An history of the wonderful things of nature set forth in ten severall classes wherein are contained I. The wonders of the heavens, II. Of the elements, III. Of meteors, IV. Of minerals, V. Of plants, VI. Of birds, VII. Of four-footed beasts, VIII. Of insects, and things wanting blood, IX. Of fishes, X. Of man
Jonstonus, Joannes, 1603-1675., Libavius, Andreas, d. 1616., Rowland, John, M.D.
Page  241


The Eighth Classis. Wherein are contained the Wonders of Creatures that want blood.

Plin. Histor. Natural. l. 11. c. 2.
THe Nature of things, is no where more totally in any Creature, than in the smallest Creatures: And, In the contemplation of it nothing can seem superfluous.

CHAP. I. Of Living Creatures without blood, in generall.

TRuly the nature of bloodlesse Creatures seems to be con∣temptible; and not to be compared in the least, with the shoulders of Elephants that carry Castles, or the necks of Bulls, and their fierce casting up of things into the Ayr; nor to the Manes of Lions: yet is there no where a more remarkable piece of Nature's Workmanship; and Nature is no where total, more than in the least Creatures. For in great bodies there was a sit place to work in, the matter being ductile; but in these that are so small, and almost as nothing, what reason, what force, what unspeakable perfection is there? Where hath Nature placed so many senses in the Gnat? Where hath she set Page  242 her eyes? where her smelling? Where hath she made that horrid and great Voyce, considering its proportion of body? how hath she cunningly fastned the wings? lengthned the legs? hath disposed a hollow place instead of a belly? and made it thirsty after blood, especially mans blood? but by what art hath she whe••ed the snowt of it to make it penetrate into the skin? And since the smallnesse of it cannot be discerned, in comparison with that is very great, nature hath helped it by a twofold art, that it might be sharp to peirce, and hollow to drink with all. Plin. l. 11. c. 2. Aristotle reckons 4, kinds of bloodlesse creatures; The soft, the hard crusty, the shell-wearing, and the insect. The soft kinds want scales, and their skin is not rough, nor with a shell, but soft as it is in Men. They have no bones, no bowels. If there be any, they are like to fishes prickles, except only the Polypus. Plin. l. 9. c. 28. Their heads are between their legs, and their bellies, they have no tongues, nature only hath given them somthing that is fleshy, to discern the pleasure of that they eate. But they have a Brain, and they have that is pro∣portionable to that part which is designed by nature for the principa∣lity of feeling. Also they are of both sexes. The parts of the males are all more rough, and distinguished with various lines running be∣tween, the tayl is sharper, the passage under the throat, comes from the brain to the bottom of the pipe; and the place it is carried to, is like to the teats. It is double that is set above in the females, and reddish little bodies are joyned to it in both sexes. They refuse salt water, they can hardly endure cold, for they are naked, and fearfull because they want blood. Their eggs when they are lay'd increase as Worms do, but they must needs have their vital force from the seed of the male, as fishes have. Aristot. de generat. l. 3. c. 8. Of those that are crusty there are two kinds, for they are all either with tails or round. Their taile is evident and stretched forth: the cover of this, as it were, covers the end of their belly, and is so joyned to the lower part of their belly that it shews not at all like a taile; Scalig. exercit. 245. Their parts are as the other parts of bloodlesse creatures. Their teeth in their mouths are long and round, covered with a double co∣vering, Aristot. de part 4, c. 3. between which such things are pla∣ced, as are knit between the teeth of Locusts. They want eylids, but their eyes are placed above their mouth, they are hard, and apt to move inward and outward, and obliquely. They breathe not, but casting water through a hollow pipe they are refreshed. The males have small passages for their genital parts, the females have membra∣nous matrices cut as farr as their intestins, and in them an egge is bred. They copulate after the manner of those creatures that pisse backwards. The female brings forth a red egge covered over with a thin shelly membrane: they are otherwise called Conchylia, purple shell fish, that were of old held for great dainties, that they grew into a proverb, to be the widows delights. Nature hath so sported in the variety of them, in so many figures and colours, that it is hard to number them. Plin. l. 9. c. 33. to explain the variety of them saith thus▪ They are of so many figures, plain, hollow, long, like the half Page  243 Moon, round cut in half circles, rising in the back, smooth, rugged, dented, streaked, the top wreathed like the Murex, the borders pointed, outward, or folded inward, somtimes distinguished with little lines, hairy, curled, like doggs waved like a comb, a tyle, lattice wise, or like net work, stretched out obliquely or right forth, close thickned together, open as when men clap their hands, bended backwards like to a Horn. Moreover, in the red Sea they are of a wonderfull greatnesse, also they are found on the tops of the highest Mountains, and they somtimes lye hid in the inward parts of the earth or in stones, Goropius. Becanus in Aldro∣vandus saith, he hath seen some in a flint, that we use to pave the streets with, brought from Bethum: there were so many shell-fish all of stone, and shut up entire in their coverings, that you would judge that flint to have been framed with great care and art of them, joyned with some cement. In the fields about the suburbs of Paris, that are fruitfull with Corn above, there is underneath a Cave that is under great part of it, where Chariots may passe. I found there a great many shells, like Sea perwinkles, in a delicate order, both twisted and adorned with little knots, and so exact, that there was nothing wanting to their perfection but the living fish. I saw in England a stone cut out of the highest Mountains, that was like a living perch, not the least line was wanting to make it perfect. Insects have incisions either above or beneath, or else on both sides, and though it be bony or fleshy, yet they have somthing that is between both. The differences of them are many, if you note their place the quality of their body, their quantity, their food, their generation, their motion of their going. As for the place, (we must speak somthing) reddish hairy Worms are bred in Snow; in the fire, Worms called Pyrausta; in the Sea water, the insect call'd Micro-rinchotoros, or little nose, the Sea-Scotopendra, and the gnat. In fresh water there ariseth, Leeches, Scrophulae, Strumae, Cherodes; in the earth, Worms, and Juli; in minerals, not a few. In the stumps of Trees, Cossi, and Teredines. The Fig-Tree breeds the Worm Cerastes: if an Olive Tree be planted where an Oke is digged up, there breed Frogs, and little Worms, in the Service-Tree there are breed red hairy ones; in the bladders of Elms, Psennes; in Vines, those that Tully calls Butyri; in the Spindle-Tree, or as Theophrastus calls it, Tetragonia, there is yearly bred some Catterpillers that dye so soon as the leaves are wasted. In the apple of a certain shrub call'd Coccios there breaks forth a little living crea∣ture so soon as the fruit is ripe. There are Worms found in the gnats, that tied to the neck will retain the birth, they must be taken off be∣fore delivery can be. In the leaves of Night-shade there is a Worm that is of a green and yellow colour, that hath a Horn in the forehead, as long as ones finger. In the Asphodil Worms breed, that become flies, in the fashion of flowers, for when the stalk fades and withers, they eat the cover they are in and fly out: you shall find no fewer in∣sects observable in living creatures. Mans excrements are known sufficiently, especially when the Sun shines on the excrements of beg∣gerly people. We know that in Aegypt Worms are presently bred in Mens legs. In a Carp the first year a black Worm is bred neer his gills. River perches breed as it were 12 pearls, so great as tares, Page  244 and each of them hath in it a slender long round worm. Lastly, it is said, that in Bee-hives a worm is bred. As for the parts, Flies have open wings, Beetles have sheath wings; some have their belly joyn'd to their mouth, and the right Intestin revolved from that. Those that leap, have either their hinder legs longer, or else they lean upon their tails bended backwards. As for their generation, some are bred from animals of the same kind; some do generate, but not of their own kind, but only Worms, and those not from living creatures, but from putrefaction of moysture and drynesse. Amongst those that couple, the females are commonly the biggest, the males have no fe∣minal passages; nor do they thrust in their member into the females, but the females into them by the lower part.

This I have spoken more largely of bloodlesse creatures, because I know that their external habit hath made them contemptible. Where∣fore the mind of man ought to be rouzed up contemplate their worth, by the majesty of the internal nature of them, and to verse it self therein.

CHAP. II. Concerning Bees.

IN Lithuani and Podolia there is an infinite company of Bees, that the hollow parts of the earth that are dry, are filled with honey: Olaus Magnus saith, That great Bears have fallen in and been drown'd. The fruitfulnesse of the fields causeth the plenty of them, the sweet smells, the abundance of flowers, the pleasant taste of them.

Adde to this the mighty Woods of Pine-Trees, which are alwaies green, and keep the place warm, with high tops, and large boughs; in Summer they shade the Bees, and in Winter they hide themselves in the coverings of the Pines, Leo. Nolan. in Problem. Solinus saith, That Scotland breeds none; but I know that is false: for I saw some in my Host's Garden at St. Andrews; and sometimes I have been much delighted with them. In Africa they are rare. If you ask the cause, you shall find it is the want of those things that I spake of in Sarmatia. In some parts of Egypt, if you bury a Bull to his horns, Bees in time will breed from it, from its putrefaction. If therefore you would breed Bees so, read Florentinus. He bids you, as Caesar Constan∣tinus relates, make you a house ten cubits high, and ten cubits broad, and the other sides equal thereunto; let there be but one place of en∣tring, and four windows, on each side one; drive an Ox that is fleshy and 30 moneths old into this place, he must be very fat; cause many young men to stand round about him, and beat him sorely, and kill him with Clubs, breaking his very horns and bones; yet they must take great heed that no blood follow. For the Bees are not bred of blood: and when they strike him first, let not them run violently up∣on Page  245 him; Then presently stop all passages in the Ox, with clean pure napkins, dipt in pitch, as the mouth, the nostrills, the eyes, and all parts Nature hath made for Evacuation. Then laying a great deal of Thyme under, and the Ox upon it, let them come forth of the house, and presently shut the door and the windows, and daub them with Lime, that neither Ayr nor wind may enter or come forth; but the third week you must set the house wide open, and let in the light and the cold Ayr, unlesse it be on that side where the wind blowes very strong. For if it fall so out, you must stop that side the wind blowes strongly on, and daub it with clay. The eleventh day after, when you open it, you shall find Bees hanging abundantly in clusters toge∣ther; and of the Ox that is left you shall find nothing but his horns, his bones, and his hair. They say the Kings are bred of his brain, the common Bees of his flesh; Also the King is bred of the spinall marrow; but it is said, that those which breed of the brain, are the best, for strength beauty and magnitude. From hence you shall know the first change and transformation of flesh into living Creatures, and as it were a conception, and generation, thus: For, opening the place, small white creatures, like to one another, and not yet perfect, nor yet living, will appear in great numbers about the Ox, all immove∣able, but augmenting by degrees. You shall see also the excrescence of their wings, yet unjoynted; and you shall see Bees in their proper colour, gathering together and flying about the King, but with small short wings, trembling for want of using to fly, and the weaknesse of their limbs. They will come continually, flying violently against the windows, for the desire of light. But it is best to open and shut the windows every other day, as we said. For it is to be feared, that they will change the nature of Bees, or else be stifled for want of Ayr. If a wing of them, or the sting be pull'd off it can never grow again; for because this is fastned to the Intestine, it pulls that out also, and so they die. They have a King, who is so much honoured by them, that he never goes forth, but they all attend him; if he rre in flying, they are quick-sented to find him out; and when he cannot fly, they carry him, Aristotle. They are so chaste, that they will sting those that smell of copulation, and they stall themselves in Virgins Sepulchres, Plutarch. For Augustinus, whose sirname was Gallus, saith, That at Verona they crept into the Sepulchre of two sisters that were Virgins, they were the Daughters of that famous Lawyer, Bartholo∣maeus Vitalis, they went in by the chinks of the wall next an Orchard, they made abundance of combs in the dead bodies of them both. The matter two years after their burial was made manifest, by the fall of thunder, without any hurt to the carcases of the Bees and combs. There were some found also in the Tomb of Hippocrates, and it is con∣stantly avouched, that the honey of them anointed on little blisters of Childrens mouths by the Sepulchre, did miraculously cure them. The Inhabitants of the Country of Cuma do feed on them. If thou wouldst have thy beard grow quickly, anoint thy chin with the ashes of burnt Bees, and Mice dung, Aldrovandus.

Page  246

CHAP. III. Of Spiders.

IN the new world, as Oviedus, l. 15. c. 3, relates, there are green Spi∣ders, and the Web is of a Golden colour, as good as silk. In Cuma they weave it so strong that it will not break, but holds like silk. In Hispaniola they are as big as hand-balls, and as hard as nuts. In Bra∣sil there is a very great kind of them, like to a Crab, yet a fly takes him and draws him into his hold, contrary to what is used in Europe▪ Cardan. l. 9. subtil. saith, that in the West-Indies they are as big as Spar∣rows. Some write they couple backwards, and do scatter eggs in their Webs, for they leap and so lay them. They are perfected in 28, days. Scaliger, l. 1. de. causis plant. saith, that they breed of filth. When I somtime observed Spiders egs, I found them to be, many small ones, black and blew with little spots, divided and parted one from the other: they are soft, and clammy, and if by chance any be lost, the Spider diligently en∣quires, and she carries them back by fastning them on some thing from with∣in, and with her beck also. I have seen also innumerable young ones come forth of one egg, so small that they could hardly be discerned; yet so soon as they were come forth of the egg, they spun such fine Webs that nothing can be more wonderfull. Also I have observed under the belly of a Spider that was taken, a mighty heap of eggs, so small as Atoms; they were white, and crushed with the finger, they gave a crack. They have a great faculty of feeling; for sitting in the middle of their Web, they feel a fly that toucheth it in the most remote part. Hence Antonius Ludovicus. l. 1. Problem. s. 5. Problem 13. saith, that for that cause they lye in the middle of their Nets. And being that the lines are equall from the Centre, she sit∣ting in the middle, and holding with her feet the beginnings of the threds she spun, she can easily know from all parts. They make ve∣ry fine nets, and in them gnats and other little weak creatures are insnared. This is made from somthing they have without them, or from their hard skin, which being by degrees kembed and drawn like to a thred, they diminish, and they eat up their threds; or else naturally they have a fruitfullnesse of drawing threds; or else at a set time, the nature of their belly is corrupted, like an excrement. The woof is fastned within, and from that those fine lengths are drawn forth: we see the first to happen in Silk Worms, for they draw silken threds out of their own excrements, and they change their lives for a silken case, their proper substance being turn'd into a Fleece, Antoni∣cus Ludovicus, l. 1. s. 5. problem. 52. And Franciscus Bonzella Cardi∣nal. l. 3. c. 14. de Venenis writes, that such as are bitten by a house Spi∣der, fall ill of a Priapisme. And Plin. l. 24. c. 9. saith that the same things happen when one is bitt by the Spider Phalangium. The na∣ture of the poyson is said to be the cause of it. For though it penetrate easily; yet the terrestiall part of it causeth flatulent humours, which being driven to the lower parts, cause erection. When they hurt the Page  247 young Lizzards, first they wrap them in their Webs, then they bite their lips, which is a sight fit for a Theatre, when it happens, Plin. l. 11. c. 24. Also the same Authour, l. 10. c. 74, saith, that the Spider doth ballance himself, to come down upon the head of a Serpent that lyeth under the shade of a Tree, and he so fiercely bites the Serpents brain; that he makes him to hisse, yet he can neither break the thred that hangs from aloft, nor yet run away; and there is no end of it, till he kill him. When houses are like to fall, the Spiders first fall down with their Webs. Plin. l. 8. c. 28. When the Rivers are like to rise, they rayse their nets higher, and because they weave not in fair weather, but in foule, many Spiders foreshew rayn, Plin. l. 11. c. 24. The Thebans, as Pausanias witnesseth, in Baeoticus, were ignorant of that; For when the Spiders had woven white Webs about the dores of the Temple of the Goddesse Ceres, about that time that the battle was fought at Leuctra, when the Macedonians assaulted them, the Spi∣ders spun all black Webs, which was a sign that signified somthing far different from the former.

CHAP. IV. Of the Silk-Worm.

ZOnoras saith, that the Italians knew not the Silk-Worm before the time of Justinian: in his dayes it was wittily found out and brought thither, Procopius. He adds, that two Monks brought Silk-Worm eggs from India to Constantinople, and putting them into dung transformed them into Worms. Now Sera whence they came, is a City in the farthest parts of Persia, wherein there is made so much Silk work, that ten thousand pounds of Silk are daily given out to work-folks. Also in Taprobana Silk is gathered from Trees without any labour, as many Navigations have discovered. Nature hath shew'd so much art in this Insect, that it is impossible to comprehend it all. Much is written, and much more may be. First, it is a Worm; shut up in a bladder, it dies without any forme; at length a winged butterfly comes forth of the case: wherfore a creeping Insect is change∣ed into a flye by a medium that is vegetable void of sense and moti∣on, by a strange metamorphosis. The little Worm first shut out, seeks abundance of nourishment, and eating greedily what she is able, by often lifting up her head, striving as it were with a Lethargy, she sleeps at length 3, or 2, days, and in the mean while casting her skin, she falls to her wonted diet again, when she hath fed 4, times, slept 4, times, and 4, times changed her Coat; she will eat no more, but climbs up on high upon the branches, and twigs, having discharg∣ed her belly as it should, she begins to spin some rudiments of her Silken work upon the boughs, but in disordered turnings, then she shuts her self into a transparent case, and thrusts forth the fruit of her indefatigable labour, from the centre to the circumference, white Page  248 Wooll, yellow, and green, of an ovall figure, striving as it were with her fellows, in 9 dayes she ends her task, and dyes within it. From this case laid under ground, a horned Butterfly comes forth after ten dayes, but being neither mindfull of its wings nor food, being about to repair the losse of its short life by its fruitfulnesse of young ones, put into a soft fleece for 3. dayes together, but seldom for 4. dayes, is the male coupled to the female, and dies; and shortly after the fe∣male widow, leaving behind her about a hundred seeds like Millet seeds, she dyeth also. But because Andreas Libavius, a most deser∣ving Physitian, hath most accurately described this from his own ob∣servation, I thought fit to joyn his historicall observation, as an Ap∣pendix to the end of this Classis, for the benefit of those that search the Secrets of Nature.

CHAP. V. Of the Spanish Fly, and the Glo-worm.

CAntharides are bred from a Worm in a spungy substance, espe∣cially of the sweet-brier, but most fruitfully in the Ash. If they breed in Fig-trees, it is likely that the Tree will die, Plin, l. 29. Their venom is most tart. A Physitian call'd out of Egypt, kill'd Cossinus a Roman Knight, whom Nero loved, with Cantharides in drink, when he was sick of a Tetter, which was a peculiar disease in Egypt, Plin▪ l. 1. c. 4. The same thing happened to an Abbot from a whore, Paraeus l. 20. c. 28. A Glo-worm hath a belly with roundles, divided with many segments, in the end whereof there are two spots very light like to fire, tending toward a kind of sky-colour. Then is she most conspicuous, when her belly is pressed, and that transparent humour goes to the end of her belly, and her brest against the light shines like to fire, Aldrovand. de Insect. l. 4. c. 8. There is something spoken of this, in the Second Classis. Adrianus Junius, when he was in the Country of Bononia, drew the liquor of them upon Papers that shined like Stars: what is writ with that in the day, may be read in the night. Many have shewed the way to compound it. Baptista Porta doth it thus: We did cut their tails from their bodies, taking care that no∣thing should mingle with the shining parts; we ground it on a Porphyr stone, and 15 dayes or longer we buried it in dung, in a glasse vessel, and it is best that these parts should not touch the sides, but hang in it: for these dayes being over, the glasse being put into a hot oven, or a bath of hot water▪ and itted, you may by degrees receive that clear distilled liquor in a receiver underneath, and so putting it into a fine Crystall glasse, you may hang this wa∣ter that causeth light in your private Chamber; and it will so enlighten the Ayr, that you may read great letters. Albertus de sensu et sensato shews, why their light cannot be extinguished by water: For their light cannot be said to be of a coelestiall body, because a coelestiall nature comes not into com∣position of bodies generative and corruptible: But the determination of this Page  249 question and the like, is fetched from what we determined in our second de Anima; where we shew, That the nature of perspicuity is not proper to any Element, but it is common to many, and is participated by them per prius et posterius, which is the more pure, the farther it is from darknesse; and this is so, by how much it is more like to the nature of superiour bodies; and the proper act of this is light, which hath to do in that nature. Now this falls out in it, as often as the parts of it are very noble and clear: and therefore all such things do shine. Now this composition sometime is in the whole body; sometimes not in the whole, but in some externall parts: the cause whereof is, that when such a nature is from the Elements that are light; it proceeds more from the internall parts to the external, because such things will swim. And so it is found in the heads, and sins, and bones of some Fish, and in the shells of some eggs, because such parts are lesse rosted, and heat hath wrought in them much nature of perspicuous bodies condensed: Sometimes this heat acts in the externall parts of some things, when it exhales from them, and that which is subtile brings with it much perspicuity; so the parts of Okes corrupted do shine. But all those things that have but a weak light, are hid when a clearer light appears.

CHAP. VI. Of the Grashopper.

ISidore writes, that Grashoppers breed of Cuccow-spit. Plutarch in Sympos. saith, Out of the Earth. Baldangelus saith, they breed out of the earth not tilled, that looks Eastward toward the Sun-rising; and that white ones were dug up under Okes, but their form was, as the rest were. Aristotle l. 5. hist. c. 30. saith, they breed by copulation. Pliny sets down the manner: First, there is a Worm bred, then of that Tettigometra, or Mother of the Grashopper, the shell of it being broken, about the Solstices they fly forth alwaies in the night, being first black and hard; but when he strives to come forth of his Tettigometra; [You may observe, that Grashoppers and Butterflies breed alike; for what is in these, at first, a Caterpillar, is in them, first a little worm; and that case, call'd Chrysalis or Aurelia, for the Catterpillar; is call'd Tettigo∣metra, for the Grashopper, Yet you shall know that they differ: For a rude Chrysalis is a lump wherein no parts of the body are distinguished, as we can discern; but in the Tettigometra you may see the head, eys, feet, breast, and all the parts, except the wings; it is whitish in co∣lour, and sprinkled with small lines;] First he gets up a Tree, and sticks to some branch of the Tree; then at the upper end where a cleft is first seen, he comes forth; his whole body is then almost green; shortly, his upper part enclines to Chestnut colour, and that in one day becomes of a black colour; and because his legs and wings are weak at first, he sits upon his cast skin till be can fly. In Cephalenia there is a River where Grashoppers are on one side, but none on the other, Plin. l. 11. c. 27. And Antigonus writes, that the same thing happeneth in Dulichium, an Island of the Page  250Ionian Sea: Ambrosius Nolanus writes the same of Nola, and the hill Vesuvius. In the Country of Rhegium they are all mute. In Locris beyond the River, they sing; in Acanthus also they are mute, Pliny l. 12. c. 27. If you ask the reason, Strabo thinks, that at Rhe∣gium the Country is dark and shady; at Locris the heat is great; and therefore he thinks, that the dewy skins of their wings are not there extended; but here he thinks they have dry, and, as it were, horny skins. But because they do that when they fly, and when they stand, which the others are thought not to do, the heat is the cause of it: For being hotter by nature, they need more cooling, and move the Ayr the stronger: The others do not need so much, either because they are but of a weak heat, they are not heard to do it, therefore it may be thought they are said not to do it, Nicolaus Leonicus.

CHAP. VII. Of the Crabfish, and the Shell-fish breeding Pearls.

CAmmarus, is a River-Crab; in his head, are two little stones: In the full Moon they are seen in figure of a Globe divided into two, Agricola. It is said to eat flesh; It will eat the Pike in a net: And Gesner writes, That in Danubius, when flesh is tyed to their ships, and hang'd down into the water, multitudes of Crabs will hang about it: Some say, that in June they will go forth to feed in the fields, catch Frogs, and feed on grasse. Fed with milk without wa∣ter, he will live many dayes. Gesner kept one alive in water 13 days; put into distilled wine, burnt, he presently growes red, and may be set on the Table alive amongst those that are boyl'd, Georg. Pictorius▪ The Males are easily discerned from the females; For they, where their tail is joyn'd to their body underneath, have four long rods sticking forth, but these have none: Also their tail is rounder, plai∣ner, and thicker. Leonellus Faventinus commends the powder of their eyes drank with water of peach leaves, after opening a vein, against a bastard Pleurisie. The powder of them rubb'd on the teeth, cleanseth and whiteneth them. In India a Shell-fish that breeds Pearl is sometimes found so great, as they report, that in the Island Borneus in the Sea, there was one taken, that the meat within it weighed 47 pound; yet methinks it is questionable.

Page  251

CHAP. VIII. Of the Snail.

THe Snails which Dioscorides calls Garden Snails, are found in abundance in the Mountains of Trent, and they are the best. In Winter they are dug up out of the Earth, and in Gardens, with some iron hooks, near to the roots of herbs, the Earth being dug forth. They are covered with a white shell against the cold, it is like to Gip, so they lye under ground, hid, and afterwards they are more pleasant meat, Matthiolus. They have eyes in the top of their horns, and they pull them in when any thing comes near to them, and put their horns into their heads, their heads into their bodies, Albertus. They lay white eggs, as great as the Pikes eyes; and in May they are found to sit upon them, Gesner. Albertus saith, they are bred of corruption and clammy dew, and that that dew hardneth into a shell. Porta saith the same. Phytol. l. 5. c. 4. Pliny l. 9. c. 5. saith, they are bred in Winter. Fulvius Hirpinus made Caves of them, in Tarquinis, a little before the Warr with great Pompey, &c. Pliny, l. 9. c. 56. In the Island Scyathos, the Partridges feed on them; but those that are call'd Ariones, deceive them: For going out of their shells, they feed, leaving their empty houses to the Herns and Partridges, Aelian l. 10. c. 5. Andreas Fulnerus Gallus relates, That a Remedy is made of them to multiply hair: Take 300 Snails out of their shells, and boyl them in water, and take them out again, and gather the fat that swims a top, and put that into a glazed vessell, and pour a Sextarius of water upon it; wherein Bay leaves have been boyled with three spoonfulls of oyl, one spoon∣full of Honey, Saffron one scruple, and a little Venice Soap, and a spoon∣full of common Soap moderately stirred; boyl them altogether. With this li∣quor anoint your hair often, and wash it with a Lye made of the Ashes of burnt Colewort stalks, (the place is obscure, or corrupted) and you shall find your hair increase daily.

CHAP. IX. Of the Gnat.

IN Aegypt there are great store of Gnats, whence Herodotus calls it Conopaeam, and Bellonius, observat. l. 2. c. 35, writes that he was so vexed with them the first night, that the next day he seemed to have the Measils. In divers parts of India, there are kinds of Gnats, whereof some in Summer time especially, when the fields are cleansed, do lye in the Woods, others lye about the shores. At Myon a City of Jonia, there was a creek of the Sea not very great, which, when Maeander a River of that Country running into it, that was very muddy, had stopped the mouth of it with mud, brought along with it, Page  252 so that in time it made a Lake, there bred from thence such abun∣dance of Gnats, that the people of Myon, left their City, and went to Miletus. When the Northern people would hinder their biting, they sprinkle a decoction of Wormwood or Nigella on their heads, and the rest of their body, Olaus. Yet he makes a difference in their bitings. For they that have their blood pure and not corrupted, bite them they not. They meddle not with fruit before they grow sharp by corrup∣tion, and they most delight in sowre things. Leoh Jahin. But be∣cause they chiefly suck mans blood, they are called the spowts of the blood of Man. It is not proved that they will suck things that are sweet. For the sweeter part of the blood that is most pure is consu∣med for nourishment, and lyeth inwardly, that which is rawest comes next to the skin, whence it is that Pushes break forth of the body.

CHAP. X. Of the Urchin, the Ephemera, and the Catterpillar.

SEa-Hedge-hogs, so often as they are tossed with the flowing wa∣ter, make themselves heavy with ballast, lest they should be toss∣ed too much being light, or carried away with a tempest; and so they stick fast to the Rocks. Plutarch. l. Utr. Animal. The parts of the live ones covered with their shell, and armed with their prickles, if they be broken and cast into the Sea, they will come together again, and will know the part that is next to them, and being applyed they will joyne, and unite by a natural sympathy, Aldrovandus. As for the Ephemara, the River Hypanis in Cammerius Bosphorus, under the Sol∣stice produceth little bladders greater than grape stones, out of which flying creatures proceed with four feet. This kind of creature lives till the afternoon, the same day; when the Sun departs it decays, and presently dies when the Sun sets, from hence it hath the name of Ephemer, or a creature that lives but one day. Aldrovand. As for Catterpillars; Hieracles testifieth, that if Horses rowle themselves up∣on them, black and blew spots will arise, their skins will grow hot, their eyes will be distorted, and the cure is to bray vitriol one quar∣ter of a pound, Vinegar half a pound. They feed on pot hearbs; but if a rocket seed be sowed amongst them, they will not touch them. But that those hearbs may breed no noysome creatures, dry all the seeds you mean to se, in a Tortis shell; or sow mint in many places, especially amongst Coleworts. Prasocurides, saith Cardan, are such living Creatures that use to do hurt in Gardens; Men say, that if you bury the panch of a Wether with the dung in it, not deep within the earth, in the place where they abound, in two days you shall find them all in heaps in that place; in twice or thrice so doing, you may destroy them all. Paulus Aegineta writes that herb rocket annoynted with oyle, will preserve men safe from the bitings of Venemous creatures.

Page  253

CHAP. XI. Of the Pismire.

IN the Kingdom of Senega there are white Pismires, and natural∣ly they build low houses. For they carry earth in their mouths, and cement it without lime, you would say that they are like Ovens or little Country houses, Scaliger, exerc. 367. In the Province of Mangu, they are red, and they eat them with Pepper. Scalig. exerc. 9.6. Amongst the Brachmans, they are 4, fingers breadth in greatnesse; in new Spain they are as big as Beetls. A∣mongst the Dardae, which is a mighty Nation in the Mountains of India, there is said to be a hill of 3000 furlongs in compasse, there are Gold Mines under it, that Ants as big as Foxes do dig into, Plin. I think, as Strabo doth, that it is a fable. In Baia Salvatoris there is an infinite company of them, they have in their mouths somthing like pinsers, and with that they so crop the Plants, that they dye with their biting of them. Aldrovand. In the same West-Indies they are called Comixen, half-Pismires, and half-Worms that creep with a white tail. They eat into the Wood, and do great harm to houses. When they creep up a wall or house, they are covered with earth, a finger thick, and they live under this, Ovied. in sum. Ind. occid. c. 52. In Brasil when they are bruised they smell like Cedar. Their head is so small that they have no eys in it, but above it there are some additi∣onalls like two hairs coming forth. It is a sign that these are their eys because when these are cut off, they mistake their way. Albert. tract. 4. l. 6. c. 1. When this kind grows old, it comes to have wings. They breed eggs that have Worms in them, in white coverings; these, be∣ing exposed to the Sun, breed Pismires. Alb. l. 2.6. But in the new World it is otherwise; for when the old one is dead, innumerable Worms breed from the body of it, and they living after a wonderfull fashion, come forth at last out of their subterraneal habitations in a wonderfull manner; Their Ant-hills is made wonderfull artificially, no City is made more curiously. Aldrovand. Lud. describes what he saw, thus. It seemed like a City with four square sides, four foot almost in length, and above a fooot broad, and the Ants like Pismires ran up and down about their businesse in it, as if they had been Citizens, the sides and angles were drawn directly, in the length of the City there was a way in the middle, a fingers breadth and depth, this was cut crosse with 3, other ways a fingers breadth and depth as the former, very directly. In the outmost corners of these ways, their eggs were layd together as in narrow turnings of the streets. On the other part of the City were dens fill'd with Corn, that they abounded so far as the very ways. All the paths were most clean. Lastly in the middle of the length of the City, there was one gate right against the West.

Page  254

CHAP. XII. Of the Horsleech, and Hippocampus.

STrabo writes, That in a River of Mauritania, Horsleeches breed seven cubits great: Their throat is hollow, that they breathe through; in all of them there is a little hole in the middle; and from the Mouth to the Belly, there is but one continued passage. In putrid Feavers they are of great use, for being applyed to the veins of the fundament, and setting on a cupping glasse, that the orifices of the veins may appear, they help much to ease the pains of the head, and to assist concoction. Some have drunk them down in drink, saith Galen: but the smell of Wiglice will drive them forth. The Hippo∣campus or Sea-horse is a fish not to be eaten, of a singular form; for it hath a head like a horse, and a snowt and a Mane; the rest of the body is rough with grisly indentures. On the back, it hath a tail with a sin, that is four square and pliable. It is in length a span; being taken, it shortly dyes; and when it is fresh, it shines in the night.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Locust, that is an Insect.

ABout Brundusium there is an infinite company of Locusts. In the Island Lemnos, there is a certain measure set for men that shall kill them, and they must bring it to the Magistrate. In Cyrene thrice a yeer they are to be killed; and he that refuseth, is punished for his default, Plin. Amongst the Nigretae every 3. years there are such abundance, that they shadow the skie at least 12 miles. In Hispa∣niola they want wings, Aloysius Cadamustus. Vincentius reports, that a woman bred up one; when it grew up, it was found to be with young ones of it self. Anno 852, when they wasted France 20 miles in one day, they went as it were in Troops, and pitched their Tents upon the earth. The leaders with a few more went before the whole Army a dayes journey, as if they went to take up quarters, the next day at the same hour they all arrived. They did not march till Sun-rising; when the Sun arose, they marched by bands. In the sixth year of the Emperour Argyropolus, the Locusts did so much mischief in the Provinces of the East, that the Inhabitants were forced to sell their Children, and to passe away into Thrace. The wind afterwards cast them into Hellespont, but the next year they revived again; and having spoyled the Provinces three years, they perished at Pergamus, Cedrenus.

Page  255

CHAP. XIV. Of the Sea-Hare, the Lobster, with his shell, and the Calamarie.

THe Sea-Hare hath a body all white, you would think it to be a little box, or congealed flegme. It is seldom taken but in great heat of weather; for then all things are troubled by the extream heat, even those things that lye at the bottom of the Sea. And though very few water-Creatures are found to be venomous, because they dwell in moysture, which for the general is contrary to venome; and some creatures contain their venome in some part onely, as the Spi∣der-fish in its prickles, the Sea-Ray in the radius, yet the Hare is poyson all over. Titus the Emperour was reported to be poyson'd with this by his Brother Domitian. For when the Oracle was con∣sulted concerning the manner of his death; The answer was, He should perish as Ulysses did, by the Sea. Now Ulysses was killed by the sting of the Ray. They that die by the venom of it, will be so many dayes in dying, as the Hare lived, Licinius Macer, in Pliny, l. 31. c. 2. Lobsters will not breed in the Sea Euripus, if we credit Aristotle hist. 9. c. 37. but in the Indian Sea, they are 4 cubits long, Pliny l. 9. c. 3. Concerning the Calamaries, Pliny writes out of Trebius Niger, that they fly sometimes in such multitudes, that they will drown Ships. But Albertus l. 24. de animal. saith, That in Sexus a River of Mauritania, a Calamarie is five cubits long, and near the Sea he will fly like an arrow. Rondeletius thinks, that this is nothing incredible, when as they swim many together, holding one upon the other, and therefore many are taken together.

CHAP. XV. Of Pearls.

PEarls are in some Shell-fish like the upper crust; in others like to the Off-spring; in some like hail. There are many in them, and of great weight. In a bosom of the Sea of the New World, there are some as big as a Bean; in the Island Solon, bigger than Tur∣tles Eggs. Martyr writes, he took an Oyster there, that the meat of it weighed above 47 pounds. The King of the Island Eubagna, had one so big as a Wallnut, it weighed 31. caracts, and it was sold for 1200 pieces of Castile. Gonzalvus Oviedus saith, that one was sold at Panama, that weighed 26 caracts, it was round, and as big as the knob of a Pillar.

It is said that neere the Island Borneo, there was one as great a Goose egge; and so round, that lay'd on a Table, it will hardly stay in one place. Peter Martyr, Decad 1. l. 8. saith, That in his presence, when he was invited to dine with the famous Duke of Medina Sidonia, atPage  256 Baetica, they brought one to sell unto him, that weighed above a hundred ounces Heaps are cast up of shells in Summer, some of them have Pearls in them that are ready, others not yet perfect, out of a River that runs by the Village of Hussin in Bohemia; These they give their bucks to devoure, then they gather up purer, being clensed in their Bellies, Gesner. Five or six are sound in one. Vesputius saith he found 130, in some Indian Oysters. Somtimes some small ones are found behind, like to small kernells. But the question is how these are bred. Some think they are bred of the dewy ayre; but this opinion seems to be false. For some lye in the bottom of the deepest waters, and some are black, some yellow, some green, some blew. Oviedus, hist. Ind. l. 9. c. 8. But they say that the white ones are bred of pure dew, the pale ones of that which is troubled. Androstenes in Athenaeus saith that as kernells are bred in hogs, so Pearls breed in shell-fish. Juba, as Pliny saith, subscribes to this. The Indians, that inhabit the Island Cabagna, say, they breed as eggs do in them. For the greater of them are next the orifice, and are first thrust forth, but in the more inward parts of the Matrix, the lesser Pearls lye hid. Rondeletius and Alexander Benedictus compare their originall to that of stones in some greater living creatures; We saw, saith he, stones voided forth of ones bladder as big as a hens egge, over which a clammy matter grew by degrees covering them, like to a crust of di∣vers colours somtimes, and they were hardned by a fiery heat, and so they are said to increase by little and little. Pearls in shell-fish are reported to grow the same way, and the Jewellers can discover by a turning instrument divers coats in them, as we see in Onions▪ And Rondeletius saith, he thinks that Pearls grow the same manner in shell-fish, as kernells do in hogs, and the stone in the Reins and the Bladder. The yeare wee writ this, there was one died that had a Stone in his Reins, that had so many partitions as there were branches of small Veins in his Reins. The little stone with these partitions, was like the outmost knob of a round white marble, or like a great Pearl for its figure and brightnesse, I think it was compacted of a vitreous flegme. Therefore it is no wonder if in Oysters and shell-fish, when they grow old, Pearls are to be found. They may also be dissolved, the Chymists shew how. Cardanus saith, you must first wash them being entire, and strain the juyce of Lemmons twice or thrice; then put them in, and set them in the Sun; in five or six days they will dissolve.

CHAP. XVI. Of Flyes.

IN Cyrene there are found many kinds of Flyes, distinguished by their forms and colours. Some have broad foreheads, like to Weasils, others are like to Vipers. They say that in Sicilie and Italy they bite so sharply, that they will kill whom they bite. At Toledo in the shambles somtimes one Flye will appeare for a whole yeare, that is notable for its whitenesse. Rhodigin▪ l. 17. lect. antiq. c. 11. In Page  257Hispaniola, they are green and painted, especially in the City of St. Domingo; they are as great as Wasps, and dig the earth with their feet, to make themselves houses under ground. Strabo saith, the Spa∣niards have a flye peculiar to them, in great numbers, and it al∣waies comes with the Plague; that in Cantrabia the Romans appoint∣ed some, to catch these Flyes, and gave them a set reward for it, by number. In Carina a Mountain of Crete, that is 9, miles about, there are none, Plin. l. 21. c. 14. Nor was there ever any seen at Rome in Hercules Temple, nor yet in the Island Paphos in Venus Temple, Apol∣lonius. Lasty Emma the wife of the Duke of lower Saxony promised a fruitfull pasture ground to the Church of Breine, not far from the Ci∣ty, that had this praerogative, that no Flyes should molest the Cat∣tel there, Crantzius, l. 4. Saxon. l. 29. The Hebrews, saith Tostatus, in∣vent old wives tales concerning them, for they say that David inqui∣red of God why he made Fools, Spiders, Flyes, with other things that seeme not only to be superfluous, but dangerous; and God promised to make it appeare to David that these three things were profitable for some things. For foolishnesse, it was manifest; for unlesse he him∣self had counterfeited the fool's part before King Achis, he had been taken captive, and perhaps perished. And the Flye was usefull, when he descended from the hill Hacbilla into Sauls camp, when all were a sleep, and took away Sauls spear; for then he set his feet be∣tween Abner his feet who lay about Saul, and when he feared least he should be taken, if he should violently draw out his foot, God sent a Flye who bit Abners legs, and so Abner gave way, and yet did not wake Abner, so David escaped. Lastly the Spider did him good ser∣vice, because she hanged her Web on the mouth of the Cave, where∣in David hid himself, when Saul searched after him. To drive them away many men have invented divers means. If a peice of an Onyon be laid upon flesh, some think the Flyes will not come at it; Miral∣dus cent. 7. Aphor. 72. saith, they will not come into a house, if a Wolfs head be hanged up in it. Dioscorid, l. 4. c. 3. saith that the fume of Loostrife will drive them away. Plin. l. 23. c. 8. saith that white Hellebour bruised with milk, and sprinkled, will drive them away. Those Flyes that live on the branches of Napellus, are good against any venemous bitings, if we credit Scaliger Exerc. 85.

CHAP. XVII. Of the Boat-fish.

BEllonius gives an exact description of the Boat-fish; The shell of it seems to consist of 3. pieces, (namely the Keel and the sides, and yet it is but one entire piece) the side-pieces whereof seem to be joyn'd on both sides as to the Keel. It is commonly as great as we can clasp in both hands, and as broad as the space between the thumb and the forefinger: but they all in thicknesse do not exceed a piece of parchment, and with ridges drawn to the borders, they are plaited with indentures, ending in a round form; The hole Page  258 by which the Boat-fish is nourished, is very great at the place he comes forth of his shell; This is very brittle, milk white, shining, polished, altogether re∣presenting the form of a round ship; for it swims on the top of the Sea, arising from the bottom, and the shell comes the bottom upwards, that it may ascend the better, and sail with an empty Boat; and when she is come above the wa∣ter, then she turns her shell. Moreover, there is a membrane that lyes be∣tween the fore-legs of the Boat-fish, as there is between the toes of water-fowl; but this is more thin, like a cobweb, but strong; and by that she sails, when the wind blowes; the many tufts she hath on both sides, she useth for rudders; and when she is afraid, then she presently sinks her shell, full of Sea water. Far∣ther, she hath a Parrots bill, and she goes with her tufts as the Polypus doth, and after the same manner she conceives in hollow partitions.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Oysters and Muscles.

THough Oysters love sweet waters, yet Pliny reports that they are found in stony places; but Aristotle saith, that though they live in water, and cannot live without it, yet they take in no moy∣sture nor Ayre. When in the time of the Warr with Mithridates, the earth parted at Apumaea a City of Phrygia, Rivers did suddenly ap∣peare, and not only sweet but salt waters brake out of the bowels of the earth, (though the Sea were farr distant) so that they filled all that Coast with Oysters. Athen. l. 8. The Oysters are of divers co∣lours. In Spain they are red, in Sclavonie brown, in the red Sea they are so distinguished with flaming Circles, that by mixture of divers colours it is like the Rainbow. Aelian. l. 10. c. 13. At the beginning of Summer they are great and full of milk. At Constantinople they cast this wheish matter into the water, which cleaving to stones, will beget Oysters; Gillius writes it, and it is very probable. For, of the de∣coction of Mushroms powred on the ground, it is certain that Mush∣roms will grow, the Crabfish doth wonderfully desire the meat of them, but he comes hardly by them because they have a strong shell by nature, wherefore he useth his cunning. For when in places where the wind blows not, he sees them taking pleasure in the Sun, and to open their shells against the Suns beams, he privately casts in a stone, that they cannot shut again, and so he conquers them.

Page  259

CHAP. XIX. Of the Butterflye, and the Polypus.

THe Butterflies couple after August, & the male dying after copulati∣on, the female lays egs, and dieth also. How they are preserved in winter, is hardly discovered by any man, except by Aldrovandus de In∣sectis. But he enquired of Country people, and they hold him, that the leaves were great with the Butterflies seed; at what time they plowed the ground, they were hid in the bowells of it, and fostered by its heat, yet he thinks that they only are preserved, that lye hid in the hollow barks of Trees, but what lyes on leaves is quickned the same yeare. And Aldrovandus adds, I saw eggs layd under the leaves of Chamaeficus out of which about the end of August, little Catterpillars naturally came forth. They were wrapped in a thin down, that the ayre might not hurt them, and these little Catterpillars falling did not fall to the ground, but hung by a small thred like Spiders in the Ayre. When they lay under leaves, they fold them so that the rain cannot hurt them, and lay them up as under a pent∣house. I twice observed one Catterpillar, that I took amongst the Cole∣worts, first to lay yellow eggs, wrapt up also in fine down, and when they were laid she turned into a Chrysalis, of the same colours that she was, that is, yellow, green, and black: and that which seemed strange to me, out of those eggs, little flying creatures came forth, that I could hardly see them, such as are wont to be found in the bladders of Elms: when they are in great abundance they shew contagion of the Ayre. Anno 1562, they flew at Bannais neere the waters, in such multitudes, that they dark∣ned the course of the River, especially after Sun set; then coming hither about night, they wandred through the Villages as in Battel aray, little differing from Moths. Cornelius Gemma testifieth that that was a tempestuous yeare. The Polypus in time grows so great, that it is taken for a kind of Whale. In the bowells of them, there is a strange thing like a Turbane, that you would say it had the nature of the Heart, or of the Liver, but it suddenly dissolves and runs away. They exceedingly love the Olive-Tree. For if a bough on which Olives hang, be let down into the Sea and held there, you may catch abundance of them, hanging about the bough. Somtimes they are taken sticking to Figg-Trees growing by the Seaside, and they eat the fruit of them. They also delight wonderfully in Locusts, of which you shall find a cleare Testimony in Petrus Berchorius. I have heard, saith he, that some Fishermen in the Sea of Province, had set Lo∣custs on the shore to boyle over burning coles, and a Polypus smelling the Locust, came forth of the Sea, and coming to the fire would with his foot have taken a Locust forth, but he feared the heat of the fire, and so went back to the Sea, and fil'd a coat which he had on his head, like a Friers cowle, with water, and went and came so often with it, and cast it on the fire, that he put the fire out; and so taking the Locust, he had carryed it to the Sea, unlesse Page  260 one of the Fishermen that saw him, had caught him, and broyl'd him to eat, instead of the Locust.

CHAP. XX. Of a Lowse, and a Flea.

SOme think, that Lice are bred of flesh; others, of blood; but both opinions are false: For first they breed in the skin of the head, and we know they abound in the second and third kind of hectick feavers; when as, there, is little flesh; and, here, they are al∣most consumed. Again in putrid Feavers they breed not; and things bred do confirm their principles. Their colour shews they proceed not from blood. Wherefore some think they breed from putrid mat∣ter that is cold and moyst, which abounds in the skin, in places where they cannot be blown away. Experience teacheth, that they will leave those that are dead, either because the blood is cold in the body when the heat is gone; or because the dead body is cold, and they fly from the cold, Nolanus Problem. 225. They that eat figs often are thought to be troubled with them. Nolanus makes the juice of them to be the cause. For, this increasing in the veins heats the blood, and makes it moyst and frothy; which because it naturally tends to the skin, and retain'd under that it putrefies, it turns to lice. Truly they, that feed on figs, have little knots and warts on their skins. A Flea is a small Creature; yet Africanus a cunning Artificer, tied one with a gold chain, and it leaped, Scaliger Exerc. 59, and 326. He most commonly bites under the groins: The tumour begins to grow the fourth day; when it comes to its full growth, its bigger than a Pease, and it is full of Nits; They are killed with the root of wild Bu∣glosse: also with Sage bruised, and mingled with oyl and vinegar; anoint with this against them. The best remedy is Silk-yarn put in∣to the bed, for they will gather together in it. Franciscus Georgius Venetus, of Minoritum, saith, they will trouble one more in linnen than in woollen. He gives his reason, because they both proceed from the same Northern Fountain; for they are both in Aries and March bred. But Aldrovandus thinks it comes to passe, because lin∣nen is more near to the body than woollen. Wherefore you shall find them hungry in your shirts and sheets; but in your breeches full, where they lay their eggs.

Page  261

CHAP. XXI. Of the Beetle and the Cuttle.

IN Chalcida of Thracia, which is next to Olynthus, there is a pretty large ground, called Cantharoletron. When any living Creature comes thither, it abhors it, and departs, yet safely; onely the Beetle, but going about it, dyeth for hunger, Arist. in admirand. The female Beetle is never bred; but the male, when he hath made a round ball of Ox dung, rolls it with his face backwards, & begets her by sending in his seed, Clem. Alex. l. 5. strom. Yet Aldrovandus saith, That Crabs are begotten by Copulation: for he found, that in May, in two hours space, the female produced above 40 little white worms, like to Wee∣vells. They were small Caterpillars coming forth like Silk-worms, which in five hours began to weave balls of very fine thred white, as big as Pompions seed without the hull, l. 4. de Insectis. Ruellius saith, That the New Moon is known by their breeding, l. 2. de stirp. c. 150. For (saith he) they roll little balls of Ox dung from East to West, and make them as round as a Globe, which they bury in a hole in the ground 28 dayes, and conceal it so long, till the Moon runs through the Zodiack, and returns to its Conjunction and disappears; then opening the ball that shews the con∣junction of the Lights, they let forth the young one, nor hath it any other way of breeding. Cut into two, they will live; but the smell of Roses kills them. The Cuttles lay eggs like to black Myrtil berries. They stick together like a bunch of grapes, and cannot be separated: For the male casts some humour upon them, the clamminesse whereof holds them together. They breed all the year, and they continue 15 days to lay eggs, Aristot. histor. 5. c. 12. When she knows that cunning Fishers fish for her, she casts forth her ink, and being environed with that, the Fishers cannot see her: she hunts small fish with her pro∣muscides: Whence Oppianus writes;

The cunning Cuttle when she hunts her prey,
With slender branches from her soft head springing,
Like to fine cords, small Fish without delay
She takes, they hold like hooks, when as they clinging,
Lye on the sand, she with her tail makes way.

Anaxilaus in Pliny saith, That the ink of her is so strong, that burnt in a lamp, it will make those that stand by, look like blacka∣mores, the first light being taken away.

Page  262

CHAP. XXII. Of the Scorpion.

CEdrenus saith, that in the desarts of the Brachmans there are Scorpi∣ons of two cubits. In the place where the Turks sell Christians, Ni∣colaus à Nicolais, saw some that were yellow, as long as a mans fin∣ger. In Aegypt they have wings, and two stings. Aelian. l. 16. c. 42. In Scythia, if they sting Man or Beast they kill them. Also hogs, though they feel not other venemous bitings, yet dye of these, chiefly if they be black; yet each of them dies suddenly, if he come at the water. Aristot. l. 8. c. 29. In the antient habitations of the Scali∣gers, that are in the coasts of the Alps by Noricum; they are all the Country over, without doing hurt; and they are in such multitudes that you can remove no stone, but you shall find one under it. Scalig. Exerc. 189. In barks of Trees also, they breed without a tayle. They will turn themselves so fast in a circle, as if they were moved with a paire of Compasses. Exerc. 196. In the Country that lyes next to those that feed on Locusts, such abundance of them bred once of immoderate rayn, that the inhabitants were so stung they were forced to leave their Country; Diodor. Sicul. l. 3. c. 3. Some say that Scorpions devoure their young ones, leaving only one that is most subtile, Pliny, This sits fast within the thighs of its dam, and is free from the biting and tail of it, and this revengeth the death of the rest. Pliny. l. 11. c. 25. Aristotle thinks the contrary, l. 5. c. 26. His sting is most dangerous in a dry Country, and when the Dogg-Starr is up. First the place begins to be inflamed, waxing hard and very red. Somtimes it is very hot, somtimes very cold, sweat follows, shaking and trembling, the outward parts are cold, the groins swell, they break wind backwards, the hairs stand an end, the limbs are pale, Cardan. l. 1. de. venen. c. 23. Many remedies are invented; Those that live in Africa going to sleep, annoynt their beds, and their feet with Garlick. Strabo, and Alexandrinus, saith Jovianus Pon∣tanus doth testify, that one was cured presently by drinking beaten Frankinsence, wherein the picture of the Scorpion was engraven. Also its sting loseth the force, if it touch Bezar Stone. Jacob Holleri∣us, l. 1. c. 1. de morbis internis, writes, that by the frequent smelling of an herb of Brasil, an Italian had a Scorpion that bred in his brain: and Albertus saith that Avicenna had a friend that could of rotten wood make Scorpions when he pleased; and he adds, that from them others did breed.

Page  263

CHAP. XXIII. Of Worms in Wood, and the Tarantula.

THe Teredo grows in Wood, and there especially he feeds. And though they are bred in many Trees, except the Oke and the Tyle-Tree, yet there are other Trees that they breed not in. For Theophrastus and Pliny write, that the Firr-Tree, the bark being taken off of the branches, will remaine in water without any hurt, That was apparent, saith Theophrastus in Phneum of Arcadia, where the ground was narrow into a Lake, there were bridges made with firr; when the water swelled higher, there were other planks laid one upon another: at last all that stopped being thrust forth, the whole frame was borne away, and was found un∣corrupted, so that this was found out by chance. Vincentius ex authore libri de Natura rerum, sets it down for a miracle, that Box and white Thorn which are the hardest Wood will breed Worms: But the nut of Aeubaea will never putrefie. Lastly in Tylus an Island of Arabia, there is Wood that will never corrupt in the water: for it hath been ob∣served to have lasted 200, yeares in the water uncorrupted. The Phrygians, if we will credit Rhodiginus, made their dainties of white fat Worms with black heads, that bred from rotten Wood, called Xylophagi. Aelian. writes that the King of the Indies used for his se∣cond course, a certain Worm breeding in Plants, and it was broiled at the fire. Lastly in an Island call'd Talacha, there are Worms like to those, that breed in rotten Wood, and are the chiefest dish of the Table, Johannes Mandevil. Tarantulae are a kind of Spiders from the City Tarentum. They are harmlesse to look upon, but when they bite they cause divers symptoms; For those that are stung with the Tarantula, some alwaies sing, some laugh, some cry, some cry out: for being infected with black Choler, according as their tem∣per is, they have all these symptoms.

CHAP. XXIV. Of Worms.

Article 1. Of Worms in Brute Beasts.

ROttennesse is the mother of Worms, which whence it proceeds, is known by the generall principles of naturall Philosophy. Therefore because in Guiney there are great putrefactions, by the con∣tinual distemper of the Ayr, there are found abundance of worms. Hence it appears, that a hot and moyst distemper is fit to breed them; that in Summer Moneths, and when the blasts are warm, Gardens commonly abound with Snails, and flesh with Worms: They are found in Cattel, Plants, and in men. Anno 1562, There was a cruel Page  264 murrain for Cattle, worms breeding about the region of their Liver, Cornelius Gemma. A worm sticks to the forked hoofs of sheep and Rams, which unlesse it be taken out when you eat the meat, it cau∣seth loathing and pain of the stomach. The Mullet fish breeds but onely thrice in its life-time, and is barren all the rest of the time. For in the matrix of it little Worms breed, that devour the seed. In others, some small ones breed, that hinder procreation.

Artic. 2. Of Worms in Men.

WOrms are found in Men. For sometimes the active cause is sufficient, and there is matter enough in their bodies; and many examples are found every where in Authors, that confirm this. Anno 1549, There were many men about the River Thaysa, in whose bodies there were found Creatures call'd Lutrae, and Lizzards. Wierus saw a Country man that voided a Worm 8 foot long, it had a mouth and head like to a Duck, l. 3. c. 15. de praestig. Daemon. A Maid at Lovain (saith Cornelius Gemma) voided many prodigious creatures, amongst the rest a living creature a foot and half long, thicker than a mans thumb, like to an Eagle, but that the tail of it was hairy. A Maid (saith Dodonaeus) cast forth some like to Caterpillars, with many feet, and they were alive. Hollerius l. 1. saith, he saw a Worm that bred in a mans brain. Beniventus c. 100, exemp. medic. writes, That he had a friend that was troubled with great pain in his head, raving, darknesse of sight, and other ill symptomes; at last he cast forth a Worm out of his right nostrill, longer than his hand; when that was gone, all the pain presently ceased. Theophrast. hist. Plant. l. 9. c. ult. writes thus of Worms in the belly; Some people have belly worms naturally; for the Egyptians, Arabians, Armenians, Syrians, Cilicians, are in part troubled with them, but the Thracians and Phrygians have none. Amongst the Greeks, we know that the Thebans, that use to live in Schools, and also the Baeotians have a worm bred in them; but the Athenians have none. A woman in Sclavonia cast out a very strange worm, described by Amat. Lusitan. curat. medic. Cent. 6.74. It was four cubits long, but not broad, half so broad as ones nail, of a white colour, of the substance of the guts, having something like an Adders skin: The Head was warty, and white, out of which the body grew broad, and grew still narrower toward the tail. This Worm was but one body with many divisions; the parts of this broad Worm were like to Gourd seeds, that had nothing con∣tain'd in them by reason of the compression of its broad body.

Artic. 3. Of Worms in Plants.

ALl Plants, herbs, shrubs and Trees have their worms: a worm in the root is deadly. For let the Tree be what it will, and flourish, yet this will make it wither, saith Aldrovandus l. 6. de Insect. c. 4. And there are sure witnesses, that in the roots of Okes such ve∣nomous Worms will breed, that if you should but tread on them Page  265 with the sole of your foot, it would fetch off the skin. There are small white ones found in the sponge of the sweet bryer, which is outwardly soft and hairy, but inwardly so hard and so solid a substance, that a sharp instrument will hardly peirce it. In the white Daffodill, some are bred, which are changed into another flying and beautifull creature, which when the herb begins to flou∣rish, presently eats through the cover, and flyes away. Pliny, l. 20. c. 6. writes, that some think that Basil chewed and laid in the Sun will breed Worms. If you bruise the green shells of Wallnuts, and put them into the water, and then sprinkle them with earth, Worms will breed in abundance, that are good for Fishers, Carol. Stephan, Agricultur, l. 3. c. 34. But Theophrastus 5, de caus. Plant. saith, that a Worm beed in one Tree, and put into another, will not live. Joa∣chimus Fortius reports that he saw some who affirmed that from a hazel nut that had a Worm in it, there grew a Serpent for magnitude and forme. For the nut being opened so farr as the Worm, and the Worm not being hurt, they put the nut into milk, and set the vessel of milk in the Sun, yet so that the Worm was not beaten upon by the Sun; wherefore, on that side the Sun shined, they covered the Vessel, and so nourished the Worm many days. Afterward adding more Milk, they set it to the Sun again. The milk must be sheeps milk. Also they report, that a Worm is found in the leaves of Rue, nourished the same way, that lived 20, days. Theophrastus writes of the cause of them, plainly and fully. His words are these. Ill diseases happen to all seeds, from nutriment and distemper of the Ayre, namely when too much or too little nourishment is afforded, or the Ayre is immoderately moyst or dry, or else when it doth not rayne seasonably. For so Worms breed in chiches, vetches, and pease; and in rocket-seeds, when as hot weather falls upon them before they be dried; but in Chiches, when the salt is taken from them, and they become sweet. For nature doth every where breed a living creature, if there be heat and moysture in due proportion. For matter comes from moysture for the heat to work on, and concoct; as we see it happens in Wheat. Worms will breed in the root of it, when, after seed time, Southern winds blow often. Then the root growing moyst, and the Ayre being hot, the heat corrupting the root, ingendreth Worms. And the Worms bred, eat the roots, continually. For nature hath appointed that everything shall feed where it is bred. Another kind of Worm is bred within, when the moysture cannot come forth, shut in by the drinesse of the Ayre about it, then the heat con∣tracts it, when the corruption is made. Then also food is administred to it, from the same thing. The same thing seems to happen to Apples and Trees that are Worm-eaten from drought. For the little moysture that remains in the Tree, causeth corruption, whence the Worm proceeds; but when there is plenty of nutriment it is otherwise, for then the juyce is sent forth to the up∣per parts, for it conquers by its quantity, and cannot corrupt. Next to this is that which happens to Vines, for in these especially when the South wind blows, Worms breed, that are called Ipes, that is when they are very moyst, and the Ayre causeth fruitfullnesse, then do they presently gnaw the matter that is of the same nature with them. Also Carpae breed in Olive Trees the Page  266 same way, and such as breed in other things, both when they bud, and when they flowre, or after that the flowers be over. For the all proceed from the same cause. But this chiefly happens to Vines because 〈…〉 are moyst by nature, and their moysture is without tast and watery. 〈…〉 a moysture, may be ea∣sily affected. Somtimes Ipes cannot be bred, because the ayre it pleasant and not too moyst.

Artic. 4. Of the Indian Worm, and the March Worm.

IN Ganges it is miraculous, they report there are blew Worms with two legs, that are 60 cubits long, and they say they are so strong, that when Elephants come to drink they will catch hold of them, by their trunk and carry them away. Aelian speaks of an Indian Worm of seven cubits long, and so thick that a Child of ten yeares old can hardly fathom it. It hath one tooth in the upper part of the mouth, and one below; both are four square, and almost a cubit long, and so strong, that what living creature it lays hold of with them, it will easily crush them. Somtimes it lyes hid in the bottom of a River; in the mud it delights in. At night it comes on land, and catcheth whatsoever comes in the way. The skin of it is 2, fingers thick. The way to catch it is this, they fasten a strong hook to an iron chain, joyn∣ing also to it a rope of white broad flax, and they wrap both the hook and rope in wool, that the Worm may not bite them off. Then they put a Lamb or a Kid for a bait upon the hook, and so let it down into the River. Thirty men stand ready with Darts, Leashes, and drawn Swords, and strong pikes well pointed at the ends, if they should have cause to strike. When he is caught with the hook, they draw him forth and kill him. They hang him up against the Sun 30 dayes, and thick oyl distills from it into earthen pots; every worm will yield 5. Sextarii of oyl, the rest of the body is good for nothing. The vertue of this oyl is such, that without any fire, a measure of this poured on, will fire any stack of wood, Aelian. It is said, that the King of Persia took Cities from his Enemies with this oyl; It cannot be put out but with abundance of thick clay. The moneth of March in Germany is wonderfull, that breeds young creatures in stinking fil∣thy waters, that are like to guts, and feed only on sand. If any man go into that water barefoot, where this creature swims on the top of the water, he shall have a circle on his legs, as high as the water came, Card. l. 7. de var. c. 37.

CHAP. XXV. Of Wasps.

WAsps then breed most, when Wolves kill Horses or Oxen. Sometimes they are found in a Stags head, sometimes in his nostrills. One brought one of these formed Wasps houses that was Page  267 wonderfully made, to Pierius Valerianus, at Bellunum, from some Wood in a desart: Which he describes thus: There were 7. Concamerations or rounds, one above another, set at two fingers distance, distinguished by lit∣tle Pillars between, that every one might have space enough to go and come to his house. The diameter of the rounds unto the fifth, was about 12 digits; the others from the fifth, were made narrower, by little and little, so that the last was 5. or 6. digits. The first round, that is, the first Chamber, was hanged to a bough of an old Tree, fenced and guarded with a crust against all injuries of wind and weather; Beneath there were six angled Cells very close together, so that the other Chambers were all overcast with the same crust, and made with the like Cells; and all were held up with their pillars. All these Creatures flew out of the upper stations, and an innumerable multitude filled the middle Concamerations, a thin skin being drawn for a cover upon the hole of every one of them; when I had taken some of them away, I saw the Wasps with their heads downwards, that filled all those houses. But those that were in the lowest rooms seemed like to Embryo's of like imperfect Worms; they were also fenced with the same covering, but very thin, as snails in Winter, kept for a milder time in the Spring. But these all died there, by the extream cold Winter, yet none corrupted; and after so many years they keep the same form and posture. They are most lively; for, part their bel∣ly from their breast, and they will live long, and will sometimes prick one that toucheth their sting, an hour after. Aristotle saith, That if you take a Wasp by the legs, and make him to hum, (not those that have a sting, but those that want one) the rest will fly to help them. If they appear before the end of October, they foreshew a hard VVin∣ter. If they go in heaps under ground before the 7. Stars rise in the Evening, they signifie the same. A swarm of Wasps is naturally an ill omen. So Livy thought, when at Capua, a great swarm of them flew into the Market place, and settled in Mars his Temple. They were collected carefully, and burnt in the fire. The Decemviri were commanded to their books, and the Nine-daies sacrifice was appoin∣ted, supplications were made, and the City was purged. If any one touch the skin of a man with the distilled water of the decoction of Hornets or VVasps, the place will so swell, that it will cause men to suspect poyson, or a Dropsie, or some great sicknesse; The remedy is Theriac drank or smeered on it, Mialdus Memor. Cent. 7. &c.

The End of the Eighth Classis.
Page  268

AN APPENDIX TO The Eighth Classis: Wherein there is contained the Observation of Andreas Libavius, a most famous Phy∣sitian, concerning Silk-worms, a sin∣gular History, Anno 1599, at Rotenburgh.

SInce it is hard to explain the opinions and experiments of all Authors exactly, and what they observed in divers places and imes, to make a history thereof, and to condemn or allow, for this or that mans relation, what every man hath found to be true by his own use and observation: Perhaps it may so fall out, that neither Pliny, nor Pausanias, nor others, who seem to comment otherwise than we have found it, ought to be condemned; I will adde a special History of Silk-worms bred up at hand, which in the year of Mans Redemption, 1599, at Rotenburg at Tubaris, I, by di∣ligent care and attention looking into their works and natures, set it down into a Calender. If any thing differing from this, hath been observed in Greece, India, Italy, or elsewhere in other Times, Govern∣ment and Education, Custom, and the like: though Nature be said to act alwayes the same way, and to vary onely by accidents; yet what they observed will help, that by many mens observation, the history of Nature may be augmented and perfected.

The Silk-worms eggs that were laid in a clean paper the year be∣fore, and which in Winter I kept in a warm Chamber, I exposed them to the Sun, shining through the windows, on the 25 day of April. Those which were lead-coloured or black, they did not all in one day become Caterpillars, yet they all were changed before the end of that moneth, the worms creeping forth especially in the morning, as every one was grown to perfection, leaving an empty shell, or covering of a white colour, the egge being eaten on the side, in which place the ends were blackish, by reason of the biting. The purple or Citron coloured, or clear, or distinguished with a black point, brought forth nothing; either because they were not touched Page  269 with male seed, or the principle was suffocated in them. These small Catterpillars within the egge obtain their form, and lye wrapt into a Circle; whence the shell being eaten, they first put forth a black shining head; then by degrees, they creep forth, with their little mouthes, and little feet, by their striving. Then I observed lit∣tle threds hanging from their mouths, and they were so small, that they could not be seen, unlesse it were against the light: by these they ballance themselves, and hang from the leaves; or wheresoever they fell from higher places, they creep up by them again; or whereso∣ever they were hanged, to try what they would do, they involve them∣selves with manifold turnings, and so mount upward, like ordinary Catterpillars that eat leaves and boughes.

There is a black little worm and hairy, with a white circle near the breast and head, and with another where the belly joyns to the little breast, and yet by reason of the hairinesse, it is not very plain to be seen at the first. At the end of the back, where the belly ends, a little grisle comes forth; and as for the rest of its form, it is the same with the Silk-worms, but that the hairinesse and blacknesse, by some changes in the skin, passe into smoothnesse that shines, and is white; and of a small creature, a worm is made as long as the mid∣dle finger of an ordinary man, with the 3. joynts, as thick almost as the little finger; yet they are not all of one bignesse. You shall find some Caterpillars with a three-fold spur in their tails, or a double one; so that the greater of them riseth from the last circle of the back, the lesser ones rise presently from the coat of the tail that is under it. I saw one great one that was on both sides fenced with two lesser ones, in the place whereof there are sometimes onely two points that stick forth. Catterpillars go as Silk-worms do: For they stick the props of their tails into the ground, and then by de∣grees they go on by circular motion. First drawing up those parts be∣tween their tails and their hinderfeet: then fastning these upon the distance between their breast and their feet, untill they come unto their breast and former feet; which being fastned, they lift up their tails again, and underprop their steps. For animal mo∣tion is made, when some part stands and underprops the rest. So soon as they were bred, I gave them the tender leaves of Mulberries, I put them upon the leaves with a thin knife; or I let them creep upon them of themselves, and I put them together into a woodden box; They set upon the sides and smooth parts of the leaves, above and be∣neath. For the appendixes of their noses do not hinder them. So I fed them from the end of April, or thereabouts, untill the eighth day of May, whereon I found they cast their first skin, which was a little black shining mouth, with a slender black skin. They are wont a little before, to pause on it, and to sleep; it is a renewing sleep, if it be a sleep properly. So soon as their old skin is cast, they appear greater presently, smoother, and of a more shining black, for the hor∣ny covering of the head that growes under the old, is greater in pro∣portion. When the skin is off, the rest of the body swells, as if the Page  270 narrownesse of the skin hindred it to grow so great before. The same covering or skull of the head, when it is new, is white; but when it is confirmed, it grows black again, untill there be many changes. But as, before they put off their skin, they abstain from food, so a little after they seem to grow sluggish. For their mouthes are too ten∣der to feed on leaves. Whilest they run over the leaves, oft-times one goes over another, and they willingly endure it, if they be not hurt too much. For then lifting up their little breast, they will shake their heads, moving them here and there, and the Silk-worms do the same. Food is given them once and again, and the multitude of them remains in a narrow place. When they have eat enough, they grow sleepy. Then you shall see them like Statues, or such as are taken with a Catoche, lifting up their mouths and breasts growing stiff upon the leaves. But if you cast in new food, they wake pre∣sently and feed again. They seem to perceive the new leaves by smelling them. For before they touch them, they will raise their bo∣dies toward them. Yet you may suppose that is done by some altera∣tion in the feeling quality. The excrement of their belly is then small and black like to Gun-powder.

The 16 day of May some of them cast their skins the second time, some slept, and the dayes following cast off their skins. They break near the head, and they stick to the leaves, the Caterpillars coming forth by circles moved in order. The little mouth also doth not fall away presently, but hangs for a time about the new mouth. Then the black colour changeth into grey, and the Caterpillars grow grea∣ter; but the breast is white, and so full of juice, that it is almost transparent. But because they do not all change their skins in one day, if you please you may part the one that doth, from the other that doth not. But I left them together, and onely gave the new ones new food, the rest yet sleeping in their old clothes, and waiting for their change. For you cannot then cleanse their stall, but you must defer it till they awake, and can be invited to new leaves. The third change began the 22 of May, when many of them slept, some of them put off their coats. It was no longer so black, but it was white, with the little mouth; and the worms came forth whiter, leaving their old skin: they were more rugged that did not stick to the leaves by threds; and those lesse, that did. For these skins were long and triangular hanging so high. Downward they rise sharp in the middle, which, I conceive, happeneth, by the top of the tail drawn thither, and lifting up the skin. The last extremity of this cast skin is like to a fishes forked tail. The Caterpillars once more freed, fed till the 25 day, and then I observed them to sleep a renewing sleep, and some new ones of them the same day. More slept on the 26 day, some on the 27; very few on the 28 and 29th dayes, that now the difference was greater. But those that slept on the 27th day, were changed the next day, and fed again after a little pause.

With this fourth change of Catterpillars were made Silk Worms, smooth and white, yet with lead colour'd spots, and a mouth like a Page  271 white horn. This is the first moneth of their life, and their first age. But since in the third and fourth change of their skin, all things are more easily observed, and known, I shall somthing more accurately describe them. Catterpillars neer their third and fourth change, have their skins somthing more ill favoured, and stiffer than for the breed∣ing of a Worm. Wherefore a soft skin comes up underneath, and the other falls off by degrees: and because they stick with some nervous bands on both sides, wherein there are some prints of spots, and these are not easily broken, they strive more to cast them off, and there∣fore sleep two days almost, when therefore they come forth, their old horny mouth is parted from the new that comes up under it. The Worm it self, when the cast skin sticks to the leaves, pulls up his feet and little legs, somtimes pulling them up, somtimes slackning them again, untill she hath pull'd them out of their old covers. In the mean time the skin on their sides is wrinkled, the skaly divided body being contracted into it self, and extended again. So the old skin is loosned from the whole body. By and by the Worm goes foward, and draws the bands on the sides by degrees, the skales being thrust forward orderly, and then drawn in again, that at first you would doubt whether the Worm would come forth before or behind. But this way are the bands broken. First you shall observe it to move forward neere the brest, for there the points depart, and you shall see two in the cast skin, two in the worm. Moreover whilst the skales are drawn, a violet colour'd line as it were is in both sides of the cast skin, both by reason of the points and of the bands applied to both sides. In the mean while the tayle is wrinkled, the feet are freed, and a new worm creeps forth in half a quarter of an hour, that hath an old mouth joyn'd to its mouth, as a Mule with a headstal, you shall see also a white string that it draws at the end of the tail, wherby the skin stuck to the back of it: when they are fast they strive but easily, but when they are loose, they turn themselvs strangely on their backs, sides, bellies, till they can get loose. Some of their skins cast, are round; some long. If you take it by both ends, you may draw it out to its full length, with the points of all the feet and skales, for nothing is want∣ing but the little mouth. The fourth skin in this change is far whiter then the third, as also the covering of the head. These Worms are now Silk-worms, if you take good care to feed them, and govern them rightly; They are fat and white, but some more than others, for some seem yellowish, some almost lead-coloured. The feet and mouth at first are soft, wherefore they stay a while from touching or feeding on leavs. They stick fast to them, and by help of their tails, they can draw themselvs in and out. The hinder feet are thicker and blunter, as it were with 3, joynts, and in the middle a black spot, which I think to be the instrument they hold by, because she can at pleasure pull it in and out, as Cats do their claws. The forefeet do not only serve to go with, but to lay hold on leavs to help their body in passing, to draw the threds, and for other uses. The parts from head to tail in length, on the back are the head, the Page  272 bunch or wrinkled swelling of the brest, eight semicircular scales, and a three forked taile. The swelling of the brest neere the head is white in some, in some it is distinguished with two black and blew spots, which are divided with a yellow line, and in severall ones it is seve∣rally made. For in some the colour is more remisse and watry, and not so visible, in others it is more deep. But where that bunch ris∣eth up, there are seen 4, knots, and the skin that is by them is wrink∣led. The half Circles follow. They are joyn'd with a very thin mem∣brane, as it were by a green line from blew. But the skales are white though in some of them there is somthing of a lead colour that shines under, and when the Silk-worms are ready for their Silkwork, they become of a spiceous colour, and all of them are marked with one spot on each side, with a little circle about it. I said there were bands, which appeare also in the Aurelia. Lastly the eighth scale is ei∣ther distinguished by two black and blew spots, or moonlike semi∣circles, which two half Moons one respecting the other with their horns are there inscribed. But they are not equall in all, for somtimes they are more conspicuous, somtimes more fading, fine, thin, lead co∣lour'd, white. Hence there are two small Circles, and that which follows these, hath two knots, untill that which is next the rump, and raiseth the tip or point; In the great ones there are observed bunchings forth in all the skales, but they are more eminent in the third skale. The skull is horny, but it is divided as it were into 3. parts, the right and left, which you would take to be marks of the eyes, and then the setting together of the mouth, which are again distinguished into the appendices and the jaws, wherein stand the saw-like teeth, The throat runs through all the length of the back, as farr as the props of the taile, upon which in the last skale is the end of the Belly. Also there are to be seen in the back, as far as the Plectrum of the tayle, some nervs moveable with a continuall pulsa∣tion, as the heart and arteries use to move, and these nervs are yel∣low from white, and when they are drawn asunder, they discover a green throat or intestine. They stick to the plectrum, as if there were some passage for breathing, though they do not breathe. But it is no doubt but there is the Seat of life, though I discovered in the young ones a kind of red part, as I shall shew underneath, beating by it self alone like the heart, when that plectrum is cut, a moyst yellowish liquour comes forth, and the Worms themselves do not dye, but they stirr the more violently, and roule and turn themselves that you will judge that they are in great pain, the nervous principle being hurt. The dung of them represents their meat, for it is dry with six corners long, as it were set with eyes, whence one may collect the disposition of the gut or belly. They are green from their food, but because they are hard, and without moysture, they seem black, as those that are more moyst seem more green. Here if you mark you may distinguish the males from the females. For the females here, as the Philosopher writes of other females are greater, fatter, moyster, softer, whiter than the males, which are more rude, more spotted Page  273 with wan spots, and more slender. If you handle them you shall find them all to be cold. They use oft to rayse themselves on their hinder feet, and to stand so like statues. When they will feed they fasten on the sides and swelling veins of leaves, contrary to Catter∣pillars. I believe the appendixes of their mouths hinder them, yet they afford some help for their former feet to hold their meat with. They eat the leaves round, that they leave a round pit. When they are full they go aside, and they rest many together on a heap; I think they are delighted with mutuall heat; you may discern those that sleep, from those that cast their skin, by observing the pulsation in their back. For the motion in those that sleep is equall to those that wake; but when they cast their skins, it is slower and lesse, that you would then think they were sick. Also those that sleep have but one mouth; but such as cast their skins, shew a little mouth besides. But this is not in Silk-worms, but whilst they are yet Catterpillars. Some of them being four times renewed, have a filthy dark head, and yet they feed on. Some do not increase much, but continue small.

We said before, that from May 25, to May 29, the fourth change is made in divers of them. From this time to June, the 7th, and 8th, 9, 10, 11th, they feed greedily, and grow fat and great; and I was forced three times a day, and about the last days, four times a day to give them meat, or oftner. For when they are almost ripe for Silk work, they eat more greedily, going with great courage to the leaves and biting off the nervs. You shall note that about 13 days passe between their fourth change, and their abstinence from meat, and provision to make their Silk. For the times answer one the other, from the 25, of May to the 7, of June, from 26, to 8, from 27, to 9, from 28, to 10, from 29, to 11, wherein I included the last, except one small male, that fed longer. About the last days, many begin to grow of a spiceous colour, which begins to appeare more evidently on the hinder part, and from thence to enlarge and go forward to the bunch of the breast, though others are more, and almost all yel∣low; some remaine white with blew mingled with it. When they must dye, they go to the sides of the chest, nor will they bite the leaves, though they creep over them. Some fasten their threds at the corners, as if they were beginning the entry; others creep by the outsides, and seek here and there for a fit place to lye hid in. I shut many of them in, with paper-Coffins, which I disposed of and fastned commodiously in some place, in which by gnawing and rending the sides, they do make a noise for a while, but afterwards by voiding a dry and moyst excrement of their belly, (for they void out both) by their hinder parts, they fasten them so fast to the paper, that you would think they were glewed. Afterwards for 3, days continually they make a little bladder, which being absolved they lay aside their fifth skin, with their head and tayle and are transformed into a nympha again. Some I did not shut up in papers, but disposed them in a wodden chest with boughs, and let them choose a nest for themselves; you shall observe thence, that Page  274 they seek chiefly for corners and hiding places, and oft times many of them make their Silk in the same place, if it may be; some order∣ing them, right forward, others obliquely, others broad ways. If the place be too narrow, the wrong end of the skin is pressed together on the side, nor doth it containe perfectly Oval. One of these cases is longer, thicker, larger than another for the greatnesse and strength of the Silk-worm. They differ also in colour; some are Gold, Silver, Citron colours, and they are double. For some are greenish, some more yellow, though others call all these green. The first of them all, as I observed, was white, except some few that send a yellowish tow before. Some of Gold colour have their inward coat white, nor is the yellow colour certain. For when the cases are unfolded in wa∣ter, the silk growes white; and in dye, yellow, &c. But it is worth your labour to contemplate the matter of the silk; and what that is, that yields a thred so long.

When therefore I saw a great worm to wander, I put a line about his neck, and dissected him. He lived stoutly when his throat was tied, and felt acutely. For at every incision of his back, the knife scarce touching him, he would tosse himself violently, as if he would help himself with his mouth and forefeet. His skin being divided, I saw his long gut, as in a pike, the forepart was swoln and wide, the hin∣der part narrower. On that gut did the nerves or beating arteries lye, with a continuall systole and diastole, and they ended on the plectrum of 〈…〉 tayl. When I cut off this, not onely a yellow clear hu∣mour did break forth, but the heads of the nerves, put themselves forth in the motion, and their stirring grew weaker. The Intestine hath a double coat, one thick outward coat, and another thin one within. The thick coat feels accurately, and it is near the throat co∣vered over with much glutinous matter, which afterwards becomes matter for their wings, and of the hairinesse of the Silk-worm, as the external excrementitious moysture becomes the Aurelia, or outward shell. When the thick coat is pricked, the intestine comes forth, yet wrapt with a thin coat, and it contains much of the meat they eat the day before of green leaves. Also you may see, when the skin is cut, and the thick coat of the Intestine, that moysture will run forth in abundance, that is transparent, which I think is their blood, and by concoction is changed into silk, and the parts of the Creature. The head cut off, the beginning of the throat swells forth, and doth repre∣sent the blunt head of the Nympha. The gut being taken out with the foeces contain'd in the abdomen, there are seen, like worms, some glu∣tinous clammy concretions, some yellow, some white, two very great, the rest small, so like worms, that nothing wants but a skin and life. They are sharp at both ends. They are so placed in the belly, that both their points are turned toward their tail, and the bo∣dy of them is doubled; you would say it were their yarn folded toge∣ther. If they begin to spin from the points, it is necessary that they be drawn from the tail to the mouth. I think that the small whitish pieces make weaker silk and towe; but the greater, the stronger. I Page  275 took out these worms, and I found that they dryed presently on the paper, and became hard and brittle, as Ox glew useth to do, and as the Tendons and Intestines of living creatures. The body of it, is all of one kind and transparent, that no man can draw it into so fine and small thred; but this labour must be left to the Silk-worm, as webs to the Spiders. The outward skin was white, mingled with lead colour; but within, it was drawn with a little skin black and blew in part; and partly with a shining gold colour as in a Herring. About the belly where the matter of the silk lay, the substance was pretty thick, consisting of nervous deductions, and a texture containing a white fat, infolded with nervous coats; the like is found afterwards in the young Nymphs of Silk-worms; and they have a matrix and a genital member. Under that substance there are lead-colour'd bran∣ches let down into their feet like to tendons or chords. This skin, the matrix and genital member remaining, is put oft in weaving their silk, with all the parts that stick forth: so that the Nymph, and Butterfly that riseth from thence, borrow nothing from the Silk-worm but the belly and gut, and the nervous parts that are in them. There remains in the gut and genitals a great deal of moysture. From whence afterwards growes the matter of the seed, and excrements of the belly. But the humour that is in the Intestine is yet raw, and is partly green, partly yellow, something thick, and elsewhere thin. If one part the fat from the nervous coats of the genitals, and smeer it on paper, when it is dry it will be like ewer, and brittle. You may compare it with milk in fishes. Therefore it is apparent, that in the Silk-worm these members are outward; Its threefold feet, the skaly joynting of the belly, the breast, head, mouth, the anus, skin, tail, plectrum: but within is the Intestine, the vital arteries, or the nerves, the white flesh of the breast, the genitals, betwixt which and the Intestine, is contain'd the matter for Silk; and besides those, the pannicles and nervous membranes, in which the parts are contain'd. Whether they have any heart, let others seek out: yet there must be some such Principle; and that not in the head, nor any where but near the breast, whence the vital force is sent through the whole bo∣dy: And this is manifest chiefly by motion of the nerves or arteries (as I may call them) in the back of the belly, not of the breast, so far as the hollow of the tail. I will speak afterwards of the nymphs and young silk-worms: Now I will add what I observed in their making of silk.

When they abstain from meat, and, as I said, they seek for a place to make their case; they have commonly about the end of their belly a green wan mark, the other part of their body is white with green, or wan, and of a spiceous colour. Then I saw them often make it as they went up and down, and to gape at the mouth, as it were Cows chewing the cud, when as out of their gorge they pull back their meat to chew on. Then it is likely, that the Silk-worms strive to turn the matter of the silk toward their mouths, and to draw it out. If you put them into a paper Coffin, you shall hear them gnawing Page  276 a whole day, and then into the bottom of this Coffin like a Fryars cowl, they put down their excrement, first dry, like a black green pill or yellow. The last pill but one is commonly green, the last is yellow, and sanious. The number of tis dung is, as their excre∣ments abound. For I found in one paper, sometimes two little knobs, sometimes more, to 12, of divers colours, as black, green, yellow, and those not with bright spots, but round. When the last yellow pill comes forth, watry matter comes forth of divers colours, and a different consistence. For some part is thicker, some thinner, having some red colour with yellow and green; yet some of the sanies is bloody and blackish; such it appears on a clean paper, where you may sometimes see green polluted with yellow; sometime some∣what like chalk. In a glasse, it is like to Lye. But that you may not doubt whether she voids it by her mouth or her belly; know, that she makes her silk onely out of her mouth, and her excrements by her belly. Yet they send forth moysture also out of their mouth, when they are sick, or strangled, or pressed. I found a Silk-worm that was at liberty, that put forth both these excrements behind. Some of them void forth much moysture, others but a little. They that void much seem to be the weaker, and to have gathered lesse silk. For many of them make small silk cases, but not all. It is doubtful what co∣lour the silk will be. For I was often deceived by observing their heads, backs, bellies and feet. All of them do not make silk of the same colour; and oft-times the towe and utmost coat is white, but the middle silk is gold-coloured. I thought the Silk-worms that were of a spiceous colour would make yellow; and the white ones, white silk; but that was false. For both drew white. Once and again I judged right, that a Citron coloured female would make such a thred: yet such was also drawn by that silk-worm, whose belly was Lead-colour with white, and the spot in the fore-head yellow. I saw a female also all white, that made white silk. In small and narrow papers, yet according to the Worms proportion, lesser cases are made, but thicker, with lesse towe; yet I observed little cases in the larger. They that are not shut up, but choose a place freely, they consume much thred in towe at random: whence the silk is much lost. For their cases are lesse, and not wrought so thick. If you will observe, you may know exactly the reason of their spinning in these things.

For when they have wandred a time, and have begun here and there to make their entrance of their work, (which they do by diligent bending of their bodies, whilest sticking by their hinder feet, they do variously move their head and their whole breast upwards, down∣wards, backwards, forwards, and on all sides, if there be a fit place to fasten their silk threds, which they do not by sight, but by touching; for they have dull eyes) then they draw forth their threds, and the foundations of their house, and that simple or manifold, as they find need of a strong foundation. If it be near the pavement, they stick to it with their hinder part; and if it be aloft, they hang by the same, Page  277 or from boughs, or any other place. For they turn their breast and head freely; and if there be need, they change the situation of their hinder parts. Thus the entrance of their first work is made. Now the dry excrements are voided from their belly; the Entrance being finished, so that now the Silk-worm is secure and free from outward injuries: she voids the last dung with moisture, of which I spake before. The towe is oft polluted with this, yet it runs off to the bottom. When her belly is emptied, the spinner ceaseth for a while, and puts forth her anus, as if she had a Tenasmus. Then she calls back the matter of the true silk, and continues that to her last breath, and till her silk work is ended. Then by degrees she thickens her threds from a large to a narrower compasse, so that it becomes an ovall figure, in the hollow whereof she may turn her self. Her mouth, breast, and forefeet are in a continued motion. The hinder parts stick, yet are they translated to another place, when she makes the bottom or the top. They that make their cases in the ground or pavement, they seem to sit on the naked pavement; but by degrees they weave threds under them, and in all parts they thicken the whole case alike, except in the point, to which in straight places they cannot reach. Therefore the frame of this is made more at first, but the ba∣sis more in the end: Though this be not neglected at the beginning. Wherefore when the threds are unfolded, by untwisting them, the point is first made plain, and the inward coat is left, like a finger∣hood. So they weave to the third day; and you may see them working the second day, if you hold the case to the Sun. In paper hoods the base is made upwards, the top downwards: and in two dayes it appears but thin. The third day it is thickned: and then the worm puts off her old skin, and becomes a nymph, which may easily be observed: for when they weave, yet they stick fast; neither is their dull falling down yet perceived. But when it becomes a Nymph, as if it were a stone shut in, shake the case and the Nymph falls down. And this dull falling down endures untill it be changed into a young Worm. For then the empty place is fill'd again, and the Worm sticks to the case, seeking to come forth. There was one Worm I had, that made a case, whose entrance, amongst those were shut in a Paper, was a solid coat: in those that are at liberty, it con∣sists of threds disposed and drawn divers ways to and fro. Some have observed in one case two or three shut in; but when the place would be too narrow, that case cut was common to them three, and the Silk-worms found within were become close together, so that they seemed like to 3, fingers joyned, when they were all set at li∣berty, they worked a little, but it was but a little. It is observa∣ble, that some Silk-worms in paper made no Silk, but presently turn∣ed to Nymphs; I think this befell them, because they fed on lettice, (yet not to them all) or to such as had too little meat given them, or that were sick and could not gather matter of Silk, which I suppose is made of abundant blood like fat, and laid apart. Other strange things hap∣pen; whereof in their proper place. All their cases are long and Page  278 ovall. Y•• I saw a white one almost exactly round, that it had a basis sphaericall on both sides without any point. It was small with its fore-house, but yet thick as it should be. But the silk-worm in that did not go to be a Nymph, nor a perfect young worm, as I shall shew by and by. It seems a question whether they draw forth the silk out of the end of their belly, or out of their mouth, though they alwaies distribute it with their mouth and their forefeet. It is no small argument, because that near the props of their tail at the bottom of their belly, a chink is seen, and both ends of the silk-mat∣ter in the belly lie to that place: Also the voiding of the Excrements at the beginning of their working, confirms this. For as when a woman is to be delivered of a child, what faeces there are in the bladder and the right intestine, that is voided and pressed forth; so we may think the silk matter striving to come forth in the Silk-worm doth the like. When she begins to labour, her belly swells more; from the belly begins the maturity, known by the yellow∣nesse; That comes first out, as being first ready. Also Caterpillars and Silk-worms, stick to the pavement, with a hairy down about their feet. Some are observed to weave on their backs, that the silk may be drawn out of their belly, and may the more easily be ordered by their mouths and feet. This may be alledged for the first opini∣on. But stronger arguments prove this to be false. For you may see with your eyes, that when the belly rests, threds are drawn out of their mouths, and they sticking by their clamminesse, are drawn out by degrees, by turning back their necks. And therefore Silk-worms do not onely so draw their threds lying on their backs, but lying also on their bellies where yet the whole Worm turns her self freely. Then it cannot come forth by the tail, nor by the chap under the tail. For from the place of the silk to the Intestine, there is no passage: and the chap of the tail, that notes out the genitals of the young worm that shall be, is covered with a skin, Moreover, before the silk comes forth, oft-times the silk-worms do cry and mutter, as if they were ray to vomit, drawing the matter to their throats. Nor do they swell about their tails, but about the middle of their bellies; Also in a Coffin of paper, when no thred appeared on their feet, I saw them draw it forth with their mouth onely, and to fasten it; and the 2d. of June, when I earnestly observed one making its case, I drew the beginning of the thred out of the worms mouth, when it was wet, to its full length, the belly and the feet having no silk upon them. So Caterpillars hang by the mouth, their thred coming out there. Nor do Spiders and Palmer-worms on trees make their webs otherwise. And so much for this question.

When the Case is made, the Silk-worm is changed into a Nymph, and the fleeces are taken, first choosing what males and females you please, for preservation of their kind. Some say you may know their sex by the colour of their case; some by the bignesse: And this is some argument. For, because females are commonly the greater, they make also the greater houses. Yet sometimes we are deceived; Page  279 for a strong male may make a greater case than a weak female. I have seen them both of a bignesse, and I have seen females, ed in other places, to make far lesse houses than my males. Wherefore the signs must also concur, observed in the silk-worms themselves▪ of which before. The other cases are cast into scalding water, that the worms may dy, or they are choaked with the heat of an oven, after the bread is taken forth, taking care they burn not. Then taking away the Towe, maid-servants or such as can labour, are ready, who may loosen the beginnings of the threds; which being found out, many of them are cast into a bason of cold or warm water, and the servant Maid sitting ready with a drawing instrument, doth conti∣nually roll down 30 or 40, or more threds joyned together. If the thred break any where, the fellow-labourer must seek for the begin∣ing of it, and give it again to him that unwinds it. That is continued untill they come to the inward coat, which being very difficult to un∣twist, it is dryed and pull'd into towe and kembed. When the threds are thus untwisted, they send much dust into the Ayr, and you may see in the bottom of the vessel some filth that fell from the silk. I tryed carefully, whether I could with one work unwind a whole case not breaking it, taking away the Towe, which by rea∣son of its various foldings together, weaknesse, and divers principles, cannot be untwisted at once drawing. I obtain'd my desire onely in the middle of the silk; for that which is before the house is wont to break easily, but the middle holds best. The last coat, by the weight added to it, (for then the Nymph falls down) was unfolded by me with great care to the thin skin, which was scarce equall to the thumbs nail. Those cases are best untwisted, whose basis and top answer diametrically; but those are harder, whose top is bound, and they that are crooked or bunched. For here the thred sticks and is tangled, that it will hardly yield without breaking. First, the point is made bare, and untwisted all to the middle of the case.— The thred of one silk case was as long as this line here drawn, when it was drawn forth 7000 times, and in one it was above 8000 times longer: yet they are not all of one thicknesse and greatnesse; which may be seen, by drawing them asunder into little skins. For some fleeces I drew into 12, some into 8, more or lesse coats.

The wild Silk-worm hath an entrance, a single coat, and som∣thing a thicker case: wherefore the thinner cases easily yeeld to the fingers pressing them, but the thicker will resist. When the top hath a hole almost to the middle, that the Nympha may easily fall forth; she falls with her cast skin, wherein there is both her head and all her feet. Somtimes commonly the head of this old skin is over against the top of the case, that we may understand that it was cast off, whilst the Worm when the case was perfected, doth bend and turn her self upwards through narrow streets. The Crown of the Nympha is toward the basis, the tail toward the top; and being that the Silk-worm is above twice as long, the Nympha is contracted to a small bignesse, that it is scarse so long as the middle joynt of the se∣cond Page  280 finger of a man. She is alive, and gives tokens that she is so, by the moving of her top or tail when she is touched. If you regard her outward forme, you would say she is a scaly Worm, and her head is covered with a bag. The scales are dark coloured, as if they were staind with smoke, and they are eight in number, as farr as the confines of the Crown: On the sides of each of them there are two round points, out of which the tendons or bands appertain to the young Silk-worm. On the Crown there is a white spot, as if the mouth of the young Silk-worm shined through it, with three little black spots. After this on the foremost part there are prints of feet and horns, and on the hinder part toward the sides, are prints of wings, If you will observe the inward parts, the fourth day before it is chang∣ed into a young Silk-worm, after it hath lain hid, you may open it, you shall see nothing else but a common empty place, and in this only three distinct humours. One of a watry thin substance, of a yel∣low colour; This is equally diffused through the whole space. The other is red, like blood; This sticks in the upper part, where the head and brest will be; you would judge it to be the rudiment of the heart, because I saw the like afterwards in the young Silkworm, a certain Masse that moved of it self, if a heart may be attributed to this creature. The third humour is white and yellow; and it is like to a hen egge, cast into a hot water and run about; or like cheese-curds, if you add some yellow to them. Where you see the prints of wings and feet outwardly, there lies hid a phlegmatique clammy matter, fit to make the membranes of, you shall see no distinction of parts; I think the life is in the nervous coat, that is next under the outward shell. For the Silk-worm in that part was exceeding sen∣sible, and had a motion of the heart and arteries; you would call this a little bladder fill'd with humours, which yet compared to the Au∣relia, after the young Silk-worm is crept forth, is far thicker, and you would say it were a shell cloathed on the inside with coats and a tena∣cious glow. After this, is the down of the young Silk-worm, the wings, feet, skin, and the other outward parts. So the Silk-worm passeth into throat and belly, for whose sake only it was detain'd there. Yet here appeareth no green colour which was much in the in∣testine of the Silk-worm now ready to spin. Part therefore was void∣ed before the case was made, and part was changed into some other juyce. In the tip of the tayle there was also some clammy matter like to the raw white of an egge. I thought it to be the rudiment of the genitall parts. For with that the matrix & spermatical Vessels were cast off, the beginning whereof is seen also in the belly of the Silk-worm. The humours taken on a clean paper and dried, were stain'd with black, as if you had mingled ink with them, yet the tal∣lowy substance remain'd white, and in some places a red and yel∣lowish spot appeared with a white spot like chalk: whence we may collect that that blacknesse was only from a watery yellow humour, which only shined on the paper where it stuck thick, like to shining ink. The rest of the Nymphs, partly deprived of all Silk, and naked Page  281 partly shut up yet in a single coat, partly safe in the whole Silken case, I handled with no other care, but I only putt them up in a box, and set them in my window, yet I distinguished them into divers Cells, such as I thought to be females, and such as I thought to be males, and I was not deceived in more than one only. So from the first shutting them in, untill they came forth, there passed 26, or 27, days, setting them in my study to the afternoon▪ Sun in the heat of June, as it was very hot in 99. For the female that was buried on the 11, of June, came forth a young Silk-worm on the 8, of July. A male that began to spin on the 9, of June, on the fifth of July became a butterfly. The same day two females came forth out of two greater white cases, and one male from a lesse yellow case. On the sixth of July in the morning (for they all come forth in the morning) a male came out of a white case, he was dusky colour'd and rough; and a white female very tender, with a great belly, and with great wings, came out of a case that was yellow and greenish. Also before on the second of July, a male crept forth of a Gold colour'd case, and a fe∣male out of a white one.

These began their Silken case the tenth of June. When young Silk-worms are ready to come forth of whole cases, when you shake it, you shall find no more a dull weight; and then the aurelia opens a∣bout the back of the thorax; after that a great deal of cleare humour that is white is powred out of the mouth, and the place grows wet, where they will make their passage. This way they came forth with labouring and striving. I saw a female coming forth on the 8th, of July; she sent so much moysture before her, that a great drop fell into the box. Then her head appeared, she striving with her feet with∣in. By degrees, after her head, she put forth these; and presently she stood upon the pavement with them, and by striving by little and little, she drew forth the Circles of her belly; that when the first was drawn forth, and she would draw out the second, she drew up all her foreparts, that so she miht pull forth the next roundle; yet it is very like, that by that contracting of her self, the hole was made wider that her belly at last might come forth with lesse paine. Her divers turning side ways, helps for this also. In the meane while the thicker young Silk-worms and such as have more moysture in their bellies, presse somthing forth when they strive, and they do besmeer the case where the hole is, both inside and outside with a plaister-like clam∣mynesse. They that labour lesse and are slenderer, leave but little. Then you shall see the whole hoary case, somthing wet by the moy∣sture comes forth of their mouths, and made easy to passe through. Somtimes they are wont to be quiet, and oft times to inflate their bellies, to draw it forth and draw it in againe, as if they did set their disioynted limbs, and put them in their true places. And they do so draw forth and loosen the circles, that the joynts stick up fill'd with a yellow humour, as if they were inflated. You shall see the naked Nymphs, when the butterflye is perfect within, two or three dayes before to move themselves, as if they would break the bands by Page  282 which the young Silk-worm is tied to the Aurelia. I then opened one of them with my knife and nailes, that I might see the congruity of the outward with the inward parts. That I did, the fourth of July, when as then about 20, days were passed from the time of their ma∣king Silk▪ The first skale being removed, about the beginning of the little breast on the backside I saw the tender upper circle of the belly; it was skinny covered with a moyst down, yet so short and made plain that the down could scarce be seen. Under the place of the side wings, which in the Aurelia you may compare to the Shoulder blades, two true wings of the young Silk-worm did lye hid, joynd together, and one laid upon the other. They were all short and tender, as not being yet perfect in quantity. Between the wings of he thorax, the latter knob appeared, fenced on both sides with long hairynesse, but not yet covered over. The wings and this red part being dispatched, I came to the upper lines bending downwards; under these were their horns. But under those that followed, the feet on the brest did lye; being bent obliquely and directed to their belly. Under the white spot on the Crown of the Nympha, the hairy Crown of the young Silk-worm, and the hinder part of the head are placed; next to which lyes the print of the eyes, like to two black spots, which are divided with a cleft like a Lyons lip, the whole belly is like to white paint. The hairs of it are very wet, and appeare smooth. They have roundells, as well as the Silk-worm and the Nymph. But I did not open the whole young Silk-worm, but he by his striving pull'd himself forth of the rest of the Aurelia. I saw with what la∣bour he unloosed the bands of his belly, which like white cords do hang from the points of the circles, and are left in the empty Aurelia. The fundament sticks also fast, wherefore the tip of the Aurelia is contracted toward the brest inwardly. The male was with hairs and wings imperfect. I left him in the box. He lay still, till the next day. Then he grew white by degrees, and the downynesse was seen more exactly. The wings also grew, and then he grew more jocund, and being admitted, the third day he copulated stoutly. What these young Silk-worms are, appeares by what we now say, and did say before: we must add this; that the belly in the Aurelia is more con∣tracted, and when it comes forth it becomes greater and longer by a third part, by distending and inflating it. In the Aurelia, there is a threefold rupture from the Crown through the back of the thorax, and there the young Silk-worm comes forth. The other parts are en∣tire.

All the rest of the young Silk-worms being come forth before the 14th of July, two cases remained whole, as if they would yield no∣thing, though they were very thick. One was a small round male; the other a female twice as long, and pretty large, a little about the back the worm was raised with a little bunch. The colour of the Towe of both was white; but in the Citron-colour'd, the silk was greenish, though it were a more watry colour in that. When I di∣vided the round Coffin with the edge of my knife, a carcasse appeared Page  283 outwardly, half a Silk-worm, half a Nymph. The forepart was a plain Silk-worm, the latter a Nymph; for it had not put off the whole skin, but onely the latter part, which was next it in the case▪ The carcasse lay crooked, so that the forefeet in the breast touched almost the first pair of the hinder feet. For here between the first con∣jugation of the hinder feet, and the second, the skin was broken; So that the Nymph was covered with her former skin, wherein was her head and breast with 6. feet, and part of her belly with the two first. The skin and the Aurelia being removed, within there lay a perfect male young silk-worm, and it had been living, as appeared; for that striving to come forth two dayes before I made Infection, he had wet the case with his moysture; and the 19 of July, when I per∣fectly freed him, he shew'd clear signs of motion in his belly and feet: The cause why he could not clear himself and come forth was found, in the close sticking of the Silk-worm's skull, and of the fore∣feet, the coat being fastned to it by nature. Therefore though in the back of the Thorax he had made a gap both in the Aurelia and the cast skin, yet could he not pull forth his head and feet; so he fainted by degrees.

Here I observed the policy of Nature: For when in putting off the cast skin the forefeet are plucked off, and the hinder feet depart also; yet there are prints left, under which afterwards others grow up. And the sins of the wings were inserted into the holes of the old silk-worm, and the whole head of the new silk-worm, with the horns of the head were shut in a covering. This was the male. The Female quite dead, seemed yet more monstrous. The Silk-work being fi∣nished (which was a great silk case, and as long as two joynts of ones little finger, but the males was thinner a great deal;) The silk-worm strove to cast off the skin, that was white, light, and shining within side, but outwardly hairy and yellowish, and he had drawn forth his whole back, that bunched forth extreamly, his foreparts being contracted circularly; but he could not free himself of the little mouth that stuck too fast. Wherefore there you might see the head of the cast skin, the crown of the Nympha, and of the Necydalus joyn'd together: which conjunction kept the skin upon the belly, that it could not be totally cast off, and drawn forth. Wherefore it stuck so with the point of the belly, as if it were shut into a sack, and bound about the head; but a hole being made on the backside, it might have drawn forth the back, but it would yet have stuck by the head and fundament, so lying crooked and dead. The cast skin was thus. Out of this also stuck forth the Aurelia, as concerning the upper part. Again, out of the Aurelia almost the entire young Silk-worm had wrested it self; breaking the shell on the back-side, and in the won∣ted place, but the head stuck fast not to be pull'd asunder, as also the outmost parts of the belly. In the belly put forth was seen a great number of yellow eggs. For the female presently within the Aure∣lia, perfects her Eggs in her matrix, but they are unfruitfull till the Page  284 male besprinkled them. I saw one lay eggs that had coupled with no male. Hence it was clear, how Nature puts off the old skin with the form of it first, and then passeth into a Nymph; the Aurelia whereof being again put off, out comes the Necydalus. This was a triple formed Monster, worthy to contemplate of. In this also you might observe the Aurelia, on that part the wings were marked, to be black and dark, as if it had been in hot smoke: then how uch the female Necydalus had striven to come forth, was plain by the eyes that stuck out in the distances of the skaly circles. Sometimes the circles of the belly stick together by contiguitie, a thin skin coming between them. But in this the circles were so disjoynted, that the girdle of the juncture was larger than the circle. The top of the belly of the cast skin, and of the Aurelia were transparent against the light, so that you might exactly discover all about it. The end of the Necyda∣lus came as far as the middle capacity of the Aurelia; the Necydalus was hairy about the back, though imperfectly, as also the wings were not yet of their full bignesse. And thus much for Monsters.

When the Necydalus is lusty, it is full of life, chiefly in the breast. For when the head and tail are cut off, it will move the wings strongly, and run with its feet, and that till the next day or longer. The female being cut in the belly, shews her matrix full of Eggs; that when 400 are laid, there are more behind. It seemed to be wrapped in a very thin coat. There appeared also some nervous pipes, like the passages of the guts. In the middle of the belly a little bladder was seen, con∣taining an earthy juyce, that was yellow or russet colour. This bladder of it self had a continual systole and diastole. I thought the principle of life was there as in the heart. About the neck of the matrix there was a double white nervous knot, like to the bladder of animals; it was hard and shining, and that within the belly. I shall speak of the dug-like processions afterwards. There was one little knot that was bigger, and another that was lesse. The neck of the matrix is like to a pipe; to which being full of juice, there are joyn'd without on both sides two yellow knots like to brests. About the neck there is a circle with horny reins, that are broad, and blunter on the top, with which she takes hold of the genital of the male. The breast is fleshy. The head is membranous and horny. The horns triangular, with a white back sticking up, but the wings are let down on both sides, to make the Triangle: If you cut them off whilest they are alive, a kind of transparent juice comes forth of the back, as out of a pin-feather, and there appears a hole within. Thus I found the female, which I opened whilest she was living. When she was dead, there was nothing found in her belly but a notable ca∣vity of her belly near to her breast; and then that vital humour in the bladder, though it now was no longer living; after that, the reliques of the matrix that was emptied, which were nervous and membranous. The upper parts of the male agree with the female. If you opn his belly, you shall find much red matter within; and Page  285 besides that, a tallow matter full of nerves, to which the genital pas∣sage is fastned. He hath a peculiar genital, wanting other things that belong to the female.

The History of it is this; Under the tail environed with a long Down, there is a notable hole under a membranous circle, as hard as horn, that is divided as it were into two teeth. In the middle of this compasse there is the three forked neck of the genital part, with the extremities of it that are horny.

About this there are set reddish prickles (all the horny processes are red going toward black) the two uppermost are like hooks, of bended back like ankers, or like Goats-horns bent backwards. The single one beneath them is strait. These prickles are next the neck of the member. A little beyond in the middle of the compasse, there are three other small pricks; with so many bands he lays hold of the ma∣trix of the female, and draws it to him, and holds it so fast, that if you would pull them one from the other, you would sooner believe the joyning together of the belly, and the circles should break, than the copulation should unloose, which I often proved.

Also from hence you may judge of the constancy of their copulati∣on, for I saw them stick fast together whole Summer days, and at night, I know not at what houre, it is probable about morning, they parted asunder, and in the morning I found many Oval little Worms, and them lying quiet one from the other, yet they will stick together, being cast into cold water. When I sprinkled salt and pickle on the joyning of their tails they held fast; nor were they parted with wa∣ter of vitriol added.

I drencht the male into the water, and I let the female stand dry on the brink of it, casting both vitriol and salt into the water, yet he lived and held his copulation. Then I left him so all night in the wa∣ter, in the morning some hundreds of eggs were in the bottom of the water, and the young Necydali swam alive. I cut off another males head in copulation, yet he parted not. I divided his brest from his belly; he stuck fast till I drew him off by force.

The head and brest, as of divided flyes, live long, but the brest longest. This male cut asunder in copulation, had in his belly also a yellow reddish matter, with some intestinal substance that is yel∣lowish, and skinny. The male was bred the fourth of July, and died for weaknesse on the fifth, and being opened he had nothing else in his belly. Otherwise the Necydale will live 7, or 8, or more dayes. For, as I said, he is constant, so that vvhen I broak vvith four strokes the be∣ginnings of the vvings and the brest, and then the belly somtimes, yet it lived as not hurt, though the Spirit were dissipated at length; the next day for the most part, if they be so dealt vvithall, they dye. The male hotly desires copulation; after a little stay, vvhen he is come forth of the Aurelia, and that vvhen he hath often unburdned his bel∣ly, and somtimes also vvhen he hath sent forth no moysture; and this happens also in the female.

Page  286The male that is lively after the first dayes copulation, when he hath rested at night, the next day he seeks for the same female, or any that hee can meet with, so that he will couple three or four times.

The female also admits of the male as often, though she do not alwaies lay eggs. For she begets no eggs, unlesse she have some with∣in her, though she copulate with the male. So soon as they uncouple, she presently lays her egs in order one after another, you shall see them thrust forth with striving and contraction of her belly, and be shut forth from the neck of the matrix put out, so that it will touch the pavement. I reckoned above 400, from one female, and almost 400, out of others; and these being dissected, had yet many more in their matrixes. What therefore Vidas writes of hundreds, that may be understood of lean little Necydalls, such as I see proceed from want of nourishment, others were almost three times as great. Some males do void their dung once before copulation, and again af∣ter their second copulation. Somtimes the males, loosed and not yet satisfied, will hinder the female that is about to lay eggs, and cou∣ple again with her, though the female copulates with him by force, and desires by contracting her belly, and by striving with her hinder legs, to be loose. So one before copulation laid 17, after she had once coupled and was loose again, 194, and then coupling again, after four hours copulation, she laid 245, then the male having an appetite, she cast moysture as out of a spout, and coupling again, and being freed, she laid above 20, eggs.

Those Egges that were laid on the fourth of July of a Citron-colour, on the 7th grew red, and after that, Lead-colour'd. I kept them in a box behind my Window, exposed to the afternoon-Sun. Those that were barren did never change their colour, but onely sank down.

In the Necydalls that are loose, you shall sometimes observe a trembling motion, like as if they had an Ague. Yet I say not, that they are aguish. But I think, that shaking comes by the alteration and promotion of the seminall matter, the vapour exhaling from thence, and rending the nervous parts. The last Necydale was a small one; and on the 24th of June, wea∣ving a small case between two Mulberry leafs, he came forth the 13th of July, in which besides that, he had made a very small Silk case; This also was observable, That he came not forth of the basis of the case, but made a hole in the top, contrary to all the rest. Yet he was a male that feared not to copulate with a female that had thrice been coupled with a male before, and was almost dead. When he had twice copulated, he afterwards fainted. His wings were painted otherwise than the others were; for whereas the others are distinguished with lines, long and broad wayes, as with welts; this had four such Lead-colour'd lines broad wayes; but between the second and the third, toward the Page  287 outward borders of the wings, there was a small circle coming between, not exact, but wan, with a white spot in the mid∣dle.

But indeed Nature is so ingenious in this Insect, that when you have observed and writ many things, you have more to observe still. Therefore I conclude this History; and leave the rest to those that are studious in the Secrets of Nature.