The baptizing of infants revievved and defended from the exceptions of Mr. Tombes in his three last chapters of his book intituled Antipedobaptisme
Hammond, Henry, 1605-1660.
Page  40

Sect. 2. Making disciples all one with receiving into discipleship. Bap∣tizing the act of the Baptist. Instruction subsequent to disci∣pling. The pretended parallel between Mat. 28. and Mar. 16.〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 Johns discipling by preaching excludes not infants. No more the Apostles, Mat. 10.5. The notation of the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Mat. 13.52. Act. 14.21. Infants both said to come and to believe. Instruction subsequent to baptisme.

[ 1] AFter this praelusorie〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, he next proceeds to consider, what shift (as he calls it) the Doctor makes to elude the force of Christs institution, Mat. 28.19. But I have already made it evident that that Commission for preaching to, or discipling all nations (as for the baptizing them, and the particularity of the forme to be used in baptisme, &c.) was not the institution of baptisme, nor any intimation on either side, whether infants should be baptized or not; and so tis manifest how little need I had to use any shift, or artifice to elude the force of it.

[ 2] However in his view of my discourse some exceptions he must find; And the first is, that though 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 is well rendred, make disciples, yet 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 is not well para∣phrased by, receiving into discipleship, baptizing them, making this forme of baptisme the ceremonie of receiving them. For by this, saith he, the making disciples is made the same with re∣ceiving them, and baptisme the ceremonie of receivers into di∣scipleship, which is as truely an act of the baptized professing, or avouching his discipleship.

[ 3] Here is another subtlety of a refined nature, making a diffe∣rence betwixt making disciples, and receiving into discipleship, or receiving disciples; As if these two were not perfectly syno∣nymous, and by me evidently used, as such. I shall not dispute of words, when the matter is clear, and when it is equally to my purpose which phrase is used, whether making or receiving di∣sciples.

Page  41 [ 4] 2dly. When he affirmes of baptisme, which I make the cere∣monie of the Apostles receiving them, that tis as truely the act of the baptized, this is no subtilty, but grosse and visible enough; For certainly baptisme in the active sense (as it is plain I under∣stand it in that place, where I paraphrase, goe and make disciples and baptize) is not the act of the baptized, but of the baptist; The coming to baptisme indeed, and the undertaking the vow, and making the profession, is the act of the baptized, either perso∣nally, or by his proxy, which in reputation of Law, and in accep∣tation of the Church, is his also, but still baptisme, or (to re∣move all possible mistake) baptizing, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Mat. 28.19. is an act of the baptizer onely, and so the ceremonie of receiving into discipleship, whomsoever they thus duely baptize. I hope I need say no more of this.

[ 5] His 2d branch of exception is to those words of mine wherein I say that the making or receiving disciples, supposeth not any precedent instruction, but lookes wholly on it as subsequent. This I there concluded not from the bare negative, because there was no precedent mention of such instruction, where discipling and baptizing, were both mention'd, but because in that place, on which the Antipaedobaptist so much relyes, Mat. 28.19. the [〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉teaching] is expressely mentioned after discipling and baptizing, and so is in reason to be deemed, and lookt on, as subsequent to both, and so the receiving ad discipulatum referre to that then future instruction.

[ 6] And to this sense I there made it manifest, that the definition of baptisme 1 Pet. 3.21. did referre that, baptisme is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, seeking to God, as to the oracle to inquire for the whole future life, no way prerequiring actual instruction, but coming to Christ and the Church to receive it, and obey it for the future (and that done in some sort by those that are brought, when they are not able to come, and by the charitie of the Church received there) And this farther illustrated as by the manner of children brought by parents to School, without either knowledge of letters, or choise, or so much as wish of instruction, so by the manner of Christ's disciples being received by him, particularly of Philip, Joh. 1.44. who was called, and received into discipleship, as soon as ever Christ met with him, i. e. before he was at all instructedPage  42 by him, and so also by the storie of the Jewes, Exo. 19.8. who undertook to obey all the Commandments of God, which he should give them, which yet were not then, but after given them, v. 20. and so lastly by the nature of proselytisme, which as it is all one with entring into God's covenant and (in the Christian sense) with coming to Christ and being received to discipleship, so tis that which children are known to be capable of, not onely by that text, Deut. 29.10. but by the custome of baptizing infant pro∣selytes among the Jewes, and by Christ's command to suffer them to come unto him, whensoever they were thus brought.

[ 7] Now to this thus evidenced (and much more largely in that place, §. 26. &c.) he is pleased to annex some reasons of his dissent, For, 1. saith he, that which is exprest in Matthew by, Go ye therefore and make disciples all nations, is in Marke, Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature, which shewes how they should disciple all nations; Now they who are made disciples by preaching the Gospel are made disciples by precedent instruction, Ergo, the making or receiving disciples Mat. 28.19. supposeth precedent instruction.

[ 8] But to this I answer, 1. That the words in Marke are no o∣therwise parallel to those in Matthew, then as an Epitome is pa∣rallel to a larger discourse, such we know S. Markes for the most part is, an abbreviation of S. Matthews Gospel, as in many others, so in this particular, some passages indeed there are in S. Mark in this place, which are not in S. Matthew, as shall a non be shewed, but in the particular now before us, S. Mark is, accor∣ding to wont, more concise; there is no mention in him of bapti∣zing in the name of the Father and of the Son & of the holy Ghost, nor consequently of discipling, of which that was the ceremonie, as in S. Matthew there is.

[ 9] 2dly. That Christs appointment 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to preach the Gospel, in S. Mark, doth no way inferre the precedent in∣struction of every single person that was received to baptisme: The phrase signifies to proclaime or promulgate the happy tidings brought into the world by Christ, grace, and mercy, and eternal felicitie to all that should come into him and take his yoke upon them, and learn of him; And upon the publishing of this to all the world, to every creature, i. e. to the Gentiles universally, as Page  43 well as the Jewes, I suppose tis very possible, that many of them should make all speed to come unto Christ, and come out at the Apostles preaching, they and their whole housholds together (〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 as the oracle commanded in Homer) and to bring their infant children with them, as they used to do, that became prose∣lytes to the Jewes and then the Apostles, knowing their Ma∣sters mind for the receiving of Infants, and that (as from the in∣stitution I suppose them fore-instructed) to baptisme, receive them all, and (as many as interposed no voluntary hin∣drance) baptize them, and having taken them into the School of Christ make good provision for the future instruction of them, as soon as ever they should be capable of it.

[ 10] That thus it was I pretend not (still) to deduce from these words, Mat. 28. but to infer from another medium, the practice of the Apostles, otherwise notified to us: All that I am now to manifest, is, that this passage hath nothing contrary to our hypo∣thesis, but is perfectly reconcileable with it, and this is done by the scheme thus laid: And so tis most visible how no force there is in this first reason of exception.

[ 11] The 2d followes, that such as the making disciples was Jo. 4.1. such is the making disciples Mat. 28.19. For by the Doctors con∣fession they are all one. But that was by preaching, as is plain concerning John, Mat. 3.1, 2, 5, 6. and concerning the Apostles. Mat. 10.5, 6, 7. Ergo.

[ 12] To this I answer, that the account last given is fully satisfacto∣ry to this exception also; For supposing the Apostles to publish whithersoever they came, the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 the good newes that was come into the world by Christ, and the hearers not only to come in themselves, but to bring their whole families, and so their infant children with them, there is no difficulty to imagine, that they that had thus made proclamation, received all, and made all disciples, yong and old, that either came or were brought, and so it being granted that they made disciples by preaching, preaching being the instrument to draw the parents themselves, and to move them to bring their children to discipleship, it is still very visible how chil∣dren should be discipled, and consequently baptized by them, ba∣ptisme being the constant ceremony of discipling. And though I am not able to affirm, how it was actually in Johns baptisme, yet Page  44 this I may say, that as far as can be discerned or inferred from the phrase in either place, (〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 and 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉) thus it very possibly might be both in Johns and in the Apostles baptizing.

[ 12] First for John, 'tis true indeed that his baptisme attended his preaching, yet doth it not thence necessarily follow that none were baptized by him but those who particularly heard and obeyed his preaching; For 1. Why might not those that heard it, divulge it to others, and bring them before they heard him, to desire to be baptized, and upon their confessing their sins, and professing amendment, he baptize them? 2. Why might not those that heard it, or heard of it, give that heed of it, as to bring all that were dear to them of what age soever, by that means to secure them from the wrath to come; when Noah preacht repen∣tance to the old world, and upon the decree of sending the flood upon the world of the ungodly, called all to come into the Ark to him to escape the deluge, suppose others besides Noahs family had hearkned to his preaching, or suppose he and his sons had had in∣fant children, can we imagine they would have left their infants to that certain ruine, and not have taken them into the ark with them?

[ 13] And Johns baptisme was answerable to that ark, in respect of that approaching ruine on the Jewes, styled the kingdome of hea∣ven v. 1. and that evidenced to be a bloody kingdome, explica∣ted by casting into the fire v. 10. And can we imagine the Jews that believed John and came to his baptisme, did not bring their children with them to save them from the praedicted evils, And then I professe not to see any reason to render it incredible that John Baptist should thus receive and baptize those infants (though the Scripture affirming nothing of it, and tradition, as far as I know, as little, I shall neither affirm nor believe any thing in it) This only is certain, that among the Jewes of that time in∣fant Children were known to be capable of entring into covenant with God after this manner, and of being partakers of the bene∣fit of the Covenant by that means.

[ 14] And one thing more I may adde, that Christ himself, who was by his sinlesness, as unqualified for the Repentance which John preacht, as the infants were by their incapacities, did yet come and was received to Johns baptisme, v. 13. and then in cse Page  45infants were brought, why might not they be received also?

[ 15] Then 2. for as much as concerned the Apostles Mat. 10. First, Tis there evident that they were sent to the lost sheep indefinitely, and sure that phrase comprehends the Lambs also, the infant chil∣dren being lost in Adam as well as the grown men, by the additi∣on of their actual to original sin: And then why should we doubt but the Apostles mission extended to them also?

[ 16] An 2. for their preaching, it is just as Johns was, to warn them to beware of the imminent destruction, that vindicative act of Gods kingdome v. 7. that all that should give ear and heed to them might hasten to get out of that danger by reformation and new life; and the ruine being impendent to the young as well as old, even the whole nation, why should not the infant children be rescued from that by their parents care in bringing them to baptisme, and timely ingaging them to fly from the wrath to come, as soon as they should come to understanding, injoying in the mean time the benefit of others charity?

[ 17] Thirdly, After their preaching though there be no mention of baptizing (and so it was not so fit to be produced to our present business) yet other things there are appointed to be done, where∣in infants were concerned as well as others, as healing of diseases &c. and if being incapable of receiving benefit from preaching should be deemed an obstacle to their being baptized, why should it not to their receiving of cures? Nay I may adde, How should the dead in that place (who sure were as uncapable of hearing or understanding as the tenderest infant) be capable of being raised by those Apostles, which yet is there affirmed of them, v. 8.

[ 18] And so much for that reason also, and in like manner for the third, which is but repeating the last branch of this second, that the Apostles were to disciple all nations by the same way that they discipled the lost sheep of the house of Israel, which was, saith he, by preaching and therefore supposed precedent instruction.

[ 19] In what sense, I have now shewed, viz. by preaching, to the nations, and receiving all that came in to the discipleship, whether on their own leggs, or in others arms, whole families at once, the parents, and upon their undertaking their infant children also.

[ 20] His fourth proof is taken from the use and notation of the word, which is so to teach as that they learn, and so, saith he, is Page  46 used Mat. 13.52. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, is rendred, [instructed] by our last translators, and can be no otherwise rendred than [made a disciple by teaching] so Act. 14.21. it is said, Having preached the Gos∣pel to that city, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 and having taught or made many disciples.

[ 21] For the notation of the word we have formerly said sufficient, that it signifies to receive ad discipulatum, as into a school of Spiritual instruction,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 to make a disciple, and such he is made, who by any motive or means either comes or is brought into the school, this indeed in order to teaching in the Master, and to learning in the scholar, and the one so to teach, as that the other learn, but this subsequent to his being made a disciple, the youth we know enters into the school, is admitted into the College and Ʋniversity, before he learns a word there, the instruction or learning is still lookt upon as future, at his entring into disciple∣ship.

[ 22] And this is all the importance of the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Mat. 13.5. only some accidental differences may be observed, 'tis in the passive, and in the Aorist in the preter tense, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 every Scribe which is or hath been entred as a disciple unto the kingdome of heaven, who since his entrance hath been instructed and (as real passives import) recei∣ved influence, been really affected and changed by discipleship, still no way supposing that he was instructed in the learning or myste∣ries of the kingdome of heaven, before he was thus admitted a disciple to it; After his admission, there is no doubt but he doth (or ought to) learn, nay being there 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a Scribe discipled, a grown man and learned among the Jews, be∣fore he came to Christ, I doubt not but some knowledge he had of it before he entred himself a disciple (see baptizing of infants, p. 199.) but this not by force of the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, for still a disciple he may be before he learns, and is therefore obliged to learn, because he hath assumed and undertaken to do so, either per∣sonally, or by others susception, by his coming, or being brought to be a disciple.

[ 23] So in the other place Act. 14.21. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉] signifies no more then having received, or initiated, i. e. (I suppose) by this rite of baptisme, made and baptized many disciples, which Page  47 though it be there set down as a consequent of the Apostles preach∣ing the Gospel in that City (for otherwise it were not imaginable that they should receive any disciples there, they must first pro∣claim admission to all that come, before any can be expected either to come, or be brought to them) yet may it very reasonably be ex∣tended to more persons then those that understood their preaching, viz. to the infant children of their proselytes, brought to them by their parents and dedicated to Christ.

[ 24] Thus invalid are his attempts from the notation of the word, and by consequence his inference from thence (which is set down as his fift proof) that thereby it may appear how the Apostles un∣derstood the precept of Christ to preach the Gospel to persons and thereby make them disciples. For although the practice of the Apostles be indeed the means by which we may discerne how they understood Christs precept (and those two places cited by Mr. T. from Mat. 13. and Act. 14. do no way belong to that, they tell us not, whether they received infants to baptisme, or not) yet I may very well ward my self from any inconvenience, which this use of the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 in other places can threaten, it being already vindicated from all necessity that it should be confined to grown men, and not communicated to infants also.

[ 25] His last proof is by returning to the first again, comparing the words in Matthew with the parallel place in Mark, Whereby, saith he, a disciple and believer will appear to be the same, the disciple to be baptized in Mat. being in Mark expressed by the be∣liever, which is put before baptism.

[ 26] To this I answer, 1. that that passage in S. Mark, He that be∣lieves and is baptized shall be saved, and he that believeth not shall be damned, and so on to the end of the Gospel, is (as even now I intimated) added by that Evangelist, to the words, as they are set down in Matthew and so being an addition, cannot be looked on, as exactly parallel to the words in Matthew, Go, and disciple all nations baptizing them— And this we also know is ordinary for one Evangelist to set down more fully, what is omit∣ted or more shortly set down in another, and S. Mark that in other things was willing to abbreviate S. Matthew, doth now vi∣sibly in large; And so the comparison cannot regularly be made be∣twixt these two Evangelists words, something being abbreviatedPage  48 in Mark which was more at large in Matthew, and something more concisely set down in Matthew, and more largely in Mark. And then what necessity is there, that Mark not mentioning dis∣cipling but believing: and Matthew mentioning discipling but not believing the discipled and believers should be deemed the same.

[ 27] Tis true indeed of grown men, none can in reason be admitted dis∣ciples, which are not also believers (the ground of which I have set down in the Resol. of the Quaere p. 199.) but of infant children this is not true, for those, though they cannot come, may yet be brought, and though not upon their own confession, yet by the susception of others, made capable of the Churches charity, and so may be disciples without actual or personal belief.

[ 28] Nay 2dly if Mr. T. his argument had power to infer it, twere that which I might safely avouch, that infants may be comprehen∣ded under the style 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, they that believe and are baptized; so even now we had it in the expresse words of Christ, the little ones (and S. Luke specifies them to be 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉little infants) that believe on him: i. e. just as they are said elsewhere to come unto him, when they are as uncapable, for want of bodily strength, of personal coming, as for want of strength of minde or judgement, for personal believing, and yet in respect of others bringing them to Christ (and so to the Church in baptisme) they are by Christ himself said to do both of these, to come in one place, and to be∣lieve in the other.

[ 29] But then 3dly, I willingly acknowledge that the word [believe] in Mark, belongs peculiarly to the grown men and women, who are called by the preaching of the Gospel, of whom though it be said, that believing and being baptized they shall be saved, and not believing they shall be damned, yet it no way follows, that none but such as thus personally believed, should be baptized, or that being baptized they should not be saved, but lose all the be∣nefit of their baptisme.

[ 30] The later part of the words is considerable; He that believeth not shall be damned, Infidelity is pitcht on, as the thing peculiar∣ly, that incurs the certain damnation, i. e. the voluntary resisting the Faith, when it is preacht convincingly to them, and of that none are capable, but those that are arrived to years of under∣standing. Which as it is an indication that that ver. and those that Page  49 follow in S. Mark of believers casting out devils, &c. v. 17, 18. belong to adulti peculiarly, so it no way hinders but S. Matthews words being different from them, and supposed to be precedent to them in Christs delivery, may comprehend infants also, as such who are capable of entring into discipleship, and of being brought and presented to the Apostles by believing parents, This being the way whereby the faith of the parents may be signally beneficial to the childe, in bringing him thus early into the School, and so to the benediction of Christ, the parents together with the infant children, as among the Jews so among Christians, entring together into covenant with God.

[ 31] In this matter Mr. T. is willing to finde a difference betwixt Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever Christ hath com∣manded them, Mat. 28.20. and the preaching of the Gospel in S. Mark: thinking by that means to avoid the importunity of that text in Matthew, which evidently sets baptisme before in∣structing. But this can avail him nothing, For if by the Gospel in Mark we understand the whole Gospel, as in reason we must, for that is it which must be preacht to every creature (the Gentile world) then is that directly all one with teaching them to observe whatsoever he hath commanded; But if by preaching the Gospel we mean no more then, as Mr. T. here saith, that Jesus is the Christ, i. e. the proposing him as a Master, and calling all to come to him as disciples, then this being supposed precedent to mens com∣ing to discipleship, or bringing their infants to it (for without this they cannot be expected to come themselves, or to bring their in∣fants) all the rest is left to follow baptisme, and so all particular Christian instruction is subsequent, not precedent to baptisme, an effect of their discipleship, attending it, no way necessary to pre∣pare for it, which is the utmost 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which from that circumstance of that text I undertook to demonstrate.