me for using too much Clemency to my Mutinous and Rebellious Souldiers, wincking at their faults, and pardoning their crimes, when they ought to have been severely punished, by which they would have been better taught, and I obeyed: for Severe Generals make Humble, Obedient, Industrious, Laborious, Patient, and Couragious Souldiers, whereas a Compliant Page 27 General quite spoils them; But I have shewed Mercy to offenders, Love and Care to the wounded, sick, tyred, and weary, and I have been Bountifull to the well-deservers; all which I am forced to remember you of, because you have forgotten, at least are unwilling to take any notice thereof; Yet I perceive it is the na∣ture of most of Mankind, especially Mean births, Low fortunes, and Brute breedings, to be Ungratefull, Malicious, Revengefull, and Inhumane.
An Oration to Souldiers, after the Loss of a Battel.
I Perceive you are dejected at your ill fortune, for Fortune is a Thief, robbing some to give partially to others; wherefore we Souldiers, whom She busies her self most with, to shew her power and agility, ought to be so carefull and watchfull, as to lock and barricado out For∣tunes malice, giving her no advantage, if you can possibly hinder her from taking any. Yet was it neither for want of Conduct or Valour, that we wonn not the Victory, but Heaven and Earth was against us: for the Sun, Wind and Dust beat on our faces; for you indeavouring to get the side of the Wind, went against the Sun∣beams, so that with the Sun-beams and the glit∣tering Dust, that flew up by the motion of the Page 28 Wind, we could not see, neither to assault our Enemies, nor to defend our selves, nay, we were so blinded, as to mistake our friends for our foes, and our foes for our friends; which tempestu∣ous wind, had it been before we begun to fight, we might have prevented the mischief, it did us, some way or other; but the wind did rise, when we were so ingaged, as we could not help our selves; the truth was, it blew so fully a∣gainst the main part of our Battalio, and with that violent force, as it press'd the former ranks so much back, that they did disturb the hinder ranks, and so disorder'd them, till at last it blew them quite away; for they were forced to turn their backs and to flye for their Lives, and when that part of the Army fled, others had no hearts to stay; but do not mistake so, as to believe, that the Divine power was against us, but only the Elements, and they were against us more by chance than malice. Wherefore take courage again, and rowse up your dejected Spirits, and repine not for that we could not fore-see to a∣void: for I make no doubt, but the next time we encounter our Enemies, we shall not only get the reputation you think you have lost, but we shall add to what we formerly had, and pull down the haughty pride of our Enemies, that now seem to insult on our Misfortunes.
An Oration to Souldiers in necessity.
My good Souldiers,
I Cannot much blame your murmuring and complaining words and speeches, by reason our Camp is vexed and tormented with scarcity, sickness, and inconveniences; and although we cannot tell how to mend or help our selves in these Extremities, yet it troubles our Patience, and somewhat alters your Natures, at least di∣vulges them more, making you Froward, Testy, Cholerick; and froward minds, and testy thoughts are apt to send forth out of the mouth lamenting words and complaining speeches. Yet give me leave to tell you, it expresseth, you have partaken too much of your Mothers na∣tures, which is not so well for Souldiers, who should be no wayes Effeminate; for Women naturally are impatient, fretting, chafing and complaining without cause. I do not deny but you at this present have great cause, and there∣fore some reason for what you speak: yet I hope, though you speak like your Mothers, you will act like your Fathers. Wherefore give me leave to remember you of Caesar' Souldiers, for surely you could not choose but hear of them, their Fame being so great, and sounding so loud, for their Patience, Sufferance, Hardiness, Indu∣stry, Carefulness, Watchfulness, Valours and Victories, yet were they no more than men, and Page 30 I hope you are not less than men; But there are two sorts of Courages, and they, as the Story says, had them both, as Fortitude in Suffering, and Valour in Acting, which made them so for∣tunate in overcoming, as to Conquer the most part of the World; and though I cannot hope you will Conquer All the World, yet I hope you will have Victory over your Enemies, so shall you be Masters and not Slaves.
An Encouraging Oration to Fearfull Souldiers.
Fellow Souldiers, and Dear Country-men,
I Perceive by your Dejected countenances, and Drooping spirits, you are afraid of your Ene∣mies; but I am more afraid of your Fears, than of the Enemies Power; for fear makes powerfull Armies powerless, and a Little Body with a Great Spirit is stronger and more vigorous than a Great Body and a Little Spirit, so a Little Army with Great Courages is more forcible, than a Great or Numerous Army full of Faint hearts and Cowardly fears. Wherefore consider, there are but three wayes, the one is to Run a∣way, but remember you cannot run from Shame or Disgrace, though you may run from your Enemy; An other way is, you may Yield up your selves to the Enemy, but then you must yield up your Liberties with your Persons, and become their Slaves, in which slavery you live Page 31 in Scorn, are used as Beasts, and die as Cowards; The third and last way, which is the best, is to Fight your Enemy, which if you Overcome, you will have the honour of Victory, and the profit of the Spoils, and if you be Kill'd, you dye Unconquer'd; for Courage is never Overcome, nor Gallant Heroick Actions never Dye, and their Fames will be their perpetual Triumphs, which may last Eternally. Wherefore, my good Souldiers, fight Valiantly for Life, Victory, and Glory.
An Oration to Souldiers, that fled from their Enemies.
VVHat shall I call you? for I cannot call you Fellow souldiers, because you have degraded your selves of that Honourable title, by Running away, which shews, you have but Effeminate Spirits or Souls, though Masculine Bodies; Nor can I call your Dear Country∣men; for you have Unnaturaliz'd your selves, by Betraying your Country, with your Coward∣ly fears, to the power of their Enemies; Nor can I call you my good Friends, for you did for∣sake me in Danger, and left me to Death, had not Fortune rescued me; So that you cannot challenge, nor I cannot give you, any other names, but base Cowards and Traitors, which words cannot but sound grievously, sadly, and scornfully to your Own, your Friends, and E∣nemies Page 32 hearing: And that which will highten your Reproach, is that you were not forced nor necessitated to Flye, as being Overcome, or Overpower'd; for you fled not only before you had tried your Enemies force, but when in all probability you should have had the Victory, having all the advantages of your side, and against your Enemies, that could be, as Ground, Place, Wind, Sun, Form, Order, and Number of men, and yet to run away; O horrid shame to all Posterity! The truth is, I am so out of Coun∣tenance in your behalf, and so Sorrowfull for you, as I cannot choose but Blush for shame, and Weep for grief, when I look upon you, to see so many Able and Strong, yet Heartless men, that have soiled your bright Arms with Dis∣grace, instead of the Blood of your Enemies. Wherefore, you may now pull off your Arms, since you have Coats of Dishonour to wear, and break your Swords, for the Tongues of Re∣proach are unsheathed against you, which will wound your Reputations, and kill your Re∣nowns, and your Infamy will live in after-ages Eternally.
An Oration to Run-away Souldiers, who repent their fault.
SOrrowfull Penitents, (for so you seem by your Countenances and your Words, the one being sad, the other full of promises,) I Page 33 must confess, it becomes you well, for you have been great Cowards, and fearfull Run-aways, which are Faults that cannot be enough lamen∣ted, but your Actions may be amended, and so you may have a Pardon, and your Disgrace ta∣ken off with some Valiant and Couragious ex∣ploits against your Enemies, where I, your General, who am one of Mars' s high Priests, shall guide and direct you the way; and you may relie upon me; for I am well Learned and Practised in the mystery of Warr. But pray be not as flock of Sheep, making me as a Parish∣Priest, as only to Talk, and you to Run away; for then I shall Curse you, instead of Blessing you; and though it be requisite you should be as meek Sheep in Ioves' s Temple, yet you must be as raging Lions in Mars' s Field, and the Prayers you make to Mars, must be for Victory and Fame; but let me tell you, you must im∣plore Pallas' s help, and Fortune' s favour; and therefore, fight Valiantly and Fiercely, and take your advantages Prudently, stick Closely, and fight Orderly, and leave the rest to Fortune; which if you do thus, as I advise you, your Actions will wipe out all former Faults, and take away all your Reproach or Disgrace so clean, as if they had never been, especially if you have the Victory.
A Mutinous Oration to Common Souldiers, by a Common Souldier.
GIve me leave to tell you, that although you have proved your Valours in the Battels you have fought, and the Assaults you have made, yet you have not proved your selves Wise, to leave your Native Country, and Peaceable Habitations, only to fight with Foreiners, who are as Industrious, Valiant, and Active to over∣come and kill you, as you to overcome and kill them; and what do we fight and hazard our Lives for? not for Riches; for what we get, we are subject to lose again, and should we get Riches, we should soon consume them, having no setled abiding to thrive upon the Stock, or to get out use of the Principal, nor to have any re∣turns by Traffick or Commerce, but those spoils we can get, are only Cumbersome Goods, which we are forc'd to fling away in times or places of Danger, or when we make sudden or long Marches; and albeit we could easily and safely carry them along with us, yet we should make but Small Profit of them, and get Little ready Money for them, although they were not spoil'd in the Carriage. By this we may know, the Warrs will not Inrich us; and as for Fame, Common Souldiers are never mentioned, al∣though they are the only Fighters, but thou∣sands Page 35 sands of them, when Kill'd, are buried in Obli∣vions grave, and no other Burial they have; for their slain Bodies for the most part lie and rot above ground, or are devoured by Carrion-birds or Ravenous Beasts; but the Fame or Renown is given to the General alone, some Under-Com∣manders may chance to be Slightly mentioned, but not Gloriously famed; And if you can nei∣ther get Wealth nor Honour, in or by the Warrs, why-Should you be Souldiers? Where∣fore, let us return home, and rather be Plow∣men in our Own Country, than Souldiers in a Forein Nation, rather feed with our own La∣bours, than starve at our Generals Command, and rather choose to die Peaceably, than to live in the Warr, wherein is nothing to be gotten, but Scarrs and Wounds; where we may lose our Limbs and Lives, but not make our For∣tunes.
An Oration to stay the Souldiers from a Mu∣tinous return from the Warrs.
Fellow Souldiers, and Dear Country-men,
THe Souldier that spake to perswade you to mutiny, as to leave the Warrs dishonora∣bly, by his speech, any man of Courage would believe he were a Coward: for no man of Cou∣rage would leave an Enemy in the Field, for that would be as bad as Running away; and will you, who have gotten Honourable Renown Page 36 by the Warrs, quit that Renown for Disgrace? Shall the speech of a Cowardly, Idle, Base man perswade you more than your Reputations? can any man Live, Act, or Dye more honestly than in the Service of his Country? besides, it will not only be a Disgrace to You, and also a Dis∣grace to your Country, to leave the Warrs, but you will indanger your Country; for no que∣stion, but your Enemies will follow you at the heels, so that instead of carrying home Victory and Spoils, you will carry home Danger, and perchance Ruine, betraying your Country by Faction, Mutiny, or Cowardly fears. Thus, although you came out of your Country Soul∣diers, you will return Traitors. But should they not Follow you, they would Scorn you, and your Friends would Despise you at your return, and what is worse than to be Scorn'd and Despised of Enemies and Friends? when as by your Gallant actions the one would be Afraid, the other Proud of you. And let me tell you, to be a Souldier, is the noblest Profession; for it makes Mean men as Princes, and those Princes that are not Soul∣diers, are as Mean men; and though Fame doth not mention every particular Souldier, but ge∣nerally all together, yet the memory of every particular Souldier and their particular Actions never die, as long as their Successors live; for their Children mention their Fore-fathers Va∣liant Actions with Pride, Pleasure, and Delight, and Glory that they descended from such wor∣thy Ancestors; and as for Scarrs gotten in the Page 37 Warrs, they are such Graces and becoming Marks, as they Woo and Win a Mistress, and gain her Favour, sooner than Wealth, Title, or Beauty doth. But I hope you will neither shew your selves Cowards, nor prove your selves Traitors, by leaving the Warr when you ought to follow it.
A Generals Oration to his Mutinous Souldiers.
I Hear you Murmur, Complain, and Speak a∣gainst me, forgetting your Respects, Obedi∣ence, Duty, and Fidelity to me your General; for which I am sorry, not for my Self, but for my Souldiers; for I am never the worse for my Souldiers being evil; but I am sorry, my Souldiers are not what they ought to be; and though I do not wonder at the Disobedience of my Common Souldiers, yet I cannot but wonder at the Baseness of my Officers and Under-Com∣manders; for though Inferiour Men have infe∣riour Minds, rude and wild Natures, and barba∣rous Manners, yet Men of quality usually have Generous, and noble Minds, gentle Natures, and civil Manners, and of all men, Gallant Soul∣diers have the noblest Minds, and ought to have the reformedst Manners; for though Heroick men fight in Blood to kill their Enemies, yet they will spill their Blood, and sacrifize their Page 38 Lives for their Friends, Country, or Country∣men, as also for Honour, Generosity, and Fame, and they will rather choose to indure all kind or manner of Torments, and to die a thousand, nay, millions of Deaths if it could be, than to do one act of Dishonour, or that is not fit for a man of Honour to do; Indeed Heroick and Honoura∣ble men are petty Gods, whereas other men are Beasts, the one having Celestial natures, the other Terrestrial. But by your mutinous spee∣ches, I perceive, I have not those Gallant, Noble, Generous, and Valiant Souldiers, as I thought I had in this my Army, which I am sorry for especially that there is none like my Self; for I utterly Renounce all Actions or Thoughts that ought not be to be done by Worthy men, or to be inherent in Worthy men; I hate Treachery, as I hate Cowardliness, and I hate Cowardli∣ness, as I hate Disgrace, or Infamy, and I hate Infamy worse than Oblivion; for Oblivion is the Hell of Meritorious and Gallant men; and as I prefer after-Memory, which is Fame, before present Life, which Fame is the Heaven where∣in Worthy and Honourable men and actions are Glorified, and live to all Eternity, so would I have my Souldiers there to Live, and be Glo∣rified; which Desire expresses, that I love my Souldiers equal with my Self; and as I do prefer Honour and Fame before sensual Pleasures or Life, so I have alwayes preferr'd my Souldiers Lives before my Own; for I never indeavou∣red to save my own Life, when my Souldiers Page 39 Lives were in Danger, but have put my person in the same danger they were in, nay, I have ventured One more danger than they have done; for I have led them Singly to the face and front of their Enemies; neither have I been Idle, when as my Souldiers have taken pains, but to the contrary I have taken pains, when as they have been Idle; for my Person hath not only been imployed in Ordering, Appointing, and Directing of every particular, but I have march'd on Foot with the Infantery, whilst the Cavallry hath Rid easily on Horses, or the chief Commanders have rid lasily in their Waggons; as also I have taken pains in Teaching, Orde∣ring, and Marshalling my Souldiers, as well as time, place, and opportunity would give me leave; and my Body hath not only labour'd, but my Mind and Thoughts were alwayes and at all times busily imployed for the affairs of the Army, and for my Souldiers Advantage, con∣triving the Best, as how to prevent the Worst. Thus my thoughts have Labour'd for you con∣tinually, Keeping me waking, whilst you have slept and rested in ease. Neither did I ever rob my Souldiers of their Spoils, but was pleased to distribute my Share amongst them; nor did I ever make a Scarcity of your Victuals through my Luxury; nor have I ever brought my Soul∣diers into Want through my Imprudence; for whatsoever Want or Loss you have had, it came meerly from Fortune, whose power the Wisest and Valiantest cannot alwaies and at all times Page 40 withstand. But yet the Common Souldiers and Under-Commanders for the most part Accuse their Generals, laying the Disfavour of Fortune to their Generals charge, although it is not in any Man's power to avoid Fortune's malice, un∣less men could Divine what would fall out a∣gainst all Reason or Probability; and though Wise men may imagine such chances, yet they will never order their Affairs, or Designs, or any Action against Reason, Sense, and Probability; besides, Foolery and Knavery cause loss and mi∣sery without Fortune's help, making more Dis∣order and Confusion, than the Wisest men can rectifie. But I will not trouble you with many more Words nor Reproofs; for neither Words, Reproofs, nor Perswasions will do any good on a Mutinous and Rebellious Army, who hath more Strength to do Evil, than Honesty to do Good; more Fury to mutine, than Courage to fight; more Envy to their Leaders, than Love to their own Honours. I add only this, your Base∣ness I abhorr, your Rudeness I scorn, your Ma∣lice I despise, your Designs I slight, and your intended Cruelty I fear not.
A Commanders refusing Speech to Mutinous Souldiers, who Depos'd their General, and would Choose him in his place.
YOu have Forcibly against my will Procla∣med me your General, and because I sent you word, I would not Command you, you sent me a Threatning message, that although you at first chose me through your Love and Kind∣ness, yet now, whereas I did slight your Love, you would Force me to take that Charge upon me; but let me tell you, I care not for your Fa∣vour, nor I fear not your Anger, as being neither a Knave, nor a Coward; for to be a Friend to Mutinous Souldiers, is to be a Knave, to Fear them, is to be a Coward, and to be chosen Ge∣neral to a Rebellious Army, is a Dishonour; Wherefore I, preferring Honour before Life, will rather Die, than be your General. But who gave you Authority to Depose your General, and to make an other? Or what right have you to Take away, and Give Commissions? You will answer, by Force of Arms, or rather force of Re∣bels; for Arms are, or ought to be, for Justice, Right, Truth, or Honour, not for Injustice, Wrong, Injury, Falshood, and Dishonour; and strong Arms and couragious Hearts, do not agree with mad Heads, and wild Passions; But you, by your Disobedience seem to be Cowards; Page 42 for Valour is Obedient, nay, Valiant men will obey Unreasonable Commands, rather than Op∣pose their commanders, and choose rather to Die obediently, than to Live disobediently; But your Actions have shew'd you to be Rebellious Cowards; for which I am not only Asham'd, that you are my Country-men, or Fellow Souldiers, but Hate you as Enemies to Honour and honesty; and therefore, if it lay in my Power, I would Destroy you, as being Unworthy to Live.
A Generals Oration to his Evil-designing Souldiers.
I Have not call'd you together, to perswade you to Fight your Enemies, for I perceive you are turned Cowards, and Cowards are deaf to all perswasions of Adventures: Nor do I go about, to perswade you to Patience, although it be the part of good Souldiers to suffer Patiently, as well as to fight Vigorously, also to be patient with painfull Labours; but I perceive, Patience and Industry, that accompany Valour, have also forsaken you. Nor shall I perswade you to stick close to me, as to defend my Life from the Enemies, although I have been more carefull to defend your Lives with Skill and Knowledge in Warr and Arms, than you have been to defend my Life with your Strength and Courages. And give me leave to tell you, that the Renown Page 43 you have gotten in the Warrs, hath been gain'd as much by my Conduct, as your Valours. Thus I neither perswade you to Fight, to Suffer, nor to Help me in time of need; but my Desire is to perswade you, not to Bury the Renown you have gotten in these Warrs, in the Grave of Treachery, nor to cast down your Glorious Acts from the Palace of Fame, into the Pit of Infamy, which you will do, if you put your Evil Designs into Acts: for I perceive well by your Secret Meetings and Gatherings in companies together without Order, and by your Whispe∣rings into each others Ears, as also by your Mur∣murings, Complaints, and Exclamations, you intend some Evil, but in what manner you will execute your Evil Designs, I cannot tell; I sup∣pose it is, either that you will Desert me, or Make Peace with the Enemy without me, on Dishonourableterms, or that you will Betray me to the Enemy, and Deliver me into their hands; or else it is, that you have conspir'd to Mur∣der me with your own hands, either of which will be unworthy for good Souldiers to do. Wherefore I would, if I could, disswade you for your own sakes, and not for mine, not to do such Acts, as to cause Honest men to Hate you, Vali∣ant men to Despise you, Wise men not to Trust you, your Enemies to Scorn you, your Country to Exclame against you, your Acquaintance to shun you, your Friends to Grieve for you, your Posterity to be Ashamed of you, and Disgraced by you; for when After-ages shall mention you, Page 44 your Posterity, if they have any Worth or Me∣rit, will hang down their heads for shame, to hear of your Evil Deeds; all which will be, if you be Mutinous Conspirers, Traitors, or Cowards; but if neither Honour, Honesty, Fi∣delity nor Love can disswade you from your Base, Treacherous, and Wicked designs, or that your Design is against Me, here I offer my Self to you, to dispose of my Person and Life as you please; for I am neither asham'd to Suffer, nor afraid to Dye, knowing I have not done any thing that a man of Honour ought not to do; and as Fear hath no power over my Mind, so Force hath no power over my Will, for I shall wil∣lingly Dye.
An Oration to Souldiers, who have kill'd their General.
BArbarous Souldiers, or rather Cruel Mur∣derers, you that have inhumanely Kill'd your General, your Carefull, Painfull, Prudent, Valiant, Loving and Kind General, ought to be generally Kill'd; but Death would be too great a Mercy and Happiness for such Wretches as you are, for you deserve such Torments and Af∣flictions, as are above all expressions, and your Bloody Action hath made you appear to me so Horrid, that me thinks Life is Terrible, because you Live, and Death is Amable, since our Ge∣neral is Dead, and Honour lives in the Grave Page 45 with him, and Baseness lives in the World with you, Devils possess your Souls in your living Bodies, when as Angels have born away his Soul from his liveless Corps, to be Crown'd with Everlasting Glory. You shall not need to Fear your Enemies now, for surely they will Flye you, not for fear you should Kill them, but for fear you should Infect them, they fear not your Courage, but your Wickedness; neither shall you fear Oblivion, for you will be Infamous, and the very report of your Murdering act will cause a trembling of Limbs and chilness of Spi∣rit to all the hearers, and you will not only be Scorn'd, Hated, and Curs'd, but Prayers will be offer'd against you, and Men will Bless them∣selves from you, as from a Plague or Evil Spirit. Thus your Enemies will despise you, your Friends renounce you, Honest men exclame a∣gainst you, men of Honour shun you, good For∣tune forsake you, Heaven shut all mercy from you, your Conscience torment you, insomuch that you will be asham'd to Live and afraid to Dye.
An Oration to Souldiers, which repent the Death of their General.
PEnitent Souldiers, (for so you seem by your Tears, Sighs, Groans, and sorrowfull Com∣plaints,) I cannot forbid you to Weep, for your Fault requires great and many showers of Tears Page 46 to wash away your Crime; indeed there is no other way to purge your Souls and to cleanse your Consciences from the stains of your Ge∣nerals Blood, but by Penitent Tears. Where∣fore let me advise you, to go to his Urn, and there humbly on your Knees lamenting your Sorrow, pray to Heaven for Pardon; then make him a Statue, and carry his Image in your En∣signs, and set his Statue under your Banner; Thus make him, that was your General, your Saint, and let his Memory be famous by your Valour, that his Enemies may know, the power of his Name is able to Destroy them, so will you make him Victorious in his Grave, and ap∣pease his Angry Ghost.
An Oration to Distressed Souldiers.
YOu know, we are a people that have been Conquered, and made Slaves to our Ene∣mies, which Slavery we did Patiently indure a long time, but at last we had an Impatient desire of Liberty, and had our Prudence been accor∣ding to our Desires, no doubt but we should have Gain'd it, but our Over-hasty Desires have put us into a greater Misery; for now we are not only like to Lose our Liberties again, but our Lives, or to Live in worse Bondage than we did before, which we had better Dye than Indure: but since we were not so Wise for our selves to Page 47 Prevent our Danger, as we were Just to our selves to Indeavour our Liberty, yet we must not leave Indeavouring our own Good, so long as Life lasts; Wherefore, we must consider, what is best to be done in this Extremity. First, we have of our selves a Great Body, though not so well Armed as I wish we were, yet so, as we are not left Naked to our Enemies; but though we have a great Number, yet our Enemies have a greater Number, and though we be Arm'd, yet our Enemies are Better Armed, the worst of all is, that we are in a place of such Disadvantage, as either we must Starve, or Yield our selves, or Fight it out at all Hazards; As for Starving, it is a lingring and painfull Death, and to Yield, will be a miserable and painfull Life, wherefore to Fight it out at all Hazards, will be best for us to choose; for Death is the End of Misery, and Pain is not felt in a Raging or Acting Fury; and if we Resolve, let the worst come to the worst, we can but Dye, and that we must do in time, had we no other Enemies than what are Natu∣ral, as Sickness and Age; and these Hopes we have, that Desperate Men in Desperate Adven∣tures, have many times Good Fortune, and those that are Desperate, want no Courage, but they are apt to be Careless of Conduct; Wherefore let me advise you, to Listen to Direction, and be carefull to Obey your Instructions; for if we should Overcome our Enemies, we should not only save our Lives, which we give for lost, but we should have our Liberties, and also Honour, Page 48 Power, and Wealth too, whereas our Enemies only venture their Lives to keep us in Sub∣jection, which will cause them to Fight but Faintly; for where there is neither Profit, nor Honour to be gain'd, they will sooner Run a∣way, than Venture their Lives in the Battel, so that our Poverty will Defend us, and our Ne∣cessity help to Fight for us; Prudence shall Guide us, and then perchance Fortune may Fa∣vour us. Wherefore, let us Assault our Enemies before they Expect us, and indeavour to Over∣come them before they are ready to Fight with us; for if we take them Unprepar'd, we shall find them without Defence, and in such Disorder, as we shall Destroy them without Hazard.
ORATIONS TO CITIZENS IN THE MARKET PLACE.
An Oration to a dejected People, ruined by Warr.
Unfortunate Citizens, and Country-men,
YOu now seem to be as much cast down and dejected in your Misery, as you were puft up with Pride in your Prosperity, in which Prosperity you were so Confident, and so Careless of your Security, as you would neither believe your Danger, nor provide for your Safety, in∣somuch that you Murmured and Mutined a∣gainst all Assessments and Payments, although it were to keep the Kingdome in Peace, and to strengthen it against Forein force; but now you do not Murmur at small Taxes, but Mourn for Page 50 your great Losses, not for your Security, but your Ruine; your Vanity is vanished, your Pride humbled, and Plenty and Prosperity fled from you; Where are your brave Furnishings your gay Adornings? your far-fetch'd Curiosi∣ties, and your curious Rarities? your Numerous Varieties, and Rich Treasures? all plunder'd and gone. Where are your Chargeable Build∣ings, your Stately Palaces, your Delightfull Theatres, your Pleasant Bowers? all Burnt to ashes. Where are your Races of Herses, you Fleecy Flocks, your Lowing Herds, your Fea∣ther'd Poultry, and your full-stored Barns? all Ruined and gone. Where are your Rich Merchandises, and your Thriving Trades? all Spoiled. Where are your Wife Laws? all Broken; your Sporting Recreations? all Ceased; your Ancestors Monuments? all Pull'd down and your Fathers Bones and Ashes dispersed. Where are your Camerads, Companions, and Acquaintance? most of them Kill'd; where are your Beautifull Wives, Daughters, Sisters, and Mistresses? the Enemy injoyes them, and your Country is Desolate, Ruined, and Forlorn; and you that are left, are Miserable; but what was the cause of your Misery? your Pride, Envy Factions, Luxury, Vanity, Vice, and VVicked∣ness; for you would neither be Instructed, Ad∣vised, Perswaded, nor Ruled; you Neglected the Service of the Gods, Disobeyed the Orders of your Governours, Trampled down the Laws of the Nation, and Despised your Magistrates, Page 51 and did all what you would; which brought this Confusion, and so a Destruction, in which Destruction you must have patience, for Pati∣ence will Mediate and Qualifie your Misery.
A Conforting Oration to a dejected People, ruined by Warr.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
I Confess, our Condition is miserable, and our Lives unhappy, in that we are so unfortunate, as to be Overcome by our Enemies, and Impo∣verished by our Losses; but yet it was Uncha∣ritable, nay, Inhumane, for the former Orator to open our Wounded thoughts, with Repeti∣tion of our Losses, and to rub our sore Minds with bitter and salt Reproaches; for if we have Committed faults, I am sure we have been suf∣ficiently Punished for them, and if the Gods be Just, as we believe they are, our Loss and Misery hath made them a Satisfaction, for which I hope they are Pacified; and though we ought to Repent of our past Disobedience to the Divine and National Laws, yet we have no rea∣son to Repent of our past Lawfull Pleasure; for who, that is Wise, will not make use of his Riches, and Liberties, whilst he hath them? for were it not a madness for fear of a Dearth to Starve our selves Slaves in Plenty? for fear of an Enemy, to make our selves Slaves in Prosperity? this were as much as if we should take away our own Page 52 Lives before their Natural time, because we know we shall Dye; No, Dear Country-men it is soon enough to quit Pleasure, Liberty, and Life, when we can Injoy them no longer; and since our Fortune is bad, we must indeavour with Industry to amend it, and if we cannot, we must Suffer Patiently, and please ourselves with Hopes; for Hope is a Food the Mind delights to feed on, and entertains it self with Pleasing Imaginations: and those are Fools, that will trouble their Minds for that, which cannot be help'd; for shall we have not only Enemies without us, but also within us? shall we Tor∣ture our Minds with Grief, Sorrow, Fear, an Despair, for our misfortunes? No, Dear Coun∣try-men, let us wipe the Tears from our Eyes, and defie Fortune's malice, and when she knows we regard not her Frowns, She may chance to Favour us, for she is of the Femal gender, whose Nature is such, as the more they are Neglecte or Despised, the Kinder they are.
An Oration for Rebuilding a City ruined by Warrs.
UNfortunate Citizens; for so I may call you having been ruined by Warrs, and spoiled by our Enemies; for our City is not only Burnt to the ground, and all our Goods Plunder'd, but many of our Citizens and Country-men Kill'd, and we that remain, are preparing with our Page 53 Wives and Children to seek new Habitations and Acquaintance in Forein Countries, from which I would, if I could, disswade you, since our Enemies are Gone, and not like to Return; for though they had the Victory, and won our City, yet it was with such Loss to them, as will force them to keep Peace for a long time, not being able to make Warrs any longer; for their Valiant'st and most Experienc'd Souldiers are Kill'd, and most of the Flour of their Youth; besides, they have spoiled and lost many of their Horses, and have wasted and spent abundance of Ammunition and Arms; all which considered, they have not Gain'd much by this Warr; In∣deed, Warr makes more Spoil than Profit; for though we are Ruined, yet our Enemies are not much Inriched; but leaving them, let us Con∣sider, what is the best for our selves in these our Misfortunes, and to be Industrious to Repair our Losses; my Advice is, not to Separate, but to keep in an United Body together, and to Rebuild our City: for shall we be worse Citizens than the Ants or Pismires? which will Rebuild their Hill or Mount over their Heads, whensoever it is pull'd down, either by Beast, Men, or Birds, and though it be often pulld down, and the Dust dispers'd, yet they will bring new Earth, or ga∣ther up the Relicks of the former Farth, to Re∣build, and will never leave Rebuilding so long as they Live; and certainly, they are very wise in so doing. The like for Men; for it is better, as the wisest way, to Unite in a Common-wealth, Page 54 than to live Disperst, and to Wander about like Vagabonds, or to live with Strangers in Forein Lands, or to be Governed by Unknown or new Laws, or to Marry with Strangers, that mix or corrupt their Generations; for those Men are happiest, that Live in their Native Countries, with their Natural Friends, are Govern'd by their Ancient Laws, Marry into their own Tribes or Natives, increase their own Breed, continue their own Races, uphold their own Families, and are Buried with or by their Fore∣fathers. Wherefore, Good Citizens, be Indu∣strious to Rebuild your City, whereby and wherein, you may be as Happy and Flourishing, as formerly you were; but if through a de∣jected Discontent, you leave your City in its Ruins, 'tis probable you will Live unhappy, and in Slavery all your Lives, as also your Posterity after you.
An Oration for Building a Church.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
YOu have Built many Streets of Houses, but never a Church, which shews, you think more of the World, than you do of Heaven, you take more care for your Bodies, than your Souls; for you build Stately Palaces to Live in, but not a Church to Pray in, Rooms to Feast in, not Churches to Fast in, to Unite in Riot, not to Unite in Religion, to Talk Extravagantly, not to Page 55 Pray Piously, to Rejoyce in Evil, not to Re∣joyce in Thanksgiving. But the Nature of Mankind is such, that they Spend Foolishly, and Spare Foolishly, they will Spend to their own Hurt, and Spare to their own Hurt, they fear E∣vil, but never indeavour to avoid Punishment, they Repent what is Past, but never take War∣ning for what is to Come; As for Spending their Means, they will spend so much as to make themselves Sick and Poor, with Surfeiting, Fea∣sting, Drunken Drinking, Pocky whoring, Covetous Gaming, Vain Shews, Idle Sports, and the like; and when they Spare, they are so miserable as not to allow themselves Necessaries, so that they make themselves Unhappy through Want, and yet have more than enough to Spend; also they fear Pain, and Sickness, but will not indeavour to Avoid either; for men Drink so much as they are sure to be so sick as to Vomit, and will Eat such Meat, or Drink such Drinks, as they are sure to have painfull fits of the Gout after them. But it may be said, that the inti∣cing Appetite is so Perswading, and Over-ruling, as they cannot Forbear; but some men will Drink when they are not Dry, and Eat when they are nor Hungry, or have any desire thereto, but will Drink meerly for Company, or being perswa∣ded by Others, or out of a Humour, and so for Eating; Which is strange, that men should be perswaded to suffer and indure great pain for the sake of idle Company, or through the per∣swasion of Fools, or out of a foolish or mad Hu∣mour. Page 56 Likewise all men are loath to Dye, and yet most Men will Venture their Lives unne∣cessarily, or for very small occasions; and all men are Afraid of Damnation, and yet they will not Indeavour Salvation, nay, they will venture Damnation for a trifle, yea, for nothing: as for Example, they will Lie, Swear, and Forswear, when they are not Provoked or have any occa∣sion to Swear, Lie, and Forswear; and for Worldly Riches, men are so Covetous and Greedy, as they will Extort, Coosen, Steal, Murder, and venture Soul, Body, and Life for it, yet when they Have it, they Spend it, as if they did not Care for it, nay, as if they did Hate such Riches; and not any man would willingly be Poor, yet they will spend their Wealth so Foolishly, as neither to have Pleasure, Thanks, nor Fame for it. The truth is, that by mens Actions it could not be believed, that Mankind had Rational Souls; for though many men will Speak Wisely, yet most Act Foolishly or rather Madly, so that mens Rational Souls Live more in their Words than in their Deeds. But if you have Rational Souls, and a Saving Belief, you ought to Build a Church, wherein you may Ga∣ther together, to Repent your Sins, to Pray for Forgiveness, to Promise Amendment, and to Reform your Lives, also to Hear Instructions, and to give good Examples to each other, and to accustom your selves to Devotion; so shall you become Holy men. Besides, Churches ought to be Built not only for the Souls of the Living, Page 57 but for the Bodies of the Dead, wherein they may be inurned Decently, Humanly, and Reli∣giously.
An Oration perswading the Citizens, to erect a Statue in Honour of a Dead Magi∣strate.
N. N. who is now Dead, was the Wisest, Justest, and Honestest Magistrate, that a Common-wealth could Desire or Have; and as he Served the Common-wealth Justly, so he ought to be Rewarded Honourably, for he did well Deserve it; But his Death must not be an Excuse for Ungratefulness, for Honours are gi∣ven to the Dead, as well as to the Living; for mens Good Works Live after them, although their Bodies Dye, and Living men are Benefit∣ted thereby; but should the Benefit cease with their Death, yet men ought not to Forget the Good they have Received; for those are very Unthankfull, Unworthy, and Base men, that will not acknowledge what they Have had, but only respect the Present good; indeed such men are worse than Beasts, and ought to live and dye like Beasts, as to live in Slavery, and to dye in Oblivion, whereas Virtuous, Worthy, Honou∣rable, and Noble men ought to live Free, and be Remembred after their Lives, and those that have done Wise, or Ingenious, or Good, or Page 58 Profitable, or Valiant, or Great Works, Deeds, or Acts, ought to be remembred in the Minds of men, mentioned by the Tongues of men, and figured by the hands of Art, so as to Live in the Minds, Ears, and Eyes of Living men; as for their Merits to be Praised, their Acts Recorded, and their Bodies figured to the Life, not only Pencilled, but Carved, or cast in Moulds, as Carved in stone, or cast in Metal, that all Ages may not only hear of their Name, read of their Acts, but see their Figures, all which are due Rights and right Honours to the Memory of Worthy deceased men; Wherefore, this Wor∣thy Deceased man, who was a VVife and Just Magistrate, ought at the Common-wealth's charge to have his Statue in Stone or Metal, and to be set up in the most Publick place in the City, that every Particular Person may think of Him, and remember his Acts, when they see his Figure, which will not only be a due Honour to him that is Dead, but an Incouragement to those that Live after him, to imitate and follow his Example, and that such Magistrates and Mini∣sters of State, that are imployed after him, may do as he hath done, as to be Just, Prudent, Care∣full, and Industrious, which the Gods grant for the sake of the Common-wealth.
An Accusing Oration for Refusing the Office of a Magistrate, and so Neglecting the Service of the Common-wealth.
I Have assembled you at this time, to make a Complaint against D. D. who being chosen a Magistrate, as believing him to be one of the Ablest men for his. Wisdome amongst us, and so Fittest to be imployed in the Service and Affairs of the Common-wealth, hath refused the Office and Imployment, choosing rather to live Idlely, than to take Pains and Labour to do Good, for which he ought to be Punished either in Body or Estate; for it is not only an Obstruction to the affairs of the Common-wealth, but a Dan∣gerous Example; for if all the Wisest men should refuse the Imployment and Management of State-affaris, leaving the Government only to Fools, the Common-wealth would be quick∣ly brought to Ruine, in which Ruine the Wise men would suffer as much as other men; Wherefore, for their Own sakes, as well as for the sake of their Country, they ought to imploy their Bodies and Minds in the Service of the Common-wealth, otherwise Foolish States∣men and Magistrates will make such Disorder, as no particular family or Man could live Safe∣ly, much less Plentifully, for Peace and Plenty would be utterly destroyed with Civil Warr, Page 60 were there no Forein Enemies; whereas, Wise men can keep Peace, and make a Common∣wealth or Kingdome Flourish: for it is as diffi∣cult and hard to keep a Common-wealth in Peace and Order, as it is easie to cause Warrs and Ruine, and more difficult to make Peace, when Warr is begun. Wherefore, the best way to keep a Common-wealth in Order, Peace, when Warr is begun. Wherefore, the best way to keep a Common-wealth in Order, Peace, and Plenty, is, to choose Wise and Able Magi∣strates, and not to let the VVise men follow their own Pleasures and Delights, but to im∣ploy them in the Service of the Common∣wealth.
An Excusing Oration in Answer to the former.
I Am come here at this time to speak for my¦Self, and to tell you, I deserve not to be Pu∣nished either in my Estate or Person, for refusing a Charge and Imployment, I am not Capable or fit to be imployed in; for I confess, I am natu∣rally Dull and Lasie, no wayes Busie or Active, and therefore Unfit for State-imployments; and since it is a Natural imperfection, I ought to be free from Punishment, for the fault lies in Na∣ture, not in Me, and it would be a great Injustice to lay Nature's fault to My charge, and to punish me for that I cannot help; but perchance you will say, this is only an Excuse, and I may help Page 61 this Defect; but put the Case it were so, and I could Help it, yet I do not find in my Self such a Supreme Wit, Judgement, Understanding, Knowledge, Contrivance, Prudence, Patience, Experience, and the like above other Men, but that there be other men far Beyond me; for though the Orator that spake the last Speech, said, I am a VVife Man, yet it is more than I know, and probable, he sayes more than he be∣lieves; for it is the Nature of some men, to Praise other men to their Ruine, and Praise in some Cases, and at some Times, and to fome Assemblies, or Persons, doth more Hurt to the Praised, than all the Dispraises could have done, nay, some times Men receive a Benefit by being Dispraised, where as Praises would utterly Ruine them. But as I said, put the Cafe, I were a Wise man, and could Discharge the Office of a Magistrate, as a VVife man should do, yet if a Company of Fools or Knaves joyn together to oppose my Orders or Power, I can do little Good, nay, had I other VVise men joyn'd in Power and Authority with me, yet we should do little Good, for Fools and Knaves are too strong for Honest and VVise men, because they are far more in Number, and so much Odds there is, as there are thousands of Fools for one VVise man; VVherefore it is Fortune, or Chance, or some particular Favour from the Gods, that Govern Common-wealths, and not those they call VVife men; for the VVisest men in the VVorld cannot keep a People in Peace, if they Page 62 be resolv'd and set to Rebell; for when the Ge∣neralilty is up in Arms, it is a Folly for Particu∣lar Persons to oppose them; and when the Ge∣nerality will pull down Particular Persons from their Power, Particular Persons can not stand; and when the Generality will alter a particular Government, the Government must change; VVherefore, the only and best means to keep up the Common-wealth, is to Pray to the Gods for Peace, and to keep the People as niuch as may be to Religious Ceremonies, that they may Fear the Gods, which Fear and Devotion will make them Obey their Magistrates, which I wish, and leave them.
An Oration against some Historians, or Wri∣ters of State-affairs, or Policy.
VVE have some Men amongst us, that seem to desire to be States-men, and because they are not States-men in Practice, they are States-men in Books, VVriting of State affairs; but how do they VVrite? not like VVife, but like Learned men; not to Teach men what is Best to be done, but what Evil hath been done, which is a Relation of Past, not an In∣struction to Future Actions. The truth is, they make an Hash of many several Authors, taken out of several Pieces, to make up a Dish to pre∣sent to their Readers, in Hope they may Inrich Page 63 their Host, if not with Preferment, yet with Praise; But surely those are Hungry, Half Star∣ved Guest, that can Feed with a Gusto on such Broken Meat, although Skilfully Drest; and these Cooks of Other mens Meat, which are Writers out of Other mens Works, are not only Unprofitable, but Cumbersome in the State or Common-wealth, filling our Libraries and Heads with Repetition of old Authors in new Styles, yet were they the Authors or first Wri∣ters of such Books, as treat of State-affairs, they would do more Hurt than Good, and rather make Division than Unity, Warr than Peace; for instead of Declaring the Policy of State, they Teach men to be Politick against the State; and it is to be Observed, that much VVriting of that Nature makes much Trouble, wherein the Pen doth more mischief than the Sword, wit∣ness Controversies, that make Atheism; for the more Ignorant a people are, the more Devout and Obedient they are to God and his Deputies, which are Magistrates; VVherefore it were very Requisite, that all such Books should be Burnt, and all such VVriters Silenced, or at least none should write of States-affairs, but those the State allows or Authorises.
An Oration Concurring with the former.
I Am of the former Orators opinion, that all Books of Politicks, State-affairs, or National Histories should be Burnt, and none suffered to Write any more Books of that Nature; other∣wise, not only every Writer, but every Reader will pretend to be States-men, which will bring an infallible Ruine to the Common-wealth, having more Politicians than Business, which will produce more Faction than Reformation. The truth is, many Politicians will be apter to Dis∣solve, than agree to make Good Laws, and will sooner cause a Destruction, then Govern a Com∣mon-wealth; for every several Politician would have a several Policy; but could or would they all Agree in their Opinions, yet if every Man were a States-man, all Particular Affairs would be laid aside, which Particular Industries make up a General Commerce, Trade and Traffick in the Common-wealth: Wherefore, take the former Orators advice, for the Peace and Pre∣servation of this State, and suffer none to Write or Read any Books, but what Recreates the Mind, as Poems, what Increases their Stores, as Husbandry, what Restores Health, as Medicines, what Exercises the Body, as Arts, and what Im∣proves the Understanding, as Sciences; all which may be allow'd without Danger; but for Page 65 Divinity and State, let those be Particular and not General, and rather be in the Breast or Brain of some, than in the Books or Studies of many, and let them continue in Tradition, but not in Print. So will the People Obey and not Dis∣pute, they wil be Practisers and not Preachers, and will be content to be Subjects, and not indea∣vour to be Soveraigns.
An Oration somewhat different from the former.
I Confess, it is Dangerous in a State, when as Some men think they are VViser than really they are, but More dangerous, when as Every man thinks himself VViser than his Neighbour, for those thoughts make them Proud, Ambiti∣ous, and Factious, and in the end Mutinous and Rebellious, and of all Self-conceited Persons, the Self-conceited States-men are the most Dan∣gerous, and oftentimes the most Foolish; the greatest Danger is, that there are more Fools than VVise men, through which General de∣fect, a Self-conceited States-man may be the Head of Fools, although but the Tail of VVise men, and Head to Tail is Disproportionable; but it may be that this Disproportion may make them Unactive, by which they become less Dan∣gerous; VVherefore, I am not of the former Orators opinion, as to have all such Books as Page 66 treat of State-affairs Burnt, for the Burning of such Books may advance their Authors Fame, but not advance the Publick Good; neither do such Books Publick Hurt, by reason none, but some few Private Persons read them, for the Generality delights not in such Studies; so as they will partly Dye in Oblivion, especially if you take no notice of them.
An Oration against those that lay an Aspersion upon the Retirement of Noble men.
VVE have some Ill-natured people a∣mongst us, that indeavour to turn all other mens Actions, but their own, to the worst Sense or Construction; as for Example, some of our Nobles retire to their Country Habitations, for which those Ill-natured or Foolish persons Exclame against them, both in Books and Spee∣ches, as that they Retire through Pride, Ambi∣tion, and Revenge, being Discontented they are not the Chief Ministers of State, Rulers in Go∣vernment, or Counsellers for Advices; also they would make their harmless Country Recrea∣tions, as Hunting, Hawking, Racing, and the like Sports, as also Hospitality, Dangerous De∣signs, which is unjustly Censured, and wickedly Wrested, to pull out the Right and Truth, to place Falshood, when as it may be easily known, that most of our Nobles, which Retire out of this Page 67 Metropolitan City to their Country Houses, Retire either for Pleasure, Profit, Quiet, or Health, or all; for it is manifest, that in a very Great and Populous City, there is nothing but Trouble, Expenses, Noise, and oftentimes Ma∣lignant Diseases, all which some Ill-natured men and Pretending Politicians would have theem suffer rather than to avoid. But those men that are so Wise, to choose the Best, are not Afraid of a Bawling Pen or Tongue, and seldom Consider or Regard what they Write or Speak, and if they do, they only give such Find-faults Pity or a Scorn. But put the Case, Noble Citizens, that some Noble men did Retire out of some just Discontent, as for Example, ima∣gine this Kingdome or Monarchy had been in a long Civil Warr, and some Noble men had not only been so Loyal, as never to Adhere to the Rebels, but had Serv'd their Prince to the last of their Power, Ventured their Lives, Lost their Estates, and had Indured great misery in a long Banishment, and after an Agreement of Peace, and the Proof of their Honesty and Loyalty, should be Neglected or Affronted, instead of Reward and Favour; if these Forsaken and Ruined, although Honest Persons, should Retire from Court and City into the Country, to be∣wail their Misfortunes in solitary Groans, or to pick up their scattered Goods, broken Inheri∣tance, and tattered States, or to restore their Half∣dying Posterity to some time of Life, should they be Rail'd and Exclamed against? can Hea∣ven Page 68 Bless a State or Kingdom, that will suffer such Uncharitableness and Inhumanity? or can Nature suffer her most Noble-minded Crea∣tures to stay in the presence of Publick Affronts, Disgraces, and Neglects, and not humbly turn their Faces from them, or Honestly indeavour not to Trouble those, that have a desire to Please? and if by their Wise Prudence, those Retired Persons can afford themselves some Harmless Recreations to mix and temper their Over-care∣full and Industrious Labours, they ought not to be Condemned for it; for God and Nature mixes Good and Evil, and the greatest Grief hath some Refreshment of Ease, and the hardest La∣bours some Rest, but only these Find-faults are Restless, through Envy and Ambition, hoping by their Busie Heads, Restless Pens, and Abusive Exclamations, to rise to Promotion and Prefer∣ment, and though they pretend to Discover Se∣ditions, they are the only Authors of Factions and Seditions. Wherefore it would be very fit, Noble Citizens, that our Ministers of State and Magistrates should Silence such bold Persons, that dare Censure our Nobles private and parti∣cular Actions; for if they should have that Li∣berty, they would in time Censure this Go∣vernment and our Governours of State and Common-wealth, and who can fore-see, but that the Common Rout or People might take their Factions or Ill-natured or Medling Dispo∣sitions for Wisdome?
An Oration for Liberty of Conscience.
IT is very probable, we shall fall into a Civil Warr, through the Divers Opinions in One and the same Religion; for what hath been the cause of this Hash in Religion, but the Suffering of Theological Disputations in Schools, Colle∣ges, Churches, and Chambers, as also Books of Controversies? all which ought not to have been Suffered, but Prohibited, by making Laws of Restraint; but since that Freedome hath been given, the Inconveniency cannot be Avoided, unless the Magistrates will give, or at least not oppose a Free Liberty to all; for if the People of this Nation is so Foolish, or Wilfull, or Facti∣ous, or Irreligious, as not to Agree in One Opi∣nion, and to Unite in One Religion, but will be of Divers Opinions, if not of Divers Religions, the Governours must Yield, or they will Con∣sume the Civil Government with the Fire of their Zeal; indeed they will Consume them∣selves at last in their own Confusion. Where∣fore, the best remedy to prevent their Own ruine, with the ruine of the Common-wealth, is, to let them have Liberty of Conscience, Con∣ditionally, that they do not meddle with Civil Government or Governours; and for Security that they Shall not, there must be a Law made and Inacted, that, whosoever doth Preach, Dis∣pute, Page 70 or Talk against the Government or Go∣vernours, not only in This, but of any Other Na∣tion, shall be Punished either with Death, Ba∣nishment, or Fine; also for the quiet and Peace of this Kingdome, there ought to be a strict Law, that no Governour or Magistrate shall in any kind Infringe our Just Rights, our Civil or Common Laws, nor our Ancient Customs; for if the One Law should be made, and not the Other, the People would be Slaves, and the Go∣vernours their Tyrants.
An Oration against Liberty of Conscience.
I Am not of the former Orators opinion; for if you give Liberty in the Church, you must give Liberty in the State, and so let every one do what they will, which will be a Strange Go∣vernment, or rather I may say, no Government: for if there be no Rules, their can be no Laws, and if there be no Laws, there can be no Justice, and if no Justice, no Safety, and if no Safety, no Propriety, neither of Goods, Wives, Children, nor Lives, and if there be no Propriety, there will be no Husbandry, and the Lands will lye Unmanured, also there will be neither Trade nor Traffick, all which will cause Famine, Warr, and Ruine, and such a Confusion, as the King∣dome will be like a Chaos, which the Gods keep us from.
An Oration proposing a Mean betwixt the two former Opinions.
I Am not of the two former Orators opinions, neither for an Absolute Liberty, nor a Forced Unity, but Between both, as neither to give them such Liberty, as for Several Opinions, to gather into Several Congregations, nor to force them to such Ceremonies, as Agree not with their Consciences; and if those Sects or Separatists Disturb not the Canon, Common, or Civil Laws, not to Disturb their Bodies, Minds, or Estates: for if they Disturb not the Publick Weal, why should you Disturb their Private Devotions? Wherefore, give them leave to fol∣low their Several Opinions, in their Particular Families, otherwise if you Force them, you will make them Furious, and if you give them an Absolute Liberty, you will make them Facti∣ous.
An Oration Reproving Vices.
BEing a fellow Citizen with you, I ought not to forbear from perswading you to Reform the Disorders of this City, as not to Suffer Page 72 Loose and Idle persons to Live without Imploy∣ment, or to pass by their Abuses without Pu∣nishment; also to Reform the Excess of Vanity, Luxury, Drunkenness, and Adultery, of which the Chiefest are most Guilty; for the Poor and Inferiour sort hath not Means to maintain those Vices, although they indeavour to the utmost of their Abilities; and as they have not Means, so they have not that Courage or rather Impu∣dence to Act Vices so Publickly, as the Richer sort doth; for Poverty is Humble, which makes it Modest, when as Riches is Proud and Bold; the truth is, this City is like a Surfeited Body, full of Diseases, and I fear, easie Remedies, which are Perswasions, will not Cure you, ex∣cept Warrs, Plagues or Famine come amongst you, or be Applied to you, for they may Cure some, although they will Kill most: But one thing I VVonder most at, that you send your Children to School, to be Instructed in Divinity and Morality, which is to Teach them to Pray and to Fast, to be Humble and Charitable, to be Prudent and Temperate, yet at Home they have Leave and Liberty to be Vain, Idle, and Expensive, to Feed Luxuriously, to Play Wan∣tonly, and to Live Riotously, so that what good their Tutors teach them by Reading and Preach∣ing, their Fathers corrupt them by Example and Precepts; they go forth to be Schooled, and come home to be Fooled. Wherefore, I can∣not imagine, why you should put your selves to Page 73 that Charge, to have your Children Taught and Instructed to that which is Good, and yet suffer them to do what is Bad, unless you desire to fee whether God or the Devil be Strongest in them; But if you cannot Live more Soberly, Moderately, Orderly, and Honestly, the best way were to send your Children so far from you, as not to hear of you, untill you Dye, so that the next Generation may be Better, unless by Nature you leave your Sons to Inherit your Vices, as they do your Goods by Birth, and then there is no Hopes of Amendment. It is likely you will say, Why I stand here Talking to you, and Exhorting you? I answer, that Saint Paul fayeth, by the Foolishness of Preaching men may be Saved: so I hope my Words may Work upon your Hearts, as to perswade you, not to Spend your Wealth, to Wast your Time, to End your Lives so Unprofitably, as neither to Serve your God, your Country, nor your Friends.
An Oration concerning the Forein Travels of Young Gentlemen.
YOu think your Sons not well Bred, unless you send them to Travel into Forein Nati∣ons, to see and understand Fashions, Customs, and Manners of the World, by which they may Learn the better to Know themselves, and to Page 74 Judge of others; but though you send your Sons abroad, in Hope they will Profit by their Travels, yet you are for the most part Deceived in your Hopes and Expectations: for our Young men in this Age get nothing by their Travels, but Vanity and Vice, which makes them Fools; for they gain not any Profitable Understanding, or Knowledge, to make them Wise men; the truth is, they go forth of their Own Country, Civil Men, but return Brute Beasts, as Apes, Goats, and Swine, and some few return Foxes, so that their Travels Metamorphose them from Men to Beasts; and as for their Learning of se∣veral Languages, give me leave to tell you, that they Learn more Words than Wit, which makes them speak Much, but not Well. But to come to the Drist of my Speech, since our Tra∣velling Gallants being home only Vanity and Vice, as more Prodigality than Frugality, more Luxury than Temperance, more Diseases than Health, more Extravagancy than Discretion, more Folly than Experience, and more Vice than Vertue, it were better they should stay at Home, than Travel as they do; for their Travels are not only Unprofitable to Themselves, and their Country, but Destructive; for their Vices and Vanity, doth not only Corrupt their own Na∣tures and civil Manners, and wast their Bodies and Estates, but it Corrupts all good Govern∣ment in the Weal Publick; for which Reason, I think it most requisite and fit, that none should Page 75 Travel without Leave of the State or Publick Counsel, and at their Return should be Accoun∣table to the State and Publick Counsel of their Travels, and the Advantages they have made. Thus their Travels would be Profitable both to Themselves, and to their Country; for they would be as a Nursery and School to breed up Youth to be Wise men.
An Oration concerning Playes, and Players.
HEre is a Company of Players, which are for Pleasure and Pastime to those that have Nothing to do, and Money to Spend; but give me leave to tell you, youMis-spend your Time, and also your Money, unless the Players were better Actors, and their Playes better Playes; for as their Playes have no VVit in them, so the Actors have no Grace, nor Becoming Behaviour in their Actions; for what is Constraint, is Mis∣becoming, as being not Natural, and whatsoever is Unnatural, is Deformed: but pray, Mistake me not, as believing, I am an Enemy to Playes or Players, for I am an Enemy only to Foolish Playes, and Ill Actors, but for Good Playes well Acted, I am so far from being an Enemy to them, as I think there is nothing so Profitable for Youth, both to Increase their Understan∣ding, Page 76 and to Fashion their Behaviour; and for those that have Spare time, they cannot pass it more Pleasingly; therefore let me Advise you, that are Magistrates of this City, to set up a Company of Players at the Common charge, and to Maintain some Excellent Poet, to make Good Playes, and certainly you will be no Lo∣sers in so doing, but Gainers, being the Best and Readiest way of Education for your Chil∣dren: for the Poet will inform them both of the World, and the Natures and Humours of Mankind, an Easier and Delightfuller way, than the School-men; and the Actors will shew them to Behave themselves more Gracefully and Becomingly, than their Dancing-Masters. Thus they will Learn more both for their Bo∣dies and Minds of the Poet and Players, than of their Tutors and Governours, or by Study∣ing or Travelling, which is Expensive, Labo∣rious, and Dangerous, whereas the other is Easie, Delightfull, Safe, and Profitable. Also one thing more I must advise you, that you pro∣vide a Practick Judicious man, to Instruct the Players to Act well; for as they must have a Poet, to make their Playes, so they must have a Tutor to teach them to Act those Playes, unless the Poet will take the pains to teach them him∣self, as to Humour the Passions, and to Express the Humours Naturally, and not to Act after the French Fashion, with High strained Voices, Constrained Motions, Violent Actions, and Page 77 such Transportation, as is neither Gracefull, Be∣coming, nor Natural; but they must make Love Soberly, Implore Favour Humbly, Complain Seriously, Lament Sadly, and not Affectedly, Fantastically, Constraintly, Ragingly, Furiously, and the like; all which in my Opinion they do Senselesly, Foolishly, and Madly; for all Feign∣ings must be done as Naturally as may be, that they may seem as Real Truths.
SEVERAL CAUSES PLEADED IN SEVERAL COURTS OF JUDICATURE.
Accusing and Pleading at the Barr before the Judges, for and against a Woman that hath kill'd her Husband.
Most Reverend Judges,
THis Woman, who is Accused, not only for Killing a Man, but her Hus∣band, we have for this Grievous and Horrid Fact brought before your Honours, to be Judged according to the Laws, delivering her to your Justice and Judgement.
Most Reverend, and Just Judges, 'T is true, that this Unhappy Woman hath unfortunately Kill'd her Husband, but Heaven knows, it was Against her Will, and as I may say Against her Page 79 Knowledge: for her Husband and She being Lovingly together, not Mistrusting any Danger, on a sudden came a Man, who as it seems, was her Husbands Enemy, for he assaulted her Hus∣band with a drawn Sword; this Woman seeing her Husband in Danger, as being Unarmed and Defenceless, was so afrighted as she knew not what she did; Wherefore, she having got a Dagger, which lay in the Room they were in, and thinking to thrust it into her Husbands Ene∣my, Unawares thrust it into her Husbands Body, wherewith he fell down, and immediately Died, which when she saw and perceived the mistake, she was as Distracted, and at last fell into a Trance, but being Recovered out of that faint Fit, she hath since remain'd a most Sorrowfull and La∣menting Widdow; I Express her Sorrow, to prove her Innocence from all Evil Constructi∣ons; for the Death of her Husband was not Designed or Intended by her, but by Fate and Fortune; and it is the Duty of a Loving Wife, to defend her Husbands Honour, Person, and Life, with all her Indeavours, and if the success of her Honest, Loyal, and Loving indeavours falls out unfortunately, She ought not to be Pu∣nished for her Misfortune; for Misfortune is no Crime, but rather to be Pitied and Comforted, either can Justice make Misfortune a Law to Condemn to Dye; and shall Duty and Loyalty be made Traitors? shall Honest Love be Pu∣nished with Torments and Death? No, Most Reverend Judges, Love and Loyalty ought to Page 80 be Honoured with Praise and Respect, and not with Torments and Death, and the Death of this VVomans Husband was caused by a mas∣kered Fear, proceeding from an Extraordinary Love. Thus his Death was a Chance, not an In∣tended Murder.
Most Reverend Judges, there can be no Wit∣ness of the Intention, but her own Knowledge and Conscience, which are Invisible and not Proveable, and therefore Insufficient to Acquit Her; but that which is a Sufficient VVitness a∣gainst her Intention, and may lawfully Condemn her, is her indeavour to Resist the Judgement and Sentence of Death; for all Good, Loyal, and Loving VVives ought, nay, desire to Live and Dye with their Husbands, when as they be free from all Suspect, wherefore much more ought they to accompany their Husbands in Death, who are liable to be Judged and Condemned for Treason and Murder; for as it is Unlawfull and Irreligious for to Act her own Death, so it is Dishonourable and Impious to Indeavour to re∣sist the Judgement of Death by Lawfull Autho∣rity, Pleading by her Lawyers most shamefully for Life.
Most Reverend Judges, It is not that she De∣sires to Live, but not to Dye Infamously, as to Dye as a Murderer of her Husband; for though her Husband was Kill'd by her Hand, yet he was not Kill'd by her Intention, but by Chance, which misfortune makes her Life a Torment to her, for being so unhappy as Unwittingly to Page 81 Destroy him, which her Life did most Delight with; but yet she would, if she could, rather Live Miserably, than Dye Dishonourably; for in her Dishonourable Death, both She and her Husband doth doubly Dye.
Most Reverend Judges, It were better Two Persons should Dye Four times over, than such a Crime should be Once Pardoned; for the Ex∣ample will be more Dangerous, than to have an Innocent Condemned would be Grievous: But it is most probable, She is Guilty.
A Cause of Adultery Pleaded at the Barr before Judges.
Most Reverend Judges,
HEre is a Man and a Woman, that were Ta∣ken in Adultery, and brought hither to be judged, that they may Suffer according to the Law, which is Death.
Most Reverend Judges, This Adulteress, and Adulterer, (for so in truth they are) al∣though the Woman is ashamed to confess in Words, only in silent Tears, yet the man con∣fesseth his fault publickly, and asks pardon, only he says, it is a Natural fault: for the desire of Procreation is Born and Bred in all Nature's Animal Creatures; it is an Orginal Appetite, but whether it be an Original Sin, he says, he doth not know; yet if it be, it may more justly be Pardoned, than Gluttony, which was the Page 82 cause of Mans Fall, witness Eve, and the forbid∣den Fruit; and that Damnable Sin, Gluttony, that destroyes many Lives through Surfeits, the Law takes no notice of, but Procreation that begets and makes Life, is Punish'd by the Law, which seems strange to Reason, that Cursed Gluttony should be Advanced, and Loving A∣dultery Hang'd. Indeed, it is a great Injustice, at least a grievous Law; and surely our Fore∣fathers, that made that Law, were Defective either in Bodies or Minds, or at least in Judge∣ment; and though I confess it is not fit, we should break or dissolve those Laws, howso∣ever Erroneous they are, that our Predecessors made; yet we, their Posterities and Successors may Sweeten or Qualifie the Extreme Rigor of their Laws, as in this Case of Adultery, to Punish the Bodies, but to Spare their Lives; or to Fine their Estates, and Spare their Bodies; for if the Rigor of the Law should be put in Execution in all Cases, and to all Persons, there would no man be Free, either in his Estate, Per∣son, or Life; but howsoever, this Male-offen∣der, my Client, sayes, that if he must Dye, yet he shall not Dye Basely or Dishonourably, by reason he shall Dye Loves Martyr; As for the Femal offender, She sayes, that she was seduced by Nature, as Eve by the Devil, and Women being of Soft and Tender Dispositions, do easily yield to an Inticing Appetite; besides, men be∣ing Eloquent in Perswading, Prevalent in Flat∣tering, Free in Protesting, and Earnest in Vows Page 83 and Promises, all which hath such force with Females, who are Credulous and Believing Creatures, as she had no Power to deny him his Desire. But both these Lovers desire these Most Noble and Just Judges to Consider, their Crime is not caused through Spite, Envy, Ma∣lice, Revenge, Scorn, Pride, Hate, or the like Sins, but through Love, Kindness, Friendship, Charity, Generosity, Humility, and such like Vertues, which caused this Crime, namely A∣dultery, so that it is the only Sin, that is Built upon Vertues: besides, this Sin, namely Adul∣tery, hath a Well-pleased Countenance, a Court∣ly Behaviour, and an Eloquent Speech, which is the cause, most Men and Women are in Love with this Sin, the Gods forgive them for it; for this Sin doth not appear with Terrible and Hor∣rid Aspect as Murder, as to cause the very Soul as much as the Senses to be Maskered with Fear; not it doth not appear of so Foul an Aspect as Gluttony and Drunkenness, as to cause Hate or Aversion, but it hath so Amiable an Aspect as to cause Love, and so Fruitfull an Effect as to cause Life and Living Creatures. They implore Mercy, and beg your Favourable Sentence, and since it is a Natural effect for Males and Females to be Adulterers, at least Lovers, you may as soon destroy all Animal Creatures as this Sin, if it be one; and if there be some Men and Women purely chast, those are of Divine Compositions, and not Perfect Naturals, their Souls and Bodies having more of the Purity of the Gods, than the Page 84 gross Corporality of Nature; but these two Offendants confess, they have proved them∣selves Nature's Creatures, and the Woman says she is Eve's Daughter, but if you will Spare her Life, she hopes to be as great a Saint as Mary Magdalen; for she will beg Pardon by Re∣pentance, and wash out her Sin with her Tears.
Most Reverend Judges, This Pleader ought to be Condemned, not only for a Corrupt Law∣yer, but a Wicked Man, and may very well be believed to be Guilty of the same Crime, he Pleads so well for; for if he were not Guilty of the Crime, he would not Plead for a Par∣don.
Most Reverend Judges, I am no more Guilty of the Sin, than the Interceding Saints in Hea∣ven for Sinners on Earth; but if the Pleader should be Condemned for the Cause of his Client, neither Truth would be Heard, nor Right Decided, so that all Justice would be O∣verthrown with Malicious Accusers, and False Witnesses. But howsoever, Most Reverend Judges, I am not to Decide the Cause, though I Plead in the behalf of my Clients, and it is the Profession of a Lawyer, to speak for his Clients, and not Against them, whatsoever their Cause be; for this is the part of their Opposites, and I am not to fling the first Stone.
Most Reverend Judges, Howsoever he be Affected, whether evil or not, yet the Cause he Pleads, is a Wicked Cause, and the Offenders Page 85 ought to be severely Punished, according to the Punishing Laws for such Offences and Offen∣ders; and if Adultery should be suffered, Pro∣priety and the Right of Inheritance would be lost in the Obscurity of hidden Adultery, or in the Uncertainty of the Right Children or Fa∣thers.
A Cause Pleaded at the Barr before Judges, concerning Theft.
Most Reverend, and Just Judges,
HEre is a man, which is Accused for Stealing privately, and Robbing openly, against all Law and Right, the Goods of his Neighbours, for which we have brought him before your Honours, appealing to the Laws for satisfaction of the Injuries, Wrongs, and Loffes, leaving him to your Justice and Judgement.
Most Reverend Judges, I am come here to Plead for this poor man, my Client, who is Ac∣cused for Stealing, which is a silent obscure way of taking the Goods of other men, for his own use; also this Poor man, (for so I may say he is, having nothing of his own to Live on, but what he is Necessitated to take from other men) is accused for Robbery, which is to take away the Goods of other men in a Visible way and Forci∣ble manner; All which he confesseth, as that the Accusation against him is true; for he did both Steal and Rob for his own Livelihood, and Page 86 Maintenance of his Old 〈…〉 Past Labouring, and for his Young Children, 〈…〉 are not Able to help themselves, and for his Weak; Sick Wife, that Labours in Child Birth; For which he appeals to Nature, who made all things in Common, She made not some men to be Rich, and other men Poor, some to Surfeit with over∣much Plenty, and others to be Starved for Want: for when she made the World and the Creatures in it, She did not divide the Earth, nor the rest of the Elements, but gave the use generally amongst them all. But when Govern∣mental Laws were devised by some Usurping Men, who were the greatest Thieves and Rob∣bers, (for they Robbed the rest of Mankind of their Natural Liberties and Inheritances, which is to be Equal Possessors of the World;) these Grand and Original Thieves and Robbers, which are call'd Moral Philosophers, or Com∣mon-wealth makers, were not only Thieves and Tyrants to the Generality of Mankind, but they were Rebels against Nature, Imprisoning Nature within the Jail of Restraint, Keeping her to the spare Diet of Temperance, Binding her with Laws, and Inslaving her with Propriety, where∣as all is in Common with Nature. Wherefore, being against Nature's Laws for any man to Possess more of the World or the Goods of the World than an other man, those that have more Wealth or Power than other men, ought to be Punished as Usurpers and Robbers, and not those that are Poor and Powerless. Therefore, if you Page 87 be Just Judges of Nature, and not of Art, Judges for Right, and not for Wrong, if you be Judges of the most Ancient Laws, and not Usurping Tyrants, you will not only quit this Poor man, and set him free from his Accusers, which are His and such Poor men's Abusers, but you will cause his Accusers, who are Rich, to Divide their Wealth Equally with Him and all his Fa∣mily; for which Judgement you will gain Na∣tures favour, which is the Empress of Mankind, Her Government is the Ancientest, Noblest, Generousest, Heroickest, and Royalest, and her Laws are not only the Ancientest, (for there are no Records before Nature's Laws, so that they are the Fundamental Laws of the Universe, and the most Common Laws extending to all Crea∣tures,) but they are the Wisest Laws, and yet the Freest; also Nature is the most Justest Judge, both for Rewards and Punishments; for She Rewards her Creatures, that Observe her Laws as they ought to do, with Delight and Pleasure, but those that Break or abuse her Laws, as in destroying their fellow Creatures by untimely Deaths, or unnatural Torments, or do Riot and oppress her with Excess, She Punishes them with Grief, Pains, and Sicknesses, and if you will avoid the Punishment of Remorse, Grief, and Repentance, Save this Poor necessitated man from Violence, and the Cruelty of these Inhu∣man, Unnatural, Destroying Laws.
Most Reverend Judges, This man, who is Nature's Lawyer and Pleader, ought to be Ba∣nish'd Page 88 from this Place, and his Profession of Pleading out of all Civilest Governments; for he Talks he knows not what of Nature's Laws, whereas there is no Law in Nature, for Nature is Lawless, and hath made all her Creatures so, as to be Wild and Ravenous, to be Unsatiable and Injurious, to be Unjust, Cruel, Destructive, and so Disorderous, that, if it were not for Civil Government, Ordained from an Higher Power, as from the Creator of Nature her self, all her Works would be in a Confusion, and so their own Destruction. But man is not all of Nature's Work, but only in his Outward Frame, having an Inward Celestial and Divine Composition, and a Supreme Power given him by the Gods to Rule and Govern Nature; So that if your Honours submit to the Plea of this Babler, you will make the Rulers and Governours of Na∣ture, the Slaves of Nature; Wherefore, if you be Celestial and not Natural Judges, and will give Divine Judgement, and not Judge according to Brutal Senses, you will Condemn this Noto∣rious Thief and Wild Robber to the Gallows, that his Life may be the Satisfaction for the Wrongs, and his Death an Example for a War∣ning to Prevent the like Crimes.
A Cause Pleaded before Judges betwixt two Bastards.
Most Reverend Judges,
THere be Two Laws in this Kingdom, which seem to be very Unjust; the One is, that if a VVoman be Got / with Child by One Man, and Marries an Other before her Child is Born, that Child must Inherit her Husbands Estate, if it be a Son, so that One mans Son comes to be an Other mans Heir by the Law. The Other is, that if a man Begets a Son before Marriage, and he Mar∣ries not the VVoman till After his Son is Born, and though the Marriage cancels the Fault of Adultery, and is an Attonement for the Sin or Crime, both to God and the Law, yet the Inno∣cent Child, that was in No Fault, is put by the Inheritance by the Law; indeed, the Son so Born, Inherits only the Disgrace of a Bastard, but not his Fathers Estate; and thus if the VVo∣man be Incontinent, a mans Own begotten Son shall not Inherit, and an Other mans Bastard be his Heir. The same Case is brought to be Plea∣ded before your Honours, for two Sons of One VVoman, but not of One Father, the Eldest being her Husbands, Begotten and Born before Marriage, the other Begotten by an Other man, but Born a moneth after her Marriage with the first Sons Father. The Son born after Marriage claims his Mothers Husbands Estate as Inheri∣tance Page 90 by Law, the Other claims the Estate as a Natural Right.
Most Reverend Judges, The Son born to Inherit, claims the Estate by the Right of Birth, and hopes your Honours will not suffer his Birth-right to be taken from him.
Most Reverend Judges, The Right Begot∣ten Son doth not Challenge his Fathers Estate, as his Right by Birth, but as his Right by Gift; for his Father by Deed gave him that which the Law took from him; for his Estate being not Intail'd, he might Give it to whom he would, and he could not Give it more Justly, Honestly, and Lovingly, than to his Own Son; but had he not a Child of his Own to have given it to, yet surely he would never have Left it, if he had Power to Dispose of it, to a Son of his Inconstant Wife, or Friend, which bore him to his Shame and Dishonour; but the Case is so clear for his true-Begotten Son, as it needs no more Plea∣ding.
A Cause Pleaded before the Judges between an Husband and his Wife.
Most Reverend Judges,
HEre is a Woman Born of good Parents, brought a great Portion, and makes a chast VVife, yet her Husband is so Unkind, and so Cruel, as he doth not only Beat her often, but so Grievously and Sorely, as she is weary of her Page 91 Life, and therefore she beseeches your Honours to take so much Commiseration of her Cause, as to Bind her Husband to a good Behaviour, or to Grant her a Bill of Divorce, and some Allow∣ance from him, that she may Live Absent in Peace.
Most Reverend Judges, A Husband Anger, nor yet his Corrections, is not a sufficient Plea for a Wife to Part from her Husband; for a Woman when she Marries, makes a Promise before God and his Divine Minister in the Sa∣cred Temple, that she takes her Husband to Have and to Hold, for Better for Worse, and that she will be Dutifull and Obedient, as also Constant to him so long as Life lasts, and so plights her troth; Wherefore, it is against the Laws of God and his Church, to sue for a Di∣vorce; also it is against her Duty to Complain; Wherefore, she ought by the Laws of God, and consequently by all Other Laws, to suffer Patiently, did she give her Husband No cause to use her so Severely.
Most Reverend Judges, A Wife is not bound by any Laws but Religion, to Hazard her Life, and she fears he will Kill her in his Fury, and therefore for the Safety of her Life, she desires your Honours will quit her of the Danger.
Most Reverend Judges, A Wife is bound both by the Law of Nature, and God, to Hazard her Life, not only for her Husbands Safety, Ho∣nour, and Pleasure, but for his Humour; for a VVife is bound to Leave her Parents, Country, Page 92 and what else soever, to go with her Husband, wheresoever he goes, and will have her go with him, were it on the Dangerous Seas, or into Bar∣ren Deserts, or Perpetual Banishments, or Bloody VVarrs, besides Child-birth; all which is more Dangerous and Painfull than blows; but howsoever, it is as Lawfull for an Husband to Govern, Rule, and Correct his VVife, as for Parents to Rule, Govern, and Correct their Children, or for Masters to Rule, Govern, and Correct their Servants or Slaves.
But Parents ought not Strike or Cruelly use their Children, nor Masters their Servants or Slaves, without Faults committed.
Parents, Masters, and Husbands in the Case of Ruling, Governing, Correcting, Punishing or using their Children, Servants, Slaves, and VVives, ought to be their Own Judges, and no other. But, Most Reverend Judges, She is not free from Fault, for though she be Chast, yet she is a Scold, she gives her Husband more unkind VVords, than he gives her unkind Blows, and her Tongue provokes his Hand to strike her; but as she is Lavish of her VVords, so she is of his Estate, not so much with what she Spends, as with that she Spoils, and though he can keep her from the One, he cannot hinder her from the Other; for she is not only Unhuswifely, and Careless of the main Stock, but she Breaks, Rends, and Spoils all his Goods out of a Malici∣ous Revenge, and Evil Nature; Yet howsoever, were she the Best VVife that could be, and he Page 93 the Worst Husband, the Law hath no Power to Mend him, and Help her, for the Law ought not to intermeddle in their Quarrel, as having no more Power to take away the Prerogative of a Husband, than the Prerogative of Parents and Masters; for whensoever the Law takes the part of a Servant against his Master, a Subject against his Prince, a Child against his Parents, or a Wife against her Husband, the Law doth unjustly Usurp on their Rights and Privileges, which Rights and Privileges they receiv'd from Nature, God and Morality.
A Widdows Cause Pleaded before Judges in the Court of Equity.
Most Reverend Judges,
HEre is a Poor Widdow of a Rich Husband, who in his Life-time did allow her Little, and at his Death left her Less; for he only left her a small Annuity during her Life, which is so Small, as cannot Maintain her, neither Like his Widdow, nor indeed in any Decent Fashion; for she having no Joynture, he to Bar her of her Widdows share, gave her this small Annuity, knowing that otherwise she should have had the Third part of his Estate during Life, but he by a Deed and Gift of a Little hath cast out her Claim from the Common Law, wherefore she doth Appeal to this Court of Equity and Con∣science, hoping to have Justice accordingly.
Most Reverend Judges, There is no Reason, Equity, nor Conscience, that the VViddow should carry away During her Life so Great a Part of her Husbands Estate, as to Impoverish his Children, and Ruine his Family; besides, it hinders the Paying of Debts, and there be very few Families, that have not Debts as well as Children, which Creditors ought to be Paid as well, as Children to have Portions: and were there no Debts, yet many Childrens Portions, although but Small, would shrink a Great Estate almost into Nothing; but if a VViddow carries out the Third Part, there will be little left for after Posterity, when every Child hath had their Portion, indeed so Little, as after Posterity will have Nothing to Live on, nor to be Bred up with, which is the Cause there are so many Noble, Honourable, and Right VVorshipfull Beggers; nay, it makes them not only Beggers, but Base and VVicked, for having not Means according to their Births, nor Minds according to their Means, Despising their Fortunes, they take Desperate Courses, or else their Minds are so Dejected, as they Degenerate from their Births, and do Base Actions.
Most Reverend Judges, It is against Consci∣ence and Equity, that the Mother, that Bred and Bore her Children, with Fear, Sorrow, Pain, and Danger of her Life, should be left Poorer than the Children that were Born from her.
Most Reverend Judges, It is against all Reason, Equity, and Conscience, that Parents Page 95 should Get and Bring forth Children, and not Provide for those Children; for if they give them no Means to Live, as neither by Educa∣tion to Get Means, nor some Allowance or Means to Live, their Children will have Small Reason to Thank their Parents, or Natural Affe∣ction to be Dutifull to them, for giving them a Miserable Life, which Deserves no Thanks, nor can Challenge a Duty; for as Children are Bound by the Laws of Nature to Assist their Pa∣rents, so Parents are Bound by the Laws of Nature, to Provide for their Childrens Subsist∣ence, and when the Bonds are Broken of one Part, the othe Part is Free. But, Most Reve∣rend Judges, I do not Plead against the Mothers or Wife's Livelihood; for it is not, that Mo∣thers and Wives ought not to be Provided for, for a Man ought to be a Kind Husband, as well as a Loving Father, but a Wife ought not to be the Ruine either of her Own, or her Husbands Children, and if she be a Natural Mother, she ought to Spare for her Children, and not to Spend what her Children should have, but most Women do not only Spend what their Children should have, but Give it away to a Se∣cond Husband, to the Ruine of the First Hus∣bands Children and Family; for this Reason, Wise men that are Husbands, not knowing what their Wives will do, when they are Dead, leave them as Little as they can, Securing their own Estates and Familes as much as they possibly can from the Spoils and Ruins, which Strangers, as Page 96 Second Husbands make; for it were more Con∣scionable not to leave a Wife any Maintenance, than Too much, and better, One should Suffer, than Many Perish, at least it is better that a Widdow should live Poorly all her Life, than that an Honourable Family should be Poor to all Succession: Wherefore, this Widdow in Con∣science ought to have no more out of her Dead Husbands Estate, than what he hath Left her, which is enough for Necessity, though not for Vanity, enoough to Live a Solitary Widdow, as she ought to do, although not enough to Inrich a Second Husband, which a hundred to one, but she would do, if she had it; but her Husband was a Wise Man, a Carefull Father, and a Pru∣dent Husband in not giving his VVife the Li∣berty to play the Fool.
A Cause Pleaded before Judges betwixt a Master and his Servant.
Most Reverend Judges,
HEre is a Poor Servant, which Served his Master Honestly, and his Master hath turn'd him out of his Service without his VVa∣ges, which are due unto him by Right of Bar∣gain and Agreement made betwixt them, which Bargain and Agreement he hath broken, and unjustly Detains his VVages.
Most Reverend Judges, This Servant Accu∣ses his Master Falsly, and Challenges that which Page 97 he ought not to have, as so much for his Wages, for the Bargain was, that his Master would give him so much Wages to do so much VVork, he did not Hire him to be Idle, so that a Master is not bound to keep a Lasie Servant, nor to Pay him his VVages, unless he had Done the Work he was Hired to do, and not only to Do it, but to do according to his Masters Will and Good Li∣king.
Most Reverend Judges, If a Masters finding Fault shall be sufficient to Barr a Servant of his VVages, no Servants could Live by their La∣bours, for Masters would find Faults a purpose to Save their Hire.
Most Reverend Judges, If Servants should live Idlely, or Disorderly, or Disobediently, or make VVast and Spoil of their Masters Goods and Estate, and be maintain'd with Meat, Drink, Lodging, and VVages, their Masters would be∣come Poorer than their Servants, and Live in more Subjection, rather than so, the Masters would Serve themselves, and keep no Servants; for surely, men will rather be their Own Ser∣vants, than to be Servants, or rather Slaves to their Servants, so that Servants would not only want VVages, but Food, and Starve for want; for if they gain Nothing by their Labour, and have no Means of their Own, they must upon necessity Perish; and for Examples sake, as well as Justice, this Servant ought not to be Paid his Wages, for he doth not Deserve it, and therefore 'tis not his Right nor Due to Have it.
Two Lawyers Plead before Judges, a Cause betwixt a Father and his Son.
Most Reverend Judges,
HEre is the Son which ought to be his Fa∣thers Heir, whom for Marryig against his Fathers Consent, his Father hath Dis-inherited, which is against all Law or Right, both of God, Nature, and Man.
Most Reverend Judges, Disobedient Chil∣dren ought to have no Part nor Parcel of their Parents Estate, as Lands, Goods, or whatsoever; for it the Parents have no Duty, nor Obedience from their Child, their Child can challenge no Part of their Parents Estate, and since he hath Married Disobediently, he ought to Live Poor∣ly, or to get his Living by his Own Labour or Industry.
Most Reverend Judges, There is no Reason, nor Law, that if one man Commit a Fault to an other, that man should Commit an other to be quit with him; and put the Case the Son were unnaturally Disobedient, must the Father be un∣naturally Cruel to be Revenged of him?
Most Reverend Judges, Parents are the Fit∣test Judges of their Childrens Faults and Crimes committed against them. But howsoever, Pa∣rents cannot be thought Cruel or Unnatural to Punish the Crimes of their Children, no more than God can be said to be Cruel or Unjust to Page 99 Punish Sinners; for God who Made Creatures, may do what he Pleases with them; for being his own Work, he may Dispose or Order them as he Thinks best, or as he Pleaseth: So Parents that Begot their Children, may do the like in things concerning themselves.
But God is Mercifull, wherefore Parents ought to be Natural.
God is Just, and therefore Children ought to be Dutifull.
But if God Should Punish his Creatures accor∣ding to their Desert, no man would be Saved.
And if Children should do what they List, there would be no Government; for Parents would be made Slaves, and their Children Ma∣sters: so if God should not Punish Some of his Creatures, All would be Damned, and to make up the Fulness of their Sins, they would Despise his Love, and not Fear his Power, and so they would neither Love nor Fear God; so Chil∣dren would have neither Duty nor Obedience to their Parents: But to prove it a Clear cause, his Estate is free from all Intails, and wholly in his own Power, to Dispose of it as he Pleases, and to Give it to whom he will, and therefore his Son can Challenge nothing by Law or Right.
SPEECHES TO The KING in Council.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to His Soveraign.
HEre are many of your Noble Subjects chosen out to be, I can not say Privy∣Counsellours, by reason there be too many to keep Secrets of State, which shews we are rather Coun∣sellours for Form, than for Business, Counsel∣lours in Name, rather than Counsellours in Nature; Wherefore, we shall not need to trou∣ble your Majesty or our Selves, the one to Hear, the other to Speak long Orations, or tedious Speeches; for should we Speak, we should ra∣ther speak like Fools than Wise men, by reason Page 101 we are not acquainted with your Majesties Ca∣binet Designs, or Intrigues; and so being your Majesties General, and not Particular Coun∣sellours, must needs speak at Randome: Where∣fore, we beseech your Majesty, not to Censure our Judgements, but our Ignorances in not knowing your Majesties most Private, as Cabi∣net Desires, Designs, and Intrigues.
A Petition and Plea at the Council-Table, before the King and his Council, con∣cerning two Brothers Condemned by the Laws to Dye.
May it Please your Most Sacred Majesty,
I Am come here to your Majesties Council∣Table, to Plead the Cause of two Brothers, whose Cause hath been Heard, Judged, Cast, and Condemned by the Judges of the Laws of this Land, and must suffer Death, unless your Ma∣jesty acquit or Pardon them; Indeed their cause is Hard, for they were Forced either to Offend the Laws of Government, or the Laws of Ho∣nour, the Laws of Government threatned Bo∣dily Death, the Laws of Honour threatned In∣famy, and being Worthy Persons, they chose rather to Venture Life, than to Live Dishonou∣rably; But their Crime, or (it may rather be called) their Justice, which the Laws of the Land have Condemned them for, is for Killing, or rather Punishing their Sister for the Impu∣rity, Page 102 Immodesty, Dishonesty, and Dishonour of Inchastity, which was an Offence to the Gods, a Reproach to her Life, a Disgrace to her Race, a Dishonour to her Kindred, and an Infamy to her Family; As for the Sin, they past that by, to be Judged of by the Gods, her own Reproach they regarded not, the Disgrace of her Race they indeavoured to obscure; But as for the Dishonour to her Kindred, and Infamy to her Family, her Brothers were resolv'd to Wash off the Dishonour with her Blood, and to Rub out the Black spot of Infamy with her Death, which Resolution they put in Execution, forcing a Sur∣geon to open an Artery Vein; through which she Bled to Death. Besides, had they let her have Liv'd, the Laws of the Land would have Punished her, which would have been a Double Dishonour, and a Recorded Infamy, receiving as much Dishonour by her Public Punishment, as her Private Crime. Wherefore, to prevent as well, as to take off all Disgrace, they were her Executioners, by forcing the Surgeon to strike an Artery, a very Easie Death for so Great an Offender: but the Natural Affections from Bro∣thers to a Sister, did desire she might Dye with as Little Pain as might be: Now Dead she is, and they Condemned to Dye for her Death, unless your Majesty will Pardon them, and it will be a Gracious Act, to pardon VVorthy Men, such men as preferr'd Honour before Life.
A Speech of one of the Privy-Counsellours, which is an Answer to the former Plea and Petition.
May it Please your Majesty
TO give me leave as One of your Council to Answer this man. As for Parents to Kill their Children, for Children to Kill their Pa∣rents, for Brethren to Kill each other, and Sisters their Brothers, or Brothers their Sisters, or Neeces or Nephews their Uncles or Aunts, or Uncles and Aunts to Kill their Nephews or Nee∣ces, or Cousin Germans, is Unnatural, or to be the Cause of their Death is Unnatural, I may say a Great Sin in Nature; VVherefore these two Brothers, that were the Cause, indeed the Actors in effect of their Sisters Death, have Sin∣ned against the Gods, Nature, and the Laws of good Government, for which they Deserve Punishment, both in this VVorld, and in the VVorld after this Life; And as for that which is called Honour, it is but the Opinion of some men, a meer Fancy, not any Real Good, only a Name to perswade men to do Evil Actions, as to Fight Duells, to make VVarrs, to Murder Friends, nay, to Murder Themselves; all which is against Gods, Mens, and Natures Laws, which is Inhuman, Uncharitable, Unnatural, and Im∣pious.
The Petitioners Reply.
Most Dread Soveraign,
SInce your Majesty is pleased to hear the Sutes of Humble Petitioners, and the Causes of Pleaders, and the Defences of Condemned Per∣sons, as your Condemned Subjects, at your Council-bord, their last Refuge in Extremity, appealing to your Majesties Self, where your Majesty sits in Person, to Hear not only Coun∣sels, but Complaints, I shall answer this Privy∣Counsellour, whose Judgement is more Severe, than I hope your Majesty will be in your Sen∣tence; He says, it is Inhuman, Uncharitable, Unnatural, and Impious for neer Allies to Kill each other; but neither your Majesty, nor your most Loyal Subjects, should nor would think, nor believe so, if your Majesty had a Civil Rebellious Warr, which I Pray the Gods to keep you from, yet in all Civil Warrs neer Allies Fight against one an other, and Kill one another, believing they do not only their King but God Good Service in so doing; for what Pious Men or Loyal Subjects would not Kill their Fathers, or their Sons, that Fight against their King, or do but Oppose his Will and Pleasure? nay, those that Speak against it, ought to be accounted Traitors; and as for Honour, which is said only to be an Opinion and Fancy of some men, yet it is such an Opinion and Fancy Page 105 that without it men would neither be Generous, nor Valiant, Just, nor Gratefull, Faithfull, nor Trusty, but all men would be Sordid, Cove∣tous, Cowards, False Cheats, Unthankfull, and Treacherous; besides, Wit and Learning would be quite Abolished or Buried in Oblivion, and if men care not for Esteem, Respect, and Praise, men would not care to do that which is Good, but on the contrary would do all the Hurt and Evil they could; for Praise keeps men from Evil, more than Laws or Punishment, and Praise is more Powerfull to Perswade and to Allure men to good, than Strength or Authority hath Power to Inforce men to good, and Ho∣nour Lives in Praise, and Praise Lives in Wor∣thy Acts, which Worthy Acts Fame Records, that After-ages may know, what Just, Valiant, Generous, Wise, Learned, Witty, Ingenious, Industrious, Pious, Faithfull, and Vertuous men Liv'd in Former times, which Knowledge will make Posterity Desirous and Industrious to do as their Fore-fathers have done. Thus do Good and Honourable Acts beget their like in After∣ages, which is a Race of Worthy Deeds. Wherefore, your Majesty for the Good of the Present and Future times, will Favour these men that Love Honour more than Life, and Fear Disgrace more than Death, which is the Cause of the two Brothers, for whom I Plead and Beg your Majesties Pardon.
The KINGS Answer.
I Neither ought to Approve the Act of those two Brothers, concerning the Death of their Sister, nor to Obstruct or Oppose my Laws in their Condemnment: Yet since their Act was to Take away Disgrace, and not out of Malice, and through a Hate to the Crime, not to the Person, I am not willing to leave them to the Punishment, and the Laws being Satisfied by their Arraignment, Judgement, and Condemn∣ment, I will give them their Lives, Lands, Goods, and Liberties, which the Laws took from them, and so leave them to Gods Mercy for Grace, to Repent their Sin.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech at the Council∣bord to His Soveraign.
Most Gracious Soveraign,
THis your City, wherein your Majesty doth chiefly Reside, grows Too big for the rest of your Kingdome, indeed So big as it will be too Unruly and Unwieldy to be Govern'd, and being fully Populated, it will not only be apt to Cor∣rupt the Air, and so cause Often and Great Plagues, which may Infect the whole King∣dome; for where Many People are, there is much Dung and Filth, both within the Streets Page 107 and Houses, as also Foul Bodies and Corrupt Humours, which of Necessity must be very Un∣wholesome; but it will Devour the rest of the Kingdome, for it is the Mouth and Belly that Devours the Fruitfull Increase of the Land, yet Labours not to Husband the Ground: Besides, the Richest and Noblest of your Subjects Resi∣ding for the most part in the City, as being the Chief City, Rob the Country, and Inrich the City; for what they Receive in the Country, they Spend in the City, so that they Feed on the Labours of the Poor Country-men, and are Inriched by the Vanities of the Nobles. Thus they Thrive by Vanity, and Live by Spoils, Wasting the Plenty, Beggering the Gentry, and Ruining the Country, and so the Kingdome. Also too Great and Populous a City is not only a Head too Great for the Body of the Common∣wealth, but like a Head that is full of Gross Hu∣mours, indeed a Great City is a Head fill'd with Evil Designs, and not only a Head with Evil Designs, but it is the Tongue of Detraction, the Heart of Civil Warr, the Magazin of Warring Arms, and the Treasury to maintain Rebellious Armies; for though they are more apt to Mu∣tin than to Fight, and more apt to Rise in Tu∣mults than in Arms, yet more apt to Take up Arms, than to Keep Peace; and though they have neither Conduct nor Courage, yet they will Destroy with Force and Fury, whosoever will offer to Oppose them; and their great Plen∣ty will make them more apt to Rebell, than if Page 108 they were Pinched with Necessity; for their Wealth makes them Proud, their Pride makes them Ambitious, their Ambition makes them Envious, their Envy makes them Factious, their Faction makes them Mutinous, and in a Tu∣multuous Mutiny they will indeavour to pull your Majesty from your Throne, break your Laws, and make Havock and Spoil of all the Goods and Lives of your Loyalst Ministers of State, and Noblest Persons about you, and for the most part, the most Honest and Worthiest Persons they can come to, they will Destroy. Thus a great City is too Rich to be Obedient, too Proud to be Govern'd, too Populous to be Quiet, and too Factious to Live Peaceably.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Sove∣raign, concerning Trade.
I Think it my Duty to inform your Majesty, that Trade is so Decayed, as it will in a short time Ruine your Kingdome, if not Timely Re∣paired; for this Kingdome being an Island, Trade is the Foundation to Uphold it, without which Foundation it will fall to Ruine; and the Chief Persons of and for Trading in an Island are Merchants Adventurers, which are both Forein and Home Traffickers. These Mer∣chants, your Majesty should Assist and Defend to the Utmost of your Power. As for the Ad∣vancing Page 109 of Trade, there be Three things, the First is Easie Taxes for Customs; the Second is, to Secure them from Enemies at Sea; the Third is, Not to Suffer your Neighbour-Nations to In∣croach upon their Privileges, or to Take the Tra∣ding from them: As for the first, to Lessen your Customs, will Lessen your Revenue, and that ought not to be, by Reason your Revenue is not so Great, as to admit of any Diminution, your Charge being Extraordinary Great, but your Majesty may Secure them at Sea by your Ship∣ping, and Maintain their Privileges abroad and at home by your Power, which Actions will not only cause your Neighbours to Fear you, but your Subjects to Love you, the One for your Force, the Other for your Favour. And give me leave, Dread Soveraign, to inform you, that the more Merchants Adventurers you have, the more Power and Strength at Sea you have; for Shipping increases with their Trade, in so much, as your Merchants Adventurers will both in∣crease your Power and Wealth; for if they be Rich, the Kingdome cannot be Poor, and if the Kingdome be Rich, your Majesty cannot be Poor; besides, their Ships of Burden are an Assistance to your Ships of Warr, both which I beseech the Gods to increase for your Majesties, and your Subjects Security.
An Oration to his Majesty, for Preventing Imminent Dangers.
I Think it my Duty, being one of your Privy∣Counsellours, to give your Majesty Advice, lest Sudden Dangers may Surprize you, or at least great Disorders may give you great Trou∣bles; for certainly, if your Majesty take not a speedy Course to Rectifie some Errors, you will soon have a Civil Warr, which I pray the Gods to Avert: The first Error is, that Justice is Cor∣rupted; the second, that Vanity is Excessive; the third and worst, that your Treasury is Empty: To Rectifie Injustice, is, to suffer no Offices to be sold, nor Bribes to be taken; To Rectifie the Excess of Vanity, is, to see that a Law be made, that every Degree or Quality is to be Known or Distinguished by their Habits, and to set a Stint or Proportion in Feasting, as that the Greatest Feast shall not Exceed such a Price or Charge, as your Majesty and your Great Council shall think fit; And to Rectifie your Empty Treasury, is, to provide that first your Majesties Expences must not be above your Revenue; also to take great care, that your Officers and Receivers do not Coosen your Ma∣jesty; for if your Expences be above your Re∣venue, and that your Officers and Receivers Deceive you, your Majesty must be Necessitated Page 111 to Tax your People, which will so much Dis∣content your Subjects in General, as will cause them to Murmur, and make them apt to Rebell, and if they should Rebell, your Majesty for want of Money, would not be able to Resist them, or to Help your Self; also for want of Money, your Majesties Magazins are as Empty, as your Treasury. Wherefore, your Majesty must be Industrious to Fill the One, and to Store the Other, that your Majesty may have Arms and Ammunition for your use, if need Re∣quire.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to the King, at the Council-bord.
May it Please your Majesty,
THere are some Needy, or rather Spending, or Wasting Unthrifts, that have got from your Majesty leave for Monopolies, not caring what Harm they do your Majesty, so they may Reap a Profit to Themselves; but were they as Meritorious Subjects, as any your Majesty hath, yet they cannot be so Deserving, as to Displease many Thousands of your other Sub∣jects, to Favour and Reward some Few parti∣cular Persons, and for the Advancing and In∣riching of those Persons, many Hundreds, nay Thousands are Ruined, at least Impoverish'd; but if your Majesty were any wayes the Better, or receiv'd any Profit, either by Increasing and Page 112 Inriching your Treasures, or for the Service of your Warrs, or that it were any wayes Bene∣ficial for your Government, or that you did Re∣ceive any Pleasure or Delight thereby, Mono∣polies ought not to be Spoken against, but it is so far from that, as it Impoverishes your Majesties Store, by Impoverishing your Subjects, by their Ingrossing, and then Inhansing particular Com∣modities, and when the Generality of your Subjects are Poor, your Majesty cannot be Rich; for your Revenue comes or is drawn from the Generality throughout your whole Kingdom, and not from some Particular Persons; for though particular Persons may make your Majesty Poor, by receiving from your Majesty Great Gifts, yet particular Persons cannot make your Majesty Rich, with particular Presents or Assessments. Thus particular Persons may Drain your Treasury, but not Fill it. Neither can Monopolies nor Monopolizers serve you in your Warrs; for though Monopolies and Mo∣nopolizers may be the Cause of Civil Warrs, by Discontenting the People, yet they cannot Maintain your Warrs, nor Defend your Person, nor Pacifie the People, unless by the Sacrifices of their Lives, and those will not alwayes Sa∣tisfie them; for whensoever a Rebellion is Raised, and Civil Warrs begun, it is a long time, before there can be Peace again. Neither can Monopolies be Beneficial to the Common∣wealth, for the Common-wealth thrives in Equal Distributions, whereas Incrochments, In∣grossings, Page 113 and Hordings of several and particular Commodities, Impoverish the Common∣wealth, like as when some men Hord up Corn, it causes a Dearth, Inhansing the Price so High as the Poorer People are not able to Buy it, or at least not so much as daily to Feed them; the like for Money; when Rich Miserable men Hord up Money, it makes such a Scarcity of it, that the Poor People, although they Labour Painfully, yet cannot get enough to Maintain Themselves, their Wives, and Children; for the Scarcer Money is, the Cheaper is their Work, in so much as Poor Labouring men can∣not get Half the Worth of their Labour: Nei∣ther doth your Majesty receive any Pleasure or Delight by Granting Monopolies or Monopo∣lizers; for what Pleasure can it be to hear the Murmurs and Complaints of your Poor Sub∣jects? what Pleasure can it be for your Majesty to have Monopolizers, to Spend what they get by their Monopolies, on Mistresses, Luxury, and Vanity? they are not to Entertain your Majesty with Masks, Playes, Shews, Sports and Pa∣stimes, for you pay Dear for those Delights without their Assistance. The truth is, that those Monopolizers get more, than they ought to do that way, and yet not so much as the People loses; Like as those that Plunder a City, the City loses more than the Souldiers get by their Plunder, for they can make little Profit of those Commodities, that the Citizens grew Rich by, and the Souldiers do not only Take the Goods, Page 114 but Spoil the Trade; The like do Monopolizers; indeed they are Devouring Worms in a Com∣mon-wealth, Eating out the very Bowels, which is Trade, for without Trade a Common∣wealth cannot well Subsist; for how should men Live by one an other, but by Trading? But we are sure, that your Gracious Majesty did not know or think what a Mischief Monopolies are in a Common-wealth, otherwise we your Ma∣jesties Counsellours know, your Majesty would never have Granted or Suffered such Sores upon your Loyal Subjects.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-bord.
May it Please your Sacred Majesty,
THese Petitioners, that Petition for Refor∣mations of Government, and Complain for the Breach of their Privileges, and Exclame a∣gainst their Magistrates, and your Majesties Ministers of State, are to be considered as Dange∣rous Persons, for their Petitions are Fore-run∣ners of Civil Warrs, if not Timely prevented; for though they Cloak their Treacherous De∣signs under Fair and Humble Words at the first, yet no doubt, but they will persist and go on in a Rough and Rude manner; for what they call in their Petition, their Humble Complaints, are Factious and Seditious Murmurings, and what they name their Humble Desires of Redress, are Page 115 Presumptuous Demands, and the Number of the Petitioners are a Rebellious Insurrection, for which they ought to be Severely Punished, fome of them with Imprisonment, and some with the Loss of their Goods, others to be Punish'd with Death, and others with Banish∣ment, and their Privileges ought utterly to be Taken from them, as that they have Forfeited them to your Majesty. Thus shall you raise Money from Mollits, Strength from Traitors, and Peace from Warr.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-Table.
May it Please your Majesty,
THat I say I am of the opinion, that the Counsel of the Lord N. N. is too Se∣vere, and that it is Dangerous to Inveterate a Discontented People, but rather they should be Palleated and Qualified with some Condescence, as also to put out some Declarations in their Fa∣vour, which will be a means to Pacifie them, and to Allay their Discontents, and Hinder their Evil Designs; For if you Rub a Sore, it will Fester, and may make it Gangreen, and cause a Part to fall from the Whole: So, to Inrage a People may make them Rebell, and Fall from their Allegi∣ance, which otherwise it may be they would not do, and he is an Ill Surgeon, that will Make a Wound, instead of Healing a Wound; So it Page 116 were not well to Make Traitors, that would be Loyal Subjects, or to make Warrs instead of keeping Peace, and when Warr is begun, it is not likely there will be any good Agreement, untill most of the Kingdome is Ruined, in which Ruine your Majesty will be a Loser; for he is the Greatest King that hath the most Flourishing and Populous Kingdome, and he is the Happiest King, that hath the most Peaceable Subjects.
A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-bord.
May it Please your Majesty,
THat I say I am neither of the Lord N. N. Opinion, as to put your Justice against your Offending Subjects presently in Execution, nor of the Lord S. Y. Opinion, to let your Offen∣ding Subjects go Unpunished, and Worse to Flatter them, for that will make them Proud, and Pride will make them stand upon High Terms, nay, it will make them Insult so Impe∣riously, as not any Condescence will Satisfie them; for when as the People perceives their Soveraign is Afraid of them, they become Un∣ruly, but when they Fear their Soveraign, they are Obedient; for it is impossible to Work upon their Good Nature, as to make them Obey through Love and Good Will, because they have no Good Natures to Work on; where∣fore, there is none other way but Force, to make Page 117 them Loyal, and to keep them to their Allegi∣ance; and my Advice is to your Majesty, to make your self Strong, before you appear either to Favour them, or Disfavour them, but to be so Long in your Results, as your Majesty hath Gathered up your Strength, and Setled your Power, and Secured your Person; otherwise you may Declare what you will, but you shall have but Few Partakers, whilst you are Weak and Powerless; for men Listen not so much to Words, as they are Afraid of what they See; for Power Increases Power, whereas Words do but Multiply Words, and Lessen Power; but when your Majesty hath got a Sufficient Power to Oppose them, or to Command them, then Declare your Will and Pleasure, and put your Justice in Execution. Wherefore it is Requisite, that your Majesty should Store your Magazins, Man your Forts, make Garrisons, Rigg your Navy, and Get what Money you can, to Raise an Army if need require; also your Majesty must take great Care, that you Imploy and In∣trust Honest Men and Loyal Subjects, such as have been alwayes Obedient, otherwise you will be Betrayed, and your own Designs will be turn'd against you; for your Majesties Affairs require now rather Honest than Subtil men, and Wise rather than Crafty men.
ORATIONS IN Courts of MAIESTY, FROM Subjects to their KING, AND From the King to his Subjects.
Complaints of the Subjects to their Sove∣raign.
Most Gracious Soveraign,
WE are come here not as Mutinous Re∣bells, but Humble Petitioners to implore your Favour, as to redress our Grievances, and to take off our Heavy Oppressions; for all the Profit of our Labours, which should maintain our Lives, Wives and Children, is Forcibly Taken Page 119 from us, and we do not only Pay Taxes, but In∣tolerable Prices for all Commodities and Ne∣cessaries, occasioned by Monopolies and Pro∣jects, which ingross all Particular Commodities, so that we are Forced to Buy our Liberties to Sell, and Sell our Liberties to Buy; But if your Majesty were a Gainer by our Loss, and were Inriched by our Poverty, we could be well contented to be Miserable for your Majesties Sake, either for your Profit or Pleasure, but your Majesty injoyes it not, but Other men which are call'd Courtiers, Promotors, Pro∣mooters, and Projectors, spend it Idlely, Vain∣ly, Riotously, and we fear Wickedly; So that what we get with Labour, they spend with Idleness, what we get with Care, they spend with Carelesness; the truth of it is, they Wear our Lives upon their Backs, and Feed upon our Bowels; but the worst is, that if we be Poor Half Starved, we shall neither be able to Serve your Gracious Majesty either in Peace or Warr, and therefore we beseech your Majesty for your Own sake as well as for Ours, you would be pleas'd to Redress our Grievances.
The Subjects Complaint to their Soveraign, of the Abuses of their Magistrates.
Most Gracious Soveraign,
AS all Creatures make their Complaints to God, as the Highest and most Powerfull Page 120 in Heaven: So we your Humble and Obedient Subjects make our Complaints to your Maje∣sty, as the Highest and most Powerfull, being Gods Vice-regent, on Earth; But though your Majesty is Loving and Carefull of your Poor Subjects, making Judges, Magistrates, and Offi∣cers, to keep Order, to do Justice, to give Right, to rectifie Errors, and to punish Crimes, that your Subjects might Flourish in Peace and Plenty, yet they are so far from doing Justice, as they make Wrongs, and do Injuries, and in∣stead of Giving every one their Right, they Take away our Rights from us, and instead of Order, they commit Disorder, and instead of rectifying Errors, they make Errors, and instead of punishing Crimes, they are the greatest Cri∣minals themselves, and those that are the most Honest and Peaceable of your Subjects, are most sure to be Worst used by them, because they have not that Profit by Them, as by those that are Disturbers, Destroyers, or Deceivers, for when They have committed Faults, they get money for their Pardons, whereas those that commit no Fault, need no Pardon: And as for Justice, or rather Injustice, it is sold at the Bar or on the Bench; for Causes or Cases are not Pleaded or Decided for Truth or Right, but for Bribes or Favour; also the Magistrate doth not set the Poor a-Work, but takes away the Poors Work, I mean not their Labour, but their Get∣ting, as the Profit, and so leaves them not any thing to Live on; Also they do Rob the Sub∣jects Page 121 in General, and your Majesty in Particu∣lar; for though they take away Much from Us, yet they pay your Majesty but Little in Com∣parison of what they take, and they Use or ra∣ther Abuse your Majesties Name, to the Ruine of your Subjects; for they Extort by your Ma∣jesties Name, and when we hear your Majesties Name, we humbly Submit and Yield to all they Demand; for not only your Person, but your Name is Sacred to us: But give us leave to tell your Majesty, that they are so Unsatiably Co∣vetous, as all the VVealth of your other Sub∣jects will not Satisfie them, and their Covetous∣ness makes them so Unbelieving, and Hard∣hearted, as when they have taken All from us, they put us in Prison, because we have Nothing left to Give them, and if we be not put in Pri∣son, we are put to Slavery, and many times our VVives and our Children are Abused; And this is the Lamentable Condition of your Poor Subjects; for which we implore your Majesties Redress, knowing it is not your Majesties Plea∣sure we should suffer so miserably.
A Kings Speech to his Rebellious rout.
VVHat is the Reason or Cause you gather together in such Rebellious Tumults? Is it for fear of your Lives or Liberties? which you have no cause to Fear, for I am not your Page 122 Enemy, but your Gracious King; or is it that you are my Enemies, and throng to Dethrone me? or is it that you would have the Absolute Power amongst you? which Absolute Power cannot be Divided amongst Many; for if every one hath Liberty to do what he list, not any man will have Power to do what he would; for Liberty will be lost, if every man will take upon him to Rule, and Confusion will take place of Government. Thus striving for Liberty, you will thrust your selves into Slavery, and out of Ambition to Rule, you will lose all Govern∣ment, and out of Covetousness to be Rich, you'l make your selves Miserably Poor; for if there be no Government, there can be no Order, if there be no Order, there can be no Justice, and if no Justice, there can be no Safety, if no Safety, no Peace, if no Peace, no Trade, and if no Trade, there will be no Riches. VVherefore your best way is, to Submit and Obey, to be Content, to be Ruled, and not seek to Govern, to injoy your Rights, and to revenge your VVrongs by Law and Justice, and not to make VVarr and Confu∣sion to destroy your selves.
A Kings Speech to Rebellious Subjects.
I May call you Well-beloved Subjects, but I cannot call you Loving Subjects; for al∣though I have been Carefull, Watchfull, Pru∣dent, and Just for your Safeties, Peace, Prosperi∣ties, Page 123 and Rights, yet you regard not my Safety. my Peace, nor my Rights; Neither can I call you Good, for you are Factious, Complaining, and full of Malice; nay, it may be a question whether I may call you Subjects, for you Dis∣obey all Authority, Resist the Laws, and will Obey no Command, unless you be Forced; and though you have not Actually Rebell'd, yet you are in the Way to it, for you Dispute my Pow∣er, and would if you could, take away my Pre∣rogatives, but will not quit any of your Privi∣leges, which shews your Unconscionableness, Ungratefulness, and Unkindness to me, your Soveraign; Besides, you are so Unreasonable, and so Evil, as you murmur at my Harmless and Lawfull Pleasures, but will abate none of your own Vanities, Vices, and Wickednesses. The truth of it is. I have done like an Over-fond Fa∣ther, who through extreme Love and Tender∣ness to his Children, hath given them their Wills and Liberties So much, as they forget their Duties, and become Disobedient through VVantonness; but had I used Severity instead of Clemency, and had Rigorously kept you in Fear, and had Exacted More from you, and had Yielded Less to you, and had I Curbed your Liberties, you had been more Obedient, which would have been more Happy both for Me and for You; for then you would have been Go∣vern'd Easily, and Obey'd Willingly, by which we should have Lived Peaceably, whereas now we are like to Ruine each other with Civil Page 124 VVarrs, unless Heaven open your Eyes of Un∣derstanding, to see your Faults, Errors, and Dangers, you are like to fall into; but I hope Heaven will give you Grace to Reform your Lives, and Conform your Manners to Live Peaceably.
A Kings Speech to Discontented Subjects.
I Perceive Frowning Countenances amongst my people, which doth portend a Storm, but let me advise you from raising a Storm, lest you Ship-wrack the whole Kingdome, and be Drown'd your selves in the VVaves of Rebel∣lion; The truth of it is, Raging Men are worse than Raging Billows, and worse, more Devour∣ing than the Sea. Yet if you are resolve'd to make VVarr, rather make VVarr in Forein Na∣tions, than in your Own Country, and on Strangers, rather than on your Friends; for to make VVarr on Me, your King, and your So∣veraign, is against the Laws of God; to make VVarr on the Protector of your Liberties, and Father of your Country, is Unnatural; to spill your Friends Blood, is Ungratefull and Inhu∣man; to Ruine your Native Country, is Barba∣rous; by which Actions you will become worse than Beasts, and as bad as Devils; but if you be so possest with Fury, as no Intreaties will dis∣possess you, you must be Scourged with Misery: Page 125 the truth is, you seem by your Rebellious Acti∣ons to be Mad, and then there is no Cure for you, but to be Let Blood in the Discontented Veins, and I will be your Surgeon, on whom I'l try my Skil and Power, to bring you into a Perfect Obedience; besides, I will Bind you with Bonds of Slavery, and Whip you with Rods of Afflictions, unless you presently Con∣form your selves to Peace, Law, and Govern∣ment, and humbly crave Pardon for your Faults.
A Kings Speech to his Rebellious Sub∣jects.
PRoud, Presumptuous Subjects, for so you are, that Dare bring your Soveraigns Prero∣gatives in question, and to Dispute his Power; but who Gave you that Authority? not my Ancestors, nor your Own; for my Ancestors Conquered your Ancestors, and made them Slaves, in which Slavery you ought to have been Kept, and not to have such Liberty as now you have, in so much as to come so Near and so High in your Demands, as to Justle me in my Throne; only you cast a Veil of Pretence over your Wicked Designs, the Pretence is your Rights and Privileges; but what Rights had you, when you were Conquered? and what Privileges have you, but what the Conquerour gave? he gave you not the Privilege to Dispute my Page 126 Power, or to Bring my Prerogatives in Que∣stion; neither have you Privilege to Disobey my Command, to Resist my Authority, or to Break my Laws; and know, rather than I will quit my Rights, my Birth, or my Power, I will Die first; but my Death will not serve your turn, for I have Successors; and though your Idle thoughts and Vain hopes perswade you you shall get more Liberty by Rebellious Acti∣ons, yet you may be Deceiv'd, and in the end thrust your selves in Absolute Slavery; but it seems you had rather be Base Slaves, than Loyal Subjects, or else you would not be so apt to Mutiny as you are, yet if you once Rebell; I will indeavour to Destroy Every man that Op∣poses me, or Stands Neuter, and if I cannot De∣stroy you with that Power I have, I will call in Forein Nations that shall Devour you; for believe, I will not be Ruined Alone, but the Ruine of the whole Kingdome shall Accompany me.
A Recantation of the Poor Petitioning Subjects.
Most Dread Soveraign,
YOur most Sorrowfull and poor Petitioning Subjects, hearing your Majesty was Dis∣pleased at their Complaints, and Angry with them, for coming in a Company together, im∣ploring your Majesties Favour and Redress of Page 127 their Poor Condition, not imagining that their Complaints would be taken as Factious and Se∣ditious Murmurings, or their Desires of Re∣dress as Presumptuous Demands, or that their Petitioning in a Company together would be taken for a Rebellious Insurrection, they have sent Me a Poor man, not daring to Come Toge∣ther as they did, to let your Majesty know, how much Afflicted they are for your Displeasure, which Displeasure they are more Grieved for, than for any other Affliction, that could come either upon their Lives, Bodies, Goods, Wives, or Children; for they do Assure your Majesty, and call Heaven to Witness for them, that they came not for any Evil design to your Majesty, nor your Majesties Government, but only out of a Good Intent, believing your Majesty did not Know what they did Suffer; but if they had Known, or but Imagined, it had been your Majesties Will and Pleasure they should Suffer, they would never have Complain'd, and rather have Starved or Indured any Torment, than Opposed your Majesty in any thing: and if your Majesty thinks their Ignorant Fault is be∣yond a Pardon, they are ready and willing to Indure any Punishment, or to Dye at your Ma∣jesties Command.
Repenting Subjects to their Soveraign.
Most Gracious Soveraign,
VVE your most Penitent Subjects crave Pardon for our Faults, not only with Tears in our Eyes, but Sorrow in our Hearts, for our Murmuring Speeches and Rebellious Actions, for which we confess we Deserve to Die, or worse, as to indure great and grievous Torments; but if your Majesties Clemency Spare our Bodies from Pain, and our Lives from Death, we are doubly, nay trebly bound to your Majesty, first by our Duties, next for your Mercy, and last for our Pardon, to be not only your Majesties Loyal Subjects, but Loyal Slaves; And since there is no man so Perfect, but is Subject to Offend, and not in Light or Small Offences, but Great and Grievous, as not only against Man and man, or against Nature, but a∣gainst God himself; We hope your Majesty will Consider our Frail Natures, and will rather blame Nature for Making us so, than Us for Be∣ing so. But since Repentance is the way to For∣giveness, and Absolution follows Contrition, we with Contrite Hearts and Humble Spirits crave your Mercy.
A Kings Speech to his Good Subjects.
MY Beloved, and most Loving Subjects, (for so you are) I have required your Assem∣bling together, that I may see You, and you Me; for I do not Love to be as a Stranger to my Subjects, nor I would not have my Subjects as Strangers to me; and if it were possible, I would be acquainted with their Faces, Degrees, Qualities, and Professions, and not only be their King, but their Friend, not to Govern them in General, but to Counsel and Advise in Particu∣lars. Indeed, I have Reason to give you often Publick Visits, as also Publick Thanks for your Loyalty and Love; for your Obedience seems such, as you seem to Watch for my Commands, and your Love is such, as you seem to prefer my Safety before your Own Lives, and my Plea∣sures before your Own Profits, in so much as you seem you did Desire only to Live to Serve me; for which I Thank the Gods for making me so Happy to be a King of such Subjects, whose only Strife is for my Favour, who are Ambitious only for my Fame, and take a Pride in my Glory, whose Valours Inlarge my Do∣minions, whose Industries Inrich my Treasu∣ries, whose Delights are my Pleasures, whose Love Protects my Person, and whose Prayers are for my Health and Long Life; I can only say, that your Loyalty, Obedience, and Love, Page 130 is not to a King, that doth not Regard it, nor to a Tyrant, that had rather be Fear'd than Loved; but assure your selves, my Affection to my Peo∣ple is such, as a Fond Fathers to his Only Son, who had rather Die for his Sons Good, than Live to his Own Pleasure, and that all the In∣deavours of his Life are for his Sake, as to make his Son Rich, Noble, and Powerfull, that he may have Respect, Renown, and Fame amongst Strangers; The like do I for my Subjects. In∣deed a King is the Common Father of his Peo∣ple, and I Rejoyce to See you as a Loving Father doth his Children, and so I Pray the Gods to Bless you.
SPEECHES OF Dying Persons.
A Kings Dying Speech to his Noble Subjects.
FAithfull Counsellours, Just Magi∣strates, Loving Friends, Noble Men, and Loyal Subjects, you see me here Death's Prisoner; yet though I must part with my Subjects, they shall not part with their Soveraign, for I shall leave them a King, though I Die. I have been your Crown'd King this Thirty Years, a Heavy Weight, and a Long time of Trouble; But a King hath more Title than Power, and more Power than Pleasure: for were all his Subjects Slaves, and all did Obey his Will, yet to Order Page 132 and Govern them to his Will, requires Pains, Care, and Study; but my Desire and Will was to make my Subjects Happy, to which end I bent all my Industry, the which I wish, my Successor may do the like, for good Subjects deserve a good Soveraign; Indeed, all good Subjects have not at all times good Soveraigns, nor all good Soveraigns good Subjects, for all Soveraigns are not Wise, nor all Subjects Loy∣al; for though good men make good Subjects, yet good men do not alwaies make good Sove∣raigns, as being not Piety, nor Moral Honesty, that makes good Kings, but Industry, Obser∣vation, Understanding, Judgement, Wit, Pru∣dence, and Courage, that makes Kings Wise Rulers; also Counsels, Experience, and Pra∣ctice, which makes an Old King a Better Go∣vernour than a Young King, and yet all Subjects for the most part grow weary with their Sove∣raigns Age, and so consequently with their own Happiness; but their Folly and Ingratitude is often Punished in having their Desires. In∣deed, most of mankind through Ignorance and Inconstancy desire their own Hurt, which when they Feel, they are Displeased with the Gods for Granting that they were Earnest with the Gods to Give them, so that they are seldome Contented: But I wish they may have good Desires, contented Minds, and happy Lives, and I pray the Gods, they may Flourish with my Successors in Peace and Plenty, as they have done with Me, to whom I leave You, and Him to you: Farewell.
A Daughters Dying Speech to her Father.
FAther, Farewell! and may that Life that Issues from My young and tender Years, be added to Your Age! may all your Grief be Bu∣ried in my Grave, and may the Joys, Pleasures and Delights, that did attend my Life, be Ser∣vants unto Yours! may Comfort Dry your Eyes, God Cease your Sorrows, that, though I Die, you may Live Happily. Why do you mourn that Death must be your Son-in-Law? since he is a Better Husband, than any you could Choose me, or I could Choose my Self, it is a Match that Nature and the Fates have made; Wherefore be Content, for it is not in your Power to alter the Decrees of Fate, for Destiny cannot be Opposed, but if you could, you would Rob me of the Happiness the Gods intend me; for though my Body shall dwell with Death, my Soul shall dwell in Heaven, and Holy An∣gels that are my Marriage Guests, will Conduct it to that Glory, for which you have cause to Joy, and not to Grieve, for all Creatures Live but to Die, but those that are Blessed Die to Live, and so do I. Farewell.
A Souldiers Dying Speech to his Friends.
YOu are come to see me Die, but I am sorry you shall see me Die in the Bed of Sloth, and not in the Field of Action; for now I shall Die like a Coward, whereas had I Died in the Field of Warr, I should have Died as a Valiant man; indeed the Field of Warr is the Bed of Honour, wherein all Valiant and Gallant men should Die; but Fortune hath denied me that Honour, she hath spar'd my Life to my Loss, for those that Die in the Warrs, have Greater Renowns and Gloriouser Fame, than those that Die in Chambers of Peace; for whatsoever Heroick Acts men have done, for the most part Die, if they Out-live them; for such Actions Live by the Deaths of the Actors, I do not say Alwaies, but for the Most part, which makes me fear the Service I have done my King and Country, will Die with me, and be Buried in Oblivions Grave, yet should the Service I have done, be quite Forgotten, I should not Repent my Actions; for Honourable persons and Gal∣lant men should do what they Ought to do, al∣though they were certain Never to be Rewar∣ded; for though few men are Rewarded accor∣ding to their Merits, and many have Favour, that did Never Merit a Reward, (so Unjust is the World, Fortune, and Fame) yet their In∣justice Page 135 must not make men Unworthy; but I have done my Part, and Death will do His. Farewell.
A Dying Speech of a Loving Mistress to her Beloved Servant.
SErvant, This day I should have been your Wife, and so Your Servant, as you have been Mine, but Death hath Robbed Hymen of his Rights, and now he Fights with Life, which he will Overcome; for Death is Conquerour of All, and Triumphs in his Spoils: Yet Death by taking my Life Prisoner, will set your Person Free to choose an other Mistress to make a Wife, in whose Imbraces I shall be Buried and utterly Forgotten. I speak not this in Envy to Her Hap∣piness, nor Yours, for Envy dwells with Life, and not with Death; nor am I Loth to Die, nor Grieve to be Forgotten, no, not by those that I Loved most and equal with my Soul; for those I Love, I would not have them Mourn in Me∣lancholy thoughts and Sad remembrance of my Death, I only wish, that She that you Love next, may return Love again, with as much Truth, Constancy, and Purity, as I have Loved you, and may she be the Glory of her Sex, and Honour of her Husband, and may you Live to Love each Other, and Love to Live for One an others Sake; may Nature, Time, Fortune, Fate, and the Gods joyn in your Happiness. Fare∣well.
A Forein Travellers Dying Speech.
I Have Travelled Farr, and have seen Much of the World, and have gone Round about the World, but now I shall Travel Out of the World, from which I shall bring no News, I shall not come back to Relate my Journies, or to tell you what Strange Creatures there are in the Other World, or what Dangers I escap'd, or what Adventures I have made, or what several Countries there are, and which is good for Plan∣tation, or what Commodities there are, or what Traffick there is or may be; for though all Creatures are Transported, yet no Returns are Sent back in Lieu of them, unless we believe New-born Creatures are sent out of the Other World into This, but that is not Probable, be∣cause they are Made in this World, and of the same Substances of the World: But howso∣ever, those that are Sent thither, as by Sickness, Casualties, Fortune, and Age, Return no more; wherefore, I must take my Last leave of you; for though I have been at the Confines of Death, and am Return'd to my Friends again, yet I never was in the Region of Death, a place I ne∣ver was Ambitious or Desirous to go to; for though I had the Curiosity to see the several Countries, Kingdomes, and Places in the several parts of the World, yet I never had the Curi∣osity Page 137 to Travel into Death's Kingdome, no nor to see the Mansions of the Gods, which may be Accounted a Sin. Indeed Travellers are ac∣counted Atheistical, but if they were, yet when they come to Die, they would change those Atheistical Opinions: and as Bad as they are thought to be, yet they are not Afraid of Death; for then they would not Venture their Lives so Often as they do; indeed Travellers have as Great Courage as Souldiers have, and 'tis be∣lieved as Little Religion, but not so much Hate, Envy, Malice, Revenge, nor Covetousness, un∣less they be Merchants; nor they are not Rob∣bers and Murderers, they do not Take away mens Lives, nor Goods, as Souldiers do; but of all men, Travellers have most reason to Adore and Worship God Best, for they see Most of his Wonderfull works, which shew his Power, Might, Wisdome, and Majesty, the which makes his Creatures Admire him, Praise him, Fear him, Love him, and Pray to him as the Great, Omnipotent, Infinite, Eternal, Incom∣prehensible, and Everlasting God, to whom I Resign my Soul, and Leave my Body to Death. Farewell.
A Lovers Dying Speech to his Beloved Mistress.
THough I must Die, I leave my Life to Live with You, for You are the Life of my Love, and the Love of my Life; you are the Palace of my Soul, wherein it Lives, and will Remain, though Death doth take my Body hence; for Souls Live, though Bodies Die; yet do not Drown my Soul in Tears, nor Cloud it with your Sorrows, but give it Light of Joy, and Please it with your Kind remembrance. But O my Jealous thoughts do Torture more my Mind, than Pains of Death do Torture my Weak Body, lest you should Banish the Love of Me, to Entertain a Stranger, which if you do, the Gods will Punish you for your Incon∣stancy; But pardon this my Jealousie, for Doubts proceed from Love, and your Virtue is the Anchor of my Hopes, and Haven of Secu∣rity, in which my Love lives safe, Farewell.
A Sons Dying Speech to his Father.
FAther, I have been an Unprofitable Son, for I shall Die a Batchelour, and so leave you no Posterity to keep alive your Name and Family, which is a Double Grief, both to your Self and Page 139 Me, indeed to Me it is a Treble Grief, because the Fault is only Mine, loving Vain Pleasures and Liberty so much, as made me unwilling to be Bound in Wedlock Bonds, believing that a Wife would be a Hinderance to those Delights that Pleas'd me; besides, I trusted to my Youth and Health, thinking I had time Enough to Marry and Increase; also I thought that very Young men's Children would prove but Weak and Sickly in Body and Mind; thus did I bring many Arguments to Live a Batchelour, untill such time as I had more Maturity of Years, and then I did intend to Choose a VVife with your Consent, or else Consent to Marry whom you Pleas'd; but Death will alter that Design, and you and I must both Submit to Heavens Decree. Yet have I this to Comfort me, that you did never Command me to Marry, wherefore my Fault was not a Fault of Disobedience, for I never Disobey'd you all my Life, which makes me Die in Peace. Farewell.
A Young Virgins Dying Speech.
I Do Perceive, that Holy Angels hover about my Soul, to Bear it to the Gods, when parted from my Body, a Virgin's Soul it is, Cloth'd with white Innocency, and so fitter for their Company, as also for the Robe of Glory, which the Gods will give me. As for my Body, though Page 140 it be Young, yet is it only fit for Death, as being Due to him, for that was made of Earth, and Death is Lord of all the Earth doth Form, Breed, and Bring forth; but Souls being of an other Nature, those that are Celestial, Procee∣ding from the Gods, do to the Gods Return; whereas Wicked Souls, that are Damned, and Proceed not from the Gods, but from the Dam∣ned Spirits, Return to the Damned crew again: for all is Good, that doth Proceed from God, and though the Best of Souls doth Sin, yet God doth give them Purging Grace, that Cleanses them from Evil, which Grace hath Purified my Soul, and made it Fit for Heaven, where I do wish all Souls may come. Farewell.
A Husbands Dying Speech to his Wife.
VVIfe, Farewell; for Death will Break our Marriage knot, and will Divorce our Persons, but not Dissolve our Love, unless you be Inconstant; for Death hath not that Power to Disunite our Souls, for they may Live and Love Eternally; but if you Marry a Second Husband, you separate our Loves, as Death will separate our Bodies, for in that Mar∣riage-bed you will Bury all Remembrance of me; and so shall I doubly Die, and doubly be Buried; for your second Husband will be my second Death; but if you Live a Widdow, you will keep me stil Alive, both in your Name and Page 141 Memory, where I desire to Live, untill your Body Dies, and then our Souls will meet with Joy, Delight, and Happiness; till then Fare∣well.
A common Courtisans Dying Speech.
KInd Friends, and Wanton Lovers, when I was in Health, you came to view my Beau∣ty, to hear my Voice, and to Injoy my Person in Amorous Imbraces, and all for your own Plea∣sures and Delights, but I did Entertain such Vi∣sitors more for the Lucre of Profit, than for the Pleasures of Love, more for your Presents, than your Persons; the truth is, I was more Cove∣tous of Wealth than Amorously Affected; not, but that I took Pleasure in seeing my Beauty Admired, and hearing my Wit Prais'd, and took delight to insnare mens Affections with my At∣tractive Graces, and was Proud of the Power I had by Nature's Favour, yet that Power I only imploy'd to Inrich my Self, that I might Live Bravely and Luxuriously, or to Hord up to maintain me when I was Old. But O those Covetous desires and Vain delights have Ruined both my Body and Soul, in Grievous Pains I Live, and should Despairing Die, but that the Gods are Mercifull, and Pardon Penitent Sinners, for if I were to Live, I would not Live that Life I have done, not only for my Souls sake, but for my Bodies; for had I thought of Page 142 Death, or could imagine the Pains that now I feel, the Pocky rotting Pains that Torture my weak Body, I should have been less Covetous of Wealth, and more Carefull of Health, I should not have made my Beauty, Wit, and becoming Graces and Adornments to intice Customers to buy Sinfull Pleasures; or had I thought of the Joys in Heaven, I should have Despised all worldly Delights; or had I fear'd the Torments of Hell, I should have Spent my time in Prayers, and not in Courtships: But Life is almost Past with me, for Death hath strucken me with his VVand so, that I cannot Live to Mend, but Die to be Forgiven, for I do truly and unfeignedly Repent. Farewell.
A Vain young Ladies Dying Speech.
YOu are Charitable in Visiting the Sick, a Charity that I did seldome Practise, for when I was in Health, I was so taken up with Vanities and worldly Pleasures, as I could never Spare so much time as to Visit a sick Friend; nei∣ther was I Charitable to the Poor, as to help to Relieve their Wants, for I spent so much on my Braveries, as I left not any thing to give unto the Poor; indeed, I did shun Visiting the Sick, be∣cause they put thoughts of Death in my Mind, which thoughts did disturb my Mind, and ob∣struct my Delights; but if I had thought of Page 143 Death more, and had Visited the Sick oftner, I had never Liv'd so Idlely, nor Spent my time so Unprofitably, nor had been so Foolishly Vain, as I have been; for I regarded nothing but Beau∣ty, Fashions, Dressing, Dancing, Feasting, Court∣ships, and Bravery, I never thought of Heaven, nor Read holy Books of Divinity, but only ly∣ing Romances, and my Contemplation was all of Wanton Love. 'Tis true, I went Often to Church, but not to Pray, but to be Pray'd to, not as a Saint, but as a Mistress, I may say as a Sinner; for I went not to Church for Instructi∣on, but for Destruction, more for to Shew my Beauty, than to Reform my Life, more to get VVanton Lovers, than to get Saving Grace; I listned not to what the Preachers taught, but look'd which of the Gallants eyed me. Thus did I increase and multiply Sins under the Veil of Devotion, for which I deserve great and grievous Punishments; but the Gods are merci∣full, and will Forgive me, for now I do more Hate Vanities, than ever I did Love them, and all my Evil thoughts are Banished from my mind; indeed Death hath frighted all such thoughts away, and Pious thoughts do take their place, and as the Gods come neer, the VVorld shrinks from me, as Guilty of these Sins, and millions of other Sins besides: but Death will stay no longer, for Blessed Angels bear away my Soul. Farewell.
A Fathers Speech to his Son on his Death∣Bed.
I Have Lived a Long time, so Long, that, were not you a Good Son, you would have Wish∣ed my Death, before Nature had Ordained me to Die; but as Heaven hath blest me with Long Life, so with a Good, Loving, and Duti∣full Son, which hath been a Help and Comfort to my Old Age; and as Heaven hath given you Grace, and Nature a Good Disposition to Love and Obey your Father, so Heaven and Nature hath given you Health and Ability to beget Posterity, in which I shall Live in Name and Fame, though I Die in Body. But Son, as you have been a Helpfull and Dutifull Son, so I have been a Loving and Carefull Father; for I have been more Prudent for my Sons Good, than Vain for my Own Pleasure; I have been more Industrions to Advance and Inrich my Son, than to Please or Delight my Self, and I have thought my Self Happier in my Sons Life, than I have done in my Own. Thus, Son, I have, and do Love You better than my Self, and all the Desire and Request I have to you, is, that as I have been a Father to You, so you to be a Father to Yours, and so I Pray the Gods to Bless you, Fortune to Favour you, Wisdome to Page 145 Help you, Nature to Strengthen you, Time to Prolong you, and when your Time comes to Die, that we may meet in the other World with Joy and Happiness; The Gods have Mercy of Me, and Bless You. Farewell.
An Oration to the People concerning the Death of their Soveraign.
Dear Country-men, and Loyal Mourners,
WE may see our Loss by our Love, and our Love by our Grief, and our Grief by our Tears; but we have reason for our General Mourning and Sorrow in every Heart, that our Dread Soveraign is Taken from us. He was our Earthly God, as our Protector, Defender, Assi∣ster, Subsister, Ruler, and Governour; he Pro∣tected us with his Justice, Defended us with his Arms, Assisted us with his Prudence, Subsisted us with his Love, Ruled us with his Power, and Govern'd us by his Laws; and such a Prince he was, as he was Dreadfull to his Ene∣mies, Page 147 Helpfull to his Friends, and Carefull of his Subjects; he hath Inlarged his Dominions with the Sword, and Inriched his People with the Spoils, and hath Increas'd his Power both by Sea and Land, and so Strengthned and For∣tified his Kingdomes, as his Subjects have no cause to Fear any Forein Invasion, but may safely sit with Pleasure under their own Vines: And so Wise and Good a Prince he was, that, though he be Gone, yet he hath left Peace and Plenty amongst his People, and Power, Dominion, and Strength to his Successors, with which Heaven grant they may Inherit his Wisdome, Moral Vertues, Divine Graces, Heroick Spirit, Good Fortunes, and Great Fame, that though our Old Soveraign is gone to the Gods above, yet our New Soveraign may be as a God to us here; for which let us pray to our Soveraign Saint, to in∣tercede for us to the Gods on High, to indue their Deputy on Earth with Divine Influences, and Humane Wisdome, to Govern and Rule us as he did.
A young Noble man's Funeral Oration.
VVE are met together as Funeral Guests to a Dead man, who died in the Flower of his Age, and whilst he Lived, was Favoured of Nature, Birth, Breeding, and Fortune; for he was Handsome of Body, Understanding in Mind, Page 148 Noble of Birth, Knowing in Learning, and Rich in Wealth. He was Generous, Valiant, and Courtly; he had a Pleasant Speech, and a Gracefull Behaviour; He was Beloved of the Muses, Admired by the Sciences, and Attended by the Arts; he was Entertained with the Plea∣sures of the World, and Feasted with the Va∣rieties of Pleasures; yet all could not Save him from Death. Indeed Death appears more Cruel to Youth than to Age, because it takes Youth from the most Flourishing time of their Life, although Youth Fears Death less than Age, not that Youth hath more Courage, but Youth doth not Think of Death so often as Age doth, for if Youth had Death in their Mind, they would Fear Death more than Age doth, by so much more as they are Younger, and know the World less; but Youth thinks Death a Long time off from them, although to many he is so Near, as ready to Seize on them; Wherefore if those that are Young, did think they should Die Soon, they would not be so Eager and Fond of the World as they are, nor be so Vain and In∣temperate as many Young Persons be; the brave Gallants would take little Pleasure in New Modes, Gay Cloaths, and Fair Mistresses; a Young Gallant would be but a Dull Courtier, a Melancholy Lover, not Melancholy for his Mistress disfavour, but at Death's approach, not for Love, but for Life; neither would he take Pleasure in Musick or Dancing, for the thoughts of Death would make him Dance false, and put Page 149 his Hearing out of Tune, and the Musick would Sound to his Ears as his Passing Bell; neither would he Eye Beauty, but if he did, the Freshest Beauty would appear Faded; In truth all his Senses would be as Rough and troubled VVa∣ters, disturbed by the Storms of Fear, raised in his Mind; for the most Valiant minds are some∣what Disturbed with the thoughts of Death, by reason the Terrors of Death are Natural to all mankind, not so much to Feel, as to Think of, not only for the Parting of Soul and Body, and the dark Oblivion in Death, but for the Uncer∣tain condition after Death; for though Death is not Sensible of Life, yet Life is Sensible of Death; so that it is the Thoughts of Death that are Fearfull, and not Death it self that is so Ter∣rible, as being neither Painfull to Feel, nor Dreadfull to Behold, because Invisible and In∣sensible, having neither Shape, Sound, Sent, Tast, nor Touch; But this Noble Person is past Thinking, and therefore past Fearing, also past Wishing; for he doth not Desire to live in this VVorld again, he Thinks not of the World, or of any thing in the World, he is free from all Trouble of Mind or Body; in which Happi∣ness let us lay him in the Tomb with his Fore∣fathers, there to rest in Peace and Ease.
A Generals Funeral Oration.
THis Noble Person that lies here Dead, was once our General; a Valiant man he was, a Skilfull Souldier, a Wise Commander, and a Generous Giver; he Loved his Souldiers more than Spoil, and Fame more than Life, he was full of Clemency and Mercy, he would give his Enemies their Lives Freely, when he had Over∣come them Valiantly, and he was so Carefull of his Own Souldiers Lives, as he would never Adventure or put them to the Hazard, but when he saw great Probability of Victory; Yet this Gallant man, this Excellent Souldier, whom his Enemies could never Overcome, Death hath Taken Prisoner, with whom he shall have but a dark Lodging, and cold Entertainment. Thus Death is the most Absolute Conquerour that is, for no Creature is able to Resist or defend them∣selves from Death, whose Uncontroling Power makes him Dreadfull, even to the most Valiant men, not that they fear Death's Dart, but Death's Oblivion; for Valiant men love Life, and fear Death more than Cowards, or else they would not Venture their Bodies so often, were it not out of Love to Life, and Fear of Death; Yet is it not that Life, which Cowards are so Fond of, nor that Death which they are so A∣fraid of, but 'tis the Life of their Fame, and Page 151 Death of their Name, that Honourable and Va∣liant men so much Love and Fear, insomuch, that to gain the One, and to shun the Other, they will Sacrifize their Bodily Life, and Imbrace their Bodily Death, with more Delight and Pleasure, than the Beautiful'st Woman that ever Nature made; and they are to be Commended for it; for it is Life, that the Gods themselves take delight in; for the Gods are pleased to Live in the Minds of their Creatures, and are Angry if their Creatures Think or Speak not Of them, as well as to Them: So all Worthy men Desire and Indeavour to Live in the Minds of their own Kind, and to be Praised, at least Spo∣ken of; for they Desire and Indeavour to Live both in the Thoughts and Words of men, in all Ages, and in all Nations, and by all Men, if it were possible; it being as Natural for Worthy men to desire to be Remembred, as for all men to desire to Live, and as Natural for men to de∣sire to Live, as to Love themselves. But some say, it doth a man no Good to be Remembred when he is Dead: It may be answered, that then it doth a man no Good, to be Remembred whilst he Lives, for Remembrance Lives in the Absent, and Absence is a kind of Death, but he is as Evil a Natured man, that cares not to be Remembered by his Friends, as those that never Remember their Friends; also he is Unnatural to his Kind, and it may be said, that such men are Ungratefull Monsters, or Monstrous Unna∣tural: But this Noble Person was Remembred and Page 152 and Spoken often of by his Absent Friends, and did Remember, and Spoke often of his Friends in their Absence, whilst he was Living, and his Worthy and Valiant Actions will be Remem∣bred and Spoken of now he is Dead, in which Remembrance and VVords he may Live so long as the VVorld lasts, as being the only Re∣ward, this World can give to Worth and Merit, as Piety, Moral Vertue, Valour and Genero∣sity, Wit and Learning; for there is no other Reward in this World, but Remembrance and Praise, which Remembrance and Praise all Good men will give him as his due. Thus will the Tongues and Minds of Living men Build him a Monument of Fame, wherein all his Worthy Acts will be kept in Remembrance, though his Body be Dead, and Buried in Earth, in which let us put it with devout Ceremony.
A judges Funeral Oration.
VVE are met together to see Judge N. N's Body laid into the Grave, who in his Life-time was an Upright Judge, for he Judg'd according to Truth and Right, and not for Fear nor Favour; he was free from Cove∣tousness, or corrupting Bribes, he was both a Good and a VVise Judge, for he would never Judge Over-hastily any Cause for or against, un∣till he had Heard all Sides; neither would he Page 153 Retard or Delay Sutes Over-long, but in All Causes he was very Attentive, and in Doubtfull Causes very Cautious how to Judge, and in all Criminal Causes, or on Life and Death, he would be very Inquisitive to Know the Truth, for he would not Judge Rashly, as to Judge Be∣fore he had Examined strictly, and had sufficient Proofs and Witnesses, or at least very Great Pro∣babilities of the Truth; Also he was neither a Temerarious nor an Over-bold Judge, neither Cruel nor Foolishly Pittifull; for as he would not Pardon so Much nor so Many, as to Incou∣rage men to Offend or Commit Crimes, so he would not Condemn so Much nor so Many, as to make a kind of a Massacre of Lives; all which made him Live with a Good Conscience, and Die with a Good Courage, not Fearing a Condemnation, neither in This World, nor the Next, but Desired to be Summoned to Gods Tribunal, there to be Tried and Judged of the Course of his Life in This World, to which Divine Judge we leave him, bearing his Body to the Grave, there to leave that, but not to leave the Remembrance of Him, nor the due Praise his Memory deserves.
A Sergeants or Barresters Funeral Ora∣tion.
YOu see the Body of Sergeant N. N. lies Dead, ready to be put into the Grave, which shews, that he would not Plead for Life, or else Death had no Ears to Hear his Sute; but if he Pleads as well for Himself at Gods Tribu∣nal, as he did for his Clients at the Barr, he will get Judgement on his side; the truth is, Nature as well as Education made him a Pleader; for Naturally he had a Flowing Speech, and a Flu∣ent Wit, to Turn, Wind, and Form any Cause as he Liked best; for his VVit and Eloquence was such, as to make a Doubtfull Cause seem Clear, and had he not Known by Learning the Laws so Well as he did, yet his Wit and Eloquence would have Covered his Ignorance, and Sup∣plied the Defect of his Learning, but he was as Good and Learned a Lawyer, as an Excellent Pleader, and as Honest a man as Either, for he took more Pains to Plead his Clients Cause, than Pleasure to Take from his Clients Fees; neither would he Prolong his Clients Sute to Drain their Purses, nor yet make his Clients Cause more Doubtfull than it was, to make them more Fearfull of the Success of their Sutes, than they had Reason to fear, and all this to get More Fees; for Fears and Desires are Prodigal Givers, Page 155 as well as Promisers; But rather he Pleaded Gratis for his Poor Clients, wherein he shew'd more Charity to the Poor, than Covetousness to the Rich. Thus he was a Good and Gene∣rous Lawyer, a VVitty, Ingenious, Eloquent Pleader; the truth is, he did not only take Pains for his Clients, but Pleasure in his Own Wit, for he had more Delight, than Profit by his Pleading, and yet he did not take so much Plea∣sure in his Own Wit and Eloquency, as Others did which Heard him, insomuch, as more went to Hear him Plead, than those that had Causes to be Pleaded; he Reproached not any man, nor used Railing Speeches, or Violent Actions in his Pleading, as Many, nay Most Pleaders do, but his Behaviour was Civil, his Wit Sweet, and his Speech Gentle; for though his Wit was Quick, Ready, and Free, yet it was neither Salt, Sour, nor Bitter; and though his Speech was Flowing, yet it was not Rough, for it ran in a Smooth though Full Stream; and his Behaviour or De∣meanour was so Gracefull and Becoming, as the One Delighted the Eyes of the Beholders, as much as the Other the Ears of the Hearers; but though his Body be Dead, yet his Wit, Elo∣quency, Elegancy, Honesty, and Abilities, are Living in the Memory of Living men, which will Live by Tradition as Long as there are Men to Remember or Speak: Wherefore let us Keep his Living parts in our Minds, and Bury his Dead parts, as his Body, in the Grave, there to remain in Peace, as the other in Fame.
A Magistrates Funeral Oration.
VVE are met here together to Mourn for our Loss; for the Death of This man is not only a Loss to every Particular man, but to the whole Common-wealth; for he was a Wise man, and an Upright and Just Magistrate, he did not Serve the Common-wealth to Inrich Himself, as most Magistrates do, but took Pains to Inrich the Common-wealth; nor did he Sell Justice for Bribes, but Punished Bribe-ta∣kers; neither was he Partial, either to the Rich or Poor, but Judged according to Right and Truth, at least to Great Probability: also he kept the Rich from Riot, and the Poor from Idle∣ness, and he took away Superfluities to help Ne∣cessities, not that he Troubled any man for Living to their Degree and Quality, but he would not Suffer any man to Live Above their Degree and Quality; neither would he hinder men from their Lawfull Pleasures and Delights, but he would not Connive at their Disorders and Misrules, neither would he Pardon their Wickednesses: He Regarded not the Slanders of his Enemies, nor was he Revengefull, for he Suffer'd not his Enemies to be Injured, but gave them all the Justice he could; neither was he Unjust to his Foes, nor Ungrateful to his Friends, he had a tender Regard to the Old, Sick, Poor, Page 157 and Shiftless; Indeed he was such a Magistrate, as he was a Father, a Husband, a Brother, a Friend, a Master, a Servant, a Slave for the Common-wealth, all which adds to our Loss and Grief, but not to his Happiness; for his Happiness admits of no Addition, he being as Happy as can be, in which Happiness let us leave him, after we have Interr'd him with his Fore∣fathers.
A Funeral Oration of a Student.
VVE are met together to VVait upon the Dead Body of our VVorthy Brother in Learning, to be laid in Peace into the Bed of Earth, whose Life was so Studious, as we may say, he was Partly Dead, whilst he Lived, for the most of his Conversation was with Dead Authors, and his Study was as his Grave, so that our Learned Brother hath only Changed his Habitation and Lanlord, as from his Study to the Earth, from his Bodily Life to Death; I confess, his Lanlord, Death, is Covetous, for Death Exacts or Extorts the Flesh from the Bones as his due, yet the Body is more Happy, dwelling more Peaceably with Death, than with Life; and as his Body hath made a Happy Change, so hath his Soul, but his Soul dwells not now with his Body, for the Soul is an Fne∣my to Death, and Flies from it, neither can the Page 158 Soul live in the Body, when as the Body is tur∣ned into Insipid Earth, for the Soul being of a Celestial Nature, cannot Live in a Terrestrial place, but when Separated, being Pure in it Self, it is Light, and being Free, as having Liberty, it is Agil, through which Propriety it Ascends unto the Gods on High, and Lives with them Eternally. Thus our Learned Brothers Body Resting Peaceably, and his Soul Living Blessed∣ly, both shall meet Gloriously, and so Let's lay his Corps into the Grave Humbly, Ceremo∣niously, and Piously.
A Funeral Oration of a Divine.
THis our Dead Brother was an Holy man, both in Profession, and Life; as for his Pro∣fession, he was a Divine, and his Practice was as Pious as his Profession was Pure; he was Bless'd of the Gods, for they Indued him with Spiri∣tual Graces, Inspired him with Spiritual Know∣ledge, and Inabled him with Spiritual Elo∣quence, to Inform, Reform, and Perform the Church of God, according to the Word of God, amongst men; but though his time of Life is Expir'd, yet his true Doctrine will remain for the Satisfaction, Comfort, and Salvation of the Souls in Living Bodies. Wherefore, let us lay his Body into the Grave, and leave it to the time of Glorification.
A Funeral Oration of a Poet.
OUr Brother, whose Body is Dead, and is brought to this place to be Inurned, was the most Fearfull man that ever Nature made, not to Die, but to be Forgotten; also he was the most Ambitious man, not for Wealth, Title, or Power, but for Fame; In truth, he was so Am∣bitious, as his Body and Mind was Restless, in∣deavouring to Live, like as Nature, or the Gods of Nature, which Live, and are partly Known In their VVorks, and By their Works, which are their Creatures, especially the Chief of their Creatures, which are Mankind; for we cannot Perceive, but that the Chief Habitations of the Gods are in the Minds of men, with which Ha∣bitations they are so Pleased and Delighted, as they Punish those men that Neglect or Forget them; nay, the Gods Made Men, or such kind of Creatures, to Remember them, as to Speak of them, Think of them, and to Admire them in their Praises, Contemplations, and Adorations; also to have Visible VVorship to their Invisible Deities, as to have Altars, Priests, and Sacrifices, to Offer Praise, Prayers, and Thanksgiving: So that the Gods are not Satisfied to Live only To or In Themselves, but in their Creatures; VVherefore, those men Resemble the Gods most, that desire Fame, which Fame is to be Re∣membred Page 160 and Prais'd by All Men in All Ages throughout the VVorld; whereas on the Con∣trary, those that Slight, Neglect, or Speak a∣gainst Fame, as being a Foolish Vain-Glory, in that it doth a man No Good, to be Remembered and Praised after the Bodily Life, are Irreligi∣ous, Ungratefull, and Unnatural: Irreligious, not Desirous to Imitate the Gods; Ungratefull, not Divulging. Natures Gifts; and Unnatural, caring not for the Memory of their Own Kind, as not caring to Live with Them, which is to Live in their Minds: Also they are Unjust to Themselves, not desiring their Own Good, as their Perpetual Name, Memory, and Fame. But this our Brother was not of that sort of Mankind, as to be Contented to be Buried in a Terrestrial Oblivion, but would have a Celestial Remembrance, which the Gods Perpetuate for a Reward to his Merit. So let us lay his Body in the Grave, and let his Praise Ring out his Peal.
A Funeral Oration of a Philosopher.
THis our Dead Brother, when he had Bodily Life, he was a Close Student, and had a Great Library, wherein were more VVorks than he had Time to Learn, and they were of more Several Languages, than he was Capable to Understand; but he Indeavoured, and was Page 161 Advanced far in Knowledge; his Study was Na∣tural and Moral Philosophy, his Library the Universe, and his Several Books the Several Creatures therein. As for Moral Philosophy, he knew well how to Compose Common∣wealths, and to Settle and Govern them; also he knew well the Natures, Humours, Passions, and Appetites amongst Mankind, as also to Di∣vide and Distinguish them, and to Order, Form, and Reform them. As for Natural Philosophy, he did not only Study the Outward Forms of several Creatures, but their Inward Natures. In truth, his Conception was so Subtil and Peir∣cing, his Observation so Dilative, his Reason so Strong, his Wit so Agil, his Judgement so Solid, his Understanding so Clear, and his Thoughts so Industrious, as they went to the First Cause of several Effects, and he did not only Converse with the Body, but the Soul of Nature, indeed he was Nature's Platonick Lover, and She re∣warded him in Discovering to him her most Hidden and Obscure Secrets, by which he begot Great Wisdome and Everlasting Fame; for though his Body be Dead, yet his Good Laws, VVise Sciences, Profitable Arts, VVitty Ex∣periences, Graces, Vertues, and Eloquence, will Live for the Benefit and Delight of Li∣ving men, in all Nations and Ages; and though we have great reason to Mourn for his Bodily Death, yet we have more reason to Rejoyce for his Glorious Fame; but leaving his Merits to Life, and his Body to Death, let us lay him Page 162 into the Grave, to Transmigrate as Nature plea∣ses.
A Funeral Oration of a Dead Lady, Spoken by a Living Lady.
Dearly Beloved Sisters in God,
VVE are met as Sorrowfull Mourners, to attend this Dead Ladies Corps to the Grave; She was in her Life the Rule of our Actions, and will be in her Fame the Honour of our Sex; She was Favoured of Nature, the Gods, and Fortune; Nature gave her Wit and Beauty, the Gods gave her Piety and Charity, and Fortune gave her Wealth and Education; She was Adorned by the Graces, Beloved by the Muses, and Attended by the Arts; She was So∣ciable in her Conversation, Just in her Promises, and Generous in her Gifts; She was Industrious in all Good Actions, Helpfull to all Distress'd Persons, and Gratefull for all sorts of Cour∣tisies; She was Humble in her Own Prosperi∣ties, and full of Magnanimity in her Own Ad∣versities; her Mind had no Passage for any Evil, nor no Obstruction against any Good; But to repeat or summ up the Number of this La∣dies Merits, is beyond my Rhetorick or Arith∣metick; for certainly she was Composed of the Purest Effence of Nature, and the Divinest Spi∣rits of Heaven; She had the Piety of Saints, the Chastity of Angels, and the Love of the Page 163 Gods, in which Love let us leave her Soul, and lay her Body in the Grave, till the time of Glo∣rification.
A Foreiners or Strangers Funeral Oration.
YOu shew your Charity and Humanity, and that they are not Bound up to Particulars, or to your Friends, and Country-men, but that they Extend to Strangers, in coming to see this Stranger, who Died out of his Native Country, Decently to be Buried in a Forein Land, I mean Forein, as from his Native Country, although the truth is, that all the World is Common to Mankind, for Nature hath not assigned Men to any Particular place, or Part of the World, but hath given All the World freely to them, as if she made the World and all other Creatures only for Man's sake; for all other Creatures are not so generally Disperst, or rather so Spreading and Branching throughout the World as Man∣kind is, by reason they Belong, Breed, Prosper or Increase in Particular Climates, as some in Cold, and others in Hot, and some in one Part of the World, and some in Another, for some Creatures will be so farr from Increasing in some Particular Climates, as they cannot Live in them, but in all Parts of the World that are Ha∣bitable, there be Men. 'Tis true, Different Cli∣mates may cause men to be of Different Com∣plexions, Page 164 but what Complexions soever they have, they are all of the same kind as Mankind, and of the same sort of Animals; for though all Beasts are of Beast-kind, yet a Fox and an Ass is not one and the same sort or kind of Beast; but there is no such different sort amongst Mankind, for there is no difference of men in their Natu∣ral Shapes, Proprieties, Qualities, Abilities, Capacities, Entities, or the like, unless some Defects to some Particulars, which is nothing to the Generality, for all the kind of Mandkind is all alike both in Body and Mind, as in their Shapes, Senses, Appetites, Speech, Frowning, Laughing, Weeping, and the like, as also alike in their Rational Parts, as Judging, Understan∣ding, Conceiving, Remembring, Apprehending, Considering, Imagining, Desiring, Joying, Grie∣ving, Loving, Hating, Fearing, Doubting, Ho∣ping, Believing, and the like; And therefore, since not any man can be accounted as a Stranger in any Part of the World, because he hath by Nature a Right as a Natural Inheritance, to In∣habit what part or place of the World he will; But all Mankind are as Brethren, not only by Kind, but by Inheritance, as being General Sha∣rers and Possessors of the World, so this Dead man ought not to be accounted as a Stranger, but a Brother; VVherefore let us Mourn as we ought to do for a Dead Brother, and Accompany his Hearse to the Grave with Religious Cere∣mony, there leaving it in Rest and Peace.
A Post-Riders Funeral Oration.
YOu have Exprest your Humanity and Cha∣rity in coming to this Poor, Unfortunate man's Burial, which though he was a Poor man, yet he was an Honest man, and therefore is much the more Worthy to be Praised; for Poverty and Necessity is a great Temptation to Kna∣very, as much as Riches is a Temptation to Foolery, which is Vanity, nay, Riches is not only Guilty of Vanity, but Vice, as Luxnry, Pride, and Wantonness, whereas Knavery is Cheating, Coosening, Stealing, and the like, of all which this Poor man was Free; And as he was an Honest man, so he was a Laborious man, for his Profession of Life was a Post-Rider, an Unfortunate Profession for him, for he Riding fast upon a Stumbling Jade, fell down and Broke his Neck. Thus we see that Misfortunes as well as Sicknesses bring many to their Lives ends, and many times to a Miserable end, for Misfortunes take Life away Unawares, and sometimes Unprepar'd to Dye; so this man did not Think, when he got on the Horses back, he should Ride Post to Death, for had he thought so, he would have Chosen to Run a-Foot, a Safer, though a Slower pace: But could his Soul Ride Post on Death to Heaven, as his Body Rid Post on a Horse to Death, he might Out-strip Page 166 many a Soul that is gone before him; for though his Soul, as all Souls are Light, and of no Weight, yet Death is no nimble Runner, being Cold and Numb, and nothing but Bare Bones, a Hard Seat for a Tender Soul: Besides, the way to Heaven is so Narrow and Steep, as Death cannot Get up, for should he Venture, his Soul would be in Danger to be Overthrown, and cast into Hell, which is a Deep, Dark, Terrible, and Dreadfull Pit, wherein is no Hope of Getting out: The truth is, Death carries many Evil Souls down into Hell, but Good Souls he leaves at the Bottom of the Hill, that leads up to Hea∣ven, from which those Souls Climb and Clam∣ber up with great Difficulty; for whatsoever is Excellent, is Hard to Get or Come to, whereas that which is Bad, is Easie to be Had. But how∣soever, this Poor man is Dead, and we shall see him Buried, leaving his Soul in its Journey, and his Body in the Grave.
A young Virgins Funeral Oration.
Beloved Brethren, and Sisters in God,
VVE here meet, not only as Funeral Mourners, but as Marriage Guests, to Attend and Wait upon a Young Virgin, to see her Laid into her Nuptial-bed, which is the Grave; 'Tis true, her Husband, Death, is a Cold Bed-fellow, but yet he makes a Good Husband, for he will never Cross, Oppose, nor Anger her, Page 167 nor give her Cause of Grief or Sorrow, neither in his Rude Behaviour, Inconstant Appetite, nor Lewd Life, which, had she Married any other Husband, might have made very Unhappy, whereas now she will know no Sorrow; for there is no Whoring, Gaming, Drinking, Quar∣relling, nor Prodigal Spending in the Grave, for Death Banishes all Riot and Disorder out of his Habitations; there is no Noise nor Disturbance in his Palace; Indeed Death's Palace is a place of Peace, Rest, Quiet, and Silence, and there∣fore all are Happy that Dwell there, for there is no Envy, Malice, Slander, nor Treachery; there Men are not Tempted with Beauty, nor Women Flattered into Wantonness, they are Free from all Tentation or Defamation, neither are they Troubled or Tormented with Pain or Sickness, for Death hath a Remedy for all Dis∣eases, which is Insensibility; the truth is, Death is not only Charitable to Help all Creatures out of Misery, but Generous, as to be so Hopitable, that he sets Open his Gates for all Comers, insomuch, as the Meanest Creatures that are, have a Free Entrance, and the Same Entertain∣ment with the Noblest, for there are no Cere∣monies of State, All is in Common; there is no Pride, nor Ambition, no Scorn, nor Disgrace; and Death's Palace is so Spacious, as it is beyond all Measure or Circumference, being sufficient to Receive all the Creatures Nature makes; and since there is such Store of Company in Death, and Death so Generous and Hospitable, Page 168 why should we Fear, or be Loath to Dye? nay, why should not we Desire to Dye, and Rejoyce for those Friends that are Dead, especially Con∣sidering the Unhappiness of Life, wherein Man is most Miserable, because he is most Sensible and Apprehensive of what he Suffers, or what he may Suffer? But this Young Virgin is Happier by Death than many Others are, because she hath not Liv'd so Long to Suffer so Much as those, that are Older, Have done, or as those that Live to be Old, Will do. Wherefore, let us Rejoyce for her Happiness, and put her into the Grave, the Bed of Rest, there to Sleep Qui∣etly.
A Young New-Married Wif's Funeral Oration.
VVE are met together at this time, to see a New-Married Wife, which is here Dead, to be Buried; She hath made an unequal Change from a Lively Hot Husband, to a Dead∣ly Cold Lover, yet will she be more Happy with her Dull, Dumb, Deaf, Blind, Numb Lo∣ver, than with her Lively, Talking, Listning, Eying, Active Husband, were he the Best Hus∣band that could be; for Death is far the Happier Condition than Marriage; and although Mar∣riage at first is Pleasing, yet after a time it is Dis∣pleasing, like Meat which is Sweet in the Mouth, Page 169 but proves Bitter in the Stomack; Indeed, the Stomack of Marriage is full of Evil Humours, as Choler, and Melancholy; and of very Evil Disgestion, for it cannot Disgest Neglects, Dis∣respects, Absence, Dissembling, Adultery, Jea∣lousie, Vain Expences, Waste, Spoil, Idle Time, Laziness, Examinations, Cross Answers, Pee∣vishness, Frowardness, Frowns, and many the like Meats, that Marriage Feeds on: As for Pains, Sicknesses, Cares, Fears, and other Trou∣bles in Marriage, they are Accounted as whole∣some Physick, which the Gods give them; for the Gods are the Best Physicians, and Death is a very Good Surgeon, Curing his Patients with∣out Pain, for what Part soever he Touches is Insensible. Death is only Cruel in Parting Friends from each other, for though they are Happy, whom he Takes away, yet those that are Left behind, are Unhappy, Living in Sorrow for their Loss; so that this Young New-Married Wife, that is Dead, is Happy, but her Husband is a Sorrowfull Widdower; But leaving Her to her Happiness, and Him to be Comforted, let us put her into the Grave, there to Remain un∣till the day of Judgement, which Day will Im∣body her Soul with Everlasting Glory.
A Widdows Funeral Oration.
THis Widdow, at whose Funeral we are met, Lived a very Intemperate and Irregu∣lar Life all the time of her Widdow-hood, for which not only Nature, but the Gods might be Angry with her; for though She did not Sur∣feit with Feasting, yet She Starved her self with Fasting, and though She did not Drink her self Drunken, as many Women in this Age will do, yet She did Weep her self Dry; She grew not Fat and Lasie with overmuch Sleeping, but be∣came Lean and Sick with overmuch Watching; She VVatch'd not to Dance and Play, but to Mourn and Pray, nor did She waste her Wealth in Vanities, but She did waste her Life in Sor∣row; She Sate not on the Knees of Amorous Lovers, but Kneeled on her Knees to God; Her Cheeks were not Red with Paint, but Pale with Grief; She did not wear Black Patches on her Face, but Black Mourning on her Body; She was Adorned with no other Jewels than her Tears; She had no Diamond Pendents in her Ears, but Transparent Tears in her Eyes, no Oriental Pearls about her Neck, but Drops of Tears lay on her Breast; Thus was She Drest in Tears. She suffered not Painters to Draw the Picture of her Face, but her Thoughts did Form her Husbands Figure in her Mind; She Page 171 hung not her Chamber with Black, but her Mind with Melancholy; She Banished all Stately Ceremonies, and Ceremonies of State, and set her self Humbly on the Ground; She past not her time with Entertaining Visitors, but Entertain'd her Self with the Remembrance of her Husband; She did not Speak much, but Think much. In short, She was so Intemperate in her Grief, as her Grief Kill'd her, it may be said she was Murdered with Grief, and no kind or manner of Murder is Acceptable either to Nature or the Gods, but some sorts of Murders are Hatefull to both. Yet this Widdow, how∣soever she Offended in her Over-much Grie∣ving, She had Pardon for her Praying, and to prove the Gods did Pardon her, they Granted her Request, which was, to take her out of this World without Painfull Sickness, and so they did; for She was so free from Pains, as She parted with Life with a Smiling Countenance, and lay as Still as if She lay to Sleep, She brea∣thed out her last Breath so softly, as those that stood Close by her Bed, could not hear her Sigh, and when She was Dead, her Beauty, that all the time of her Mourning was Obscured in her Sorrows, Appear'd in her Death, only the Gloss of her Eyes were Covered with their Lids, for Death had Shut her Eye-lids down, and Seald up her Lips, which Lips seem'd, as if they had been Seal'd with Red Coloured Wax, although Death had Kist them Cold; for now Death is her Lover, not an Amorous, but a Deadly Lo∣ver, Page 172 to whose Imbraces we must leave her Body, after we have laid it in the Bed of Earth.
An other Widdow's Funeral Oration.
VVE are met as Funeral or rather Mar∣riage Guests of a Dead Widdow, who is now Re-married to her Husband in Death, and no question, but their Souls will Joy in the Knowledge of each other; for though Bodies Dye, yet Souls do not, but Live for ever, Death having Power only over the Sensitive, not over the Rational Life; for Knowledge Lives, though Senses Dye; and if the Soul Lives, no question, but all that is Inherent in the Soul Lives, as all the Passions, Affections, Thoughts, Memory, Understanding, Judgement, Concep∣tions, Speculations, Fancy, Knowledge, and the like, which are the Parts and Ingrediences with which the Soul is Composed, Form'd, and Made; Thus the Soul being made of such Thin, Fine, Pure, and Rare Matter, Death can take no hold of it, for Death's Power is only on Gross Corporeal Substances or Matter, not on Celestial Bodies, but Terrestrial; but this Wid∣dows Soul was Purer than other Souls usually are, (for there are Degrees of Purity in Souls, as well as Degrees of Grossness in Bodies.) The truth might easily be Perceived in her Life, for there was as much Difference between Page 173 her Soul and Other Souls, as between Souls and Bodies, at least as much Difference as between a Glorified Soul, and a Soul Imbodied; Nay, her Soul was so Pure, as it did Purifie her Body, for it did Resine the Appetites, which Cleared the Senses; besides, her Soul did Instruct the Senses, which made them More Sensible, so that they were kept Clean, Clear, and Health∣full by Temperance, and made Apt, Quick, and Ready by Reason, insomuch, as Time had but a Little Power to Hurt them, and was not Able to Destroy them without the Help of Death, had she Lived Long, but Death to shew his Power, destroyed her Body without the Help of Time, for she Lived not to be so Old as for Time to make a Trial; yet her Body Lived Longer than she was willing it should have done, desiring it might have Died when her Husband Died, but the Gods Forbad it; for though any Creature, especially Man, may Call Death when he Will, and Force him to take his Bodily Life away, yet the Gods are Angry, if any man will not stay whilst Death comes of Himself with∣out Inforcement. Nevertheless, Death did Fa∣vour this Widdow; for though he did not take her so Soon as she would have Died, yet he suf∣fered her not Long to Live a weary Life, for which Favour she received Death with Joy, and a Smiling Countenance, whereas Death for the most part is received with Fear and Sadness; and since she Rejoyced at her Death, we have no Reason to Mourn now she is Dead, especially in Page 174 that she Lived and Died Vertuously, and Pi∣ously, for which the Gods will Advance her to Everlasting Glory; For this Glory let us Praise the Gods, and Bury her Body in her Husbands Tomb or Grave, that their Dust or Ashes may lye together.
A Young Child's Funeral Oration.
VVE are the Funeral Guests to a Young Male Child, an Infant, who Died soon after it was Born, and though all Men are Born to Live, and Live to Dye, yet this Child was Born to Dye, Before it had Lived, I mean in Comparison of the Age of men; Thus this Child was Born, Cried, and Died, a happy Con∣clusion for the Child, that he had Finished what he was made for, in so Short a time, for he could not have had less Pain, less Trouble, nor less Desires, to have left the World, had he Liv'd longer, for Life is Restless with Desires, Sickly and Painfull with Diseases, Troublesome with Cares, Laborious with Labour, Grievous with Losses, Fearfull with Dangers, and Mise∣rable in all; which Misery this Child hath Escap'd, but had he Lived, he could not have Avoided it: besides, he is not Guilty of Self∣acting Sins, and so Deserves no Punishment, for neither Commission nor Omission can be laid to his Charge, having no time for Either, so that he Page 175 is Free from Both, as also from Suffering, either in this World, or the Next, unless there be such a severe Decree, as the Child shall Suffer for his Parents faults, which Faults he could neither Hinder nor Annul, neither did he Approve, nor Allow them, nor Assist them in Evil; But it is not probable, he shall Suffer, being Innocent; and Death, that is Accounted the Wages of Sin, may rather be taken as a Gift of Mercy; also Death might be said to be a Purifier from Sin, as well as a Punisher of Sin; Wherefore, this Child is past the Purgatory of Death, and is in the Heaven of Peace, Rest, Ease, and Happiness, in which let us leave him, after we have Cove∣red his Corps with Earth.
An Old Ladies Funeral Oration.
THis Old Lady was Favour'd by Nature, Fortune, and Time, Nature in her Youth gave her Beauty, Fortune gave her Wealth, and Time and Nature gave her long Life; She was Courted in her Youth for the Pleasures of her Beauty, and Flattered in her Age for the Profit of her Wealth, but being Chast and Wise, She was neither Corrupted with the One, nor Delu∣ded with the Other, not Tempted with Court∣ship, nor Coosen'd with Flattery; and as She was Chast and Wise, so She was Pious, for the Gods gave her Grace, to bestow her Wealth to Charitable uses; Thus what she Got by For∣tune, Page 176 she Gave to Heaven, indeed she Bought Heaven with Fortune's Gifts, for none can get into Heaven but by Faith and Good Deeds, and her Faith did Believe, that her Good VVorks would be as an Advocate to Plead for her, and no question, but they have gotten her Sute, and her Charity will Live here on Earth, though she be Dead, and those she Relieved will make her their Saint; Thus she will be Sainted both on Earth and in Heaven, which is as Great an Honour, and a more Blessed Condition, than the Emperours had with all their Conquefts, Pow∣er, Pride, and Vanity, for the height of their Ambition was to be Deified on Earth, and to be Sainted in as much; They were Worshipp'd for Fear, She Pray'd to for Love; They had Idola∣trous Worshippers, She Sanctified Petitioners; Their Idols lasted but a time, She shall be Blest for Evermore.
An Ancient Man's Funeral Oration.
AGe hath Ushered our Friend to Death, and we are here met to attend him to the Grave; it is an Human, Charitable, and Pious Service, to see the Dead laid Decently and Ceremoniously into the Earth, and it is an Happiness for the Dead, to be Inurned with their Fore-fathers; for who knows to the Contrary, but that there may be a Natural Sympathetical Intermixing with Page 177 their Dust, and an Earthly Pleasure in their Mixture? for certainly there is a mutual So∣ciety In the Earth, as well as On the Earth, and why may not the Earth have a Sympathetical Intermixing and Conjunction as well as the other Elements? I Perceive no Reason against it; but whether there be an Incorporating, Asso∣ciating, and Friendship, as Dust with Dust, I know not, surely there is a Peaceable Abiding, having not a Sensible Feeling or Knowledge, whereas Life, wherein Sense and Knowledge Dwells, is Restless, full of Troubles, Misfor∣tunes, Pains, and Sicknesses to the Body, and Perturbations in the Mind, so that the Body is Seldome at Ease, or the Mind at Quiet; But Life hath tried the Patience, and Death the Courage of our Friend, for he was neither Im∣patient with Life, nor Fearfull of Death, he had such Great Experience living so Long, as to Know, there is neither Constancy, Certainty, nor Felicity, amongst or with the Creatures in this World, and Time had made him so Wise a man, as he knew by Himself, that there was no man Perfect, nor truly Happy, for Happiness and Imperfection cannot Associate together: yet by his Wisdome, he did Inform, Reform, Rule and Govern himself as well, as Nature and the VVorld would give way or leave to; for he would never Command any, but those that were Willing to Obey, and he did Obey those, he Could not Command, he would never make a fruitless Opposition, but was free from Page 178 Faction and Sedition, Ambition and Covetous∣ness, for he knew, there is not any VVorldly thing worth an over-earnest Desire, nor any thing so Permanent, as could be kept Long; he would Temperately make use of what he Had, and what he VVanted for his Use, he did Ho∣nestly Indeavour for it, and what he could not have Easily and Freely, he was Content to be without; Moreover, he was so Moderate in his Desires, as he did Scarcely desire what was Ne∣cessary, and oftentimes he would Part from his Own Maintenance to Relieve the Distresses of Others, believing he could Suffer want more Patiently; indeed he had such a Power and Command of Himself, as the Appetites of his Body, and Passions of his Mind, were as Obe∣dient to his Will, as Saints on Earth, or Angels in Heaven are to the Gods; and this VVise Government of Himself, made him fit for the Company of the Gods, with whom we Leave his Soul, and will Interr his Body as we ought.
An Old Begger-Womans Funeral Oration.
THis VVoman, that is here to be Buried, was Old when she Died, very Old, and as Poor as Old, and though she was Old, yet she had Longer Acquaintance with her Poverty than Age, being alwayes Poor from her Youth, in∣deed so Poor, as she was Forced to Beg for her Page 179 Livelihood: Thus she was a Double Begger; but now she is gone to Beg at Heavens Gate, both for Food and Raiment, where, if Heavens Por∣ter lets her In, she will be Fed with Beatifical Food, and Cloth'd with Celestial Glory, a great and good Change, for here she was Fed with nothing but Scraps, and Cloth'd with Raggs, and much ado to Get them, not without long Stay and earnest Intreaties; so Hard are men's Hearts and Cold are men's Charities; the truth is, men in Prosperity feel not the Misery of Adversity, and being not Sensible of their Want, are not Ready in their Relief: besides, they think all that is given from their Vanities and Luxuries' is a Prodigal waste, and it is to be Observ'd, that those that are Richest, are the most Uncharitable, whereas those that have but Little, yet will give to those that have Nothing to Live on, feeling in some sort what Want is; And to shew the Hard Hearts of Mankind to their own Kind, this Woman, although she had Begg'd almost Fourscore Years, yet she got so Little, as she had nothing to Leave, not so much as to Bury her. But as she Lived on Cold Cha∣rity, so now she Lies with Cold Death, a Cold Condition, both Alive and Dead; the first Cold she Felt to her Grief, this last Cold she is Insen∣sible of to her Happiness, in which Happiness we will leave her, and put her into the Grave of Peace.
A Young Brides Funeral Oration.
THis Young Virgin, that lies here Dead, ready to be Buried, this very day had she Lived, she had been Married, for so her Lover and She had Design'd, at which designed time she little thought Death should have been her Bridegroom, and that her VVinding sheet should be her Wedding Smock, and her Grave her Bride-Bed, there to lye with Death, but doubt∣less Death was as far from her Thoughts, as her Lover neer to her Heart: for had she Believ'd she should have Died so soon, or but Fear'd it, she would not have made such Preparations, as usually Young Maids do for their Wedding daies; indeed Young Maids have Reason e∣nough to Esteem much of That day, for it is the only Happy day of their Life, it is a day which is wholly Consecrated to Love, Joy, Pleasure, Bravery, Feasting, Dancing, Mirth and Musick, on that day their Hearts are Merry, and their Heels are Light, but after their Bridal Shoos are off, their Dancing daies are done, I mean they are done in respect of Happiness; for though Married Wives keep more Company, and Dance and Feast oftner than Maids, having more Liberty, yet they are not so Merry at the Heart, nor have they so Lively Countenances, nor are so Galliard after they have been Married some Page 181 time, as they were Before they were Married, or as they were on their VVedding day, for their Mirth is Forced, and their Actions more Constrain'd, though not so much Restrain'd; whereas Maids and Brides, their very Thoughts as well as their Persons Dance, Sport, and Play in their Minds: But this Young Virgin, and Dead Bride, can neither Dance nor be Merry, neither hath she Cause to Weep or be Sad, nor she hath no Amorous Thoughts towards her Bridegroom, she takes no Notice of him, his kind Imbraces do not make her Blush, neither doth she Hate or Fear him; she Grieves not for the Change, nor Thinks she of her Living Lo∣ver, that should have been her Living Husband, but is now her Living Mourner, whose Tears like Raining Showers have all Bedewed her Hearse; and though she was not led with Bride∣maids to the Church, yet she is brought by Virgins to the Grave, her Hearse is Crown'd, though not her Head, and Covered with white Satin, like as a Marriage Gown, and all her Tomb is Strew'd with Flowers sweet, like to a Bridal-Bed, in which Tomb let us lay her, and then Sing Anthems instead of Epithalamiums, and so leave her to her Rest.
A Child-Bed Womans Funeral Oration.
VVE are met together to see a Young Dead Woman, who Died in Child∣Bed, to be laid into the Bed of Earth, a Cold Bed, but yet she will not take any Harm there, nor we shall not fear she will Catch her Death, for Death hath Catch'd her; the truth is, that although all Women are Tender Creatures, yet they Indure more than Men, and do oftner Venture and Indanger their Lives than Men, and their Lives are more Profitable than men's Lives are, for they Increase Life, when Men for the most part Destroy Life, as witness Warrs, wherein Thousands of Lives are De∣stroyed, Men Fighting and Killing each other, and yet Men think all Women meer Cowards, although they do not only Venture and Indan∣ger their Lives more than they do, but indure greater Pains with greater Patience than Men usually do: Nay, Women do not only indure the Extremity of Pain in Child-birth, but in Breeding, the Child being for the most part Sick, and seldome at Ease; Indeed, Nature seems both Unjust and Cruel to her Femal Creatures, especially Women, making them to indure all the Pain and Sickness in Breeding and Bringing forth of their Young Children, and the Males to bear no part of their Pain or Danger; the Page 183 truth is, Nature hath made her Male Creatures, especially Mankind, only for Pleasure, and her Female Creatures for Misery; Men are made for Liberty, and Women for Slavery, and not only Slaves to Sickness, Pains, and Troubles, in Breeding, Bearing, and Bringing up their Chil∣dren, but they are Slaves to Men's Humours, nay, to their Vices and Wickednesses, so that they are more Inslaved than any other Female Creatures, for other Female Creatures are not so Inslaved as they; Wherefore, those Women are most Happy that Never Marry, or Dye whilst they be Young, so that this Young VVo∣man that Died in Child-Bed is Happy, in that she Lives not to Indure more Pain or Slavery, in which Happiness let us leave her, after we have laid her Corps to Rest in the Grave.
A Souldiers Funeral Oration.
THis Dead man, whom you attend to the Grave, was, whilst he Lived, a Valiant, Gallant man, and an Excellent Souldier, for that was his Profession in times of VVarr, a Noble Profession, for all Valiant Souldiers are Ho∣nour's Sons, Death's Friends, and Life's Ene∣mies, for a Souldiers Profession is to Destroy Lives to get Honour and Fame, by which De∣struction Death is a Gainer; In truth, Death is a Souldiers Companion, Camerade, and Fami∣liar Page 184 Acquaintance, but not a Souldiers Friend, though Souldiers be Death's Friends; he is no Stranger to Souldiers, for they see him in all Shapes, Postures, and Humours; yet the most Terrible Aspects of Death could not Affright nor Terrifie this Souldier, nor cause him to Remove an Inch back, for he would Venture to the very Jaws of Death. Thus Bold, Adventurous Soul∣diers do more Affright Death, than Death doth Affright them, insomuch that Death for the most part Runs away from Valiant men, and Seizes on Cowards, and daring not Assault Va∣liant men in the Fore-front, he Steals upon them as it were Unawares, for he comes Behind Valiant men, when he takes hold of them, or else he Seizes on them by Treachery, or Wea∣kens their Bodies so much by Sickness, as they are Forced to Yield; Indeed there was no other way for Death to take this Valiant Souldier but by Sickness, for he could never take him in the Field; But Death is of the Nature of Ungrate∣full men, who Indeavour to do those most. Mis∣chief, that have been most Bountifull to them, and are Ready to take the Lives of those they were most Obliged to; for Valiant men give Death Thousands of Lives to Feed on, yet he is like some Gluttons, the more they Eat, the Lea∣ner they are, nay, Death is so Lean, as to be only Bare Bones, and by his Empty Scul he may be thought a Fool, having no Brains, though he be rather a Knave than a Fool, for the De∣ceives or Robbs Nature and Time of many Page 185 Lives, taking them away before Nature and Time had Ordain'd them to Dye; But leaving Death to Ingratitude, Cheats, and Robberies, we must also leave him this Dead Souldiers Body for to Feed upon, for all Heroick men are Death's most Nourishing food, they make him Strong and Lusty; and since there is no Re∣medy, let us place this Dead Heros on Deaths Table, which is to put him into the Grave, and there leave him.
An Oration concerning the Joys of Heaven, and Torments of Hell.
YOu have heard of Heaven and Hell, Gods and Devils, Damnation and Salvation, and that you shall have a Fulness of Bliss in Heaven, and be Everlastingly Tormented in Hell; also you have heard Hell and Heaven described to you, as that Heaven is Composed and Built all of Pretious Stones, and Rich Metall, as Gold, Diamonds, Rubies, Pearls, Saphyrs, and the like; as also what Degrees and Powers there be; and for Hell, it is described, to be Dark as Night, and yet great Elemental Fires, in which the Damned shall be Tormented, the like for other Torments, that Devils use as their Rods and Scourges to Punish the Damned; also that the Devils do Curse, and the Blessed Sing and Rejoyce; Moreover, you have heard by your Page 186 Teacher, and seen Painted in Pictures, both the Shapes of Devils and Angels, the Angels with Wings, and the Devils with Horns and Cloven feet, like Beasts; all which may be True, for any thing we sensibly know to the Contrary, and yet Perchance all these Relations may be False, as the Relation of the Situation of Heaven and Hell, and the Architecture of either, or the Shapes of Devils or Angels, or the manner and wayes of their Pleasures and Delights, and their Pains and Torments; all which may not be so, as they are Usually Described to us, but made by men's Fancies, for no Mortal man is come either from Heaven or Hell, to tell us Punctually of every particular Truth. Yet a Heaven and Hell, Good and Bad Angels, Pains and Torments, Joys and Pleasures there are, for both Reason and Faith informs us, also God himself tells us in his Holy Writs, and by his Inspired Priests and Prophets, that there is Re∣ward for the Good in Heaven, and Punishment for the Bad in Hell; but if we will give our Imaginations leave to Work upon that we can∣not Know, whilst we Live here in this World, let us Imagine what is most Probable; and first for the Situation of Heaven and Hell, or the Ar∣chitecture of either, or the Shapes of Devils or Angels, it is beyond my Imagination; yet some Imagination may beget a Belief, at least some Probability of the Joys in Heaven, and the Tor∣ments in Hell; Wherefore, I'le begin with the Glorified Bodies in Heaven, which Bodies in Page 187 their Glorified Condition shall have their Sen∣ses more Perfect, and their Appetites more Quick, the Body being Purified into a Cele∣stial Purity, than when their Bodies were Clogg'd with a Terrestrial Grossness, which made their Senses Weak, and their Appetites Dull; these Glorified Bodies shall have their Senses Fill'd, and their Appetites Satisfied in a Spiritual manner, as thus: The Sight shall have the most Beautifull, Splendorous, Pleasant, and Glorious Objects, not that those Objects are Corporally Without them, but only in their Sight; and such Varieties of such Sights, as they shall see each Sight Fully to Admire them, but not to Tire them, and being Satisfied, they shall have New, and with every New Sight a New Admiration, and after every Admiration a New Sight: The like for the Sense of Hearing, which shall be Fill'd sometimes with Eloquent Language, Witty Expressions, and Fancy, Ex∣prest both in Verse and Prose, sometimes Rati∣onal Discourses, Wise Sentences, Oratory Speeches, and Learned Arguments, also Har∣monious Musick, Melodious Voices, and Plea∣sing Vocal Sounds, with such Variety and De∣light, as Art nor Nature never knew; yet no∣thing shall Come from Without to the Ear, or be Conveyed into it, but be Within it: And as for the Sense of Sent, such Sweet Perfumes, and Ravishing Sweets shall it Smell, as every Sent shall breed a New Desire, and every Desire a New Sent, and have in all a Satisfaction; yet Page 188 nothing of these Various Sweets, or Sweet Perfumes, shall enter from Without into the Nostrils, but be Within them: And as for Taste, Delitiously and with Gusto shall it Feed and Satisfie the Stomack, not with Food, but Taste, for Taste shall be the Food, and every Appetite shall bring a New Taste, and every Taste a New Appetite, and every Appetite shall be Satisfied, yet in the Mouth shall not any Meat be: The like for Touch, which is a kind of Taste, there shall be a Feeling Pleasure, where every Touch shall be a New Pleasure, and every Pleasure shall bring a New Touch, there shall Touch feel a Comfortable Heat from a Freezing Cold, and a Refreshing Cold, upon great Sultry Heats, and yet no Fire nor Frost shall Touch their Bo∣dies; there shall it feel a Scratching Pleasure, to take off Itching Pain, yet nothing Hurt the Body; there shall it feel a Soft and Downy Touch, as from a Hard Rough Pain, yet nothing Press the Body, and all the Body shall feel such Ease, as if it came from Hard Labour, and such Rest, as from a Tedious Travelling, and Infinite of other Pleasurable and Delightfull Touches, as are not to be Exprest. Thus every Sense shall be Satisfied in a Spiritual way, without a Gross Corporeal Substance, and the Blessed Souls of these Glorified Bodies, and Spiritual Satisfacti∣ons of Glorified Senses and Appetites, shall be fill'd with all Perfection, as a Clear Understan∣ding, a Perfect Knowledge, a Pure Wit, a Sound Judgment, and a Free Will, and all the Page 189 Passions Regulated and Govern'd, as they ought to be, into Love and Hate, as Hate to the Wicked and Damned, and Love to the Bless'd and Glorified; and such Delights shall they have not only in the Pleasures of their Glorified Bo∣dies, but in Themselves, such as God himself Injoys; thus shall Souls and Bodies be Bless'd and Glorified in Heaven. And after the same manner and way, as Blessed Souls and Bodies have Delight and Pleasure, and Fulness of Joy in Heaven, so shall the Souls and Bodies of the Damned have Terrour and Torments, and Ful∣ness of Horrour in Hell; for as the Senses and Appetitces have Variety and Satisfation of Plea∣sures in Heaven, so shall the Senses and Appe∣tites have Variety of Terrour, Dread, and Hor∣rour, and be Surfeited with Aversion, Loathing and Reluctancy, and fill'd with Misery and Evil: As for the Sense of Touch in Damned Bodies, it is not probable they are Burnt with Elemental Fire, as many Think, but their Sense of Touch hath such a Burning Feeling, as is so far beyond the Elemental Burning, as that Bur∣ning is a Pleasure to it, and such Excessive Va∣riety of Pains, it is probable they have, as Art could never Invent, nor Nature make, nor Sense Feel in this World, nor Thought of man Ima∣gine: And for the Sense of Sent, it is not pro∣bable there is the Smell of Brimstone and Sul∣phur, for that may be indured without a great Dislike, but it is Probable and to be Believed, that their Sense of Sent smells Varieties of Page 190 filthy Stinks, yet not from Without them, as of the Devils making, but Within themselves: And as for their Sense of Hearing, it is not pro∣bable, that the Devils do Vocally Roar or Ver∣bally Curse, but that the Damned have in the Sense of Hearing, Infinite, Confused, Fearfull, and Dreadfull Noises, Reproaching, Exclaming, and Cursing Words and Speeches: And as for the Sense of Sight, it is not so much the Devils Ugly and Monstrous Shapes, which they see, but their Sense of Sight is fill'd with Infinite Varieties of Ugly, Deformed, Monstrous, and Terrible Sights. Thus it is probable the Dam∣ned are Tormented. Also 'tis probable, that both the Damned and Blessed are Fixt to their Places; for the Blessed having Fulness of Joy and a Fruition of Desire, have no Occasion or Desire to VVander from Place to Place, for it is Rest∣less Desire, and Unsatisfied Appetite, that Moves and Removes, seeking for that they would Have, and cannot Get, or for Something, they know not VVhat, for which the Damned may desire to Remove; but as the Bless'd Saints are Fixt with a Fulness of Joy and Admiration, not caring to Remove therefrom, so the Dam∣ned are so Strucken with Fear and Terrour, as they Dare not Remove, if they Could; and as the Satisfaction, Variety, Pleasure, Delight and Joy of the Blessed, begins and continueth without End, so the Variety of Aversion, Terrour, and Torments, begins and continues for Ever; But the most Probable Opinion is, that the Fulness Page 191 of Joy is the Love of God, and the Fulness of Pleasure the Glory of God, and the Horrour and Torments of the Damned is the Want of that Love and Glory.
An Oration to a Congregation.
Dearly Beloved Brethren,
MAn hath not only Vain or Erroneous Ima∣ginations or Opinions, but Beliefs, being without Ground or Foundation, which is with∣out Sense and Reason; for what Sense and Rea∣son hath Man to Imagine or Believe, that Hea∣ven, which is Celestial, should be Composed of Terrestrial Materials, as of Pure Gold, Crystal, and Pretious Stones, and not rather Believe it to be only the Beatifical Vision of God? and what Sense and Reason hath man to Believe that Hell is Hell, for Want of the Presence of God, whereas the Omnipotent God must Necessarily be all Fulfilling? and is it not a strange Contra∣dicting Opinion or Belief, that Hell is Dark, and yet that in Hell is Elemental Fire and Terrestrial Brimstone? and what Sense and Reason hath Man to believe, that Celestial Bodies have Ter∣restrial Shapes, whereas we may easily Perceive, that all outward Shapes, Forms or Figures, are according to the Degrees of the Purity or Gross∣ness of the Substance or Matter they are Com∣posed of? Wherefore, Man hath not any Rea∣son Page 192 to Believe, that Angels, which are Celestial Substances, can have Terrestrial Shapes; and what Reason hath Man to Believe, that Angels in Heaven have the Shapes of Men on Earth; but if they should believe they have Terrestrial Shapes, why should they believe them to have Mens Shapes, and not the Shapes of other Crea∣tures? it might be Answered, the Belief Pro∣ceeds from the Son of God, who did Take upon Him the Shape of Man, but then we may believe, that Angels are of the Shape of Doves, because the Holy Ghost, which is Co-equal and Co-eternal with the Son, did Take upon Him the Shape of that Bird. Also what Reason hath man to Believe, that the Devils Shapes are partly of the Shape of Beasts, as to have Tails, Horns, Claws, and Cloven feet? do they believe that the Shape of Beasts is a more VVicked or Cursed Shape than any other Animal Shape? But these Opinions or Beliefs proceed from Gross Conceptions, made by Irregular Moti∣ons, in Gross Terrestrial Bodies, or Brains in Mankind, who make Hell and Heaven, God, Angels and Devils, according to their Fancies, and not according to Truth, for Man cannot Know what is not in his Portion of Reason and Sense to Know, and yet man will Judge and Believe that, which he cannot possibly Know, which is Ridiculous even to Human Sense and Reason. But to Conclude, Dearly Beloved, men's Thoughts are too Weak, their Brains too Page 193 Little, their Knowledge too Obscure, and their Understandings too Cloudy to Conceive Gods Celestial Works or Workings, or his Will or Decrees, Fates or Destinies; Wherefore, Pray without Forming, Obey without Censuring, Fear his Power, Love his Goodness, and Hope in his Mercy, and the Blessing of God be amongst you.
An Oration to a Sinfull Congregation.
YOu Live so Lewdly, Riotously, and Wick∣edly, as if you did not Believe there are Gods or Devils, Heaven or Hell, Punishment or Bliss, and as if there were none other Life after this Life, but you will find you shall be so Punished for your Wickedness, unless you A∣mend, as you will Curse your Birth, Life, and Death; for so Bad and Wicked you are, that the Seven Deadly Sins are not sins enough for you, but Daily, nay Hourly, you Study to make more Deadly sins, nay you are so Ingenious in Devising Sin, as you are the most subtil Artisans therein that ever were; you are a Vitruvius for Desigining Sins, a Pygmalion for Carving out Sins, an Apelles for Painting out Sins, a Galileus for Espying out Sins, an Euclid for Numbring and Multiplying Sins, so that your Sins are now past all Account, an Archimedes for Inventing Page 194 Sins, an Aristoteles to Find out Sins, a Cicero in Pleading for Sins, an Alexander in Fighting for Sins, an Homerus in Describing Sins, and your Lives and Actions are the Foundations, and Materials, the Stones and Chisals of Sins, the Boords and Planks, the Light, Shaddows, and Colours of Sins, the Perspective Glasses of Sins, the Figures of Sins, the Instruments and Engins of Sins, the Lines, Circles, and Squares of Sins, the Bodies, Parts, and Lives of Sins, the Tongue and Speech of Sin, the Arms of Sin, the Brains and Wit of Sin: Thus you are no∣thing but Sin Within and Without, for Life, Soul, Thoughts, Bodies and Actions are all Sin; Indeed you seem, as if you were neither Made by Nature nor God, but Begotten or Produced from Devils; for Nature Exclames against you, and God Abhorrs you, the Devils will Own you, but God of his Mercy give you Grace to Repent and Amend your Lives, that what Sin is Past, may be Blotted out, and that your Lives, Thoughts and Actions may be such, as may Gain upon Eternal Blessedness, and Everlasting Glory, for which let us Pray.
An Oration, which is an Exhortation to a Pious Life.
YOu come here to be Instructed, but yet you do not Amend your Lives, for you Live Idlely and Wickedly, you make no Profit of your Instructions or Exhortations, for it seems by you, that the more you are Taught, the more Ignorant you are, like those that become Blind, or their Sight Dazled with Too much Light; Indeed you Live as if you had not Rational Souls, or that you thought Souls Die as Bodies do, but you will find you have Souls that shall Live to indure Torment, if you do not Reform your Lives: 'Tis true, many have Strange, and some, Atheistical Opinions concerning the Soul, for Some have had Opinions, that Man hath no other Soul, but such as Beasts have, and Others, that the Souls of all Creatures Go out of one Body into an other, and that Death doth but Change the Souls Lodging; and Some have had an Opi∣nion, that there is no such thing as a Soul, but that which is called a Soul, is only Animal Life; and Others believe there be Souls, but they Die as Bodies do; Others, that there is but One great Soul, which is the Soul of the World; but the Right and Truth is, that men have Particu∣lar Souls, which not any other Creature hath, Page 196 which are called Rational Souls, and shall Live for Ever, either in Torment or Bliss, according to their Merit; But the Best and Wisest men make no question of the Rational Soul of Man∣kind, though many Learned men Trouble their Heads to prove What the Soul is, for some be∣lieve the Soul is Corporeal, others it is Incor∣poreal. Also many Trouble themselves to know, When the Souls of Mankind Enter into their Bodies, some think Before the Body is Born; others hold, it enters not Untill the Body is Born; and some think, that the Body receives the Soul so soon as it receives Life in the Womb; and some think Before, as when it is newly Conceived: but those that are of an O∣pinion, that Life and Soul enters into the Body together, believe their Departs together by Death; and those that think the Soul enters not into the Body untill it be Born, believe the Soul is but a Weakling at first, and grows Stronger as the Body grows Older. Thus they Trouble their Heads, and Exercise their Wits concerning the Soul, to know What it is, and How it is, but never take Thought as how it Will be when they Dye, like the Dog that left the Substance to seek for the Shaddow, so men leave the Sal∣vation, and Dispute about the Creation: But my Exhortation is, that you would Pray more, and Dispute less; for what shall we need to Trouble our Minds, whether the Soul be Corporeal or Incorporeal? or if Corporeal, of what Matter it Page 197 is made of, so that it be Capable of Glory? nor shall we need to Trouble our Minds, When it Enters the Body, so it Enters Heaven. Where∣fore those that are Truly Wise, and Wisely Devout, will Indeavour with all their Power, Faith, and Industry of their Minds, Thoughts, and Life, to Do such Charitable Deeds, and to Think such Pious Thoughts in Holy Contem∣plations, and Pray with so much Zeal and Faith, Penitence and Thanksgiving, as God may be so well Pleased with them, as to Glorifie their Souls in Heaven; where there is all Joy and Happiness, which Joy and Happiness I Pray the Gods may give you.
A Marriage-Oration to a Congregation, and a Young Bride and Bridegroom.
WE are met together as Bridal-Guests to see this Young Man and Woman Married, who are to be Bound, Tied, and Manacled with Holy Ceremony, Vows and Promises, yet all too little to Tie some Couples Fast, for many do not only Loosen those Bonds with ta∣king Unlawfull Liberty, but quite Break them by Divorce, which shews the Unruliness and Untowardness of Married People, or else it shews the Unsufferable Condition of a Married Life, and yet for all the Proofs, Trials, and Ex∣amples of the Evils that are in Marriage, Men Page 199 and VVomen will take no VVarning, for not only Maids and Batchelours, but VViddows and VViddowers run Head-long into the Noose or Marriage Halter; I do not say this, to Dis∣courage this Young Couple, but to Advise them, when they are Married, to Live Temperately, Prudently, Lovingly, and Peaceably, that they may not Surseit their Fond and Eager Appe∣tites, which Causes the Sickness of Aversion, and Death of Affection, or Prodigally VVaste their Maintenance, or Idlely Spend their Time, for Poverty breaks Friendship, and turns neer Friends to Foes; nor Live Inconstantly, for that makes Jealousie, and Jealousie Hate; nor Live Quarrelsome, for that makes Faction, Faction Division, and Division Divorce; whereas Temperance makes Constancy, Prudence Plenty, Love keeps Peace, and Peace makes Happiness, which Happiness I wish this Young Couple, and so I will Joyn their Hands, Praying that God will Joyn their Hearts with an United Love and Felicity.
A Marriage-Oration to a Congregation, and an Old Bride and Young Bride∣groom.
VVE are met together as Marriage∣Guests, to see this Couple Married to∣gether, although it be an Unequal match, the Page 200 Bride being Aged, and the Bridegroom Young, She too Old for him, and He too Young for her; which shews, as if She wanted VVit, and He VVealth; but I hope neither of them will want that Love, which ought to be betwixt a Man and VVife: I say not this, to Hinder their Marriage, for if They do Agree, every one ought to Approve it, and if they should not Agree, None will Suffer but Themselves, either in the Opinion of their Neighbours and Friends, or in their Own Discontents; for their Neighbours will Censure Both, as if She was too Amorous for her Age, and He too Covetous for his Youth, and that Time will Cool the One, and Riot Con∣sume the Other; which if it prove so, you will wish one another Dead, but not Love one ano∣ther Living; whereas when you Agree Kindly, and Live Orderly, you will be Prais'd. VVor∣thily, and so much the More, as being Unusual, and therefore not Expected: for who would not believe, but that an Old Wife should be Jealous, and a Young Husband VVanton? or who will believe an Old Wife to be Pleasing, and a Young Husband Continent? But this true Pleasure and Constancy I wish you, and will Joyn your Hands, Praying for your Happi∣ness.
A Marriage-Oration to a Congregation, and a Young Bride and Aged Bride∣groom.
HEre is a Loving Aged Man, and a Chast Young VVoman to be Joyn'd in Holy Matrimony, which shews the Man to have Courage, the Woman to be Prudent; for sure∣ly it is very Dangerous for an Aged man to Mar∣ry a Young Woman, especially an Handsome Young Woman, not only that Youth is apt to be Inconstant and Loves Variety, but Youth and Beauty is a Temptation to Amorous Lovers, which will lay Siege and make Assaults, indea∣vouring with all their Flattery, Bribes, Vanity, and Prodigality, to Corrupt, Betray, and Win her; But she is Prudent to Choose an Experi∣ced man, Preferring VVisdome before Youth, VVit before Beauty, Love before Courtship, and Temperance before Pleasure: all which Fore-shews, she will make a Chast Wife, which will keep her Husbands Love, and her Own Reputation, which Love and Chastity will make them Happy, and both will make them Honourable, to which Respect and Happiness I Joyn them inseparably.
A Marriage-Oration of two Poor Ser∣vants.
YOu have attended these two Poor Servants to the Church, as their Bridal-Guests, to VVitness their Lawfull Marriage, by which you do them Honour, and if you will also do them Good, you will bestow on them an Offer∣ing, for though each Person should give but a Small Gift, yet in the whole Summ it will be Great to them, so that it will not be Mist in your Purses, and yet be a Benefit to their Lives, for it may make them Rich, and your selves not Poor; but if you give them not Any, they may nevertheless by their Industry Thrive, for as they have VVrought Honestly for their Master and Mistress, so they will Labour Ho∣nestly for Themselves, and as their Master did Thrive by their Service, so they Hope to Thrive in Serving themselves, and so in time they may become Master and Mistress to Ser∣vants, as they were Servants to Master and Mistress; for Prudent Industry and Thrifty Sparing makes the Poor Rich, and Riches doth Advance them to Honour, whereas Careles∣ness, Riot, and Vain Expenses make Rich men Poor, and Noble men Mean, so that in time Labouring Peasants, and Thriving Citizens Posterities, come to be Rich Men and Great Page 203 Lords, when as the Posterity of Rich Men and Great Lords, through their Prodigality comes to be Poor Labouring men and Slaves, for Hea∣ven Blesses the Industry of the Poor, but Pu∣nishes the Riot of the Rich; which Blessing be upon This Couple, and so let us Joyn their Hands with Holy Ceremony, and Heaven Joyn their Hearts with Love.
ORATIONS TO CITIZENS In the Market-Place.
An Oration against Excess and Vanity.
I Observe great Excess in Stately and Chargeable Buildings, Rich and Costly Furnishings, Vain Adorn∣ings, Wastefull Feasting, Idle Enter taining, and Unprofitable Attendan∣ces, and the like Vanities. First for your Build∣ing, you Build not only for Conveniency and Decency, but for State and Magnificence, and you Build not only Large and High, as if you would Spread to the Circumference of the Page 205 Earth, and Ascend to the Mansions of the Gods, but you Indeavour to Work beyond Nature for Curiosities in Cutting, Carving, Ingraving, and Painting to the Life; also you Dig to the Abyfs, as to the Centre of the Earth, for several Mate∣rials, as Diverse sorts of Stones and Metalls, and Indeavour to make your Palaces to Out∣shine the Sun with Gold, wherein you waste so much Gold and Silver, in Vain and Improfitable Gilding and Interlaying, that there is not Enough left to make Coyn for Traffick; also your Stately Building doth not only Ruine your Posterity, leaving them more Houses than Land, but you Ruine the Poor, inclosing the Land with your VValls, and filling up Lands with Houses, whereas Corn and Fruits should Grow; thus you Tread upon the Bellies, Backs, and Heads of the Poor. And as for your Rich and Costly Furniture, it Cost much and VVears out soon, yielding no Profit, for the Principal of so much Money is VVasted, and no Use made thereof. Secondly, for your Feasting, wherewith you Eat rather to be Sick, than to Prolong Life, you Spoil more than you Eat, and Eat more than you have Appetite; you are like Misers in your Feeding, stuffing your Stomacks with Meat, as they do their Trunks and Baggs with Money, and the Superfluity of meat De∣stroyes the Gluttonous Eater with Surfeits. Thirdly, your Adorning or rather Deforming your selves in Antick Fashions, and Toyish Va∣nities, which sheweth your Heads to be Brain∣less, Page 206 and sometimes your Purses to be Money∣less, for Spending so much on your Backs, you cannot Keep any thing in your Coffers, nor for your Necessary use. Fourthly, your Idle Visits and Unprofitable Discourses, wherein is more Words than Wit, and more Time lost than Knowledge gain'd, for you become more Igno∣rant with Talking, than Learned with Con∣templating, for Brains are not Manured with Foolish Discourses, but Wise Considerations. Lastly, your Numerous Trains, which are Un∣profitable Servants, being maintain'd for Shew, and not for Use, they Spending much, and do∣ing little Service, is the Cause not only of great Disorders, but the Ruine of many Noble Fami∣lies. The Short is, you Drink to be Drunk, Eat to be Sick, Live to be Idle, Spend to be Poor, and Talk to be Fools: Thus you Lose Time, Waste your Estate, Trouble your Minds, and Shorten your Lives, Living with more Cost than Worship, and more Worship than Pleasure; for you are Stewards for your Ser∣vants, Hosts for your Guests, and Slaves to your Vain Humours.
An Oration Contradicting the Former.
THe Former Oration was against the Law∣full Delights and Pleasures of our Citi∣zens, nay, of all Mankind, which Expresses the Page 207 Orator either to be so Poor of Means, as he Can∣not Attain to such Delights and Pleasures; or that his Senses are Imperfect, as not Capable to Receive them, or that he is of so Evil a Dis∣position, as to Desire all men to be Miserable, or that he is a Fool, as not Knowing how to Speak or Live wisely, whereas had he Spoken against Hurtfull and Destroying Vices, he had Spoken as a Good man ought to do, for Vices are Vices, no otherwise but that they are Hurtfull or De∣structive to Mankind, which makes them Vices, for the Gods Forbid them, because of the Evil Effects; as Drunkenness, which Disorders the Reason, Distempers the Brain, and Obstructs the Senses, making men Senseless, or to be as Mad, and causes oftentimes Quarrels, Wounds, and Death, at least Breaks Peace, and makes Ene∣mies of Friends; besides, Drunkenness makes men Sick, and is apt to Shorten their Lives, all which makes it a Vice, and so a Sin; But did Drunkenness cause no Evil Effect, it ought not to be Forbidden, nor could it be accounted a Crime. The like I may say for Gluttony, for would men Eat only to Please them, and not so much as to Disease them, it would be no Fault to Eat well; or to Please their Palate, but it is the Surfeits; Sickness, and oftentimes Untimely Death, that makes Gluttony a Vice; and for Adultery, it would be so far from a Crime, as it would be a Virtue in the Increase of Mankind, were it not for the Loss of Propriety, in that no man would Know his Own Child, nor be sure Page 208 to Injoy his Own Wife, or that Woman he makes Choice of. As for Theft and Murder, they are not of that Sort to be named Vices only, but Damnable Sins, wherein can neither be Society, Safety, nor Security of Life, for Thieves and Murderers indeavour an Utter De∣struction without Mercy or Remorse; Where∣fore, since Vices and Sins are Vices and Sins, for their Hurt and Evil Effects, those things that are call'd Vanities, which produce Pleasure and Delight without Death and Destruction, ought not to be Spoken against; for Vanities are Profitable to the Poor, and not Hurtfull to the Rich; But yet Moralists and Divines Plead, Preach, and Write, Rail and Exclame against all Honest, Harmless Delights and Pleasures, as if they were Sins to God and Nature, as if Na∣ture and the God of Nature should make Senses and Appetites in Vain, or only to the Hurt and Dislike of the Creature, and not for their Good and Pleasure, as to make a Body for Pain and Sickness, and not for Health and Ease, and to make a Mind for Trouble and Discontent, and not for Peace and Tranqullity, to make Desires, but not Fruitions: Indeed Nature and the God of Nature is more Just to Mankind; for as they have made Eyes and Seeing, so they have made Light, Splendour, and Beauty to be Seen; and as they have made Ears to Hear, so they have made Harmony to be Heard; and as they have made Nostrils to Smell, so they have made Per∣fumes to be Smelt; and as they have made Page 209 Taste, so they have made Relishes; and as they have made Hunger, so they have made Food; and as they have made Appetites, so they have given Satisfaction or Satiety. Thus we may perceive, that every Particular Sense is Fitted or Matched to Particular Pleasures; but be∣cause Nature hath made some Aversion, there∣fore Moralists and Divines would not have men Injoy the Pleasure in Nature, whereas the most Rational men perceive, that Aversions were only made to Highten and Re-double the Pleasures and Delights both of Body and Mind; but these Men are so Rigid in their Doctrine, (I will not say, in their own particular Practice) as they would have men Choose the Worst part, and Refuse the Better, and would have all Mankind Struggle, Strive, and Oppose all Na∣ture's Delights and Benefits; the truth is, they seem to Desire a Perpetual Warr between the Senses and the Objects, as also between the Mind and the Body, as between the Reason and Sense; but in my opinion, their Doctrine hath neither Sense nor Reason, and their Authors would have as Little, if they should Practise what they Preach. Wherefore, Noble Citi∣zens, my Advise is, that you Take your Plea∣sures, yet so, as you may Injoy them Long, as to Warm your Selves, not to Burn your Selves, to View the Light, but not to Gaze out your Sight, to Bathe your Selves, but not to Drown your Selves, to Please your Selves, but not to Destroy your Selves with Excess.
An Oration against Usurers, and Money∣Horders.
VVE have some Citizens amongst us, that are Rich, and yet Miserable, they Co∣vet Much, yet Injoy but Little, for they Hord up their Wealth, and Starve Themselves; and if they did Starve None but Themselves, it were no great matter, being fitter for Death than Life, but their Hords impoverish the Common-wealth, and so Starve the Poor; for there cannot be a Greater Evil in a Common∣wealth, set a-side Warr, than to have many Rich Usurers, as Covetous Getters, and Spare Spen∣ders; for their Great Wealth is like as a Great Dunghill, which, whilst it lies on a Heap toge∣ther, doth no Good, but Hurt, whereas if it were Dispersed and Spread upon the Barren Lands, it would Inrich much Ground, produ∣cing Increase and Plenty. The like should Money or such sort of Riches be Spread equal∣ly, to make a Common-wealth Live Happily; Indeed, a Prodigal is more Beneficial, and Pro∣fitable to a Common-wealth than a Usurer, for a Prodigal makes only Himself Poor, and the Common-wealth Rich, whereas a Miserable man makes only Himself Rich, and the Com∣mon-wealth Poor. 'Tis true, Riches is accoun∣ted a great Blessing, and Surely it is so, but I take Page 211 Riches to be only a Blessing in the Use, and not Barely in the Possession, for Riches is not what we Have, but what we Injoy; for he that hath Delicious Fruits, and will Eat Sour Crabs; hath Reviving Wines, and will Drink Insipid Wa∣ter; hath Stately Houses, and will Live in a Thatch'd Cottage; hath Store of Fuel, and will Freeze with Cold; and hath great Summs of Money, but will Spend none, those are Poorer than they that Have but a Little, and will Spend according to their Estate; yet these Miserable men that Live Starvingly, Slovenly, and Unwholesomely, are Commended by the Moralists, and Accounted Wise men, as not taking Pleasure in that they call Vanities, which is to make Use of their Riches, as to Live Plen∣tifully; Pleasantly, Gloriously, and Magnifi∣cently, if they have wherewithall to Live so, pleasing Themselves with what Good Fortune hath given them. I for my part, I had rather Live Rich, and Dye Poor, than Dye Rich, and Live Poor, and leave my Wealth to those, that will be so far from Acknowledging my Gifts with Thanks, by Praising me for them, as it is likely they would Rail on my Memory, so that my Wealth would only Build me a Tomb of Reproaches, and a Monument of Infamy, which would be a Just Judgement for being so Unna∣tural to my Self. But Miserable men believe, they are Masters to their Wealth, because they have it in Keeping, when as they are Slaves, not Daring to Use it, unless it be in getting Ten Page 212 in the Hundred: I Confess, if such men had Children, being for the most part Childless, there were some Excuse for them, but yet Fa∣thers should not make Themselves Miserable, to make their Sons Prodigal, for a Rich Son of a Miserable Father is commonly a Spend-thrist; and as Fathers are bound by Nature to Provide for their Children in a Wise Proportion, so they are bound by Nature to Maintain Themselves so Plentifully, as to Injoy a Happy Life. But to Conclude, those that are Miserable Horders, or Uncnscionable Usurers, are like as Weesels, or such like Vermin; for as these Suck out the Meat of an Egg, so they Suck out Silver and Gold, and leave the Common-wealth like as an Empty Egg-shell, which is a Penny-less Purse or Treasury.
An Oration concerning the Education of Children.
I Commend your Love and Care, which you seem to have of your Sons, as to have them Taught and Instructed in Arts and Sciences, as also when they are Grown up towards Man∣hood, to send them abroad to see Forein and se∣veral Nations, for to be acquainted with their Fashions, Manners, and Behaviours, and to Learn their several Languages, all which is Pro∣fitable, and will make them Worthy men if Page 213 they Profit; Yet though I Commend your Love, I cannot Commend your Judgements, for putting your Sons to be Instructed by Young Pedants, and to be Guided by Young Gover∣nours, which are but Boys themselves in Com∣parison of Experienced, Understanding, Know∣ing, Wise men, that is Aged men, who have Seen, Heard, and Learned Much, and so Know Much, whereas Young men have not had Time to Hear, See, and Learn Much, and so cannot Understand, nor Know Much, but must of Ne∣cessity be Ignorant. Wherefore, it is not to be Wondered at, that Fathers Reap not the Profit, or have not the Return of their Care and Ex∣pences in their Sons Educations; for Youth breeding up Youth, makes many Men to be Boys all their Life-time, and being not Instructed as they ought, become Wild, like Plants that want Manuring, and Fathers mistaking the Cause through long Custom, think it is the Incapacity of their Sons, and not the Insufficiency of their Tutors and Governours, if they prove not ac∣cording to their Hopes and Expectations; But most Fathers being Bred as Ignorantly as their Sons, think their Sons Compleatly bred, if they have been some time at the University, and have made some short time of Travel, although without Profiting either in Knowledge or Man∣ners. Thus it may be Thought, that one Fool Begets an other; but the truth is, that one Fool Breeds an other, for the Fault is not in Nature, but in Education, at least not so Generally and Page 214 Constantly, for Nature doth not Commit so many Errors, and make so many Defects, as Breeding doth.
An Oration concerning the Plague.
I Shall not need to tell you, that the Plague is in this City, or that it Increases Daily, I may say Hourly, or that this City hath been formerly Infested or Infected with this Disease, in so much as sometimes it hath almost made a Depo∣pulation; but by Reason it is such a Deadly destroying, Disease, as to sweep Thousands into Oblivious Death, and not only a Destroying but a Murderous Disease, for it takes men Sud∣denly, Unawares, and Unprepared, being in perfect Health and full Strength, and Wounds so deadly, as to be Past Remedy, not to be Cu∣red, either by Medicines or Salve, when it hath Strongly Seized on the Body; Wherefore, to hinder it from such a strong Affault and Ruine, let me Advise you, Citizens, especially the Ma∣gistrates, who have Power and Authority to Order and Govern this City, as they shall think Good and Expedient for it; First, to set out a Declaration to all Housholders, upon Paying Fine, if Neglected and not Performed, to Cleanse their Houses, Pumps, Springs, Sinks, Gutters, and Privy-Offices; also that Officers in every Parish, and other Particular Person, Page 215 may be Authorized for that Imployment, to see the Streets, Lanes, and Out-corners in and of the City Cleansed from Dunghils, and Dung of Men and Beast, and from Carrion, Mud, and such like filth; also to have the Common Sewers, Sinks, Chanels, Wells, as also the Lakes, Ponds, and such like Places without the City near adjoyning, well Cleansed, and all this foul Filth Buried deep in the Earth, that no Ill Savour or Vapour may Ascend therefrom; for Foul, Gross, Stinking Vapours arising, es∣pecially from several places, as several Houses, Streets, Ditches, Sewers, and the like, disper∣sing Corruption about, Infect the Air, which Spreads far, and Enters into the very Bowels and Inward Parts of men, nay, it doth not only Poyson the Bodies of men, but all other Animal Creatures, as also the Fruits of the Earth; and so Strong it is, that it Bursts forth in Sores, Ul∣cers, and Spots on the Bodies of Men and Beasts, Inflaming their Spirits, and Consuming their Lives in a Moment; Wherefore, to help to Purifie the Air, let there be Pitch and Tar burnt in the Open Streets, and Frankincense, Storax, and Benzoin in the Houses, or at least Juniper; and after the City is thus Cleansed, and the Air Purified, you must indeavour to Cleanse and Purifie the Bodies of the Inhabitants, by Com∣manding Every one to be Purged with Drugs or Simples, and to be let Blood, or else it will be a Vain Work, as to Cleanse their Houses from Filth, and let their Bodies be full of Foul Hu∣mours, Page 216 to Cleanse their Sinks and Gutters, and let their Veins be full of Corrupted or Inflamed Blood; Yet must the Bodies of men not be Cleansed, until the City be Cleansed, lest the Infected Air from Without should more easily Get Into them and Kill them. But I hope, I shall not need much Rhetorick to perswade you, to take a Care of your Own Lives, for Life is Sweet, and Death is Terrible; although I have Observed, that Men, though they Desire to Live, nay, are Afraid to Dye, yet are so Care∣less, Obstinate, and Confident, as not to Indea∣vour to Prolong their Lives, or to Defend their Lives from Diseases, which are Death's Serge∣ants; for although all Creatures were made to Consume into other Forms, and Men are Born to Dye, yet no Creature was made to Dye and be Consumed, or Transmigrated before their Natural time, for Nature hath given her Crea∣tures Defences and Remedies against the Spoi∣lers and Destroyers of Life, which Spoilers and Destroyers, as also their Remedies and Defences are not easily to be Numbred; but Men are often their own Lives Enemies, Killing them∣selves with Riot and Excess, or being Over-bold in Adventuring or Entring into Dangers, or so Careless as to pass by Remedies: Yet I hope you will be Carefull, and Speedily Industrious to Prevent, if possibly you can, the Increase and Fury of this Plague.
An Oration against Idle Expences.
I Observe great Excess and Luxury in this City, Prodigally Spending your Estates, and Wasting your Lives with Riot, which I cannot enough Wonder at, that although men will Hazard their Lives to Get Wealth, and to Keep it from those that would Take it from them, yet will Spend it Lavishly, as Extravagantly, and Vainly, nay, more Readily to make them Sick, than to make themselves Well when they are Sick, for they will Spend it Freely in Lux∣ury, and be Sparing to a Physician, which shews, men Love Pleasure more than Health, where∣as, Health is the Greatest Pleasure, for Sensual Pleasures are alwayes Followed with Sickness and Pain, which lasts Long, even so long, as many times they do Accompany them to the Grave; and as Pains and Sickness follow Sen∣sual Pleasures, so Poverty and Scorn follows Vain Expences, all which makes a Discontented mind: Wherefore, what man, if he were Wise, would Destroy his Body, Disquiet his Mind, and Ruine his Estate for that which is called Pleasure? which is nothing but Sensual Appe∣tites, that are no sooner Injoy'd, but are Forgot∣ten, or Loathed with the Fruition; and for Plea∣sures of the Mind, those are only Opinions, which are nothing in Substance, and therefore Page 218 not to be Truly or Really Injoyed. But as Tem∣perance is the Greatest Bodily Pleasure, because it gives Health, so Judgement is the Minds Physick, Purging out Vain Opinions, Idle Thoughts, and Restless Desires, which give it the Health of Peace and Tranquillity. Thus your Body and Mind will Live Healthfully, Happily, and Honestly, Imploying their Time and Labours in the Service of God, their Coun∣try, and Friends, Living Wisely, Parting with the VVorld Willingly, Leaving a Good Fame behind them, and Ascend to a Crown of Glory and Eternal Life.
An Oration for Men to Please them∣selves.
GIve me leave to tell you, that Moral Ora∣tions are more Proper to be Spoken in Schools, than in the Market-place, where they will sooner Spoil Young Students, than Reform Old Citizens; But those that Speak against Pleasure, Speak against the Darling of Life, and therefore I do not VVonder at any for Taking his Pleasures, but at those that Speak against it, since it is the Quintessence or Elixir of Nature, as we may Know by the Scarcity of it, for Nature being Just in all her VVorks, hath Or∣dered them so, as what is Curious, Excellent, and Good, She hath Sparingly made, but what Page 219 is Indifferent and Bad, She hath made Plenti∣fully, Countervaluing the Worth of the One Sort, with the Quantity of the Other, as we may Observe, She hath made more Iron than Silver, more Silver than Gold, more Stones than Diamonds, more Weeds than Flowers, more Beast than Men, and of Men she hath made more Fools than Wise men, more Cowards than Valiant men, more Bad men than Good men, more Enemies than Friends, and so more Pains than Pleasures; but because there is but a Little of that which is Good, shall not we Injoy it? Shall we refuse the Best, because we have not so Much as we Would? that would be Unreason∣able; but as Men will give a Great quantity of Led for a Little Gold, so Men will Indure a Great deal of Pain for a Little Pleasure, and they have Reason, for a Little Pleasure is of Great Value, being the most Delitious Sweets in Na∣ture; but you will ask What is the Delitious Pleasure? I Answer, all that is Pleasure, is De∣litious, yet every man is to Judge of Pleasure by his own Delectation, for Pleasures are as Different as Men; for although all men are of Mankind, yet every man is not alike, neither in Mind nor Body, so although all Pleasure is Pleasure, yet not One and the Same.
An Oration against Vice-Actors.
OUr City doth so Increase with Vice, as I fear, the Numerous Vices will be like as the Plagues of Egypt to Destroy our City, if you do not use Speedy remedy, to Punish the Vice-Actors; But we are so far from Punishing them, as we Admire, Applaud, and Advance such, as have Most Vices, or Least Honesty; the truth is, that Vice and Injustice is the only way or means to Advance men to Office, Power, Au∣thority, Respect, and Credit in our City, for those men that are Temperate, Honest, and Just, are thought Fools and Unprofitable Drones, and those that are Wisely Provident, and not Vain∣ly Prodigal, are believed to be Miserable men, which know not how to Live; and as for our Grand Magistrates, they have more Formality than Reality, more Good Words than Good Deeds, more Covetousness than Justice; they Regard not the Poor man's Cause, but the Rich man's Money; for they decide Causes not ac∣cording to Right, but according to Bribes; Hu∣mility, and Honesty are Strangers to them, they Study their Self-interest, but Regard not the Publick Good, all which will bring a Confu∣sion, and so a Dissolution to this Common∣wealth, if that you do not Carefully and Sud∣denly Choose Wise and Conscionable men for Page 221 Magistrates, to Wit, such as will Punish Ex∣torsions, Wrongs, and Injuries, Suppress Pride, Vanity, and Luxury, Banish Quarrels, put away Idleness, and Administer Right and Justice for Right and Justice's sake, as also Do as they would be Done unto.
An Oration against a Foolish Custom.
HEre is an Unjust and Unhandsome Custom in this City, and therefore ought to be Abolished, which is, that whensoever a Wife Beats her Husband, the next Neighbour Rides through the City Disgracefully, not only Stri∣ding upon a Horse with his Face towards the Tail, or Sitting astride upon a Staff, but having Foul things flung at or on him, and all the Vul∣gar People follows with Shouts, and all this to Shame an Innocent Person, who hath not Com∣mitted a Fault, whereas the Fault-makers are neither Troubled nor Disgraced, which is a great Injustice, that those Escape, that Ought to have the Punishment; For the Foolish Husband of such a Wife Rampant, should Ride in Disgrace, Scorn, and Pain, by Reason he Suffers himself to be Degraded of his Masculine Authority; yet is this not the only Foolish and Unjust Cu∣stom, but we have Many more, which ought not to be Suffer'd in a Peaceable and Well-govern'd Common-wealth; Wherefore the Publick Page 222 Magistrates, that are the Publick Fathers, should Order Private Families, that they may not Dis∣order the Publick Tranquillity.
An Oration against the Liberty of VVomen.
Citizens of N. N.
ALthough I am sure to be Hated of all the Women in this City, and Perchance else∣where, yet by Reason I think it fit to Reprove their Liberties, Vanities, and Expences, I shall not be Silent, although I were sure to be Tor∣tured with their Railing Tongues, and to be Exclamed in all their Femal Societies', which Societies ought to be Dissolved, allowing no Publick Meetings to that Sex, no not Child-bed Gossipings, for VVomen Corrupt and Spoil each other, Striving to Out-brave, Out-beauty, and Out-talk each other, with their Vanities, Paintings, and Gossipings; wherefore it were fit, that VVomen should be Restrain'd not only from the Company of Men, but their own Sex, unless it be those they have neer Relations to, and not to Suffer them to make Acquaintance with Strangers; this would Cause Moderation, Sobriety, and Silence amongst them; also it would Cause them to be Huswifely in their Fa∣milies, Obedient to their Husbands, and Care∣full of their Children, but Liberty is an Enemy to VVomen, nay it is an Enemy to Men, not only to Fathers, Husbands, and Sons, but even Page 223 to Wanton Lovers, or rather Courtiers, ma∣king them as Vain and Expensive as Women, to Gain their Mistresses Favours, Knowing Wo∣men, especially Amorous VVomen, are soonest won with Gayes, Toyes, and Shews; but VVomen are so far from being Restrain'd in this Age, and in these Nations round about, that they have Liberty to Spend what they will, to Keep what Company they will, and to Use their Husbands and Natural Friends as they please; the truth is, Liberty makes all VVomen Wild and Wanton, both Maids, Wives, and Wid∣dows, which Defames Themselves and their Families. Thus in short, Women are the chief Ruiners of Men in their Estates, Fortunes, and Honours, and so I leave them.
An Oration for the Liberty of Women.
IT is not only Uncivil and Ignoble, but Unna∣tural, for Men to Speak against VVomen and their Liberties, for VVomen were made by Nature for Men, to be Loved, Accompanied, Assisted, and Protected; and if Men are Bound to Love them by Nature, should they Restrain them by Force? should they make them Slaves, which Nature made to be their Dearest Asso∣ciates, their Beautiful'st Objects, and Sweetest Delights? and shall Man Restrain them of their Harmless Pleasures, Chast Societies, and Gentle Page 224 Conversations? And as it is Natural for Men to Love Women, so it is Natural for Love to Please what they Love, and not to Cross, Op∣pose, or Restrain them, but to Grant them all their Lawfull Requests and Desires, as far as lies in their Powers; for can Men Dispose of their Estates more Generously than to VVomen? or think any Fortune Better, than when they can Serve them? or is there a greater Happiness than to be Beloved of them? whereas they are the Chiefest Good, that Nature hath made for Men, and the greatest Delight, She hath given to Men; for can there be any Sound Sweeter than their Voices? any Object Brighter than their Beauties, or any Society more Divine than theirs? Yet these Celestial Creatures, a Terre∣strial Man in the former Oration did Plead against them, Perswading you, O Horrid Perswasions to use them as your Slaves, which ought to be your Goddesses on Earth, for Nature made them to be Beloved, Admired, Desir'd, Ador'd, and Worshipp'd, Sued and Praised to by our Sex.
LAdies, Gentlewomen, and other In∣feriours, but not Less Worthy, I have been Industrious to Assemble you together, and wish I were so Fortunate, as to perswade you to make a Frequentation, Association, and Com∣bination amongst our Sex, that we may Unite in Prudent Counsels, to make our Selves as Free, Happy, and Famous as Men, whereas now we Live and Dye, as if we were Produced from Beast rather than from Men; for Men are Hap∣py, and we Women are Miserable, they Possess all the Ease, Rest, Pleasure, VVealth, Power, and Fame, whereas VVomen are Restless with Labour, Easeless with Pain, Melancholy for want of Pleasures, Helpless for want of Power, Page 226 and Dye in Oblivion for want of Fame; Never∣theless, Men are so Unconscionable and Cruel against us, as they Indeavour to Barr us of all Sorts or Kinds of Liberty, as not to Suffer us Freely to Associate amongst our Own Sex, but would fain Bury us in their Houses or Beds, as in a Grave; the truth is, we Live like Bats or Owls, Labour like Beasts, and Dye like VVorms.
LAdies, Gentlewomen, and other Inferiour Women, The Lady that Spoke to you, hath spoken Wisely and Eloquently in Expres∣sing our Unhappiness, but she hath not Declared a Remedy, or Shew'd us a way to come Out of our Miseries; but if she could or would be our Guide, to lead us out of the Labyrinth Men have put us into, we should not only Praise and Admire her, but Adore and Worship her as our Goddess; but Alas, Men, that are not only our Tyrants, but our Devils, keep us in the Hell of Subjection, from whence I cannot Perceive any Redemption or Getting out; we may Com∣plain, and Bewail our Condition, yet that will not Free us; we may Murmur and Rail against Men, yet they Regard not what we say: In short, our VVords to Men are as Empty Sounds, our Sighs as Puffs of VVind, and our Tears as Fruitless Showres, and our Power is so In∣considerable, Page 227 as Men Laugh at our VVeak∣ness.
LAdies, Gentlewomen, and other more Infe∣riours, The former Orations were Excla∣mations against Men, Repining at Their Condi∣tion, and Mourning for our Own; but we have no Reason to Speak against Men, who are our Admirers, and Lovers; they are our Protectors, Defenders, and Maintainers; they Admire our Beauties, and Love our Persons; they Protect us from Injuries, Defend us from Dangers, are Industrious for our Subsistence, and Provide for our Children; they Swim great Voyages by Sea, Travel long Journies by Land, to Get us Rarities and Curiosities; they Dig to the Centre of the Earth for Gold for us; they Dive to the Bottom of the Sea for Jewels for us; they Build to the Skies Houses for us; they Hunt, Foul, Fish, Plant, and Reap for Food for us; all which we could not do our Selves, and yet we Com∣plain of Men, as if they were our Enemies, when as we could not possibly Live without them: which shews, we are as Ungratefull, as Incon∣stant; But we have more Reason to Murmur against Nature than against Men, who hath made Men more Ingenious, VVitty, and Wife than VVomen, more Strong, Industrious, and Laborious than Women, for Women are Wit∣less, Page 228 and Strengthless, and Unprofitable Crea∣tures, did they not Bear Children. Where∣fore, let us Love men, Praise men, and Pray for men, for without Men we should be the most Miserable Creatures that Nature Hath, or Could make.
NOble Ladies, Gentlewomen, and other In∣feriour Women, The former Oratoress sayes, we are Witless, and Strengthless; if so, it is that we Neglect the One, and make no Use of the Other, for Strength is Increased by Ex∣ercise, and Wit is Lost for want of Conversa∣tion; but to shew Men we are not so Weak and Foolish, as the former Oratoress doth Ex∣press us to be, let us Hawk, Hunt, Race, and do the like Exercises as Men have, and let us Con∣verse in Camps, Courts, and Cities, in Schools, Colleges, and Courts of Judicature, in Taverns, Brothels, and Gaming Houses, all which will make our Strength and Wit known, both to Men, and to our own Selves, for we are as Igno∣rant of our Selves, as Men are of us. And how should we Know our Selves, when as we never made a Trial of our Selves? or how should Men know us, when as they never Put us to the Proof? Wherefore, my Advice is, we should Imitate Men, so will our Bodies and Minds ap∣pear more Masculine, and our Power will In∣crease by our Actions.
NOble, Honourable, and Vertuous Wo∣men, The former Oration was to Per∣swade us to Change the Custom of our Sex, which is a Strange and Unwise Perswasion, since we cannot Change the Nature of our Sex, for we cannot make our selves Men; and to have Femal Bodies, and yet to Act Masculine Parts, will be very Preposterous and Unnatural; In truth, we shall make our Selves like as the De∣fects of Nature, as to be Hermaphroditical, as neither to be Perfect Women nor Perfect Men, but Corrupt and Imperfect Creatures; Where∣fore, let me Perswade you, since we cannot Al∣ter the Nature of our Persons, not to Alter the Course of our Lives, but to Rule our Lives and Behaviours, as to be Acceptable and Pleasing to God and Men, which is to be Modest, Chast, Temperate, Humble, Patient, and Pious; also to be Huswifely, Cleanly, and of few Words, all which will Gain us Praise from Men, and Blessing from Heaven, and Love in this World, and Glory in the Next.
VVOrthy. Women, The former Ora∣toress's Oration indeavours to Per∣swade us, that it would not only be a Reproach and Disgrace, but Unnatural for Women in their Actions and Behaviour to Imitate Men; we may as well say, it will be a Reproach, Disgrace, and Unnatural to Imitate the Gods, which Imitation we are Commanded both by the Gods and their Ministers, and shall we Neglect the Imi∣tation of Men, which is more Easie and Natural than the Imitation of the Gods? for how can Terrestrial Creatures Imitate Celestial Deities? yet one Terrestrial may Imitate an other, al∣though in different sorts of Creatures; Where∣fore, since all Terrestrial Imitations ought to Ascend to the Better, and not to Descend to the Worse, Women ought to Imitate Men, as being a Degree in Nature more Perfect, than they Themselves, and all Masculine Women ought to be as much Praised as Effeminate Men to be Dispraifed, for the one Advances to Per∣fection, the other Sinks to Imperfection, that so by our Industry we may come at last to Equal Men both in Perfection and Power.
NOble Ladies, Honourable Gentlewomen, and Worthy Femal Commoners, The former Oratoress's Oration or Speech was to Perswade us Out of our Selves, as to be That, which Nature never Intended us to be, to wit Masculine; but why should we Desire to be Masculine, since our Own Sex and Condition is far the Better? for if Men have more Courage, they have more Danger; and if Men have more Strength, they have more Labour than VVo∣men have; if Men are more Eloquent in Speech, VVomen are more Harmonious in Voice; if Men be more Active, Women are more Gracefull; if Men have more Liberty, Women have more Safety; for wenever Fight Duels, nor Battels, nor do we go Long Travels or Dangerous Voyages; we Labour not in Building, nor Digging in Mines, Quarries, or Pits, for Metall, Stone, or Coals; neither do we Waste or Shorten our Lives with University or Scholastical Studies, Questions, and Disputes; we Burn not our Faces with Smiths Forges, or Chymist Furnaces, and Hundreds of other Actions, which Men are Imployed in; for they would not only Fade the Fresh Beauty, Spoil the Lovely Features, and Decay the Youth of Women, causing them to appear Old, whilst they are Young, but would Break their Small Page 232 Limbs, and Destroy their Tender Lives. Wherefore, Women have no Reason to Com∣plain against Nature, or the God of Nature, for though the Gifts are not the Same they have given to Men, yet those Gifts they have given to Women, are much Better; for we Women are much more Favour'd by Nature than Men, in Giving us such Beauties, Features, Shapes, Gracefull Derncanour, and such Infinuating and Inticing Attractives, as Men are Forc'd to Ad∣mire us, Love us, and be Desirous of us, in so much as rather than not Have and Injoy us, they will Deliver to our Disposals, their Power, Persons, and Lives, Inslaving Themselves to our Will and Pleasures; also we are their Saints, whom they Adore and Worship, and what can we Desire more, than to be Men's Tyrants, Destinies, and Goddesses?
ORATIONS IN Country Market-Towns, where Country Gentlemen meet.
WHo are Innobled by Time, and not by Favour, give me Leave, since we are Sociably met here in this Town, that I Remember you of our Happy Condition of Life we Live in, as on our Own Lands, amongst our Own Tenants, like as Petty Kings in our Little Mo∣narchies, in Peace, with moderate Plenty and Pleasure, our Recreations are both Healthfull and Delightfull, which are Hunting, Hawking, Page 234 and Racing, as being far Nobler Pastimes than Carding, Dicing, and Tennis-Playing; for whereas Gamesters meet for Covetousness, we meet for Love, they leave most of their Get∣tings to the Box, we bring most of our Gettings to our Tables, and whereas we make our selves Merry with Our Games, they make Quarrels with Theirs. Thus we Live more Friendly than Gamesters, and more Happily than Great Monarchs, we neither Quarrel, nor fear Usur∣pers.
THe Gentleman that formerly Spoke, said, we were Petty Kings, making our Tenants our Subjects; but if they be as Subjects, they are Rebellious Subjects, not Paying us our Rents Duely nor Truly; besides, they are apt to Murmur at the Least Increase of our Farms, al∣though they Sell their Commodities they get out of our Lands at a Double Rate; and as for our Pleasures, as Hawking, Hunting, and Ra∣cing, they may be Sociable, but they are very Chargeable, for Hawks, Hounds, and Horses, with their Attendance, will Devour a Great E∣state in a Short time, besides Open House-Keep∣ing in Christmas time; All which makes Gen∣tlemen Beggars, and Beggars Gentlemen, for the Servants and Tenants grow Rich, but their Page 235 Masters and Landlords become Poor, the one sort Buyeth, the other sort Selleth, and the Ti∣tle of a Gentleman is Buried in the Ruine of his Estate.
THe Gentleman that Spoke last, spoke rather like a Cottager than a Gentleman, or rather like a Miser than a Noble Hospitable Person, for he Spoke as if he would have Gentlemen rather to Follow the Plough than the Race, the Cart rather than the Deer, the Puttuck rather than the Hawk, to Eat Cheese instead of Veni∣son, Sour Curds instead of Patridge, Fried Pease for young Leverets, Rusty Bacon for Chines of Beef, Rye Bread instead of White Manchet: all which is to Live like a Clown, and not like a Gentleman, Burying his Birth in the Dung of his Earth. But, Noble Gentlemen, I have Observed, that a Gentleman, although of Small Fortune, if he Live Wisely, may Live Plentifully, and Honourably, without his own Personal Drudgery; the Wisdome is, to Look into his Own Estate Industriously, to Know and Understand the Value of his Lands Justly, to Indeavour to have his Rents Paid Duely, and not Suffer his Servants to Coosen him either by Flattery or Excess; all which will Cause a Country Gentleman to Live as the first Gentle∣man Page 236 said, like a Petty King, yet not like a Ty∣rant, but like a Generous Prince, with Delight and Pleasure, Generosity and Magnificence a∣mongst his Tenants, Servants, and Acquaintance, also he will be an Assistance to Travellers, and a Relief to the Poor, and his Fame and Name will not only Sound Loud, but Long.
THe Gentleman that Spoke last, spoke well for those Gentlemen that can Content themselves in that Condition their Fore-fa∣thers left them in, but Gentlemen of great E∣states desire great Titles, Offices, and Authori∣ties, which cannot be had in the Country, but from the Court, which Ambition perswades them to Leave the Country, to Live neer the Court, where they may be Seen and Known unto the Grand Monarch, in which Courts are such Delights and Pleasures, as the Country is not Capable to have, as Masks, Playes, Balls, Braveries, and Courtships, which Ravish and Transport their Thoughts beyond the Coun∣try Region; indeed, they are as if they were Transported into the Third Heaven, untill such time as their Money is Spent, their Land Sold, and their Creditors are Numberless, and then they are Cast out as Evil Angels into the Hell of Poverty, and become Poor Devilish Sharks Page 237 Living upon their Wits, which is, to Live upon their Cheats, which cannot last Long. Thus Gentlemen in the Country are Proud, in the Court Vain, in the City Base, and at last Unfortunate, as being much Indebred and Miserably Poor.
THe Gentleman that Spoke last, Declares our Ambitions at Court, but not our Lux∣ury in the Country, and though we have not Court Ladies and City Dames to our Mistres∣ses, yet we have Country Wives and Tenants Daughters for our Wenches, and we Eat and Drink our Selves into Surfeiting Diseases, and our Expences are far more in Riotous Hospita∣lities, than the Courtiers in their Foolish Flat∣tering Vanities: for the Natures of Gentlemen and Noble men are for the most part Prodigal, whether they be in Court, City, or Country, and they will never Rest untill such time as their Money is Spent, and their Land Sold, and then they become Idle Drones for want of Stings, which is Wealth, to Imploy them.
VVE have Argued much of our Humours, Actions, and Estates of our Follies, Vanities, and Vices, but we have not Conclu∣ded what is Best for us to Settle in: as for the Course of our Lives, there are but three wayes, as to be either Meer Clowns, or Perfect Gen∣tlemen, or Between both; To be Meer Clowns, is to be Drudges in our Estates, To be Perfect Gentlemen, is to be Careless of our Expences, and to be Between both, is to be Carefull Over∣seers, and Moderate Spenders, and of these three I judge the Last best, as not to be so much a Gentleman, as to be a Beggar, nor so much a Clown, as to be a Beast.
VVE agreed to meet in this Town for Pastime and Mirth, and not for Study and Disputation; we came not hither to Learn Good Husbandry, but to Spend our Money Freely; our Intention was not to meet with Formality and Gravity, but with Freedome and Jollity; our Design was not to Return to our Dwelling houses with Heavy Hearts, but Light Page 239 Heads; Wherefore, Leave of Arguing, and Settle to Drinking, and let our Tongues Cease, and the Musick Play, and when we are Dead Drunk, let the Fiddles Ring out our Knells, and let our Coaches as our Hearses carry us to our Home-Beds, as to our Designed Graves, where after our Long Sleeps we may Rise, and in our Resurrections be like either Saints or Devils; In short, let Good Wine and Good Brains be our Good Fortune.
A Speech of a Quarter drunk Gentleman.
YOu have made Eloquent Orations before you did Drink, but let that Pass, for now you must Speak only Witty Expressions, and give me Leave to Tell you, that Logick and Wine are as great Enemies, as Poetry and Wa∣ter; Wherefore, let the Orators Drink Water, and Poets Wine, for VVine begets Fancy, and VVater Drowns Reason, which is the cause Orators Speak so Much and Long untill they Speak Non-sense: But O Divine Wine, whose Sprightly Vapour doth Manure the Brain to a just Highth of VVit, it is the Serene Air of VVit, the Quint-essence of VVit, the Sun and Light of VVit, the Spirit and Soul of VVit; for were it not for Wine, the Mind would be as Page 240 in a dark Hell of Ignorance, and the Brain would be Lethargically Stupified for want of Lively Heat; for Wine is the Food of Vital Life and Animal Reason.
A Speech of a Half drunken Gentleman.
YOu have made Eloquent Speeches, but of what, I am a Rogue if I can Tell, but that they were Full of VVords: I did hear Many Words, but I do not Remember any Sense or Reason in them; the truth is, that the Spirits of Wine have Burnt out the Sense of your Dis∣course, and have Rarified my Memory so much, as no Substantial matter will Remain therein, so that your Oratory is Dead and Buried in the Vapour of Wine, a Blessed Death, and a Happy Funeral, and may it Rest in Peace and Silence, and not Rise to Disturb our Drinking, to which Wish and Hope I begin a Health, and Desire you all to Pledge it.
ORATIONS IN The Field of Peace.
A Peasants Oration to his Fellow Clowns.
FOr we are all Fellows in Labour, Profit, and Pleasure, though not Fel∣lows in Arms, Spoils, and Danger, and though we Live in the Fields of Peace, and not in the Fields of Warr, yet our Fields of Peace resemble the Fields of Warr, for we are an Army of Clowns, though not of Souldiers, and our Commanders are our Landlords, who often Deceive us of the Increase of our Labours, as the Warring Com∣manders Deceive their Common Souldiers of the Profit of their Spoils; also we have our In∣fantery, Page 242 and our Cavallry, for all those that belong to the Keeping and Breeding of Beast, as Shepherds, Grasiers, Herdmen, Goat-herds, Swine-herds, and Carters, are of the Cavallry, but all they that belong to the Earth, as Sowers, Planters, Reapers, Threshers, Hedgers, Ditch∣ers, Diggers, Delvers, are our Infantery; also we have Arms and Ammunition, for we are Arm'd with our Beast Skins, and our Arms of use are Pikes, Forks, Cutting Sickles, Mow∣ing Sithes, Pruning Knives, Thrashing Flails, Plough-sherds, Shepherds Hooks, Herd-mens Staves, and the like, and our Match, Powder, and Bullets, are Puddings, Pease, and Porradge, and our Granadoes are Eggs of all Sorts and Si∣zes, our Carts are our Waggons, our Cottages our Tents, and our Victuals and Country Hus∣wives our Bagg and Baggage, and the Lowing of our Herds, and Bleating of our Sheep, are our Drums and Trumpets, not to Alarm us to Fight, but to Feed; also we have Enemies, which are Unseasonable Seasons, Rotting Moi∣stures, Drowning Showres and Over-flows, Chilling Frost, Scorching Heat, and Devouring Worms, all which we Fight against, not with Force, but with Industry. And our Army of Clowns is more Skilfull to Destroy our Ene∣mies, than an Army of Souldiers is to Destroy their Enemies, nay, our Army is an Army wherein is Peace and Plenty, whereas in their Army is Warr and Want: we become Rich with Safety, they become Poor with Danger, Page 243 we be Gentle to Beast, they be Cruel to Men, they Thrive by Blood, we by Milk, we get Health by our Labours, and Long Life by our Temperance, and they get Diseases in their Riots, and Death in their Warrs: Thus they Live Painfully, Die Violently, and only Leave their Bare Name to their Posterity and Beggarly Race, we Live Healthfully, Die Peaceably, and Leave our Goods to our Posterity, who by their Wealth come to be Gentlemen.
A Peasants, or Clowns Oration Spoken in the Field of Peace, concerning Husbandry.
I Must tell you, we Live in a Happy Age, where Peace Sows, and Plenty Reaps, for whereas VVarrs Destroy our Increase, now Peace Increases our Stores; also I would have you Know, that our Profession which is Hus∣bandry, is one of the Noblest and Generousest Professions, which is, to Imploy our Selves like as the Gods and Nature; for though we cannot Create Creatures, as Nature doth, yet we by our Industry Increase Nature's Creatures, not only Vegetables, that we Produce in our Fields, and Store in our Barns, but Animals, which we Breed in our Farms, and Feed in our Fields; But as Nature Commits Errors and Defects in Producing her Creatures, so we for want of Knowledge have not the Good effect of our La∣bours; Page 244 for though we are Bred up to Husban∣dry, yet we are not all so Knowing in Husban∣dry, as to Thrive and Grow Rich by our La∣bours; for as all Scholars are not Learned, that have Lived and Spent most of their time in Studies in Universities, but are meer Dunces; or as Artisans, are not all Excellent VVork∣men, although they have been Bound to their Trade, and have Wrought long in it, yet are but Bunglers: So for Husbandry, all Husbandmen are not so Knowing in their Profession as to Thrive, but they Labour at Randome, without Judgement or Observation, and like those that Learn to Read by Rote, may Understand the VVords or Letters, but not the Sense and Meaning: So we may be brought up to Labour, but not Understand to make a Profitable In∣crease, not Knowing the Nature of the several Soils, as what for Pasture, or Meddow, or Til∣lage; nor to Fore-see the Change of VVeather, nor to Take the most Seasonable Times, nor to Observe the Course of the Planets, all which is very Requisite for the Breed of our Animals, and Increase of our Vegetables. VVherefore, in my Opinion, it were very Necessary for us, to Choose the most Observing and Experienced men amongst us, that Understand Husbandry best, to be our Publick and General Teachers, Instructers, Informers, and Reformers in our Profession of Husbandry: For as there are Di∣vine Teachers for the Souls of Men, Moral Teachers for the Manners of Men, Human Page 245 Teachers for the Bodies of Men, and Physicians for the Lives of Men, so there should be Na∣tural Teachers and Informers for the Profitable Increase for Men, such as have not only Expe∣rience by Practice, and Judgement by Obser∣vation, but have both Learning and Concepti∣ons of Natural Philosophy, as to Learn and Search into the Causes and Effects of Natures VVorks, and to Know and Observe the Influ∣ences of the Heavens on Earth, and on the Di∣verse and Sundry Creatures In and On the Earth; also the Sympathies and Antipathies of the several Creatures to Each other, as also the Natures and Proprieties of every Kind and Sort of Creature; so shall we know how to In∣crease our Breed of Animals, and our Stores of Vegetables, and to find out the Minerals for our Use; for as Learning without Practice is of No Effect, so Practice without Knowledge is of Small Profit; yet many will Take upon them to Instruct Others, that want Instructions Themselves, but such Instructers Instructions are more in Words than for Use, as Plutarch's Common-wealth, or Virgilius Georgics, two Fa∣mous Men, the One a Moral Philosopher, the Other a Poet; the One did Form such a Com∣mon-wealth, as Men would nor could not Live in it, and so not fit for Use; the Other could better set his Wit to VVork than his Hands, for if Virgil had left his Husbandary in Verse, to Practise it in Prose, he had Lived Poorly, and Died Obscurely, as having more VVit and Page 246 Fancy to VVrite of Husbandry in his Georgics, than Knowledge or Experience to Practise it in his Farms; Thus Poets get Fame, and Farmers VVealth, the One by their VVit, the Other by their Experience, the One by Imagination, the Other by Practice, for a Clown or Peasant Gains more Knowledge by his Practice, than a Poet by his Contemplations; but when Practice and VVit are joyned together, they beget Wis∣dome and Wealth, the One being Adorned with Gold, the Other Inthroned with Fame, for Emperours have Ascended from the Plough, and Kings from the Sheep-coats, Converting their Plough-sherds to Thrones, their Sickles to Crowns, and their Sheep-hooks to Scepters. Thus Clowns, Boors, or Peasants by Name, are become Princes in Power, and Princes in Power are become Beasts by Name and Nature, witness Nebuchadnezzar.
A Peasants Oration to his Fellow Peasants.
GIve me Leave to Tell you, we are the most Unhappy People in the VVorld, for we Live to Labour, and Labour to Live; and we are not only the Unhappiest, but the Basest men in the World, for we are not only Bred with Beasts, and Live with Beasts, and Dye like Beasts, but we are the Bawds and Pimps too, to bring Beasts to Act Bestially together; also we Page 247 are the Dungers of the Earth, to Carry and Spread the several Excrements of several Crea∣tures thereon, which makes us not only to have a Continual Stink in our Nostrils, but to be a meer Stink our Selves; Thus we are Beastly Within and Without, for all our Thoughts are Imployed on our Labours, which Labours are Brutish; neither have we such Fine and Plea∣sant Recreations as other Men, for our Re∣creation is only to Whistle, Pipe, and sometimes to Dance in a Crowd together, or rather Jump and Leap together, being Ignorant of Dancing Measures; and the only Pleasure we have, is, to Rumble and Tumble our Country Lasses, who being more Foul than Fair, more Gross than Fine, more Noisome than Sweet, we soon Surfeit of them, and then they become a Trou∣ble instead of a Delight, a Disease instead of a Pleasure, a Hate instead of a Love; and as they are to Us, so no Doubt but in the End we are to Them, a Loathing Surfeit; for we Meet Wild∣ly, Associate Brutishly, and Depart Rudely; and as for our Profits, though we Labour, yet our Landlords have the Increase. In short, we are Slaves to Beasts, and Beasts in Comparison of other Men.
A Peasants Oration to prove the Happiness of a Rural Life.
THe Peasant that formerly Spoke, hath ra∣ther Shew'n his Ungratefulness to Nature, and his Unthankfulness to the Gods, by his Complaining Speech, than the Truth of our Condition and Life, for he sayes we are the Unhappiest, Miserablest, and Bafest men in the VVorld; all which is false; for can there be more Happiness than Pease and Plenty? can there be more Happiness than in the Repose of the Mind and Contemplations of Thoughts? can we Associate our Selves more Contentedly than with Innocent, Harmless, and Sinless Creatures? are not Men more Stinking, Foul, and Wicked than Beasts? can there be more Odoriferous Perfumes, than the Sweet Vege∣tables on the Earth? or Finer Prospects than Stately Hills, Humble Vallies, Shady Groves, Clear Brooks, Green Hedges, Corn Fields, Feeding Cattel, and Flying Birds? can there be more Harmonious Musick than Warbling Nightingales and Singing Birds? can there be more Delighfull Sounds than Purling Brooks, Whispering Winds, Humming Bees, and Small∣Voiced Grashoppers? can there be a more De∣licious Sweet than Honey? more Wholesome Food than warm Milk, Fresh Butter, Prest Page 249 Curds, New laid Eggs, Season'd Bacon, Savory Bread, Cooling Sallets, and Moist Fruits? or more Refreshing Drink than Whay, Whig, and Butter-milk? or more Strengthening Drink than Ale, Meath, Perry and Sider? and are not we at our Own Vintage? nay, should we Desire to Feed Highly, we may, for we are Masters of the Beasts of the Field, and the Poultry in the Grange, and know well how to Catch the Fouls of the Air? can we have Warmer and Softer Garments than Cloth Spun from the Fleece of our Flocks, to keep out Freezing Cold? or can we be Cooler than under Shady Trees, Whose Waving Leaves are Fans to Cool the Sultry Air? or can we Lye Softer than on the Downy Feathers of Cocks and Hens? and can we be Happier, than to be Free from Stately Cere∣mony Court Envy, City Faction, Law Sutes, Corrupt Bribes, Malice, Treachery, and Quar∣rels? and as for our Recreation, although we do not Dance, Sing, and Play on Musick Artifi∣cially, yet we Pipe, Dance, and Sing Merrily; and if we do not Make Love Courtly, yet we Make Love Honestly; and for our VVomen, whom our Fellow Peasant doth Disgracefully, Scornfully, and Slanderously speak of, although they are but Plain Country Huswives, and not Fine Ladies, yet they be as Honest VVomen as They, for they Spend their time in Huswifry, and Waste not their time in Vanity; and as for their Beauty, their Faces are their Own, as Na∣ture Gave them, not Borrowed of Art; and if Page 250 they be not so Fair, yet they are as Lovely, and as they use no Sweet Perfumes, So they use no Stinking Pomatum, and though their Hands be not Smooth, yet they are Clean, they use no Oyl'd Gloves to Grease them, but Rub their Hands, when Washed, with Coasse Cloth to Cleanse them; and as for their Garments, they are Plain, yet Commodious, Easie, and Decent, they are not Ribb'd up with Whale-bones, nor Incumbred with Heavy Silver and Gold Laces, nor Troubled with New Fashions; they Spend not half their time in Painting and Dressing, and though they Patch their Cloaths sometimes out of Good Huswifry, yet they Patch not their Faces out of Vanity, as Ladies do; nei∣ther do our Women Sweat to make their Faces Fair, but Sweat for their Childrens Livelihood, and though they Breed not their Children Curiously, yet they Breed them up Carefully: But our Discontented and Ambitious Peasant, would Turn from a Clown to a Gallant, as to Waste Lavishly, to Spend Prodigally, to Live Idlely, to be Accoustred Fantastically, to Behave himself Proudly, to Boast Vain∣gloriously, to Speak Words Constraintly, to Make Love A∣morously, to Flatter Falsly, to Quarrel Madly, and to Fight Foolishly, but not to Thrive Pru∣dently, to Imploy Time Profitably, to Spend Wisely, to Live Temperately, to Speak Truly, to Behave himself Friendly, to Demean him∣self Civilly, to Make Love Chastly, to Live Peaceably, Innocently, and Safely, as we, that are of the Pesantry, do.
ORATIONS IN A Difordered and Vnsettled State or Government.
An Oration against Taxes.
THis City is Taxed to Pay a Great Summ of Money, which Tax is more than we are Able to Pay with∣out being Impover sh'd, yet if it were All that would be Laid upon us, there were Some Comfort, but that is not Likely, unless our Ministers of State, and Magi∣strates, were Less Covetous to Get, and More Sparing to Save; for though they Get much, they Spend much, or rather Spoil much in Page 252 Luxury, Vanity, and Bravery, which makes them alwayes Needy, and though they Pre∣tend, that their Taxing is for the Service of the Common-wealth, yet most of it is Imployed in their Common Expences, or Horded up to Buy Lands, and Build Stately Palaces for their Posterity to Injoy and Live in; thus they Build upon our Stocks, and Buy Lands with our Labours, so that we Take Pains for Their Pleasure; but if they Tax us Often, we shall be so Poor, as we shall not only have Nothing to Pay, but Nothing to Live on, which Poverty will either Starve us, or Force us to be their Slaves for Maintenance, for when they have Ingross'd All the VVealth, they will become Lords of the People, or rather their Tyrants. Thus if we Part with our VVealth, we Part with our Liberty, but to Keep Both, let us not Part with our Money, untill we know How it shall be Imployed, for if it be Imployed in the Service of the Common-wealth, it will Return to our Profit, which will be as Traffick to In∣rich, and not as Robbery to Impoverish us, but if they Robb the Common-wealth, Imploying our Monies to their Own Use, we are Doubly Robbed, like as Men should take our Fathers Goods, which is our Inheritance, and also that we have Gotten by our Own Industry; and if it be Requisite for us to Part with our Money, it is Requisite they should Give us an Account of the Distribution; for as the Magistrate or Ministers of State are the Common-wealth's Page 253 Stewards, so the People ought to be their Over∣seers, lest they Coosen the Common-wealth, by which the Common-wealth will Thrive and become so Rich, as to keep the Natives from Beggery and Slavery.
An Oration contrary to the Former.
THe last Oration that was Spoken concer∣ning Taxes, was a Factious Oration, indea∣vouring to bring in Innovation, and the Orator that Spoke that Mutinous Oration, Spoke not for the Publick Good, but his Own Advance∣ment, Hoping by this Oration to be a Popular Man, Imbroiling the Common-wealth in a Civil Warr, to Work out his Own Designs; thus Men for Private Respects would make a Publick Ruine, and the People through Igno∣rance do never Perceive them, but rather do Applaud and Praise them for Good Common∣wealth-Men, when they are oftentimes the Occasion of a Common-wealths Destruction; but if you should follow his Instructions, you would not only Lose All your Wealth, which is worse than to Part with Some on Necessary Occasions, but you would Part with Lives or Liberties, for he Advises you to Rebell against your Magistrates and Ministers of State, by Calling or Forcing them to give a Publick Ac∣count of the States Private Affairs: But to shew Page 254 you how Foolishly he hath Advised you, give me Leave to Speak to your Sense and Reason, in Hope you are not Void of either, for in Sense and Reason a Common-wealth cannot be Gui∣ded, Ruled, and Govern'd without a Soveraign Power, which Soveraign Power is in the Magi∣strates and Ministers of State, they are the Head to the Body of the Common-wealth, and to have a Body without a Head is against Nature, and your Reason and Sense shews you, that if you Take off, or Divide the Head from the Bo∣dy, both will Dye, Rot, and Consume: So if you take a Soveraign Power from the Common∣wealth, it Dies, Dissolves, and Consumes with Disorder, Warr, and Ruine, and if your Sense and Reason perceive a Common-wealth must of Necessity have a Supreme Power, your Sense and Reason will shew you, that you must Trust that Supreme Power, otherwise it would not be a Supreme or Soveraign Power, which Power is to Command, Order, and Dispose of all, as it shall Think fit, or as it Pleases, without Giving any Account, for Giving an Account makes it of no Force or Effect; for a Common∣wealth cannot be Govern'd without Subtility and Secrecy, which is called Policy, which Po∣licy, if Divulged, is no Policy, wherefore a Publick Account ought not to be given of that, which is not fit Publickly to be made Known; And give me Leave to tell you, that Policy is Chargeable, not only that it Costs much Study and Labour of the Brain, but it Requires much Page 255 Money, or Monies worth, to Execute the De∣signs; for though it be the Chief Design of Policy to be a Gainer in the End, yet is is but a Contriver in the Beginning, a Worker in the Continuance or Execution, and a Possessor in the End, and whilst it Works, it must have Something to Work with, for the Old Philo∣sophers say, out of Nothing, Nothing can be Made; neither is it Fit, they should Give an Account of the Receits or Expences they Re∣ceive or Distribute of the Common-wealth, for much Monies must be Imployed to have In∣telligence from Forein Parts and Nations, for Fear of Surprisals, and Perchance great Summs of Monies are Required to Corrupt some Ene∣mies to Betray the Rest, and so to Prevent Dan∣ger, if not Ruine, besides many other wayes, Abroad and at Home, which Expences are not fit to be made Known, or an Account given for; for Wise Ministers of State make Use of all Passions, Appetites, Vices and Vanities of Man∣kind, as well as of their Vertues, Courages, Ge∣nerosities, Ingenuities, Abilities, and the like; for that which would be Base, Foolish, Disho∣nourable, and VVicked, for Private and Parti∣cular Families, Persons, or Acts, is Honourable, Justifiable, and VVise in the Publick-weal. VVherefore, let me Perswade you, to Pay the Taxes VVillingly and Readily, for Money is the Materials to Repair, Strengthen, Inlarge, Inrich, and Adorn a Common-wealth, that you may Live Safely, Magnificently, Plentifully, Page 256 and Pleasantly, which otherwise you will not do, but Ruine your selves, at least make your Lives Unhappy through Covetousness; which to avoid, part with Some of your Wealth or Profit Contentedly, that you may Injoy the rest Quietly, Peaceably, and Freely, and follow not the Advice of the former Orator, whose Speech, although it was Plausible to you, yet you might easily perceive his Design was Dan∣gerous, not only to the Magistrates which are your Fathers, but to the whole State or King∣dome, Indeavouring with his Speech to Im∣broil the whole State in a Civil Warr, per∣swading you to be the first Risers, Stirrers, and Disturbers. Thus through Private, Particular, and Self-respects, Men oft times make General Warrs, but I hope you will Live in Peace, and so Ile Leave you.
An Oration against Collectors.
THere ought some Order to be Taken, to Rectifie the Abuses and Coosenages of the Collectors and Receivers of Assessments, Con∣tributions, and the like; for they Collect and Receive much more than is Payed into the Common Treasury, so that they Rob both the People and the Common Treasure, Impove∣rishing the Common-wealth, and Dis-inabling the Rulers in the Discharges of Necessary Ex∣pences, Page 257 which Thefts they Secretly Hord up, so that in the End, if they be Suffered, there will be such a Scarcity of Money, as there will be None to Pay, nor None to Receive, and like as those that Hord up Corn, make a Dearth, so those that Hord up Money, make a Mutiny, so that Money-Horders Cause Civil Warrs, as Corn-Horders Cause Famine; for when there is but Little Money Stirring in the Kingdome, they, that have Any, are so Loath to Part with it, as they will rather Part with their Lives, and those that have None, are so Greedy to have Some, as they will Venture their Lives to Get it; and if the Common Treasure be Empty, and the People be Poor, we cannot Live in Se∣curity, if we have no Means to Provide for our Safety, the Kingdome will Lye open to the Enemy, for Money or Monies worth is a Ward that Locks up a Kingdome in Safety, and is a Key to Unlock the Gates of our Enemies, and Sets them Open for our Entrance, and Money or Monies worth is so Subtil and Insinuating, as it Enters into the most Privy Counsels of our Enemies, brings us Intelligence of all their De∣signs, or makes them Advise Treacherously, and give Counsel even against Themselves, such Power hath Riches ! it Buyes out Honesty, Corrupts Justice, Betrayes Lives, nay, even Souls, for men will Venture Damnation for the Sake of Money; Wherefore it is Necessary, that the Common Treasure should be well Stor'd, Good Common-wealth-men should be Page 258 not only Industrious to Inrich the Common Treasure, but Sparing in Spending the Com∣mon Treasure, and Severely Punish those that Indeavour to Coosen and Rob the Common Treasure, and none should be Suffer'd to Hord up Riches but in the Common Treasure, which is to be Spent Generally for the Good of all the whole Kingdome, in time of Necessity, as in the times of Plagues, Famines, and Warrs, as also for the Strength and Power of the Kingdome, for the Reward of Merit, Advancing of Trade, and such like wayes of Expences, not in Gay Shews, and Idle Pastimes, nor in Vain or Un∣profitable Buildings, or the like. But if we Suffer the People to be Impoverish'd by these Cheating, Coosening Purloiners, we shall never fill the Common Coffers, for to Coofen and Rob the People, is to Coofen and Rob the Common Treasure, which is the General Store of the whole People, Fill'd and Inriched By Them, to be Profitably Laid out For Them.
An Oration for Taxes.
I Perceive a Discontent amongst you, by your Murmuring at the Tax that is Laid upon you, which Murmuring is Dangerous, for many men's Murmurs may in a short time Amount to the Summ of Rebellion, which will make a Civil Warr, in which Warr you will Lose Page 259 more than you are now Required to Pay: But give me Leave to tell you, that you are both Unreasonable and Unjust, for you will Live in the Common wealth, and yet not Help to Maintain or Uphold it; also you are Ungrate∣full, as not to Return a Small Gratuity to the Common-wealth, for the Many and Great Be∣nefits you have Receiv'd therefrom; Indeed, in Denying this Tax, you seem as Unnatural to your Country, as Children who should Suffer their Parents to Starve whilst they Surfeit, which Causes Both their Untimely Deaths through Want and Excess; So rather than you would Abate your Idle Expences and Vain Pleasures, to Pay Necessary Taxes, you would Suffer the Kingdome to be Defenceless, and Open for an Enemy, to Invade and Destroy It, and your Selves. But if VVords cannot Per∣swade you, surely your Rational Understanding, VVife Prudence, Carefull Providence, Honest Minds, and Natural Affections will not only make you Willing and Ready to Pay this Tax, but any other Tax at any time you are Taxed, which is for the Common Benefit, Good, and Safety of your Country, wherein you Desire to Live Safely, and to Dye Peaceably, and to Lie in the Graves with your Fore-fathers.
An Oration to Hinder a Rebellion.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
I Perceive by your Humours, Dispositions, Factions, and Speeches, that you intend to Rebell against your King and Noble Gover∣nours, Indeavouring to Alter the Ancient Go∣vernment of this Flourishing Kingdome, that hath Continued in and under the Reign and Rule of Kings these many Hundred years, which time hath Confirm'd so strongly in the Monar∣chical Power, as you Cannot easily make a Change; yet if you Could, the Action would be very Unjust, Unnatural, Wicked, and Dam∣nable; Unjust, to Force away the Rights of your King; Unnatural, as not to Live under the Same Government your Fore-fathers did; Wicked, to Spill the Blood of your Nobles; and Damnable, to Spill the Blood of your Sove∣raign. Thus it will be Evil and Dangerous, for you cannot Think they will Part Peaceably from that Power their Ancestors Left them, they will not become your Slaves, if they can Help it, nay, they will sooner Part with their Lives than their Honours, and you are not sure of Victory, for all Honest men will be of Their Party; yet put the Case, you should have Vi∣ctory, you will sooner make a Confusion than Settle the Kingdome into a Republick, for the Nature and Constitution is not for it, as having Page 261 been Bred up a Long time to Monarchy, so that you may sooner Change the Nature of Man into a Beast, than the Government of this King∣dome into a Republick; and could you make it a Republick, you would not be so Happy as you are Now, for now you are Govern'd Easily, with∣out Troubling your Selves, but then you would be Troubled, not Knowing how to Govern your Selves, as also the Common-wealth, for you must be Forc'd to set up Some to Govern you; and is it not Better to be Govern'd by your Su∣periours, than your Equals? which Equals would Rule you by Corrupting Flattery, or Terrifie you with Reports of Dangers, and so Rule you by Fear. Thus by Insinuations or Terrors, you would be more Inslaved than you are now, and Poorer than you are now; for though you Commons have not Power to Rule as a King, yet you have Wealth to Spend on what you Please, witness your Luxuries and Vanities, which if you were Poor, you could not Exceed in Plenty as you Do, insomuch as you can hardly Afford God some Fasting Daies. Besides, those Sycophants and Cheats, which perswade you to this Change, would not only Spend your Wealth, but Waste your Lives, for they would Perswade you to make Warrs Abroad, to Keep you in Subjection, for in VVarrs they Command You, and in Time of Peace they are Afraid you will Command Them, and rather than you should Live in Peace, they would Corrupt your Neighbours with Page 262 Bribes, or Provoke them with Injuries, to make Warr with you. Thus you would be Inslaved by being Out-witted by Those, that have more Brain than your Selves. O Foolish People, that will quit your Present Happiness for a Volun∣tary Slavery ! and as for a Monarchical Go∣vernment, which you seem to be Weary of, it is the most Ancient and Divinest, as being an Imitation of God and his Angels in Heaven, wherein are Degrees, as Higher and Lower, from, and to his Throne; But as God had Evil Angels, so our King hath Evil Subjects, which ought to be Cast out of the Kingdome like De∣vils, as they are.
An Oration against Civil Warr.
I Perceive this Kingdome hath two Faces like a Janus, and Both Look with a Lowring and Frowning Countenance, which doth Fore-shew a Storm, and by your Accusations and Factions your Hearts seem full of Malice, and your Heads full of Design, as if you did Intend each others Ruine, and so the Kingdom's Destruction by a Civil Warr, not Considering that a Civil Warr is far worse than a Forein VVarr, for a∣gainst a Forein Enemy the whole Strength of a Kingdome is United to Defend it Self, but in a Civil Warr the Strength is Divided to Destroy the whole Kingdome, and so much Difference Page 263 there is Between each Warr, that a Forein Warr is but like an Outward Sore on the Body, but a Civil VVarr is as an Inward Disease even in the Vital Parts, which Causes a Consumption; Indeed, I may Similizing say, that in a Civil Warr the Kingdome doth, as if it did Spit up its Lungs, for Civil Warrs oftentimes cause Famine and Plagues, which is to a King∣dome as a Hectick Leanness, Heat and Corrup∣tion in a Man's Body, which causes Death and Destruction. But, Dear Country-men, what can you Propound to your Selves in a Civil Warr? can any Man be Happy when Injustice Reigns, and Force Rules? or can any Man hope to Inrich himself when Fury and Malice makes a Spoil of all? or can any Man think to Advance himself, when as every Particular Desires and Indeavours to be Superiour? for though Au∣thority may be Pull'd down, yet where no Sin∣gle Authority is Suffer'd by the Power of Many, no Particular person can be Advanced, they must All continue Equal, or be all Destroyed to One Man, and That Man will only be Superiour in his Single Person and Life, but not have Autho∣rity or Power over Other Men; for if there be None to be Govern'd, it cannot be said, he Go∣verns, and when there is None to Obey, there is None to Command; but should Several Parties Choose Chiefs, yet if one Party should get the Better of the other Parties, 'tis probable the Chief of that Party could not Rule Long, for there would be alwayes Divisions between the Page 264 Head and the Body of that Party, and every Se∣veral Party of that Body would be the Head; So that in Effect there would neither be Head nor Body, but in the End the whole would be Destroyed: and as for Spoils, if any be Gotten in Civil VVarrs, the Possessors have not Assu∣rance to Injoy them, for Spoils in Civil Warrs are Toss'd from Man to Man, where Every one Striving to Have them, not any One can Keep them: and as for Lands, though they cannot be Removed, yet Several Claimers will move to them, and Every one Strive to Posses them. Thus Civil VVarrs do Level Power and VVealth, and in the end Destroy them; and since Men can neither have Rest, Safety, Plenty, Honour, or Authority in Civil VVarrs, it were a Madness to make such VVarrs, wherein they are sure to be Losers, at least no Gainers; nay, were there any thing Left to be Injoyed, those that never Ventured in the VVarrs, would go away with the Spoils; for the Ruins of a Civil Warr are left to Succeeding Ages, the Quarrel∣lers and Fighters being for the most part De∣stroyed in the Warr. In truth, there is Nothing so Miserable, Hatefull, Cruel, and Irreligious as Civil Warr, for it is an Enemy against Law, Nature, and God, it Pulls down the Seats of Justice, Throws down the Altars of Religion, Diggs up the Urns of their Parents, Disperses the Dust and Bones of their Dead Ancestors, Spills the Blood of their Fathers, Sons, Bre∣thren, Friends, and Country-men, and makes a Page 265 Total Destruction and Dissolution, or at least their Country so Weak, as it becomes a Prey to Forein Enemies, and the Remainders of the Na∣tives become Slaves; so that Civil Warr begins with Liberty, but ends in Slavery. VVhere∣fore, those Turbulent Spirits, that will not Live in Peace, but Indeavour to make Civil Varr, ought to be Hang'd to Prevent it, so shall the Peaceable and Innocent Live in Safety, which otherwise will be Devoured and Destroyed by the Merciless men in Arms.
An Oration against a Tumultuous Sedition.
I Observe a Turbulent Spirit, or rather a Spirit of Fury hath Possess'd most of this City, to Rise Tumultuously and Mutinously, as some against Others, and they against Them; but what can you Propose to your Selves in this Civil Broil, or rather Civil VVarr, but Ruine, Death, and Destruction? and by what Autho∣rity do you Thus? for Common, Canon, and Civil Laws forbid you, the like doth Huma∣nity, Morality, Divinity, and Charity; also Nature forbids you, for what is more Unnatu∣ral than for Fellow Citizens and Country-men to Spill each others Blood? and if Injuries have been Done, and Faults Committed, this is not the way to Rectifie them, but to the Contrary, to Heap Faults upon Faults, and Injuries upon Page 266 Injuries; and if it be for Justice, certainly you ought not to Claim Justice in an Unjust way; and if for Right of Privileges, let me Tell you, you have no Privilege to make Civil Warr or Disorders in this City, and so Consequently through the Kingdome, by your Ill Examples; and if it be Several Factions of Several Parties, that cause this Disorder, Know, you may sooner Destroy each others Parties, than either Party be Victor; and if it be through the Poverty of Some, and Envy of Others, in Hope to Plunder the Rich, and Pull down the Powerfull, though your Designs should have Success for the Pre∣sent, you may Chance to Suffer for this Disor∣der in the End, so as neither to Injoy your Plunder'd Goods, nor to Save your own Lives, for Plundering is Robbing, and Killing in a Mu∣tiny is Murder, so that, unless you can get Above the Laws, the Laws will Accuse you; Where∣fore, if you be Wise, you will Moderate your Covetousness, Qualifie your Spleens, Cast your Arms away, and Crave pardon for your Faults, whilst you may Have it; but if you Consider not your Own Lives or Tranquillities, yet have Pitty and Compassion of your Old Parents, Young Children, Chast Wives, Dear Friends, Brethren, and Country, wherein Infallibly ma∣ny must Suffer in this great Disorder and Out∣rage; but if nothing can Perswade you, Heaven Protect the Innocent, and Lay a Heavy Punish∣ment upon the Guilty, to which I Leave you, whether I Live, or Dye.
An Oration to Mutinous, yet Fearfull Citizens.
GIve me Leave to Tell you, that I did not Wonder more at your Sudden Courages in your Sudden Rebellion, than I do now at your Sudden Fear and Sudden Obedience to those you Rebell'd against, Obeying whatsoever they Command, Delivering up your Purses and Arms in Hope to get Pardon for your Lives; for your Fear was Such, as you no sooner saw an Army come Towards your City as an Enemy, but you presently Drew up your Bridges, Shut fast your Gates, Chain'd up your Streets, and Run to your Prayers for Heavens Help; I Con∣fess, you had great Reason to Fear, when as a Sharking Needy Army was at your Gates, which would have Fought more Valiantly to Get into the City to Plunder, than you to Keep them out from Plundering; besides, there is a Castle or Fort, that is Built so Near your City, and Stands so Advantagious, as the Canons pla∣ced thereon can easily Beat down your City over your Heads; but these Things at the first you did or would not Consider, Resolving madly to Rebell, having at that Time neither Fear nor Wit, for before such time as you Saw the Army, believing it was Far off from you, a Stranger had he Seen and Heard your Boasts, Page 268 Braggs, and Bravadoes, your Arming, Drum∣ming, and Trumpetting, might have Believed, at least Thoughts, you had both Valour and Power Equal with the Old Romans, that Con∣quered all the World, but you Appear'd more Terrible than your Were, for your Deeds were not Answerable to your Words and Behaviour, and your Countenances did Change with your Fear; the truth is, your Courage was a Rebel∣lious Courage, and your Fear seems as a Loyal Fear, for before your Enemies did Appear, you did Boast like Souldiers, but now you ask Par∣don, you Flatter like Courtiers, yet for all your Flattery you must Pay for your Disorders, and Buy your Peace with a Huge Summ of Mo∣ney: and if I should Ask you why you did put your Selves into a Warring Posture without Leave or Command from your King or Mini∣sters of State, you will Answer me, for the De∣fence of some of your Privileges, so that for the Sake of Some you Indanger'd All, for the Rea∣diest way and Surest means to Lose your Privi∣leges was to Rebell against your Soveraign, all which shews your Ignorance, Folly, and great Simplicity; Wherefore, by this Rebellious stirr, you have not only Lost your Privileges, but you are Forc'd to Pay more than your Pri∣vileges are Worth, might you Injoy them, so that you must Lose the One, and Pay the Other; and all this Loss and Charge is Caused through your Factious Humours, and Restless Natures, being Unprofitably Busie. Indeed, you are like Page 269 Troubled Waters, Muddy and Foul, yet it is Likely, at least Hoped, that the Fine that is set upon you, will draw you Clean, making you Clear and Smooth, which is, to be Loyal and Peaceable, only the Chief misery is, that in the Loss of your Privileges, and Payments of Mo∣ney, Good Men (for All were not Traitors, though Most were) must Suffer with the Bad, the Fine being Generally laid upon the Whole City, wherein every Particular must Pay his Share, and the Loss of the Privileges falls upon All, by which we may Observe, that Peaceable Men Suffer with Troublers, and Honest Men with Traitors, and it cannot easily be Avoided, not only that the Few that are Good, are Obscu∣red, and Hid amongst the Many that are Bad, and so cannot be easily Cull'd out, but in Cases of Taxes and Privileges, it would make a Con∣fusion in Levies and Partments; Thus neither Good nor Wise Men can suddenly avoid those Misfortunes that Fools and Knaves many times bring upon them; but Wise Men did see at your first Rising, Arming and Souldiering, that you would sooner Yield to your Opposers, than Fight them, and rather Pay for your Follies, than Dispute for your Privileges; for you were all Body, and no Head, and so consequently no Brains; But that I Wonder at most, is, that so Great a Body as you were, should not only be Headless, but also Heartless, as having neither Wit nor Courage. Wherefore, to Conclude, let me Perswade you, having never a Head of Page 270 your Own, to send to your Gracious Soveraign to send you a Head, and he will not only send you a Head, but a Wise Head, to Rule and Go∣vern you, and as for a Heart, Fortune in time may Give you One.
An Oration concerning Trade and Shipping.
For some Small Errors in the former Govern∣ment, and for some Few Oppressions by our former Governours, we were Discontented, and through a Discontent began to Murmur, then to Complain, and at last to Rebell, in which Re∣bellion we Enter'd into a Civil Warr, wherein Fortune was our Friend, for Fortune for the most part is a Friend to Fools and Knaves; and though we were Honest Men, Fighting only for our Liberties, yet our Enemies say, we Fought for their Lands and Riches, having none of our Own; but let them say what they Will, since we have what we Desire; the Misery is only, that now we have both their Wealth and Pow∣er, we Know not how to Use it, a Shrew'd Sign, that we are more Covetous than Provident, more Ambitious than Wise, for every Man Striving to make a Particular Profit to Him∣self, we shall at Last bring the whole State or Common-wealth to a Confusion; the truth is, that Striving to make Particular Profits, you make a General Spoil, for you Cut down Page 271 Woods, Pull down Houses, set Open Inclo∣sures, Live Idlely upon the Fundamental Ri∣ches of the Common-wealth, not Labouring to Manure the Land; But if you take not Care of Two Things, your Ruine will be Sooner than you Imagine; these Two Necessary Considera∣tions and Actions, are Trade and Shipping; As for Trade, you give your Neighbours leave to take Part of it away from you, and that you Trade your Selves in, is so Ill Managed, as it brings but Small Profit or Advantage to this Kingdome; for you Trade rather like as Ped∣lars, than Great Merchants; besides, you Send out of the Kingdome the most Profitable Com∣modities, as those that are call'd Staple Com∣modities, and Bring in the most Unprofitable Commodities, such as are only for Vanities, and not such as are for Necessary Use; Also, you Raise your Customs to so High a Rate, as the Custom is Beyond the Profit of Trade; but could Merchants Gain, yet, if the Gain of their far-fetched Commodities be Uncertain, and the Customs for those brought home Commodities Certain, few would Venture or be Merchants, so that Trade upon Necessity must Fall, and then the Kingdome cannot be Rich; And as the King∣dome cannot be Rich without Forein Trade, so it cannot be Safe without Home Shipping, which is the other Necessary Consideration and Action; but you do not Consider enough of it, as being Blinded with Covetousness, Regarding your Particular Profits more than the General Page 272 Safety, Cutting down and making a Spoil of all such VVoods, as should Repair and Increase Shipping, which Wood is Oak, whereof this Island had the Best in the World; Indeed, there is no such Oak in any Part of the VVorld, but in this Kingdome, which is the Reason, there are no such Ships in the VVorld as do belong to this Island, for one of our Ships is Able to Van∣quish two or more Ships of other Nations, by Reason our Oak is not apt to Cleft or Splinter, being Smooth, Sound, and Strong, besides, Close, not Porous or Spongy; but we for the Covetousness or Present Gain, Cut down this Excellent full-Grown Timber to be Burnt into Coals for Iron Forges, whereas our Ancestors were so Carefull, as they would not Cut more than was for Necessity, although there was great Store of it; for, by Reason this Sort of Wood requires above a Hundred years Growth, to be Tall, Firm, Strong, Close, and Free from Splin∣tering, they would not Cut it before the Age made it fit for Use, nay, our Ancestors did oftner Plant Young, than Cut down the Old, and all for the Sake and Safety of their Poste∣rity; But we do not Consider Posterity, for if we did, we should not Do as we Do; Where∣fore, what with a Standing Army, no Trade, and daily Spoils, the Kingdome will be Impove∣rish'd, and of Necessity fall to Ruine.
An Oration for the Disbanding of Souldiers.
Senators, and Citizens,
IF I might, I would Counsel you to Disband most of the Souldiers, since we Perceive no Visible Enemy; for we have more Reason to Fear our own Souldiers than any other Power, by Reason they are become so Proud, and Inso∣lent with their Victories, that We, that were their Masters, if not Speedily Prevented, may Chance to become their Slaves, at least their Servants, as their Stewards and Purveyors, to Get them Money and Provision; But were they as Obedient as Insolent, yet it were fit, that most of them should be Disbanded, otherwise they will Impoverish the Common-wealth; for there is no greater Expence and Charge, than to Maintain an Idle Army, that Feeds upon others Labours, and is Cloath'd upon others Cost; besides, they are not only Unprofitable through their Idleness, and Chargeable to be Maintain'd, but they are great Destroyers with the Spoils they daily make; for their Idleness makes them Mischievous, so as they are Insolent and Proud, as we, their Masters dare not Speak roughly to them; but when they are Disarm'd, they will be Humble, and the Common Souldiers will follow their former Trades, and several Occu∣pations: Thus the Charge and Expence of Maintainting the Army will not only be Taken Page 274 off, but Trading will then Increase, by which the Common-wealth will be Unburden'd and Inriched, and we our Selves out of Danger and Fear of being Dispossest of our Power.
A Souldiers Oration for the Continuance of their Army.
THose, that would be our Masters, if you will give them Leave, will Disband us, Turning us out of our Power by their Autho∣rity, but if we Submit and Yield thereto, we shall not only Lose our Pay, at least Part of it, but we shall be Subject to their Tyranny, Ru∣led by their Laws, and Commanded by their Power; in Short, we shall be their Slaves, which are now their Masters, our Arms being Stronger than their Laws; Wherefore, let us Keep our Strength, and Pull down their Autho∣rity, for it were a shame for Sword-men to Yield to Gown-men, which only Love to Talk, but Dare not Fight; and shall their Tongues wrest out the Swords out of our Hands? shall their Gowns pull off our Arms? shall they give Law to us that are Victorious? or shall we Suf∣fer them to make Ill Laws, that broke Good Laws? or shall we be Govern'd by them, that cannot Govern themselves? shall they, that have sit in Safety, when we Ventured our Lives, Reap the Profit of our Victories? shall we, that Page 275 have Conquered with our Swords, be Conque∣red by their VVords? shall we, that have Fought for our Liberty, be Subject at last to their Commands? No, Fellow Souldiers, let us Subject them to our Commands, as being their Betters, and let not Us, that have made our Selves Gentlemen by Arms, Noble-men by Victories, and Kings by Absolute Conquest, and so Absolute Power, be Subject to the Common Cowardly Rout, to Parish-Officers with their Tip-Staves, to Unjust Judges, Corrupt Magi∣strates, Babling Lawyers, Foolish Counsellours, City Sergeants, Tub-Preachers, and the like; No, we will Preach, Teach, Decide, Rule, and give the Law our Selves, and we having Abso∣lute Power can Command our Pay, for Every Mans Purse is Ours; but it is Best, if it can be, to have our Pay gather'd a Legal way; Where∣fore, let me Advise, that these Men, that are our Seeming Masters, be made our Real Servants and Officers to Raise us Money and to Collect it from every Particular throughout the whole Nation, whereby they will only get the Hatred of the People, and we their Money.
An other Oration against the Former.
Senators, and Citizens,
VVE that were the first Studiers and Stir∣rers to Alter the Government of the Common-wealth, we that have Pray'd, Prea∣ched, Page 276 and Pleaded down Tyrannical Power, which was in Monarchical hands, we that have Pull'd down the Nobles, and have Advanc'd the Lowly, Inriched the Poor, and Impoverished the Rich, shall we now be Subjected and Ruled by those we Imployed in our Service, as to Lead our Armies to Fight our Battels, and to Keep our Cities, Towns, and Forts? shall these I say, Command us, when we at first Commanded them? for you well Know, this Army, that is now in this Kingdome, was Rais'd, Arm'd, and Paid by our Order and Industry, for it was we, that Combin'd, Joyn'd, Plotted, and Contrived this Warr, and by our Subtility, Policy, and VVisdome, we made Factions and Divisions, Drawing thereby Numbers to our Party, and by our Ingenuity we Drain'd their Purses as well as Drew their Persons to Maintain this Warr, and yet now this our Army Disputes with us, and are Disobedient to our Command, nay, they Threaten to Overthrow our Coun∣sels, and to Put us out of our Authorities, for∣cing the Supreme Power from us, which ought not to be Suffered, but Seriously Consider'd, how we may Disband them, for it is Dangerous to let One and the same Men continue long in Arms, especially Commanders, but rather to Change their Commanders often, lest they may Gain so much the Love and Obedience of their Souldiers, as to make them Absolute; Yet I Leave all to your Better Judgements.
A Souldiers Oration concerning the Form of Government.
NOw we are Absolute Masters of this King∣dome, having cast out the Gown men out of their Power and Authority, the question will be What Kind of Government we shall Settle this Kingdome in, as in a Celestial, Aereal, or Terrestrial; The Celestial is Monarchy, the Aereal is Aristocraty, the Terrestrial is Demo∣craty; The First is to be Govern'd by One, the Second by Few, the Third by Many; The First is to be Govern'd by a King, the Second by Nobles, the Third by Commons; But one of these Governments we must Settle in, other∣wise all the Kingdome will be in a Confusion; for if there be no Order and Method, there will be no Rule nor Government, since Every one will do what he List, and then None will take Care of any thing, so that there will be neither Tillage nor Trade, and if there be no Tillage nor Trade, there will be neither Food nor Money, for where there is no Govern∣ment, there can be no Assurance, and who will take Pains for that they are not Sure to Keep, or rather I may say, they are Sure to Lose? VVherefore, some Government we must Choose, and all Kinds of Governments are Di∣vided into these three I have mentioned; as for Page 278 Democraty, I like that the Worst, for the Com∣mon people is not only Insolent, when they have Power, Commanding Imperiously, Con∣deming Unjustly, Advancing Unworthily, but they are so Inconstant, as there is no Assurance in them, and so Foolish, as they Know not what to Choose, only like little Children, they will be Perswaded with a Flattering Tongue, sometimes to Reason, but oftner against Reason, and sometimes against all Reason and Sense; the truth is, though they seem to Govern, yet they are Rul'd by some Particulars, as first by One, and then an Other, as those that can Flatter Best, or rather Most, by which they become Slaves to an Insinuating Tongue; Wherefore, it is no fit Government for Us, for we are Souldiers and not Pleaders, we are Fighters and not Flatte∣rers; the truth is, that a Pure Democraty is all Body and no Head, and an Absolute Monarchy is all Head and no Body, whereas Aristocraty is both Head and Body, it is a Select and Propor∣tionable Number for a Good Government, which Number being United, Represents and Acts as One Man, for like as Many Mens Voices Agreeing and Consenting make it as One Mans Decree, so a Proportionable Number makes it as One Mans Ruling or Governing: Where∣fore, this is the Best Kind of Government for Us, for so all the Chief Commanders in our Army, being United together, may be this whole Person in this Aristocratical Government, in which the whole Power of the Kingdome Page 279 will be in Us, and so we may Govern as we shall Think good.
An Other Souldiers Oration contrary to the Former.
Dear Country-men, and Fellow Souldiers,
VVE are Disputing with our Selves, what Government we shall Agree upon, whether Democraty, or Aristocraty, or Monar∣chy, and I perceive you are Inclin'd to Aristo∣craty, because that Government gives Room for all the Chief Commanders to Share in the Government; but give me Leave to tell you, that we shall never agree in that Government, for though we should be Fellow States-men, as we be Fellow Souldiers, yet if we be Fellow Governours, we shall Ruine the Common∣wealth and our Selves; for we shall be like as a Kingdome Divided in it self, which the Holy Writ says, cannot Stand, so we shall be Divi∣ded amongst our Selves, striving which shall bear Sway; Wherefore, I am of the Opinion, that Monarchy is the Best and Safest Govern∣ment; for as there be Many Dangers, and but One Courage, many Miseries, and but one Pa∣tience, many Appetites, and but one Tempe∣rance, many Injuries and Wrongs, and but one Justice, many Cheatings and Coosenages, and but one Honesty, many Falshoods, and but one Truth, many Creatures, and but one Creator, Page 280 so where there are Many Subjects, there ought to be but One Governour, which is a King, and he to have the Soveraign Power.
An other Oration Different from the two Former.
THe two former Orations were, One for Aristocraty, the Other for Monarchy; but I am of an Opinion, as to have neither an Abso∣lute Aristocraty, nor a Monarchical Govern∣ment, but a Government that shall be Mixt of the two Former, as neither to have it Perfect Monarchy, nor Perfect Aristocraty, but mixt of both; for as the Nobles are as the Head, to Guide, Direct, Rule, and Govern the Common People, which are as the Body; so a King, or a Chief Governour, is as the Brain to that Head, for without a Brain the Head would be but as an Empty Scul, and without a Head and Brain the Body would be but as a Senseless Block; Wherefore, a King or Chief Ruler, Joyn'd to a Grand Counsel, is the Best Government of all, for the Grand Counsel is the Eyes, Ears, Nose, Mouth, and Tongue, for and in the Common∣wealth, to spie our Errors, to see Advantages, to hear Complaints, to smell out Dangers, and to Advise, Counsel, and Speak For and Of that, which will be Best for the Common-wealth. The King, as the Brain, is to Consider, Reason, Page 281 Judge, Approve, and Conclude of what the Council hath Seen, Observed, Heard, Found, and Spoken; Wherefore, let us Choose out One amongst us to make an Elective King, and he to give Judgement, drawing all the several Opinions, Debates, and Disputes to a Conclu∣sion, otherwise we shall have a Division amongst us, for we shall Reason and Discourse of Many Things, but Conclude not any.
An Oration, which is a Refusal of an Absolute Power.
YOu have Exprest not only your Good Opi∣nion of me, but your Extraordinary Love, by the Honour you Intend me, in making me your Absolute Governour and Ruler, which is to be your King in Effect, though not in Name, which Honour I neither Desire nor Deserve, for I never did my Country so much Service, as to Merit such an Honour, neither have I those Abilities, or Capacities of Knowledge, Under∣standing, Ingenuity, and Experience, as are Re∣quired for to Manage and Govern a Kingdome, and to Conform the Divers and Different Hu∣mours, Extravagant Appetites, Unruly Passions, Various Dispositions, and Inconstant Natures of a Numerous People, and Head-strong Multi∣tude, to a Setled Order and Obedience, as which is apter to Set up Authority, and Pull down Au∣thority, Page 282 than to Obey Authority; but had I those Abilities, and Wisdome to Govern, and were the whole Nation as Ready and Willing to Obey, and as Industrious and Carefull to Per∣form all my Commands, and were Devoted wholly to my Rule and Government, yet Considering the Trouble and Continual Labour in the Imployment and Affairs of the State, and the Cares and Perturbations in the Mind, con∣cerning those Affairs, as the Maritime, Martial, and Judicial, as also the Civil, Common, and Canonical, besides the Forein, and Home Af∣fairs, as Trade, and Intelligence, and the like; I should not Willingly take upon me that Pow∣er, for a Kingly Power is a Slavish Life, espe∣cially if he Governs as he Ought to do, as to be the Chief Actor and Over-seer Himself, not Trusting those Affairs to the Government and Ordering of some whom he Favours, only Keep∣ing the Name and Title to Himself, quitting the Labour and Trouble to Others; for he will not have much Spare time for Himself, either for Soul or Body; the truth is, a Good Governour is to be a Trusty, Industrious, Laborious Royal Slave; but if he be a Tyrant, he Inslaves the People; And though I am willing to Take any Pains, and to Imploy all my Time, or to Lose my Life or Liberty for the Sake or Service of my Country, yet, by Reason I am not Capable to Govern, nor fit to Rule so large a Nation and many People, I cannot take this great Charge upon me, but most Humbly Desire you to Ex∣cuse Page 283 me, and Choose some other, who may better Deserve it, and may more Wisely Go∣vern it, that it may Flourish in it Self with Peace and Plenty, and be Renowned and Famed through all the World, to which End, let me Advise you to Choose one that is Born a King, and Bred a King, who will Rule and Govern Magnificently, Majestically, Heroically, as a King ought to Do.
An Oration concerning Disorders, Rebellion, and Change of Governments.
YOu know well, without my Repeating, that Monarchy is a Government of One, Ari∣stocraty of Some, and a Republick of Most, or rather All; also you have found by Wofull Experience, that this Kingdome hath been Toss'd from One Sort of Government to an O∣ther, that it is now so Exhausted, as to be almost Expir'd: It was at first Monarchical, where in a Long Peace Flattery, Vanity, and Prodigality, got into the Monarchical Court, all which cau∣sed Poverty, and so Injustice, (for Poverty and Necessity is all times a Page to Prodigality,) which Caused the Selling of all Offices and Places of Judicature, for those that Buy Dear, are forced to Sell Dear, and this Caused Ex∣actions and Extorsions, besides, Bribes given and Bribes taken, insomuch, that no Justice was Page 284 done for Justice Sake, but Bribes Sake, and they, who gave the greatest Bribes, had their Sute or Cause Judged of their side, whether Right or Wrong; Nay, many Judges and Officers were so Ignorant, as they Knew not how to Judge Rightly, or Execute any Publick Affairs, as they should have done, had they a Will to do Ho∣nestly; but how should they do either Wisely, Knowingly, or Honestly, being not Chosen for Parts, Abilities, Understanding, or Merit, but by Paying so much Money? this Fault in Go∣vernment was a great Grievance; Also Mono∣polizers Ingross'd several and almost all Com∣modities in the Kingdome, hightning their Price as they pleased, which hindred the Gene∣ral Trade and Traffick, and this was an other great Grievance; Also there were great Taxes laid upon the People and Kingdome, which was an other Grievance; Moreover, needy Poor Courtiers would Beg that which ought not to be Granted, or Accuse some Rich men to Get some of their Estates, at least to get a Bribe to be Freed; all which begot such Dislike and Ha∣tred, that the whole Kingdome Rebell'd with such a Fury, as they Pull'd down Monarchy, and after much Blood was Spilt in the VVarr, they Set up a Repulick, in which Government the Commons Chose the Magistrate and Of∣ficers of State, for which the Commons were grossly Flattered by the Nobler Sort, which Vice of Flattery became a Studied and Practised Art, by which the Chief men became most Ele∣gant Page 285 and Eloquent Orators, every Man striving to Out-Speak each other; but this Practice and Strife begat Ambition and Envy in the Better Sort, and Pride in the Commons, which Pride was hightned by their Power, to make Peace or Warr, to Choose Magistrates and Officers, to Pull down or Advance, to give Life or Death, to Banish or Recall, to Condemn or Reprieve; and all this Power lay in their Voices. O Powerfull Voice of a Headless Monster! this Power caused the Brainless People to be so Proud, and withall so Envious, as also Maliti∣ous to those Men that had Merit and Worth, having None Themselves, as they would often Banish, if not Put to Death their Generous No∣bles, Valiant Commanders, and Wise Magi∣strates, as also those that were more Rich than their Neighbours; besides, they would Ad∣vance Mean and Worthiless men, such as were of their own Degree and Quality, to Places and Offices of Dignity, which Discontented the No∣bles, and that Discontent bred a Faction betwixt the Commons and Nobles, which Faction being Increas'd by the Friends of the Banished or Exe∣cuted Persons, brought forth a Civil Warr, long was the Strife, but at last the Nobles got the Better, and then the State or Government became Aristocraty, in which Government for some time they Liv'd Agreeable, and Govern'd Justly and Orderly, but by Reason Aristocraty is a Government of Some of the Nobles, and not of One, they could not Long agree, Every Page 286 one Striving to be Chief and most Powerfull, insomuch that through Envy and Ambition they would Cross and Oppose each other; for some would keep Peace with their Neighbours, others would make Warr, and some would have such or such Laws made, others would not, some would have some Old Laws Abolish∣ed or Dissolved, others would Oppose them; neither was Justice Executed as it ought, for some would Punish those, that others would Save, some would Reward those, that others would Disgrace: Thus every one was Striving for Supreme Power, although they did hinder One an Other, and by the means of Doing and Undoing, Decreeing and Opposing, the People could not Tell whom to Address their Sutes, Causes, and Grievances to, for what one Spake For, an other would Speak Against, till at last by their Pulling several wayes the Aristocratical Government broke in Pieces, and then those Nobles set up each One for Himself, and so there became another Civil Warr, Long was that Warr, for some times one had the Better, and then an Other, and some times two or three Sides would Joyn against the Rest, and then most against One, but now at last they being weary with Warr, yet know not how to Agree in a Peace, insomuch, as we have neither Warr, nor yet Peace, nor any Setled Government; the truth is, the Kingdome is like as the Chaos and Confused Substance, and there is no way to bring it to an Orderly Form, but to have a Native Page 287 King, to bring Light out of Darkness, that we may See our own Errors, and Reform our Faults and hereafter Live Happily under the Govern∣ment of a Good and Wise King, which I Prav the Gods to Send you.
An Oration to a Discontented People.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
AFter many Disorders, Several Govern∣ments, Cruel Warrs, much Losses, and al∣most Absolute Ruine, we desire to Associate and Agree in a Peace with our First Government, which was Monarchy, a Government our Fore∣fathers Chose for the Best; But our Natures, I may say Mankind, are so Restless, as never to be Contented with what we Have, were it the Best; for should the Gods Reign and Rule Vi∣sibly upon Earth, we should find Fault, and be apt to Murmur, if not Rebell against them; Wherefore I Fear, we shall never Continue long in Peace, if a Celestial Power cannot Per∣swade us, a Terrestrial will never be able to Keep us in Order; for if Mankind desire to be above the Gods, a Fellow Creature will never be Satisfied with any Power, nor the Rest of Men will never be Satissied with any Govern∣ment, so as we shall never Live in a Setled Peace in this World, nor never Dwell Peace∣ably but in the Grave, nor never be Happily Go∣vern'd, but by that Grim and Great Monarch Death.
An Oration in Complaint of the Former.
Noble Citizens, and Dear Country-men,
THe Former Orators Oration, although it was Short, yet it was Sharp, for though it was but a Dagger for Length, yet it was a Sword for Death, for he partly Perswaded men to Dye Voluntarily, to Dwell in the Grave Peaceably, a Cruel Perswasion, and a Wicked One, for Death is the Punishment of Sin, and shall we Imbrace our Punishment without Hopes of Redemption? shall we Dye before a Repentance and Amendment? but Surely he Believes after this Life there is none Other, but that is more than he Knows or can Prove, for I am Confident, he hath no Intelligence from Death, for Death is so Obscure, that there is not any that Goes To him, which ever Returns From him into this World; But setting aside the For∣mer Orator and his Oration, give me Leave to Tell you, that you are in the way of being Hap∣py, in that you are Resolved to agree Peaceably under a Monarchical Government, and to have a King, who shall have Absolute Government, which Government, King and Power, is a Type of Heaven, God and his Omnipotency, and I Hope we shall all Prove as Angels and Saints, for which I Pray God to Grant, that we may Live in Unity, Peace, and Love.
A Kings Oration or Speech to his Subjects.
ANd I Hope you will Prove Such, you are Return'd to your Obedience, and I to my Rights, after along Absence the One from the Other; But since your Loyalty and my Roy∣alty have been Parted, we were never Happy, nay, we were never out of Misery, and whose Fault was it, that Caused such Miseries? you in the Time of Rebellion laid the Fault on Me, and I on You, which was a sign we were of ei∣ther Side Guilty, but of your Side Most; for though a King may Err in his Government, yet a People Errs more in their Rebellion, for the Greatest Tyrant that ever was, was never so Destroying or Cruel, as a Rebellion or Civil Warr, for this makes a Dissolution, whereas the other makes but some Interruptions, but now we have found our Errors, we shall mend our Faults, I in Governing, You in Obeying, and I Pray the Gods to Bless us with Industry and Uniformity, Unity and Love, Plenty and Tranquillity, that this Kingdome and People may Flourish in all Ages, and have a Glorious Fame throughout the World.
A Generals Oration to his Chief Com∣manders.
Fellow Souldiers, and Gallant Commanders,
I Have Required your Assembly at this time, to Perswade you to Practise both Riding and Fencing, when you have Spare time from Fighting; for it is impossible you should At∣chieve any Brave or Extraordinary Actions by your Single Persons in the day of Battel, unless you be Excellent and Skilfull in the Manage of your Horses, and in the Use of your Swords, for your Horses well Managed and well Rid, shall not only Overthrow your Opposites as Man and Horse, that are Ignorant in the Art, but any One of you will be able to Disorder an Enemies Troop; 'Tis true, an Ignorant Horse∣Commander hath less Assurance than a Foot∣Commander, besides it is a Double Labour, and Requires a Double Art, as to Manage a Horse and to Use a Sword Skilfully at one time, but then he hath a Double Advantage, if he can Ride well, and hath a good Managed Horse, that Obeyes well the Hand and the Heel, that can tell how to Turn, or to stop on the Hanches, or to go Forward, or Side-wayes, and the like: The truth is, a good Horse-man, although not so well Skill'd in the Use of the Sword, shall have Advantage of an Ignorant Horse-man, al∣though well Skill'd in the Use of the Sword; Page 291 but to Know both Arts is best for a good Horse∣Souldier. As for Foot Commanders, they must Chiefly, if not only, Practise the Use of the Sword, for it is the Sword that makes the grea∣test Execution; for though neither Horse nor Sword is either Defensive or Offensive against Canon Bullets, yet they are both Usefull against Bodies of men; for all sorts of Bullets, either from Canons, Muskets, or Pistols, will Miss ten times for Hitting once, whereas an Army when Joyning so Close as to Fight Hand to Hand, the Sword is the Chief and Prime Executor, inso∣much, that a Sword Skilfully or Artificially Used, hath the Advantage over the Strength of Clowns or their Clubs, or the But-ends of their Muskets. Wherefore, a Compleat Souldier should be as Knowing and well Practised in the Use of the Sword and the Management of his Horse, as in Drawing up a Body of Men, and Setting or Pitching an Army in Battel Aray; for by the fore-mentioned Arts you will make a great Slaughter, and a Quicker Dispatch to Vi∣ctory, and Gain a great Renown or Fame to each Particular Person, that are so well Bred or Taught to be Horse-men and Sword-men.
A Sleepy Speech to Students.
WHo Study to Think, and Think to Dream; As there are three Sorts of Worlds, so there are three Kinds or Sorts of Life, viz. the Material, Poetical, and Drowsie World, and the Dreaming, Contemplating, and Active Life; but of all these three Worlds and three Lives, the Drowsie World and Dreaming Life is most Wonderfull, for it is as a Life in Death, and a Death in Life; and this Drowsie World and Dreaming Life is a Type of an Unknown World, and an Unknown Life, for Sleep is a Type of Death, and Dreaming is a Type of the Rewards and Punishments in the other World; Page 293 Good Dreams are like as the Rewards for the Blessed, and Bad Dreams are like as Punish∣ments for the Wicked, the One Receives Plea∣sure and Joy, the Other Fear and Torments, and these Joys, Pleasures, Fears, and Torments, are as Sensible to the Senses, and as Apparent to the Understanding and Knowledge, as when A∣wake; also Memory and Remembrance, and the same Appetites and Satisfactions are as Perfect in Dreams as when Awake, the Passions of the Mind as Forcible; the Dispositions and Hu∣mours of the Nature as Various, the Will as Obstinate, the Judgement as Deep, the VVit as Quick, the Observation as Serious, Reason as Rational, Conception as Subtil, Courage as Daring, Justice as Upright, Prudence as VVary, Temperance as Sparing, Anger as Violent, Love as Kind, Fear as Great, Hopes and Doubts as Many, Joys as Full, Hate as Deadly, Faith as Strong, Charity as Pitifull, and Devotion as Zealous in Perfect Dreams as Awake: also they are as Uncharitable, VVicked, Foolish, Cowardly, Base, Deboist, Furious, and the like in Perfect Dreams as Awake; but Dreams in Sleeping Senses are Shorter, than the Actions of VVaking Senses, and not so Permanent, for they Suddenly Fade, and their Sudden Fading Oftentimes makes a Confusion and more Disor∣der than in the VVaking and Active Life; But to Speak of the Sleeping Senses Generally and Particularly, have we not the same Appetites, and Satisfactions? are not we Sensible of Dying, Page 294 Living, Suffering, Injoying, Mourning, Weep∣ing, Rejoycing, Laughing? are we not as Sen∣sible of Pain and Ease? of Accidents, Misfor∣tunes, Dangers, and Escapes in Dreams, as in Active Life? for if we Dream of Thieves and Murderers, are not we Sensible of the Loss of our Goods, and of our Bonds, and Wounds? do we not See our Loss, Feel our Bonds, and the Smarts and Pains of our Wounds as much as if we Saw and Suffered Awake? and do not we Indeavour to Help our Selves? and do not we Beg for Life, Call for Help, and Strive with Resistance as much in Dreams as Awake? though not Vocally, Verbally, Locally, nor Materially, yet Spiritually, for it is the Sensi∣tive Spirits and not the Senses Gross Bodies or Parts that Travel into Forein Countries, and Unknown Lands, and make Voyages by Sea in Dreams; do not we Hear and See in Dreams Lightning, Thunder, Wind, Storms, and Tem∣pest, Seas, Billows, Waves, Ships, Ship-wracks? and are not we Drown'd in Dreams? and do not we see Huge Precipices, Barren Deserts, Wide Forests, and VVild Beasts and Serpents, and other hurtfull Creatures, and Indeavour to Escape and Avoid the Danger? do not we feel Stinging Serpents and Flies, Striking, Tea∣ring, Clawing, Biting Beasts, as Sensibly in Dreams as Awake? do not we see Flowry Meddows, Low Vallies, High Hills, Corn∣fields, Green Meddows, Grazing Pastures and Beasts, Clear Springs, Fruitfull Orchards, and Page 295 Small Villages, Labouring Husbandmen, Great Cities and Many People? do not we see Light, Colours, Sun, Moon, Stars, Clouds, Rain, Frost, Snow, Hail, Shade, Dawning Mornings, and Closing Evenings, in Dreams, as Awake? do not we see Fish Swim, Birds Fly, Beasts Run, VVorms Creep, in Dreams, as Awake? do not we see our Friends Living, and our Friends Dy∣ing, and those that be Dead, in Dreams, as A∣wake? do not we feel Drought, VVetness, Heat, Cold, Itching, Scratching, Smarting, A∣king, Biting, Sickness, in Dreams, as Awake? do not we hear all Warring Sounds, and see all Warring Actions, and feel all Warring Mise∣ries? do not we see Courts, Balls, Masks, Beau∣ties, Playes, and Pastimes? do not we see Mu∣sical Instruments, and hear Harmonious Musick, and Several Tunes, Notes, Airs, Words, Voi∣ces, distinctly? do not we see Feasts and Bankets, and do not we Taste the several Meats di∣stinctly, not only Fish, Flesh, and Fowls, but distinctly every Sort and Particular Taste of every Part, also the Ingrediences of the Sauces and their Particulars in them? and do not we Taste Bitter, Salt, Sour, Sharp, and Sweet, di∣stinctly in Dreams, and the several Sorts of them? and do not we Smell the several Per∣fumes, that are by Art and Nature made, as also the several Stinks, in Dreams, as Awake? And for Desires and Ambitions, would we have our Dead Friends Living, have we not them in Dreams? or can we See and Converse with Page 296 Them, or they to Us, as if they were Alive, but in Dreams? nay, in Dreams we may Rejoyce with Them, Feast with Them, Sport and Play with Them, Ask their Advice, or Give them Advice, and the like; would we have a Beauti∣full Mistress, or many several Mistresses of different Beauties, Behaviours, Births, Fortunes, Wits, and Humours, have not we them in Dreams? would we Injoy a Mistress, do not we so in Dreams? would we be Rich, Noble, Ge∣nerous, Valiant, are not we so in Dreams? would we see the Ruine of our Enemies, do not we so in Dreams? would we have our Enemies Dye or be Kill'd, do not they Dye or are Slain in Dreams? would we have Stately Palaces, have not we so in Dreams? would we Feed Luxuri∣ously, do not we so in Dreams? would we Live Riotously, do not we so in Dreams? would we View our Selves, as to see our Faces and Bodies, do not we so in Dreams? would we Ride, Race, Hunt, Hawk, and have the like Pastimes and Exercises, do not we so in Dreams? would we Win at Carts, do not we so in Dreams? would we Fight Duells and Battels, and have Victory, have not we Victory in Dreams? would we Conquer all the VVorld, do not we so in Dreams? would we be Emperour to Rule and Govern all the World, do not we so in Dreams? But as I said, that there are Pleasing and Delightfull Dreams, so there are Displeasing and Fearfull Dreams, and there is as much Trouble, Disor∣der, and Opposition in the Sleepy or Drowsie Page 297 World, and as much Discontent, Faction, De∣traction, Defamation, Troubles, and the like, in this Dreaming Life, as there is Method, Order, Agreement, Praise, Trust, and the like, therein; yet for all that, this Drowsie World and Drea∣ming Life is the Best of the three; for can there be greater Pleasure in the Material World and Active Life, than Rest to the VVeary Limbs, and Sleep to the Tired Senses, which have been Over-power'd with Gross Objects, which have Laid Heavy Burthens on them? or can we Injoy any thing so Easily, Freely, Sud∣denly, without Actual Trouble, as we do in Dreams? or can we be Quit of all Sorts and Kinds of Trouble and Labour, but by Sleep? Wherefore, if Dreams were but more Con∣stant and of Longer Continuance, and that we should alwayes Dream Pleasing Dreams, the Greatest Happiness, Next to the Blessed Life in Heaven, were to Sleep and Dream, for it would be much more Pleasant than the Elyfian Fields. The Next VVorld and Life that were to be Preferr'd, were the Poetical World, and Con∣templative Life, but all the Senses are not Sen∣sible in the Contemplative Life, whereas all the Senses are as Sensible in the Dreaming Life, as Awake; the truth is, the Poetical VVorld, and Contemplative Life, is rather a VVorld for the Thoughts, and a Life for the Mind, than the Senses, yet if the Senses were as Sensible in Contemplation as in Dreams, it would be the Best Life of all, because it might make the Life Page 298 what it Would, and the Pleasures of that Life to Continue as Long, and to Vary as Oft as it Thought Good, and for the Poetical World or rather Worlds, they would be a Delight to View as well as to Live in.
A Waking Oration of the former Sleepy Discourse.
OUr Brother in Learning, or rather Drea∣ming, hath Commended that which is an Enemy to Study, viz. Sleeping and Dreaming, wherefore in the Drowsie World, and Drea∣ming Life, there be no Scholars, for they can∣not Sleep to Study, nor Dream so much as to be very Learn'd; neither are there Poets, for Poets Live altogether in their Own Poetical World, and Contemplative Life; neither are there Eloquent Orators, for Dreams will be Faded before an Oration is half Spoken, or else the Subject of their Oration will be Lost in the Variousness of Dreams; neither can there be Pleaders at the Barr, nor Preachers in the Pul∣pit, for their Text and Cases may be altered in a moment of Time, from Gospel to a Romancy, from Law to Riot; neither can there be Justice on Life and Death, for by the Alteration of Dreams the Thief may Escape, and the Honest man Hang, or the Judge may Hang Himself; neither can there be a Setled Government in Page 299 Dreams, for the Government may End in a Piece of a Dream, or instead of a Common∣wealth of Men, be a Forest of Wild Beast; nei∣ther can there be Wise Counsellours, or Grave States-men, for their Gray Faces and Gray Beards may be Chang'd into Monkies Faces and Goats-Beards, and the Wise Coun∣sellours in the midst of their Serious Advices may on a sudden Sing a Wanton Song, or else there may Suddenly appear a Tumultuous Monster, or a Monstrous Tumult, where in a great Fright they will Run from their Council∣Bord or Senate-House; and as for School Ar∣guments and Disputations, they are quite Ba∣nished, and for Lovers, a Hundred to One, that when a Dreaming Lover is Imbracing a Young Fair Lady, she Suddenly turns into an Old Ill∣favoured VVitch, or for a Plump, Smooth, Smiling Venetian Courtisan, he Chances to Imbrace Grim Death's Bare Ratling Bones, which will Fright a Lover more than a Fair Mistress can Delight him: And as for Dancing Balls, and French Fiddles, when the Gallants in Dreams are Dancing in Smooth Measures, and with Fair Ladies, and the Musick keeping Tune to the Dancing Time, on a Sudden the Courtly Dancers or Dancing Courtiers turn Topsie Turvy, Dancing with their Heads Downward, and Heels Upward, a very Unbe∣coming Posture for Fair-faced Ladies; and as for the Musick, that is quite out of Tune, and the Fiddle-strings Broken, and the Musicians as Page 300 Mad as March-hares, and many other such like Disorders, Confusions, and Extravagancies, as Asses Heads or Bulls Horns set on Mens Bodies, or a Wood-cocks Head to an Asses Tail, as also Men turn'd to Beasts, Birds, and Fish; also walking Woods and Trees; but set aside the Extravagancies, Deformities, and Monstrosities in Dreams, yet there are more Bad Dreams than Good, more Fearfull than Delightfull, more Troublesome than Quiet, more Painfull than Easie; Wherefore, the Dreaming Life is a worse Life than any, and the Drowsie or Sleepy World is only good for Dull, Lasie, Unprofi∣table Creatures; and as the Dreaming Life is the Worst, so the Contemplating Life is the Best, and the Poetical World the Pleasant'st, for all Wise, Witty, Learn'd, Ingenious, Good, and Pious men dwell all in the Contemplative Life, and for the most do Lovers of all Sorts, especially Amorous Lovers, for they take more Pleasure to Think of their Mistresses, than to Speak with their Mistresses, for they can Enter∣tain the Idea of their Mistresses a Long time with great Delight, whereas they grow Soon weary of their Real Persons. Thus the Contem∣plative Life is Best, for true Pleasure and De∣light is not in the Senses, but in the Mind, for Delights and Pleasures are but Passengers through the Senses, and Inhabitors in the Mind; besides, whatsoever the Senses have Injoy'd, Lives in the Mind after their Injoyment, and though the like is for Pains and Surfeits, yet the Page 301 Mind may Fling them out, or if it Fling them not out, yet it may Fling them aside from Trou∣bling it, and though the Mind cannot Satisfie the Gross Appetites of the Senses, yet those Satisfactions Live in the Mind, when as the Senses, though they would, cannot longer In∣joy them; the truth is, that the Senses are but as Hired Labourers, not Owners, they are Actors, not Possessors, for the Mind is the Lord of all, and not only Possessor and Lord of all the Satisfactions of the Appetites, and the Ob∣jects and Subjects of the Senses, but it is Lord of that which the Senses cannot know, being beyond their Capacity, having a Power of For∣ming, Composing, Altering, Changing, Ma∣king, Continuing, Prolonging, Keeping, Put∣ting away, or Destroying whatsoever it Pleases: All which makes the Contemplative Life the Best, being Happiest and Pleasant'st; and as for the Poetical World, it is the most Splendorous World that is, for it is Composed of all Curi∣osities, Excellencies, Varieties, Numbers, and Unities: In short, it is a World that is Extract∣ed out of Infinite Wit, Ingeniosity, Judgement, Experiences, Understanding, Knowledge, and good Nature, it is the Heaven, and Contem∣plation is the Spiritual Life in this Poetical World.
Of Parts and Wholes.
THe Question in the School at this time is, whether a Part taken from a Whole, re∣mains a Part after the Dividing or Separating, or becomes a VVhole of it Self, when it is Divi∣ded; Some are of the Opinion, that after a Part is Divided from the Whole, it is no longer a Part of such a Whole, either of Figure or Mat∣ter, but is a Whole of it Self; but if it be as we believe, that the Bodies of Men shall have a Resurrection, then it Proves that the several Divided, Separated, and Dispersed Parts, with their Joyning and Consistent Motions and Es∣sential Powers, shall Meet and Joyn to make the Whole Body; which Proves, that although Parts be Separated, yet they are Parts of such, or such a Whole Body or Figure; also they re∣main distinctly in Nature, as Parts to such a Body, otherwise they could not Return at the Resurrection so Readily, to Compose the VVhole by the Joyning and Uniting of every Part into One Whole Body. But to Conclude, as all Creatures are Parts of Infinite Matter, so the Divided Parts of every Creature are Parts the Whole Figur, or Body of every Crea∣ture and as there is Infinite Matter, so Infinite Creatures, and Infinite Parts, and Infinite Fi∣gures Of every and In every Part and Whole.
An other of the same Subject.
THe Former Student Indeavours to Prove that Parts pertain to their Wholes, and I may Indeavour to Prove that Wholes pertain to Parts, as much as Parts pertain to Wholes, for there can be no Whole without Parts, nor no Part without a Whole; but howsoever, all Parts and Wholes of every Creature were from all Eternity, and so Consequently shall be to all Eternity, for as they were, so they will be; for if such Matter, Motions, Powers, Creatures, Parts, and Figures, had not been formerly in Nature, they would, nor could not have been in Nature's Power at this time to Produce them: but some might Question what Nature is? I might Answer, that Nature is Mat∣ter, Motion, and Figure: Then some might Question, what Power Nature hath? It might be Answered, Nature hath Power to Create, and Uncreate: Again, others might Ask, who gave Nature that Power? It might be Answer'd, that Natures Power proceeds from Infinite and Eternity, and that it is not a Gift: and some may Question, how Infinite and Eternity came but that is such an Infinite question, as not to be Answered: for whatsoever is Infinite and Eternal, is God, which is something that can∣not be Described or Conceived, nor Prescribed, Page 304 or Bound, for it hath neither Beginning nor Ending.
Of the Soul.
THe Argument at this time is to Prove, whe∣ther the Soul be a Thing or Nothing, a Substance or no Substance; some of our Fellow Students indeavour to prove the Soul Nothing, as not to be a Substance, but, as they call it, an Incorporeal Thing, because it Alters or Forms every Thing to its own Likeness, or as it Plea∣ses; for say they, whatsoever the Senses bring Corporeal, the Soul makes Incorporeal; but it may be Answered, that Fire makes all Things or at least most Things or Substances like it Self, so long as it Works on Combustible Matter; and shall we say, or can we believe, that Fire is an Incorporeal Thing, because it Transforms most Things into its own Likeness? Where∣fore, my Opinion is, that the Soul is a Sub∣stance, yet such a Substance, as to be the Rarest and Purest Substance in Nature, which makes it so apt to Ascend, as to make the Brain the Residing place; it is the Celestial Part of Man, whereas the Body is but the Terrestrial Part.
A Speech concerning Studies.
VVE Study to Argue, and Argue to Stu∣dy, for the chief Design of our Study is only to Dispute, either by the Tongue, or Pen, or Both; but all Disputes are more full of Contradictions than Informations, and all Con∣tradictions Confound the Sense and Reason, at least Obstruct the Understanding, and Delude the Judgement; for it keeps the One from a Clear Insight, and the Other from a Setled Con∣clusion; so as we Argue rather to make our Selves Fools, than to make our Selves Wise.
An other of the same Subject.
THe Former Student Speaks against Argu∣ing and Disputing, and so in Effect against Study and Learning; but to what Purpose should we Study or Learn, if we did not Inform each other of our Conceptions, or at least our Opinions, which are Bred or Learned by our Studies? also what Advantage should VVise, or Subtil, or Eloquent Orators, or great School∣men have, if they had not Studious Disciples to Follow them, Admire, Praise, and Imitate them? But as it is Honourable to be Learn'd, so Page 306 it is Wise to Learn, for Knowledge is gotten by Information, and the best Informers are Wise Books, which Books must first be Read and Studied, before they can be Understood; also Arguing and Disputing is a great Increase of Knowledge, for it Distinguishes Truth from Falshood, Clears the Understanding, Quickens the Wit, and Refines the Language; it Exer∣cises the Memory, makes the Tongue Volu∣bile, and the Speech Tunable; and if it were not for Study, Learning, and Practice, there would neither be Religion, Law, nor Justice, neither would there be Preachers, Pleaders, nor General Orators; for should Study be Neg∣lected, and Arguments Rejected, men would in∣time Degenerate their Kind from being Men to be like Beast, whereas Learning makes men Divine, as to Resemble God and Nature, in Knowledge and Understanding; also it makes Men in some things Creators, as in Concepti∣ons, Imaginations, Fancies, Arts, and Sciences.
An other Concerning the same Subject.
THe Former Student Contradicted the first Students Speech, and if I should Contra∣dict this second Students Speech, as he did the first, it would be the Perfect Figure, Picture or Character of Controversie and Controver∣sers; and if every Disputant or Arguer should Page 307 Contradict each other, in time there would be a great Confusion, not only in the Schools, but in the Minds of Men, and not only in the Minds, but in the Souls of Men; for if every Controverser or Disputer were of a Several Opinion, and those Opinions should be Concer∣ning Religion, there would be more Several Religions, than the Son of God, as he was Man, could Decide or Judge at the Last day; But all Controversers in Divinity, are apt to breed Atheism; Wherefore, it were very Necessary, that all Divine Scholars, or Scholars in Divi∣nity, should Agree on One Ground and Substan∣tial Belief, otherwise the World in time will be Confounded in Factions, and Damned through Atheism.
An other Concerning the same Subject.
OUr Former Fellow in Learning, perswades us to an Impossibility, as that All Men should Agree in One Opinion or Belief, but how can that be? Since by, and in Nature, all Men, especially Scholars, are so Opinative, and Con∣ceited of their own Wit and Judgement, as that Every Man thinks himself as VVise as his Neighbour, and that his Opinion may be as Probable, and his Belief as well Grounded as an other Mans; and they have Reason, for, why may not I think I am as Wise as an Other, Page 308 and why may not an Other think himself as Wise as I, and yet be Both of Different Opini∣ons? and though our Opinions be Different, yet our Degrees of Judgement may be Equal; for I do not Perceive, that Nature hath made any One Man to Transcend all Other men in VVisdome, for Natures Gifts are General, and not Particular, and if any One Man should say, he is Inspired from Heaven, how can we Believe him, when as we cannot Tell, whether he be so or not? also it is as Difficult, to find out an other man to Judge of his Inspiration, as to know whether he be Inspired. Wherefore, to Con∣clude, all Mankind will never Agree of One Teacher or Judge, and so not of One Opinion or Belief.
An other of the same Subject.
VVE Complain of the Differences in our Arguments, Disputes, and Opinions, but we never Complain of the Subjects of our Studies, Arguments, or Disputes, for we Spend our Time, and Wear out our Lives in our Stu∣dies and Discourses, to prove Something No∣thing, as witness, Motions, Notions, Thoughts, and the like; nay, all Scholars and Student, Indeavour to make or at least to Perswade us to Believe, that our Rational Souls are Nothing, a Incorporeal, which is, to have a Beeing, but not Page 309 the Substance of a Body, which is as Impossible, as to be a Body, and no Body; also they Indea∣vour to make the Matter of the Universe to be Nothing, as that it is made of Nothing, and shall return to Nothing; the Worst of all is, that they Dispute so Elevating, as to make all Divi∣nity like as a Logistical Egg, which is Nothing; but if they could make Sin and Punishment No∣thing, their Arguments would be Something, whereas now their Arguments are Empty Words, without Sense or Reason, only fit for Fools to Believe, and Wise men to Laugh at; But I wish that our Studies and Arguments may be such, as to Benefit our Lives, and not such as to Confound our Saving Belief.
The Table of all Orations and Speeches contained in this Book.
- PART I. Orations to Citizens in a chief City concerning Peace and VVar.
- 1A Proefatory Oration Fol. 0
- 2An Oration for Warr Fol. 1
- 3An Oration for Peace Fol. 4
- 4An Oration against Warr Fol. 6
- 5An Oration perswading to the Breach of Peace with their Neigh∣bour-Nation. Fol. 7
- 6An Oration against the Breaking of Peace with their Neighbour∣Nation. Fol. 9
- 7An Oration to prevent Civil Warr Fol. 11
- 8An Oration to send out Colonies Fol. 13
- 9An Oration concerning Shipping Fol. 14
- 10An Oration for Contribution Fol. 17
- 11An Oration to perswade a City not to yield to their Enemies Fol. 18
- 12An Oration for those that are Slain in the Warrs, and brought home to be Buried. Fol. 20
- PART II. Orations in the Field of Warr.
- 1AN Oration from a Besieged City, ready to yield, or else to be taken Fol. 22
- 2A Common Souldiers Oration to take the City by Force Fol. 23
- 3An Oration to those Souldiers that are against an Agreement with the Citizens Fol. 25
- Page [unnumbered]
- 4An Oration to Souldiers after the Loss of a Battel Fol. 27
- 5An Oration to Souldiers in Necessity Fol. 29
- 6An Encouraging Oration to Fearfull Souldiers Fol. 30
- 7An Oration to Souldiers that fled from their Enemies Fol. 31
- 8An Oration to Run-away Souldiers, who Repent their faults Fol. 32
- 9A Mutinous Oration to Common Souldiers, by a Common Soul∣dier Fol. 34
- 10An Oration to stay the Souldiers from a Mutinous return from the Warrs Fol. 35
- 11A Generals Oration to his Mutinous Souldiers Fol. 37
- 12A Commanders Refusing Speech to Mutinous Souldiers, who De∣posed their General, and would Choose him in his place Fol. 41
- 13A Generals Oration to his Evil designing Souldiers Fol. 42
- 14An Oration to Souldiers, who have Kill'd their General Fol. 44
- 15An Oration to Souldiers which repent the Death of their Gene∣ral Fol. 45
- 16An Oration to Distressed Souldiers. Fol. 46
- PART III. Orations to Citizens in the Market-place, after a Long time of Warr.
- 1AN Oration to a dejected People ruined by Warr. Fol. 49
- 2A Conforting Oration to a dejected People ruined by Warr Fol. 51
- 3An Oration for Re-building a City ruined by Warr Fol. 52
- 4An Oration for Building a Church Fol. 54
- 5An Oration perswading the Citizens to erect a Statu in Honour of a Dead Magistrate Fol. 57
- 6An Accusing Oration for Refusing the Office of a Magistrate, and so Neglecting the Service of the Common-wealth Fol. 59
- 7An Excusing Oration in Answer to the Former Fol. 60
- 8An Oration against some Historians or Writers of State-affairs or Policy Fol. 62
- 9An Oration Concurring with the Former Fol. 64
- 10An Oration somewhat Different from the Former Fol. 65
- Page [unnumbered]
- 11An Oration against those that lay an Aspersion upon the Retire∣ment of Noble men Fol. 66
- 12An Oration for Liberty of Conscience Fol. 69
- 13An Oration against Liberty of Conscience Fol. 70
- 14An Oration proposing a Mean betwixt the two former Opinions Fol. 71
- 15An Oration Reproving Vices ibid.
- 16An Oration concerning the Forein Travels of Young Gentlemen Fol. 73
- 17An Oration concerning Playes and Players. Fol. 75
- PART IV. Several Causes Pleaded in Several Courts of Judicature.
- 1ACcusing and Pleading at the Barr before Judges, for and a∣gainst a Woman that hath Kill'd her Husband Fol. 78
- 2A Cause of Adultery Pleaded at the Barr before Judges Fol. 81
- 3A Cause Pleaded at the Barr before Judges concerning Theft Fol. 85
- 4A Cause Pleaded before Judges betwixt two Bastards Fol. 89
- 5A Cause Pleaded before Judges between an Husband and his Wife Fol. 90
- 6A Widdows Cause Pleaded before Judges in the Court of Equity Fol. 93
- 7A Cause Pleaded before Judges betwixt a Master and his Servant Fol. 96
- 8Two Lawyers Plead before Judges, a Cause betwixt a Father and his Son. Fol. 98
- PART V. Speeches to the King in Counsel.
- 1A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Soveraign Fol. 100
- 2A Petition and Plea at the Council-Table, before the King and his Counsel, concerning two Brothers Condemned by the Laws to Dye Fol. 101
- Page [unnumbered]
- 3A Speech of one of the Privy-Counsellours, which is an Answer to the former Plea and Petition, together with the Petitioners Reply, and the Kings Answer Fol. 103, 104. 106
- 4A Privy-Counsellours Speech to the King at the Council-bord Fol. 106
- 5A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Soveraign concerning Trade Fol. 108
- 6An Oration to his Majesty for Preventing imminent Dangers Fol. 110
- 7A Privy-Counsellours Speech to the King of the Council-bord Fol. 111
- 8A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-bord Fol. 114
- 9A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-Table Fol. 115
- 10A Privy-Counsellours Speech to his Majesty at the Council-bord Fol. 116
- PART VI. Orations in Courts of Majesty from Sub∣jects to their King, and from the King to his Subjects.
- 1COmplaints of the Subjects to their Soveraign Fol. 118
- 2The Subjects Complaint to their Soveraign of the Abuses of their Magistrates Fol. 119
- 3A Kings Speech to his Rebellious Rout Fol. 121
- 4A Kings Speech to Rebellious Subjects Fol. 122
- 5A Kings Speech to Discontented Subjects Fol. 124
- 6A Kings Speech to his Rebellious Subjects Fol. 125
- 7A Recantation of the poor Petitioning Subjects Fol. 126
- 8Repenting Subjects to their Soveraign Fol. 128
- 9A Kings Speech to his Good Subjects. Fol. 129
- PART VII. Speeches of Dying Persons.
- 1A Kings Dying Speech to his Noble Subjects Fol. 131
- 2A Daughters Dying Speech to her Father Fol. 133
- Page [unnumbered]
- 3A Souldiers Dying Speech to his Friends Fol. 134
- 4A Dying Speech of a Loving Mistress to her Beloved Servant Fol. 135
- 5A Forein Travellers Dying Speech Fol. 136
- 6A Lovers Dying Speech to his Beloved Mistress Fol. 138
- 7A Sons Dying Speech to his Father Fol. 138
- 8A Young Virgins Dying Speech Fol. 139
- 9A Husbands Dying Speech to his Wife Fol. 140
- 10A Common Courtisan's Dying Speech Fol. 141
- 11A Vain young Ladies Dying Speech Fol. 142
- 12A Fathers Speech to his Son on his Death-bed. Fol. 144
- PART VIII. Funeral Orations.
- 1AN Oration to the People, concerning the Death of their Sove∣raign Fol. 146
- 2A Young Noble-mans Funeral Oration Fol. 147
- 3A Generals Funeral Oration Fol. 150
- 4A Judges Funeral Oration Fol. 152
- 5A Sergeant or Barresters Funeral Oration Fol. 154
- 6A Magistrates Funeral Oration Fol. 156
- 7A Funeral Oration of a Student Fol. 157
- 8A Funeral Oration of a Divine Fol. 158
- 9A Funeral Oration of a Poet Fol. 159
- 10A Funeral Oration of a Philosopher Fol. 160
- 11A Funeral Oration of a Dead Lady, spoken by a Living Lady Fol. 162
- 12A Foreiners or Strangers Funeral Oration Fol. 163
- 13A Post-riders Funeral Oration Fol. 165
- 14A Young Virgins Funeral Oration Fol. 166
- 15A Young New-married Wife's Funeral Oration Fol. 168
- 16A Widdows Funeral Oration Fol. 170
- 17An other Widdows Funeral Oration Fol. 172
- 18A Young Child's Funeral Oration Fol. 174
- 19An Old Ladies Funeral Oration Fol. 175
- 20An Ancient Man's Funeral Oration Fol. 176
- 21An Old Beggar-womans Funeral Oration Fol. 178
- Page [unnumbered]
- 22A Young Brides Funeral Oration Fol. 180
- 23A Child-bed Womans Funeral Oration Fol. 182
- 24A Souldiers Funeral Oration Fol. 183
- 25An Oration concerning the Joyes of Heaven, and Torments of Hell Fol. 185
- 26An Oration to a Congregation Fol. 191
- 27An Oration to a Sinfull Congregation Fol. 193
- 28An Oration which is an Exhortation to a Pious Life. Fol. 195
- PART IX. Marriage Orations.
- 1A Marriage Oration to a Congregation, and a Young Bride and Bridegroom Fol. 198
- 2A Marriage Oration to a Congregation, and an Old Bride and Young Bridegroom Fol. 199
- 3A Marriage Oration to a Congregation, and a Young Bride and Aged Bridegroom Fol. 201
- 4A Marriage Oration of two Poor Servants. Fol. 202
- PART X. Orations to Citizens in the Market-place.
- 1AN Oration against Excess and Vanity Fol. 204
- 2An Oration Contradicting the Former Fol. 206
- 3An Oration against Usurers and Money-Horders Fol. 210
- 4An Oration concerning the Education of Children Fol. 212
- 5An Oration concerning the Plague Fol. 214
- 6An Oration against Idle Expences Fol. 217
- 7An Oration for Men to Please themselves Fol. 218
- 8An Oration against Vice-Actors Fol. 220
- 9An Oration against a Foolish Custom Fol. 221
- 10An Oration against the Liberty of Women Fol. 222
- 11An Oration for the Liberty of Women. Fol. 223
- Page [unnumbered]PART XI.
- Containeth seven Femal Orations, from Page 225. to Page 232.
- PART XII.
- Nine Orations in Country Market-Towns, where Country Gentlemen meet, from Page 233. to Page 240.
- PART XIII. Orations in the Field of Peace.
- 1A Peasants Oration to his Fellow Clowns Fol. 241
- 2A Peasants or Clowns Oration Spoken in the Field of Peace, concerning Husbandry Fol. 243
- 3A Peasants Oration to his Fellow Peasants Fol. 246
- 4A Peasants Oration to prove the Happiness of a Rural Life Fol. 248
- PART XIV. Orations in a Disordered, and yet Unsetled State or Government.
- 1AN Oration against Taxes Fol. 251
- 2An Oration contrary to the Former Fol. 253
- 3An Oration against Collectors Fol. 256
- 4An Oration for Taxes Fol. 258
- 5An Oration to hinder a Rebellion Fol. 260
- Page [unnumbered]
- 6An Oration against Civil Warr Fol. 262
- 7An Oration against a Tumuliuous Sedition Fol. 265
- 8An Oration to Mutinous, yet Fearfull Citizens Fol. 267
- 9An Oration concerning Trade and Shipping Fol. 270
- 10An Oration for the Disbanding of Souldiers Fol. 273
- 11A Souldiers Oration for the Continuance of their Army Fol. 274
- 12An other Oration against the Former Fol. 275
- 13A Souldiers Oration concerning the Form of Government Fol. 277
- 14An other Souldiers Oration Contrary to the Former Fol. 279
- 15An other Oration Different from the two Former Fol. 280
- 16An Oration which is a Refusal of an Absolute Power Fol. 281
- 17An Oration concerning Disorders, Rebellion, and Change of Go∣vernment Fol. 283
- 18An Oration to a Discontented People Fol. 287
- 19An Oration in Complaint of the Former Fol. 288
- 20A Kings Oration or Speech to his Subjects Fol. 289
- 21A Generals Oration to his Chief Commanders. Fol. 290
- PART XV. Scholastical Orations.
- 1A Sleepy Speech to Students Fol. 292
- 2A Waking Oration of the Former Sleepy Discourse Fol. 298
- 3Of Parte and Wholes Fol. 302
- 4An other of the same Subject Fol. 303
- 5Of the Soul Fol. 304
- 6A Speech concerning Studies Fol. 305
- 7An other of the same Subject ibid.
- 8An other Concerning the same Subject Fol. 306
- 9An other of the same Subject Fol. 307