An history of the wonderful things of nature set forth in ten severall classes wherein are contained I. The wonders of the heavens, II. Of the elements, III. Of meteors, IV. Of minerals, V. Of plants, VI. Of birds, VII. Of four-footed beasts, VIII. Of insects, and things wanting blood, IX. Of fishes, X. Of man
Jonstonus, Joannes, 1603-1675., Libavius, Andreas, d. 1616., Rowland, John, M.D.
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Artic. 2. Of the place time and effects of an Earth-quake.

THose places are subject to Earth-quakes, which can easily take in wind. Solid places will not admit it, sandy places mixed with lime do easily discuss it, they want receptacles for winds▪ Champion places have no Caves. Yet the whole Earth is never shaken, for the Vapours included have no proportion to the Globe of the Earth. If it should happen it must be ascribed to divine power, which nature would seem to challenge to her self; If you consider the duration, it differs as the resistance is; few Vapours are sooner discussed, many last longer, and rage a greater time; Senec. natural, l. 6. c. 3. Campa∣nia trembled many dayes; Livy writes that at that time, when L. Cornelia and Q. Minucius neer Consuls▪ the Earth-quakes were so fre∣quent, that men were weary not only of it, but of all businesse. The same Author sayes that an Earth-quake lasted 40 days, others say one hath lasted two yeares, and returned again and again, Livy, l. 44. & l. 45. Aristot. l. 2. Meteor. c. 8. Plin. l. 2. c. 82. Such is the condition of the effects of it, that those that hear of it, will be astonished at it, and those that see it dye. Oft times it doth not devour Houses, Cities, or whole famelies only, but whole Nations and Countries: somtimes the Earth falls upon them, somtimes it takes them into its deep jaws and leaves not so much whereby it may appear, that what is not now, ever was. Seneca, L. 6. natur c. 1. The ground covers somtimes the most noble Cities, without leaving any mark of their forme being, when as the great hollow Caves in the Earth are forced and shaken with winds and fall down, oft times in the Sea, a hollow pit opening drinks up the waters, on the Land Rivers, that both fish and shipping sink into it. On the otherside, the Earth lifted up into a high tumour, hath caused Mountains on land, and Islands at Sea, somtimes the course of Rivers hath been changed, that hilly ground having been removed on that side that they formerly ran. Histories are full of these calamities. The last yeare of Nero, fields and Olive Trees, that the high way passed between, in the Country of the Mrrucinum were transported to the other side. L. Marcius, and Sextus Julius being Con∣suls, in the Country of the Mutinenses, two Mountains fell together with a mighty noise, Plin. l. 2. and l. 16. c. 40. Many Villages were then beaten down, and Cattel killed. In Parthia, there is a place called Ragai from the clifts, where many Towns, and Villages 2000, were overwhelmed. At Cajeta in Italy, there is a Mountain toward the South, a part whereof an Earthquake so divided, that one would believe the division was made by the art of Man, the Sea runs under it with a great noise. Agricol▪ in reb. quae efflu▪ ex terra. The Houses of Helice and Bura two Towns in the Sinus of Corinth, did ap∣peare in the Sea. In the Island Aenania, a Town was so taken in, that there was no appearance of it left. Not far from Ptolemais, the Waves of the Sea were carried into the deep, and so lifted up them∣selves, that they appeared like a great Mountain, and afterwards Page  84 they were carryed to the land, and drownd the Army of Tryphon. When Cneius Octavius and C. Scribonius were Consuls, the River at Velia brake down the bridges, and threw the banks of the River into the waters, drove away the stones that were in the Market place; in Town and Field it shook the Churches, which a few days after fell down. By an Earthquake, the City of Lacedemon fell all down, when the Mountain Taygetus was broken. In the Warr of Mithridates, at Apamaea a City of Phrygia, new Lakes, Pools, Fountains and Rivers came forth, many of the old ones being suckt in, and amongst these one was salt, that put forth an infinite plenty of Fish and Oysters, and yet Apamaea is far distant from the Sea, Nicolaus Damascenus. During the second Punick Warr, there were such great Earthquakes, at Li∣guria, and the parts neer unto it, so far as the Sea of Tyrrhenum, that the Rivers ran the contrary ways. The most wonderfull Earthquake was in Hereford here in England, in the year of Grace, after the 15 century, 71, the 12 of the Calnds of March at six a Clock at night the Earth parted in the Eastern part of the County, and a Moun∣tain with a Rock under it, (first with a wonderfull noise and roaring, that the neighbour parts might hear it) as if it had been raised out of a long sleep, lifted up it self, and ascended into an upper place, leaving its deep Chamber, and it carryed with it the Trees that grw upon it, the folds and slooks of sheep: some of the Trees lay over∣whelmed with the Earth, others were joyned to the Mountain, and grew there as well as if they had been there planted at first. It left the place from whence it came with a great pit, 40 foot broad, and 80 els long. The whole field was about twenty Acres It overthrew a Chappel in its way; It carryed a Peare Tree that was planted in the Church-yard from West to East, and with the same force it thrust forward high ways, Paths, Hedges with Trees that grew in them, It made pasture ground of arable, and ara∣ble again of pasture. It rolled against the upper ground, and being driven with greater violence, it heaped it up into a high Mountain; so when it had passed up and down from Saturday evening, till Mun∣day noon, it rested quiet. This is Cambdens description of it. The Philosophers call this kind of Earthquake 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. To this may be referred the Earthquake in Apulia, Anno. 1627, it was open above 200 miles, and overthrow great part of the City, St. Severus, Sarra, Capreola, Dragonora, Procina of St. Lyander; it laid hold on, Assolum, Bovinium, Troia, Andria, Tranium, Foggita, Campus Marinus, Remitium, Itistonium, Franca, Villa, Asanum, Consilinum, &c: Also it killed 17 thousand Men. It is certain that it brings with it not only present mischiefs, but it is a forerunner of mischiefs to follow, Rome had ne∣ver any Earth-quake that did not foreshew, some future eventPliny, l. 2. c. 64. Socrates saith it foretells of discords in religion: wherefore what the Romans did of former times by appointing holydays by in∣junction let us do the same. They might feare lest by naming one God for an other, they might induce the people to a false religion: but we know that God, by whose power the Earth is shaken.