An essay concerning humane understanding microform
Locke, John, 1632-1704.
CHAP. I. Of Ideas in general.
- 1. Idea is the Object of Thinking.
- 2. All Ideas come from Sensation or Reflexion.
- 3. The Objects of Sensation one Sourse of Ideas.
- 4. The Operations of our Minds about sensible Ideas, the other Sourse of them.
- 5. All our Ideas are of the one or the other of these.
- 6. Observable in Children.
- 7. Men are differently furnished with these, according to the different Objects they converse with.
- 8. Ideas of Reflexion had later, be∣cause they need Attention.
- 9. The Soul begins to have Ideas, when it begins to perceive.
- 10. The Soul thinks not always; for, First, it wants Proofs.
- 11. Secondly, It is not always conscious of it.
- 12. Thirdly, If a sleeping Man thinks without knowing it, the sleeping and waking Man are two persons.
- 13. Fourthly, Impossible to convince those that sleep without dreaming, that they think.
- 14. Fifthly, That Men dream without remembring it, in vain urged.
- 15. Sixthly, Vpon their Hypothesis, the Thoughts of a sleeping Man ought to be most rational.
- 16. Seventhly, On this Hypothesis the Soul must have Ideas not derived from Sensation or Reflexion, of of which there is no appearance.
- 17. Eightly, If I think when I know it not, no body else can know it.
- 18. Ninthly, How knows any one that the Soul always thinks? For if it be not a self-evident Proposition, it needs proof.
- 19. Tenthly, That a Man shoul• be busie in thinking, and yet not retain it the next moment, very impro∣bable.
- 20—24. No Ideas but from Sensation or Re∣flexion, evident, if we observe Children.
- 25. In the reception of simple Ideas, the Vnderstanding is most of all passive.
CHAP. II. Of simple Ideas.
- 1. Vncompounded Appearances.
- 2, 3. The Mind can neither make nor destroy them.
CHAP. III. Of Ideas of one Sense.
- 1. As Colours of Seeing, Sounds of Hearing.
- 2. Few simple Ideas have Names.
CHAP. IV. Of Solidity.
- 1. We receive this Idea from touch.
- 2. Solidity fills Space.
- 3. Distinct from Space.
- 4. From Hardness.
- 5. On Solidity depends Impulse, Re∣sistence, and Protrusion.
- 6. What it is.
Of simple Ideas by more than one Sense.
CHAP. VI. Of simple Ideas of Reflexion.
- 1. Are the Operations of the Mind about its other Ideas?
- 2. The Idea of Perception, and Idea of Willing, we have from Refle∣xion.
CHAP. VII. Of Simple Ideas, both of Sensation and Reflexion.
- 1—6. Pleasure and Pain.
- 7. Existence and Vnity.
- 8. Power.
- 9. Succession.
- 10. Simple Ideas the Materials of all our Knowledge.
CHAP VIII. Other Considerations concerning simple Ideas.
- 1—6. Positive Ideas from privative Cau∣ses.
- 7, 8. Ideas in the Mind, Qualities in Bodies.
- 9, 10. Primary and Secondary Quali∣ties.
- 11, 12. How primary Qualities, produce their Ideas.
- 13, 14. How Secondary.
- 15—23. Ideas of primary Qualities are re∣semblances; of secondary, not.
- 24, 25. Reason of our mistake in this.
- 26. Secondary Qualities two-fold; First, Immediately perceivable; Secondly, Mediately perceivable.
CHAP. IX. Of Perception.
- 1. It is the first simple Idea of Re∣flexion.
- 2—4. Perception is only when the Mind receives the Impression.
- 5, 6. Children, though they have Ideas, in the Womb, have none innate.
- 7. Which Ideas first is not evident.
- 8—10. Ideas of Sensation often changed by the Iudgment.
- 11—14. Perception puts the difference be∣tween Animals and inferior Be∣ings.
- 15. Perception the inlet of Know∣ledge.
CHAP. X. Of Retention.
- 1. Contemplation.
- 2. Memory.
- 3. Attention, Repetition, Pleasure, and Pain fix Ideas.
- 4, 5. Ideas fade in the Memory.
- 6. Constantly repeated Ideas can scarce be lost.
- 7. In remembring the Mind is often active.
- 8. Two defects in the Memory, Obli∣vion and Slowness.
- 9. Brutes have Memory.
CHAP. XI. Of Discerning, &c.
- 1. No Knowledge without it.
- 2. The difference of Wit and Iudg∣ment.
- 4. Clearness alone hinders Confusion.
- 4. Comparing.
- 5. Brutes compare, but imperfectly.
- 6. Compounding.
- 7. Brutes compound but little.
- 8. Naming.
- 9. Abstraction.
- 10, 11. Brutes abstract not.
- 12, 13. Idiots and mad Men.
- 14. Method.
- 15. These are the beginnings of hu∣mane Knowledge.
- 16. Appeal to Experience.
- 17. Dark room.
CHAP. XII. Of Complex Ideas.
- 1. Made by the Mind out of simple ones.
- 2. Made voluntarily.
- 3. Are either Modes, Substances, or Relations.
- 4. Modes.
- 5. Simple and mixed Modes.
- 6. Substances Single or Collective.
- 7. Relation.
- 8. The abstrusest Ideas from the two Sources.
CHAP. XIII. Of Space, and its simple Modes.
- 1. Simple Modes.
- 2. Idea of Space.
- 3. Space and Extension.
- 4. Immensity.
- 5, 6. Figure.
- 7—10. Place•
- 11—14. Extension and Body not the same.
- 15—17. Substance which we know not, no proof against Space without Body.
- 18, 19. Substance and Accidents of little use in Philosophy.
- 20. A Vac•um beyond the utmost bounds of Body.
- 21. The power of annihilation proves a Vacuum.
- 22. Motion proves a Vacuum.
- 23. The Ideas of Space and Body di∣stinct.
- 24, 25. Extension being inseparable from Body, proves it not the same.
- 26. Ideas of Space and Solidity distinct.
- 27. Men differ little in clear simple Ideas.
CHAP. XIV. Of Duration.
- 1. Duration is fleeting Extension.
- 2—4. Its Idea from Reflexion on the train of our Ideas.
- 5. The Idea of Duration applicable to Things whilst we sleep.
- 6—8. The Idea of Succession not from Motion.
- 9—11. The train of Ideas has a certain degree of quickness.
- 12. This train the measure of other Suc∣cessions.
- 13—15. The Mind cannot fix long on one invariable Idea.
- 16. Ideas, however made, include no sense of Motion.
- 17. Time is Duration set out by Mea∣sures.
- 18. A good measure of Time must di∣vide its whole Duration into equal periods.
- 19. The Revolutions of the Sun and Moon the properest Measures of Time.
- 20. But not by their motion, but perio∣dical appearances.
- 21. No two parts of Duration can be certainly known to be equal.
- 22. Time not the measure of Motion.
- 23. Minutes, Hours, and Tears, not necessary measures of Duration.
- 24. The measure of Time two ways ap∣plied.
- 25—27. Our measure of Time applicable to Duration before Time.
- 28—31. Eternity.
CHAP. XV. Of Duration and Expansion considered together
- 1. Both capable of greater and less.
- 2. Expansion not bounded by Matter.
- 3. Nor Duration by Motion.
- 4. Why Men more easily admit infinite Duration, than infinite Expansion.
- 5. Time to Duration is as Place to Expansion.
- 6. Time and Place are taken for so much of either, as are set out by the Existence and Motion of Body.
- 7. Sometimes for so much of either, as we design by measures taken from the bulk or motion of Bodies.
- Page [unnumbered]8. They belong to all Beings•
- 9. All the parts of Extension are Ex∣tension; and all the parts of Du∣ration, are Duration.
- 10. Their parts inseparable.
- 11. Duration is as a Line, Expansion as a Solid.
- 12. Duration has never two parts to∣gether, Expansion altogether.
CHAP. XVI. Of Number.
- 1. Number the simplest and most uni∣versal Idea.
- 2. Its Modes made by Addition.
- 3. Each Mode distinct.
- 4. Therefore Demonstrations in Num∣bers the most precise.
- 5, 6. Names necessary to Numbers.
- 7. Why Children number not earlier.
- 8. Number measures all Measurables.
CHAP. XVII. Of Infinity.
- 1. Infinity, in its original intention, attributed to Space, Duration, and Number.
- 2, 3. How we come by the Idea of Infinity.
- 4. Our Idea of Space boundless.
- 5. And so of Duration.
- 6. Why other Ideas are not capable of Infinity.
- 7. Difference between infinity of Space, and Space infinite.
- 8. We have no Idea of infinite Space.
- 9. Number affords us the clearest Idea of Infinity.
- 10—11. Our different conception of the In∣finity of Number, Duration, and Expansion.
- 12. Infinite Divisibility,
- 13, 14, 17, 18. No positive Idea of Infinite.
- 15, 16, 19. What is positive, what negative in our Idea of Infinite.
- 20. Some think they have a positive Idea of Eternity, and not Space.
- 21. Supposed positive Ideas of Infini∣ty cause of Mistakes.
- 22. All these Ideas from Sensation and Reflexion.
CHAP. XVIII. Of other simple Modes.
- 1, 2. Modes of Motion.
- 3. Modes of Sounds.
- 5. Modes of Tastes.
- 7. Modes of Colours.
- 8. Why some Modes have, and others have not Names.
CHAP. XIX. Of the Modes of Thinking.
- 1, 2. Sensation, Remembrance, Contem∣plation, &c.
- 3. The various attention of the Mind in Thinking.
- 4. Hence probable that Thinking is the Action, not Essence of the Soul.
CHAP. XX. Of Modes of Pleasure and Pain.
- 1. Pleasure and Pain simple Ideas.
- 2. Good and Evil what.
- 3. Our Passions moved by Good and Evil.
- 4. Love.
- 5. Hatred.
- 6. Desire.
- 7. Ioy.
- 8. Sorrow.
- 9. Hope.
- 10. Fear.
- 11. Despair.
- 12. Anger.
- 13. Envy.
- 14. What Passions all Men have.
- 15, 16. Pleasure and Pain what.
- 17. Shame.
- 18. These instances to shew how our Ideas of the Passions are got from Sensation and Reflexion.
CH•P. XXI. Of Power.
- 1. This Idea how got.
- 2. Power active and passive.
- 3. Power includes Relation.
- 4. The clearest Idea of active Power had from Spirit.
- 5. Will and Vnderstanding, two Powers.
- 6. Faculties.
- 7. Whence the Ideas of Liberty and Necessity.
- 8—12. Liberty what.
- 9. Supposes the Vnderstanding and Will.
- 10. Belongs not to Volition.
- 11. Voluntary opposed to involuntary, not to Necessary.
- 13. Necessity what.
- 14—20. Liberty belong not to the Will.
- 21. But to the Agent or Man.
- 22—24. In respect of willing, a Man is not free.
- 25—28. The Will determined by something without it.
- 29. The greater apparent Good deter∣mines the Will.
- 30—32. This is a Perfection of humane Nature.
- 33. And takes not away Liberty.
- 34, 35. Why Men chuse differently.
- 36. Why they chuse amiss.
- 38. From the different appearance of Good.
- 39. And judging amiss on these Ap∣pearances.
- 40—42. First, in comparing present and fu∣ture.
- 43. Secondly, In thinking wrong of the greatness or certainty of the Con∣sequence of any Action.
- 44. Causes of wrong Iudgment, Igno∣rance, Inadvertency, Sloth, Pas∣sion, Fashion, &c.
- 45. Preference of Vice to Vertue, a manifest wrong Iudgment.
- 47. Recapitulation.
CHAP. XXII. Of Mixed Modes.
- 1. Mixed Modes what.
- 2. Made by the Mind.
- 3. Sometimes got by the Explication of their Names.
- 4. The Name ties the Parts of the mixed Modes into one Idea.
- 5. The Cause of making mixed Modes.
- 6. Why Words in one Language, have none answering in another.
- 7. And Languages change.
- 8. Mixed Modes, where they exist.
- 9. How we get the Ideas of mixed Modes.
- 10. Motion, Thinking and Power, have been most modified.
- 11. Several Words seeming to signifie Action, signifie but the Effect.
- 12. Mixed Modes, made also of other Ideas.
CHAP. XXIII. Of the Complex Ideas of Substances.
- 1. Ideas of Substances how made.
- 2. Our Idea of Substance in general.
- 3—6. Of the sorts of Substances.
- 4. No clear Idea of Substance in ge∣neral.
- 5. As clear an Idea of Spirit, as Body.
- 7. Powers a great part of our complex Ideas of Substances.
- 8. And why.
- 9. Three sorts of Ideas make our complex ones of Sustances.
- 10, 11. The now secondary Qualities of Bodies would disappear, if we could discover the primary ones of their minute Parts.
- 12. Our Faculties of Discovery suited to our State.
- 13. Conjecture about Spirits.
- 14. Complex Ideas of Substances.
- 15. Idea of spiritual Substances, as clear as of bodily Substances.
- 16. No Idea of abstract Substance.
- Page [unnumbered]17. The Cohesion of solid Parts, and impulse the primary Ideas of Body.
- 18. Thinking and Motivity, the pri∣mary Ideas of Spirit.
- 19—21. Spirits capable of Motion.
- 22. Idea of Soul and Body compared.
- 23—27. Cohesion of solid Parts in Body, as hard to be conceived, as Thinking in a Soul.
- 28, 29. Comm•nication of Motion by Im∣pulse, or by Thought, equally intel∣ligible.
- 30. Ideas of Body and Spirit compa∣red.
- 31. The Notion of Spirit involves no more difficulty in it, than that of Body.
- 32. We know nothing beyond our simple Ideas.
- 33—35. Idea of God.
- 36. No Ideas in our Complex one of Spi∣rits, but those got from Sensation or Reflexion.
- 37. Recapitulation.
CHAP. XXIV. Of Collective Ideas of Substances.
- 1. One Idea.
- 2. Made by the Power of composing in the Mind.
- 3. All artificial Things are collective Ideas.
CHAP. XXV. Of Relation.
- 1. Relation what.
- 2. Relations without correlative Terms, not easily perceived.
- 3. Some seemingly absolute Terms contain Relations.
- 4. Relation different from the Things related.
- 5. Change of Relation may be with∣out any Change in the Subject.
- 6. Relation only betwixt two Things.
- 7. All Things capable of Relation.
- 8. The Ideas of Relations clearer of∣ten, than of the Subjects related.
- 9. Relations all terminate in simple Ideas.
- 10. Terms leading the Mind beyond the Subject denominated, are Re∣lative.
- 11. Conclusion.
CHAP. XXVI. Of Cause of Effect, and other Relations.
- 1. Whence their Ideas got.
- 2. Creation, Generation, making Al∣teration.
- 3, 4. Relations of Time.
- 5. Relations of Place and Extension.
- 6. Absolute Terms often stand for Relations.
CHAP. XXVII. Of other Relations.
- 1. Proportional.
- 2. Natural.
- 3. Instituted.
- 4. Moral.
- 5. Moral Good and Evil.
- 6. Moral Rules.
- 7. Laws.
- 8. Divine Law the measure of Sin and Duty.
- 9. Civil Law, the measure of Crimes and Innocence.
- 10, 11. Philosophical Law, the measure of Vertue and Vice.
- 12. Its Inforcements, Commendation, and Discredit.
- 13. These three Laws the Rules of mo∣ral Good and Evil.
- 14, 15. Morality is the Relation of Actions to these Rules.
- 16. The denominations of Actions of∣ten mislead us.
- 17. Relations innumerable.
- 18. All Relations terminate in simple Ideas.
- 19. We have ordinary as clear (or clearer) Notion of the Relation, as of its Foundation.
- 20. The Notion of the Relation is the Page [unnumbered] same, whether the Rule any Action is compared to, be true or false.
CHAP. XXVIII. Of Clear and Distinct, Obscure and Con∣fused Ideas.
- 1. Ideas some clear and distinct, o∣thers obscure and confused.
- 2. Clear and Obscure, explained by Sight.
- 3. Causes of Obscurity.
- 4. Distinct and confused, what.
- 5. Objection.
- 6. Confusion of Ideas, is in reference to their Names.
- 7. Defaults which make Confusion. First, complex Ideas made up of too few simple ones.
- 8. Secondly, Or its simple ones jum∣bled disorderly together.
- 9. Thirdly, Or are mutable and un∣determined.
- 10. Confusion without reference to Names, hardly conceivable.
- 11. Confusion concerns always two I∣deas.
- 12. Causes of Confusion.
- 13. Complex Ideas may be distinct in one part, and confused in another.
- 14. This if not heeded, causes Confu∣sion in our Arguings.
- 15. Instance in Eternity.
- 16, 17. —Divisibility of Matter.
CHAP. XXIX. Of Real and Fantastical Ideas.
- 1. Real Ideas are conformable to their Archetypes.
- 2. Simple Ideas all real.
- 3. Complex Ideas are voluntary Com∣binations.
- 4. Mixed Modes made of consistent Ideas are real.
- 5. Ideas of Substances are real, when they agree with the Existence of Things.
CHAP. XXX. Of Adequate and Inadequate Ideas.
- 1. Adequate Ideas, are such as per∣fectly represent their Archetypes.
- 2. Simple Ideas all adequate.
- 3. Modes are all adequate.
- 4, 5. Modes in reference to settled Names, may be inadequate.
- 6, 7. Ideas of Substances, as referr'd to real Essences not adequate.
- 8—11. Ideas of Substances, as Collections of their Qualities, are all inade∣quate.
- 12. Simple Ideas 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and adequate.
- 13. Ideas of Substances are 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in∣adequate.
- 14. Ideas of Modes and Relations are Archetypes, and cannot but be adequate.
CHAP. XXI. Of true and false Ideas.
- 1. Truth and Falshood properly be∣longs to Propositions.
- 2. Metaphysical Truth contains a ta∣cit Proposition.
- 3. No Idea as an appearance in the Mind true or false.
- 4. Ideas referred to any thing may be true or false
- 5. Other Men's Ideas, real Exi∣stence, and supposed real Essences, are what Men usually refer their Ideas to.
- 6—8. The cause of such references.
- 9. Simple Ideas may be false in refe∣rence to others of the same name, but are least liable to be so.
- 10. Ideas of mixed Modes most liable to be false in this sense.
- 11. Or at least to be thought false.
- 12. And why.
- 13. As referred to real Existences, none of our Ideas can be false, but those of Substances.
- 14—16. First, Simple Ideas in this sense not false, and why.
- 15. Though one Man's Idea of Blue, should be different from ano∣ther's.
- Page [unnumbered]17. Secondly, Modes not false.
- 18. Thirdly, Ideas of Substances are false, when the Combination is made of simple Ideas that do never co-exist; or has in it the negation of any one that does constantly coexist.
- 19. Truth or Falshood always supposes affirmation or negation.
- 20. Ideas in themselves neither true nor false.
- 21. But are false, First, when judged agreeable to another Man's Idea without being so.
- 22. Secondly, When judged to agree to real Existence, when they do not.
- 23. Thirdly, When judged adequate without being so.
- 24. Fourthly, When judged to repre∣sent the real Essence.
- 25. Ideas when false.
- 26. More properly to be called Right or Wrong.
- 27. Conclusion.