The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences
Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.
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TO The Right Honorable THOMAS SAVAGE, Earl Rivers, Viscount Colchester, and Rock Savage; and Baron Darcy of Chich. AND To the Right Worshipful Richard Savage, his Son and Heir apparent. THough I cannot say I have exceeded others in what I have herein done, yet I may boldly affirm, that as yet none hath wrought to me; what after times may pro∣duce, I cannot tell, neither what measures they will then take, for Fancy and Invention rest in the Breasts of Ages; yet let me in the mean while be accepted into your Honours Family and Favour, and then I shall ever remain Your most Humble, Dutiful and Observant Servant Randle Holme.


THIS Third Book treateth of Coat Armours, which are formed of Artificial things, such as are Wrought or Invented by the Wit, Art, or Endeavours of Man, for the use and behoof of both Men and all living Animals.

But because in this part of my Labour I shall take oc∣casion to Blazon several Coats by Precious Stones, and Planets, as in the former part I have done it by Metals and Colours, and for brevity sake often by Let∣ters, which stand for such and such colours: I hold it not amiss in this place to give the Reader a Table of the said Stones and Planets together, with the Marks or Characters by which they are severally expressed, and also what Metals or Colours they signify.

☞ Yet herewithal it is to be noted, That in the Blazoning of Coat-Armours with Precious Stones, it is to be used to none of Inferiour rank, but to the No∣bility only; and the Planets to belong only to the Atchievements of Emperours▪ Kings, and great Princes, such as exercise Soveraign Jurisdiction.

  • Topaz
  • Pearle
  • Ruby
  • Saphyre
  • Diamond
  • ☉ Sol
  • ☽ Luna
  • ♂ Mars
  • ♃ Jupiter, Jove
  • ♄ Saturn
  • Yellow
  • White
  • Red
  • Blew
  • Black
  • Emerald
  • Amethist
  • Jacinth
  • Sardonyx
  • ♀ Venus
  • ☿ Mercury
  • ☊ Dragons head
  • ☋ Dragons tail
  • Green
  • Purple. Murrey
  • Tauney. Orange
  • Sanguine. Blood

1. He beareth Mars, a Crown Regal, Sol. This is of some termed a Crown Spiral, because from the circles thereof it runs up into sharp points or Spires. It is also called a Crown Homager, because of latter times it is worn by petty Kings or Princes, which do Homage and Service to Superior Powers; though it was the most ancient form of Crown we read of in Histories, and was usually made of the best of Metals, viz. Gold beset-with Diadems or precious Stones about the circle; from whence in after time they came to be termed Dia∣demes. Selden in his Titles of Honour, terms this a Crown radiant, or a Royal Fillet Radiant, or the first use of Crowns, and their Invention, read him part 1. cap. 8. fol. 156. to 173. La••es Nobility, fol. 25. Sphere of Gentry, lib. 3. fol. 41. In former times they wore Crowns in form oft the Sun Beams, because they were Suns, and as flaming Lights, for the whole World was led by them and their examples.

♃ 3 such Crowns in Pale ☉ born by Bely Maure, the last King of Britain.

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Page  3B a Cross raguled and trunked betwen 3 such O. was •• by Coilus, a Noble Man in Wales.

The great Duke of Florence in Italy, hath such a Cr••wn Radiant, or pointed, with a Flower de lis ised in the front of it, set as an adornment to his Coat 〈◊〉.

II. He beareth Saturn, a Crown Regal of Persia,ol. with a Torce or Wreath about it, Luna and Ve∣••. This is also termed for brevity a Crown of ersta, or Persian Crown, being such a kind of Crown as it is said Darius King of Persia wore on his head when he marched against Alexander the Great, and s in the Persian Language called a Cidaris; and is no other than the foresaid Crown Spiral set upon an helmet Chased or wrought with Imbossed work, ha∣ving a rowl of Silk about the bottom of it, as the man∣ner of Diadems and Crowns were in those ancient days.

Such a Crown O. with a Cap G. a Banner on a Staff set upon it of the same, charged with a Cressant O. sup∣ported by an Armed Arm and Hand proper, is the Crest of Oppers•••rf.

B. 3 such Crowns is born by Van Rodenham.

III. He beareth Jupiter, a Crown Mitral Imperi∣al, Sol, garnished and enriched with sundry precious Scones, proper. This is called an Emperors Crown, being composed both from the Sacerdotal and Regal co∣vers of the head, the high rising Diadem of Kings, and the Priests Miter, and so partakes of both.

Such a Crown with two Penons out of it, double point∣ed B. charged with a Cross O. endorsed, is the crest of Van Perschach.

Parts of a Crown.

The Diadem, or Royal Fillet, is that part which compasseth the head, and is set with precious Stones.

The Fillets, are the two swellings on each side it.

The Rising, is the Flowers and Crosses, or what other work is raised up above the higher Fillet.

The Arches, are the Gold Bars turning Arch-wise from one side of the Crown, to the Flowers of the other, which Bars are set with precious Stones.

The Mound, is the round Ball or Globe, set on the top of the Arch.

The Cross Patee, which is fixed on the Globe, as an Emblem of Christianity.

The Precious Stones of all sorts, wherewith all the Gold Work is adorned and beautified for the Wear∣ers Splendor and Glory.

IV. He beareth Saturn, a Royal Crown, Sol, Cap, Mars, Lined, Ermine. This is also called a Crown Imperial, and a Kings Crown, being a circle of Gold enriched with variety of precious Gems; from whence it is raised into eight Crosses Patee, and flower deluces interposing or intervening each other; the Cap being arched over with as many Bars of Gold, richly adorned with Pearls and Precious Stones, on the top is placed a Globe and Cross. This is the English Royal Crown, other Nations having their Crowns in form much different, as

The French Royal Crown hath the Circle only raised into Flowers de lis, and arches, and hath a Flower de lis on the top.

The Spanish Royal Crown, hath the Circle raised in∣to blown or open spreading Roses; the Cap being archt crossways and no more, having a Globe and Cross on the top.

The Denmark, Swethland, and generally all other archt or close Crowns, which belong to 〈◊〉 Ni••∣bo••ing Europian Kings, are raised from the Circle with Roses blown, and open spreading, and have Globes and Crosses on the top.

G. an Imperial Crown O. is quartered by Fynenberg of the Rhine.

O. an Oak issuing out of the base proper, debrused with a Fesse G. charged with three Imperial Crowns, born by Carles, or Carlos.

☞ And here it may not be untimely noted that Archt and close Crowns, (commonly as they are in use at this day) call them whether you will, either Royal or Imperial Crowns, are not to be used to adorn any Coat Armour, but Supream Kings, such as exercise Sovereign Commands.

V. He beareth Venus, a Princes Crown, Sol. Some call it a Princes Coronett, or Crownett. It hath the Circle or Chapcake raised into Crosses and Flowers de lis, as the Kings Crown, but worn by the Prince, it hath a Cap in it lined with Ermine, and a Button and Tassel of Gold on the top, but not Arch∣ed.

A Dukes Crown of the Blood Royal (as Morgan lib. 3. fol. 33. sets it out) is in all respects answerable to the Princes, both in the Chapeaux and raising, into Cros∣ses and flowers de lis; yet others set it forth according to the Dukes Crown in the next example.

VI. He beareth Mercury, a Ducal Crown, Sol. This is a Dukes Coronet of the Blood Royal, as Gwillim, fol. 423. sets it forth, whose Circle or Chape∣aux, is raised into Flowers de lis, with blown Roses in∣terposing, and both set on an equal height.

The Dukes Crown, not of the Blood Royal (as Mr. Morgan lib. 3. fol. 22. and others describe it) hath the raising from the circle composed of four open or blown Roses, and as many small ones, or Pearls set be∣tween, but not exceeding the middle of the Roses in height; see numb. 11. yet Carter in his Analysis makes this Crownett all of an equal height, terming it a Crownett Floreal, as being composed all of Flow∣ers.

The Dukes Crowns of Naples, which they put over their Coat Armour, is in form like to the Earls Crown in England, but the points of spires are not pearled.

VII. He beareth Saphyre, a Marquess Crown, Sol. The Marquess is a middle degree between a Duke and an Earl, and therefore the Crown partakes of the Page  4 Flower from the one, and the Pearl from the other, and both raised to an equal height. This is by some called a Daffadile Coronett.

The Marquesses Crown of France is made with three Pearls between each Rose; and they not much exceed the middle of the Roses.

VIII. He beareth Ruby, an Earls Crown, Crow∣nett, or Coronett, Sol. The circle of this is raised into Spires like Sun-Beams, with Buttons between; each spire having a Pearl fixed on the point thereof; some de∣scribe the Crown to have small Roses between the Spires, but that is only the fancy of the Work-man, as a farther flourish or garnishing to the Crown, when the largeness of it will admit such curiosities, but the old way was Pearls, for the Earl being a degree higher than a Vis∣count, and lower than a Marquess, hath the Crown com∣posed of both theirs.

IX. He beareth Diamond, a Uiseounts Coronet, Topaz, Pearled. This kind of Crown when set on an Escochion, is only a Circle or Chepeaux of Gold, garnished with variety of Gems; the top of the circle for close together with Pearls or Buttons of Silver. If worn by the Noble man, it hath a Cap within it of Pur∣ple Velvet, or Scarlet, with a Gold Button and Tassel on the top, as all other Crowns have which are worn. which some term a Circulet Coronett adorned with Pearls, sans number.

In the chief of this quarter is the form of the Arch-Duke of Austria his Crown; which is a Circle of Gold raised into Sun-Beams, or indented Points, with a Cap; having only one Arch over the middle of it, whereon is set a Mound, ensigned with a Cross Pa∣tee. And such a Crown I find quartered by Schurfi of Tyrold in Germany; and out of a Coronett, is the like Crown cross Arched, lined with Ermine, his crest.

The like Arch-Dukes Crown O. Cap G. turning up Ermins, with a flower de lis on the top A. is the crest of Mager van Fuchstat.

X. He beareth Emerald, a Barons Coronett, Topaz and Pearled. This kind of Crown consists of a Circle or Chapeaux of Gold set with Gems, and raised into six Pearls. Some Blazon it, the Crownet of a Baron adorn'd with six Pearls. The Barons Coronet anciently was only a Circle of Gold, with a Cap, Button and Tassel, or a Cap of Maintenance. But at the Coronation of our Soveraigne, Charles the Second, it was permitted, nay Ordered, that their Chaplet or circle should be set with only four, others say six Pearls, since which time all Barons have their Crowns and Coat Armour adorn∣ed with a Coronett thus made, and set with six Pearls.

In the chief of this square, is placed a Cap of Main∣tenance or Dignity, with the Furr urned up into cer¦tain invecks, being Tasseled on both sides, with the String pendant, and turned into a round or circle in the middle: And such a Cap Argent, with a white Fur, Tassels and String, Or, in a Field Gules, is the Coat of Meyer van Knonow, and a demy Man sans Arms, grey broad Beard, clothed Gules, with such a Cap on his head Tasseled and Stringed, is his Crest. See c. 5. n. 38.

G. the like B. Turned A. sans Tassels and String, i the Coat of Hudstocker, of Austria.

XI. He beareth Saphire, a Crown, Pearl. This is also by Boswell, pag. 103. called a Crownett, a Coro∣nett, a Crownall, and a Crown Homager; and is born either in Coat Armour or Crest, by any that are in Homage or Subjection to a Sovereign Prince or Poten∣tate. This is the true form of the Marquesses Coro∣nett, that is not of the Blood Royal, and consists of 4 large flowers, with as many intervening of a lower de∣gree, set about the top of the Chaplet.

♃ a Cross Patee fitcht between 4 such ☉. Born by Rodrick sirnamed Molwynock, a Nobleman in Wales.

♃ 3 such ☉ born by Sigebert, King of the East Angles.

G. 3 such O. born by Kyhelyn ap Ynyr of Wales.

B. one such O. is born by Schaftenberg.

Per Fesse G. and A. in chief 3 such O. is the Arms of the City of Coln.

XII. He beareth Pearl, a Crown Homager, or a Coronett, Ruby. This I find to be the ancient form of the Coronett, or Crown Homager.

Now that I may make the Crowns compleat to wear, let me say something of their Lining also: All the Crowns of England are lined, or have Caps with∣in them of Crimson Uelvet turned up Ermine; the Nobility having their turns up according to the lining of their Mantles.

Scotlands Crown for the King, hath the Cap of Pur∣ple Uelvet, imbraudered with Pearl.

The French have their Caps Purple, semy de flow∣er de lis's imbraudered with Gold.

The Duke having his head covered with a Cha∣peau.

The Baron weareth a round Cap lined, answerable to his Robe; but to wear either Cap or Bonnet in the Kings Presence, is an Honour afforded only to Compa∣nions of the Order of the Garter.

XIII. He beareth Saphyre, a Chaplett, or Cha∣peaux, or Circle of Gold, enriched with various co∣loured Gems. This was of old, the Crown or Dia∣dem that did adorn the heads of Kings, and great per∣sonages, thereby to distinguish them from the rest of the people: In the time of the Haptarchy they called it in their Language Cyneband, the Kings Head Band, or Royal Fillet. But when Crowns and Diadems in after times began to be Archt, then this Circle was ascri∣bed to the Barons of the Land, being a Circle of Gold wrought with Chased Work, without any Flowers or Pearls; if worn, then they had a Cap of Scarlet, with a Button and Tassel on the top, as in the next examples, numb. 14.15.

In the chief is another form of making the Chaplet or Golden Circle, without the sight of any part of the round or hollowness contained: And 3 such in Pale O. in a Field G. is born by Wasser.

Page  5Also in the Base of this same square is the fashion of Circle or Chaplet of Gold, having only one Fillet on the top side, and a round Cap in it, sans Button, Tassel, or any adornment with Stones. And 3 such O. Caps G. with a Fesse between B. in a Field A. is born by Steltz.

B. 3 such O. Caps A. is born by Capell, or Caperell.

XIV. He beareth Pearl, a Chaplet garnished, To∣paz, Cap, Ruby, Button and Tassel of the second. This is the Barons Cap of Dignity, as it was formerly worn by them of that degree.

XV. He beareth Topaz, a Cap of Maintenance, Ruby, liued and turned up, Ermine, Button and a••el, Pearl. This is termed also a Cap of State, a Cap of Dignity, and a Cap of Honour. This in former days was a Barons Cap, however it is diversly born in Arms, sometimes the turning up yellow, in o∣thers white, others the Fur is Indented, and others En∣graled, as you will see in the following examples.

A. a Cheveron B. between 3 such caps, by the name of Capter, alias Tipper

The Arch Duke of Austria, in Germany, hath the like Cap of Dignity set upon his Coat; having the Fur ut into Dents or Spires, with one Arch over the Cap, with a Mound and Cross on it. The like for the adorning the Coat Armour belonging to the Count Palatine of Rhine, and the Duke of Bavaria in the said Empire of Germany; see numb. 9.

Such a Cap as this, and the next following in numb. 16. are usually born in Coats, but especially for Crests, both for Quick or Dead things to stand upon; as mul∣titudes of such Bearings might be produced; only take these for many.

A. 3 such G. Lined and Turned up, or Furred Er. is born by Caps.

On the like Cap, a Lion rampant O. is the crest of Caplion.

XVI. He beareth Or, a Chapeau, or Cap of Estate, Gules, lined and turned up, Argent, But∣ton and Tassel, Or. This is by others (and that more properly, to distinguish it from the other round Caps) termed a Cap of Estate, or Dignity open behind, or loose behind; but if it be only Blazoned a Chape∣au, and no other term given it; it is sufficiently expres∣sed to be a Cap of Estate, that is thus open behind.

On a Chapeau, two Oxe-horns, from the turn-up, O. was an ancient crest born by Peshall or Persall, of Cukley in Staffordshire.

XVII. He beareth Sable, a Chapeau, Or, turn∣ing up Engraled, Ermine, Button and Tassel, Argent. This is another manner of turning up; and af∣ter the same fashion you shall have Caps born either in Coats or Crests, which have their Lining turned up with an Invecked, or an Indented form; but this one example shall suffice for such.

On such a Chapeau G. turned up Ermin, a Stag proper, is the crest of Palesdon, or Pulston, of Emrall.

On the like, a Weverne S. gorged with a Crown O. is the crest of Trevor, of Allyngton, in Denbigh-shire.

A Peacocks tail from the turn up of such a Chapeau, is the crest of the Lord Molineux.

In the Base of this quarter, is another kind of Wreath, which is termed a Wreath or Torce, with the ends flotant, A. and G. and a Wreath or Twist pen∣dant, G. Tasselled, O. and such a Torce doth adorn the head of a naked demy Woman to the Sinister, sans Arms, for the crest of Schmid•••er, of Brunswick.

XVIII. He beareth Vert, a round Torce or Wreath, Argent and Gules, born by Wreath. This is an ancient Ornament of the head, and much in use with Turks and Sarazens; but much more frequently used as an in∣terposition between the Mantle and the Crest on 〈…〉 of the Helmet. Sometimes it is Blazoned a Wreath, because it is made of two coloured Silks, or moe 〈◊〉∣ed together: sometimes termed a Torce, from 〈◊〉∣queo, to wind, or twist, wrest or wreath a thing together; the mixture of the colours in a Wreath, is most usually taken from the Metal and colour chiefly contained in the Paternal Coat of the Bearer.

☞ And for the orderly making of this Wreath, you are to observe this Rule, that the Twists be of an even number, as 4, 6, or 8, &c. that in placing the colours, you must evermore begin with the metal, and end with the colour. B. 3 such A. and G. is born by Wreathall.

The Wreath is thus made round, when born in Arms, but being set under crests, it is made like to the Torce or Wreath set in the chief of this square; but adorning the Heads or Temples of Men or Women, Moores or Sarace••s, they generally have the ends tyed up in Bow knots, or flying loose one way or both sides the head, as those in numb. 19. doth manifest.

B. three such, the ends florant A. and S. is born by Wrethburgh.

B. the same in Pale, is born by Torquell.

XIX. He beareth Or, a round Torce or Wreath tyed up, the ends pendant, Argent and Sable. This is of most Blazoned a Sarazens Towel, by which term the Knot and loose ends that hang down are to be under∣stood, for their Towels are ever so tyed; see lib. 2. cap. 17. numb. 10.75.3 such is born by the name of Sa∣razine.

In the chief is a close Wreath, making a little shew at the bottom of his roundness, with the two ends flo∣tant on each side, and so 3 such in Pale A. and B. in a Field V. is the coat an Roden.

The like about a Moors Face, is the crest of Van Dachroden of Thurland.

XX. He beareth Argent, on a round Wreath, Or and Vert, a Crown of Feathers, Or, Azure, Argent, and Purpure; with this kind of Crown, the Savage People of America do adorn the heads of their Leaders. Some Page  6 term it an American Crown or Diadem; others a Crown of Feathers of diverse colours; and is born by Maccoe.

B. 3 such, with a Fesse between A. is born by Fea∣therton.

XXI. He beareth Argent, a Chaplet or Garland of diverse Flowers, proper. It is reported of some, that after this manner the Old World first instituted Crowns or Garlands for their Governours, which af∣terwards the Egyptians made of Ivy, Bays, Lawrel, and several other Flowers, Herbs and Leaves. But Cae∣sus the Rich, in his Pompous Plays and Sports made them of Gold, from whence they began to be in esteem, so that every Kingdom, Nation and People following that example, devised Garlands, Crowns and Di∣adems for themselves, of sundry sorts and fashions.

A. such a Garland, proper, is born by Losse.

A. 3 such proper, is born by Garland.

XXII. He beareth Saphire, an Egyptian ancient Crown ouDiadem, Topaz. The ancient People of this Counry adorned the head of him that was their King and Ruler, with a Crown that 〈◊〉 framed or wrought with the Images of Adders heads: And indeed from the beginning (as Iosephus in his Antiquities affirm∣eth lib. 3. and 8.) Moses for the Israelites, and general∣ly all Nations did by instinct of Nature adorn that per∣son with a difference of Attire upon his head. whom they suffered to rule over them, which was as a sign or token of the preheminence of his Person and Offce.

XXIII. He beareth Argent, a Chaplet, or Garland, or Chapeaux of Roses. This is born by the name of Rosemore.

B. the like A. is born by the name of Crantz, or Krantz. Out of the like Garland (Torce ways) a de∣my Boy sans Arms, clothed B. with the like about his Temples, is his Crest. Another of that name beareth the same, in a Field G.

There is another form of Chapeaux, or Garland, which is composed all of Laurel Leaves, having only four Roses set upon it at an equal distance, which is termed a Laurel Chaplet, or Laurel Chapeaux; and such a Garland, with a Rose within it, is the crest of Van Hane.

And another, wherein the Laurel hath four wreaths upon it at equal distances, some having the ends of the Scarfe loose or flotant, termed a Laurel Garland wreathed.

Per Fesse G. and A. in chief 2 such Garlands con∣joined (or fretted one in the other) O. and in Base a Moors head to the Sinister, couped at the Shoulders, is born by Van Meusbach.

XXIV. He beareth Gules, a Chaplett, or a Cha∣pernon, Or. As is the Blazon, so is his name that Beareth it, viz. Chaplett. This is the true form of that which we term a Garland or Chaplet, without any more additions to it, and is made in fashion of an Annulett, beset with four Roundlets, or four Roses set at an equal distance; others describe it to be a round Circle or Royal Fillet, or Head Lace, with four Buttons or Knobs of Gold (wrought or imbossed into the form of flowers) set on the sides of it.

A. 3 such V. born by the name of Richarson.

O. on a chief G. 3 such O. born by Morison.

A. 3 such G. born by Lassels of Estrick in York-shire.

G. 3 such O. born by Shappell.

Er. 2 such, and a Rose, is born by Peche.

Per Fesse A. and B. 3 Chaplets counterchanged by the name of Duke.

XXIV. a. He beareth Jupiter, a Chapeaux or Chap∣lett of Roses, Mars, Radiant, or Spired, Sol. This kind of Crown I find hath various terms of Blazon; for of some I find it called a Rose Chaplet Crown, and a Rose Chaplet with Beams of Gold. Others out of a Chaplett of Roses, a Crown Regal, or Homager. Mr. Morgan, lib. 3. fol. 10. terms it a Crown with a Chaplett of red and white Roses.

After this manner you shall often find in Coats Ar∣mour, especially in Crests, Chaplets or Garlands, composed of diverse sorts of flowers or leaves, and ra∣diant or spired, as in this; crowning both the heads of Men and Women, which adornment may fitly be termed a Chaplet or Garland of Roses or Laurel, &c. Radiant; or after others, and that more briefly a Chaplet crowned, because in the Chaplet of flowers or leaves, generally no other Crown is used but this; yet if any other kind of Crown be set in the foresaid Chaplets, then you are to mention what sort of Crown it is.

XXV He beareth Pearl, a Crown Murall, Ruby. The circle of this Crown is raised with Brecresches, or Parapects, or Battlements, or tops of a Wall or Tower; and his head anciently was adorned with such a Crown who first mounted on the Walls of a Besieged City or Town, and there fixed the Standard belonging to the General of the Army.

XXVI. He beareth Pearl, a Crown Naval, Sa∣phire: This kind of Crown was made with a Circle of Gold, relevated, or raised like Prowes or Poupes, or the forepast of a Ship, and his Head was adorned with it, who in a Sea Fight first grapled, and boarded the Ship that was their Enemies. Crowns of Gold were equally mixt with Shields, of old to adorn the Temples of the Victors, as we read in the Story of the Maccabees, 1. Mac. 4.57.

XXVII. He beareth Diamond, a Crown Uallarial, Topaz. This is also termed a Crown Castral, or Crown Pallizadoed: which is a Crown of Gold raised into Pales, Pikes, or Stakes; and was given by the General of an Army to him that first entred into the Trenches of his Enemies Camp, and forced the Palliza∣does. The French call it a Crown Ualloir, or Pailee.

Such a Kind of Crow (saith Mr. Morgan) doth encom∣pass the Lion of Holland, which is Armed like Apollo,Page  7 with his Arrows in his left, and his Sword in his right Paw.

XXVIII. He beareth Jupiter, a Crown Caelestial, Sol. This kind of Crown hath the Circle, or Chaplet thereof raised into Spires or Sun-Beams, with a Star fixed upon the point of each Beam. Some term it a Crown composed of eight Stars, or Constellati∣ons of Heaven. Such a Crown is said to be made by Vulcan, who gave it to Theseus, and it was of such admi∣rable refulgency, that it gave him light through the dark errours of the Labyrinth that he was to pass. A Crown of Stars we read also was worn by the Woman in Heaven, Rev. 12.1.

XXIX. He beareth Sol, a Crown, or Garland Tri∣umphal, Venus. This Triumphal Chaplet as some call it, was first made of Laurel, or Bays, platted toge∣ther: and tied in the back part of the Head with Ribbons Jewels; being the signe and token of Victory: and soon after made of the purest Gold; whereupon it was named Aurum Coronarium. In was by the Ro∣mans given to the General that returned home wit Victory from a dreadfull Enemy. And it was after worn by the Roman Emperors themselves, as their kinges, and Figures in the Coins, put out in their several Reigns doth abundantly testifie.

XXX. He beareth Pearl, a Crown (Garland or Chaplet) Civica, Emerald: This hath several denomi∣nations, as Crona civica, the Civil Crown, or Citi∣zens Crown: this was made of the flourishing branches of the Oak fructed, or Acorned, and tied behind the Head (as all the Roman Garlands usually were) and was given by the City of Rome, to their fellow Cittizens, who had saved a Citizens life, either in a Siege or Battel; count∣ing it more Honor to save the Life of a Friend, than to destroy an hundred Enemies. But more especially it was given to them, who had well deserved of the publick Estate, and managed Matters well for the conservations of their civil Affairs. It is the Emblem of Valour and safty, as the Royal-Oake of England doth abundantly testifie; and therefore may not unfitly be ermed the Garland of Honor, and Protection.

XXXI. He beareth Topaz, a Crown Gramineal, or Obsidional, Emerald. Others term it a Garland of Fame and Honor: this was made of Grass, or Herbs, or what else was found in the place besieged, and given to the Captain or General, that did by his Valour, and Wisdom, deliver that place from the besiegers, or save a whole inclosed Army, sharply beset on all sides by the Enemy.

XXXI. a. He beareth Sol, a Garland Pacifical, or Crown Minerval, Venus: This kind of Crown was made of the branches of the Olive-tree, which is the Sym∣bole of Peace, therefore called the Crown of Peace and Concord; It was given to him that had anaged a Peace and Union between two Mortal 〈◊〉 and by 〈◊〉 discretion brought it o a 〈…〉〈◊〉 be dissolved. Some 〈…〉〈◊〉Crown of Arts and 〈…〉, and Plenty; Unity and Concord is the Nurse of Arts.

A. such an one V. invironing an Escochon, O. charg∣ed with 3 Stags horns in pale, Sable. Is the Arms of the States of Winenden.

XXXII. He beareth Ruby, a Crown or Garland of Ceres, Topaz. This is also termed, Ceres Co∣ronet, the Honor of Agriculture, or Husbandry; the Crown of Plenty and Abundance: being made of the Ears of Corn. This was given as a reward to him, who is a good Provider for the People, such as Ioseph was in Egypt: It was, and is the Husbandmans Honor to be adorned therewith, by whose care and industry the Land florisheth with Plenty. This is called Corona Al∣ma the Uirgins Crown, which as Pliny writeth lib. 17. cap. 2. was the first Crown or Garland among the Romans.

The. Crown Poplex, or Poputeal Garland; is made of the Leaves of Poplar: and is given to such young Men, in whom was perceived the greatest towardness of Virtues.

There are several other sorts of Crowns or Garlands, made of diverse kinds of Leaves, and Branches; which to put in the Copper Plate, would have been chargable and not very material, seeing they may (by these) be as well understood by their description▪ which are as followeth.

The Garland of Bacchus, the Crown Baccha∣nal, or of Friendship: It is composed of the Branches and Fruit of the Vine, which is the Emblem of Amity, & true Friendship. Yet the Joyce thereof being immo••rat∣ly used, hath and doth daily manifest the contrary effect; being the only cause, and that too often, of the disunion of Brethren.

The Garland of Olympick games, called also the Olympical Crown, or Crown of Uictory: This was made of the Branches of the depressed Palm, and was a reward given to those that obtained the Victory at the Roman Games, which were for the Exercise of Manhood, and activity of Body. They were called the Olympian games, from whence this Crown was called by them, Corona Olympica.

The Crown of Ovation, of some termed Corona Ovationalis, the Crown of Ioy and rejoycing being Garlands used at the Death of Deceased Frinds, therefore also called the Garland of Death. It was made of Firr branches, and with these kind of Crowns the Greeks & Romans, having mantled their dead Friends in their wind∣ing-sheets, they adorned their Heads with such Crowns; signifying thereby, that the party deceased had run out his race, and won the price, having ended the troubles of a wicked Life, and vain World by Death. Hence it is that the custom of Garlands is used at the Funeral of young Persons, but to manifest that they have run a great race, and gained the goal in a little time.

The Crown Spineal, or Crown of Thorns: This was made of sharp thorns, platted or wound toge∣ther, and was worn by our Saviour Jesus Christ, at the time of his Crucifixion: It is the Emblem of a Generous Soul, that lieth not in wait to deceive, yet it fights against fighters.

The Crown Amarantheal, or the Garland of A∣maranthus, which are made of the Stemm Leafe and Page  8 Flower of an Herb that will never wither. This is the Emblem of an everlasting flourishing fame; such a Gar∣land was offered up at the Sepulcher of Achilles, thereby to eternize the fame of that Noble Hero.

The Crown Mirtal, is a Crown composed of the Leaves and Berrys of the Mirtle Tree, which are of a sweet Odour; and was given to him, which overthrew such an Enemy, as was a Vassal or Homager, to that Estate against whom he took up Arms.

The Crown Hederal, or Garland of Ivy, which is appropriated to Poets and excellent Musitions: whose Brains are not too much moistned with the Joyce of Bac∣chus.

He that desireth to read more of these several sorts of Crowns and Garlands let them peruse these Authors.

Seldens Titles of Honor, part 1. chap. 8. and part 2. chap. 1.2.

Morgans Sphere of the Gentry, lib. 3. chap. 3. & 4.

Fernes Lacyes Nobility, pag. 26.27.

Gwillims Display of Heraldry, sect. 4. chap. 16.

XXXIII. He beareth Saphir, Papal Infula, Ruby: insignen with a Treble Crown, and Cross, Topaz: having a Cloud and the Sun-Beams issuing out of the same, proper. This is of some blazoned only a Tre∣ble Crown with the Cloud and Sun-Beams issu∣ant all proper.

{sal armoniac} 3 such is the Coat Armour 〈…〉 Worshipful Company of Woollen-Drapers.

XXXIV. He beareth Saturn, a Papal Crown (or a Treble Crown, or a Popes Crown) Sol: with two Labells pendant Luna. This is born by the name of Crownall.

XXXV. He beareth Pearl, a Cardinals Hat, with the Strings pendant and platted, or fretted in form of a True-Loves knot, Ruby: Bobs and Tassells, Sol.

Per Fesse G. and A. a pointed Skreen with an handle issuant A. and such an Hat G. born by Reindorser. The like Skreen set on the top of the Hat is the Crest.

Such an Hat parted per Pale A. and G. is the Crest of Van Groben.

2 Hats supporting each other in form of a Cheveron G. is the Crest of Hoppingen.

XXXVI. He beareth Topaz, a Cardinalls Cap Diamond. This is their usual wearing Cap.

In the chief of this square is another sort of Cap made much after the form of a Scotch-Bonnet, or round Cap. A. 3 such S. banded O. is the Cappers Arms in Chester. See numb. 42.43.

XXXVII. He beareth Pearl, a Cardinalls Cap of the order of St. Austin, Diamond. Others term it a Monk, or Friers Cap, of St Austins order.

In the Chief of this square is another form of drawing the Cardinals Hat, having the under side of the Brim and inner part of the Crown seen, with the Strings Tasselled, and only crossed. A. 3 such G. is born by Bayrn zu Freidenfels.

Such an Hat, with a Wing erected on it A. is the Crest of Lantzen, as also of Van Liebensels.

The like Hat with the strings Fretted Wreathed, & treble Tasselled in a Field A. is born by Van Dobeneck.

A. 3 such B. is born by Kayb of Switzerland.

XXXVIII. He beareth Jupiter, a Crown Mittered, Sol: Garnished with variety of Gems, proper. Such a Crown Mittered is to be set upon the shield of Arm of such a Bishop, as doth exercise Soveraign Jurisdiction: doth manage both the Temperal Sword, and Spriritual staff, & keep all Courts within his Diocess in his own name. Such of old I have seen in a Manuscript over the Bishop of Durhams Arms, see chap. 5. numb. 104.

The like having the Coronet O. and the Miter G. charged with a Fesse Nebuletee A. and B. is the Crest of Van Blumeneck.

XXXIX. He beareth Mars, a Miter (or a Bishops Miter Sol: Garnished, or set with several stones pro∣per; the Cap or Lining Venus, with two Labells pen∣dant Luna, Tassells of the Second. If the Miter be all of one Mettle or Colour, you need say no more but a Miter.

♂ 3 Miters ☉ by the Bishoprick of Chester.

a Miter A. charged with a Salter G. is the Crest of Bochingen.

a Miter B. Filletted or Garnished A. lined G. at each point a Peacocks tail. Is the Crest of Taufkirchen.

a Miter B. Fillet and Points buttoned A. is the Crest of Dune.

a Miter G. Fillet or Head band adorned with a Saphire Stone and Buttoned B. is the Crest of Burglen.

XL. He beareth Ar••nt, a four cornered Cap, Sable. This is a chief Jutice or Iudges Cap, which he ever puts on his Head before he passeth Sentence on a∣ny Maleactor. This is also a Master of Arts his Cap, or a Doctors Cap, see the same born sideways numb. 44.

XLI. He beareth Or, a three Cornered Cap, Sable.

XLII. He beareth Argent, a Bonet Cap, Sable; Lined Or: in chief an Egyptian Shooe, Gules. This Cap is termed in the Schools, a Students Cap, o an under Graduats Cap.

XLIII. He beareth Or, a Bonet (or Scotch Be∣net, or Scotch Cap) Azure: in chief a Laplanders Shooe, Sable. Before that the Invention of Hats were found out, this was the covering for the Head of all the Grandees, and Persons of note and quality in former Ages, and this many ancient Pictures remaining amongst us to this day, doth inform us.

XLIV. He beareth Argent, a Cap and Button Gules: turned up, Or. This is used now, and also was in our Forefathers days, by all Labourers and Handicrafts Men, who cannot conveniently work (especially in the Summer time) with their Hats on their Heads: and Page  9 therefore are fitly termed Labourers Caps, and with∣out Buttons, Caps or Night-Caps, as numb. 47.

G a Fesse between 3 Labourers Caps A. born by Liberer.

B. a Night-Cap A. born by Sleeper.

O. Cap G. turned up and on the Button A. 5 piles of Grass V. is the Crest of Van Schaben.

In the Chief of this square is the figure of a Doctors four cornered Cap set sideways, and in Heraldry thus dr••n is term'd the Master of Arts (or Doctors) Cap; being the true form, the other mentioned numb. 40. not being so much to be understood for a Cap, as this: and three such S. in a Field O. I find born by the name of Doctors.

XLV. He beareth Vert, out of a Coronet Or, a Steel Cap, Argent. Some term it a Coronet Cap∣ed: and a Cap set in a Coronet.

☞ All round headed Caps are generally termed Steel Caps, or Morions.

B 3 such O. Capped G. is the Coat of Crownend.

G. one such O. Capped A. is born by Devent.

XLVI. He beareth Topaz, a Cap Gules, turned up and open behind, (in form of a Chapeau) Pearl: Deckt with a Feather in the Frontlet or Forepart, Azure. Born by the name Stonrigge.

A. the like B. Feather G. born by Kingston.

The like S. turn up O. the Feather A. is the Crest of N••kirch.

XLVII. He beareth Topaz, a Morion, or Steel Cap, Saphire, charged with a bend, Pearl; lined and turned up, of the same.

G. a Cap O. turned up A. is both Coat, and Crest of Stadeldorf.

XLVIII. He beareth Argent, a Morion, or Steel Cap, Azure, turned up in point, Or: set on each side with a Crutch, Sable. Some term them a Crutch Staff, or a Lame Mans Staff, or a Potonce: But I hold this to be best blazoned (for the better under∣standing of the Stations of the Crutches) to say, each side adorned, or set with a Crutch expenced bendwise Sini∣ster, or a Morion between two Crutches in bend, Si∣nister expenced. By which terms it is made manifest that they are set in the middle of the Cap, and one ap∣pears by the side of the other, both bending one and the same way: which by the first and old way of blazon, the Cap might be taken to be between the Potences; and not the Potences to lie upon, or proceed from the cap.

Such a Cap S. Lined with 2 Ass Ears set in the turn up A. is the crest of Kaevdell.

Such a Cap V. turn up A. set with 2 Bonicans horns O. i the crest of Schliderer Van Lachen.

Such a Cap G. turn up A. set with 2 Feathers, one B. the other G. and a Feather on the Crown A. is the crest of Psek.

Several ways of Bearing things on Caps▪

So that Caps of this fashion are generally beset with things of all conditions, as Horns, Fearhers, Wings Flow∣ers, Leaves, Branches, Staves, and such like: of which notice must be taken how, and after what manner they are set with the Cap: as,

  • First, a Cap turned up, with a thing set on each side, expenced: or such a thing set on each side from or under the turn up, expenced. Shewth the things to pro∣ceed from the turn up, and bend one way, or stand one behind the other, as this figure 48. manifests, and numb. 71. lib. 4. chap. 4. numb. 31.
  • Second, a Cap with turn up, hath a thing set in the forepart of it, which is term'd, such a thing placed, or pro∣ceeding from the turn up in the Front, or Frontal, or Forehead: as numb. 46.
  • Third, a Cap turned up, may have a thing set upon one side of it, which may be termed, the side adorned with such a thing from the turn up: as numb. 55.
  • Fourth, a Cap, turned up, with such a thing on each side Endorsed, that is when one of the things bend one way, and the other the contrary: if they be Wings they are termed Displayd: as lib. 4. chap. 4. numb. 30.
  • Fifth, a Cap, turned up, with any thing set or stand∣ing upon the top or Crown of it: then say, such a thing standing on a Cap, turned up: or on the cap, such a thing. lib. 4. chap. 4. numb. 19.28.
  • Sixth, a Cap, turned up, between such and such things; is when the Cap is put between any things, and doth (as it were) not touch, or but touch the same, having nothing set o it▪ or in it, but near to it; and these sometimes are set Expenced, Displayd, or Endorsed: that is bending one way, or bending too, or from the Cap, or any thing else, thus set between things: lib. 4. numb. 30.31.32.
  • Last of all, a Cap, turned up, may have a thing on it, and yet be between other things; and then say thus, such a thing, on a Cap, turned up, between two such, or such things.

☞ Yet note here a further and nice distinction, which is to say thus: such a thing between two such things, on a Cap turned up. This shews that all be∣fore mentioning the Cap, to be set on the Cap: as lib. 4. chap 4. numb. 28.32.

XLIX. He beareth Gules, a Morion, Azure; turn∣ing up in point (like a Chapeau) engrailed, Argent. Billetted, or set wth 6 Billets on the top, Sable.

L. He beareth Gules, a Morion, (of some called a Copped Hat, or Cap) Azure: turned up, in form of a Chapeau, Argent.

L. a. He beareth Vert, a Morion or Steel Cap, Sable; turned up, Argent: each side beset, or adorned, or issuant there from, two Palms or Tops of Bucks Horns, Or. Born by the name of Garvile.

Page  10LI. He beareth Argent, an Infula, Gules: turned up Chapeau like, Or. Some term them an Infula Cap, or a Pyramide Cap, or a high copped Cap, turned up. This is born by the name of Van Skckin.

LII. He beareth Or, an Infula, Gules; turned up, Argent: on the top a Button of the same. Born by the name of Rusenbach.

A. 3 such G. turned up and Buttoned O. born by Hardyll.

The like S. turn-up and on the Button A. 5 grass blades V. is the Crest of Van Carben.

A. 3 Boys Faces, with Infula's on their Heads, fans turnings up G. is Coat of Grafenslein of Alsatia.

The like Infula G. turned up A. on the top a Crownet O out of which is a rose slip, proper. This is born by Dier Von Schelen of West palia. After this manner you will often find both Dutch and Germans Coats, and Crests; adorned on the top with Balls, and several sorts of de∣vises fixed thereon, as Flowers, Leaves, Feathers, Stars, Cressants, &c. See chap. 5. nmb. 69. these Infula's are also born out of Coronets, as numb. 45

LIII. He beareth Argent, an Infula••les, turned up and opened on the side, Or. Born by the name of Benperg in Francovia.

An Infula Or. with the like turning up, Sable; dor∣ned on the top with a tuft of Grass, consisting of 5 piles flected, Vert: is the Crest of Lamprechen in Frnovia. After this manner you shall have Infula's born with other sorts of Leaves, Flowers, Feathers, and the like: which you are to mention in your blazon.

The Infula S. such a turn-up, with a Plum of 5 Fea∣thers A. hanging bendways over the middle of the height of it, a Rose Garland. This is the Crest of Curtzbach.

LIV. He beareth Topaz, and Infula, Ruby: turn∣ed up, and open on the side, with a Button on the top Argent; reverted of the Second. There are some who term this an Infula turned up, and turned down; or turned up, and reflected; or lined and reverted; naming one only colour, and that of the turning up, by reason the turning down is ever taken to be of the same colour, as the Infula it self is off.

LV. He beareth Argent, an Infula, Tenne; turned up in point, Gules: issuant there from erect the side, a Ropers Stake, Sable.

Several ways of Turn ups.

☞ Here take notice in these few foregoing examples, of the several ways and manners of turnings up, as to say turned up; and no more signifieth the turning not much to exceed the compass of the bottom of the Cap: as numb.

Second, turned up like the Chapeau; which is open behind, and ends in two point: as numb. 46.50.51.

Third, turning up and open, or opened on the side, is when a slit is made in the side: as numb. 53.54.

Fourth, turning up, opened, and reverted; when the lined part is turned up, and then turned down a gain as numb. 54.

Fifth, turning up in point, is when it is not open be∣hind, but hang downward, and to sight ends as it were in a point, as to the turning up of the lineing: as numb.

LVI. He beareth Or, a Sarazens Hat, or an Infu∣la, Garnished, Azure: enwrapped with a Towel, tied in a knot with Nooses, and ends pendant, Ar∣gent. This is born by Artzet.

O. 3 such G. Towels A. is born by Lidlow.

Out of a Wreath or Torce A. and S. an Infula of the first, with a Tuft of Grass on the top: is the Crest of Nordtwein. Some term it an Infula environed with a Torce: because here the Wreath is in the place of the turn-up, see numb. 67.74.

LVII. He beareth Argent, a Capped Tanke, String∣ed, Gules. This is a certain cover for the Head, which ancient Servile Romans used: It is in Coats of Arms (I find) born several ways, as fretted all over, or circled about, either in the whole, or in part, as the precedent, and subsquent examples shews you. The strings are to 〈◊〉 it under the Chin that it be not apt to fall of the Head, 〈…〉 would be. Out of a Coronet O. a Tank 〈…〉nd G. is born by the name of Van Still.

☞ The difference between an Infula and a Tank is thi〈…〉 to a kind of a point in the top; the 〈…〉. The one wide at the bottom 〈…〉 one wid∣ness all along from the bottom to the top.

LVIII. He beareth Argent, a Fools Cap with a Bell at the end of the Flap, Or: turned up of the same. Three such is born by Fool.

LIX. He beareth Or, an Infula gradually circled, Sable. Born by the name of Bubbell.

A. a Cheveron between 3 such G. is born by the name of Balvaire.

LX. He beareth Or, an Infula imbowed in the top, Azure; Garnished and Tasselled, Argent. Born by name of Melwaine.

LXI. He beareth Argent, an Infula imbowed at the end, Gules: turned up in form of a Chapeau, and engrailed, with a Button and Tassel on the top, Or.

☞ Here note that when these Infula's are imbowed at the top, then they are made much smaller at the end then usually they are to be, when streight. This is born by the name of Brunt.

B. the like imbowed to the dexter side G. and turned up open in the side, A. Tasselled O. is the Coat and Crest of Van Bornstedt.

A. 3 such to Sinister and bowed to the Dexter G. Page  11 turned up and Tassells O. with Wreaths about the mid∣dle of the foldings A. set in the Field 1. and 2. Born by the name of Van Ronstet.

LXII. He beareth Argent, an Infula imbowed, Vert; Button and Tassell, Or: turned up of the first, fretted, Sable. This is born by the name of War∣ner.

3 Such with a Cheveron between S. is born by Colner.

LXIII. He beareth Argent, a Munmouth Cap, (or a Ship Cap, or Boat Cap, Sable; turning up Or. These Caps are often laced on the Crown, and Edges of the turn up: which you may either blazon Edged or Imbrauthered, so and so. This is also termed a Mountaro Cap, and a Munmouth Cap, as from the place where it was first made.

LXIV. He beareth Azure, a Knit Cap, or a Mild Cap, Argent; banded and buttoned, Or. turned up on one side, Gules. This is also termed a Falconers, or Foresters Hat, being in former times much in use with such, because they would bear out wet: but now are wholy left off. By the Gallants of those times, the under sides of the brim were richly adorned with Silver and Gold, and bands of the same.

LXV. He beareth Argent, an Hat, Sable; band Or. turning up, Purpure; Decked wirh a Plum of Fea∣thers, Or, Gules, Argent, and Vert. It was a great fashi∣on in King Charles the first time, to have the under side of the brim to be lined with Taffaty of variable colours.

A. a Cheveron G. between 3 such Hats, is the Coat of the Worshipful Company of Feltmakers.

LXVI. He beareth Argent, a Womans Hat band∣ed, Sable. This is called a Womans Hat, because gene∣rally they wear their Hats higher in the Crown (Sugar Loafe like) and broader in the brims, then Men do. This is generally the Feltmakers Sign.

A. 3 such S. is born by the name of Hatter.

LXVII. He beareth Sable, an Indian Hat, (or a China Hat, and String pendant, Argent; Button and Tassel, Or. Three such is born by the name of Chinence.

A. 3 such Sable, is born by Rysencross.

The like A. tied on a Lions head S. is the Crest of Van Ostheim.

In the Chief of this square, is placed the fashion of two sorts of Caps, which I find used, and born in Coat Ar∣mour. The first is a kind of Turks Turbot, and the other a Wreathed Cap, or a Cap with a Wreathed turn-up, being another sort of Turks Caps.

Out of a Crown, a Demy Turk, sans Arms, between 2 Wings, having such a Wreathen Turbut, or Cap, is the Crest of Sunthavsen.

B. 3. Turks Faces, so attired G. and O. is both Coat and Crest of Van Belo.

LXVIII. He beareth Gules, a Dutch Hat, Argent; Band, String, Crossed, and Tassells, Or. They use (as I suppose) these strings to tie their Hats to their Heads. This is born by the name of Sch••eberg.

O. 3 such parted per pale B. and A. Strings and Tas∣sells and Bands G. is both Coat and Crest of Van Der Wendt. Also by Van Wende.

LXIX. This is another manner of way, which the Dutch use in drawing their Hats in Coats Armour; with the side, or next part of the Brim to you, urned 〈◊〉 which is blazoned as before in the Hat, nm. 65. This S. in a Field A. is born by Wndishmark. The same wi•• the turn-up O. is born by Newkirch.

There is another sort of Dutch Cap, as chap. 5. 〈◊〉 38. which is termed a Dutch Cap Sable, turne〈◊〉 Argent, the Tassells and Stings cosed, Or.

LXX. He beareth Vert, a Turbot (or a Tuks Cap) Argent: having a Sprig Feather set in the side of it, Or. This is born by the name of T••k, or Tueks.

B. 3 such A. Feather O. is born by Holtzern. These may be termed Turks Imperial Turbots: being such as the Emperial Sultan himself doth wear, and one else but himself: all others wearing such as I have set down in the chief of numb. 67.

LXXI. He beareth Azure, Mercury's Cap, or Hat, Gules: Winged Argent. For to nominte the colours of the Wings, which e contrary to the Hat, or Cap: they must be named, else if they be made all of one colour, or mettle: then to say Mercurys Cap is suffi∣cient to shew it to be Winged. This as before blazon∣ed, is born by Swift.

G. 3 such O. Wings A. is born by Speedwell.

LXXII. He beareth Saphir, an Infula Amethist, fretted Topaz; the turning up, opened before (or on the side) and reverted, or turned down again below the Neck and Sides of the Face, Pearl. This may be termed an old Mans hood which covers him all about the Neck and Face to preserve him from cold. This is born by Winter.

The like upon an old Sarazens head is the Crest of Mascho. This kind of wear may be termed an Infula Cap-hood, or a Cap-hood open before with an In∣fula top or head.

LXXIII. He beareth Gules, two Insula's, the one, Or, the other Argent; fretted Sable: Buttons and Tassells of the second, both set in a Weath, of the third, and fourth. Some blazon it an Infula Iessant of another, both Invironed within a Tore. This is born by Burse.

LXXIV. He beareth Or, a flat Crowned Cap, Sa∣ble: Wreathed, Argent, and Gules. Others blazon it, out of a Torce, or Wreath, Argent and Gules; a Flat Cap, Sable. 3 Such born by Copley.

Such a Cap with a turn-up, and open on the sides is a Poland Cap, and is so termed in blazon: and is born by a Poland Family named Boyezan.

Page  12LXXV. He beareth Sable, a Monks-hood or a Monks Caule, or else the Hood of a Dominican Frier, Argent. This is also the orm of the Cauls, or Hoods, belonging to the Cluniacens Friers but of a different colour. Three of these are born by the name of Porral.

A Demy Monk sans Arms, cloathed G. thus hooded A. with a Wreath about the Head, ends flotant A. and G. is the Crest of Pomer of Brunswick.

LXXVI. He beareth Gules, a Monks-hood, or Caule of the Carthusian Order, Argent: this Coat belongs to Die Krantzen Van Geispoltzheim, in Alsatia i the Empire of Germany.

Such a Demy Monk sans Arms cloathes per Cheveron A. and G. the Hood A and Scapuler or Shoulder part G. is the Crest of Brunighosen.

LXXVII. He beareth Argent, the Hood, or Caule of a Benedictan Monk, or Frier, Sa••le. This i contrry to the other Hoods, having a lose and hollow p••ce of coth hanging backward, as 〈◊〉 it were a long bag and 〈◊〉 under 〈◊〉 Chin, hanging loose down before.

L•••III. He beareth Sol, a French Hood, Saturn. 〈◊〉 sort of Hood was much in request ab••t 1568. an because it came first out of France to us, it was called a French Hood; it hung down with a long broad Flap: the end thereof being turned up to the top of the Head (for so it was usually worn) and there made fast, it did not exceed the shoulders in depth. This having the Flap or Tippet hanging down the wearers Back, may be termed a Mourning hood, or a close Mourning hood; for such great persons usually wear over thei Heads and Shoulders in Funeral Obse••ies and Solem∣nities.

LXXIX. He beareth Argent, a Dutch-hood, Sable. This may also be termed a Mournning Hood, being such as they of inferiour rank wear at the Solemnity of great Funerals; which are called close Mourners, and have only their Tppets extending from the Crown of the Head to the middle of the Back. This is born by the name of Mournr.

G. the like Hood A. is the Arms of the Town of Guglinge in Germany.

A De••• Man to the Sinister, sans Arms, Cloathed and Hooded A. is the Crest of Marschalck.

LXXX. He beareth Argent, a close Mourning-hood, for a Person of Honor, having the Tippet relected, and laid under the Cloake or Shoulder part of the Hood, Sable.

☞ There is in these kind of Hoods three parts; the first is the Hood which covers the head all about the Face▪ the second is the Cloake part, which covers the Neck and Shoulders: the third is the Tippet, which hangs from the hinder part of the Crown, and reacheth back∣wards to the ground, and in some a yard on the ground, according to the quality and greatness of the Person which weaeth it.

A. the like hood G. is born by the name of Retzer.

LXXXI. He beareth Or, a Cornered Hood, or a Ladies Uail, Vert. Being only Silk Imbrauthered ac∣cording to the Persons quality, and edged with Gold and Silver, and so cast over the head, it was a rich kind of Attire for the head in former days, see lib. 2. chap. 17. numb. 32.

LXXXII. He beareth Gules, a Quoif with a Boon-grace, Argent. Some call it an Head Attire, or Frontlet. Three such is born by the name of Front.

LXXXIII. He beareth Argent, a Womans Hood, having the tyes or flaps tyed, and ends flotant or pen∣dant,able. And is born by the name of Hood.

LXXXIV. He beareth Azure, a Nuns Uaile or Nuns Hood, Argent: It is so termed, because their Hoods are all so deep, that the compass all about the Shoulders.

LXXXV. He beareth Sable, a Set-Hood, laced, conjoyned to a Night-raile, Argent. This is a kind of dress which Women in Child bed usually wear, when they are for Christnings, and up-sittings. Some term this a Hooded Night-raile.

LXXXVI. He beareth Saphire, a Ueiled Quoif, or a Quoif with a Ueil, or loose Scarfs hanging each side of it, Pearl, imbrauthered in the Frontlet, Topaz. This was a great fashion for Head Attires in the elder times, see numb. 87.

In the chief of this square, is the form of a Quoif, or rather a Cap▪••mpassed about the bottom with a String of Pearls or Beads, the 〈◊〉 extended; and such is born by 〈◊〉, as you my see chap. 5. numb. 142. c. ater the same manner a String of Beads are often made to proceed rom Crowns either extendant or pendant, and also from head Tires.

LXXXVII. He beareth Ruby, a Womans Circle or Head Tire, Pearl, Fretted, Diamond, with a Towel or Scarf cast over the back part of it, and pendant, Topaz: Of the adorning of the head with cir∣cles of Gold, and Imbrauthered work after this manner about E. 1. time, by Men and Women of high account, is manifest by many Pictures and Monuments of those times. See Mr. Dugdale on Warwick-shire, fol. 121.

LXXXVII. a. He beareth Argent, an Old Mans Cap, Sable, turned up, Tenne, having covers for the Ears and Neck of the second. It may be term∣ed also a Iews head cover, and such I find worn by a demy Man full faced, fork Bearded sans Arms, clothed and capped G. and is the coat and rest of Welser.

After covers for the head, of which I have given you divers examples and fashions both ancie and modern: I shall now proceed to give you some covers for the face, and through an omission here, I have caused them to be Engraven, chap. 5. numb. 63.64. where you may see the form and manner of such things, but I shall treat of them here.

Page  13He beareth Argent, a Mask, Sable. This is a thing that in former times Gentlewomen used to put over their Faces when they Travel to keep them from Sun burning; it covered only the Brow, Eyes and Nose, through the holes they saw their way; the rest of the Face was co∣vered with a Chin-cloth.

Of these Masks they used them either square with a flat and even top, or else the top cut with an half round; they were generally made of Black Velvet.

The second form of Mask, is the Uisard Mask, which covers the whole face, having holes for the eyes, a case for the Nose, and a slit for the mouth, and to speak through; this kind of Mask is taken off and put on in a moment of time, being only held in the Teeth by means of a round ead fasned on the inside over against the mouth, see chap. 5. numb. 64.

A Uisard is another kind of cover for th Face, and it is made after the form of ugly ll shapen aces; these are used in Interludes and Plays to make Mens Faces ap∣pear to what they act, as deformed Creatures, Apes or Devils.

B. a cheveron between 3 Visards A. born by the name of Vissard.

LXXXVIII. He beareth Argent, a Garter Nowed Azure, Buckled, Edged and Studed, Or, by the name of Garter.

G. 3 such A. born by the name of Sydemes.

LXXXIX. He beareth Argent, a Roman Hose, or Stockin, Sable, turned down and garnished, Or. They are by the Romans termed Startops, because they cover but half the Leg and Foot; of us they are cal∣led Buskins and Gamashes, and are either Laced, Buttoned or Buckled down the out-sides of the Legs, and reach only to the Instep of the foot, seldom past the middle.

XC. He beareth Vert, an Hose, Argent, Gartered, Or. born by Hoseck.

The Hose or Stocken, is a cover for the foot, leg, and thigh, to shield them from Summers heat and Win∣ters cold.

A. an Hose S. is born by Glyn of Glyn, in an Escochi∣on of Pretence.

A. a Midlegg Hose, the Toe to the Sinister B. char∣ged with 3 Bends Sinister, O. is the coat of Eckhart. The crest is the same with the foot erected; this may be term∣ed an half Hose, or an Hose couped below the Knee, for generally they are made to draw above it to the mid∣dle of the Thigh or thereabouts.

In the Sinister Base of this square, is placed a Shooe sole, or the Bottom of the Shooe, which is born in Arms; for I find that Soleslat beareth Argent, 3 Soles o Shooes, Sable.

S. 3 Shooe Soles, the Toes erected A. born by Solemain.

XCI. He beareth Argent, a Leg in full Aspect cou∣ped under the Knee, proper, adorned with a Rom•• Hose, or Startop, Sable, turned down and gar•••∣shed, Or. This is also more briefly Blazon, a Romans Leg in full Aspect, couped under the Knee. It is termed in ull Aspect, because it is full to sight, and not standing sideways, as those before and after it do.

☞ And called a Roman Leg, by reason it is in the Roman Dress, and so all other Legs and Feet are to be termed according to the countrey fashion they are in, see numb. 90, 92, 93. Legh terms this Hose that is worn but to the middle of the Leg, and turned down again, a Startuppes, pag. 40.

XCII. He beareth Argent, a Boot, Sable, the Top turned down, Or, Soled Gules. By the name of Boot. In a Boot there is these several parts.

The Top, and it may be either large or narrow, it is of two pieces.

The Boot Leg is one entire piece, sowed up the Calf or Shin, or out-side of the Leg.

The Spur Leathers, and they are two, the over and under Leather.

A Sashune or Shashune, is stuffed or quilted Lea∣ther, to be bound about the small of the Leg, of such as have long heels, to thicken the Leg that the Boot may sit streight, and be without wrinkles.

The Foot of the Boot with its parts, see in the shooe, numb. 96.

The Straps are those Leathers sowed within the Boot on each side to draw them on.

A. 3 such S. turned down G. is born by the name of Boote.

XCIII. He beareth Or, a Moors Legs couped be∣low the Knee, proper, the 〈◊〉, Buskin, or Startop, G••es, turned down, Argent. In this Leg I do coness my Egraver was much mistaken, having made it I cannot tell what; but I did design it for this Blazon (which I hope the candid Rader will either un∣derstand what I mean, or pass it by as a Slip of the Tool (for as the Tongue and Pen hath its Errours, 〈◊〉Sculptor haet Scalpturum, yet pardonable.) He beareth Or, a Roman Leg couped beneath the Knee, proper, Sandall Gules, Startop, Sable, turned down and garnished, Argent. This is born by the name of Gar∣mash.

A. a Moors Leg, the Startop G. turned down O. by the name oMoby.

XCIV. He beareth Argent, an Irish Brg, Sa∣ble, and an Iland Shooe, Gules. They are of some termed Dutch Shooes, for such turnup Noses their shooes have, which they use to ••ide and sle with on their Skades.

G. a Cheveron between 3 Irish Broges, O. born by Arthur of Irelan.

A. 3 Island Shooes G. born by Gresly.

XCV. He beareth Or, two Sandals, Sable, Buc∣kles or Tyes, Argent. This was the ancient way of •••uring the ee of Travellers from the harness of the Country passage; and consisted of nothing else; but a ole (either of Leathe or Wood,) to which was made fast 2 or 3 Tyes or Lethes, w••ch was Buck∣led Page  14 on the top of the foot; the better sort adorned these Latches with Imbrauthered work, and set them with Stones.

A. 3 Sandalls S. Buckled and Adorned O. born by Palmer.

XCVI. He beareth Argent, a Shooe, Sable; Sole, Gules; the Roses, Knots, or Tyes, Azure; in base a Clog or Countrymans shooe, of the second, Sole, Or.

Parts of a Shooe.

The Heel Quarters.

The Languides or Straps, the one is tied with Shootyes, the latter with Buckles.

The Uamp, is all the piece that covers the top of the foot.

The Instep, is the top of the shooe at the tying place.

The Toe, and Toe Lining, is the lower part of the Vamp.

The Rann, the Leather as holds the Heel quarters and Vamp to the Soles.

The In-sole, all the bottom Leathers of the Shooe that is trod upon.

The Middle Sole all the bottom Leathers of the Shooe that is trod upon.

The Out-Sole, all the bottom Leathers of the Shooe that is trod upon.

The Channel of the Sole, is the Nick in the out-Sole, in which the Thread lieth, it being rubbed down, covers the thread.

The Heel, which is made either of Wood or Leather.

The Lifts of the Heel, are those whole pieces of Leather, of which the Heel is made.

The Iumps for Heels, are only shavings of Lea∣ther beaten together, of wih a heel is raised.

The Top piece of the Heel,

The Pegs that fasten the Leather of the heel together.

Shooes according to the fashion of the Toes, or Noses, are sometime round, others square, then for∣ked, and others turned up like a hook.

Shooes in the fashion of the Heels, are some flat and low heeled, or with wooden high heels, broad and narrow; others Leather heels, which some term Polony heels.

Shooe soles, are either single sole shooes, or double Soles, or strong soled, that is with 3 soles.

The size of Shooes, is the length of them by such and such a number, as 1, 2, 3, &c. each size being the fourth part of an Inch.

A Childs Shooe, of one or two sizes, is five inches and a half long, and encreaseth to numb. 13. after that it begins to come into the sizes of a Man.

A Man or Womans Shooe, is eight inches and a quarter long, when it begins with the first or second sizes of a Man, what it exceeds that length every fourth part of an Inch is taken for a size larger, and so for∣wards to numb. 15.

Several sorts of Shooes.

Slap shooes, or Ladies shooes, are shooes with a loose Sole.

Galloshios, are false shooes, or covers for shooes, see chap 5. numb. 70.

Pattanes, are Irons to be tied under shooes, to keep out of the Dirt.

Slippers, are shooes without Heel quarters.

Cloggs are shooes with thick Wooden Soles.

Pumps, are shooes with single Soles and no heels, some term them Lacky-Boys, Foot-men, or run∣ning shooes.

Pinked or raised Shooes, have the over leathers grain part cut into Roses, or other devices.

Laced shooes, have the over Leathers and edges of the Shooe laced in orderly courses, with narrow galloom Lace of any colour.

Imbranthered shooes, are such as have the top of the shooe covered with Silk, Satin, or Velvet richly Imbrauthered.

Close Shooes, are such as have no open in the sides of the Latch••s or Languides, but are made close up like an Irish rogue. These are to Travel with in foul and snowy weather.

A. 3 Shooes S. the Tyes G. is born by Fack.

S. a Cheveron between 3 Shooes A. aced G. is born by Shooman.

A. 3 Cloggs (or shooes with thick Wooden Soles) S. Soles, O. is born by the name of Clog.

He beareth Or, a Galotia, Sable. This is a kind of false shooe, or a case for a shooe, to keep them clean in foul Weather, and is a very good Bearing; for 3 Ga∣lotia's Sable, 〈◊〉 Gules, in a Field Argent, is the coat Armour of Wargenberg; see the form of the Galotia, cap. 5. numb. 70.

He beareth Azure, a Slipper (or a Pantable,) Ar∣gent, what a Slipper is, I need not much to describe, be∣ing a thing of so common a use amongst us; it is the coat of a worthy Family in Italy, called Sandaliger. See its form cap. 5. numb. 71.

B. 3 Slippers O. is born by Slipper. The same with the Toes erected, is born by Sleeper.

He beareth Argent, two (or a pair of) Patens, and a Padle Iron, Sable, is born by Padmore; what the Paten is, your Gentlewomen will tell you; it is a thing of Wood like a Shooe sole, with Straps over it, to tye over the shooe, having an Iron at the bottom, to raise the wearer thereof from the Dirt; by means where∣of clean shooes may be preserved though they go in foul Streets; see its form and fashion, chap. 5. numb. 71.

Page  15
TO His Worthy Friend Mr. RICHARD BRERETON, of Chester; Son and Heir of George, Son of Richard Brereton, of Broughton, Gent. Lineally Descended of a younger Branch of a Second House, from the Ancient and Honorable Family of Brereton of Brereton, in the County Palatine of Chester. WHEN I had finished the First and Second Books of the Academy of Armory, I then stood at a stay, to consider whether I was able to encounter with so great a Goliah as the remaining part was; for the vast Expence past, and the far greater to succeed; and having so few Allies, and never a Champion to appear for my present Assist∣ance, caused me to Despair of Victory, or ever overcoming so Potent an Enemy; till you like a little DAVID stood up for my Cause, and put life into my fainting Spirits, taking the Quarrel into your hands, and not as an Assistant, Co-helper, or Subscriber, but as an Vn∣dertaker, with a purpose (that if none others would) you would Tread the Wine••ress alone, for the Benefit of Friends and Ages to come; which worthy Proffers and real Performan∣ces, deserves you to be Crowned with the Honor of this my next Dedication, before 〈◊〉 who say and do not, acknowledging my self you real and obliged Servant 〈…〉 degree Randle Holme.


HAving in the former Chapter treated of things for the Head and Feet, both as they are used in places of Honor and Majesty, and also for Domestick use and service; so in this I shall set down what Garment or other things are used for the Body and Hands, both for them of the higher powers in the Court, to the Peasant in the Fields.

I. He beareth Sable, a plaine Band. with Band∣strings pendant, Argent. born by the name of Band.

B. 3 such A. born by the Seamsters as their coate.

This is an Ornament for the neck, which is of the fin∣est white Linnen cloth, as Flaxen, Holland, Lawn, &c: & is made by the art of the Seamster, and Washed and Starched, Slickened and Smoothed by the care of the Landress.

In the begining of the raigne of King Charles the first, Yellow Bands were much used, which were Dyed with Safron, and Supported round the neck by a Pica∣dill, of which see more numb. 7.

II. He beareth Gules, a Band Laced, (or a Lace Band) the Band strings Pendant, Argent. Seam∣sters in a Band makeing, have severall termes.

The several parts of a Band.

The Hollowing of the band, the rounding it for the neck. And the Rounding it about.

The Stock, that as goes round about the Neck.

The Hem or Seam, the sowing about the edge.

The Clocks, the laying in of the cloth to make it round; the Plaites.

The Strings and Buttons.

The Selvage, the out-side of the Cloth before it be cut.

Page  16


Page  17The Breadth of the Band.

The Depth or sideness of the Band.

A Collar Band, is for the Collar of the Dublet only.

A Minikin Band, is of a middle size, not big nor little.

A Cloak Band, is so large, that it covered all the Soulders.

III. He beareth Gules, a Spanish Ruffe, Argent. This is born by Don Rodern of Spain, or a Ruffe in Bend Sinister, B. 3 such A. is born by Ruffe.

IV. He beareth Vert, a falling Ruffe, with Strings pendant, Argent. This is born by the name of Van Rasley.

V. He beareth Sable, a round Ruff, with Strings pendant, Argent. Three such is born by the name of R•••er. Ruffs are generally Cloth folded by Art in∣to sets, or turning, for two or three heights or doublings of Cloth.

A Cravatt is another kind of adornment for the Neck, being nothing else but a long Towel put about the Collar, and so tyed before with a Bow Knott; this is the Original of all such Wearings; but now by the Art and Inventions of the Seamsters, there is so many new ways of making them, that it would be a Task to name them, much more to describe them; see in the Bases of numb. 6, 10, 55.

VI. He beareth Gules, a Womans Neck Whisk, Argent. This is used both Plain and Laced, and is called of most a Gorgett or a falling Whisk, because it falleth about the Shoulders.

A Night Rail, is a Ladies undress, being made after the fashion of a Whisk, but with a larger com∣pass, reaching from the Neck, round about the person down to the middle or wast, it is made Plain or La∣ced, or wrought with Needle Work, according to the Wearers Nobility.

A Pinner or Tucker, is a narrow piece of Cloth Plain or Laced, which compasseth the top of a Womans Gown about the Neck part.

In this square in the Base, is the shape of a Cravatt tyed up in a Bow Knott, of which I have spoken be∣fore in numb. 5.

VII. He beareth Azure, a Neck Whisk rounded and heed, Argent; or a Neck Whisk, which standeth ••••d the Neck touching no part of the shoulders, but is supported by a Pickadil, which was a stiff Collar made in fashion of a Band; which kind of wear was much in use and fashion in the last Age by our English Gallants both Men and Women, as the Monuments of that time doth further manifest; for it is credibly report∣ed that that famous place near St. Iames called the Pick¦adilly, took denomination from this, that one Higgins, a Taylor, who built it, got most of his Estate by Pica∣dill.

VIII. He beareth Argent, a Dexter Arm Habited with a Maunch, Gules; the Hand proper. This is born by the name of Maune. The hand in the Maunch I have seen in other Coat Armours, to hold a Cross crossett, a Flower de lis, or a Rose Slip, &c. with several other things, which in Blazon you may term a hand proper, holding such or such a devise.

G. a hand holding a flower de lis, O. in a Maunch, Er. is born by the name of Mohune, alias Sapell.

The like having the Maunch Varry, is born by Man∣ley.

IX. He beareth Argent, a Dexter Arm out of an Old fashion Wing of a Doublet, Azure, Ruff cufted, or turned up in form of a Ruffle, Or, Hand Griped, proper. Born by the name of Armestrong.

G. out of the Sinister side, an Arm Bowed, Sleeve, A. with a deep and broad Turn-up, O. the hand griped, the fore-finger extended proper, is the Coat of the Bi∣shoprick of Seckaw, in Germany.

G. the like Arm from the Dexter side, Sleeve and large round Wing thereat A. Turn-up, O. holding of a Fish, born by Proy.

X. He beareth Pearl, a Maunch, Diamond. This was the fashion of a Womans Sleeve in the time of King Ed∣ward the First and Second, or thereabouts; and is the Maunch now in use by our modern Heraulds, though in the days of our fore-Fathers, it was made according to the ezamples following, 11, 12, 13.

O. the like G. born by Hastings, Earl of Pembrook.

A. the like S. born by Hastings, Earl of Huntington.

B. the like A. born by Delamare.

B. the like O. born by Conyers.

G. the same A. born by Marshall.

Some draw the Elbow of this kind of Maunch, with a kind of flap hanging down, as is at the elbow of the Maunch, numb. 8. and the like to the bottom of the Bag, at the fore part of the Sleeve, but it is much more done without them.

In the base of this square is the form of another Cra∣vatt, worn by Men about their Neck, of which see more in numb. 5.

XI. XII, XIII. Maunches were anciently made af∣ter these three fashions; they were then called by the name of Maunchmale, a Maunchmale-tale, and a Monchee.

XIV. He beareth, Or, a Maunch fixed to the ••ni∣ster side, Gules. Others Blazon it a Maunchssu∣ant from the sinister side of the Escochion; others leave out (the Sinister side, &c. because it is proper to come that way into the Field, and only say a Maunch ssu∣ant. This is born by the name of De la Mounch.

XV. He beareth Vert, a Dutch Maunch, (others call it a French Sleeve) Argent. Thus the French and Duch do draw their Maunch or Sleeve, which Page  18 name I take to proceed from Manica the Latin word for the Sleeve of a Garment. This is born by Richden.

In the Base of this Quarter, is an Arm Imbowed, and couped B. the Hand extended, and such an one is born by Bondorf.

O. such an Arm issuant, Sleeve G. holding of a Key bendways, born by Skeleicher.

O. such an Arm couped, Sleeve G. holding of a Boars head by the under Jawle, or Jaw S. is the Coat of Van Michelsdorf.

XVI. He beareth Gules, a French, or Dutch Sleeve, Or: turned up, Argent. This is another kind of their drawing sleeves with a long Flap, and sharp pointed at the Wrists of the Arm. Born by Elkin

B. 3 such A. turning up O. is born by Sleever.

In the Base of this Quarter, is an Arm extended, and couped; the Sleeves G. Buttoned the whole length S. in a Field A. which is born by the name of Armstrech.

XVII. He beareth Argent, a Glove pendant, Sable; Imbrauthered, and Fringed at the top, Or. Some hold that being set Fessewise, needs no other term, but a Glove: but if the Fingers be upward, then a Glove e∣rected. The Glover hath these several terms for the right making up of a Glove.

The Thumb part.

The Opening of the Thumb, the compass of it.

The Under tong. The Space.

The Fingers.

the Forges, the peeces between the Fingers.

The Qerks, the little square peeces at the bottom of the Fingers.

The Points, the peeces down the back of the Glove.

The Inside of the Glove, the Palm.

The Out side, the Back of the Hand.

The Gauntlet, all that reacheth behind the Hand to the Wrist.

Side Sem, the Sewing from the little Finger the whole length of the Glove.

XIX. He beareth Argent, a Mitten Gules. This is of some termed, an Hedged Mitten, or Glove to Hedg with: a Tethering Glove. This is born by Mitten.

2 Such rected A. is the Crest of Wachendorf.

XIX. He beareth Azure, a Hand in Fesse couped, proper; griping of a Glove, Argent: Imbrauther∣ed and Fringed, Or. This is born by Handglove.

Such an Hand with a Cock standing on it G. is the Crest of Handcock.

XX. He beareth Argent, a Iacket, or Loose Coat, Gules: Lined, Azure. This Coat I have observed to be in a London Sign, which was only to shew, and give notice that a Man-taylor lived in that same House.

XXI. He beareth Sable, a Roman Garment, Ar∣gent. Some call it a Cordy Robe Garment, because it was the ancient fashion of the old Romans to have such Labells hanging at the shoulder Wings, and from under the skirts of their Body Garment, which they call Cordi∣lans, and Cordy Robes. This is born by the name of Roman. This with an Head and Face is by the French termed an Harpey as you may see, chap. 5. n. 59.

G. 3 such Roman Coats O. is born by Reydit.

XXII. He beareth Azure, a Boys Coat, Or; Li∣ned, Gules. This is the last of Coats used for Boyes; after which they are put into Breeches. If it had hanging Sleeves, then we term it a Childs Coat. This is born by Boy.

G. 3 such A. Lined O. born by the name of Fillicts

The Several Parts of a Boys and Girls, Coat.

The Body part, in which is the Fore Body, and the Back part.

The Buttons, and Button holes.

The Laps, of which there are the Fore Laps, the side Laps and hinder Laps.

The Sleeves, in which there is the inside and the outside of the Sleeve: and the Wings.

The Turn-up or the Role up, at the Sleeve-hands.

The Neck part, or rounding of the Neck. The Collar.

The Skirt, and the Under Coat.

The Girls Coat differeth in these things: Hanging Sleeves, Laced up behind.

The Skirt long behind, and open before, having a Peticoat or under Coat.

The Neck Square before and behind.

XXIII. He beareth Argent, a Uest, Azure; Lined, Sable. This was the form of the Russian Embassedors loose Coat when he came first to England, shortly after King Charles the Seconds return from Exile, which Garb was so taken too, that it became a great fashion and wear, both in Court, City, and Country. The Several parts of this Fashion are these:

  • The Uest, a side deep loose Coat almost to the Feet with short sleeves.
  • The Tunick, a close bodied Coat, the skirts of it being down to the Knees.
  • The Sash, the Girdle by which the Tunick was tied to the Body, so called because it hath a round Button and Tassel hanging at the ends of it.
  • The Zoan, is a girdle of Silk. without Buttons and Tassels, which is tied in a bow knot before.

XXIV. He beareth Or, a Mandilion Azure; this was a kind of loose Coat worn upon a Dublet either Buttoned, or open: and much in use in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth: It had no Sleeves, but two 〈◊〉 Wings on the Shoulders, aud hanging Sleeves at the Back; with side Skirts, or Laps.

XXV. He beareth Gules, the Body of a Womans Gown to open before, Or. Some term it a Gown Body with close Sleeves, a Peak down before, and cordy Robe Skirts.

XXVI. He beareth Vert, a Child, or Boys CoatPage  19 with round or ruffed Sleeves, Argent: This is the last of Coats that Boys about five or six Years of age use to wear, after which they are put into Breeches and Doub∣les. There is another fashion Coat as numb. 22. used for Children. Such Coats as these are often painted on signs, and on cloths, to shew where Taylors, Salesmen, and Bro∣kers live, or keep their Shops.

XXVII. He beareth Argent, a Semeare, Gules; Sleeves faced or turned up, Or, Petty-Coat Azure: the skirt or bottom Laced, or Imbrathered of the third. This is a kind of loose Garment without and stiffe Bodies under them, and was a great fashion for Women about the Year 1676. Some call them Man∣tua's, they have very short Sleeves, nay some of the Gallants of the times, have the Sleeves gathered up to the top of the Shoulders and there stayed, or fastned with a Button and Loope, or set with a rich Iewel.

XXVIII. He beareth Sable, an High Winged Doublet and short Skirts with Trunk, or Sailers Breeches, Argent. This was the fashion of the Gentry in the beginning of King Iames his Reigh: the sleeves being either slashed or pinked as they then called it; and the Breeches so full in the wast, that they fell into Pleats and Folds, and being gathered at the Knees, they swelled round out: as in many Munuments to be seen, where they are tied above the Knees, and the hose also gathered under the Knees.

XXIX. He beareth Gules, a pair of Trunk Bree∣ches, Argent. These were much in use with the Gentry and Nobility in the time of King Henry the Eight, as pictures of those time manifest, and also the latter end of Queen Elizabeth, and beginning of King Iames. But now they are cast out of Door by them, and only worn by Pages of Honor, and Pages of great Estates.

XXX. He beareth Argent, a Kings Parliament Robe, Gules: lined, and turned up Ermine. This is more briefly blazoned, a Kings Robe, a Robe of E∣state, or a Parliament Robe; the colour and furring being ever as aforesaid, if it be otherwise then to be menti∣oned, as in the next example.

Two such Robes, and a Royal Tent; pertaineth to the Coat of the Worshipful Company of Merchant-Tay∣lrs as a part thereof.

XXXI. He beareth Or, a Robe Purpure; lined, turned up, or faced, Argent. These are also termed Robes of Estate, only are a degree short of the other, being without Ermine.

XXXII. He beareth Luna, a Mantle of Estate Mars; doubled or lined, and turned up Ermine: Duched and Garnished or Imbrathered Sol: with ••rings fastned or fixed thereunto pendant fretways and tasselled of the same. These Arms do pertain to the Town of Brecknock in Southwales.

This kind of Mantle belongs to Emperours and Kings and free Estates when they appear to the People in their Royalty, Glory, and Splendor: anciently it was thus made, but the Mantle of Estate now in use hath a round Cape of Ermine, see chap. 3. numb.

XXXIII. He beareth Gules, a Tassel, Or: Fretted and Purled Azure. The Mantle of Estate shewed you before, is garnished with strings tasselled, which kind of tasselling is also used to diverse other strings or Cordons of Creation, Robes, or Mantles, as to the habits of the Prince of Wales, Knights of the Garter &c. when they have their whole abiliment upon them.

G. 3 such Tassels O. born by the name of Wooler.

XXXIV. He beareth Argent, a Cloak Gules, Faced and Caped, Or. Else as others term it, turned out, and down; because the faceing turns outwards, and the Cape down. The Cloak is round in compass, and by having a Cape is distinguished from another sort of covering without a Cape, called a Rocket, or a Mantle.

XXXV. He beareth Argent, a Cloak hanging by its Button in chief, Sable. Some term it a Cloak hanging per side, or sideways, by a •••ing issuing out of chief. This if it be one colour, it needs no other term then a Cloak, of such a colour, &c.

XXXVI. He beareth Luna, an Heralds Co•• Adorned with the Soveraigns Coat of Arms; and 〈◊〉ed about, all in the proper Mettles, and Colours. Three such Coats make an accomplished Herald, viz. the Pursuivant, the Heraught, and the King of Arms, after whom there is no Superior in that Colledge of Officers.

XXXVII. He beareth Pearl, a Pall Amethist; ed∣ged, fringed, and imbrauthered with Estoiles, To∣paz. The Pall is the habite of Ecclesiastical Functions, and in the Romish Church is only worn by Archbishops, Bishops and Mitered Abbots; and not by them, but when they are in the Church about Divine Worship.

XXXVIII. He beareth Azure, a Cope (or a Priests Cope) Purpure, Lined Argent: Fringed, Edged, and Imbrauthered with a long Cross (or Christs Cross) and four Estoiles, Or. This is the Romish Priests Vestment, which was cast over the Serplice, when he ser∣ved at the Alter.

XXXIX. He beareth Argent, a Livery Mans hood, or Tippet, Gules and Purpure: counterchanged in Pall. Some say, counterchanged, the one of the other, this was a kind of Hood, which the Masters and Stewards of Incorporated Societies, and Companies (about the begin∣ning of Henry the Eight his Reign, and in former times) did wear upon their heads in publick meeting, and assem∣blies; to shew that they were the chief in office in those Societies. But about the beginning of Queen Elizabeths Reign, they then cast them off their heads, and hung them on their shoulders; in which order, the Masters, Li∣very Men, or Stewards of all Companys with us, wear them at all publick meetings to this day.

They are called a Stewards Tippet, or Livery Hood: a Hood from its being worn on the head, and a Tippet from the long tail or train which hanged behind almost to the Ground. These kind of hoods (but all Page  20 black) are to this day worn by close Mourners at the So∣lemnities of great Funerals, every person according to his degree, having the Tippet or Trail thereof, longer or shorter: some to the middle of the back, others to the thighs, others to the ground, and the chief Mourners, and assistance trailing on the ground.

XL. He beareth in Chief, a Girdle Sable, Imbrau∣thered, or Garnish, and Hook and Hasp, Or: in base a Turks, or Russian Girdle, or Towel tied in a Bow knot, the ends pendant, Argent: in a Field Gules The first of these were a great fashion in the be∣ginning of my days, but now clearly laid aside: the other in use in those Countrys to this day.

A. 3 such Girdles in pale G. hasped or hooked, O. born by the name of Girdale.

XLI. He beareth Argent, a Scarfe Gules, tied up and Fringed about, Or. Others do say, a Scarfe, tied up with a Ribbon of Gold, Fringed on the sides, or edges, and a broad or deep one at the ends pendant, Sol. But all this needs not, seeing both shoulder or mid∣dle wast Scarfs worn by Commanders, and Field Officers, have their Scarfs generally so Fringed with Silver or Gold, or both.

But such Scarfes as are worn at Funerals, have none at all, but tied up with Ribbon: the Scarfes being black at the Death of a married person, and white at an un∣married.

XLII. He beareth Argent, a Garter or Ribbon, Azure: with the Badge of St. George on horse back, slaying of a Dragon, thereat all proper: having Drops, or Iewels pendant. This is the sign or taken by which a Knight of the Garter is manifest, by having about his Neck a blew Ribbon, with the foresaid Jewel hanging thereat: but of this, and the order, I shall have occasion to speak hereafter; and therefore say no more of it in this place.

XLIII. He beareth Argent, a Belt in pale Gules, Fringed about the edges, studded, and buckled, hav∣ing a Sword hanging therein Fessewise, Or: Sca∣bard, Sable. See the terms of the several parts of a Sword Scabard and Belt in chap. 18. numb. 21.

XLIV. He beareth Vert, an Annulet, or Ring, Or; ••d in Base two Annulets Imbraced (or double An∣nulets, or two Annulets coupled) Argent: of some 〈◊〉Annulets linked. The Annulet is the diference of a fift Brother, therefore (as I conceeve) very rarely born singly in a Coat of Arms.

G. an Annulet A. born by Coler or Koler.

G. an Annulet O. born by the name of Crampe.

B. 3 such O. born by Byset..

A. 3 such V. born by Argevile. And 3 S. born by Vasterheim.

A. 6 Annulets S. born by Luzer.

O. 6 such S. born by Lowther.

O. on a Bend G. 3 such A. born by Humprech∣ten.

G. 6 Annulet Imbaced 2 2 and 2 O. by the name of Bracer.

B. 3 double Annulets A. born by Treybrug.

XLV. He beareth Sable, three Annulets fretted, Argent. This is born by the name of Anley. I have seen a Coat with three of thse thus fretted, which may be thus blazoned: Argent, on a Bend Sable three times, three Annulets fretted, (or Braced or Im∣braced) Or; else nine Annulets imbraced, 3 3 and 3, else three Annulets in three Imbraced. Morgan in Sphere of the Gentry, lib. 3. fol. 21. terms them, three Tripple Gimbal Rings: born by the name of Haw∣berke.

In the Base of this quarter, is three Annulets con∣joyned Fesseways: such a Bearing, I find in pale between 2 Ostritch Feathers A. to be the Crest of Freydag of Westphalia.

XLVI. He beareth Argent, an Annulet between three such, each joyned to it by a Fillet, Sable, Born by the name of Berlinger. This is blazoned several ways: some say a Ring Filleted to three others in triangle: and others three Rings conjoyned to another in the Center, see lib. 2. chap. 1. numb 7.

The Ring of Gold was expresly prohibited by the Romans to all Mecannick persons, except they were rank∣ed with Souldiers: for as Pliny observeth the Roman Knights and those of the Millitary orders, were distinguish∣ed from the vulgar by the Rings they wore: and these were but Rings of Iron, those of Gold were given by way of prerogative to Ambassadors which they sent to Kings.

In the Sinister base is an Annulet beset round with Stones, and such a Ring O. set with Dia∣monds in a Field V. was born by Danpert.

G. 3 such O. debruised with an Escochion quar∣terly B. and A. is the Town Arms of Nevenslat.

XLVII. He beareth Or, four Annulets one within the other, Sable. There belongs to a Ring, especially if it be made of Gold, first the Posie, being an inscription or Love-fancie engraven within.

The Piercing, is cutting it into Leaves and Flowers.

The Enamelling, is the puting of them into their proper colours.

The Engraving, is the hatching it in several places.

XLVIII. He beareth Argent, an Annulet, or Ring Gobony, Or, and Gules. Born by the name of Shelding

XLIX. He beareth Vert, a Fret Argent, within an An∣nulet, Or. Is born by the name of Roundlove..

L. He beareth Jupiter, two Rings Or, enriched with Ruby Stones. Here I have caused two Rigns to be set that the reader may understand the difference in the terms between a plain Stone Ring and on that hath the Collet and Shanke wrought. The first is a plain Shanked and Collet Ring with a Stone set in it: the later all o∣ver Enamelled, and cut or Engraven into Flowers, &c. Now the Terms to the several parts of the Ring are these.

The Shanke, is the Ring part.

Peirced Ring, is such as are hollow and engraven.

Page  21Branched Ring, is those that are engraven with Flowers, Leaves, and such like.

Enammeled Ring, is wrought on the Gold with diverse colours and annailed, or burnt in.

The Collet is the Socket in which the Stone is set.

The Scallops, or Muscles of the Collet, are the works on the side of it, like those shells.

The Graining of the Collet, are little heads of Gold or enammel set at the Foot of the Scallops.

The Foil, is a certain coloured Tin oil set under the Stone in the Collet, to give it a colour answerable to it self.

The Bessel, is the top of the Collet, which being bea∣••n to the Stone, holds it in.

The Cressants, are the half rounds which the Bessel is cut into.

The Traps, are the square cuts at the bottom of the Stone, from whence the contrary lusters and sparks do proceed.

The Threeds of the Stone, or Traps, are the edges between each square of the Stone.

The Fosset stone or Rose stone, is cut into many squares ending in the Center, as lib. 2. chap 2 numb. 47.

The Table stone, is flat on the top, whether square or losenwise, ibid. numb. 46.

The Pointed stone, is such as rise out of the Collet, either round on the top, or sharp pointed, as these do.

B. a plain wrought Ring with a Ruby, is the Coat and Crest of Van Entzerg: and also of Van Entzenberg.

B. 2 Swans Necks respectant holding a Stone Ring between their Beaks, is both Coat and Crest of Van Moldorf.

V. on a Fesse A. a Spurrowell S. between 3 Stone Rings. Born by the name of Wipperman.

G. a plain Stone Ring is the Coat and Crest of Van Dormeutz.

O. a plain Ring the Collet or Socket, sans a stone S is the Coat of Edelbecken of Bavaria: whose Crest is the like Ring the socket set with a Peacocks Tail.

G. a Stone Ring the Collet to the sinister chief, is the Coat of Rusenbach of Franckford.

B. 3 Collets set with Stones, or Rubys: is born by Collet.

In the Dexter and Sinister sides I have caused a Collet, and a plain Ring with a Collet to be set, that the Rea∣der may see and understand them what they are.

LI. He beareth a Mound Iupiter, Invironed with a Circle, and Insigned with a Cross Avellane, Sol. Some term it, a Globe with a Cross infixed: all Mounds, or Globes upon the Crowns of all Christian Princes, have but one single Cross fixed upon them: ex∣cept the Papal Treble Crown, which hath on the Globe a Treble Cross, like to his Cross Staff, numb. 69. It is termed Pomum Imperiale, an Imperial Ball. This is born by the name of Chawlus.

Per Bend B. and O. the like O. in base 2 Bendlets V. is born by the name of Fletchensteiner.

O. on a Ball parted per Pale B. and A. 2 Spurrowells counterchanged, ensigned with a Cross Bottony. Is born by Van Beroldingen.

LII. He beareth Jupiter, a Royal Scepter in bend Sol. The Scepter is a thing born by the Hand of a King, which needs not be termed, to be in Pale, as Mr. Gwillims fol. 274. hath it, being always born upright, as the Sword of State is: therefore let that term (in Pale) e omitted; but if it be in any other posture, as in this example then to mention how it is.

B. a Scepter in Pale insigned with an Eye O. born by Osrys Surnamed Iupiter the Just: Son of Cham the cursed Son of Noah, as aith my Author.

B 2 Scepters in Salter O. born by Shurf.

G. 2 Scepters in Salter A. quartered by Vrsenbecken.

In this Quarter is the Ancient form of another Scep∣ter which was in use then: the Monument from whence I drew it could be no younger then 300 Years, see another also in numb. 66.62.

LIII. He beareth Ruby, a Gentlewomans foulding Fan half opened Argent, Garnished or Adorned with variety of Francies, Stories, or Landskips, proper. Some term it a Circle Fan, becaused being o∣pened to its full extent, it is just the half of a Semicircle. This is born by the name of Fane.

B. 3 such A. is born by Phirdten.

LIV. He beareth Argent, a Feathered Fan, Sable; Handled, Or. This is also termed a Matrons Fan, being more comely and civil for old Persons then the for∣mer, which is stuft with nothing but vanity. This is born by the name of Fatherfoile.

A. 3 such with a Fesse between S. is born by Win∣dall,

On the division score between this 54. and numb. 55. is set another form or making of a Cravat, contrary to those spoken off, numb. 6.10.

LV. He beareth Vert, a Popish set of Beads with a Cross Patee sixed at the Bottom, or ends there of, Argent. This is the mark or cognizance of a Popish Saint, whether Male or Female, being always drawn with such Beads, with a Cross at them; either in their hands, on their Arms, by their Girdles, or near to them after some way or fashion or other, as it pleasth the Painter.

LVI. He beareth Argent, a Braslet twice about of Curral, of some termed a Neck-lace of Curral. Now see the difference, if it be about the Neck, it is a Neck-lace; if about the Arm a Braslet. These Braslets are named generally according to their colour. If red, term∣ed Curral: if yellow, Amber: if white, Pearl: if black, Pomander: &c. I find this born by the name of Brassalet.

LVII. He beareth Gules, a Chain of Gold, thrice turned about, crossing each other above, and below. Some blazon it a three fold Chain, or a Chain three time about, or of three rounds.

LVIII. He beareth Saphir, three Chains, the one within the other, all issuant out of the chief, Topaz. Page  22 Born by the name of Chaines or Chainee.

LIX. He beareth Argent, the Perclose of a Demy Garter Nowed, Gules: Buckled, Edged, & Stud∣ded, Or. This is by some Heralds blazoned, a Demy Garter, (or a Garter dimidiated, or Severed into the half) Nowed, and Garnished. This is also said to be Buckled and Interlaced with the end or Tab pen∣dant. This Coat thus blazoned, belongs to the Family of Littlegood.

O. 3 such B. Garnished of the first, belongs to Narboon.

LX. He beareth Azure, a Locket, Or: with a Dia∣mond set therein. Others term it, a Iewel consisting of a Losenge table Diamond, set round about with small Rubys, all proper. Three such is born by Ie∣weller.

LX. He beareth Jupiter, a Mace of Majestie in pale, Sol. This is called a Mace of Majestie, to distin∣guish it from the Mace born by a common Sergeant: this having upon it a Royal Crown Arched with Mound and Cross; that only a plain Chaplet, or Circle raised into Flowers. Such a Mace as this is born before the King in all Solemn assemblies: as also before his Mejesties Vice-Roys: and also before the Lord Chancellor, Keeper, and Treasurer of England, and the Lord President of Wales, and the North parts; and the Speaker of the Parliamemt, in the time of Parliament. Mayors of Corporations, &c.

The Bearer hereof is called a Sergeant at Arms; whose office it is to attend the persons aforesaid, for the execution of their commands, for the arrest of Traitors, and the apprehension of Malefactors. A Man that is un∣der the arrest of a Serjeant at Arms is protected all that time from all other arrests.

LXII. He beareth Sable, a Uirge (or a Bishops Mace) Argent. Some term it, a Cathedral Uirge, or Mace; and the Bearer thereof a Uirger: In former times it was but a small Silver Rod, in Latin Virga, having a round head, but now it is crowned about like the com∣mon Serjeants Mace, yet neither arched, or crossed, only in this they differ, this is twice or thrice longer in the rod, then the Serjeants is. This is made of Silver, and is carried before the Bishop, and the Dean, within the pre∣cincts of his Cathedral.

In the Dexter side of this square is the form of an other Scepter formerly used, being only a plain Rod with a flory top, and in Heraldry is termed a Uirge or Rod Flory at the top: This kind or Scepter is much born by the Germans: as,

  • A. 2 such in Salter G. born by Van Venningen.
  • Per pale G. and O. two such in Salter, born by Werns∣dorf.
  • B. 2 such in Salter A. born by Vttenheim of the Rhyne.
  • On a Cushion G. 3 such A. is the Crest of Stro∣mer, and Nuczel.
  • G. such a Rod Flory in bend sinister, surmount∣ed of another with a Pomel top, A. issuing out of the Base, an hill O. born by Erckell of Brunswick.
  • G. two Rods flory in Salter A. a hill in Base O. born by Schuer of the same place.

In the Sinister side of this square is another form of a Pilgrims Staff, termed in Armory a Pilgrims Staff with a rest: or a Pilgrims Staff of St. Iames, or a Palmers Staff of St. Iacob: and 3 such Sable, the heads, rests and ends, Or: in a Silver Field is born by the name of Palmer of Winthrop in Lincoln∣shire.

LXIII. He beareth Pearl, a Sword of Estate in pale, the point erected Ruby; Cheap, Hilt and Pomel, Topaz: the Scabbard enriched with Stones of diverse kinds, set in Goldsmiths work proper. This is Gwillims way of blazoning it, fol. 280. but in my judgment there is a many superfluous words used about the same: as to say, in Pale, and then the point erected; when either would have served, or both might have been omitted, because Swords are ever born with the points upright, whether in the Scabbard, or without: if otherwise then to be men∣tioned. And therefore to say no more thereof, let all these foresaid Emblems, and tokens of Honor (as Sword, Mace, Uirge, Purse) be ever blazoned in short; for it is well known, that by the addition of the word (Estate or Majestie) to them, they are to be of those colours, and mettlets, which usually they are off: as for example.

The Uirge, is Silver, and so is the Serjeants Mace.

The Mace of Majesty, or Estate is Gold.

The Sword of Estate, or Majesty Gold, the Scab∣bard Imbrauthered

The Purse of Estate, Imbrauthered with the Kings Arms, &c.

☞ He that carrieth such Sword of Estate, is term∣ed the Kings, or Citys Sword-Berer; which it is here to be observed, that the manner of bearing it varieth according to the several Estate, and Dignities of the Per∣sons, before whom they are born (as saith Leigh) pag. 94. Yet now there is no such observation, but all Officers of Corporate Citties, and Towns; which have the Honor of a Sword, have the point of it born up right, as the Charter of those places have, and still do allow of it.

LXIV. He beareth Saturn, a Royal Sword, the Scabbard enriched with Imbrauthery, having a Belt nowed about the middle thereof, Mars; Edged Buckle, and Tab, Sol. This is the Crest of that anci∣ent Honourable and Loyal City of Chester, on a Torce of Sol, Mars, and Jupiter. In the Patent for the confirmati∣on thereof, it is under William Flower Norroy King of Arms his Hand and Seal, thus blazoned: the Symbole, or Badge of Regalitie, and Iustice, a Sword erect∣ed sheathed, and wholly Girded, or compassed with a Girdle, or Belt of Gold: and as it is termed a Royal Sword, or a Sword of Estate, so it may be called a Sword of Justice.

LXV. He beareth Argent, two Swords of Regali∣ty and Iustice in Salter, through an Earls Coronet; the Hilts, Handles, Pomels and Cheaps, Or; Scabbard, Gules. This on a Torce, or Wreath of Ar∣gent, Page  23 and Gules; is the Crest of that worthy person Sir Robert Brerwood of Chester Knight, Serjeant at Law, Justice of North-Wales, and Recorder of Chester: But blazon it, two Majestie Sword in Salter, Gorged in the middle with an Earls Crown.

In Base is a Trident, or Neptune Mace, Sable; It is also called a three Toothed Fork. It is fained by the Poets, that when Neptune the God of the Sea is drawn, he hath one of these in his Hand, by which he is said to still, or make quiet, the raging of the Sea, when the Waves roar, by striking or thrusting it into the bellows thereof.

A. the Head of a Trident S. is born by the name of Van Ebne: and the Crest is the same with a Fish upon the points of it A.

G. a Flag spear head in pale and two in Salter A. Gorged with a Coronet O. a Bordure Nebulce O. and B. born by Brevning.

LXVI. He beareth Gules, a Croysier Staff, and a Rod of Authority. These are the two Emblems and Marks of Power and Authority, the first of the Church, and the other for the Estate: which as long as they go together the Kingdom will be happy, if divided both will be miserable

For the Croysier, I have found it stiled, a Staff Croysee, a Pastoral Staff; a Bishops Staff, or Croysier: which the Bishop carrieth in his hand when he is in his Pontificke habit. This is much used in Coats of Arms especially in such, as concern Abbies, Priories, and Bishopricks. I shall give you some of them.

2 in Salter and on a chief {sal armoniac} 3 Mit∣tes of the second: which is the Arms of the Sea of L•••affe.

♃ one with a Scarf turned about it ℈ is the Coat of the Bishoprick of Eystat in Germany, numb. 69.

G. a Lion Rampant A. one in Bnd Sinister O. born by Odo Bishop of Bayon, half Brother to Willam the Conqueror.

S. a Croysier with a Scarf or Gafanon, pendant A. is the Town Arms of Murhart.

Per pale O. and G. an Eagle Displaid S. a Croy∣sire A. is the Arms of the Bishoprick of Cheimsee.

For the Rod of Authority, it is also called a White Rod, or Staff; a Majestrates Staff of Authority. I have rarely found it used in Coats of Arms, though is bearing is very Honourable: For it is carried as a Badge of their Authority under the King, by the Princes of Wales, and Dukes by Creation, Majors of great Cor∣porations, Sheriffs of Counties, and the like.

O. a Lion Rampant S. Crowned: supporting such a Staff with both Paw, extending out of Base into the chief G. is born by Van Milkav.

On the Dexter side of this square, is another old 〈◊〉 Mace, with a round Head and Handle: and such a Mace I find born in bend S. in a Field A. by the name of Winchelhausen.

LXVII. He beareth Vert, a Cross Staff, Or: with a Papal Gaufannon (or Banner or Flag) of two ends or points, Azure; charged with the English Cross. If the Banner be square, then there needs no such addition (as two ends, or points; or of one end) but only say a Cross Staff, Or: to which is fixed a Gan∣fannon Argent charged with the Cross of England. This kind of Banner is not on the Staff as other Banners, Penons and Gwyndons are, with a Socket: but by a string, as the long Streamer of Ships, hang at the Mast yards. See the addition to this, chap. 5. numb. 68.

LXVIII. He beareth Gules, a Crucifix, Or. It is also blazoned a Cross Flory, or a long Cross flurt, and Bottony fitcht in the foot of the fourth, Or: with a Man hanging, or nailed thereon, having a Linnen To∣wel wrapped about his middle, proper. Others more briefly term it Christ on the Cross: but by the Ro∣mans, it is generally termed a Portable Crucifix: and such a Cross as this is usually born before the Pope, and his Cardinals, and Archbishops, and Bishops in their re∣spective Diocess, when they go their Processions, the Car∣rier of such a Cross is called a Crucifer, and Cruciger, a Cross Bearer.

In this Quarter is another form of a Pilgrims or Rectors Staff, of which see more in numb. 62.70. These are much used in Arms among the Dutch and Ger∣mans: as

  • S. 2 such in Salter A. born by Die Haynolt.
  • G. a Rectors Staff O. between 2 Escallops A. by Thornawer.
  • G. 2 such in Salter A. born by Romer of Misnian.

LXIX. He beareth Saphire, a Treble Cross Staff, Topaz. This is also termed a Staff, on the top a Treble Cross Patee, each Pearled, or Buttoned; others term it, the Papal, or Popes Cross Staff: and the Universal Bishops Treble Cross. Now in the true way of blazoning, it may be termed a Staff Pomette and Fitched, the Top Treble Crossed, Patee, Bottony. Others, a Treble Cross, the second and third Crossed Patee Bottony.

☞ Here take notice there is diverse kinds of these Cross Staves, the Popes Staff is thus made with three Crosses: and so is the Cross on the Mound, on his Crown.

The Cardinals, and Patriarchal Staves are with a Double Cross Patee, the first Single, the other Crossed.

The Bishop hath but a single Cross on his Staff, as the next Example will make manifest, numb. 70.

In the Sinister side of this Quarter I have set a She∣pards Crook: which as it is the Badge and Emblem of a Shepard, so it is the Coat Armour of Pastor, viz▪ Argent, three such Crooks, Sable.

In the Dexter side of this Quarter is set the fashion and form of another kind of Croysier Staff, which is some∣what different from that mentioned numb. 66. according to which the Germans draw theirs: though we do general∣ly make them after the former. This is termed a Cro∣sier Staff in Pale, bound about with a Towel; by Mr. Morgans lib. 3. fol. 69. Though others call it a Scarf or Gafonon turned about it.

Page  24LXX. He beareth Diamond, a Bishops Cross Staff, Topaz, between a Crutch and a Pilgrims Staff, Argent. Of the several names attributed to these I shall in their places give you notice, as

First, for the Cross Staff, some term it not a Bi∣shops Staff, but a Staff, on the head thereof a Cross Patee fixed upon a Globe, and the foot Botony fitcht; though Gwillim, fol. 278. only terms it a Staff in Pale, with a Cross Pattee thereon: and Morgan, lib. 3. fol. 67. a Staff in Pale, ensigned with a Cross Patee.

The Crutch is of some termed (and that vulgarly) a Crich, but more usually a Crutch Staff, which by Old Sir Geffrey Chaucer, was called a Potence. It is a Staff with a Cross piece on the head of it, which Lame Persons put under their Arm holes, thereby to support and stay them in their going, without which they were not able to stir. Such are born by the name of Crouch, viz. Gules, three such, Or.

The Pilgrims Staff hath also been by old Heralds termed a Reccors or Parsons Staff, or a Walking Staff, or a Burthen Staff, and the last so called, by reason such as Travel with Burthens make use of such a Staff to lay on their Carriage, and so put it on their Shoulders. It is a plain long Staff with a round head on it, which Head I have seen several times to be of a contrary colour from the Staff, the first being Argent, the latter Sable.

The Pilgrims Staff, is made with another round below the head and the hand▪ at which is usually placed a hook to hang any thing on, and so carry it on the shoulder, as numb. 62.

LXXI. He beareth Gules, an Italian Penny or Coin, with the Stamp of Mount Calvary, with a Cross upon it, with this Inscription about it, Iesus Rex noster, & Deus noster.

The like Stamp is on the Portugal Crown piece, having this Inscription, In hoc signo Vinces.

LXXII. He beareth Vert, a Shekel of Israel. This was a Coin of Silver used by the Kings of Iudah and Is∣rael; it contained in value of our Money 2 s. 3 d. on one side is the Impression of the Pot of Manna; on the other side Aarons Rod Budded; as you may see further hereafter in the Iews Coins.

LXXIII. An Old English Penny, having the stamp of an Escochion, with France and England Quarterly Quartered or Debrused, with a Cross Molyne.

Between these two squares on the division line, is pla∣ced another kind of Palmers Scrip, it is in shew something different from that mentioned, numb. 81.

A. 3 such S. is born by Freunt.

LXXIV. On a Silver piece of Bullen, is coined two Incressants Fretting each other: This piece of Money is passable here in England for Two Pence; and is the Coin set forth by King Charles the Second; his Three Pence hath the like Figure of Three Cressants raised on his Coin; but of the several sorts of Coins, I shall speak more hereafter.

LXXV. He beareth Argent, a Purse closed, Gules, gorged with a Crownett, Or. It cannot properly be called a Purse Crowned, because the ears or draughts of the Purse come through the Crown, in which respect the Crown is said to be about the Neck, not upon it.

G. Such a Purse A. Gorged O. born by Obrner.

B. 3 such O. is born by Burserheim.

LXXVI. He beareth Gules, a Purse Overte, Ar∣gent▪ This is also Blazoned a Purse opened, and the Strings pendant, Buttons and Tassels, Or. This is born by the name of Purser.

A. the like G. born by the Family of Conradus Wit∣tenbergensis, an Earl in Germany.

LXXVII. He beareth Pearl, a Purse of State, proper; but more largely, if you will have it (though this is sufficient) take Gwillims Blazon, fol. 281. he bear∣eth a Purse open, the long Strings thereof, Fret∣ted, Nowed, Buttoned and Tasselled, Mars, all Hatched, Topaz; Embrauhered all over with the Soveraign Ensigns of his Majesty, ensigned with a Crown Triumphant, and supported of a Lion Gardant, and a Unicorn, underneath the same an Escroll; but if the first Blazon be too brief, as the lat∣ter hath too many Tantolo••s▪ see how a third person terms it; a Purse Embranthered with the Sove∣reigns Coat of Arms in a Garter, Crowned and supported, with an Escroll under, according to his Bearing them; the Strings Fretted and Tasseled, and Interwoven answerable to the colours of his At∣chievement; others have it thus, a Purse of Estate, the String, Mars, Hatched, Sol, Embrauthered with the Kings Ensigns or Tokens of Majesty, in their proper colours.

Such a Purse as this is born before the Lord Chan∣cellor, and Lord Keeper of England, and also before the Lord Chamberlain of the County Palatine of Chester, as a peculiar Ensign of their high Magistracy, whose Office it is to mitigate the rigour of the common Laws of the Realm, according to the Rule of Equity.

LXXVIII. He beareth Sable, a Staff Coronettee, fixt on the top a Losenge, imbossed with a Sal∣ter, the corners Bottony, Or. The like Staff to this, I have seen cut upon Grave-Stones in several Churches, which makes me judg it to be a Staff of some Ecclesia∣stical Order, but whether for or belonging to a Dean or Dean Rurall, Abbot, or Prior, or Canon Regular, I have not as yet found out; but sure I am, it doth be∣long to some degree below a Bishop.

LXXIX. He beareth Argent, a Caduceus, or Mer∣cury's Mace, proper. This is called also a Snaky Staff, and Mercurys Soporiferous Rod, by which he made Peace, and united Serpents at variance. It is no other than a slender Staff or Wand, having two Serpents Annodated, or entwisted about it, whose Page  25 heads meet together at the higher end, and the tails at the lower end or handle.

Beside this form of Caduceus, I have another stamp∣ed on the Ancient Roman Coin, made in form and fashi∣on of that Engraven on the partition score of this quar∣ter, viz. two Serpents refpectant Torqued, joined together at the tails, fixed to the end of a Wand or Rod, Also this form, with Wings set to the Rod, is on some other Roman Coins; see lib. 2. chap. 19. numb. 1.18. and sometimes the Snakes are made crossing one the other, as in the sinister side of this square.

LXXX. He beareth Argent, two Muffs, or Hand Muffs; the first is Sable, turned up at each end with a Furr of the same; the second is of the Furr Sable, which latter is the most usual way of making the Muff, be the Furrs of Dogs, Cats, Fitchets, and such like, and are lined within, with a Cony skin, or Furr, or Wool of the Rabbet. By this Sign or Cognizance hung out to publick view, you may easily know where a Furrier or Muff-maker dwelleth, and therefore is a fit Badg for one of such an Imploy.

LXXXI. He beareth Argent, a Palmers Scrip, or Pilgrims Bag, with its Girdle, Sable, Buckles and Tab, Or. This is a kind of Bag or Purse, which Travellers carry at their sides by the 〈◊〉, in which they put things necessary for their Journey; and is born by the name of Scrip. But 3 such G. with Golden Gir∣dles, in a Silver Field, is born by the name of Scrip∣salle.

LXXXII. He beareth Gules, an Irish Penny, Ar∣gent. This hath the Stamp of the Harp and Crown upon it; or coined with the Badge of Ireland. Three such is born by the name of Isle.

LXXXII. He beareth Sable, a Scotch Penny, Ar∣gent, stamped with the Thistle and Crown upon it. These two Bearings may also be termed Plates charged or stamped, or coined. with a Thistle and Crown, or with the Badg of Scotland. Born by the name of Scotshman.

LXXXIV. He beareth Azure, a Penny Yard Pen∣ny, proper; it is stamped with a Cross Moline between 12 round Buttons, and are called Penny Yard Pence, of the place where they were first Coined, which was (as is supposed) in the Castle of Penny-Yard, near the Mar∣ket Town of Rosse, in Herefordshire.

B 3 such A. born by Spence.

G. a Cheveron between 3 such A. born by Penny.

LXXXV. He beareth Sable, an Henry the Se∣venths Penny, stamped with a Cross throughout the Bullen between 12 Buttons, with an Inscription about.

On the other side this Coin was the Kings Face crown∣ed with a Ducal Crown; this is by most called a But∣ter Penny, and also a Cross Penny, from its stamp

In respect we are now come to speak of Stamps and Coins; I hold it not impertinent (by the way) 〈◊〉 give some little touch of the names of several pieces o Coins, now and in former time, together with their va∣lue, that the Reader upon the sight, or hearing thereof, may be able to judge of them.

Iews Silver Coin.

A Gherah, or an Agorah, or in some places a Ce∣shitah, it was the twentieth part of a Sicle, or She∣kel, and had upon it the Image of a Lamb, it is worth in our English money, a penny half penny.

A Zuz, or Zuzim Shekel, quadrans sic••, or the fourth part of a Sicle, it was worth a Roman penny, and in our money seven pence half penny; yet some say 1 s. 3 d.

A Shelishih shekel; triens sicli, the third part of a shekel, it is in our value worth ten pence.

Iews Gold Coin.

A Bekangh shekel, dimidius sicli, an half shekel, it was worth in our money one shilling three pence: It was for distinction of the Shekel, called the common she∣kel, and weighed a quarter of an Ounce, in Gold 15 s.

A shekel, or sicle of the Sanctuary, it contained precisely half an Ounce of Silver or Gold. This was called Keseph, or Silgha; which to distinguish it from the Kings Shekel, upon the one side was to be seen the Measure or Pot wherein they kept Manna in the Sanctuary, with this superscription, The Sicle of Israel; and on the other side the Rod of Aaron flourishing, with this Inscription, Holy Ierusalem; it is worth in our Mo∣ney two shillings six pence, and in Gold 30 shillings: But after the coming of our Saviour, the Converted Jews changed their shekel, and on the first side stamped the Image of Christ, with the Hebrew Letters Ied and Schin at the mouth of the Image, and the Letter Va in the Pole, which three Letters made his name Iesu. On the reverse side there was no Picture, but the whole rundle was filled with this Inscription in Hebrew Characters, which in English was thus, Messias the King cometh with Peace, and the Light of Man is made Life; but in some Coins for the latter clause of that Inscription is Read God is made Man.

The Kings shekel, was less than the Shekel of the Sanctuary, it was worth in English money, one shilling ten pence halfpenny; in Gold 22 shillings six pence; yet Holyoake in his Dictionary values it to no more than the half of the sicle of the Sanctuary, viz. one shilling three pence, this must be the common sicle.

A Mina, answereth to our pound weight, of which there is three sorts; as the common Mina, which is 15 of our half Ounces, and is worth in our English mo∣ney 37 shillings sixpence; and in Gold 22 pounds 10 shillings.

A Kings Mina, or pound, weighed 20 half ounces, which amounted in our English Money to Fifty shillings, and in Gold to 30 pound.

A Mina, or pound of the Temple, weighed 25 half ounces, which in our money is three pounds two shillings six pence, and in Gold 37 pounds ten shil∣lings.

Page  26A Talent or Cicar, was a certain Summ of Money with the Hebrews or Iews, as our Pounds, Nobles, or Marks is with us; it did amount to 3000 shekels, or half ounces; yet of these Talents there was three sorts, as

A Common Talent weighed 1500 half ounces, or Common Sicles, which is in our money 187 pounds 10 shillings, and in Gold 2250 l.

A Kings Talent weighed 3000 of the Kings Sicles and was in value with us worth 281 pounds 5 shillings, and in Gold 3375 pounds.

A Talent of the Temple or Sanctuary, weighed 3000 sicles of the Temple, which amounteth to 375 pounds; in Gold was worth 4500 pound English.

The Keshita, was a certain Coin amongst the He∣brews, on the one side whereof the Image of a Lamb was stamped. In the Judgment of the Rabbins, it was the same to Obolus; twenty of them went to a shekel; so that the value thereof was one penny half penny.

The Ceseph, which we render Argenteus, a piece of Silver; and often time is put absolutely for Nummus, Money; but if mentioned among the Hebrew Coins, it stands for a shekel, and valued at 2 s. 6 d. if it stand for a shekel of the Sanctuary or the common Shekel, then it is valued at 1 s. 3 d. But if it be mentioned in the Greek Coins, then it signifieth the Attick Dracma; which is in our Money a penny half penny.

A Zuza, it was a weight of Gold, which was also cal∣led Daikemonim; and of the Caldeans Edarconim; it was worth in our money seven shillings six pence; the Persians called it an Adarkon, and Drachmon.

A Zahab, is a certain piece of Gold of theirs, it was in value to our money 15 shillings; it was also called the common shekel of Gold.

Greeks Silver Coin.

The Drachma, or Attick Drachma, it is coined with a Burning Light, and is worth in English 7 pence half penny; four of these makes a shekel.

The Drachma of Aeginea, worth one shilling and ahalfpenny.

The Stater, which was also called the Tetradrach∣ma, on the one side was the head of Minerva, upon the other an Owl; it is worth in English two shillings six pence. This was the Attick Stater.

The Corinthian Stater was worth 1 s. 8 d. 3 q.

The Macedonian Stater was worth 2 s. 9 d. q. two thirds of a q.

The Didrachma, it had the impression of a Bull or Oxe, it was worth one shilling three pence.

The Tridrachma, which is 3 drachma's, worth 1 s. 10 d. ob.

The Obolus or Attick Obolus; so called, because it was oblong, and ended in a sharp point; it was worth 1 d. q.

The Eginea Obolus, was worth two pence half farthing, and the third part of a farthing.

The Semiobolus is worth a half penny farthing. This was the least of the Greek Silver Coins.

The Diobolus, it had on one side Jupiters Face, on the other an Owl, it was worth 2 d. ob.

The Triobolus of Attick, was worth 3 d. ob. q.

The Aeginea Triobolus, was worth six pence far∣thing.

The Tetrobolus, had on one side Jupiters Face, on the other two Owls coined; it was worth 5 d.

The Siglus, or the Asiatick Siglus, was worth 10 d.

The Asiatick Cistophorus, it was so called, because of the Image of one bearing of a Basket, or Chest upon it; it was worth in English 4 d. ob.

The Asiatick Danaces, it was a piece of Money, which the Greeks usually put into the mouth of their Dead, to pay Charon for their passage to Elizium, it was worth in English Money an half penny farthing, and two third parts of a Farthing.

Greeks Brass Coin.

The Assarius, it was a Brass piece of Coin, and was worth the quarter of a Farthing in English account.

The Quadrans, it was another Brass Stamp, worth a quarter of an half Farthing.

The Quadrans Assis, it was worth a Farthing and a half.

The Ereolum, it was a Brass Coin, worth a farthing and an half, and one third part of an half Farthing, or Mite.

The Minute or Minutum, it is the seventh part of an Ereolum, which is worth little more than half a Mite, or half a quarter of a Farthing and half.

Greeks Gold Coin.

The Attick Stater, was in Gold the weight of two Drachma's, and was worth 15 shillings.

The Stater Daricus, it was Persian Gold, it had the Impression of a Sagitarius upon it, and valued to 15 s. it was also called an Adarchon.

The Stater of Macedonia, it was worth of our Money 18 s. 4 d.

The Stater of Cizycenus, so called (as is thought) of Cizycus, a Grecian City, valued with them at 17 s. 6 d. but is worth in our English Money 1 l. 1 s.

The Semistater was worth the same price 17 s. 6 d.

The Tetrastater, was worth three pounds.

The Cizycenus was worth seven shillings six pence.

The Attick Minas, weighed 100 Drachmas, and was worth with us three pounds two shillings six pence.

The Talent was of diverse kinds, according to the Countrey where it was used; and for the most part 6000 Drachma's made the same, as

The Attick Talent contained 6000 Drachma's at Attica, and was worth in our money 187 pounds 10 shillings; but the greater Attick Talent was worth 250 pounds.

The Syrian Talent, was worth 46 l. 17 s. 6 d.

The Egyptian Talent was worth 250 l.

Page  27The Euboian Talent, worth 125 l.

The Rodian Talent, was worth 140 l. 12 s. 6 d.

The Babylonian Talent, worth 218 l. 15 s.

The Eginea Talent, worth 312 l. 10 s.

The Alexandrian Talent, was worth 375 l.

The old Talentus siculus, or Shekel Talent of the minor or lesser sort, was worth but 3 s. 9 d.

The Neapolitan Talent, was worth so much, viz. 3 s. 9 d.

The New Talentum siculum, and the Sicilian Talent, are all one, and is worth 1 s. 10 d. ob.

The Regian Talent, was worth but 3 d. ob. q.

Romans Brass Coin.

The Minutum, or Mite, it was the 8 part of a Farthing, it weighed half a Barley Corn, and was worth in our money three parts of one Farthing.

The As, or Es; for Ereus, was a Coin worth the tenth part of a Roman Penny, which with us is worth an half penny farthing. Some call it an Assarius, or Assarium, it weighed 4 grains of Barley, and contained eight Mites.

The Semissis, is as much as half an Aes, it is worth a farthing and a half.

The Triens, is the third part of an Aes, which is half a farthing.

The Quadrans or Quadrant, a Farthing, it weigh∣ed a grain of Barley, it consisted of 2 Mites, and was the fourth part of an Aes; it is by some Authors called Triuncis and Triuntius, because it was a diminuti∣on of the pound, containing three ounces, and is with us worth 3 Mites, or 3 quarters of a farthing.

The Sextans, or sixth part of an Assis, worth half a Farthing, or 2 Mites.

The Uncia, was the tenth part of an Assis, worth 1 Mite.

The semiuncia, worth half a Mite, or half of the fourth part of a Farthing.

The Sextula, the sixth part of an Uncia, or ounce▪ it is worth the sixth part of a Mite; these are the anci¦ent Brass Money used among the Romans; but there were greater used in latter times, as

The Decussis, or Decem Assis, a Roman Penny, it is in our value 7 pence half penny.

The Uicessis, 2 Roman Pennies, worth with us 1 s. 3 d.

The Tricessis, 3 Roman Pennies, worth 1 s. 10 d. ob. and so they ascended higher and higher to 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Roman Pennies, the last of which they called a Centussis, behind which they went not with any Brass Coin.

The Centussis, or 10 Roman Pennies, was worth 6 s. 3 d.

The Follis, was a Brass Coin (or Iron as some say) and so called because thereon was stamped the similitude of a Leaf, and was worth a Farthing, half Farthing, and one third of a Farthing.

Romans Silver Coin.

The Denarius Uetus, or the old Roman Penny, was a Silver Coin, it weighed the seventh part of an Ounce, it was worth 10 Asses, and worth with us eight pence half penny, Mite, and one seventh part of a Mite.

The Denarius Novus, or new, or common Roman Penny, was worth in our money 7 pence half penny; but the Penny of the Sanctuary was worth 1 s. 3 d.

The Bigatus, and Quadrigatus, they are both all one with the Roman Penny; and were so called, be∣cause these words were stamped upon one side of them; they were worth 7 pence half penny a piece.

The Uicoriatus, a Coin having the Image of Vi∣ctory upon it, it was worth 3 pence half penny.

The Miliarisimum, weighed two Drachmas, and was worth 15 d.

The Sestertius, so called of Sesquitertius, it was 2 Asses and a half, and worth in our money 3 d. ob. q. Some say worth but 1 d. ob. q.

The Obolus, is the sixth part of a Denarius, and is worth in our money a penny farthing; though in these days the Latins and Romans use the word Obolus, but for an half penny.

The Libella, is the tenth part of a Roman Penny, and worth an half penny Farthing.

The Sembello, is so called, because its half the Li∣bella, and was worth a farthing and a half.

The Teruntius, was the fourth part of a Denari∣us, and was worth 2 Mites and a half.

The Ceratium, and the Siliqua Cornuta, be∣cause there was stamped upon it the Moon increasing, by which it was known to be more than the common Cera∣tium, or Siliqua, and was worth 7 d. ob. the com∣mon but 5 d.

Romans Gold Coin.

The Denarius Aureus, the Gold Penny, so cal∣led, because such had the same Stamp, o was of the same bigness as the Silver Pennies, it was worth 17 s. 1 d. ob. such were called Aureus Priscus, and Aureus Con∣sularis, being Coined in the time of the Consuls.

The Aureus recentior, or Aureus Imperatori∣us, these were pieces of Gold Coined about the beginning of the Emperours, and weighed 2 Drachmas, and was worth 15 s.

The Semissis Aurei, worth 7 s. 6 d.

The Tremissis Aurei, was worth 5 s.

The Aureus Constantini, of the weight of a Di∣drachma, and was worth 8 s. 6 d. ob.

The Aureus Ualentiniani, Gold Coined by the Emperour Valentinian, it was also called Sextuala, be∣cause it was the sixth part of an Ounce, and worth 10 s.

The Semissis Aurei, of the said Valentinian, was worth five shillings.

The Triens, or Tremissis Aurei, worth 3 s. 4 d.

Page  28The Scrupulum Aurei, which was the fourth part of a Golden Sextula, and worth 2 s. 6 d.

The Ancient Romans numbered the sums of Money by these four ways;

  • By the Sestertium, which as it is put in the Neuter Gender, from Sestertius of the Masculine; then it contains a thousand Sestertios, and is as much as in our sum of Moneys 7 l. 16 s. 3 d.
  • By the Libra, or Pound Weight, containing 12 Oun∣ces of Silver, which is worth 3 pounds.
  • By the Talentum, or Talent, which contained 24 Sestertios, or 6000 Denarios, and is worth 187 l. 10 s.
  • By the Sportula, which was a certain small Summ of 400 Quadrans, which maketh 10 Sestertios, and was as much as our 1 s. 6 d. ob. q.

See further of these Ancient Coins in these Authors. Francis Holyoake, at the end of his English Dictionary. The Travels of the Patriarchs, by Hen. Bunting, p. 375, &c. Observations Natural and Moral, by Io. Weemse, pag. 141. &c.

Goodwyn on the Iews Antiquities, pag 260.

English Brass Coin.

A Farthing, it is of Copper at this time, which in weight is the — part of an Ounce, having on one side the Kings head, with a Laurel about his Temples, and this Inscription Carolus a Carolo; on the other side the Emblem of Brittannia, being a Woman with a Shield and Spear, holding a Star in her right hand, and writ∣ten about Brittannia, 1673.

An Halfpenny, it containeth 2 Farthings, having the same Images and Superscriptions; these are all the Brass Moneys used in England.

English Silver Coin.

A Half penny Silver hath the Rose on one side, and the Thistle, or a Portcullis on the other.

A Penny in Silver Car. 1. Coin, was the same to his Royal Father, Iac. 1. viz. their heads on one side, with an . and the Arms of England, Scotland, France and Ireland on the other, it containeth half an Inch, half a quarter in diameter. Car. 2. Coin hath his head on one side, and a Cressant on the other for a Penny.

A Two Pence of Queen Elizabeth, King Iams, King Charles the first, have their Pictures on one side, and the English Arms on the other, with this II. in dia∣meter half an Inch, and two thirds of a quarter; Charles the 2. hath two Cressants Braced, as numb. 74.

A Threepence in all respects answereth the Twopence having this Token III. and in Charles the Seconds Coin three Cressants Braced or Fretted triangular; the diameter directly 3 quarters of an Inch.

A Four pence, or Groat, or an Old Groat, hath the English and French Arms quartered on one side, and — but the Four Pences of the foresaid Kings have their heads on one side, with the mark IIII, with the English Coats in a Compartment; but Charles the Seconds Mill'd Groat hath his head after the Roman manner on one side; and four Cressants Fretted in form of a Cross crowned between a Flower de lis, a Rose, a Thistle and Harp, with this Inscription, Carolus D. G. Mag. Br. Fr. & Hib. Rex. 1672.

A Sixpence, or Tester, answereth the Kings Four pence in all respects, having this mark VI. or a Rose; if it have neither, it is a half Faced Groat, and goeth for no more. It is an Inch in Diameter.

A Shilling or Twelve Pence, it containeth in weight, the fifth part of an Ounce Troy; stamped on one side with the Kings head Crowned, with this mark XII. Inscription Carolus D. G. Mag. Br. Fr. & Hib. Rex. with the English Quarterings in a Compartment, with this about it, Christo Auspice Regno; in diameter it is an Inch and a quarter.

A Mill'd Shilling of Charles the Second, is in all re∣spects like the Mill'd Half Crown, only less.

A Philip and Mary shilling, hath a Man and Wo∣mans head respecting each other, with a Royal Crown over them; on the other side the Arms of Spain and England Impaled.

Queen Elizabeths shilling, had her Effigies and Ti∣tle on one side, and the Arms of England in a plain Esco∣chion, viz. France and England quarterly, with a Cross throughout the Diameter of the Coin, ragged or raised at the end, with this Inscription, Posui Deum Adjutorem meum; the like Cross was in her Six Pence and Groats.

An Half Crown, or a George, so called, because it hath on the one side a George on Horse-back, or a Man Armed Cap-a-Pee, Brandishing his Sword, and his Scarf flourishing behind him, with this writing about Carolus D. G. Mag. Brit. Fr. & Hib. Rex. on the other side the English Quartered Coats in a Compartment, with the foresaid Inscription, Christo Auspice Regno; it weigheth about half an Ounce, and passeth for 2 s. 6 .

The Mill'd Half Crown of Charles the Second, hath his Head in the Roman Garb, with this Inscription Carolus II. Dei Gratia; and on the other side four Escochions Crowned in Cross, between so many times two C brased; on the Escochions is 1. the Arms of England. 2. of Scot∣land. 3. of France. 4. of Ireland. The Inscription Mag. Br. Fr. & Hib. Rex. 1676.

A Crown piece, or Five shilling piece, is the largest Coin we have in Silver, it is an Ounce Troy, ha∣ving the like Stamps as the Half Crown, some call them a Double George or Hore-Man.

The Mill'd Crown pieces, or Five shilling pie∣ces, in all respects do answer the Mill'd Half Crowns; they are called Mill'd Pieces, because Coined round and Mill'd, with Letters on the Rim or edges of them, on the out side, by which they cannot be Clipped; the In∣scription is * * Decus & Tutamen Anno Regni Vicessi∣mo Octavo.

English Gold Coin.

A Crown or five Shillings Gold, is the least peece we have in England: It hath the Kings head on one side Page  29 with his Royal Crown, and this mark V. the Inscription, 〈◊〉 D. G. Mag. BR. Fr. Et Hib. REX. on the other side the English Arms in a compartinent Crowned with a C. and on R. Crowned, with this Inscription, Cultores Sui — Rotegit: It weigheth about two penny Weight.

Henry the Eight, his first Crown was two Penny weight, and nine Grains: was worth seven Shillings.

Q. Elizabeth, and K. Iames Crowns; was two Penny weight: and worth five shillings, six pence.

The Double Brittain Crown, is four penny weight, and is in value eleven shillings, three pence.

The ten Shilling Peece of Charles the first in all re∣spects answered the five shillings peece for the Coinage, it had this X set on the Head side.

The Angel, or the Noble Angel: so called because St. Michael the Archangel slaying the Dragon, is on one side with the Inscription, Henricus Viii. D. G. Ang. Et Fr. and on the other side, a Ship with one Mast and Tac∣kles, and an Escochion with France and England quarter∣ly, and this writing about, Per Cruce Tua Salva Nos: It is three penny weight, seven Grains, and a quarter: and worth eleven shillings.

The Half Angel, hath the same Impresses, and is worth five shillings, six pence.

The Old Angel Noble of England, hath the same impression, but on the Ship side, it hath this writing A. Dno: Factum Est Istud Et Est Mirabili: it was four penny weight ten Grains: and passed for fourteen shillings, six pence.

The Half of that Angel, was so stamped, it contain∣ed two penny weight, four Grains, and is worth seven shillings six pence.

The George Noble, was three penny weight, and one Grain: it was worth nine shillings.

The Rose Noble, or Rose Royal of England: was four penny weight, thirteen Grains; worth fourteen shillings six pence: It hath a Rose with the Arms of France in the middle of it, with this writing about, HE: Autem Transiens Per Mediu: Illorum Ibat: and on the other side, out of the Hul of a Ship, a Demy King holding a Sword is his right hand, and a Shield with the Arms of France and England quarterly: Crowned with a Ducal Crown, in the left hand; and written about Henricus D. G. Rex Ang: Fr: Dns: Hib. This peece is also termed, the Rose Royal, or the Royal of England.

The Double Rose Noble, Coined by King Henry hath a King Enthroned, in his right hand a Scepter, and left a Mound; with this writing, Henricus D. G. Rex Ang: Et Fr: Dns: Hib: on the other side the Arms of France and England quarterly in the middle of a double Rose, with this Inscription about: Ihesus Autem Transients Per Medium Illorum Ibat. This is — penny weight, and passes for thirty nine or Forty shillings.

The Spare Royal, or Spare Royal of England, it is four penny weight, twenty three Grains, and is worth sixteen shillings six pence.

The Half Spare Royal, is worth sixteen shillings three pence.

The Salute of Eugland, worth six shillings ten pence.

The Soveraign, Coined by Henry the Eighth, Ed∣ward the Sixth, Queen Elizabeth, King Iames, they all weighed between three and four penny weight, and passed for eleven shillings, they had their Images and Superscrip∣tions, on one side: and their Arms Crowned on the o∣ther.

The Great Double Soveraign of King Iames, weighed six penny, six Grains: and passed for two and twenty shillings, had the figure of the King to the middle in Armour Crowned holding a Sword and Mound: on the other side the Enlish, Scotch, French, and Irish Arms: with Faciam Eos in Gentem Vnam. The Great Trible Soveraign, was ten penny weight, and passed for three and thirty shillings.

The Half Soveraign of King Henry the Eight, had a double Rose Crowned, with an H. R. Crowned on one side and his Arms Crowned, all with Ducal Crowns, and this Inscription; Henricus Viii. Rutilans Rossin: Spp: Di. G. Ang: Fr: Et Hib: Rex.

Note that what Coin soever was stamped in Wales, it e∣ver had on one side, or in some part of the side, the three Feathers in the Crown impressed.

We Sum up our Money seven ways: as

  • By Pounds which is twenty shillings.
  • By Marks which is thirteen shillings, four pence.
  • By Angels which is ten shillings.
  • By Nobles which is six shillings, eight pence.
  • By Crowns which is five shillings.
  • By Shillings which is twelve pence.
  • By Groats which is four pence.

Scotch Brass Coin.

A Penny Scotch, twelve of these is worth one penny English.

An Atchison, is a Mettle peece, neither Silver, Cop∣per, Brass, Lead or Tin, it is like Masline and is valued to be four Bodels, six of them is a Penny English.

A Bodel, three of them makes an half penny English.

A Placke, three of them makes a penny English.

A Babee, is an half penny English.

A Shilling of Scotland, is a penny English.

Scotch Silver Coin.

A Scotch twenty pence, it hath a Rose on one side, and Thistle on the other; it is marked with XX. and is worth in English, two pence. Some call it a two shilling peece.

A Babee of Scotland, is an half penny English. These peeces are Coined both in Copper, and Silver.

A Forty pence peece Scotch, — which is worth three pence half penny farthing English: It is called a quarter peece because it is the fourth part of a thirteen pence half penny peece, which the Scotch call a Mark peece.

A Four Shilling and a Babee peece, which in our Money is four pence half penny. It hath the Harp and Crown on one side, and this writing, Tueatur Vnt Deus, on the other side a Kings head looking to the sini∣ster side; and Inscription, Iacobus D. G. Ang. Sco. Fran. Et Hib. Rex.

Page  30A 6 Shilling peece and a Babee, or a half Mark Scotch, or half a thirteen pence half penny: It is called an half peece, it passeth with us for six pence, half penny farthing. It is Coined in all respects answerable to the Mark peece of Scotland, or thirteen pence half penny.

A Nine Shillings peece Scotch, — in our Mo∣ney nine pence: it hath the Harp crowned on one side with this Inscription, Exurgat Deus Dissipentur Inimici: on the other side the Kings head with a Royal Crown, In∣scribed Iacobus D. G. Ang. Sco. Fra. Et Hib. Rex.

A Ten Shilling peece, and a Babee — of some called a Baldpate, it is in English Money ten pence half penny.

A Mark or Scotch Mark, in our Money worth thirteen pence half penny, on one side it hath a Thistle slipt with two Leaves, and Crowned: with this writing, Reem Iova Protegit, on the other side the Scotch Arms with a Royal Crown on it, and this Inscription, Iacobus Vi. D G. R. Sco••rm.

A 12 Shilling Scotch, or shilling English, that is twelve pence: It is in all things like to our Englsh Coin, but that on the Arms side, the Scotch Coat is set in the first and fourth Quarters: and so they do in all their o∣ther Coins, whether six pence, half Crowns or Crowns, &c. that are Coined amongst them in Scotland.

A Pound Scotch, is 1 s. 8 d. or 5 Groats English.

A three Pound peece in Scotland, is in English sterling just five shillings.

Scotch Gold Coin.

The Scotch Crown, is worth five shilling six pence English. They call it five Mark peece.

A Scotch Rider, or Horseman; is worth eleven shillings, on one side a Man and Horse Cap a Pee, on the other the Scotch Arms Crowned viz. a Lion Rampant in a double Tressure flurt: with this Inscription, Spero Meliora. They call it also a Ten Mark peece.

The Half Thistle Crown, worth two shillings nine pence.

A Scotch Angel, it is worth ten shillings ten pence, having on one side the Scotch Arms Crowned, with Iaco∣bus Vi. D. G. R. Scotorum, on the other side a Sword and Scepter in Salter between two Thistles, and a Crown in chief; in base 1601. Inscribed Salus Populi Suprema Lex.

The Twenty Mark peece of Scotland, it is worth two shillings English.

The Five Mark peece, is worth with us five shillings six pence.

The Ten Mark peece, is worth eleven shillings.

The Twelve pound Scotish peece, is our twenty shillings.

The Rix Pound peece, is ten shillings English.

The Unite, a Coin peece of Gold, is worth six shillings eight pence.

Irish Coin.

An Half penny hath the Kings Effigies in the Roman Garb half Faced to the Sinister side with a Laurel about his Head and this Inscription Carolus II. Dei Gratia, and on the other side an Harp Crowned with this, Mag. Br. Fra. Et Hib. Rex, 1680.

A Patrick of Ireland, was worth an half penny. It was Coined in the time of King Charles the Second Excile, and is yet in use with us for small change and passeth but for a farthing, it hath King David Crowned supporting his Harp with this Inscrption, — Rex, and on the other side, St. Patrick in a Bishops Pontifical habit, a Church behind him and written about Quiescat Plebs.

An Half Crown peece, hath on one side II. s. VI. d.

A Crown peece hath on one side, V. and a small s. in the middle of the V.

The Names of Severall Coins used in the Neighbouring Kingdoms, about us: Alphabetical.


An Augster of Switzerland, worth a Farthing.

A Doite, worth a farthing.

A Dryneller, worth a farthing.

A Dyner of Genoa, worth half a farthing.

A Dyner of Turkie, worth a farthing.

A Holler, worth a farthing.

A Marvedes, worth a farthing.

An Orks, worth a farthing, and half.

A Penning, worth a farthing, and half.

A Pochanel, worth a farthing.

A Plack peece, three makes a penny English.

A Quatrener, worth a farthing.

A Turnour, six makes a Penny.


An Aten of Muscovia, is four pence English.

An Aspers, is ob. q. or three farthings.

An Attin of Poland, is worth four pence half penny with us.

A Batz, is three pence English.

A Bemish of Switzer, is two pence half penny English.

A Biancco of Italy, it is worth our eight pence.

A Blanckes, is worth a half penny farthing, English.

A Boligneo, is three farthings English.

A Caveletto of Italy, is worth three pence farthing.

A Carlini of Italy, is six pence English.

A Crown of Turkie, is six shillings English.

A Crown of Italy, is five shillings with us.

A Cupstoke, is one shilling.

A Creitzers of Poland, is an half penny farthing.

A Cob of Ireland, or a Peece of Eight, is worth four shilling eight pence. It is a Spanish Coin, not round but cornered or nuke shotten, and passeth according to its weight, for more or less.

An Half Cob, it is of the foresaid Coin, and is worth two shilling four pence, or more according to its weight.

Page  31A Quarter Cop, of Peru.

A Rix Doller, or Rich Doller; so called because it was Coined by Emperial command: It is worth five shillings English. Others say six shillings, three pence, of these there are several Impressions according to the pla∣ces in which they were Coined: as,

  • A Rix Doller of Luneborgh, and Brunswick; which have the Roman Eagle on one side, and an hairy Man holding a burning Candle a Ragged Staff; with the Emperors name, and place of Coinage about the Rings of it, 1570.
  • A Rix Doller of Campen, the Emperial City of Germany: hath the Eagle with a Mound on its Breast, cross Patee betwen its heads, and Crown over: on the o∣ther side, a Castle Port open, treble Towered 1614. Su∣perscription, Mathias I. D. G. Elect Ro. Imp. Sem. Aug. Mone. No. Civitatis Imper Campensis: another Impression Coined 1549. hath St. Iohn Baptist with a Lamb on a Bible.
  • A Rix Doller of Luneborgh, Coined 1568: the the same as the aforesaid in the Port is an Escochion with a Lion Rampant.
  • A Doller of Wismarie, hath St Laurence on one side holding a Palm branch and supporting a Grid-Iron: with this superscription, Moneta Nova Wismariensis, on the other side, a Cross Patee extended to the out sides, with an Escochion, per Pale with a Demy Leopards Face Crowned, fixed to the Sinister side; and the other Barry of four. The first and third fretted, with Spes Nostra in D, 1547.
  • A Doller of the Netherlands, or Low Countreys, called a Rick Doller or Rich Doller, is worth five shil∣lings English, some say five shillings three pence, It hath a Demy Man in Armour holding a Sword and an Esco∣chion, with this writing: Mo. Arg. Pro Confoe. Belg. and on the other side the Dutch Arms with a Ducal Crown upon it, viz. a Lion Rampant holding a Sword in his right Paw, and a Shaff of Arrows in his left: superscripti∣on, Concordia Res parvae Crescunt.
  • A Rix Doller of Gelderland, hath on the Esco∣chion held by the Armed Man, with a Laurel about his Temples? two Lions combitant, and the Letters added after Belg. Gel.
  • A Rix Doller of Holland, and West Freisland, hath on the Escochion, a Lion Rampant, and after Belg. C. Hol. and on the later two Lions Passant Gardant, and after Belg. West. F.
  • A Rix Doller of Zeeland, hath in the Escochion, a Demy Lion, issuant out of Wavee, and after Belg. Zel.
  • A Rix Doller of Utrech, hath on the Escochion, a Lion Rampant: and after Belg. Tra.
  • A Rix Doller of Friesland, hath two Lions Passant, and after Belg. Fris.
  • A Rix Doller of Over-Issel, hath a Lion Ram∣pant debrused with a Fsse Wavey Waved, and after Belg. Tran.
  • A Rix Doller, of the Netherlands, or Germa∣ny of another Coinage, yet called the Rix Doller, or Rück Daelder: It is worth four shillings, eight pence. It hath the like Image of an Armed Man to the middle, Head Laurelled, holding a Sword in the right Hand, to his Shoulder (as all the other do) and a Shaff of Arrows in his left Hand, looking to the Sinister side, with this writing, Concordia Res Parvae Crescunt Hol. on the other side, all the Coats mentioned in the Foresaid Dollers are quarter∣ed; with 1586, on the top of the Escochion: with this Inscription, Mo. Ordin. Provin. Forder. Belgiae. Ad Legem Imp.
  • A Doller of Nimengaine, is worth four shillings eight pence: It hath the figure of a Demy Man in Ar∣mour, with Crown Royal and Scepter, on the other side the Roman Eagle, and Crown; with a Lion Rampant in an Escochion on its Breast: with this writing, Insignia Vrbis Imperialis Novi Mag.
  • A Doler of Groeninger, worth four shillings, eight pence: It hath the Image of St. Iohn Baptist, holding a Book and a Lamb on it, with this writing, Sanctus Iohan∣nes Baptista An. 1561. on the other side the Roman Eagle, with a Fesse in an Escochion on her Breast: and this In∣scription, Moneta Nova Argentea Groningensis.
  • A Half Doller of Gelderland, is worth three shil∣lings, nine pence: It hath a Demy Man Armed all to the Head holding a Scepter in his left Hand; Inscribed Phs. D. G. Hisp. Et Rex Dux Gel. C. Z. 1579. The other side a compartment Escochion, with Crown Royal on it, viz. 1.2. Lions combitant, 2 a Lion Rampant (3 as 2) and 4 as 1) Inscribed Concordia Res Parvae Crescunt.
  • A Half Doller of Utrech, hath a Lion Rampant holding a Sword and Shaff of Arrows, and on the oter side an Escochion Crowned of four Quarters, 1. a Lion Rampant, 2. party per Bend &c. on an Inescochion, a Cross and Bordure: Inscribed, Phs. D. G. Hisp. Rex Dns. Traiec
  • A Dollr of the Hollanders, called the Lion Dol∣ler, it is worth four shillings English: It hath the Impres∣on of a Man Armed Cap-a-pee, with a compartment Shield before his Feet with a Lion Rampant with this writing, Mo. No. Arg. Grdin. Hol. 1576. and on the o∣ther side a Lion Rampant with this Inscription, Confidens Dno. Non Movetur. The like was Coined 1606.
  • A Lion Doller of West-Freisland, hath the same impresses with two Lions Passant Gardant, and the Field Billettee; and after Ordin. Follows West. Fri. Valor Hol. and about the Lion side, Deus Fortitudo Et Spes Nostra.
  • A Lion Doller of Zeelan, with a Demy Lion issu∣ant out of Waves and after the word Ord. Zel. and the o∣ther side the like Lion issuant out of Water with this writ∣ing, Domine Serva Nos Perimus.
  • A Lion Doller of Utrech, hath the Shield quar∣terly, a Cross and a Lion Rampant: and after, Ord. Trai. 1585.
  • A Lion Doller of Over-Yssell, hath a Lion Ram∣pant on the Shield, and after Arg. Pro Confoe. Belg. Tran. the othe side, as that of Holland.
  • A Half Doller of all these foresaid Lion Dollers, are worth two shillings: and do in all respect answers the whole Doller.
  • An Old Doller of Bohemia, worth five shillings, three pence: having a Demy King in Armour holding of a Scepter, with Fardinai. D. G. Boemie Hungarie & C. Rex. on the other side an Escochion crowned with a Ducal Crown of four Coats quarterly, 1. a Lion Rampant Tail forked and Wreathed 2. Barry of six &c. an Inescochion per Pale a Fesse, a Castle: Inscribed, Infans Hispaniarum Arch-Dux Austria. There is another Coinage of them with a Page  32 Royal Crown over the Arms.
  • The like Doller of Bohemia, having a Lion Ram∣pant double Queved and on the other side a Pilgrim with S. I. and this Inscription, Ludovicus Prim. D. G. Rex Boh. Ar. Domi. Sli. Stez. Fra. Com. D. Ba.
  • A Doller of Saxony, worth five shillings three pence, a Mans Head to the Shoulders old, and a turned up Cap, a Sword on his Shoulder, with four Escochions on the Ring, 1, two Swords in Salter: middle two Lions Rampant, and the under Barry with a Bend Corone, writing Erideri Iohan. Georgius. On the Endorse two Mens Heads below the Shoulders respecting each other; writing, Mone. Argen. Ducum Sazon.

    The like Peece to these, and of their value, I have seen of the Dukes of Saxonies Coin, having but one Head of a side, Anno 1537. and 1512. with their names about the Rings: and in the Year 1530 on one side, with the Arm of the Dukedom of Saxony, between four other Escochions one Lion Rampant, the other Lion Rampant to the Si∣nister side, and the lower two Pales: Inscribed Naw. Muntz. Herzog. Georgenzus Saxe Nach. Dem. Alten Schrot. Vnd. Korn. 1530. and in a Coin seventeen Years after, it was Coined with twelve quartered Coats, under three Helmets and Crests Mantled, with this Inscription: Maurious D. G. Dux Sax. Sa. Ro. Imperi. Archi-Marschal Et Electr, 1547.

  • A Doller of Brunswick, and Lutsenborgh; a Mans Head below the Shoulders in Robs, and Chains a¦bout his Neck with a round Bonnet on his Head; super∣scription, Henrick. D. G. Bruns. Et Lun. D. on the Endorse, an Hairy Man supporting a Ragged Staff, and in the left a Flower slipped: writing Non Vidi Iust. M. De. Relictum
  • A Doller of the Dukedom of Bayrn, and Com∣espar: worth five shillings three pence, having a Man in Armor to the middle, ancient, and bare Headed; with Fridericus D. G. Comespar. The. Et Ba. Dx, 1537. on the other side, the Arms in a Collar of the Golden Fleee, Crowned a Lion Rampant and Barrybendy quarterly: Inscription, Non Mihi Dne. Sed Nomini Tuo Da Glo.
  • A Doller of Colonia in Germany, is worth five shil∣ling, three pence: It hath the Roman Eagle Mitral Impe∣rial over its Heads, with this writing Carolus V. Rom. Imp. Semp. August. and on the other side, the Arms of the City, viz. 3 Crownets on a chief with Mantle, Helmet, and Crest: Sperscription, Mo. No. Argen. Civit. Colon. 1548.
  • A Doller of the Church of Colon, (I suppose it is the Coin of the Archbishop of Colon) which hath St. Peter holding a Key and a Book under the left Arm, Inscribed Antonius Elec. Ecclesie Colon, on the other side the Arms of the Bishoprick viz. a Cross; then a Horse Saliant; then three Hearts of Men; and lastly an Eagle Displaid, with Mantle, Helmet and Crest, viz. on a Peacocks Tail, between two Penons an Escochion with a Lion Ram∣pant written about, Moneta Nova Argen. Tuici. 1557. and in the Year 1558, there was a Coin stamped by Iohan. Gebhar. Elect. Eccle. Colon, with St. Peter holding an Esco∣chion before his Feet, with the Arms of the said Iohan: the Endorse as the Coin aforesaid. The like 1568. by Salentin.
  • A Doller of Hamborgh, hath a Castle treble To∣wered with this writing, Moneta, Nova Civitatis Hambur∣gens. on one side, and on the other, Virgin Mary Crown∣ed, holding of a Babe: with Fiat Mihi Sec undum Verbum tuum.
  • A Duccatoon of Spain, worth six shillings.
  • An Half Duccatoon, is vvorth three shillings.
  • A Doller of Spain — or a Phillip Doller, is vvorth five shillings: It hath the Spanish Arms Crovvn∣ed; vvith Dominus Mihi Ajutor on one side, and on the other a Mans Head to the Shoulders, vvith Phs. D. G. Hisp. G. Z. Rex Bra the Half Philips Doller hath the same Impression.
  • A Doller of Suecia, called a Rix Doller or an Imperial Doller, is vvorth five shillings tvvo pence.
  • A Doller of Suecia, called a Rekish Doller, or the Merchants Doller of Suecia is vvorth five shillings three pence.
  • A Doller — called Cross Doller, vvorth four shilling, eight pence: It hath a Salter Po∣nette Avellen vvith a Crovvn Royal, and 1567. some 585. vvith N. Puc. Gel. Ad Legem Burgundici. on the o∣••er side an Escochion Quarterly with Crown Royal, and dorned with a Collar of the Golden Fleece; vvith a Fesse, then a Bodure Goboy, then Lion Rampant, vvith Dominus Mihi Ajutor.
  • A Cross Doller of Burgundie, is of the same price, and the same Impresions, only the vvriting on the Cross side is thus: Phs. D. G. Hisp. Rex Dux Brab.
  • A Half Cross Doller of the same place is vvorth tvvo shillings, four pence: It hath the same Impression and Superscription.
  • A Quarter of a Cross Doller of the same place, is vvorth one shilling six pence, or tvvelve Styvers; It hath the same Impression and Superscription, as the foresaid.
  • A Doller of Albertus, is vvorth four shillings, eight pence.
  • A Nevv Silver Peece of Albertus, vvorth one shil∣ling, ten pence half penny: It hath a Womans Face by the side, or behind a Mans, vvith Ruff Band; Inscription Albertus Et Elizabe. Dei Gratia, on the other side a Reg∣ged Salter, vvith an Escochion on it, and Royal Crovvn over it, tvvo Coats Impaled viz. a Fesse, vvith three Bends; and 1608. vvriting Archid. Aust Dues Burg. Et Braban.
  • A Doller of Zeland and Freisland, with the Im∣pression of the Eagle, vvorth in English Money, tvvo shillings ten pence: It hath nine quartered Coats in a compartment vvith 1602. and Inscribed, Monet. Argent. Ordin. Zeelandiae. on the other side a Roman Eagle, vvith a Lion issuant out of Surges in an Escochion on its Breast, vvith this vvriting: Si Deus Nobiscum Quis Contra Nos.
  • A Diken of — or a Diken of a Wing: is vvorth one shilling four pence.
  • A Drier of — is vvorth a half pen∣ny farthing.
  • A Doit of the Netherlands, is vvorth in English an half penny half farthing.
  • A Flabben of Groningen in Freisland, it is vvorth ten pence: It hath on it a Bishop in his Pontificals, vvith Sanctus Martinus Ep. 1591. Other side, a Roman Eagle vvith an Escochion on his Breast, charged vvith a Fesse; Inscribed, Moneta Nova Argent. Groningensis.
  • A Half Flabben, is vvorth four Stiver, or five pence; It hath the foresaid Eagle in an Escochion, and same In∣scription: But on the other side is a conceited Cross, vvith Page  33 such an Escochion, and a Fesse on the middle of it: In∣scribed, Sit Nomen Domini Benedictum.
  • A Flabes, in the Low Countrys, is worth one shilling four pence English.
  • A Flanks of Turky, worth two shillings.
  • A Finferline, worth half a penny.
  • A Francken of Poland, worth two shillings one penny, half penny: It hath a Roman Head, with Henri∣cus III. D. G. France Et Pol. Rex, on the other side is a Roman H in the middle of four double Flowers de lis, nscribed, Sit Nomen Domini Benedictum, 1576.
  • A Half Francken, hath the same Image, and Super∣scription.
  • A Francken of Franckford, is of the same value; It hath a Roman Head, with this Inscription, Ants. Ppi. D. G. Alg. Et Port Rex: the other side as the abovesaid, only PR. is in place of the H.
  • A Florence of France, hath an H Crowned inter∣laced with two Scepters in Salter, a Sword in pale over all, with this writing about the edge, Duo Protegit Vnus.
  • A Gulden or a Silver Gulden of Freisland; called also a Flemish Silver Gulden, it is worth two shillings, some two shillings eight pence. It hath a Man in Furr with such a Cap, a little below the Shoulders vvith a Hand and Sword, withe Nisi Dominus Nobiscum, 1601. On the other side an Escochion Crowned, having two Lions Passant: the Inscription, Florenus Arg. Ordinum Frisiae
  • The Half Gulden of Freisland, is worth one shil∣ling English.
  • A Quarter of a Gulden, is worth three pence: they have both of them the like Image and Superscription, as the whole Gulden hath.
  • A Gilder or Gulden, called Charles his Gilder, in Silver is worth three shillings ten pence. It hath an Imperial Head Crowned, with Carolus D. G. Rom. Imp. Hisp: Rex, on an other of the same is Carolus D. G. Rom. Ip. Hisp. Rex. D. Burg. Com. Flan. on the one side; and on the other an Escochion set on a Cross flourished having 1. a Fesse, 2. Semy de Flowers de lis, a Bordure Gobony: 3. Bendy, 4. Lion Rampant, on an Escochion, a Lion Rampant: Inscribed, Da Mihi Virtute Con Hostes Tos. Another of the same, hath on Archducal Crown on the Escochion.
  • A Gilder, or States Gilder; is worth four shillings three pence. It hath the Arms abovesaid with a Royal Crown, and order of the Fleece, with Pace & Iustitia, on the other side a Demy King in Armour holding of a Scepter, Inscribed Phs. D. G. Hisp. Z. Rex. Dux Bra. 1578.
  • An Half States Gilder, is worth two shillings one penny half penny.
  • A Quarter of the States Gilder, is worth one shilling three farthings.
  • An Eight part of a States Gilder, is worth six pence farthing and half, all these have one and the same impression and Superscription, viz. on one side a King to the Knees Armed holding a Scepter & an Escochion before him with the Arms aforesaid: and Phs. D. G. Hisp. Rex Dux Bra. on the other side, a Roman S. then four H. set in Cross, upon each of them a P Crowned: with Pace & Iustitia 1577. in the ring about.
  • A sixteenth part of the States Gilder, is vvorth three pence half farthing, on one side it hath the Arms Crovvned, vvith Z. and S. on, on the other an H and P. on it, Crovvned; vvith four Branches about, and the Inscription as the rest before.
  • A Gulden, or Silver Gulden; vvorth three shillings ten pence.
  • A Groshen, or Silver Groshen: vvorth tvvo pence.
  • A Groshen, or a Silver Misen Groshen: It is vvorth three pence English.
  • A Groshen Polished, or Polish Groshen; vvorth one penny, half penny.
  • A Groshen called Mary Groshen; vvorth a penny farthing.
  • A Groshen called a Mesnish Silver Groshen, vvorth tvvo pence half penny farthing.
  • A Gagatta of Italy, vvorth a penny.
  • A Gnibij, or the Popes Gnibij; is as much as six pence English.
  • A Grot, or Grots of Germany; valued at one penny farthing.
  • A Iustino of Italy, vvorth one shilling six pence.
  • A Lyre of Uenice, vvorth nine pence.
  • A Lyra of Geroa, is vvorth one shilling, four pence▪
  • A Mark of Denmark, is tvvo shilling tvvo pence.
  • A Mursenigo, vvorth eleven pence.
  • A Medine of Cairo, it is valued to tvvo pence, far∣thing.
  • A Psound, or Pfound; vvorth four pence, 〈◊〉 penny farthing.
  • An Orkey of the Netherlands, it is the fourth part of a Stiver, or tvvo Doits: vvorth tvvo farthings, English, or a farthing half farthing, as others say.
  • A Plappot, vvorth tvvo pence half penny.
  • A Poali of Italy, in English Money vvorth six pence.
  • A Quartidiescue, is vvorth one shilling six pence.
  • A Rider, or Horseman of Gildersland; It is vvorth four shillings, three pence. It hath tvvo Escochions under an Helmet and Mantle, Crest a Lion Rampant on a Pea∣cocks Tail; the other side a Man on Horse-back Cap-a-Pee, under his Feet in an Escochion tvvo Lions Cam∣batant: vvith Deus Constituit Regna: the Superscription on the other side is Mon. No. Gelr. Com. Zut.
  • A Rider, or Horseman of Silver in Freisland; is vvorth the same rate, four shillings, three pence: It hath an Escochion Crovvned, vvith tvvo Lions passant, the Field Billettee. Subscribed, Moneta Nova Ordini Frisiae: The other side, an Horseman Cap-a-pee, bearing a Pennon slit in the end, under the Horse Feet an Esco∣chion vvith a Lion Rampant: the Inscription Nisi Dus. Nobiscum, 1582.
  • A Royal, or Real of Albertus: hath the Coats of Austria with a Ducal Crown, and Collar of the Golden Fleece, viz. 1. Quarter, Barry, and Lion Rampant 2 quarter, Pally and per Salter, 3 quarter, three bends, on a chief, a Fesse: 4 quarter, per Fesse Semy de Flovvers de lis, and a Lion Rampant in Base; Inscripti∣on, Albertus & Elizab, D. G. on the other side, a Salter avalen vvith a Crovvn above, A. and E. on the sides, and the Golden Fleece at the bottom; Subscribed, Archid. Aust. Duces Burg, & Brab. this peece is vvorth six pence, half penny.
  • A Half of the Royal Albertus, is vvorth three pence, farthing: It hath the same Superscription, but on Page  34 one side, it hath his and her single coats Impaled, on a Salter ragged, with a Royal Crown over; and on the other side a with a Ducal Crown over it.
  • A Reale, is 5 d. ob.
  • A Rousticke, is 1 d. ob.
  • A Royal, or a Royal of Eight, of Spain, is valu∣ed at 4 s. 5 d. it hath the Arms of Castile and Lions, crowned on one side; and 2 Pillars crowned, vvith a scroule over them vvith S. PLUS. D. and about the sides in Saxon Letters, Carolus & Ioana Regis Ispania in Iapo.
  • A Royal of Philip, hath all the Spanish coats on one side, and Castile and Lions arched about on the other.
  • A Royal of called a piece of four Royals, and is 4 s. 3 d.
  • A Royal, or piece of eight Royals, is 8 s. 6 d.
  • A Rappen Muntz of is tvvo pence half penny.
  • A Sestling, worth three Farthings.
  • A Stiver of the Low Countreys, worth a Penny Farthing, it hath a Lion rampant, holding a Sword and a Sheaf of Arrows; on the other side in great Roman Let∣ters FRISIA or TRS ISSULA 1614. and so of the rest of the Provinces where the Bullion was Coined
  • A Stiver, called Emden Stiver, worth 1 d. ob. q.
  • A Double Stiver is worth 2 d. ob. there is of them in all the Provinces of Holland and the Ntherlands, on∣ly in this they differ; on one side they have no Impres∣sion but great-Roman Letters, on which side is set the name of the Province they are of, as Gelria, 1614. Holand. 1614. oW. FRISIA. TRAIECTVM, &c. on the other side, is a Lion rampant Brandishing a Sword, and in his left Paw a Sheaf of Arrows, towards the hinder feet, is a figure of 2 and an S. signifying 2 Stivers.
  • A Stiver of Brabant, is worth one Stiver, or eight 〈◊〉 the half Stiver of Brabant, is half so much; both Coins have several sorts of conceited Crosses, some arch∣ed, others between Flowers de lis, and Lions, with Mo∣neta nova Duc. Brabant; the other side the Arms throughout the Escochion, with Brabant Arms; others have the Spanish Arms, with a Crown Royal; and some with the Arch Duke of Austria, Duke of Brabant his Arms, &c.
  • A Schaneberger, worth 1 d. ob. q.
  • A Shilling in Gelderland. it is worth six Stivers, that is in our English Money six pence and six farthings, some say six half pence; it hath on one side a conceited Cross, made after the form of an Escarbuncle of the old fashion, each point set with Pomices and Avelens, with flying out Branches, with this Writing, In nomine Domine Adjutorium nostrum; on the other side a Compartment Escochion, crowned with two Lions Combatant, Inscri∣bed Mo. No. Duc. Belg. & Comit. Zut. 1601.
  • A Holland shilling hath the same value and Cross, with this Writing, Vigilla & Deo confidentes, the other side hath the Impress of a Fold or round close made of Stakes and Osiers, with a Yate in the sore part of it, over which is an Escochion Crowned, with a Lion Rampant thereon. Inscribed Mo. No. Com. Holandiae. 1601.
  • A shilling of West Frieseland, the same kind of Cross, with Fortiet. Spes. Nostr. Deus, and the West Frieseland Coat Crowned, with a Laurell about; inscri∣bed Mo. No. Ordin. West frisiae, 1601.
  • A shilling of Zeeland, worth 9 d. English; it hath the same kind of Cross, inscribed Luctor & emergo; the other side the Arms of the Province in a Compartment, crowned, inscribed Mo. No. Arg. Comit. Zeelandia.
  • A shilling of Utrech, worth 9 d. English, it hath the same Cross with this Motto, Parvae res Concordia cres∣cunt; the otherside, a Lion Rampant in a Compartment crowned; with Mone. Nova. Ordin. Trajecten. 1601.
  • A shilling of Nimignen, with a Roman Eagle, a Mound on its Breast, and a Crown between its heads, with Rudol. I. D. G. Elec. Ro. Imp. Sem. August. the other side the Roman Eagle in a Compartment, with a Crown Imperial; inscription, Mo. Arg. Imperi. Cevi. Novimag. 1601.
  • A shilling of Campen, worth 9 d. English, hath the Roman Eagle, and Crown Imperial, with Rudol. &c. on the other side a Salter extended to the out sides Pomettee Avellane, debrused with his Arms, Crowned and thus Inscribed, Mo. Arg. Imper. Civita Campen.
  • The Half shillings of these several places in Holland, and other places, are in all respects coined like to the shil∣lings, and are valued at 3 Stivers, that is 4 d. ob. Eng∣lish.
  • A shilling of Hambrough, worth in England 9 d. ob. q.
  • A shilling, called a Flemish shilling, is worth 7 d. ob.
  • A shilling of Germany, is worth 5 d. q:
  • A shilling of Denmark, or a Danish shilling, worth ob. q.
  • A Lubicke shilling, worth 1 d. ob. q.
  • A shilling of Switzerland, worth 12 d.
  • A Sicherling, is valued at 1 d. q.
  • A Scaby of Turky, valued at 6 d.
  • A Soya of Turkey, is 6 d. English.
  • A Soulz, is 1 d. ob. and called with us a Souz.
  • A Soldi of Genoa, is a half penny farthing.
  • A Stooter is a piece of Money in Holland, worth 2 Stivers and a half, that is three pence half farthing; it is the twentieth part of a Netherland Real; on one side is a Roman head, and on the other side a Shaffe or Falsce of Arrows banded, the ends extended; with Monet Belgica, 1586.


The Angel of Flanders, or Flemish Angel, is 9 s. 10 d.

An Albertus of the Arch Duke of Austria, is 11 s. 3 d. it is also called the Arch Dukes Ducat, it hath on one side 2 ragged Staffs in Salter, tied in the middle, and a Ducal Crown in the Chief 1600; the other side the Arms crowned, and set forth with the order of the Golden Fleece, viz. Quarterly, Barry, and a Lion ram∣pant, then Castile and Lions quarterly, then Cardona and Anjou per Salter, then Barry, then 3 Flowers de lis, and a Bordure Gobony; then Bendy with a Bordure, and lastly, a Lion rampant. with this inscription, Albertus & Elizabet. D. G. Arch Duces Aust. Duces Burg. & Brab.

A half Albertus, or Ducat of Austria, hath the Page  35 same Impression in all respects, and is 5 s. 5 d.

A Double Albertus, or Double Duckat of Au∣stria, hath on one side the figures of a Man and Womans head crowned, respecting each other, in all other Im∣pressions it is as the foresaid single Albertus; it is worth with us shillings.

An half double Albertus, the value is 8 s. and hath the same impression as the double.

A Castilion, or Golden Castilion, of Castile, is 9 s. 9 d.

A Crusado, or a Crusadas of Portugal, with the long Cross ✚ is 6 s. 8 d. see a Crown of Portugal.

A Crusado, with the short Cross 6 s. 10 d. see a crown of Portugal.

A Crusado of Portugal, is 7 s. it hath a Cross couped on one side, and the Portugal Arms on the other the first with In hoc signo Vinces; and the other Phillippus D. G. Rex Portugalie L. B. on one side, and II on the other of the Escochion; there is 2 pieces of like Coin, va∣lued at 1 l. 6 s. and 13 s. 3 d.

The great Crusado, or Portiguese, is valued at 3 l. 12 s. and is coined in all respects like the abovesaid, only IIII on one side of the Escochion.

A Crown of Spain, is 6 s. 8 d.

A Crown of Flanders, a Flemish Crown, is 6 s. 8 d. on one side a Cross flurt, with a Rose on the mid∣dle, between two Towers and two spread Eagles, or two Lions; on the other side an Escochion crowned, with this inscription, Da mihi Virtut: contra Hosles tuos.

A Crown of France the value is 6 s. 8 d. there are several Coins of them, some have a Cross arched about, another a Cross flurt, and a Cross Avellane; on the other side the French Coat crowned, with the Kings name about, and this XPS VINCIT. XPS REGNANT. XPS IMPER:

The four Crowns of Port, a piece of Gold so cal∣led, it is worth 1 l. 6 s. 2 d.

A Crown of Italy, called the Golden Crown, it is worth six shillings.

A Crown of Portugal, is worth 6 s. 10 d. it hath a long Cross on one side, inscribed In hoc Signo Vinces, on the other the Portugal Arms, Crowned; inscribed Io. 3. Portu. & Al. R. D. G. C. N.

A Crown of Portugal, with a Cross couped with∣in the circle; it is worth about 7 s. all its other Impressi∣ons are as aforesaid.

A Ducat of Spain, called a single Ducat, is 7 s 2 d. Some say worth 8 s. 2 d. ob. on one side there is 2 Faces respecting and Crowned, on the other the Arms of Castile and Lions, quartered with Arragon, and the Coats of Cardona and Anjou.

A Double Ducat of Spain, is worth 14 s. 4 d. and some of them 18 s. 5 d. some of them have one head some two on a side, and on the other the Spanish Arms as aforesaid; yet some have the single Coats crowned, as Arragon which is Pally, others the Navarre Knot.

A Great Ducat of Spain, is 1 l. 13 s.

A Ducat of Rome, is 7 s. 2 d. those of the Popes Coin are so various, that it is a matter of great difficulty to set them all down, only this in general, that they have the Popes Head or Arms in Quirpo, with his Name on one side, and on the other St. Peter, or St. Paul, or one Saint or other.

A double Ducat of Rome, is 14 s. 14 d. some have Bishops seated in their Pontificals; with Mediola in Dux; another St. Peter in his Boat casting out his Net; with Sanctus Petrus Alma Roma; another with Christ ri∣sing out of his Sepulcher, with Surrexit Christus Rex Glie: and the like; on the other side is the Popes Head or Coat, with Crown and Keys, and his name inscribed.

A Ducat of Florence, is 7 s.

A Ducat of Ualence, is 7 s. 2 d.

A Ducat of Arragon, is 7 s. 2 d.

A Ducat of Portugal, is 8 s. 2 d. it hath a Cross set about with Arches on one side, and Portugal Arms on the other, which is 4 Escochions charged with 5 Plates Salterwise on a Bordure 8 Castles or Towers.

A Ducat of Hungary, is worth 7 s. 10 d. these Ducats have some Saint, or Kingly Saint, in full pro∣portion Armed and Robed, holding a Pole-Axe, on the one side the Hungarian Arms, which is Barry, (some Im∣paled with Lions, others with Arragon Arms) on the other side.

A Ducat of Suevia, is 8 s. 9 d.

A Ducat of Turky, is 9 s. 2 d.

A Ducat of Hamborough, is 7 s. 10 d.

A Ducat of the Netherlands, is 8 s. 2 d. ob. it hath a Man in Armour holding a Sword and a Shaffe or Shaft of Arrows on one side, and this Writing on the other Mo. Aur. Provin. Confoe. Belg. Ad Leg. Imp. The double Ducat hath the same, and is valued at 18 s. 5 d.

A Dublion of Spain, is 14 s. 6 d.

A Denning of Muscovy, is eleven pence.

A Florens, or New Florens, called also a Gil∣den of St. Andrew, is 5 s. 4 .

A Gilder or Gilden of Campaine, it is worth 4 s. 3 d. It hath either Christ or an Apostle on one side with Da Pace Do. in Dieb. Nostr. and a Mound arch∣ed about, or a Cross in an Escochion; or 2 Lions Com∣batant, inscribed Carolus Romanorum Imperator; Some have an Eagle displaid in the Escochion.

A Carolus Gilden, or Gilder, is 3 s. 10 d.

A Collen Gilder, or Gilden, is 5 s.

A David Gilden, is 4 s. 4 d. others say 4 s. 10 d. so called from King David, with his Harp and Scepter, which is on one side, with Memento Dom. David. the other a Cross flourished between a D. I. V. I. inscribed David de Burgundia est Trallectens, there is a half and quarter piece of this stamp.

A Horn Gilder, is 5 s. 5 d.

A Saxon Gilder, is 5 s. 3 d.

A Philip Gilder, or Gilden, is 4 s. 6 d.

A Half Philips Gilder, is 2 s. 3 d.

A Gilder Fly of Burgundy, it is worth 10 s. 3 d. it hath a Cross flourished at the ends, in each quarter 2 Cressants braced; the inscription Diligite Iusticium Qui Iudicatis Terra; on the other side the Arms of Austria in a Collar of the Golden Fleece, Crowned and Support∣ed by 2 Lions, viz. a Fesse, then three flowers de lis and Bordure Gobony, then Bendy, the last a Lion rampant on an Escochion of Pretence; a Lion Rampant; the In∣scription PHS. D. G. Archd. Aust. Dux Burg. Co. Flan.

A Gulden of Holland, called a Golden Gulden, it is worth 5 s. 9 d. there is above three score and ten se∣veral sorts of Coinage of this piece; the generallity ha∣ving Page  36 on one side the Image of some Apostle, Popish Saint or Martyr; and on the other side either a Coat of Arms a Mound, 3 Escochions in triangle, a Roman Eagle or a Kings head, inscribed Moneta Aurea Nova St. or of such or such a place where coined.

The double Gilder or Gulden of Netherland, va∣lued at 6 s. 3 d. it is also termed the States Crown; it hath a kind of Cross Moline turned round at the ends and on the Savved parts a Sprig of Grass, the Inscription B. Pace & Iustitia, 1577. on one side; and an Esco∣chion crovvned and collared vvith the Golden Fleece Order, viz. 1. a Chief. 2. three Flovvers de lis. 3. Bedy. 4. a Lion rampant: on an Inescochion, a Lion rampant, PHS. D. G. Hisp. Rex. Dux. Bra. on the other side.

An Half Gilder of the Netherlands is in all respects so stamped, and is valued at 3 s. 1 d. ob.

A Gulden, or Renish Gulden, or Gold Renish Gulden; is vvorth 7 s. 8 d.

A Key, or a Flemish Real, it is valued to 11 s.

A Golden Lion of Burgundy, worth eight shil∣lings; it hath a Lion sedant, between two Pillars arched over after the manner of Church work, with PHS. D.G. Dux Burg. Comes Flan. on the other side the Arms of Bur∣dy with Sit nomen Domini Benedictum, Amen.

A double Lion, called the Dublion of Spain, is 14 s. 6 d.

A Third part of the Golden Lion, at 2 s. 7 d. It is the same to the Golden Lion of Burgundy in all respects the Arms are 6 Coats, viz. 3 Flowers de lis, a Bordure Gobony, then Bendy, then a Lion rampant, then Bendy then a Lion rampant, then Bendy, then a Lion rampant, the last as the first.

A Lion of Antwerp, is worth eight shillings, some odd pence, it is termed the beaten Gold Lion of Antwerp, the Arms and Inscription as the Burgundy Lion, on the other side the Lion sedant between the foresaid two Pil∣lars with this Inscription; Mobra. Antiova. Virtute & Fide.

A Lion of Flanders, it is of Beaten Gold, on the Escochion side is only a Lion rampant with this inscrip∣tion Moneta Aurea Comitus Flan.

A two third parts of the Golden Lion, worth 5 s. 3 d. It hath also the same Impression and writing as aforesaid.

A Mark of Bohemia, is six shillings.

A piece called the six Marks, or six Mark piece of Suecia, is 4 s. 9 d.

A Mill-Rays of Portugal, is worth 14 s. 6 d. on one side is a Frier in his Robe, holding a Palm Branch, and in the other hand, a Ship, with Vsque ad Mortem Zelator Fidei; on the other side the Arms of Portugal.

An Half Mill-Rays, is 7 s. 3 d. it is in all respects answering the whole Mill-rays of Portugal; yet some have a Cross Patee charged with another on one side, with In hoc Signo Vinces.

A Noble, or Flemish, or Flanders Noble, va∣lue 13 s. 4 d. hath a Cross Flory between 4 Lions; with Nisi Dom. cust. Civitat. frustra vigilant, 1582. on the other side a Man holding a Sword and Shield, with a Lion rampant on it.

A Rose Noble of the Netherlands and Gelder∣land, is 16 s. 8 d. on one side a Rose in a Star of ma∣ny points, with Concordia Res Parvae Crescunt; and a Man in Armour in the Hull of a Ship, in the Waves inscribed Mo. Ordin. Provinc. foeder. Belgiae. 1586.

A Pistol, or a single, or simple Pistol, is valued to 6 s. 4 d.

A double Pistol of Spain, is at 12 s. 8d. Some say 14 s. 7 d. ob. on one side is a Cross Potonce arched about; on the other side the Spanish Arms in full, crown∣ed, with the Kings name about.

A Double Pistole of Italy, is worth 14 s. 2 d. ob. hath a Roman head on one side, and an Eagle with an Escochion on its Breast, on which is an Eagle displaid, the Wings debrused with two Pillars; the Inscription; Mone. Aurea. Civit. Bisuntinei▪

A Pistole of Italy, set forth by the Popes, is gene∣rally worth 3 Gilders and 10 Stivers, which in English is six Shillings and ten pence; they have the Popes Arms on one side, with the Cross Keys and Triple Crown over the Escochion; with the name of the Pope inscribed, as Paulus III. Pontifex Maximus, and such like; but on the other, each Pope hath his sundry devise, which were end∣less to describe, only take these few; one hath St. Paul holding a Sword and Book, inscribed Electionis. S. Pau∣lus. Vas. Another hath the Resurrection of Christ, and the Soldiers sleeping about the Sepulcher, with Resurrexi & Adhuc tecum sum. Another hath Christs Cross and Nails. Another Mary imbracing the Cross, with this Motto to the first, In hoc Signo Vinces; and the latter, In te qui sperat. non confund. Another hath Christ sup∣porting the Cross. Another a Pope in his Chair. Another our Saviours head demy faced; the first with cujus cru∣ore Sanati sumus; the latter Via veritas & Vita, &c.

A Pistolet of Spain, of 26 Ryals, is 14 s.

A Portuguese, or great Crusado, is 3 l. 12 s. See a Crown of Portugal.

A Rider of Burgundy, hath the same Arms and Writings, as the Lion piece of Burgundy, and a Horse∣man Cap-a-Pee on the other side.

A Rider of Flanders, called also Horsemen of Flanders, is 8 s.

A Rider of Gelders, and of Friesland, is 1 l. 3 s. on the one side a Man in Armour, on a Horse Gallop∣ing, brandishing his Sword over his head, with this In∣scription, Mo. Aur. Pro. Confoe. Belg. Westf. on the other side, the Dutch Arms with a Dukes Crown, which is a Lion rampant crowned, holding in one Paw a Sword over his head, and in the other a Sheaf of Arrows, with Concordia Res parvae Crescunt.

A New Rider of Guelders, is 7 s. others say 6 s. 9 d. it hath a Man on Horse-back Cap-a-Pee, with Deus constituit Regna on the other side an Escochion crown∣ed, with 2 Bordures per pale, and 2 Lions combatant, with Moneta. Nova. Av. Duc. Gelrif. Com. Vt.

An Old Rider of Gelderland, is 4 s. 4 d. ob. It hath on one side, a Man in Armour Cap a Pee, holding up his Sword, inscribed Carolus Dux Gelriul. c. Zt. on the other side an Escochion vvith 2 Lions combatant, in∣scribed Mone. Nova. Aurea. Dcis Gelrie.

A Ruble of Poland, ansvvers our Mark, viz. 13 s. 4 d.

A Ruble of Muscovia, is ten shillings.

A Royal, or Real of Spain, or the Philip Re∣al, it is 5 s. 6 d.

A Royal, called the Philip Real vvith spread Ea∣gle, Page  37 its value is 5 s. 6 d. It hath an Eagle, vvith the Spanish Arms quarterly on its Breast.

A Half Royal of Spain, hath the head uncrovvn∣ed and on the other side, the Arms crovvned, vvith Dominus mihi adjutor.

A Royal of Flanders, called the Flemish Real, or the Key, it is 11 s.

A great Royal of Germany, is 1 l. 14 s. 3 d. ob. on the one side an Emperour Enthroned, vvith Scepter and Mound, vvith this inscription Maximillius D. G. Romanorum. Rex. Sep. Aug. on the other the Roman Arms crovvned, an Inescochion per pale, a Fesse on the one, and Bendy and a Bordure on the other; inscribed E•• Mensuram & Respice finem MCCCCLXXXVII.

An Half of the great Royal aforesaid, hath a demy Emperour in a Ship, vvith this M. D. G. Ro. Rex & PHS. Arch Duces Au. Bu. Co. Hol. on the o∣ther side, an Escochion per pale, an Eagle displaid; the other a Fesse and Bendy in a Bordure, inscribed, Mo. Aura Ro. Regis & Phi. Arch D. Au. B. Com. Hol.

A Shocke of Bohemia, it is

  • A Sultan of Turkey, its value is 7 s. 6 d.
  • A Zechines of Uenice, is 7 s. 6 d.

That Reader as desires further knovvledg in the fore∣said Coins, let him peruse these Authors, in vvhich most of these said Moneys are set forth in Sculptures to the largeness of the Silver and Gold pieces themselves.

Beeldenear, or a Book of Impresses of Coins, set forth by Hillebrant Jacobssz, Ordinary and Sworn Printer to the States of Holland. Printed at Graven-Hague, 1619.

John Speeds Chronicle of England, at the beginning of each Kings Reign.

Observations, or a Comment on Caesars Commentaries. By Clement Edmunds. 1655.

Johannis Hemelarius Canonicus Cathedralis Ecclesiae An∣tuerp. his Comment, or the Table of Roman Coins. Print∣ed at Antvverp, 1622.

Jacobus Gutherde Veteri Iure Pontificio Vrbis Romae.

Printed at Paris 1616.

Page  38
TO The Right Worshipful Sir FRANCIS LEICESTER, of Tabley, Baronett. THAT which was inteded to have been Dedicated to your Grandfather Sir Pe∣ter Leicester, Baronet, through his Decease descended to his Son and Heir Sir Robert, whose untimely Death was much Lamented by all Loyal Hearts, yet incouraged with so Loving, Pious, and Lo••l an Off-spring, we are engaged through your forward Contribution to advance the Work, to devote this Chapter of our Labours to your Noble Consideration, hoping the good acceptation thereof, from Your most Humble and Devoted Servant Randle Holme.


FROM the several sorts of Habits (as they are born in their diversity of parts, we shall now pro∣ceed to shew you how they are born in whole, both as they pertain to Regallity, Nobility, Gen∣try, Husbandry, and Artificery; together with the fa∣shions of People both in Court, City and Countrey: We shall begin with the first in Nobility, which is the Emperour.

An Emperour.

The Original of this Title amongst the Romans, de∣noted only a General of an Army, but Iulius Caesar Translated it to an Honorary Title, who being made perpetual Dictator, took also that of Emperator unto his Title, which hath continued in his Successors to this day, and so became Superiour to the Title of King.

This Title supplied that of a King, which not long before had been cast out by Brutus for Tyranny and Oppression, which Caesar seeing was fresh in the Memory of the Romans, and odious amongst them, did not of a long time use any Title of Kingly Government, though his Power was as much, and the Ceremonies and En∣signs of Rgality the same, and the Emperours Throne at Rome, was called Sedile Regni.

This Empire at length became to be divided, to Con∣stantinople for the East parts, and to Rome for the West parts; and then again Constantinople being lost to the Turks, and Rome gotten into the hands of the Papacy, it was removed into Germany, which is now the Empire; and in the Reign of Otho the Third, the Election was granted to seven Princes of Germany, viz. the Arch-Bi∣shops of Mentz, Treves, and Collen, the Count Palatine of Rhin, the Duke of Saxony, the Marquess of Bran∣denburgh, and the King of Bohemia, then called Duke of Bohemia.

Page  39He hath the Superiority allowed him by all Secular Princes; and whereas other Princes of Regal Authority are Crowned but with one Crown, he is Crowned with three, the first of Iron, which he receiveth of the Bishop of Callen at Aquisgrave; the second of Silver he receives at Modena, from the Bishop of Millan; the third of Gold, wherewith he is crowned at Rome by the Pope.

The Ensigns of his Imperial Dignity, are a Ring and Bracelet, a Cross, a Launce, a Sword, a Scepter, a Mound and a Crown, with Royal Robes, and is stiled Sanctissimus, Clarissimus, Gloriosissimus, Eminentia & Magnificentia, &c.

The Emperour of Russia is not crowned, but is adorn∣ed with a Rich Cap of Purple: Neither is the Greek Sul∣tan, or Emperour of Turkie; but invested with a migh∣ty Rich Tulipant; and though the Emperour have no Diadem, yet the Sultaness is adorned with a Rich Crown.

As for other matters of State and Regality pertaining to the Emperour, as the Ceremonies of his Coronation, Manual Servants and Officers of State, &c. being such will be treated on in the Office of a King, I shall there∣fore refer such things to that place.

I. He beareth Topaz, a King in his Royal Robes (or Parliament Robes, or Robes of State,) hold∣ing in his right hand a covered Cup, and in his left a Sword, all proper. In the Blazoning of Kings, to name a King, is sufficient; for it is to be supposed, that he is both Crowned, and in his Habiliments of State. Yet Mr. Gwillim to make all sure, Blazons it thus, a Crown∣ed King in his Robes, Ruby, doubled Ermine, su∣staining or holding a covered Cup in his right hand, and a Sword in his left, Argent: They are born sometime in Armour under their Mantle; and sometimes the Robes are of contrary colours to what our English Kings have them; then in such cases, the several parts of the Habi∣liments of State ought to be named.

G. 3 Beasants, each charged with such a King, is the Coat of Tho. Lloyd, alias Lyld, the 18 Bishop of Ely.

A. a Kings head with an Imperial Crown, couped at the Shoulders, is the Coat of Graveneck.

Out of a Coronet, a demy King with an Imperial Crown, Robes Gules, Lined, Ermin, holding a Scepter and Mound, proper, is the crest of Van Herberstein.

II. He beareth Topaz, a King Enthroned, in his Robes, with his Ensigns of Majesty, all proper. This is sufficient, if (as I said before) the Robes be Scar∣let, and the Linings Ermine, as our King of England hath them; but if they be of any other colour, then follow Gwillims Blazoning, viz. He beareth Topaz, a King Enthroned on his Seat Royal, Crowned, Scep∣tered, and Mounded of the same, Invested or Ro∣bed Saphire, Lined, (or the cape and turnings up of his Robe) Ermine. A third Blazon take thus, a King in his Robes of State, Saphire, Faced or Lined, Ermine; Crowned, holding a Sword in his right hand, and a Mound in his left, of the first; Enthroned or set in his Seat Royal, proper; these are the Arms of the City of Sivil, in Spain.

This Coat may be yet shorter Blazoned, as a King in his Throne of Majesty.

The Robes and Ensigns of Kings.

A Crown, it is an ancient Ensign of Regal Autho∣rity, having a Cap of Dignity within it of Purple or Scarlet Velvet, turned up or doubled with Ermine. It is the Emblem of Triumph and Victory.

A Scepter is another Ensign of Soveraign Com∣mand, and is every where spoken of both in Scripture and Prophane Stories; and the extending thereof a spe∣cial note of the Royal favour of the King, as we see in Hester 15.14. It betokens Peace and Justice mixed with Mercy and compassion.

A Ring, which is put upon his Finger, as a sign of Faithfulness and Integrity.

A Mound, this is a third Ensign of Authority; it is a Globe with a Cross; it hath been in use amongst us since Edward the Confessor, and is placed in the left hand; the Cross denotes his Faith, and the Globe his Empire or Rule both by Sea and Land, as it is said of Iusitman, who was the first Emperour that ever had it.

A Bracelet put about his Arm, denoting Charity and richness in good Works.

A Mantle of Estate, which is a long Scarlet Cloak or Mantle, Lined with Ermine Furr, which is so arge as to draw some Yards on the ground, if the Train or Tail of it were not born up.

The Cordals or String of the Mantle, with its But∣tons and Tassels, all made of Purple Silk and Gold Thread interwoven after the manner of a Cord.

A Robe of Estate, which is for Awfulness and Ro∣verence.

A Garter, which is a Rich Jewel made after the form of St. George on Horseback slaying of the Dragon, all beset with Diamonds, and hung in a Blew Silk Rib∣bon, hich is the Badge of his Knighthood of the Gar∣ter, or order of St. George.

A Kirtle, or loose Robe, worn under the Mantle of Estate, of Purple colour, overlaid with Borders, or Welts of Gold; and doubled with the Ermine Skins.

A Surcote or Gown, of Purple, lined and welted, or edged with Ermine Skins.

A Belt or Girdle of fine Silk, to tye the under Gown or Surcoat about the middle. This is called the Girdle of Honour.

A Spur, or a Gilt Spur, which was put upon his Heel in token of Knighthood.

A Sword of State, which is a Rich Gilt Sword, with an Imbrauthered Scabbard which is born before the King, and is an Emblem of Majesty and Magistracy, Honour and Rule.

A Naked Sword, carried before him, as a token of Vengeance and the Punishment of Rebellion, 1. In the Laity. 2. In the Clergy.

A Naked pointless Sword, betokening Mercy, Pity and compassion.

A Mace, carried before the King is the Emblem of Justice.

A Throne or Seat of Majesty, is a Chair of Gold richly Imbossed, mounted upon Steps, or an Ascent of Page  [unnumbered]

Page  41 three paces, with the Atchievements of the Soveraign set over head, and under a Rich Canopy, with Ualence 〈◊〉 Curtains Fringed and Imbr•••hered with Silk, Sil∣〈…〉 Gold; and a Cloath of Stare under Foot to tread upon.

The Stile, he speaketh in the plural number, We will and tomman, We by the consent and advice of Our Council, do so and so.

The Title given Him is, Majesty, Sacred Majesty, High and Mighty, Dei Gratia, Grace, or by the Grace of God, Defendor of the Faith; Supream Head and Gover∣nor, &c. Most Excellent, Illustrous.

Coronation Ceremonies used at the Crowning of the Kings of England.

The Crowning of King Richard the third, Anno 1483.

The Trumpeters.

The Heralds Marshalling the way.

A Priest or Fryer bearing the Cross.

Priests, in fine Surplices and gray Amysses upon them.

The Bishops and Abbots in Rich Copes all of them Mitred with their Crosses in their Hands.

The Barons in their Robes.

The Viscount in their Robes.

An Earl Bearing a pair of Gilt Spurs.

An Earl bearing St. Edwards Staff, as a Relique.

An Earl bearing a naked Sword without a point.

A Lord bearing a Mace between two Earls which car∣ried each of them a Naked Sword sharp pointed.

A Duke carrying the Scepter.

A Duke carrying the Mond, or Globe and Cross.

An Earl bearing the Sword of Estate.

Then Garter King of Arms, between the Usher of the Privy Chamber, on his left hand, and the Lord Mayor with a Mace in his hand.

A Duke bearing the Kings Crown between his hands.

Then the King himself in a Surcoat and Robe of Pur∣ple Velvet, bare Footed walking upon Ray Cloath; having over his head a Canopie born by the Barons of the Cinque-Ports. The Bishop of Bath on his right Hand, and the Bishop of Durham on his left.

A Duke bearing up the Kings Train.

The Queens Train or Attendants, followed: after whom,

Then one bearing a Scepter.

Then one bearing the Ivory Rod with a Dove.

One bearing the Crown.

Then the Queen Apparelled in Robs like the King. Under a Rich Canopie, at each corner a Gold Bell, on Her Head she had a Circlet, set full of Precious Stones.

A Countess bearing up her Train.

Two Dutchess's in their Coronets Attendans.

Twenty Ladies following orderly in rich Attire.

In this Order they passed from the Pallace to the Abby and ascending to the High Altar, there shifted their Robs, and having other Robs open in diverse places from the middle upwards, were both Anointed, and Crowned: He with St. Edwards Crown, having the Scepter delivered into his left Hand, and the Globe with the Cross into the right. The Queen had a Scepter given into her right Hand, and the Ivory Dove into her left.

Then after the Sermon, and the Sacrament received (having the Host divided between them) they both offered at St. Edwards Altar, or Shrine; where the King left his Crown, and put on his own: and thus done, in the same Order and State as they came, returned to West∣minster-Hall; and there held a most Princely Feast.

The Earl Marshal (when all persons were set, and the Hall voided and cleared of the multitude) with the High Constable, Lord Steward, Lord Treasurer and Comp∣troller came in and served the King Solemnly with one Dish of Gold and another of Silver: and the Queen all in Gilt Vessels, and the Bishops all in Silver. At the Second Course of the Feast, a Champion in compleat Armour well mounted, comes into the Hall; one Riding before him, which carried his Launce: this Champion having his Sword drawn, Proclaims the King with a loud voice, to be the lawful and undoubted King, and Heir of the Crown of England: which if any did deny, he was ready to defend by Combate and Dint of Sword.

The Order of the Feast was thus in short, at the head of the Table the King is Seated by Himself at the lower, end of the same Table, are placed the Embassadors of diverse Princes. Before the King stood the Carver, Sewer, Cup-bearer, with a great number of Gentlemen-waiters, Attending his Person; the Ushers making place to strangers that come to behold his Person.

At the side Table on the right hand near adjoyning to the King, are placed the Lord Chancellor, Chamberlain, Keeper of the Great Seal, Steward, Treasurer; being the five Great Peers of the Kingdom, with diverse other Ho∣norable Persons.

At the side Table on the left hand, are placed the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, the Treasurer of the Houshold, Secretaries of State, Serjeant at Law, Master of the Re∣vels, Kings at Arms, and the Dean of the Chappel.

At another Table at the other side are set the new made Knights of the Bath and others, the Master of the Game, chief Ranger, Masters of the Houshold, Clarks of the Green Cloath, and Exchequer: with strangers to furnish it.

At another Table over against it, are placed the Knights and Gentlemen of the Kings House, Lieutenant of the Tower, with diverse Captains and Commanders, both of Foot and Horse.

At a Table at the lower end of the Hall, are set the Butler, the Panther, Clarks of the Kitchin, and diverse o∣thers of the Kings House, furnished throughout with the Kings Guard, and at every course or mess, the Trumpets with other Musick, are to sound.

But to lay a side the formality of the Kings and Queens passage from the Pallace to the Abby (being a part of Marshalling, or Triumphal Progressions) is more proper for another place, the which I shall have occasion hear∣after to treat off, in lib. 4. chap. 11.

Page  42

Officers and Servants in the Kings Majesties Houshold with their Fees.

    Chief Officers, and Attendants.
  • Lord High Steward, 383.7.8.
  • Lord High Constable,
  • Earl Marshal,
  • Lord High Chamberlain, 200.
  • Lord High Treasurer, 368 l.
  • Lord High Admiral,
  • Lord High Almoner,
  • Lord President of K. Council,
  • Lords of the Privy Council
  • Knight Marshal,
    The Counting-House.
  • Treasurer of the House, 124.14.8.
  • Controller, 107.17.4.
  • Cofferer, 100 l.
  • Clerk of the Coffer, 20 l.
  • 2 Clerks of the green Cloath, 44.6.8.
  • 2 Clerks Controllers, 44.6.8.
  • A Serjeant or Yeoman, 6.13.4.
  • A Groom, 2.13 4.
  • 2 Messengers,
  • Mr. of the House, 100. Marks.
  • Messenger of the Counting-House,
    The Iewel-House.
  • Master, 50 l.
  • Treasurer,
  • Yeoman, 6.13.4.
  • Groom, 5.6.8.
    The Robes or Ward-Robe.
  • Yeoman, 5 l.
  • Groom, 2.13.4.
  • Page, 2 l.
    The Beds.
  • 2 Yeomen each 10 l.
  • 3 Grooms, each 3.8.4.
  • 2 Pages, each 2 l.
  • Clerk, 10 l.
    The Pantry.
  • Serjeant, 11.8.1. ob.
  • 3 Yeomen, each 5 l.
  • 4 Grooms, each 2.13.4.
  • 2 Pages, each 2 l.
  • Bread-Bearer, 1.10.4.
    The Buttery.
  • A Gentleman Pantler, or Bread-Keeper.
  • 4 Yeoman, 5 l.
  • 4 Grooms or Purveyors, 2.13.4.
  • 2 Pages, each 2 l.
  • Naperer, or Keeper of the Table Lin∣nen.
    The Sellar.
  • Serjeant, 11.8.1. ob.
  • 7 Yeoman, each 5 l.
  • Groom, 2.13.4.
  • 2 Pages, 2 l.
  • 8 Wine Porters.
    The Ewrye.
  • A Serjeant,
  • Gentleman of the Ewty, 7 d. ob. per diem
  • 3 Yeomen, each 5. l.
  • 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Pages, each 2 l.
  • 3 Clerks, each 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
    The Kitchin.
  • 2 Mr. Cookes, each 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
  • 6 Yeomen, each 5. l.
  • 6 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 8 Children, each 2 l.
  • Gallapines, 50 l.
  • Surveyor of the Dresser, 22 l. 1 s. 3 d.
  • Cooks Largess at Easter, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Idem to cllery, 1 l.
  • Idem to P••tery, 2 l.
    The Bake-House.
  • Serjant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
  • A Garnitor,
  • 7 Yeomen, each 5 l.
  • 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 3 s. 4 d.
  • 6 Conductors, 3 d. per Diem.
  • — Purveyors,
    The Spicery.
  • A Grocer.
  • Clerk of the Spicery, 20 l.
  • Yeoman, 5 l.
  • Serjeant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
  • Groom, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Page, 2 l.
    The Pitcher-House.
  • 2 Yeomen, each 5 l.
  • 3 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Pages, each 2 l.
    The Larde.
  • 3 Yeomen, 5 l.
  • 3 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Pages, 2 l.
  • Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Serjeant,
    The Boyling-House.
  • Yeoman, 5 l.
  • 2 Grooms, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
    The Acatrye, or Caterers Oce.
  • A Serjeant,
  • 6 Yeomen, each 7 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Pages, each 2 l.
  • Purveyors,
    The Pastry.
  • Serjeant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
  • Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Yeomen, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 4 Grooms, each 5 l.
  • 4 Children, each 2 l.
    The Poultry.
  • Serjeant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
  • Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 4 Yeomen Purveyors, 5 l.
    The Scalding-House.
  • Yeoman, 5 l.
  • 2 Grooms, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Pages, or Purveyors.
    The Squillery, or Scullery.
  • A Serjeant,
  • A Clerk,
  • 3 Yeomen, each 5 l.
  • 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 4 Pages, each 2 l.
    The Chappel.
  • Dean, 200 l.
  • Sub-Dean, 100 l.
  • 12 Priests, each 70 l.
  • 12 Singing Boys,
  • A Vergero,
  • A Serjeant,
  • 4 Yeomen,
  • Page  43a Groom,
  • 48 Chaplains in Ordinary.
    The Almoury, or Eleemosinary.
  • Lord Almoner
  • Sub-Almoner, 6 l. 16 s. 10 d. ob.
  • 4 Yeomen, each 2 l.
  • 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Gentlemen 7 d. per Diem, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
    The Chandlery.
  • A Serjeant,
  • 2 Yeomen,
  • 2 Gooms,
  • A Page.
    The Confectionary.
  • A Serjeant,
  • 2 Yeomen,
  • A Groom,
  • A Page,
    The Laundry.
  • A Woman Laundress, 10 l.
  • 2 Yeomen, 5 l.
  • 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Pages, each 2 l.
  • A Draper,
    The Harbingers Office.
  • A Knight Harbinger, 20 marks.
  • 3 Gentlemen Harbingers,
  • 7 Yeomen Harbingers,
    The Knight Marshalsea.
  • Knight Marshal,
  • 6 Provost Marshal or Virgers.
    The Kings-Gard, or Life-Gard.
  • 3 Captains, 20 s. per Diem.
  • 4 Lieutenants,
  • 3 Cornets,
  • 3 Guidon,
  • 3 Quarter-Master,
  • 12 Brigadiers of Horse, 4 s. per Diem.
    The Band of Gentlemen Pensioners.
  • Captain, 1000 l.
  • Lieutenant, 260 l.
  • Standard Bearer, 200 l.
  • Clerk, 120 l.
  • 100 Battle-Axes, or Pole-Axes, 100 l.
    The Gard Chamber.
  • 200 Ordinary Yeomen, 20 d. per Diem.
  • A Captain, 1000 l.
  • Leiutenant, 500 l.
  • Ensign, 300 l.
  • Clerk of the Cheque, 150 l.
  • 4 Corporals, each 150.
    The Waffrey-House.
  • Yeomen, 5 l.
  • Groom, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Serjeant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
  • Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
    The Wood-Yard.
  • A Serjeant,
  • 6 Cart Takers,
  • 4 Yeomen, each 5 l.
  • 4 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4.
  • 2 Pages, each 2 l.
  • 2 Wood-bearers, each 1 l. 10 s. 5 d.
  • Largess at Mid-Summer, 5 l.
    The Hall.
  • 6 Porters and Scoorers, each 2 l.
  • Largess to them all at Easter, 5 l.
  • A Serjeant Porter,
  • 4 Marshalls of the Hall,
  • 5 Sewers of the Hall,
  • 12 Waiters,
  • A Bell-Ringer,
  • Cock of the Court,
    The Stable.
  • Mr. of the Horse, 100 l.
  • Chief Avenor, 40 l.
  • 14 Quirriers, each 20l.
  • 2 Riders, each 30 l.
  • Clerk, 11 d. per Diem.
  • 3 Surveyors, each 11 d.
  • Serjeants of the carriage, 15 d.
  • 3 Sadlers, 9 d.*
  • Yeoman Coach-maker, 12 d.
  • Yeoman of the Stirrope, 9 d.
  • 4 Yeomen Purveyors, 9 d.
  • 3 Yeomen Granators, 9 d.
  • Serjeant Farrier, 13 d.
  • 3 Yeomen Farriers, 6 d.
  • Yeoman of the Male, 8 d.
  • Yeoman Bit-maker, 3 d.
  • Yeoman of the Close-cart, 7 d.
  • 64 Grooms, to all 584 l.
  • 26 Footmen in Liveries.

So that all the Fees to the Officers of the Kings Houshold, amounts to 16868 l. 10 s. 1 d.

A List of the Kings Officers in Ordinary that Attend His Person above Staires.

    In the Bed-Chamber.
  • 18 Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, each 100 l.
  • Groom of the Stool,
  • Servant of the Robe or Vestment,
  • Lord Great Chamberlain,
  • Vice-Chamberlain,
  • Keeper of the Privy Purse,
  • Treasurer of the Chamber,
  • Master of the Robes,
  • 12 Grooms of the Bed-Chamber, eace 50 l.
  • 6 Pages of the Bed-Chamber,
  • Keeper of the Kings Cabinet Closet,
  • 4 Gentlemen Ushers of the Privy Chamber,
  • 48 Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber.
  • 6 Grooms of the Privy Chamber,
    The Presence Chamber, or Great Chamber.
  • 4 Gentlemen Ushers,
  • 4 Waiters,
  • 8 Gentlemen Ushers that are quarter Waiters
  • 14 Grooms,
  • 4 Pages.
  • 6 Gentlemen Waiters
  • 5 Cup-bearers
  • Pincern Cup Waiters
  • 4 Carvers for His Person,
  • 3 Gentlemen Sewers to His Person,
  • 6 Esquires of the Body,
  • 8 Sewers of the Chamber,
  • Groom Porter,
  • 16 Serjants at Arms,
  • 42 Messengers of the Chamber,
    The Ceremonies.
  • The Master of Ceremonies, 200 l.
  • An Assistant, 120 l.
  • A Marshall,
    The Removing Wardrobe.
  • A Yeoman, 200 l.
  • 2 Grooms, each 100.
  • 3 Pages, each 100 marks.
    The Officers of the Robes.
  • A Yeoman,
  • Page  443 Grooms,
  • A Page,
  • A Purveyor,
  • A Brusher,
  • A Dyer,
  • A Taylor,
  • A Girdler,
  • A Clerk,
  • A Laceman,
  • A Cutter and Racer,
  • An Imbrautherer,
  • 2 Silkmen,
  • A Shoomaker,
  • A Perfumer,
  • A Feather maker,
  • A Milliner,
  • A Mercer,
  • A Hosier,
  • A Draper,
  • A Surveyor,
    Masters of the Game.
  • Mr. of the Fighting Cocks,
  • Mr. of the Bears,
  • A Serjeant,
  • Mr. of the Bulls,
  • A Yeoman,
  • Mr. of the Bowling Green,
  • Mr. of the Tennis-court,
  • Mr. of the Pall-Mall,
  • Keeper of the Theater,
  • Keeper of the Birds and Fowl,
  • 2 Gentlemen of the Bows,
  • Chief Ranger, 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.

Other Officers of Court which Pertain to the Kings Houshold, with their Fees.

    The Secretaries of Estate.
  • Principal Secretaries, 100 l.
  • Secretary of French Tongue, 66.13.4.
  • Secretary of the Latin, 40 mar.
  • 4 Clerks of the Signet,
  • Clerk of the Council, 26 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Clerk of the Parliament, 40 l.
  • Clerk of the Market, 20 l.
  • Clark of the Privy Council, 40 l.
    The Armory.
  • Lieutenant of the Ordinance,
  • Mr. of the Armory, 130 l. 10 s. 9 d.
  • 20 other Officers, each 15 l. 5 s.
  • Lacksmith, 15 l. 12 s.
  • Labourer, 10 l.
  • Gilder, 5 l.
  • Brigender 10 l.
    The Officers at Arms.
  • Garter King at Arms, 40 l.
  • Clarencieux K. at Arms, 20 l.
  • Norroy K. at Arms, 20 l.
  • 6 Heralds, each 13 l 6 s. 8 d.
  • 6 Pursivants, have 93 l. 6 s. 8d.
  • 25 Serjeants at Arms, 1 s per Diem.
    The Mynt-House.
  • Treasurer, 100 l.
  • Controllor, 100 mar.
  • Assay Master, 100 mar.
  • Auditor, 44 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Teller of Money, 33 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Surveyor of the Melting-house, 26 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Clerk of the Irons, 20 marks.
  • Clerk of the Mynt, 10 l.
  • Chief Graver, 30 l.
  • Chief Finer, 20 l.
  • Sincker of the Irons, 10 l.
  • 3 Melters, each 20 marks.
  • Purveyors, 10 l.
  • Pot-makers, 10 l.
  • Porter, 10 l.
    The Buttlerage of England.
  • Chief Buttler, 50 m.
  • Under Buttler,
    The Barges.
  • Mr. of the Kings Barge, 10 l. 8 s. 8 d.
  • Servants amongst them, 20 l.
    The Great Wardrobe.
  • Master, 115 l.
  • Clerk, 18 l. 5 s.
  • Under Clerk, 4 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Porter, 6 l. 1 s. 8 d.
  • Rent gatherer, 5 l.
  • 3 Taylors, each 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
  • 3 Embrautherers, each 18 s. 5 d.
    The Tents, or Povillions.
  • 2 Masters, 30 l.
  • Controllor, 12 l 13 s. 4 d.
  • Clerk, 13 l. 7 s. 4.
  • Keper of the ents, 10 l.
  • 4 Yeoman, 5 l.
  • Groom, 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
    The Revells.
  • Master of the Revells, 100 l.
  • Yeoman, 9 l. 2 s. 10 d.
  • Master of the Request, 100 l.
    The Works.
  • Surveyor, 30 l.
  • Controllor, 30 l.
  • Clerk, 18 l. 5 s.
  • Purveyor, 24 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Keeper of the Store-house, 9 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Clerk of the Check, 15 l. 3 s. 4 d.
  • Carpenter, 18 l. 5 s.
  • Mason, 18 l. 5 s.
  • 3 Joyners, each 18 l. 5 s.
  • Glasier, 18 l. 5 s.
  • Surveyors of the Mines, 36 l. 10 s.
  • Deviser of Building, 36 l. 10 s.
    The Hunters Fees.
  • Master of the Hounds, 18 l. 5 s.
  • The Yeoman, 6 l.
  • Mr. of Buck-hounds, 50 marks.
  • 2 Servants, each 20 l.
  • 2 Yeomen Prickers, each 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
  • Master of Otter Hounds, 13 l. 6 s.
  • 40 others under them.
    The Apothocary & Physician, &c.
  • 6 Surgeons, all 196 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 3 Physicians, all 260 l.
  • 3 Apothocaries, all 64 l. 9 s. 2 d.
  • Astronomers, 20 l.
  • 4 Physicians to His Majesty,
  • 2 Physicians for the Houshold and Tower.
  • 2 Barbers,
    The Musicians and Players.
  • Serjeant Trumpeter, 24 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • 16 Trumpeters, all 389 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • 6 Sack-Buts, each 24 l.
  • 8 Violls, each 30 l. 8. 4 d.
  • 3 Drumslades, each 18 l. 5 s.
  • 2 Players on the Flute, 18 l. 5 s.
  • 3 Players on the Virginals, 5 l.
  • 8 Players of Enterludes, each 3 l. 6 s.
  • 2 Makers of Instruments, 30 l.
    Ths Artificers Fees.
  • Printer, 4 l.
  • Stationer, 10 l.
  • Cutler, 6 l. 1 s. 8 d.
  • 3 Weavers, each 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
  • Bowyer, 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
  • Wheel Wright, 18 l. 5 s.
  • Cross-Bow maker, 6 l. 1 s. 8 d.
  • Clock-maker, 18 l. 10 s.
  • Feather Dresser, 13 l. 6 s.
  • Lock-Smith 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Arrow-Maker, 6 l. 1 s. 8 d.
  • Buckler-Maker, 3 l. 8 d.
  • Hand-Gun-maker, 1 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Page  45Stone Graver, 20 l.
  • Serjeant Painter, 25 l. 10 s.
  • Gardiner, 25 l. 10 s.
  • Stillers of Water, 40 l.
  • Clock keeper, 12 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Silkman,
  • Wollen Draper,
  • 2 Taylors,
  • Sejeant Skinner,
  • Post-Master,
  • Tennis-Ball maker,
  • 2 Imbrautherers,
  • 2 Keepers of the Privy Lodgings,
  • Prospective maker,
  • Master Fencer,
  • Haberdasher of Hats,
  • Comb maker,
  • Silver-Smith,
  • Gold-Smith,
  • Jeweller,
  • Peruque-maker,
  • Joyner,
  • Watch-maker,
  • Cabinet-Maker,
  • Lock-Smith,
  • 55 Water-men,
  • Upholster,
  • Cutler,
  • Spurrier,
  • Girdler,
  • Button-maker, &c.
    The Falconry Office.
  • Master of the Hawks,
  • 33 Under Falconers, or Officers.
    The Kings Officers for Law.
  • 4 Serjeants at Law.
  • Attorney General,
  • Sollicitor General,
  • Chief Justice of Chester.
  • 2 Council at Law.
  • 2 Advocates for the Civil Law.
  • 2 Secretaries of Estate,
  • 2 Clerks of the Council,
  • 2 Masters of Request,
  • 4 Clerks of the Signet,

Officers of Estate, and the Kings Houshold with their Allowances.

    In the Exchequer of London.
  • Lord High Treasurer, 368 l.
  • Chancellor, 113 l.
  • Lord chief Baron, 100 l.
  • 3 Barons, 40 l. 13 s. 4 d. apeece.
  • Kings Remembrancer, 55 l. 17 s. 4 d.
  • Treasurer, 63 l. 2 s. 1 d.
  • Clerk of the Pipe, 65 l. 4 s. 2 d.
  • 5 Auditors, to each 10 l.
  • Clerk of the Extracts, 15 l.
  • Clerk of the Plees, 5 l.
  • 2 Marshals, to each 2 l. 10 s.
  • Ushers in all, 140 l.
  • 8 Porters, each 4 l. and Liveries.
  • Clerk of Talis, 41 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Clerk of the Peal, 61 l. 16 s. 8 d.
  • 2 Chamberlains, each 52 l. 3 s. 4 d.
  • Under Treasurer, 173 l.
  • 2 Debuty Chamberlains, 6 l.
  • 6 Messengers, each 4 d. ob per Diem.
  • Besides other under Officers.
  • Customer Fee and reward, 47 13 4
  • Controllor, 20 l.
  • Collector, 66 l.
  • Surveyor, 46 l.
  • Searcher,
  • 16 Waiters, to each 44 l.
  • 6 Clerks, to each 10 l.
    Receivers of Crown Lands.
  • 9 Receivers, each 200 m.
  • Clerks allowance, each 37 l. 8 s. 8 d.
    Surveyor of Crown Lands.
  • One in each County, 13 l. 6 s. 4 d.
    The Duchy Court of Lancaster.
  • Chancellor, 142 l. 16 s.
  • Attornies, each 45 l.
  • Receiver General, 38 l. 16 s. 4 d.
  • Clerk, 27 l. 10 s.
  • Messenger, 10 l.
  • Usher, 20 s.
  • 4 Council at Law, each 7 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • 2 Auditors of the Revenue, each 197 l.
  • 22 Receivers, each 5 l.
  • 3 Surveyors, each 13 l. 6 s. 8 d.
    Court of first Fruits.
  • Chancellor, 242 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Treasurer, 136 l.
  • Attorney, 26 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Auditor, 140 l. 3 d.
  • Clerk, 40 l.
  • Reeper of the Records, 20 l.
  • Messenger, 16 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Usher, 6 l. 6 s. 8 d.
    Court of Wards.
  • Master of the Wards, 352 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Receiver, 70 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Attorney, 70 l.
  • Surveor, 100 l.
  • Auditor, 145 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Clerks, each 24 l. 13 s. 8 d.
  • Messenger, 6 l. 2 d.
  • Usher▪ 5 l.
  • 45 Feodaries, each 9 l.

So that the Fees of the Courts of Revenues to the said Officers and their Substitutes aforesaid, amounts to 13825 l. 8 s. 4 d.. ob.

    The Court of Chancery.
  • Lord Chancellor, or
  • Lord Keeper of the great Seal, 1047 l.
  • Master of the Rolls, 71 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • Clerk of the Hamper, 43 l.
  • Clerk of the Crown, 60 l.
  • Controllor, 10 l.
  • Prothonotory, 33 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Sealer, 6 l. 16 s. 10 d. ob.
  • Chaffer of Wax, 3 l. 16 s. 1 d.
  • Cryer, 6 l. 6 s. 10 d. ob.
  • Enroller of Evidences, 20 l.
  • 12 Masters of Chancery,
    The Privy Seal.
  • Lord Keeper his Fee 20 s. pre Diem.
    The Kings-Bench Court.
  • Lord chief Justice, 228 l. 6 s. 5 d.
  • 3 Lords Justices, each 148 l.
  • Clerk of the Crown, 10 l.
  • Prothonotory n l.
  • Keeper of the Records, nil.
    The Court of Common Pleas.
  • Lord chief Justice, 182 l.
  • 3 Lords Justices, each 148 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Keeper of the Rolls, 4 l.
  • 4 Serjeants at Law, each 53 l. 6 s. 7 d.
  • Attorney General, 81 l.
  • Sollicitor General, 50.
    The Council in the North.
  • Lord President, 1000 l.
  • 7 Councellors, each 50 l.
  • Secretary, 33 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Messenger, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
    The Marches of Wales.
  • Lord President, 1040 l.
  • 7 Councellors, each 13 l. 6 s. 8 d.
    The Admiralty Court.
  • Lord Admiral of England, 200 m:
  • Lieutenant, 230 l.
  • Treasurer, 220 l.
  • Page  46Mr. of the Ordinance, 180 l.
  • Controllor, 100 l.
  • Surveyor, 70 l.
  • Clerk of the Ships, 60 l.
  • Clerk of the Store-House, 52 13 4
  • Victualler of the Navye, 128 l.
    The Principality of South-Wales.
  • Chancellor, 20. l.
  • Secretary, 13 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Attorney, 13 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Sollicitor, 10 l.
    The Principallity of North-wales
  • Chancellor, 20 l.
  • Attorney, 66 s.
  • Controllor, 12 l. 13 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Justices, each 23 l. 6 s. 8 d.
    The Palatine of Lancaster.
  • Clerk of the Crown, 6 l.
  • Clerk of the Common Pleas, 4 l.
  • Clerk of the Estracts, 1 l.
  • 2 Barons of the Exchequer, each 2 l.
  • 2 Attorneys, each 6 l. 31 s. 4 d.
  • Cryer, 2 l.
  • Messenger, 2 l.
  • Chamberlain, 20 l.
    The Palatine of Chester.
  • 2 Baron of the Exchequer, 9 l. 2 s. 4 d.
  • 2 Serjeants at Law, each 3 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • 2 General Attorneys, each 3 l. 6 s. 8 d.
  • Escheator, 10 l. 10 s.
    Iustices of Oyer and Terminer.
  • From Trent Southward, 100 l.
  • From Trent Northward, 100 l.
  • Masters of Request, each 200.

III. He beareth Argent, a Prince in his Parlia∣ment Robes Gules, Doubled Ermin; the Surcoat, or Uested, Purpure: with a Girdle about his middle of the first; a Chatter in his right Hand, and a Rod of Estate or Government in his left, and his Sword by his side all proper.

The Kings eldest Son in England, is called Prince, and the first that we read of was Edward eldest Son to King Henry the third, and after him the Eldest Son of the King hath been ever by Patent, and Ceremonies of Enstalment Created Prince of Wales, & Earl of Chester, being born Duke of Cornwall: and hath the Title of Illustrious, or Most Illustrious Prince.

The Prince or first Son of the King of France, is called the Dolphin of France. In Spain the Infanta of Spain: and in other Countrys there are Princes by Creation, as the Prince of Piemont, and the Prince of Orange, with several others which now become He∣reditory: and in some Countrys all the Royal line are Stiled Princes, as in Bohemia the eldest Son called the Palsgrave, and all the other Princes. In Denmark, all the younger Sons are called Princes.

The Creation of a Prince.

When a Prince is to be Created, he is after diverse So∣lemnities, at length presented before the King in Princely Robs, who puteth about his Neck a Sword bendways, a Cap upon his Head, with a Coronet according to His Degree over it, a Ring on his middle Finger, and a Uerge oWand of Gold in his Hand, and his Letters Patents after they are read.

Henry the fourth bestowed the said Principalitie on his eldest Son Henry, with the Title of Earl of Chester and Flint, by the said Solemn Investures, and a Kiss in full Parliament.

Yet here is to be noted that the Mantle of a Prince, is once more doubled then the Dukes: and his Cap of Estate in its doubling is indented, having (as all Caps of Dignity have) a Button and Tassel of Gold on the Crown or Top of the Cap.

Besides he hath a Surcote and Girdle and the Man¦tle with Cordals Buttons, and Tassels, as the Kings Mantle of State hath.

The Revenues of the Prince of Wales.

Edward the Third in a Parliament held at Westminster in the 15 Year of His Reign, Created Edward His Son and Heir Surnamed the Black Prince, Prince of Wales: and for his better maintenance in Honourable Support, according to his State and Dignity, by Charter the 18 of E. 1. gave him all His Lordships and Lands in North-Wales, South-Wales, and West-Wales or Powyes: which have since appertain to this Principalitie, as

1. The Lordship, Castle, Town and County of Carnarvon, 1134 l. 16 s. 2 d. ob. q.

2. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Conway.

3. The Lordship, Castle, and Town of Crucketh.

4. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Bewmaris.

5. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Harlagh.

6. The Lordship, Castle, Towns and Counties of Anglesey, and Merioneth, 1581 l. 5 s. 10 d. ob.

7. The Lordship, Castle, Town and County of Caer∣mardin, 406 l. 1 s. 7 d.

8. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Llanbider-Vaur.

9. The Lordship, and Stewardship of Cantermawer.

10. The Lordship, Castle, Town and County of Car∣digan, 374 l. 11 s. 3 d. ob.

11. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Emelyn.

12. The Lordship, Castle & Town of Buelt, 113 l. 6 s. 8 d.

13. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Haverford.

14. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Mont∣gomory, 56 l. 13 s. 4 d.

And all the Lands that were Rice ap Meridick which came to the hands of King E. 1. (who Rebelled against the English Crown after the Conquest of Wales) together with all the Lordships, Citties, Castles, Towns, Maners, Members Hamlets, Lands, Tenements, Knights Fees, Voidances of Bishopricks, Advowsons of Churches and of Abbies, Prio∣ries and of Hospitals, with Customs, and Prisages of Wines, the Exercise and Execution of Justice, and a Chancery, Forests, Chases, Parks, Woods, Warrens, Hundreds, Co∣mots, &c. besides,

15. The Perquisites and Profits of the Sessions of the Justices of North-Wales.

16. The Prequisites and Profits of the Sessions of the Justices of South-Wales, 738 l. 6 s. 9 d. ob.

17. The Prequisites, of the Courts of Haverford, 41 l. 5 s. 3 d. ob.

Page  47Deduct for the Fees of the Justices of North-Wales 40 l. and of South-Wales 50 l.

Then the Revenue of the Principality is clear 4681 l. 12 s. 5 d. 1 f.

Officers about the Person of the Prince of Wales.

The Governor of the Princes Person.

The Council of the Prince were diverse Honorable and worthy Persons.

The Chamberlain, and chief Chamberlain.

The Attorney General.

The Clerk of the Princes Council, or Secretary and the keeper of His Books of Records, &c. his Fee 100 l. per Annum.

The Usher of the Council-Chamber, his Fee 10 l.

The Gentleman Usher to the Princes Privy Chamber.

The Keeper of the Princes Ward-Robe, his Fee 5 l. 10 s.

The Treasurer or Receiver General.

The Princes chief General.

The Mr. of the Princes Horse, and the Equiryes and such as teach him to Ride, besides many other inferiour Officers and Servants not mentioned in any Record.

The Ancient Officers of State and other Places of Iudicature, for the Princi∣pality of Wales; with their Fees Per Annum.

In every of the said Circuits or Counties, there is a Chamberlain, or Treasurers of the Revenue, and Keep∣ers of the Seal, 20 l.

The Princes Attorney, and Princes Solicitor.

The Prothonotory or chief Register.

The Clerk of the Crown.

The Marshal to attend the Judges.

The chief Justices of North-Wales and South-Wales, 50 l. a piece, the latter 40 l. a piece.

The Cryer.

The Justices of the Peace, which are to preserve the Peace and to punish turbulent persons.

The Custos Rotulorum or chief Justice of Peace, that keeps the Records of their proceedings.

The Justice of Peace and Quorum, without him no Session can be holden.

The Clerk of the Peace and Sessions 5 l.

The Sheriffs of each county 2 l. 10 s. of some 5 l.

The Coroners.

The Constables in every Hundred in the Shire.

The Goaler.

The Bailiffs or catch-poles.

The Marshal and keeper of the Justice house in Carnar∣•••▪ 1 l. 6 s. 8 d.

The chief Forester of Snowden, 11 l. 8 s.

The Steward General of the Comots of the County of Carmarthen, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d. of Cardigan 10 l.

The Clerk of the County Courts and small Sessions, each 2 l.

The Cryers of the same, each 6 s. 8 d.

The Office of Penkeys in the Comots of Widegada and Elvet, 4 s.

The Steward of the same, 3 l. 13 s. 4 d.

The Clerk, 6 s. 8 d.

The Bailiff Itinerant, 5 l. and some 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.

The Auditors, each 10 l. per Annum, and 10 s. per Diem in executing his Office and making his accounts.

The Controllors of all Pleas &c, 12 l. 3 s. 4 d.

The Attorneys in each County, 2 l. 16 s. 8 d. in South-Wales each 8 l. 13 s. 4 d.

The Surveyor or Supervisors, each 10 l.

The Constable of the several Castles and Towns, 40 l. viz. Carnarvon, Conway, Hardligh, Bemaris, Carmarthen, Abeenstowith, Cardign.

The Captains 12 l. 3 s. 4 d. and every Soldier of the Gard, 4 d. per Diem.

The Porters of the Gates, 3 l. 10 s.

The Office of the Steward of Newbrough and Roffaire, 10 l.

An Arch-Duke.

This Title is not used in England but in Germany: and proper only to the House of Austria, though some others have assumed the title, as Mr. Sldon inform us.

He taketh place of all other Dukes, and he is allowed at his creation, a Surcoat, a Mantle, and a Hood of Crimson Velvet: He hath also a Chapeaur, or Du∣cal Cap doubled Ermin, and indented with a Coronet about the same with one Arch of Gold with a Globe and Cross upon it: and a Uerge, or Wand of Gold.

A Duke

A Duke was at the first a title of Office, afterwards Hono••ry, and since Feudal and Hereditory: and were at first created without any Ceremony, except the girding of a Sword about them. But ohn Son of Edward the third▪ had a Cap of Furr added to the Ceremony when created Duke of Lancaster: and succeding time have to them added, Surcoat, Mantle, Hood, a Uerge of Gold, a Ducal Crownett, with a Cap doubled Er∣min, but not indented as that of the Princes is.

The Duke, Marquess and Earl at their Creation have a Sword put over their Heads to their shoulders, which the Viscount and Baron have not.

The Creation of a Duke.

The King being Seated in His Chamber of Salutation called the preence Chamber; the Heralds proceeded by two & two then came Garter with the Charter in his Hand, after him came an Earl bearing the Rod of Gold, then another Earl carrying the Cap of State with the Du∣cal Crown on it, and after him another Earl bearing the Page  48Sword with the Hilt upwards, then came the Person to be created between a Duke, and a Marquess vested with an inner Gown or Surcoat (gird about the middle) of a Scarlet colour Eimbriated or Bordered with Ermine skins: coming before the King they made three obeisance, the Person then kneeled before the King, the Charter was Audiably read which at the word Investivimus, the King with his own Hands puts upon him the Ducal Robe: and at the Sword, Gladio Cincturavimus, the King puts the Belt and Sword over his Head: and at the word, Cappae & Circlis Aurei Impositio∣nem, the King with his own Hands, puts the Coronet on his Head; and at the word, Virgae Aureae Traditionem, the King puts the Rod into his Hands; and when the rest of the Charter is read over, the King declares him to be Duke of such and such a place, so giving him the Letters Patent, and thanks given for the great Favour, &c. They go out orderly as they came in: the rest of the Ceremo∣nies in the Feast, see in the creation of a Baron▪

A Duke is Stiled, and Esteemed Princely, and gene∣rally Gracious, and Excellent: the High and Mighty Prince, or Most High Potent and Noble Prince.

Dukes of the Blood Royal, as the Kings Son, Broher, Uncle, Nephew, ought to be repated as Arch-Dukes, and to have precedency before all other Dukes not o the Blood Royal.

A Marquess.

It was a word at first used to all Earls and Barons, that were Lords Marchers, or Lords of Frontiers: and came after to a Title of Dignity, and Hereditory: be∣ginning in the time of Richard the Second, who Created Robert de Vere Earl of Oxford, Marquess of Dublin, by the girding on of his Sword, and puting on his Head a Cir∣cle, or Crownet of Gold. The Ceremony at these times are such, or much at one, with them of the Earls.

The Marquess is Honored with a Crownet of Gold, Flowred and Pointed, being both of equal height his Mantle also lined with Ermine, the Cape or Doub∣ling the same, having only five rows of Ermine, whereas the Earl hath but four.

The Creation of a Marquess.

The Rites and Ceremonies of a Marquess Creation dif∣fereth in nothing from the Dukes only he is conducted into the Kings presence between a Marquess and an Earl, neither hath he any Rod delivered to him.

He is Stiled as the Duke, Earl, and Viscount are by the King (Consanguinei Nostri) our cousins: and if he be written unto, he is titled the most Noble, and Potent Lord: or the Right Honorable and Grand (or puissant) Seignor.

IV. He beareth Luna, an Earl in his Parliament Robes holding a Charter in his right hand with the Seal pendant all proper. If you desire a more exact bla∣zon, say an Earl in his Creation Robes Mars, Lined Ermine; Surcoat Mercury, Girdle Luna: having a Sword and Belt about his Neck, Crowned according to his degree, holding a Charter in his right hand, Seal pendant proper.

A Count, or Earl.

The word Earl is derived from the Saxons 〈◊〉 or Ear-el, which the Dutch called Eorle, and by abre∣viation we call it Earl. The Title and office, with that of Than, we find both Honorary, and Feudal, or Heredi∣tory, whose possessions were sometimes the whole Territo∣ries they derived their Title from; and sometimes not, but some particular part, or place of it.

At the coming in of the Normans this word was turned into Comes, or Count; since which time it hath re∣mained. In the Empire of Germany there are sundry sorts of Earls, which they title Graves: as Land-graves, Paisgrave, Margraves, Burgrave, and Rem∣grave, &c. that is Earls of Regions, or Provin∣ces: Earls Palatine, or Priviledge places: Earls of Marts, Bounds, Limits, Fields or Towns. Earls of Cities, Towers, Forts, Castles, and Earls of Rivers, Waters, &c. Comes Rusticis.

And so this Title since the conquest hath continued with us, either Local, or Personal, from the denomination of some Countrey Town, or City: or from some great Office, as Earl-Marshal and the like. But of Local Earls we have in our Kingdom but two kinds, Earls Palatines, and Earls not Palatines: of the first we have those of Chester and Lancaster, the Bishoprick of D••∣ham, and Ely.

Chester-Palatine was given to Hugh Lupe, to hold of the Conqueror, as freely by the Sword, as he himself held Enland by the Crown; in which case he scarcely acknowledged a Superior, but was equal to the Prince, for he created eight Barons under him, he had his Cham∣berlain, Justices, Baron o the Exchequer, High Consta∣ble, Sheriff, and other Officers proportionable to those of the Crown at Westminster.

Lancaster was made a Palatine by K. Edward the third, and had Barons, a Chancery, and Seal, and so had the Palatinate Bishops of Durham and Ely. The Office of those Barons was to sit in Council and Judgment with the Earl.

Of those Earls that are not Palatinate, but have their Creation from places, these are as ancient as the conquest, for William the first by Patent Created Aln Fergent Earl of Richmond. Where we find many times in their Patents they had annual Rents, and sometimes Land granted them, for the support of their Ti∣tle and Dignity.

The Creation Robes belonging to an Earl is a Sarcoat, a Mantle; with the Cape of three rows, or turnings down of the Ermine Furr: a Hood, a Coro∣net of Gold with points, not Flowers; (Circulus Aureus) a Sword, and a Cap of Honor, with an Ermine turn∣ing up, and a Button, and Tassel of Gold on the top.

Earls that have their Office Personal, is only the Earl-Marshal of England, and the first was Tho: Mowbray Earl of Nottingham, made Earl-Marshal of England, or Marescallus Angliae for Life, and after to him and his Heirs Males, by King Richard the Second: but since Page  49 the 14 of Queen Elizabeth, the Office hath been only for Life; and to these Earls (besides what is before said) be∣longs as an Ensign of Authority, a Rod, or Staff of Gold, Enamelled at each end with Black.

There is another kind of Earl, which is only nomi∣nal, viz. Earl Rivers, who takes his Title from the de∣nomination of an Illustrious Family, as the rest do from some noted place.

The Creation of an Earl.

The King seated in State in the Chamber of Presence, the Trumpets sounding before, the Pursevants at Arms, the Heralds of Arms, and the two Kings of Arms Cla∣r••tieux and Norroy followed by two and two, after them came Garter the principal King of Arms alone with the Charter of Creation in his hand; after him fol∣lowed an Earl bearing a Cap of Dignity, with an Earls Coronett on it; after him succeeded another Earl, bearing a Sword and Belt, with the Hilt and Pomel erected; after him came the person to be created, be∣tween two Earls, having on him a Coat or under Uestment, called a Surcoat of Scarlet Silk, covered with a long Mantle or Cloak of the same colour, Li∣ned with Ermine, they being all come into the Kings Presence, and having made three Obeisances, the person to be created kneels before the King, the rest standing round about; Garter gives the Charter to the King, and he to the Secretary of State, who reading it, at the word Cincturiavimus, the King puts the Belt (with the Sword hanging at it) over his head obliquely towards the left side; and at the reading of the word, Cappae & Circuli Aurei, the King puts upon his head the Cap and Coronet; when the rest of the Charter is read over, he pronounceth the said person, that before was so called, is how Earl of such a place, to him and his Heirs Male, &c. then the Secretary delivers the Charter to the Cham∣berlain, and he to the King, and the King to the per∣son created, who giving him humble thanks for his great favour, &c. in the same manner and order as they came in, they went out: For the rest of their Ceremo∣nies, at and after Dinner, see in the creation of a Ba∣ron.

He is stiled the most Noble and Potent Lord, or the thrice honourable and puissant Seignior, W. Earl of A. Viscount B. Baron F. and G. Knight of the thrice No∣ble Order of the Garter, &c.

Officers of State and Domestical belong∣ing to the Earl of Chester, with their Fees.

The Baron of Halton.

The Baron of Montalto.

The Baron of Malbanek.

The Baron of Shipbrooke.

The Baron of Malpass.

The Baron of Dunham-Massey.

The Baron of Kinderton.

The Baron of Stockport.

The Chief Justice of Chester 100 0 0

The General of his Army

The Constable of Chester

The Steward to the Earl

The Abbot of St. Wereburg, in Chester, now to the Dean and Chapter 19 10 0

The Chamberlain of Chester 22 0 0

The Sherriff of Chester 20 0 0

The Sewer, or Dapifer to the Earl

The Ranger of his Forests. Keepers 4 11 3

The Constable of the Castle 18 5 0

The Bailiff Itinerant 3 1 6

The Attorney General 3 6 8

4 Serjeants 14 6 8

8 Clerks or Attorneys 9 2 6

Clerk of the Sword, now of the Crown

Cryer of the Exchequer at Chester 3 15 0

Escheator 10 10 0


Prothonotary, Keeper of the Rolls

Customers of the Port, as




Controller of the Counties 12 3 4

Houshold Servants, as


Steward of the House


Vice Chamberlain, or Sub Chamberlain

Keeper of the Wardrobe

Gentlemen of his Chamber

Master of his Horse

Groom of the Stable


Captain of his Guard

Almoner, or giver to the Poor

Chaplain 2 0 0

Master of the Hospital 4 11 0

Pentions in Alms of the said Earldom of old 61 6 0

Porter. Janitor. Door Keeper 6 1 8

Cook and Scullions

Caterer. Purveyer

Butler. Brewer

Baker. Milner

Huntsman. Fisher

Falconer. Fowler.

Gardiner 4 11 3

Artificers several

Carpenter 9 12 6

Mason 8 12 6


Surveyor of the Works 6 1 8

The Ancient and Modern Revenues of the Earldom of Chester.

In the time of the Conquest Hugh Lupe. Earl of Chester, held these Towns in Cheshire and Flintshire.

Page  50In Roelau, now Edesbury Hundred. Weverham. Kenardesley. Dunham. Elton. Traf∣ford. Manley. Helsby. Prodsham.

In Bochelau, now Buckley Hundred. Ollarton. Alderley. Done. Edesbery. Antrobus.

In Dudefton, now Broxton Hundred. Eaton. Lea. Coddington. Lea by Chester. Rush∣ton. Upton. Budworth parva. Olton. Ouver.

In Wilaweston, now Wirrall Hundred. Estham. Trafford.

In Hamstan, now Maxfield Hundred. Maxfield, Adlington. Merton. Gawsworth. (Hun∣ger Wenitune.) Henbury. Capeston. Henshall. Tingweeel. Hollinworth. Wernith. Romiley. Laiton.

In Mildestwic, now Northwich Hundred. Alsacher. Sandbach. Cliffe. Sutton by Middlewich. Wimbaldesley. Weever. Occleston.

In Attiscros, now Flintshire part. Harden. Radington. Ledbrock. Wepper. Claiton. Marleston by Chester. Claverton. Dodleston. A∣ston by Harden. Broughton. Sutton.

The Revenues of the Earl of Chester, taken 50 E. 3.

Fee Farm of Chester, 100 0 0

Other Profits therefrom, 4 0 0

Farm of Medwick, 64 0 0

Farm of Dee Mills, 240 0 0

Mannor of Draklow, 49 1 10

Forest of Mara, 51 7 0

Northwich, 66 0 0

Mannor of Shotwick, 30 14 1

Mannor of Frodsham, 56 13 4

Profits of the Office of Sherriff of County Chester 124 7 4

Perquisites of Courts held by Justice of Chester 180 0 0

Profits of the Escheators Office, 100 0 0

Mannor of Hope and Hopedale, 63 0 0

Mannor of Ewlow and Mynes, 6 0 0

Profits of Constable of Rothlan, 8 14 0

Rent of Flint, 56 0 0

Colshull, 4 7 10

Carouse, 22 6 8

Bachagree, 14 3 4 ob.

Voynal, 13 6 8

Rothland Rent, 72 9 2

Mosten, 15 6 8

Escheator Office of Englefield, 56 0 0

Perquisits of Flint Sessions, 30 0 0

Escheators Office for Flintshire, 8 0 0

The Bloglot of the County of Flint, which consisted of the profits of the Hundred Courts, 72 11 9 ob.

Borough of Maxfield, 31 0 0

Profits of Maxfield Hundred, 31 14 0

Maxfield Forest, 88 0 0

Profits of the Store of Maxfield, 13 6 8

Herbage and Agistments of Maxfield Park, 6 0 0

Sum total 1694 9 8

The Revenue as it now stands. 1630.

The Farm of Chester, 22 2 4 ob.

Escheated Lands there, 0 7 0

Draklow and Rudheath, 26 2 6

Farm of Medywick, 21 6 0

Profits of Mara and Mondram Forest, 34 9 0

Shotwick Park, 23 19 0

Fulling Mills at De, 11 0 0

Frodsham, 48 0 0

Hundred of Maxfield profits, 6 1 8

Profits of the Forest there, 85 12 11 ob. q.

From Escheator of Chester, 24 19 0

Sherriffs Office, 43 12 3

Chamberlains Office, 55 14 0

Elow Rent, 20 8 0

Farm of Flint, 33 19 4

Farm of Carouse, 7 2 4

Castle of Ruthland, 5 12 10

Rent and Profits of Mostyn, 7 0 0

Rent of Colshill, 2 14 10

Town of Ruthland, 44 17 6

Lands of Englefield, 23 0 10

Voynal profits, 5 9 0

Office of Escheator of Flint, 6 11 9

Mines of Coal and Wood in Mostyn 0 10 0

Office of Sherriff in Rents and Casualties, 120 0 0

Mines and profits of Fairs of Northop, 3 9 2

Summ total 699 7 2 q.

But since this time Places have been sold, Castles rui∣ned, and Offices laid aside, so that the Revenue is much shorter.

A Viscount,

It was a Name first substituted to Earls, but getting themselves in Power, got also to have the Title Honora∣ry, and Hereditary, being between an Earl and a Ba∣ron, it is the same word in Latine (Vicecomes) which sig∣nifieth our Sheriff, and begun not with us till about the 18 H. 6. who then created Iohn Lord Beaumont, Uis∣count Beaumont, by Letters Patent, though Sir Iohn Ferne tells us of it in the time of Henry the First, and King Stephen.

To this degree is allowed a Surcoat and Girdle, a Mantle, a Hood, and a Circulet set only with Pearls, having neither flowers or points, as is to be seen in chap. 1. numb. 9. and is created with the same Ceremonies as the Earl and Marquess aforesaid are: Yet note, that the Circulet or Chaplet set with Pearl, hath a Cap of State, turned up with a White Furr, and a Button and Tassel of Gold, as Earls caps, and they have no Ermine on their Mantles, but three doublings of Mii∣ver, or plain White Furr, the Baron having but two on the cape of his Mantle.

Page  51The creation of a Uiscount, is answerable to that of a Baron, only the Viscount is conducted into the Kings Presence, between an Earl and a Baron, (if a Viscount be wanting) whereas the Baron is brought in between two Barons. And the Viscount is stiled, The Right Honourable Lord, or The Right Noble and Potent Lord, or grave Seignior, &c.

V. He beareth Argent, a Baron in his Parlia∣ment Robes, bare headed, holding a Charter in his right hand, all proper.

A Baron.

This word was used by the Danes, and was a Title of great Honour, being such as had not only Castles, and Towns, and a great part of Countreys in their Jurisdi∣ction; but having under them Valvasores majores & mi∣nores, Milites & libere tenente, as Sir Henry Spelman in his Glossary saith, which should signifie an Honour of Command in the Common Wealth.

☞ It hath been a common Opinion, that antient∣ly every Duke had under him Ten Earls or Earldoms, and every Earl had Ten Baronies, and every Baron had Ten Knights Fees, but that is uncertain.

A Baron hath not Potestaem Principis, yet he is numbred among Noble Personages, yet some Barons have such power over their Uassals, that if they conspire against them, that Offence is called Treason; in which respect the Title of Baron is so much the more honora∣ble. But if he have Iura Regalia, then he is reputed e∣qual to an Earl, notwithstanding the Earldom and Baro∣ny do differ in Dignity.

The greatest Estates in England, are generally called by the names of Barons, Lords Spiritual and Temporal; But of Baron indeed, which have the Ti∣tle of Barons, there are several sorts; as Barons by name, yet not Noble, and Barons by name Honora∣ble.

The Barons in Name not Noble, are the Barons of the Cinque Ports, Barons of the Exchequer, and the Barons of London; whom Bractor mentions in these words, Sicut Barones London, coram me testantur: Also the ancient Barons created by the Earls Palatines, though they have the Name and Cignity, yet they are not cal∣led Honorable.

The Barons Honorable are of three kinds, by Te∣nure, by Creation, by Writ. Barons by Tenure, are Bishops chiefly, who are called Lords or Barons Spiritual; and are ever reputed Honourable; not in respect of Nobleness of Blood, but for their Function and Office: They are Peers and Barons of the Realm; and were ever first in nomination (as Lords Spiritual and Temporal) and take place on the Princes Right hand in Parliament; they are stiled Right Honorable Lords, and Reverend Fathers in God; they have been capable of Temporal Dignities; and some of them be accounted Counts, or Earls Palatine in their proper Jurisdiction, as the Bishop of Durham.

There are also another kind of Barons by Tenure▪ and they are by Tenure Temporal, which are such as hold their Honour, Castle or Mannor as the head of their Barony (per Baroniam) which is grand Serjan∣cy, by which Tenure they are not to appear in Parlia∣ment, except they be summoned to it; for he is no Lord of the Parliament, till he be called by Writ to the Parliament, as saith Mr. Bracton, lib. 5. fol. 351.357. Coke part 2. pag. 5.

These Barons by Temporal Tenure, because of their numerousness in the Conquest, and after, were di∣stinguished into Majores & Minores, and summoned ac∣cordingly to Parliament, the Majores, by immediate Writ from the King, and these were termed Barons by Tenure, the Minores were summoned from the High Sherriff at the Kings Command, and these were termed Tenants in Chief, which were after quite ex∣cluded the Parliament in the Reign of H. 3. by a Law then made, that none of the Barons should assemble in Parliament, but such as were summoned by special Writ from the King, as saith Mr. Camben, fol. 122. Slden, fol. 712.

Barons by Writ, are such (as is aforesaid) as were by their proper Names and Surnames, as A. B. Cheva∣lier, although he be no Knight; now this Dignity of Barons by Writ, was in the pleasure of the King, in that he did summon the Father, and omitted it in the Son, if he was not answerable to the Parent in Understanding; and that sometime Private Gentlemen, or Knights, and often, many Secular Priests, Priors, Abbots, Deans, and Deacons, were by the King called by Writ to Parliament; by reason whereof it was the Opi∣nion of some, that this Title and Dignity was only Temporary, pro termino Parliamenti, but that cannot be, for the Ceremony of his Admittance signifies more than a Titular or Temporary Honour, which is this; He is first brought by Garter King of Arms in his Sove∣raigns Coat to the Lord Chancellor, between two of the youngest Barons, who bears the Robe of a Baron; there he shews his Prescript, which the Chancellor read∣eth, and then congratulates him as a Baron, and invests him with those Robes, and sends him to take his place, then the Writ is delivered to the Clerk of the Parlia∣ment, and the King of Arms then shews him to the Ba∣rons, and placeth him in the House.

Barons by Creation, or by Patent, hath a Dig∣nity Hereditary established upon a person, which had its first beginning in the time of Richard the second, who created Iohn de Beauchamp Steward of the Houshold, Ba∣ron of Kiderminster, to him and the Heirs Male of his Body for ever, which Hereditary Title and Dignity, is now in our times more used than those by Writ. These Barons are as Lords of the Parliament, reckoned amongst the Peers of the Realm, and priviledged among them in all these things.

First, In all Trials of Criminal Causes, he is not Tryed by a Jury, but by a Bench of Peers.

If he e Indicted for Treason, and stand Mute, he shall be Convicted, but not P••st; but if it be for Felo∣ny that he stands Indicted, his Silence shall not Convict him.

Upon any Trial of Peers, the Lords that are to give Verdict, are not like a Jury, put upon their Oaths, but do it upon their Honor.

Page  52A Peer of the Realm, is not to be Impannelled in a∣ny Jury, but what concerns the Kings Enquiry.

They are not to be Arrested by any Warrant of Ju∣stice of Peace, either for the Peace, or Good Beha∣viour.

They are not to be put upon their Oaths upon any appearance they shall make in any Court; but his Ho∣nour to be esteemed as Binding.

And whereas all Burgesses of the House of Commons are to take the Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy; the Barons of the Upper House of Parliament are not.

These, with many other Priviledges, the Barons do enjoy; but it is to be noted, that these are only meant to such as are Lords of the Parliament, not to the Sons of Dukes, Marquesses or Earls, during the life of their Father; nor to any Baron of another Kingdom, that liveth in this; nay, though he be under the same Alle∣giance, who are not tryable out of their own Kingdom, unless they enjoy some Honour or Seigniory, Mannor or Castle in this, in which respect they are according to their condition. Of these matters, see Stamfords Pleas del Coronae, lib. 3. cap. 1. Diar. fol. 205.300.315. Fitz Natura brreve, fol. 165. Lambert Instic. lib. 2. chap. 1. fol. 17.

Though this Dignity at first was not allowed the Princely distinction of a Coronet, yet in after times it was allowed them to have a Circle of Gold round their Caps of Dignity, to which Circle, (at the Corona∣tion of King Charles the Second) was added the adorn∣ment of six Pearl, and no more; so that there is this dif∣ference only between a Barons and Viscounts Coronet, the first having only six Pearls, the latter as many Pearls close together, as the circle will contain; their Caps Fur∣red, Buttons and Tassels both alike.

The Creation of a Baron.

The form of the creation of a Baron, is in this man∣ner; The King sitting in State in the Presence Chamber; first the Heralds by two and two proceed; then comes Garter, principal King of Arms, bearing in his hand the Patent of creation, next followeth a Baron bearing the Robes, and then the Person to be created between two other Barons; being entred the Presence Chamber, they make their Obeisance to the King three times; Garter then delivers the Patent to the Lord Chamberlain of the Houshold, and he to the King, and the King to one of his Secretaries of State, who reads it, and at the word Investimus, the King puts on him the Barons Robe, and at the word Coronamus, puts on him the Barons Cap and Crown.

As soon as the Patent is read, it is delivered to the King, who gives it to him that is created, then he re∣turning Thanks for his great Honour, withdraws in the same order and manner as they came in, the Trumpets sounding, and so he goes to Dinner; where after the second Service is gone up, Garter with the rest of the He∣ralds coming near the Table, first Proclaiming Largess with a loud Voice, he declareth the Kings Stile in Latin, French and English; and then standing somewhat farther off, pronounceth Largess again, then declares the Stile of him that is new created in haec Verba; The Right Noble Lord A. B. Baron D, &c. And so making Reve∣rence to him, aftea 2 largess more, they retire and de∣part to their several places and abodes.

VI. He beareth Argent, a Knight of the Garter, all in his Creation Robes, proper. This is an Or∣der of Knighthood established here in England, by King Edward the Third, Anno 1350; the Patron of which Order is St. George, unto whom it was first Dedicated, therefore called the Order of St. George.

The Sovereign is the King of England, the number of Knights doth not exceed 26; which when any of them Die, the number is made up; when they are out of their Robes, they are generally known by the Garter a∣bout their left Legg, and the George on Horseback hang∣ing on their Breast in a Chain or Blew Riband; and on their outward Garment, as Cloak of whatsoever colour it is, hath a Silver Star Embrauthered on the left shoulder.

Creation of a Knight of the Garter.

First, for the Habit of these Knights, they have an under Garment, or Gown of Crimson Velvet, of some called a Kirtle; over which is worn a Mantle of Blew Velvet, Lined with White Sarsnet; on the left Shoulder thereof is Imbrauthered in a Garter, an Esco∣chion of St. George, viz. Argent a Cross Gules; and o∣ver his right Shoulder hangs his Hood of Crimson Velvet Lined with White, the Cordons of the Mantle, Buttons and Tassels, are Purple Silk and Gold.

Above all which, about his Neck on his Shoulders, is a Collar of his Order, being of pure Gold, made of Garters and Knots, and enamelled with Roses, white in red; with the Image of St. George richly gar∣nished with precious Stones pendant thereat.

About his left Leg, he weareth Buckled a Garter en∣riched with Gold, Pearl and Stones, whereupon these French Words are Imbrauthered HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE, which may be thus Englished, Shame to him tat Evil thinketh.

They also wore Caps and Feathers, the Caps be∣ing of Black Velvet, made after the fashion of Bonnets, but the Crown part raised high, after the manner of a flat Crowned Hat, but laid in plaits or crisps; and the Feathers of three falls, all pure white.

☞ Here note also, that what Clergy are of this Order, they are to wear their Hoods over their left shoulder, according to old use and custom; but all the Lords of the Honourable Order, do wear their Hoods on the right shoulder, that the Cross being on the left shoulder, may better appear.

Them of this Order are stiled, the Sovereign, and Companions of the Order of St. George, or the Garter; of whom if any be dead, at a time when the Sovereign doth think fit, there is an Assembly called (which is termed a Chapter, at which Chapter they proceed to the Election of a new Knight, in room of him deceased; which generally is the 23 of April, being St. Georges day. The party elected, is thus first made choice Page  53 of; Nine are first nominated by the Soveraign, his De∣puty, and six of the said Companions, viz. 3 Dukes, 3 Mrquesses, Earls, or great Estates, 3 Barons or Banne∣•••s, 3 Batchelor Knights; from which nomination the King doth choose one whom he thinks most Honoura∣•••; the partie thus Elected, is by two of the Compani∣〈◊〉 of the Order led from the door of the Chapter,〈◊〉 the Stall in the Chappel, where being, he taketh a Oath as follows.

YOV being chosen to be one of the Companions of the most Honourable Order of the Garter, shall Promise, and by these Holy Evangelists by you manifestly touched, 〈◊〉 Truly and Faithfully to observe and keep all the 〈◊〉 of the said Order, and every Article in the same 〈◊〉, for so much as to you belongeth and appertain∣eth: And further, That you shall help to defend and main∣tain, so much as in you lieth, the Right and Liberties of the Colledge of our Blessed Lady, and St. George the Martyr, wherein the Honourable Order of the Garter is founded.

The Oath administred, the Sovereign, or his Chancellor giveth him the Garter, saying unto him these Words; To the Laud and Honour of Almighty God, his Immaculate Mother, and St. George the Holy Martyr, ti or gird your Leg with this Noble Garter, wearing it to the increase of your Honour, and in token and re∣•••••ance of this most Noble Order, being admonished and 〈◊〉 thereby in all Iust Battels and Wars, which you 〈◊〉 hand, you both Strongly Fight, Valiantly Stand, and Honourably to have the Victory.

Then delivering to him the Robe, saith, Take this Robe to the increase of your Honour, and in Token or Sign of the most Noble Order you have received, wherewith you being defended, may be bold, not only strongly to Fight, but also to offer your self, to shed your Blood for Christs Faith; the Liberties of the Church, and the j••t and neces∣sary Defence of them that be Oppressed and Needy.

Then giving him the Mantle, saith, Take the Man∣tle of Heavenly colour, in token of the most Honourable Or∣der you have received, and to the increase of your Honour, ••gned and marked as you may see, with an Escochion of the Lords Cross, to the intent, that you being always defended by the Virtue and Strength thereof, may pass through your Enemies, and them also Overcome and Van∣quish; so that at the last, for your worthy and approved Acts, you may after this Temporal Chivalry, come to the Eternal Triumphant Ioys in Heaven.

Then putting the Collar about his Shoulders, saith, To the Increase of your Honour, and in token of the most Honourable Order you have received, take this Collar about your Neck, with the Image of the Holy Martyr and Christs 〈◊〉, St. George, by whose Aid you being defended, may so pass through the Prosperities and Adversities of this World, that having here the Victory as well of yor Ghost∣ly as Bodily Enemies, you may not only receive the Glory and Renown of Temporal Chivalry, but also at the last, the 〈◊〉 and everlasting Reward of Victory.

Orders and Statutes of the Knights of the Garter; Reformed by H. 8. Anno 1522.

That the King, his Heirs and Successors, Kings of Enland, shall be the Sovereign of the said Order of St. George, called the Garter; and that he shall be the Reformer and Interpreter of all Obscurities or Doubts contained in the Statutes of the said Or∣der.

That none shall be Elected or chosen to be a Fellow, or Companion, or Co-Brother, and confrere Knight, except he be a Gentleman of Blood, a Knight, and without reproach, viz. not an Heretick, a Traytor, or a Coward in Fight.

That all the Knights of the Order, in what place soever they be, shall on St. Georges Vigil, or Even, and St. Georges day, wear all the Robes of his Order.

That every Knight that stayeth after the Soveraign, and giveth not his due attendance at the Chapter, and come too late to Mass, or Evening Service, shall for is Pennance kneel before his Stall in the place of the Choristers; and if he attend not on St. Georges day ha∣ving no License to be absent, shall for his Pennance not come into his Stall the next Feast before his Soveraign, nor to his Stall in the Colledge of Windsor, but shall pay ten pounds to be bestowed to the use of the Orna∣ments of the said Colledge.

That the Soveraign may at his pleasure appoint the Feast of St. George to be kept any where in England as well as at Windsor.

That the Soveraign may appoint his Deputy at the Feast at Windsor, if he be not there himself.

That every Knight of the Order shall have his Ban∣ner, Sword, Helmet and Crest set over his Stall, there to remain during his life.

That if any Knight be seen to be without his Gar∣ter, if any of the Five Officers challenge him, he shall pay a Mark of Money except he be Booted to Ride, then a Blew Riband shall serve to be under the Boot, in signification of the Garter.

That in the going Procession, the Knights of the Order, shall go two and two before the Soveraign, as they are in their Stalls; but at any Offering the Sove∣raign shall go first, and the Knights follow, and the Of∣ficers after.

That at Dinner or Supper, they shall sit after their Stall, or Creations, not according to their States, except Children of Kings, Princes, or Dukes, that be Strangers.

That all Knights of the Order, shall leave their Mantles within the said Colledge, for any sudden chance of a Chapter that may be called.

That upon the Death of any of the Knighes of the Order, all the Companions remaining, shall give to Works of Charity these Sums following. The Sovereign 8.6.8. A King of another Realm 6.13.4. The Prince 6.1.8. A Duke 5.0.0. A Marquess 3.15 0 Page  54 An Earl 2.10.0. A Viscount 2.1.8. A Baron 1.13.4. A Batchelor Knight 0.16.8. which the Dean and Register is to give an account how it is disbursed.

That every Knight at his first entrance shall give af∣ter their Estate for the maintenance of the Channons, and the Poor Knights, and for Alms Deeds as fol∣lows; the Soveraign 40 Mark. A Stranger King 20.0.0. The Prince 20 Mark. A Duke 10.0.0. A Marquess 8.6.8. An Earl 10 Mark. A Viscount 5.16.8. A Baron and Banneret 5.0.0. A Batchelor Knight 5 Mark; and not to have their Banner, Sword, or Helmet and Crest, set over their Stall till the same be paid, and the Sovereign is bound to pay for every Stranger.

That every Knight of the Order shall have Co∣pies of the Statutes first collected and perused by the Register or King of Arms, which after his Death shall be re-delivered by his Heirs or Executors within 3 Months.

That none of the said Order shall go out of the Realm without the Kings License; and if they be sent any where, they are for the Order sake to be preferred before all others.

That two of this Order shall not Fight one against the other in any Foreign Wars, but he that was last en∣tertained on the contrary party, shall excuse himself, and leave the Quarrel.

That all the Knights of the Order, shall wear on So∣lemn days, the Collar, with the George hanging at it, (as aforesaid) which shall not exceed 30 Ounces of Troy weight; but on the other days they shall wear a small Chain of Gold, or a Blew Lace, or Riband, with the Image of St. George killing of the Dragon hanging thereat.

That the same Admission and Ceremonies shall be used at the Stallation of the said Noble Order, to eve∣ry Knight and Subject of the Realm, as are given to Foreign Kings, Princes and Nobles.

That a Chapter, according to the Statutes of the Order cannot be held without the number of six, till 1642, at which time four were ordered to be sufficient to hold a Chapter upon any immergent occasions.

The Five Officers belonging to the Chapter of the Knights of the Garter, and their Signs or Tokens of Honour.

The Prelate of the Garter, which is ever the Bishop of Winchester, he weareth the Order of St. George in a Collar of SS. about his Neck, as the other Knights do; and hath the Garter set about the Arms of his Sea, and his own, as they are Impaled.

The Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, doth wear about his Neck in a Gold Chain, the cognizance of a Rose of Gold, inclosed and compassed with the Garter of the Order. It is his Office to keep the Seal of the Order, with which all Commissions and Letters of License are Sealed, he is not to be 20 Mile from the King, but either deliver it to him, or to one he shall appoint.

The Register, or the Writer of the Atchievements of the Chapter of the Knights of the Garter, and who are made the Companions thereof, and when.

The King at Arms, called Garter, King of Arms for the said Order, doth wear in sign of the said Order, the Arms of the Soveraign within a Garter, and an Im∣perial Crown on the same, hung in a Gold Chain, or a Blew Riband about his neck.

The Usher of Arms, called the Black Rod, or Usher of the Black Rod for the Order of the Gar∣ter, as a sign of the said Order, shall wear about his Neck hanging at a Gold Chain or Riband, a Knot within a Garter, such a Knot of True Love, as i joined to the Roses in the great Collar of the most Ho∣norable Order.

Besides the aforesaid, there belongs to this Noble Or∣der for the Service of the Church, and Prayers for them of the Order.

A Dean, or Dean of Windsor.

A Warden of the Colledge.

12 Channons Secular, or Priests, in Orders of the Church.

8 Petty Channons.

13 Uicars, all Priests in Orders.

13 Clerks.

13 Choristers, or Singing Boys.

13 Poor Knights, called the Knights of Wind∣sor, who having not wherewith to Live, have places provided for them in the Castle, and are maintained on the Kings Gifts, having every one of them a Gown and Mantle of Scarlet, with the Arms of St. George without a Garter, whose Office it is to Pray for the Prosperity of the Soveraign, and his Successors, and all the other Knights of the said Noble Order.

See Cambdens Brittannia,

Sgars Honor Military and Civil, fol. 65.

Selens Titles of Honour, Part 2. fol. 792.

Of the rest of the Ceremonies, Installments, Right, Ordinances, Statutes, Feasts at the day of St. George, with other things thereunto belonging; if any desire far∣ther knowledge, let them peruse the Book intituled The Institutions, Laws and Ceremonies of the most Noble Order of the Garter; set forth by Elias Ashmole, Esq Printed at London 1672.

VII. He beareth Argent, a Knight of the Bath, in his Creation Robes, all proper. This hath been an Ancient Order of Knighthood in England, and gene∣rally made at the Kings Coronation.

The Creation, and Habit of a Knight of the Bath.

First, for the Robes, they have for their Watch, a Russet Gown and Hood, after the manner of an Her∣mite.

Secondly, For their Creation Robes, a Cap, or Page  55Coif of — a Kirtle of red Tartarine, with a White Leather Girdle, a Mantle of Crimson Silk lied with White Silk, tied with a long Lace of White Silk, with a pair of White Gloves at the end of the Lace. A Sword and Belt, besides Spurs, Shield, and Helmet.

Thirdly, After all is finished, he is to wear a Long Robe of Blew, with streight sleeves after the manner of a Priests, reaching almost to his Feet.

But in these days, a Knight of the Bath is only known by his wearing of a red Riband about his neck, with a Medal hanging at it, and his Horse trapping adorned with a Cross Patee on his Forehead and Best.

When first he comes to be made a Knight, he is ho∣nourably received by the Officers of the Court, who con∣duct him to his Lodging (if he come before Dinner, he shall carry up one Dish of the first course, to the Kings Table) then be seen no more that day.

In the Evening, the Barber Trimmeth him, and prepareth him for the Bath, which is covered with Blan∣kets to keep him from the cold; after which the Es∣quires and Governours, who have the charge of him, inform the King, that the person to be Knighted is fitted for the Bath, to whom he sends Minstrels, his Chamberlain, and several grave Knights, to inform him touching the Order and Feats of Chivalry, who Play, Sing and Sport to the Chamber door.

At the hearing of the Musick, he is undest and put naked into the Bath; the grave Knight entring the Chamber, where saluting each other, to consider who shall instruct him in the order of the Bath, at length one kneeling down before it, saith with a soft voice, Sir, Be this Bath of great Honour to you; then shall he instrct him in the Feats of the Order, putting part of the Water on his Shoulders, and then takes his leave; and so the rest of the Knights shall wash him one after another, till all have done.

Then he is taken out of the Bath, and put in a Bed without Curtains till he be dry; then he is taken out of Bed, and over his inner Garments is put a Robe of Russet, to his feet, with a Hood like an Her∣mits, and long Sleeves to his hands; in this habit he shall be conducted to the Chappel by the grave Knights, with Minstrels and Trumpets before them.

The grave Knights and Esquires taking their leaves, he is to Watch and Pray in the Chappel all Night, Day breaking, the Priest and Chandler and Watch, having said and heard Martins, and Mass or Morning Service; the Governour holding a Candle to the Read∣ing of the Gospel, at which time the person to be Knighted shall hold it, and being ended, it shall be set down to Burn before him, till Prayers be end∣ed.

At the Elevation of the Host, his Hood shall be ta∣ken from him, and a Taper put into his hand, which he shall Offer to the Altar with a Penny or more; that is, The Taper to the Honour of God, and the Penny to the Honour of him as shall make him a Knight.

This being performed, he is conducted to his Bed-Chamber, where he takes his rest till it be full day; at which time the Governour goes to the King and says, Sir, When doth it please you that our Master shall rise? whereupon the King shall command the Minstrels and grave Knights to go and dress him, and bring him before him into the Hall.

All things being in a readiness, the Knights shall en∣ter the Chamber and say, Good Morrow Sir, It is time to Rise, and make your self ready; thereupon one gives him a Shirt, another his Breeches, the third his Doublet; another puts on him a Kirtle of red Silk or Tartarine; two others put on his nether Stockings with Soles of Leather sowed to them; another La∣ceth his Sleeves; another girdeth him with a white Leather without any Buckle thereon; another Combs his head and puts on his Coif; another his Mantle of Silk, putting it over his Kirtle) tying it with a Lace of White Silk, with a pair of White Gloves at the end of the Lace; all things thus done, the Minstrels going before, the Heralds and grave Knights orderly fol∣lowing; a young Esquire Riding after, Bare headed, carying his Sword with the Pomeii upward, and his Spurs at it, with a White Leather Scabbard, and Girdle without Buckles. Then follows the Esquire that is to be Knighted, on a Horse with Black Bridle, Saddle, Brest Plate, &c. with a Gilt Cross on his Forehead and Breast.

Thus Riding to the great Hall, he alighteth, and be∣ing conducted before the King; the King gives his Spurs to a Noble person there, and bids him put it on the Es∣quires Heel; that done he commands another to put the other Spur on the other Heel, who performing the same, makes a Cross on his Knee and Kisseth it, as the other did before: Then the King taketh the Sword and girdeth it about him, the Esquire holding up his Arms with his Gloves together in his hands over his Head; then the King puts his own Arms about the Esquires neck, and Kisseth him, saying, Be Thou a Good Knight.

Then the new Knight is conducted to the Chappel, where laying his Hand on the Altar, promiseth to Maintain the Right of the Church; then ungirding his Sword, Offers it there, with great Devotion, then having taken a draught of Wine, he departeth.

At the Chappel Door, the Kings Cook with his Axe in his hand, meets him, and saith, I the Kings Master Cook am come to receive your Spurs for my Fee, and if you do any thing contrary to the Order of Knight-hood, I shall hack your Spurs from your heels.

Then he is conducted to the Hall, and set at the high∣er side end of the Table, where he must neither Eat nor Drink, nor look about him, till the King be risen from the Table; then shall the Knight be conducted to his Chamber with Minstrels and Musick, where the Knights shall take their leaves of him.

Then is the new Knight disrobed, and clothed with a Blew Robe after the fashion of a Priest, with a Lace of white Silk hanging on his left shoulder, which he shall wear till he hath gained some Honour and Renown by Feats of Arms, &c.

He that desires a fuller account, let him peruse the

  • History of Warnick-shire, fol. 532. &c.
  • Honours Military and Civil, fol. 69, 70.
  • Dish, his Notes upon Upton.

Page  56

Fees at a Knight of the Baths Creation.

The Barber hath the Bath, with whatsoever pertains thereunto, according to the custom of the Court.

The Chandler, hath for his Fee, all the Garments, with the whole array and necessaries wherewith he came Apparelled and Clothed on the day that he came to Court to receive Orders; also the Bed wherein he first lay after his Bathing, together with the Singleton, and other Necessaries. In consideration whereof he finds on his proper cost, the Knights Coif, the Gloves, the Lace, and the Girdle.

The Marshal of the Hall, when the Knight is light∣ed from his Horse, taketh him as his Fee, or else hath in Money five Pounds.

The Master Cook hath his Spurs, or a Fee for them.

The Kings at Arms, have for their Fees all the New Robes and Mantle, in which he received his Knighthood, with a Mark of Silver, but if he be a Baron, it is double to that; if an Earl, or of a su∣perior rank double thereunto.

The Watch in the Chappel hath the Russet Gown and Cap, or else a Noble in Money.

He must provide 18 or 20 Ells of White Linnen Cloth to cover his Bath or Bawyne, the price 5 d. or 6 d. the yard; also he must have a Carpet or Mantle for the said Bawine, price 13 s. Some are accustomed to have five or six yards of red Say for the same use, which is the Fee for the Serjeant of the Ewry, with all that toucheth the Bawyne.

The Fee for the Esquires of Honour, 4 pounds, or according to pleasure; and rewards for the Officers of the Houshold, the Knights make a common Purse.

A Knight Bannerett.

Other Orders of Knighthood there are in Eng∣land, but they wear no Garments, Badg, or Sign, to distinguish them from other Gentlemen, so that they are not known to Strangers; but we know them, because every one having such dignity, is stiled, or called Sir Thomas, Sir Iohn, Sir William, Sir Henry, &c. But first of Knights Banneretts.

A Knight, that is to receive this Honour, shall be led between two other Knights, before the King or General, bearing his Penon of Arms in his own hands, and in the presence of all the Captains, the He∣rald shall say, This Gentleman hath shewed himself Valiant in the Field, and therefore deserves to be advan∣ced to the degree of a Knight Banneret; being worthy henceforth to bear a Banner in the War.

Then the King, or General, causeth the point of his Penon to be cut off; then the new made Knight re∣turns to his Tent (the Trumpets sounding before him) being conducted there between two Heralds.

A Bannerett thus made, may bear his Banner displaid with his coat of Arms thereon, as other degrees above him, and that in the setting forth of his Atcheivements with Mantle, Helmet and Crest, he may, and an∣ciently hath had the same Supported, as the Baron or Viscount hath.

This Order was of so great estimation, that diverse Knights Batchelors and Esquires served under them; and was a Title, as it seems in many ancient Writs, and writ∣ten Monuments, hath been mis-writ Baronetts for Ban∣neretts; as in the Patent of Sir Ralph Fane, a Knight Bannerett under King Edward the Sixt, where he is cal∣led Baronettus for Bannerettus. And in the South Chap∣pel of Malpass Church about the top of the Screen, cut in Wood, in Saxon Characters is this, ☞ Pray Good people for the prosperous estate of Sir Rondulph Brereton, Knight Baronet, of this Work Edificatour, &c. which we may well sup∣pose to be Banneret; being long before the time of King Iames the First; it being dated 1522, which was 14 H. 8.

Now although a Knight Baronett be an Honour gi∣ven by Patent; yet it was by King Iames, in the tenth Year of his Reign, Decreed and Established, that all such Banneretts as shall be made by the King, his Heirs and Successors, under the Standard displaid in an Army Royal, in open War; the King personally present, such Banneretts shall for the term of their Lives, take place and precedency, as well before all other Banneretts, as younger Sons of Viscounts and Barons, and also before all Baronetts, but not otherwise.

A Knight Baronett.

This was a Title erected by King Iames, in the ninth year of his Reign, they are an Hereditary Dignity gi∣ven by Patent, which are all of one form, the Proem or Argument at first, being for the Propagation of a Plantation of Vlster in Ireland, to which the aid of these Knights was required; the aid was to maintain 30 Sol∣diers in that Province for 3 years; their Title was to descend to the Heirs Males of their Body, and to take place before all Knights Batchelors, Knights of the Bath, and Knights Bannerets (the other De∣cree in the Knight Bannerett before specified, being af∣terwards made) and that to their Sir-name, Baronett should be added; and that the addition of Sir, should precede in all mentioning of his or their names, as the Title of Lady and Madam is to their Wives.

After this it was ordained in the Tenth year of his Reign, that they and their descendents, being of full Age should be Knighted, and that they should either in a Canton or an Inescochion in Chief or Fesse, bear the Arms of Ulster upon their own Coat Ar∣mour, which is Argent, a Sinister hand couped, Gules.

There is no other Ceremony at his Creation, but the delivery of his Patent, except he be Dubbed a Knight.

Page  57

Officers Fees for the making of a Ba∣ronett.

In the Signet Office these Fees; for drawing the Bill, and discharging the Clerks pains, 3 l. For the Signett 3.6.8. To the Clerks 0.10.0. For the discharge 1.6.8. To the Clerks 0.6.8. For the Privy Seal 2.6.8. To the Clerks 0.13.4. For the discharge 1.6.8. To the Lord Privy Seal his Secretary 1.0.0. To the Lord Chamberlains Secretary 0.5.0. For Ex∣pedition. 0 11.0.

In the Tally Office, For Poundage 18.5.0. For the Tally 1.10.0. For the Enrollment of the Pri∣vy Seal. 0.13.4. To the Clerk of the Master of the Tallies 0.5.0. To the other Master of the Tallies Clerk 0.5.0. To the Tally cutter 0.3.0.

In the Office of Arms, for Registring it 2.0.0.

Fees belonging to the Great Seal. For the Seal of the Clerk of the Hamper 2.11.8. For the Docket 0.5.0. For the Dividend and Enrollment. 2.0.0. To the Clerk of the Crown 3.6.8. For Vellom, and flourishing the Patent 1.0.0. To the Deputy Clerk of the Crown 2.0.0. To the Seal, if of Schake Wax 0.15.0. To the Gentlemen of the Lord Keepers Cham∣ber 2.0.0. To the Officers of his House 1 5.0. To the Deputy Clerk of the Hamper 0.5.0. To the Gen∣tlemen Usher of the Privy Chamber 2.0.0. To the Pages of the Bed Chamber 4.0.0. To the Gentle∣men of the Buttery, Sellar and Robes 5.12.0.

The total Summ of all Fees, is 70.10.0.

A Knight Batchelor, or of the Spur.

This Knight is indifferently stiled, Knight, or Miles, and Chivalier, and sometimes Miles Sim∣plex, to distinguish him from the other Knight, which is a Bannerett. It hath been a Soldier like ti∣tle of great Antiquity, as Selden in his Titles of Honour testifieth, part 2. fol. 770. And for that cause they are called, having admittance to beautify their Horses with Caparisons of their Horses and their Armour with Gold) Equites Aurati, Golden Knights, or else from the Golden Spurs which they were created Knights withal, as you shall hear shortly.

The persons that gave this dignity in former times, are of two sorts especially; which we may call Courtly Knighthood, and Sacred Knighthood.

The first is performed by the King, or his General, or one commissionated by him; which was anciently per∣formed by Feasts, giving of Robes, Arms, Spurs; and sometimes by Horse and Armour; but of late times there is a new Ceremony produced, by the Party kneeling before the King, who with a Stroak on the houlder with a Naked Sword, saith Sois Chevalier au Nu de Dieu, Rise up Knight in the Name of God; though the putting on of the Spur, and the girding on of the Sword hath lately been observed as a Ceremo∣ny of Knighting, either by the King for the greater Honour, or else by some commissionated from him.

These Knights have their Spurs and Swords carried before them in their Funeral, the Spurs being hanged at the Staff of the Standart, if Knighted in the Field.

To the name of Knight was added the name of Ba∣chelor, as it seems about the 33 H. 3. as Math. Paris informeth, and that such Knights were then known by a Gold Ring on their Thumb, a Chain of Gold a∣bout their Necks, and Gilt Spurs on their Heels; al∣so we read of Girdles, and Collars of Gold, and Swords were delivered at making of Knights, with Garments of Scarlet, which things none were to wear but them of such degrees.

A Knights bearing a Shield and Gauntletts, sheweth him to be a Man at Arms; this creation is an Universal Honour, for a Knight is a Knight in all Kings Dominions; when as other degrees extend no farther than the Longitude and the Latitude of their own Coun∣trey.

The second way of Knighting, is by Sacred Ce∣remonies, and it was a great use and custom in for∣mer times, by either Bishops or Abbots, so to receive the dignity of Knighthood, and this was done by a so∣lemn Confession of Sin, a Uigil or Watch in the Church, then receiving of the Sacrament after that the person had first Offered his Sword upon the Altar, and redeemed it with a certain Summ, which the Bi∣shop, or bbot, or Priest girded about him, and so made hiKnight; using many Prayers, which they termed Benedictiones Ensis, Prayers of the Sword: But this (through the multitude of Sir Knights thus made) was at length forbidden, and appropriated only as the Priviledge of the Crown.

A Clergy Man, or any in the Order of Priest∣hood, is debarred the Honour of Knighthood of the Sword or Spurs, though anciently they have been al∣lowed the same, but not without first laying aside their Spiritual Cures.

A Knight of the Green Cloth.

All such as have Studied Law, either Civil, or Com∣mon, Phisick, or any other Arts and Sciences, whereby they have become Famous and Serviceable to the Court, City, or State, and thereby have merited Honour, Wor∣ship or Dignity from th Sovereign, and Fountain of Honour; if it be the Kings Pleasure to Knight any such persons, seeing they are not Knighted as Soldiers, they are not therefore to use the Horsemans Title or Spurs; they are only termed simply Miles & Milites, Knight, or Knights of the Carpet, or Knights of the Green Cloth; to distinguish them from Knights that are Dubbed as Soldiers are in the Field; though in these our days, they are created or Dubbed with the like Ce∣remony as the others are, by the stroak of a Naked Sword upon their Shoulder, with the Words, Rise up 〈◊〉. A. Knight.

Page  58Now, these Knights, of what degree or creation so∣ever, according to their power, should excel in these ac∣complishments; they are to be Faithful, Religious, Iust in Engagement, Ualiant in Enterprises, Obedient to Superiours, Expert in Military affairs, Watchful and Temperate, Charitable to the Poor, Free from Debauchery, not a Boaster, ready to Help and De∣fend Ladies, especially the Widows and Orphans, and to be ever in a readiness with Horse and Arms, to at∣tend the commands of his Sovereign, in all Wars both Civil and Foreign.

The degrading of a Knight.

The neglect of those Duties aforesaid, are in Knights Arrants, Crimes as great as to Fight against the Sove∣reign; and merits at the least a shameful degrading; and indeed, for these or any other notable Fact against Loy∣alty and Honour, the Knight was Apprehended, and caused to be Armed from Head to Foot, and on a high Scaffold in a Church, he was placed; and after the Priest had sung some Funeral Psalm, as though he had been dead; first they take off his Helmet, then by degrees his whole Armour, the Heralds crying, this is the Helmet of a Disloyal Miscreant, &c. and so with many other ignoble Ceremonies, he was by 12 Knights thrown down the Stage by a Rope, then was he brought before the Al∣tar, and their laid groveling on the ground, where the Priest read over him a Psalm full of Curses.

This was the antient way of Degrading; the mo∣dern is not altogether so severe, of which we have many examples: He that Dishonourably absents from the Kings Service; and for other Treasons, hath all that he enjoys, seized on (except his Horse) because in all Countreys the Title of Knighthood relates to a Horse, and from serving on Horse-back; then hath he his Spurs cut off his Heels, and then is his Sword taken from him, and the Herald as a Traytor doth reverse his Coat of Arms.

A List or Catalogue of the several Or∣ders of Knights Seculars.

  • A Knight, Miles, a Carpet Knight.
  • A Knight of the Spur, Equus Auratus, a Knight in the Field.
  • A Knight Baronett.
  • A Knight of the Garter, or Order of St. George, in England.
  • A Knight of the Bath.
  • A Knight Bannerett.
  • A Knight of St. Andrew of Scotland, or Order of the Thistle.
  • A Knight of the Gennet in France.
  • A Knight of the Star in France.
  • A Knight of St. Stephen of Florence, and in Tus∣cany.
  • A Knight of the Porcupine of France and Orleans.
  • A Knight of the Cressant, or Half Moon of Anjou, and Sicily.
  • A Knight of the Order of St. Saviour of Arragon.
  • A Knight of the White Eagle, in Poland.
  • A Knight of Iesus Christ, in Portugal and Rome.
  • A Knight of the Birds, in Portugal.
  • A Knight of St. George, in Astria, Corinthia, and Genewey.
  • A Knight of the Lilly of Navarre.
  • A Knight of St. Iames of the Sword in Navarre.
  • A Knight of the Holy Bottle, in France.
  • A Knight of the Royal Crown, in France.
  • A Knight of the Broom Flower in France.
  • A Knight of the Order of the Ship in France.
  • A Knight of St. Michael, in France.
  • A Knight of the Order of the Holy Ghost, in France.
  • A Knight of the Order of Christian Charity.
  • A Knight of St. Lazarus, and St. Maurice, in Sa∣voy.
  • A Knight of our Lady and the Thistle, in Bour∣bon.
  • A Knight of the Golden Shield, in Bourbon.
  • A Knight of St. Magdalen.
  • A Knight of the Hermine, or Ears of Corn, in Britaigne.
  • A Knight of the Band, or Red Scarf, in Castile and Lions.
  • A Knight of the Golden Fleece, in France and Br∣gundy.
  • A Knight of the Dove, in France, and in Castile.
  • A Knight of Our Ladyes Looking Glass, in Ca∣stile.
  • A Knight of the Dragon, in Hungaria.
  • A Knight of the Swan, of Cleveland.
  • A Knight of the Elephant, in Denmark.
  • A Knight of the Order of Cherubims, or of Iesus in Sweden.
  • A Knight of the Order of the Bear, of St. Gall, in Switzerland.
  • A Knight of the Annuntiation of the Uirgin Mary of Savoy.
  • A Knight of St. Paul, in Rome.
  • A Knight of St. Anthony, in Rome.
  • A Knight of the Uirgin Mary, in Italy.
  • A Knight of Mantua, or of the Blood of Iesus Christ.
  • A Knight of the Sword, in Cyprus and Luignan.
  • A Knight of the Sepulcher of Ierusalem.
  • A Knight of the Temple, in Ierusalem.
  • A Knight of St. Lazarus, in Ierusalem.
  • A Knight of St. Katherine, of Mount Sinai.
  • A Knight of Mount Ioy.
  • A Knight of St. Iohn of Acres.
  • A Knight of St. Thomas, St. Gerion, and St. Blaze.
  • A Knight of St. Mark, in Venice.
  • A Knight of St. Mary de Mercede, in Arragon.
  • A Knight of Montesia, in Valentia.
  • A Knight of the Order of Christian Charity, in France.
  • A Knight of St. Iulian, or the Pear Tree, in Leon.

Page  59These Orders of Knights, whether instituted by the Emperours, Kings, Popes, or Princes, were all called Chevaliers, having permission (though they were under Religious Vows and Rules) to bear Arms, wear Swords, and Gilt Spurs; as well as the rest of Secular Knights, whose Habit and Badges of Honour, see fully described in lib. 4. cap. 10.

Thus have I in short given a touch of the several de∣grees in England, whosoever desires a larger Story of these things, let them peruse these Authors.

  • William Malmesbury de gestis Regnum.
  • Ingulphus Histor.
  • Segars Honour Military and Civil.
  • Dugdales Warwick-shire, fol. 531.
  • Seldens Titles of Honour.
  • Matthew of Westminster, in Anuo 1306.
  • Glover Somerset de Nobilitate Civili, Anno 1414.
  • Carters Analysis of Honour.
  • Fernes Glory of Generosity.
  • Stows Annals, pag. 693.694.
  • Mills Nobility.
  • Camdens Britannia, pag. 170.

VIII. He bereth Argent, an Herald arrayed in his Soveraigns Coat of Arms, proper, with a Basti∣nado in his right hand, Or; and his left upon his side, a Cap of Dignity on his head Azure, turned up of the first; Breeches, Stockings and Shooes, Sa∣ble; if it may be believed, these kind of persons called Heralds, are sometimes stiled Dukes of Arms; and so I find both E. Chamberlain, in his Present State of Eng∣land, pag. 166. and Carter in his Analysis of Armory, speaking of Heralds, pag. 31. terms them Dukes of Arms, if so, then in great Solemnities, they ought to wear Crowns as well as the Kings of Arms, but of that I shall say no more.

This Figure set down in the Plate, is the representation of an Herald, that is the second degree of the Officers of Arms, viz. Kings of Arms, Heralds of Arms, Pursevants of Arms, which in regard of their Of∣fice and place, may be termed Lords, or Barons of Arms. If it had a Crown, such as Kings of Arms wear at great and pompious Solemnities, with a Robe under the Heralds Coat, it were then to be termed a King of Arms.

2 Angels clad in the Soveraigns Coat of Arms, hold∣ing two Banners of the same, are the Supporters of the French King, as Iohn Boissau, in his Armorial sets it forth.

The Creation of the Kings of Arms.

I have in the First Chapter of the First Book, in brief said something of the Name, Office, Fees, &c. of Heralds, referring the Reader to other Authors which have spoken more largely on that subject; so that I shall in this place (which is only wanting there) give you the Ceremonies in short, of the manner of the Installment in to those Offices.

When any is called to the Office of Garter, princi∣pal King of Arms, he is first by the High Consta∣ble, or Earl Marshal of England, commended to the King, by a Bill Signed with his Hand; which done, the King Signs the same, and so it passeth the Privy Seal, and Broad Seal; and that once obtained, he is to be Sworn and created by the King himself, or the Earl Mar∣shal, in manner following.

First goeth the Pursevants, and then the Heralds in their Coats, carrying the several necessary Instruments, and things to be used; one the Coat of Arms where∣with the new King is to be invested; another the Crown; another the Patent; another a Bole of Water; ano∣ther the Book and Sword; another the Book or Bi∣ble, whereon he receiveth his Oath; then followeth the King of Arms called Garter, led between a King of Arms, and a Herald, in their Coats of Arms; co∣ming before the King, all make their several Obeisance; then he kneeleth down, with those two that conducted him; one of them holds the Book and Sword where∣on he is Sworn, the other reads his Oath: Then his Pa∣tent is read, and at the words Creamus & Investimus, his Coat is put on; and at the words, Nomen Imposu∣mus Garter, the Water is poured on his head, giving him that Name; and lastly, at the word Coronavimus, he hath the Crown put upon his Head; and then he is a perfect King of Arms.

Creation of Heralds and Pursevants.

The two other Kings of Arms, Stiled Clarenceux, and Norroy, are Created after the same manner, order, and ceremonies: the six Heralds being all of equal de∣gree, only proceeding according to the seniority of their Creations, their Patents being all under the broad Seal of England, have the same ceremonies at their Creation, save they are not Crowned.

The Pursevants are all of the same manner, having their Patents under the broad Seal, and are Created as the Heralds are. Only Leigh saith that in the investing of them, the Coat of Arms is cast over thwart, the Man∣ches or sleeves thereof to be on the Breast and Back, and so they are to wear the same as long, as they are Purse∣vants. But now there is no such thing observed both the Herald and Pursevant wearing them a like.

The Chivaler of Arms, are such saith Leigh and Vpton, pag. 40. which have served and behaved them∣selves wisely and discreetly in an under office, as a Cur∣ror, or Foot messenger for the space of seven Years: at which time they were set on Horseback, and termed Chivallers or Horsemen at Arms, because they were then permitted to ride on their Soveraigns Messages.

Then were they clad in one coloured Garment, the Borders and Sleeves, garded of the colours of the Sove∣raign, earing their Boxes or Badges with the Kings Coat 〈…〉 painted thereon, on the left Shoulder, and 〈…〉.

〈…〉 Created by the Heralds of Arms of the 〈◊〉, first by ministring to the Chivaller an OatPage  60 the Knight Chivaller (for so he Stiles him) humbly kneeling upon his Knee, at which time he shall have no Spurrs on: then removes his Badge from his Breast, and placeth it upon his left Shoulder: setting him on Horseback to see if he can ride.

The Currour at Arms, or Foot Messengers of Arms, are such Foot Servants, as are imployed by the Heralds of Arms for the expedition of their bussiness: whose Office is to pass and repass on foot, being clad in the Princes colours parted upright on the Back and Breast one side blew, and the other red: like as the Serjeants at Law do give their Liveries, in the time of their Feasts.

These are Knights in their Office, but not Nobles, and are called Knights Caligates of Arms, because they wear Startuppes (or half Hose turned down) to the middle of the Legs: and the Arms of their Soveraign painted on their Boxes, like Badges, are fixed to their Backs. It is not permited to them, to wear the Arms of their Lord, in any other sort.

There is also belonging to the Heralds Office, a Regi∣ster a Marshal, and other Officers and Servants which are needless to mention. But amongst the rest, there are Painters called Herald-Painters, or Arms Pain∣ters: for every King of Arms hath power to commis∣sion, or depute in all Shires of his Province, one of that imploy, to officiate for him in such things as are appro∣piats to his Business.

IX. He beareth Argent, a Major of a City in his Formalities, with his White Staff in his right Hand all proper. Every City by their Charters or Priviledges, is a little Common-Wealth, governed by themselves, choosing their own Governor, (which is called a Mayor) out of 12 16 or 24 Aldermen. In some other Corpo∣rations, a Bailiff is chosen out of a certain number of Burgesses.

The Office of a Mayor of a Corporation.

The Mayor of a City is the Kings Lieutenant, and doth give place to none save the King and Prince, his Heir. He with the Recorder, Aldermen and common Council (as it were King, Lords, and Commons in Par∣liament) can make Laws, called By-Laws, for the Weal and good Government of the City. The Mayor is for his time (which is but for one Year) Justice of the Coram, Judge of the Court, a Determiners of Matters, and doth mitigate the Rigor of the Law.

The Government of Borroughs and other Towns corporate, is much after the same Manner. In some there is a Mayor and Sheriffs: In others a Mayor and two Bailiffs: In others a Bailiff and two Serjeants: and in other places two Bailiffs: which have equal power within their Limits to a Mayor and Sheriffs; and dureing their Office are Justics of the Peace, having the same power, as Justices of the Peace have in the Country.

The Government of Uillages, is usually by the Lords of the said places who keep Court-Leets, and Court-Barons (because ancieetly such Lords were called Barons) that is Court of Freeholders to which they own suit and service, where they may be tried smal∣ler matters happening within the Manner, as Debts, Trespasses, Escheats upon Felonies, Wafes, or o∣ther accidents, Custody of Infants, Lunaticks, power of passing Estates, admitting of Tenants, Reliefs, Hariots, &c. Under the Lord is a Consta∣ble or Headborough, or Petty Constable, chosen e∣very Year, whose office is to keep the Peace, in case of quarrels, to search any house for Robbers, Murtherers, or other Malefactors, to raise hue and cry after such upon their flying, to seize on them, keep them in the Stocks, or other Prison, till they can bring them to a Justice of Peace, and so to carry them by their command to the common Prison.

The Officers of a Coporation with their Habits.

A Mayor, is a Person elected for the chief Governor of a civil Society or Body corporate, who is usually known by those Emblems of Magistracy carried before him: as Sword and Mace, &c. or by what he beareth himself, as a Virge, or white Rod, or Staff: and in most great Cor∣poration, according todays, hath distinctions of Gowns, as a Morning or Walking Gown, which is a light loose Gown, made according to his own Fancie; a black Gown, a Murrey or Purple Gown, and a Scarlet Gown, all which are of one fashion, either Garded with Velvet, or lined with Furr, called Foines.

Sheriffs, they are the Possa Comitatis, the conser∣vers of the Peace, the Executioners of all Writs, and punisher of all offenders. They are in some places call∣ed Bailiffs: But in Cities and grand Corporations they wear Gowns, and White Rods in their Hands, like the Mayor.

A Recorder is the Mouth of the Mayor, and Citi∣zens: and Minister of the Law for the distriution of Justice and Judgment. These are generally Men Learn∣ed in the Law, whose habit or fashion of Gown is after the manner of the figure set down, numb. 11.

An Alderman, and Iustice of the Peace, is such an one, as hath born the Office of a Mayor of a City or Corporation, whose Gown is the like to that of the chief Magistrate, or Mayor.

An Alderman or a Single Alderman, is one that is called to that place but as yet hath not been Mayor, yet is capable of it, and in Election for it: His Gown is black, garded and faced with Velvet. But when the Mayor is in Scarlet, his Gown is Purple, faced with Foines.

A Council, in some places is called a Livery Man: is such a Person, as is of the House, in time of their meeting or Assemblies, for the Weal and bhoof of the Corporation: with us they are called a Forty Mn, be∣cause the common Council consists just of Forty: out of which number all Superior Officers are chosen. Their Gowns have no Shoulders but open at that place, having the Sleeves hanging on the Back, garnished with tutd Buttons and Loops, and faced with Stuff or Silk, or Satinesco.

Page  61A Treasurer, is an office for the receiving of the Rents, and disburshing Money, for the concerns of the Corporation: which with us, is generally chosen out of such as are single Aldermen, or such as have been Sheriffs.

A Leavelooker, is an Office in Chester, but rare in a∣ny other City (as I could ever hear off) they are chosen out of the Forty: to gather and receive all customs due to the City, for goods brought there for sale, either by Sea or Land; which receits are disbursed for the City Affairs, but chiefly for the Repairs of the City Walls.

A Murenger, is one chosen out of the Aldermen and Iustice of the Peace, whose Office aud care it is to look after the City Walls, to keep them in good repair, and if any breaches be, to built it up again: for which end, there is a City Mason to do the work, who besides his Wages daily hath an Yearly Sallery, and a City Pa∣ver to keep the City Streets, Lanes and High-ways in good Repair, who hath also a City Sallery.

A Crowner or Coroner, whose Office is out of such as have been Sheriffs. They examine all Murtherers, Felo de Se's, accidental Deaths, &c. And accordingly bring in their Presentments.

A Constable, of which there are several in a Corpo∣ration; two or three in each division or ward, whose Of∣fice it is to preserve the Kings Peace, make hue and cry af∣ter Malefactors, search and fetch Offenders to the Seat of Justice, Imprison or bring to places of punishment such as deserve it. With an hundred other things whose Office it is to perform, but few know th power of their place.

A Goaler, is the keeper of the Prison, where all crimi∣nal Offender are secured, and Men for debt are Impri∣soned.

A Keeper of the House of Correction, to keep the Poor on work, and to punish Stubborn and Rebellious Apprentices, Idle Rogues and Vagabonds: where they are bridled, stockt, and whipped.

A Fraternity, or Society, or Brotherhood, or Company: are such in a Corporation, that are of one and the same trade, or occupation, who being joyned to∣gether by oath and covenant, do follow such orders and rules, as are made, or to be made for the good order, rule, and support, of such and every of their occupations. These several Fraternities are generally governed by one or two Masters, and two Wardens, but most Companies with us by two Aldermen, and two Stewards, the later, being to receive and pay what concerns them.

A Sword-Bearer, is him that earrieth the Sword of state before the Mayor or his Deputy.

A Mace-Bearer, is him that carrieth the Mace of Authority before the said Maor: both these Officers wear in the Execution of their Offices Silk Gowns, or Stuff Gowns trimed with Buttons and Loops, and faced with Silks, like to the Council or Freemans Gown.

A Town Clerk, who is the City Secretary, and Keeper of the Records of the Courts within the Corpora∣tion, Enters all Actions, and prepares causes to the pleadings, &c. We call such, the Clerk of the Pentice.

A Officer, or City Attorney, or Mayors Of∣ficers, are such as give Summons to Persons, and do Attach others, for their appearance in the City Courts in some places they are called Catch-Poles, or Bailles. But the Gentle name is Serjeants at Mace.

A Sheriffs Officer, doth (besides Summons and Ar∣rest) serve all Writs of Execution, as Atachments, Judg∣ments, Rebellions, &c.

A Cryer, is only in use in time of Court holding, to command silence, call Juries, swear them, and witnesses, with several other things belonging to his Office; he weareth a Gown, and carieth a Mace.

A Porter, his Office is to keep the Court, or Council-House Door, and the Mayors-House Door; he weareth a Gown of Cloth faced with black Furr, Fitchet or Coney Furr: and carrieth a Porters Staff.

A Beadle, or Bang-Begger; is to keep the City clear from poor strangers, and send such a packing to the places from whence they cme, they have Coats gathered about the Waste, and a Badge of the Arms of of the Corporation on their left Arm.

A Beadsman, such as live in Hospitals, and have an allowance for their maintenance, being old and infirme: in some places called the Poor Knights of Windsor, or Hospitallers, and Almesmen. These with us go in Gowns, and go two and two before the Mayor on se∣veral Feastival Days in the Year.

A Scavenger, such as make the Streets clean, and carry away the Dirt.

X. He beareth Argent, a Chief Iustice (or a Iudge) in his Robes and Square Cap, holding a Charter in his right Hand all proper.

The Chief Iustice is one set apart by the King for the executive power in all Temporal Affairs, under whose Commission he doth only act: for it is the King Him∣self who is the Lord Chief Iustice of England: there∣fore all the Laws of England are called the Kings Laws, being made by Him, and without Him nothing can have the force of a Law, but what He will: so all the Courts of Judicature are called the Kings Courts, and all the Judges of those Courts, the Kings Iudges.

The Highest Court in England, is the House of Lords in Parliament; being a Court of Judicature, consisting of Lords Spirituall and Temporal, and these assisted with the most Grave and Eminent Lawyers of England, both in Common and Civil Law.

To this Bar of High Court, may the House of Com∣mons, as the Grand Inquest of England, Impeach the Highest Subject in the Nation, whether of the Clergy, or of the Laity: and Prosecute them till they come to Sen∣tence, after which it lyeth in the Kings Breast whether to Punish or Pardon.

The next Court for the Execution of Laws, is the Kings Bench so called, because the King sometimes there set in Person on an High Bench, and his Judges on a low Bench at his Feet, to whom the Jdicature belonged in the Kings, absence. In this Court are handled all Pleas of the Crown, that is Matters between the King and the Subject, as Treasons, Felonies, Brea•• of Peace, Oppressions, Mis-government, Loss of Life or Member of any Subject, &c. It doth also examine and Correct Errors in Fa•••, and in Iu••, of all the Jud••s in ngland, in their Iudgments, and, Proceedings; both in Peas of the Crown, Pleas Real, and Personal, and Mix; except only in the Exchequer.

Page  62

The Officers, and Habits of such as are Members of the Kings-Bench.

The Lord Chief Iustice, the Judge of the Court; who ought to be a Serjeant of the degree of the Coife, that is a Serjeant at Law, who upon taking this High degree, is oblidged to wear a Lawn Coife under his Cap, for ever after.

The Iustices, as Assistances, are three in number.

The Clerk of the Crown.

The Prothonotary, or Protonotary.

The Marshal or Keeper of the Kings-Bench Pri∣son.

The Custos Brevium, two in number.

The Clerks of the Papers, two.

The Clerk of the Rules.

The Clerk of the Errors.

The Sealer of the Writs.

The Clerk for Filing the Declarations.

The Head Cryer, and two under Cryers.

The Ushers, two.

The Filizars for the several Counties in England, fifteen in number.

The Officers and their Habits in the Courts of Common-Pleas.

This is the Next Court, and is called the Common-Pleas, because there are debated the Pleas between Sub∣ject and Subject: Real Actions are pleaded in no other Court, nor Fines levied, or Recoveries suffered: none but Serjeants at Law plead in this Court.

The Lord Chief Iustice of the Common-Pleas, or Common-bench.

The Iustices three in number as Assistants: or the three Puisne Judges.

The Custos Brevium, is the first Clerk of the Court, whose Office is to receive and keep all Writs, and the Records of Nisi Prius, called Pastea's.

The Prothonotories in numbe three: they are to Enter and Enroll all Declarations and Pleadings.

The Chyrographer, doth Enter and Ingrose Fines ac∣knowledged. All these Officers afore mentioned sit in the Court, their Heads covered with black round Caps or Bonnets, according to the Mode before Hats were Invent∣ed.

The Clerk of the Treasury, he keeps the Records.

The Clerk of the Inrollments of Fines and Recoveries, &c.

The Clerk of the Out-Lawries, who make the Writs of Capias Vtlegatum, after Parties are returned Out-Lawed.

The Clerk of the Kings Silver, who receives the Money for the King which is agreed upon at all Sale of Lands.

The Clerk of the Warrant, who make all such Warrants of Attorney for Bailiffs, for the Plantiff or De∣fendant.

The Clerk of the Juries who makes out Writ for the Juries appearance either in this Court, or County Assizes.

The Clerk of Essoins, or Excuses for lawful cause of absence.

The Clerk of the Supersedeas.

The Filizars, for the several Counties of England, in number 15.

The Prothonotory Filizar.

The Exigenters five in number, who make out all Exigents Proclamations in all Actions where Out-Lawry doth lye.

The Cryers in number, four.

The Porter.

The Officers and their Habits belong∣ing to the Eqchequer.

This Court is called the Exchequer, from a Chequer wrought Carpet, which covered the Great Table of the Court: as the Court of Green cloth in the Kings House is so called from the Green Carpet. In this Court, call∣ed the Court of Equity, are Trials of Debts accounts, Revenues, Disbursments, Customs, Fines unposed, &c.

The Lord Treasurer.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer.

The Lord Chief Baron.

The Barons of the Exchequer, three in number.

The Cursitor Baron, who gives Oaths to Sheriffs, Undersheriffs, Bailiffs, Searchers, Surveyors, &c. of the Custom-House.

All these Iudges belonging to these three Courts a∣foresaid, sit in Scarlet Robes, and square Caps, like Do∣ctors of Divity: because (as some say) they were ancient∣ly most commonly Clergy Men and Doctors, Bishops or Prelates that sat there.

The Secretary.

The Seal-Keeper.

The Chamberlains of the Exchequer.

The Auditor of Receipts, called Scriptor Talliarum. He hath five Clerks to manage the whole Estate of Mo∣nies received, disbursed and remaining.

The Tellers in number four, who receives all Monies due to the King.

The Clerk of the Pells, who enters every Tellers Bill in Parchtment (which in Latin is Pellis) whence the Office hath it name) he hath four Clerk to assist him.

The Deputy Chamberlains two, who sit in the Tally Court, cleave the Tallies and examin each piece apart.

The Tally-Cutter.

The Ushers of the Exchequer two, that look to it Night and Day.

The Messengers four.

Officers in the Higher or Vupper Exchequer.

The Kings Remembrancer.

The Clerks of the Remembrancer eight in number: of which two are Secondaries.

Page  63The Lord Treasurers Remembrancer.

The Clerks of this Remembrancer, twelve: whereof the two first are called Secondaries.

The Clerk of the Pipe.

The under Clerks of the Pipe Office, eight.

The Controllor, or Comptrollor of the Pipe.

The Clerk of the Pleas.

The Attornies four in number.

The Forreign Opposer.

The Clerk of the Estreates.

The Auditors of the Imprest, two.

The Auditors of the Revenue, seven.

The Remembrancer of first Fruits and Tenches.

Th Deputy Remembrancers, two.

The Clerk of the Parcells.

The Clerk of the Nichils.

The Marshalls.

Officers belonging to the High Court of Chancery.

This Court is for the Mittigating the Rigor of that Law practized in the Court of Kings-Bench, and Com∣mon Pleas. It is called Curia Cancellariae: because ancently the Judge of the Court sat intra Cancellos, or Lattices: within Railes, Bars or Lattices, as the East end of our Churches being seperated per Cancellos, by Skreens or Lattice, Railes, &c. as peculiarly belonging to the Priest, were thence called Chancels.

This Court hath two in one, the first in Latin by which it grants out Writs Mandatory, and Remedial, Writs of Grace, or according to equity and conscien. The second by English Bills, Answers and Decrees, &c.

The Lord High Chancellor of England.

The Masters of Chancery, twelve in number.

The Masters of the Rolls.

The six Clerks.

The Examiners, two.

The Clerks of the Petti-Bag, three.

The Clerk of the Crown, and his Deputy.

The Clerk of the Hamper or Hanaper, or Warden of the Hanaper.

The Warden or Keeper of the Fleet Prison.

The Serjeant at Arms, who bears the Mace be∣fore the Lord Chancellor, or Lord Keeper.

The Clerk of the Subpena Office.

The Clerk of the Patents, or of Letters Patents un∣der the Great Seal of England.

The Register of the Chancery.

The Deputy Registers, three.

The Registers of the Rolls.

To Clerk of the Reports.

The Clerk for fileing Affidavits.

The Cursiters twenty four in number: these make out Original Writs.

Officers in the Marshes of Wales.

The Lord President.

The President, who is ever the chief Justice of Che∣shire.

The Iudges Assistants.

The Councellors.

The Secretary.

The Attorneys.

The Sollicitor.

The Surveyor.

The Cryer.

The Clerk of the Crown with other inferior Officers.

Officers in the Dutchy Court of Lancaster.

The Chancellor.

The Attorney General.

The Receiver General.

The Anditors, in number two.

The Clerk of the Dutchy.

The Attorueys, two.

The Messenger.

Officers of the Palatinate Courts in Chester.

  • The Chief Iustice.
  • The Puisne Iustice.
  • The Kings Attorney.
  • The Attorneys, sans u.
  • The Solicitor.
  • The Petty Fogers.
  • Constable of the Castle.
  • The Prothonotary.
  • The Under Goaler.
  • Clerk of the Crown.
  • Clerk of the Indictments.
  • The Marshall.
  • The Cryer.
  • The Custos Rotulorum
  • The Sheriff.
  • The Iustice of Peace.
  • The Under Sheriff.
  • The Clerk of the Peace.
  • The Baiiffs.
  • The Catch-poses.
  • The Chamberlain.
  • The Uice-Chamber∣lain.
  • The Baron of the Ex∣chequer.
  • The Deputy Baron.
  • The Examiner.
  • The Bailiff Itenerant, and his Deputy.
  • The Kings-Attorney.
  • The Seal-Keeper.
  • The Filazar, and Depu∣ty Filazar.
  • The Attorneys.
  • The Cryer.
  • The Messenger.
  • The Clerks.
  • The Bailiffs.
  • The Catch-poles.

XI. He beareth Or, a Doctor of the Civil Law in his Gown, with a Roll of Paper in his left Hand, and the right extended, all proper. This may also be term∣ed a Doctor of Physick, their Gowns being in a man∣ner one▪ and the same: also a Chaucellor, or Uicar-General.

The Civil Law, is the Law of Nations, which for the executive Power, in Church Matters, there are diverse excellent Courts, the Highest for criminal causes, was the High Commision Court: the Commissioners where∣of had power to exercise Jurisdiction throughout the Realm; to Visit, Reform, and correct Errors, Here∣sies Page  64 Schismes, Abuses and Deliquencies, that they be cor∣rected and reformed.

The Civil Affair which concern the Church the Highest Court, is the Court of Delegates, to which Appeales may be made from the Highest Courts under the Arch, bishops, and from this to none other.

The next is the Arch-bishops Courts, where any Ecclesiastical Suite between any Persons within their Pro∣vince may (waving all Inferior Courts) be decided: a∣mong them the Highest Court is,

The Court of Arches, so called from the Arched Church or Tower of St. Marys in London, where it was wont to beheld: the Judge whereof is called the Dean of the Arches. To this Court belongs diverse Advocates, all Doctors of the Civil Law: two Registers and ten Proctors.

The next is the Prerogative Conrt, called also the Spiritual Court: which each Bishop hath in his Diocess, which judgeth of Estates fallen by Will, or In∣testates, giving Probats and granting Administrati∣ons, other causes belonging to Ecclesiastical Courts, are Blasphemy, Apostasie, Heresies, Schismes, Ordinati∣ons, Justitutions of Clerks to Benefics, Cerebration of Di∣vine Service, Rights of Matrimony, Divorces, Bastardy, Adultery, Fornication, Incest, Pennances, &c. also Tithes Oblations, Mortuaries Delapidations, and Reparations of Churches, with several other Matters, which belongs not to the common Law of England.

The Consistory Court, is a Court Commissionated by a Bishop who hath a large Diocess, to a certain Person in a certain place, for the ease and benefit of the People.

The Dean Rurals Court, and the Arch-deacons Court, and Dean and Chapters Court: are Conrts where smaller differences are pleaded which arise within their Limits, or Bounds of the Cathedral.

Lastly there are certain Jurisdictions belonging to some Parishes, the Inhabitants whereof are exempt, some from the Arch-Deacons Court, and some from the Bishops.

The Officers in a Perogative Court.

An Arch-Bishop. A Bishop.

A Suffragan Bishop, or Subsidiary Bishop, or Titular Bishop; such were of old Ordained for the ease of Bishops whose Diocess were large. These had the Name, Title, Stile and Dignity of Bishops, and were consecrated by the Arch-bishop of the Province, and were to execute such Power, Jurisdiction, and Autho∣rity, as are limited in his Commission by the Bishop or Diocesan, whose Suffragan he is.

  • A Dean.
  • A Chancellor.
  • A Proctor.
  • A Parater, or Promooter.
  • A Dean Rulal.
  • An Advocate.
  • A Parater General.

Now the Punishment inflicted by these▪ Spiritu∣al or Ecclesiastical Courts are these as follow.

First, the Lesser Excommunication, which Ex∣cluds the Offender from the Church, or if not from the Communion of the Lords Supper: is disenabled from be∣ing a Plantiff in a Law Suite. And this is generally for con∣tempt, and not appear upon a Citation, or not obeying the Orders of the Court.

The Greater Excommunication, which excluds from the company of Christians in Spiritual Duties, but also in temporal Affairs; and this is commonly for Heresie, Schisme, Incest, Perjury and such Griveous Crimes.

The Anathematismus, is only inflicted upon an ob∣stinate Heretick, whereby he is declared a publick E∣nemy to God, rejected and cursed, and Delivered o∣ver to Eternal Damnation.

The Interdictum, wherein is prohibited all Di∣vine Officers, as Christian Burial, Administration of Sacraments, &c.

Penance publick, is for the Offender, to be com∣pelled to confess his fault, and to bewail it before the whole Congregation in the Church, stand bare headed, and bare feet, in a white Sheet. But if the crime be not hainous, it may at the parties request be commuted into a Pecuniary Mult, for the Poor, or some Pious uses.

XII. He beareth Argent, a Livery Man of the City of London in his Guarded Gown, Furred down before with his Hood hanging behind his left Shoulder, all pro∣per. As soon as the Apprentice hath by his servitude satisfied his Master, and that his freedom is now at hand; e is then brought by his Master to the Chamberlain of London his Office, where he is first made Free of the City, and enrolled to be so, that thereby he may enjoy a right and Priviledge to the Franchizes of the City, and to fol∣low that (or any other) Trade he was bound Apprentice unto.

That finished he is brought to the Hall-mote, the Place or Hall for the Assembling of every Guild of Fra∣ternity, for regulating of what doth belong to each com∣pany or Trade in particular; where the new Freeman of the City is admitted a Brother of the said Hall.

The Traders of London are divided into several com∣panies or corporations, and are so many Bodies politique, all which have Assembly places (as I said) called Halls, and each Company or Mistery hath a Master (or two) annually chosen from amongst themselves, by which the said Societies are Regulated and Governed, and all Mis∣demeanors corrected and punished, by Fines and Forfei∣tures: and in each Company there is other subordinate Officers, called Wardens (or Stewaads in some) or assistance; The remaining part of the Hall, or Member of the Trades are termed Livery-Men, or Gow-Men: So that each Brotherhood do exactly correspond to the General Government of the City by a Lord May∣or, Aldermen, and common Council.

Now these Livery-Men, or Gown-Men are not admitted as Fellows o the Hall and to wear Gowns, as soon as made free of the Hall: but are counted as Free-men, and have liberty to follow their Trads for a conside∣rable time, till they be Selected and by the Votes of the Hall, they be brough in to be Gown-Men, and (as it were) Council Men of their said Societies. And out of these Livery Men in each Hall, is again selected such Per∣sons as are thought fit to make Council-Men for the City: which by degrees advance higher and higher till they be Sheriffs, Aldermen, &c.

Page  65During their time of being Livery-Men they wear on the left Shoulder of their Gowns, an Hood behind with a long Tippet at it down before of two colours, one half Scarlet, the other green Silk: But when chosen to be of the City Conucil, they wear a long Tippet of the same colours about their Necks, reaching down before to the middle of the Belly.

XIII. He beareth Argent, a Beads-Man, or an old Man in and Hospital (or Poor Mans) Gown, with a Bonnet or Cap on his Head Azure; Faced and Lined, Or: with a Palmers Staff in his right hand, Sable. It hath ever been the minde and care of Pious People to be charitable to the Poor, and therefore for that end have either built Hospitals or Alms-Houses for the dwellings of poor old and indegent People, en∣duing them with Lands and Revenues for their lively∣hood and maintenance when past their Labours: or else to bring up poor. Fatherless and Motherless Children that cannot help themselves, till such times as they were able to do Service, and become Apprentices; of which kind of Hospitals this Kingdom through the bounty of Benefa∣ctors is well Stored.


Hospitals are of several Natures according to the In∣stitutions of their Benefactors, some are for Poor People and Orphan Children, in which they are brought up to Learning, have Meat, Drink and Cloaths providee for them, Men and Women Servants to look to them: be∣sides other officers pertaining to the said Hospital or Al∣monary: as

The Benefactors that Builds, Erects and endues the place.

The Trustees or Overseers, to look after the Re∣venue, to place in, and put out.

The Steward and Caterer, that receives and lay∣eth out for the necessaries of the place.

The Cooke, Buttler and Baker, that orders Meat and Drink.

The Washers and House-Keepers, to make and keep all clean.

The Masters to teach, and his Usher to enter the Boys into the first rudiments.

The Chaplain to Pray and Preach, all which and more is necessary for a well Beneficed Hospital.

Other Hospitals are for old and aged Men: Others for old Women, and some for both, as the Hospital in Chester, called the Fraternity of the Brothers and Sisters of S. Anns.

Others for Sick, Sore, and Lunitick Persons, who are kept and maintained at the Hospital charge till recover∣ry, then sent away: as the Hospital at the Savoy and Bethelem in London, and St. Egitha for Lezars near Chester.

These that are called Alms-Houses, are of another Nature, which have some of them Houses to dwell in, or Chambers to lodge in, and an Yearly Stipend to buy them their own Meat and Cloaths: of such we ha•• several in our City.

Others of these Alms People have only small Houses to dwell in, and have no other provision made for them, but what they get by begging, of these kind are the poor Mendicants, who get their living by going from Door to Door.

Others there are which have neither House nor Har∣bour, but what they Rent, yet have Yearly Mainte∣nance for the Support in old Age, and Caps and Gowns every second or third Year, to keep them Warm; and these are generally called Beadsmen, or such as are lotted to have Poor Mens Gowns: which I have observed in several Towns upon Set, or Principal Days, to walk before the Magistrates, or Bene∣factors by two and two. And in some places to go in the same order before Dead Persons carried to their Fune∣rals.

XIV. He beareth Argent, an Esquire in his Ruffe, or apparelled according to his Degree, standing in full aspect: thus in short he may be Blazoned, but if we must go to the particulars of his Habit then take it thus, an Esquire in his bravery standing in full Uiew▪ having a Beaver with a Feather of three falls on his Head, a Satin Pinked Doublet, Breeches and Cloak cast over his left Arm, Scarlet: Imbrauthe red with Gold▪ with Silk Stockins, Gatters and Roses at his Shooes: a Belt over his Shoulder with a Sword Pendant thereat: having a Staff in his right hand pointing to the Dexter Corner, and with his left to the Sinister Base. This was the habit of either a Knight or Esquire, or Ancient Gentleman of a considerable Rewenue, in King Charles the first his Reign: being then (as it is now in our Days) no distinction at all by their Garbs, every one going as it seemed best in his own Eyes: for now the Kinght is not known from an Esquire, or an Esquire from a Gentleman by their Habits: nay it is a hard thing to distinctinguish a Master from his Man, but only that he goes after, and stands with is Head uncovered before him.

Now though fashion in apparel both in Men and Wo∣men do very much vary: yet as to the Principals of the Garments, they constantly stick to them; as Doublet, Breeches, Hat, Hose, and Shos; and for their cverng, i is a Cloak, or Coat with Sleeves.

Now the next below a Knight, is the degree of a Esquire, so called from the French word 〈◊〉, Scu••eri or Scutigeri: because they were wont to bear before the Prince in War, or before the better sort of Nobility▪ a shield, o else because they bear a Coat of 〈…〉 Ensigns of their descent; and by our Lawyers are called Amigeri.

Several Degrees of Esquires.

1. Of this Title (by the common Law of this Land) are all the Sons of Dukes, Marquesses and Earls, are Esquires, and no more.

2. The next of this Title are the Eldest and Youn∣ger Sons of all Uiscounts and Barons: and the Eldest Sons of their Younger Sons, and their Elder Sons for ever.

Page  663. Then the Esqires of the Kings Body: which are mentioned among the Officers of the Kings Court. These are Esteemed before the Eldest Sons of Knights, and indeed in all Processions of Estate, they go before the Master of the Jewel house, and all Judges, and Serjeants at the Law.

4. The Eldest Son of a Knight claimes the next place, as an Esquire by Birth, which he and his Eldest Son for ever, have that Title, and taketh his place ac∣cording to the Seniority of his Family.

5. The next are Esquires Created by the King, by by putting about their Nocks a Collar of SS's, and be∣stowing on them a pair of Silver Spurrs: which Silver Spurs shewed a difference of Honor from the Golden Spurrs, given to a Knight: from whence these Esquires were called White-Spurrs, whose Eldest Son saith Mr. Segar fol. 224. i, an Esquire for ever.

6. An Esquire by Office, or that is in Superior pub∣lick Office, for the King, or State: such are Serjeants of the several Offices in the Kings Court, and other Officers of Rank and Quality; as Mayors of Corporations, Justi∣ces of the Peace, Sheriffs, Escheators, and such like.

7. An Esquire by Repute, is such a Person who hath been, and is of an ancient Family, and considerable Estate, though neither himself, or any of his Ancestors have born any publick Office, yet such by the curtesie of England, and out of respect to their Family, are called Esquires.

8. To these may be joyned Councellors at Law, Bat∣chelors of Divinity, Law and Physick, who take upon them the Title of Esquire, are reputed Esquires, or equal to Esquires, although none of them are really so.

Of this Degree, with each particular circumstance a∣bout it, you may peruse these Authors.

  • Seldens Title of Honor, fol. 555.
  • Ferns Glory of Generosity, pag. 100.
  • Spelmans Glossary, fol. 51.
  • Salcers Analysis of Honor, pag. 26.
  • Chamberlains Present State of England, pag. 280.

XV. He beareth Argent, a Gentleman in a Hunt∣ing or Walking posture, with his long Staff in his right Hand. This is termed either a Hunting or Walking posture, because in those time they cast of all outward Garments, as Cloak or Coat, that they may either go, or run with the more ease and dexterity.

Among the lower rank of Nobility are accounted the Gentry, which have no other Title, but Gentleman or Master, which are such as are descended of ancient Families, that have always born a Coat of Arms. The word Gentleman first rise from the word Gens or Gentes, Gentiles: which the Primitive Christians used for all such, and were neither Iews nor Christians, which the French called Payons, for Pagans; and the Dutch Hey∣den, or Heydenen, for Heathens. So that the Romans took it to be a distinction, or note of Honor to them, which the Christians had before in Scorn expressed them.

So then this Title, Gentilhomme, and Genttlehom∣bre (which we received from the French, at the Norman Conquest; for till then we used no such word) as Gen∣tleman, but the Saxon word, which was Aedel: then I say was the word made. And in all Latin Writs, pleading, and the like; the word Gentleman was generally used, till King Henry the Eights time, since which they have u∣sed the word Generosus, for a Gentleman; of what sort soever, as Mr. Selden testifieth fol. 858.

XVI. He beareth Argent, a Gentleman with his Cloak on the left Shoulder and cast about his middle, with his right Hand on his side, Hat, Boots and Spurs with his Sword by his side all in their proper co∣lours.

In the Sinister Base of this Quarter, is a Demy M•••ans Arms, with a sharp Pointed Beard, Cloaths open at the Neck: which is a kind of bearing much used by the Germans and Dutch, both for Coats and Crests; some with Hats, some with Caps, others with C••∣pews, and others Bare Headed, &c. Others young Face, Spanish Beards, Bush Beards, or old Mens Faces: and with full Faces.

The Several Degrees of Gentility.

The first is a Gentleman of Blood, termed Gen∣tilitas Nativa; to the making of which Gentleman perfect in his Blood, is required a Lineal descent on his Fathers side to the fift Generation, as Father, Grand-Father, Great-Grand-Father, Great-Grand-Fathers▪ Father, and Great-Grand-Fathers-Grand-Father: And as much on the Mothers side, this doth not only make a Gentleman of Blood perfect, but of Ancestors too.

A Gentleman by prescription, is when for a long time and many Years, to the beginning whereof the Me∣mory of Man runneth not to the contrary, causeth him that can duely without intermission of time, challenge the same prescription, ought to be had and reputed as rightly Noble and Gentle, as him that can shew it by Blood. For this time Immemorable, hath the orce of a Law, & is Masqued, with the Title of Justice, of Priviledge, and of Truth: for our Legist doth tell us, Magis relcet, a Pa∣rentibus, per tempus immemoriale, Nobilitas recta, quam a Principe, sine Virtute Donata; So that this Nobleness or Gentry by prescription, is as all one, agreeing with that Gentleness of Stock, or Linage.

Now this Gentility by Blood, if seconded by Merit and Virtue, is justly esteemed the most worthy & honorable▪ and certainly is the least if attended by vicious actions; for the Glory they shine in, being but the reflections of their Ancestors, and not their own proper Rays.

The second is Gentilitas Dativa, a Gentleman made so by the gift or bounty of the Prince: Exam∣ples of many of this Nature Mr. Seldon shews in King Richard the Second, Henry the Sixth, King Iames, and by Forreign Princes, the Emperor, King of France and o∣thers: Titles of Honour, fol. 832.853.870. Where Men have been ennabled by Letters Patents from their Prin∣ces, though they have no Superior Titles added: Yet thereby have been received into the State of Gentlemen, and are Stiled Gentlemen of Paper and Wax, Glo: pag. 61.

Page  67In General if any Person be Advanced by Lawful Commission of his Prince to any Office, Dignity or pub∣lick Administration, be it either Ecclesiastical, Military, or Civil; so that the said Office comprehend in it, Digni∣tatem, or Dignitatis Titulum, the Title or Stile of Digni∣ty, he ought to be Matriculated into the rank of Gen∣tility.

So the King may make or create a Gentleman, and give him a Coat of Arms, though he be a single Subject, or unworthy of the same: but this is a Counterfeit Gentility, and only shrouds him from the name of a Plebeian: Such not exercising the Qualities beseeming them, bring to the Purchaser but little more then the shadow of Honor, being excluded from the Priviledges of Gentility, nay ought, as saith Sir William Segar: to be deprived of his Title of a Gentleman, if he behave not himself virtuously according to his Title.

The third is Atchieved, or Merited Gentility: this is nobleness of proper Virtue, which is certainly to be esteemed above the other, for as Kingdoms happiness, and safety depends upon the Wisdom, Counsel, and Cou∣rage of the Virtuous, Ecclesiastes 9.15, 16, 18. When the vain boasts of an ancient Stock or Linage, where Virtue fails; doth add nothing to the relief of a Coun∣trey in time of need.

What these Virtues are, Sir Iohn Fern pag. 30.31. 96.97. hath taken great care to set down: which we shall pass over and take notice only of these two Cardi∣nal Virtue, Prudence and Fortitude; the merit At∣chived by the Pike and Pen, Learning and Soldi∣ery. Now to which of these the precedency should be allowed, hath ever been the despute, some gives it to the Scholar, others to the Soldier; one preferrs te Doctor before the Knight, yet most esteem te later predominate to the former, to which I do rather ad∣here.

For to obtain the Estate of Gentility by Learning, and discovering the Secrets of Heaven is certainly very Honorable: But to Atchive it by Service in his Sove∣reigns Wars, the defence of the Church, King and Country, is of all most excellent and worthy: In as much as War is permitted by the Law of God taught by the Law of Nature, and commanded by the Law of Na∣tions, Anal: of Honor pag. 10.

For the Soldiery, they who by their Valour and Service done in the Soveraigns Wars, to defend the Church, King and Country, are worthy of their Atcheived Honor and ought to be Stiled Gentlemen, which is peculiar to all Listed, and are called Gentle∣men Soldiers: of which these more especially (let their Original be what it will) may be admitted to bear Arms in the Military or Marshal Government, viz. The General, High Constable, Lieutenant-Gene∣ral, Governers or Gardians of Frontiers, and March Countrys, Admirals, Uice-Admirals, Treasurers, Marshalls, Majors-general, of Horse and Foot, Masters of the Artillery, Collonells, Majors, Captaines, Provolts, Serjeant-Ma∣jors, Lieutenants, and such commissionated Officers for Martial Affairs.

For the State Ecclesiastical, these in the Church being Officers of Dignity do merit Gentlenes, and Coat Armour: as Patriarches, Primars, Arch-B∣ships, Cardinals, Bishops, also all Uicars-Gene∣ral, Gardians or Keeper of Spiritualities, Deans of Cathedral Churches, Arch-Deacons, Chancel∣lors, Registers, Treasurers, Chantors, Advocats, Doctors, likewise all Rectors, Provosts, Deans and Governors of Collegial Assemblies with diverse others in the Church, which are to this place, to be re∣ferred.

For the Civil or Pollitical Estate, diverse Officers of Dignity and Worship do merit Coats of Arms: as the Chancellor, President, Treasurer; with such as oc∣cupy the Seat of Judgment, as Iudges, Iustices, Chief Officers in the Soveraigns Pallace, Secretaries of the Estate: also all Mayors, Sheriffs, Bailiffs of Ci∣ties and ancient Burroughs or Towns Incorporated, Pro∣thonotories, and Chief Remembrancers, to High Court of Justice, with many other to long to receit.

Also Gentleness or the bearing of Arms may be ob∣tained by the Service of the Soveraign, or any of his Superior Officers, according to this Rule. Adhe∣rentes lateri Princpis & Officialis, & eisem, in Officio quo∣cunue minimo, Ministrantes noilitantr.

From which we may conclude that all the Officers in the King Houshold, as Buttler, Cooke, Baker, Groom of the Chamber, Keeper of the Ward∣robe, and the like: also the Officers of Chief note be∣longing to Justices of Superior Courts, and Cities, as Sword-bearers, Mace-bearers, Marshals, Ushers, Messengers, Serjeants at Mace, and such like.

For the Liberal Sciences which are the Mistresses of a•• Vrtues, Letters, and good Learning: the Excel∣〈◊〉 whereof worthily deserve the Title of Noble-〈◊〉 therefore merit a Coat of Arms. They are call∣〈…〉 Sciences, for four reasons. Because the study of 〈◊〉 reqired a free and liberal mind. Because of puting 〈◊〉nce between them and other Servile Arts, called Mchaical Arts, which require more the service of the Body, then travail of the Wi. Because▪ Children of Freemen ought to be put to the learning of them. And lastly because they are lawful, and may be learned witout servitude of Sin or Superstition. These Sciences whereby the Ancients termed seven, to which may be added an eight (saith Sir Iohn Fern) pap. 32. and that is Theologia a Science of God, and Heavenly things, surpas∣sing Nature, and the capacitie of Nature. However we may pass it under the Science of Letters and Lear∣ning, the Professors thereof having received their De∣grees, meriteth sufficiently (though they were unentle born) to obtain Arms and have the Honor to be called a Gentleman: as Masters of Art, Bachelers o Divinity, Doctors of Divinity, Law and Physick, Rhetorick, Logique, Mathematick, Musick, Geo∣metry, Astronomy and Astrology, also the Poes Historiographers and such like, being most necessary in Cities, and cmmon Weales, and accounted off a∣mogst the Learned, are not excluded from the hope of Honor, therefore unto such must be due the Ensigns of Genly, as the desert o their parts and callings shall equire.

The ourhe is Gentilitas Adoptiva, a Gentility a∣•••• from Adoption; this is, when a Gentleman of Blood and Coat Armour, for some special affection Page  68 which he beareth to one, neither allied to him by Blood, nor a Gentleman otherways, adopteth a Stranger to be his Son, and constituteth him to succeed; as well in his Estate of Gentry, as to his name, Coat of Arms, and Possessions. This is termed a Gentleman by Adop∣tion.

There is another kind of Gentility of this Nature, call¦ed Nobilitas Feudalis, or Ratione Feudi: a Gentleman of Purchase, as having a Possession bought by himself being both large and fair: as if a Merchant, Artificer, Burgess or Farmer purchaseth a Signiory or Lord¦ship from the King. By reason the owner died without Heir, or fell to him by an Attenture; to this purchasing from the King, may also be confired by the Law of Arms, the Coat Armour of the Owner of the Lordship: which he may bear as his own to himself, and his Posterity.

For Mechanical Sciences, though their Professors in some respects be debarred the preheminence of Gen∣try, yet it will not be denied, but that some such ntble and collateral Merits, and worthiness may appear in them that they shall duely obtain the name of Gentles, and have a Coat of Arms: of these Mechanick Trades (my Author Sir Iohn Fern pag. 70) will admit but of seven, which have the Title of Necessity, Honesty and Laudableness; which are, first Agriculture, which is the Tillage, Culture, and Manurance of the Earth. This is Sowing of Corn and Seeds, Planting of Trees of all sorts: Grafting of Orchards, and making of Gar∣dens: and Pasturing and Feeding of Cattle, which is all comprehended in the word Husbandry. The second is Lanificium, the skill in Weaving and Makeing of Cloath, or any such like Matter, in which is compre∣hended all the Arts of Spinning, Weaving, Fulling, Dressing and Sowing. The third is Architectture, or the skill in Building, Frameing and Erecting of Tem∣ples, Theaters, Pyramides, Castles, Fors, Bastilions, Pallaces, Houses, and all sorts of Edifices: which is divid∣ed into Cementurie, or Masonrie, and Carpentary, the first working in Stone, or Brick; the latter in Wood. The fourth is Mercatura, the Trade of Merchandize∣ing, or Buying and Selling: exchanging of Goods For∣raign for Domestick: by which that Noble Art of Na∣vigation hath been maintained, which did breed the two famous skills of Cosmography, and Geometry. The fift Mechanick Art is Armatura, the skill of work∣ing in all sorts of Mettles: as the Forging of Weapons, Armour, and of other Instruments for Artists: which is comprehended under these two Heads; Malleatoria, the skill to work with Hammers, and Files: and the o∣ther Fusoria, which is casting Mettles into Molds. The sixt is Ars Uenatoria, the Art of Hunting, which is a Gentlemans Occupation in England, France and Germany: It is divided into three Arts, Ferina, the killing of wild Beast; Aucupium, the killing of Fowl: and Piscatoria, the taking of Fish. The seventh and last, is called Theatrica, the Art and skill of Plays practized in Theaters, or exposed to publick view: of which there are four sorts, as Ludus Gymnicus, the skill and activitie of Wrestling, Leaping, Running, Cast∣ing the Dart, &c. And Ludus Circensis, the Run∣ning of a Chariott, or Horse in a Ring swiftly: then Lu∣dus ladiatorius, the Art of Fencing, or skill to use any Weapon, either for the defence of our selves, or offence of our Enemies: And lastly Ludus Tormeamenti, the Game and Play of Turney and Barriers, a most Warlike and Military Exercise.

Honors and Exemptions proper to Gentility.

The Lower Degrees of Nobility have less and fewer priviledges then those in other Monarchies, see Glo▪ of Geaerosity, pag. 77. &c. by which I mean Baronetts, Knights, Esquires and Gentlemen.

If a Knight be under Age, yet he shall be out of Wardship, both for Lands, Body and Marriage.

A Knight is Excused from attendance at Court-Leets.

A Knight and his Eldest Son, not compellable to find pledges at the Visus Franchi Plegij.

A Knight by Magna Charta, chap. 21. are so freed that no demesn Cart of theirs may be taken.

A Son, or Brother of a Knight; by Statute Law, is capacitated to hold more then one Benefice Eccle∣siastical.

A Knight and his Son, though he cannot spend 10 l. per Annum, nor be worth 200 l. may keep Grey-Hounds, Setting-Dogs, and Nets to take Pheasants and Partriges, Stat. 1. Iac.

Anciently if an Ignoble Person did strike a Gentle∣man in England, he was to loose his hand.

A Gentleman may not be compelled to serve in Husbandry.

A Child of a Gentleman brought up to sing, can∣not be taken without the Parents consent to serve in the Kings Chappel, as others may.

An Horse of a Gentleman, may not be taken to ride Post.

A Gentleman having his Honor detracted by a Churle, his remedy is an Action of Trespass: but if one Gentleman shall detract from the Honor of another, then Combate was engaged.

The Ungentle, is bound to yield obedience to a Gentleman in these things, to keep silence whilst a Gentleman speaks, to stand while he is in presence, to give him the right hand in going, and the chief Seat in sitting.

A Gentleman to Write his Name in any Instru∣ment, or Solemn Act, next after the Bishop, or Pre∣late.

If in Common Elections for Officers, Votes be equal, then them of the most Gentlemen shall pre∣vail.

A Gentleman is Honored with the Attire of his Body, to whom it is lawful to bear Silk and Purple colour.

A Gentleman is Honored with a Title to his name, even as a Bishop and Doctor are not spo∣ken too, but with this Title (most Reverend) so Knights, Esquires, and Gentlemen, without an Ad∣dition of Sir, Worship, or Master.

Page  69It is the Duty of the unnoble to Honor and Salute a Gentleman with the Gestures of his Body.

The word of a Gentleman is of as much Validity, as his Deed; confirmed with Witnesses and Seal. The Laws presuming they had or ought to have a reverent regard to the preservation of their promise in all sinceri∣ty.

A Gentleman ought to be preferred to Offices before the unnoble.

The Testimony of two Gentlemen by oath before the Judge as Witnesses, is of more Credence then a mul∣titude of ungentle Persons.

A Gentleman might erect Images, and Statutes of their Ancestors and himself, which the Laws do mightily defend.

To deface the Arms of a Benefactor out of a pub∣lick work is punishable; but to wipe out the mark of a Merchant, or Artificer, is not.

The ungentle may not challenge a Gentleman to the Combate.

Vertues to be Imbraced by the Gentry.

All Gentlemen by the observing of nine Uertues, with the avoiding of nine Uices following, will leave an Honorable Memory of his Gentle conversation to all Men: and these extend not only to the Simple Gen∣tleman, but to each degree of Nobleness, even to the Soveraign: because they bear Coat Armours.

  • 1. To be Meek, Dutiful, and Obedient to Gods Laws.
  • 2. To be Free from Oaths, Swearing, and Blasphe∣mies.
  • 3. To be Fearful, or Dreading to offend the King, and his Commands.
  • 4. To know thy self and thy original Birth, and so accordingly to behave thy self towards all Men.

These are the Soveraign Uertues, which tend chiefly to the rectifying of the Soul. These following are called the Amarous Uertues, because they win Love, and a good Report at all Mens hands: a matter worthy the observation of all that desire, to seek to be Gentle∣men.

  • 1. To be of a Cheerful, and Lixam Countenance.
  • 2. To be Affable, and Tractable in his Language.
  • 3. To be Wise and Discreet in his Answers.
  • 4. To be Just, and Perfect in his Rule, and Govern∣ment.
  • 5. To be Careful to bear good Will and Affection to Faithfullness.

Vices to be Eschewed by the Gentry.

Gentlemen are to fly from all Uice & Wickedness for that is a great Rebatement of his Honor, and Stains▪ his Coat of Arms, making his Gentleness Ungentle and especially in these nine things.

  • 1. To fly from his Severaigns Banner in the Field.
  • 2. To Revoke or Forsake his own Challenge.
  • 3. to Slay his Prisoner with his own Hands, when he humbly yeildeth himself.
  • 4. To tell his Soveraign false Tails.

These are called Terminata, Uices Terminable, because they are determined by sharp Punishments ac∣cording to the Law of Arms. and are such as will deter∣mine and end his Gentility. These following are In∣determinable.

  • 1. To be full of Lechery, giving his Body to Whore∣dom, and Uncleaness.
  • 2. To be a Subject of Bacchus, a Riotous, Drunken, and Intemperate Person.
  • 3. To be Slothful in the Warrs, or about the Kings Bussiness.
  • 4. To be a Boasters of Man-hood.
  • 5. To be Cowardly in the Face of his Enemy.

Of these things concerning the Gentry, peruse Ferns Glory of Generosity, pag. 14. to 98.

Chamberlains Present State, pag. 280.

Spelmans Glossary in Verbo, Generosus.

XVII. He beareth Or, a Yeoman, or Country-man, or a Freeholder of the Country with a Staff in his right hand, proper. This habit (as to their inner Gar∣ments) Yeoman usually did wear in King Iames his time, viz. narrow brimed Hats with flat Crowns, Doublets with large Wings, and short Skirts and Girdles about their Wasts, Trunk Breeches, with Hosen drawn up to the Thighs, and Gartered under the Knees.

Under the Title of Yeoman, in Latin Villani, is comprehended the Husbandman, Country man, a Franklein, a Farmer, or any other sort of People, busie in Culture, or Tillage of the Earth.

The next to the lower Nobility, and the first degree of the Commons or Plebeans, are the Freehold∣ers; commonly called Yeomen: It is a name from the High Dutch (Gemen or Gemain) in English Com∣mon. In the Kings Court, it is an Officer set in a mid∣dle Station between a Serjeant and a Groom. And they are termed Freeholders, because they hold Lands and Tenements inheritable, by a perpetual right to them and their Heirs for ever. This Tenure is called a Fee-Tail.

Others Freeholders there are by Copy-hold, such are they who hold some Lands within a Manner or Lord∣ship, only by Coppy of Court-roll of the said Mannor, &c: And have a perpetual right, and Lords Utileg; though no absolute Freeholders or direct Lord of what he holueth; seeing he holdeth by Sute and Service, Herriots and Fines; some raeable, others certain, and some customarie. This is also called a Freehold by Law.

An other sort of Freehold is by Lease for Lives, or Lives Absolute: These are such Freeholders as are ca∣pable of giving Votes for Election of Parliament Men; to serve upon Juries; to bear the Offices of Constable, and Church-Warden. This is called a Freehold by Deed, or for Life.

Page  70The next sort of commonalty is the 〈◊〉, or ••••ker, or Dairy-Man, which are such as 〈…〉 Livings, Farms and Demesnes, from the Lords therof upon the Rack, or half Rack▪ that is upon the Yearly value, or half value: having no certain term of holding but from Year to Year: or from thre to three Years, avoiding at the Land-lords pleasure at such exspirations of times.

The next Tradsmen are reconned as of the com∣monalty of England, which are such as live by buying and selling, amongst whom Merchants of Forreign Traffick, have for their great benefit to the publick, and for their great endowments and Generous living, been of best repute in England, and have got great and vast Estates. But amongst Tradsmen there are Wholesale-Men, then Retailers, and lastly Me∣chanicks or Handy-crafts-men. These are all capable of bearing some sway, or office, in Cities and Towns Corporate. Yet notwithstanding, the Law of Arms hath forbidden these sorts of commoners, both from Honor, and the Ensigns of Nobility, till atchived by other mains, or offices, as is afore shewed.

The third sort of People Ungentle, and of the Commonalty also; are those which are called Nati∣vi and Servi, Natives or home born People, yet Servants and Slaves to their Lords and Masters: i the English they are called Uilains, such as live without Liberty and Freedom: Bondsmen, Apprencices: because during a certain time, they are bound to Service, for the attaining, and apprehending that Craft or Mistery, they are set unto: dureing which time they are little better in Quality and Condition then Servile Slavs, and Vas∣sels.

The lowest Members, the Feet of the Body pollitick, are the Day Labourers; who have no cnstant Master, but follow labouring from House to House, for Daily Wages: but of these see more numb. 21.

The Liberties and Priviledges of the Commons.

The Commons of England for Hereditary funda∣mental liberties and properties are best above and beyond the Subjects of any Monarch in the World: for

No Commoner, or Free Denisen of England: is to be Imprisoned, or otherwise restrained without cause shewed, for which by Law he ought to be Imprison∣ed.

To him Imprisoned may not be denied a Writ of Habeas Corpus if it be desired.

If no cause of Imprisonment be alledged, and the same be returned upon the Habeas Corpus, then the Pri∣soner ought to be set at liberty.

No Soldier can be quartered in the House of a Free-man, in the time of Peace without his Will, though they pay for their quarters.

Every Man hath a full and absolute property in his Goods, that no Taxes, Loans or Benevolences, Ordinary or Legally can be imposed on them, without their own consent, by their representative in Parliament.

They may also Dispose of all they have, how they ease, even from their own Children, and to them in hat equality they will, without shewing any cause: which other Nations Governed by the Civil Law, can∣not do.

No Freeman can be tried, but by his Peers or equals, nor condemned, but by the Laws of the Land, or by Act of Parliament.

No English Man can be Prest or Compelled (un∣less bound by his Tenure) to serve as a Soldier in the War, or March forth of his Country, except in case of an Invation by a Forreign Enemy, or a Rebellion at home.

Neither may he be sent out of the Realm against his Will, upon any Forreign Imployment, by way of an Honorable Banishment.

No Freeman may be Fined for any Crime, but ac∣cording to the Merit of the offence, always Salva sibi Con∣tenemento suo, in such a manner that he may continue, and go on in his calling.

In brief their Liberties and Properties must be acknowledged to be transcendent, and their wordly con∣dition most Happy and Blessed: for if it be considered, they are ordinarily Subject to no Laws but what they make themselves, nor no Taxes but what they impose on themselves, and pray the King, and the Lords to consent thereunto.

XVIII. He beareth Argent, the Lord Mayor of Lon∣don, his — or Boy in his Pride; the Lord Mayors Page some term him; his Habit is constant, viz Doublet and Breeches, Hose and Shooes, all of a colour; with a Loose Coat, or Iacket of Scarlet, reaching to the middle of his Thighs, with∣out Sleeves, but such as hang upon his back, being of the same length of his Coat; having a Gold Chain about his Neck, a Uelvet Bonnet on his head, with a Feather therein: in his left hand he carrieth a White Staff, with an Handkerchief Laced, tied on the top of it, with a Poesie of Flowers. In this habit doth a young Boy about 10 or 12 Years of Age, walks before the Lord Mayor every Easter, &c. when the Aldermen and Sherriffs in their Pomp, wait upon him to the Spit∣tle.

A Page, is in some Sence taken to be an Office of of Servile Imploy and to follow business as in the Kings House, there are in several places Yeomen, Grooms, Pages, as in the Pantry, Cellar, Buttery, Pitcher House, &c. where they are to bear, and carry, and come and go at the Masters command. But Pages in the best acceptati∣on, are young Youths of good Birth and Quality, which wait and attend upon Lords and Ladies, Kings and Prin∣ces, &c. none under the degree of a Lord having such a person, and by such a Title to attend him: Their Ha∣bit is Trunk Breeches, answerable to the figure of the Men before and after, numb. 17.19.

A Footman, is generally, for the ease of his speedy going, clothed in light thin cloaths, and all in white, as Doublet slashed or open, Breeches or Drawers, and Stock∣ings of the same, with thin soled Shooes called Pumps; these Men run by their Lords Coach, or Horses side, and are ready to wait on him, and fetch and bring on all occasions; and sometimes make and maintain Foot Ra∣ces.

Page  71A Querrie, is an Officer or Servant under the Ma∣ster of the Horse to the King, and none other; they are after the nature of Foot-men, whose Office is to attend the King in his Progress or Hunting, or on any occasion of Riding abroad, to help his Majesty up and down from his Horse, they generally go in the Kings Livery, and are 12 in number.

A Lacky, is the same for Office and imploy as the precedent, only he hath not as yet attained his Age; yet for Archness he exceeds, for it is seldom known but such Boys are as full of Roguery, as an Egg is full of Meat: While they are Boys or Youths, they are generally ter∣med Lacky; but when they come to riper Years, then Foot-men.

Upon the division score between these numbers 17 and 18, is fixed the figure of a demy Man to the sinister, sans Arms, bare headed, with a sharp pointed Beard, and two Elephants Teeth out of his mouth Argent, Clothed, Gules, a Ruffe about his Neck. This kind of Creature, out of a Coronett, is the crest of Froschell van Martzel, of Bavaria. This is termed a demy Man with Elephants Teeth, A. sans Arms, clothed G. ruffed, &c.

XIX. He beareth Argent, two Lovers, (or a Man and Woman walking together Arm in Arm 〈◊〉, proper colours: But if you will go to a far her descripti∣on of them, then say thus, a Man and Woman walk∣ing, their Arms Imbracing, his Hat Sable, Doublet with Broad Wings, and little Skirts, and Tru••k Breeches, and Huse Purpure; her Hood and Gown of the second, Gorget or Whisk and Apron of the first; see numb. 51. This is the Coat Armour of Antho∣ny Iohn Valeire, of Spain, as my Author in an old Manu∣script tells me.

XX. He beareth Or, a Serving Man, or a Gen∣tlemans Servant standing (with a full Body or) in full Aspect, with his two Hands on his sides, his Head uncovered, cloathed with Breeches Doublet, Hoe, Azure, Shooes, Sable, overcast with a hanging or loose Coat, with the Sleeves hangng backwards, Gules. This kind of loose Coat with hanging sleeves cast over a Doublet or under Coat, was in the Reign of Q. Eliza∣beth termed a Mandilion, which is a loose Cassock, such as her Soldiers used to wear.

A Waiting Man, is such a person as goeth abroad with his Master or Mistriss as a Companion, Manning or taking her by the hand in all dangerous places, for fear of a slip or fall; the Waiting Man is a degree above a Servant or a Lacky, they following their Ladies and Mi∣stresses, but he goeth before them.

A Gentleman Usher, is an Office belonging to him that attends, and waiteth on Persons of Quality, none under the degree of a Lady to have such a person as is termed a Gentleman Usher.

A Servant, is such an one as doth follow Manual mploys, and do the Work of the House, and are un∣der Wages for such Drudgery Work as belongs to Fa∣milies; they are commonly Hired by the Year, at the end whereof they may be Free to go and do Service for another Master. It is accounted discourteous and un∣friendly, to take another Mans Servant before he hath fairly parted with his Master; and indiscreet to take a Servant without Certificate of his diligence and faithful∣ness to his former Master.

A Servant, or an Apprentice, is a Servant for a certain space of time, as 5, 7, or 9 years, by Covenant, for the Exercise and Learning of Arts, Misteries, and Trades; these for that time carry the Mark of Villains and Bond Slaves, being subject to Correction for their Faults by their Masters and Mistresses; and resistance in a Servant, is punished with a severe punishment; and to take away either of their Lives, is Petty Treason, and hath a peculiar Punishment.

A Slave, from Foreign parts, we have none since Christianity, and any brought into England, are upon Landing, Ipso Facto, Free from Slavery, but not from Ordinary Service.

XXI. He beareth Argent, a Labouring Man with a Spade on his right shoulder, a Staff in the other hand, and an Apron before him, all proper. These kind of persons are such as work for Day Wages, either with Spade, Shovel, Mattock, Axe or Trowel, &c. of which there are several Operations.

The several sorts of Labouring Men.

The Fundator, a Digger of the Earth to lay a Foundation, or make a ground work to Build upon.

The Fossor, is a Digger of the Earth, to make Dit∣ches and Trenches.

The Pastinator, a Labourer as Digs and Delves the Earth, to make it even and streight, such as delve Gar∣dens, and such like Ground.

The Putearius, a Pit Digger, and such as Dig Wells for Water.

The Ablaqueator, a Digger or Delver about the Roots of Trees, to make them more Fruitful, and such are they who keep Orchards, Dress Vinyards, and cure Hop-Yards.

The Cuniculator, a Miner, or digger under the Earth, such are all them that dig in Mines of Silver, Gold, Brass, Iron, Tin, Lead, Coal, and the like. Such are termed Pioneers, that undermine Forts, Towers and Ca∣stles, to Blow them up.

The Lapicidor, or Lapidary, a Cutter of Stones a Digger of Stones, such are they as wrk, in Quarries, Quarry Men, Hewers of Stone, Masons, getters of Stone.

The Manuporter, is him that bears or carries any thing by strength of hands; and such are Packing Por∣ters, and them that carry with their hands by the help of Ways, Spikes or Putlocks, great Stones and Timber, hh Masons and Carpenters use in large Fabricks.

The Barrow Men, such as carry on a Barrow be∣tween two; and they are Labourers in Brick and Stone Work; and carry Burthens of several natures by that means.

The Wheeler, is such as transport weighty things from place to place; see numb. 53.

The Munginator, is such as blend Clay and Wa∣ter, Page  72 of these kind of Labouring Men, are the Daubers, Mortar Temperers, Plaster makers, and the like.

The Manufactor, or Workers with the hand, and such as follow handy craft labouring, as Trowel Men, Axe Men, and seilers and coverers of Houses either with Straw, Shingles, Tiles or Slate; ee numb., &c.

The Lator, or Porter, a Bearer or Carrier of Burthens on their Backs or Shoulders, and such are they that wait at Custom Houses, attend Merchants Cellars and Grocers Shops, to carry their Goods from place to place. A Miller, or Mill carrier, see numb. 45.

The Marianus, is a kind of Traveller, or Way-faring person, which in his Journey carries or bears Burthens on his Back with the help of a Staff; and such Labourers I take Pedlars, Tinkers and Crate Carriers to be; and all such who bear Fardels or Trusses on Staves upon their shoulders; see numb.

The Phalangary or Palangarij, are Porters which bear Burthens on Slings, or in Ropes, with Ways, Hand-spikes, or Poles, as Beer-Brewers, Wine-Coopers, and such as bear Burthens, more than a Man or two is able to carry, see numb. 44.

XXII. He beareth Argent, a Shepherd habited or clothed in a loose Coat, and round or close Kneed Breeches, supporting a Shepherds Crook in his right hand, with his Hat in a Complemental posture in his left, all in their proper colours. A Shepherd is, and ever was esteemed a Noble Employ, it being the bu∣siness of the Patriarchs Abraham and Iacob, Gen. 47.3. and who knoweth not, that David from following his Ewes, was made King of Iudah, and gave Laws unto Is∣rael, Psal. 78.70.71. And Tullius Hostilius was a Cow-Herd, and Praemislaus a Keeper of Cattel, the one at∣tained the Government of Rome, the other of Bohemia. Tmberlain, in his Youth was a Hog-herd, or Swincherd, and after by his Vertues, a Stout Warriour and King of Scythia: And the Prophet Amos, a Herdman, yet called to be an Embassador of the Lord.

XXIII. He beareth Argent, a Countrey Clown, with a Staff on his right shoulder, with a Hand Basket hanging on it; and in his left hand, a Kettle or Pan, with a hanging Handle. This is the habit of a Country un∣bred fellow, which the Dutch term the Boors of the Countrey, such as have neither Learning, Wit, nor Manners.

A Churl, is one of a dogged and evil condition, that fears not God, nor reverences Man; such a person was that churlish Nabal, mentioned 1 Sam. 25.3. &c. who though he was able, yet returned a reviling Answer, and was so wicked that none could speak to him; a co∣covetous fellow, an inhumane person, one of no pity or manners.

A Boor, or Swain, is a Countrey Man that hath neither Breeding or Manners, one that lives in the coun∣trey Villages, and knows nothing at all of Civil Behavi∣our.

A Rustick Fellow, one without City or School breeding, without cleanliness, and of a slovenly Speech; one born of mean Parentage, and without Learning, ha∣ving neither been civilized or brought into good man∣ners.

A Plebeian, is one of the meanest commoners, or low∣est rank of people, and of a vulgar Speech or Lan∣guage.

XXIV. He beareth Or, a Mower, or a Man hold∣ing of a Sithe, as if he were Mowing, his Cloaths and hat, Russet, the rest proper. This is the crest of Mowr of Rushmower.

The like to this, having his Suit per pale from Hat to Shooe, each counterchanged from the other A. and S. is the crest of Ashton of Ashton in Lan∣cashire; and of Chatterton in the same County. This Mower hath the point of his Sithe turned the wrong way, which if it were to the dexter side, the right hand then should be uppermost; but Pardon is desired for this fault, by the Graver.

Terms used by the Mower and Hay-makers.

To Mow, is to cut down the Grass with a Sithe.

To Mowe with a Crather, is to cut Corn that is short in the Straw, with a Sith having a kind of Rack fix∣ed to it for the Ears of Corn to fall on.

A Day Math, a Days Mowing, is as much as a Mower can cut down in a day.

A Swaffe, or Sithe Swaffe, as much as the Sithe cuts at one stroak of the Mower.

— the Sithe stroaks or marks, which are left in the Grass that the Sithe leaves growing.

The Swarth — are the rows of the cut Grass as the Sithe leaves it.

Edgrewe, is the Grass left growing after Mowing; some term it the Latter grass, or latter growing.

Tedding, is with a Pitchfork or Pikill, throwing it abroad out of those rows in which the Sithe left it on the ground.

Turning, is to turn the Grass over, that the under part may wither and dry.

Making it into Wind-rows, is to gather it up with a Rake into long Rows.

Making it into Grass Cocks, is from the Windrows to gather it into little heaps, in which it lieth the first day to dry.

Breaking, is to throw the Grass Cocks all abroad.

Turning it again and again, is to cast it over se∣veral times, that is may wither and dry throughly: cal∣led Casting it.

Plecks, is to make it, or turn it into square Beds.

Making it into midling Cocks.

Brokeing it again, then putting it into Windrows again.

Making it into Hay Cocks, is to raise it into great heap when it is perfect Hay, and well dried; and so re∣mains till it be taken away. Some term this Cocking or Coileing.

Raking the Bottom Stalls, is to Rake up all the scattered Hay about the Cocks, and cast it thereon.

Loading it, putting the Hay into the Cart.

Pitching it into the Cart.

Page  73Lead if Home, is to draw it to the place it must be kept in.

A Course, is every Fleece or turn of Hey laid on the Cart▪

A Binding Course, is the top course of Hay, which is put on before it be bound on the Cart with the art-Rope.

Cast it off the Cart.

Pitch it into the Window.

Tread down the Hay, is treading with the feet the Hay sad down, when it is laid in the Barn, Stable or Hay loft.

A Mow, or Hay Mow, is several Loads of Hay 〈◊〉 together in a Barn or Stable.

A Stack, or Hay Stack, is several Loads of Hay, laid about, and trodden close together about a Stack Pole, being shaped broad at the bottom and narrow at rop; Pyramid-wise.

A Rick, or Hay Rick, is Hay Mowed without in the open Air, and made after the form of a Barn with a sheeding Ridg.

Treading it, is to sadden it down either in the Mow or Rick, &c.

Sweating of the Mow, when the Hay heats in the Mow.

Drawing it out, to draw it out of the Mow or Stack with an Hay hook, to give it to the Cattel, which Husband Men call Foddering of the Cattel or Beasts.

A Lock of Hay, as much as hangs together in ones hand.

A Pikell of Hay, as much as hangs together on the points or grains of a Pikell.

A Truss of Hay, as much as can be tied together in an Hay Rope, for a Man to carry on his shoulder.

A Iagg of Hay, is a small Load of Hay.

A Load of Hay, is a good Load, containing about 2000 Weight.

XXV. He beareth Azure, a Thrasher habited, or apparelled, or cloathed, of a party colour, each part counterchanged of the other Argent and Gules, with his Flail, or Thrashing Instrument raised over his head, and a Garbe at his right foot, Or. This is the crest of that worthy Family, Sir Cecill Trafford, of Traf∣ford, in Lancashire.

Terms used by Husband Men, for the Tillage and Sowing of Corn.

Fallow ground, is ground not of a long time bro∣ken up with the Plough; Ground unbroken up.

Marled ground, is laid over with a kind of fat mel∣low clay.

Mucked grounds, is ground spread over with dung of Beasts.

Faugh ground, or ground lying Faugh, is to let it lie a year or more Unplowed; the same to Fallow.

Ploughed ground, is that as is broken up with the Plow.

Fallowing, is the first Plowing for Barley, or the breaking up of Fallow ground.

Stirring, is the second Plowing for Barley.

Cogling, or Hurling, is Harrowing after the se∣cond Plowing▪

Sowing, is the third Plowing for Barley, and the Sowing of it just upon the Plowing.

A Furrow, is so much 〈◊〉 the Plow 〈…〉 a time, and may be either a broad or narrow Furrow.

A Rick, or Ridges, or Buts, are parcels of Land of several breadths and lengths.

Casting into Ricks or Ridges, is to make such by Plowing.

A Ree-an, is the distance between two Buts.

An Hadland, or Headland, is the end of a Butt, which the Plow in Plowing turneth up.

Sowing, is the casting Corn upon the ground.

Harrowing, is the renting and tearing of the Earth, that the same may cover the Seed sowed, or Corn cast upon the Earth.

Breaking of Clods, is the bruising of the Earth, which is in hard clods, that in dry Seasons the Harrow cannot rent in pieces.

Weeding, is cutting up the Weeds, lest the same overgrow, and so spoil the growth of the Corn.

Harvest time, the time when Corn is ripe.

Hay Harvest, Barley Harvest, Wheat Har∣vest, are the times for cu••ing of Grass, and those kinds of Grain.

Spritt, or Blasted, when it is beaten down by Rain, and through moisture begins to grow again.

Full Eared, wen it is full and well growth Corn.

Reaing, is cutting down of Ripe Corn.

Laying in Rapes, is laying it in heaps to be bound up.

Gathering and Binding, is making them into Sheats.

The Bond, is that as ties the Corn into Bundles.

A Sheaf of Corn, is a Bundle tied together.

An Hattock, is three Sheafs-laid together.


Half Thraves, are 12 Sheafs set up together.

A Thrave, is 24 Sheafs of Corn set up together.

Pitching, putting the Sheafs into the Cart, and out of the Cart.

Loading, is the orderly laying the Sheafs in the Cart.

Layding, or Carrying, is to bring the Corn to the Barn.

Gleaning, or Leesung, or Songoing, is gather∣ing of the loose Ears of Corn, after Binding and Load∣ing.

Cutting the Neck, is the last handful of standing Corn, which when it is cut down, the Reapers give a shout, and fall to Eating and Drinking; it being the end of that Mans Harvest for that year.

Mowing, Stacking, or Ricking of Corn, as before in Hay.

Sweating, is when it is hot in the Mow, Stack, or Rick.

Threshing, is the beating of the Corn out of the husk.

Straw, that as the Ears of Corn groweth upon.

Page  74Blade, the first springing of the Corn out of the ground, which is like Grass.

Chaffy the husk as covers the Corn, making them into Ears.

Winnowing, Winding, or Haveing, is to cast the Corn and Chaff into the Wind, to blow and cleanse the chaff from it.

Mant••ng, or Mantle Wind, is to make Wind with a Winnow sheet or course cloth held by two per∣sons.

Ridling, is a sifting the corn from the chaff

Reeving, is to sift the Corn, to cleanse it from small seeds.

Knottings, or Light Corn, such as is thin, and not well grown.

Paling of Barley, is the beating of it, to get the beards from it▪

Bagging, or Sacking of it, is to put the clean Corn into big or little Bags, to carry it into the Garners or Granaries.

XXVI. He beareth Argent, an Hunter, or Hun∣ster, his Horn by his side, and Staff upon his shoul∣der, and Grey hounds at his right side, proper, his clothes Azure. This is the coat and crest of the Family of Hunsters. Some term this a Courser, but then he hath no Horn by his side.

The like Hunter with a Blood Hound on his left side, with a Collar and Liame in his left hand, is the Seal of the Town of Huntington, as Mr. Speed in his Map sets it forth.

A demy Hunter to the Sinister, holding his Staff Bend∣ways before his Breast, with both hands each side his bo∣dy, with an Insula Cap imbowed and clothed, Gules, is the crest of Stangen zu Cunitz.

XXVII. He beareth Argent, a Forester all in green, with his Steel Bow on his right shoulder, his Fau∣chion by his side, leading an Hound Collared and Liamed, all proper. This is the crest of Baskervile, of Old Withington, in Cheshire. Some do term this a For∣rester with an Hound on the near, or nearer side of him, &c. The Hunter (aforesaid) with his Greyhound on the farther side of him, &c.

The Excellencies which are contained in the Noble and Worthy Exercise of Hunting and Coursing with Greyhounds, is so well known to all Gentlemen who delight in this Pleasant Sport and Healthy Pastime, I shall pass over; and insist only upon some terms former∣ly omitted in lib. 2. chap. 9. numb. 58. And first for the Laws of Coursing, according as they were allowed and commanded by the Duke of Norfolk in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, set down by Mr. Markham.

Laws of Coursing with Grey-Hounds.

1. It was Ordered, that the Fewterer, or Letter loose of the Greyhounds, shall receive the Greyhounds matched to run together, into his Leash, as soon as he comes into the Field, and follow next to the Hare-find∣er, till he come unto the Form; and that no Horseman or Footman, on pain of disgrace to go before them, or on any side, but directly behind, the space of 40 yards or thereabouts.

2. That the Hare-finder, shall give the Hare three Soho's before he put her from her Lear, to make the Greyhounds gaze and attend her rising.

3. That not above one Brace of Greyhounds do course a Hare at one instant.

4. That the Fewterer shall give the Hare twelve score Law, before he loose the Greyhounds, except it be in danger of loosing sight.

5. That Dog which gives the first Turn, if after the Turn there be given neither Coat, Slip or Wrench extraordinary; he that gives the first Turn shall be held to win the Wager.

6. If one Dog give the first Turn, and the other bear the Hare, then he which bore the Hare shall win.

7. If one give both first and last Turn, and no other advantage be between them, the odd Turn shall win the Wager.

8. That a Coat shall be more than two Turns, and a Go-By, or the Bearing of the Hare, shall be equal with two Turns.

9. If neither of the Dogs Turn the Hare, then he that Leadeth last at the Covert, shall be held to win the Wager.

10. If one Dog turn the Hare, serve himself, and Turn her again, those two Turns shall be as much as a Coat.

11. If all the Course be equal, then he that Bears the Hare shall win only; and if she be not Born, the Course must be adjudged dead.

12. If he that comes first in to the death of the Hare, takes her up, and saves her from breaking, cherisheth the Dogs, and cleanseth their Mouths from the Wooll, or other filth of the Hare; for such courtesie done, he shall in Right challenge the Hare, but not doing it, he shall have no Right, Priviledge, or Title therein.

13. If any Dog shall take a Fall in the Course, and yet perform his part, he shall challenge the advantage of a Turn more than he giveth.

14. If one Dog turn the Hare, serve himself, and give diverse Coats; yet in the end stand still in the Field, the other Dog without Turn giving, running home to the Covert; that Dog that stood still in the Field shall be adjudged to loose the Wager.

15. If any Man shall Ride over a Dog, and overthrow him in his Course, (though the Dog were the worse Dog in opinion, yet) the Party for the Offence shall ei∣ther receive the disgrace of the Field, or pay the Wa∣ger; for between the Parties it shall be adjudged no Course.

16. Lastly, Those which are chosen Iudges of the Leash, shall give their Judgment presently, before they depart the Field, or else he in whose default it lieth, shall pay the Wager by a general Vote and Sentence.

☞ Here note, that the Laws of Coursing, may and do often alter according to some Mens swaying Fan∣cies; for it ever lieth in the power of him that hath the office of the Leash conferred on him, to make Laws according to the customs of Countreys, and the Rule of Reason.

Page  75

Some other Terms and Descriptions re∣lating to Forests and Forest Laws, and the different terms between Hounds and Greyhounds.

A Forrest, is a place Priviledged by Royal Authori∣ty, and differs from a Park, Warren and Chase, and is purposely alotted for the nourishment of Beasts and Fowls thereunto belonging; for which there are certain Laws, Officers, and Orders; part of which are in the great Charter of the Forest.

A Forester, is an Officer of the Forest, sworn to preserve the Uert and Uenison therein, and to Appre∣hend all Offenders, and present them to the Forest Courts, to the end they may be punished according to their misdemeanors.

A Purlieu, is all that ground adjoining to Forests, which being made Forest by the King; was afterwards by the King, severed again from the same Forest, and made Perambulations.

A Purlieu-Man, is he that hath ground within the Purlieu of 40 s. Freehold. And such an one with some caution may Hunt within his own Purlieu.

A Regarder, is an Officer in the Kings Fo•••• that is sworn to take care of the Uert and Uenis••〈◊〉 to view and enquire of all Offences committed her〈◊〉 and of all Concealments, and whither all other Offi∣cers do execute their Office or not.

A Raunger, whose Office is to look after the Pur∣lieu, and to drive back the Deer into the Forest again; and to see, hear, and enquire after Offenders, and to present their Offences.

A Uerderor, is an Officer of the Kings Forest, and chosen by the Freeholders of the County where the Fo∣rest is, by the Kings Writ directed to the Sherriff for that purpose; such are chiefly to look after the Wood and Grass in the Forest.

An Agistor, is an Officer of the Forest, that takes in to Feed the Cattel of Strangers, and receives for the Kings use all such Tack-Money as becomes due from those Strangers.

Woodgeld, is the gathering or cutting of Wood in the Forest, or the Money paid for it to the use of the Forester, or an Immunity for this by the Kings Grant.

A Chase, is a place used for the Receipt of Deer, and Beasts of the Forrest; it differs from a Forrest and a Park; it may be in the hands of a Subject, which a Forest in its proper nature cannot be; neither is it inclosed as a Park always is; it hath a larger com∣pass, more Store of Game, and more Keepers and Over∣seers than the Park.

Expeditate, is the cutting out of the Ball of the foot of great Dogs in the Forest (as some say) yet others, that it is the cutting off the three fore-claws by the skin; and that the Owner of every such Dog unexpeditated in the Forest, shall forfeit 3 s. 4 d.

Fence Month hath 31 days, begins 15 days be∣fore Midsummer, and ends 15 days after; in which time it is unlawful for any to Hunt in the Forest, or to go among the Deer to disquiet them, because it is the time of Fawning.

Frank Chase, is a liberty of Free Chase in a circuit annexed to the Forest, whereby all Men that have ground within the circuit of the Forest are forbidden to cut down Wood, or discover, &c. within the view of the Forest, though it be his own Demesne.

Green Hue, or Uert, they both signifie every thing that doth grow or bear green Leaves within the Forest, that may cover or hide the Deer.

Over-Uert, is all manner of high Wood.

Nether-Uert, is all sorts of Under-wood.

Cablish, is all sorts of Brushwood.

Horngeld, is a Tax within the Forest for all manner of Horned Beasts.

Footgeld, is an Amercement on such as live within the Forest, for not expeditating their Dogs; and to be quit of Footgeld, is a priviledge to keep Dogs there unlawed, without Punishment or Controllment.

Pawnage, is Money taken by the Agistors for the feed of Hogs with the Mast or Acorns of the Forest: But (Mr. Crompton saith) it is most properly the Mast, Woods, Lands, or Hedged Rows, or Money due to the Owners of the same for it.

A Scotale, is where any Officer of the Forest keeps an Ale-house in the Forest by colour of his Office, cau∣sing Men to come to his House, and spend their Money there, for fear of having a displeasure; but this is sor∣〈◊〉 by Chrta Foresta.

erambulation, is the measuring and setting down 〈…〉 and limits of the Forest.

•••ft of the Fortest, is an exact view and exami∣nation taken at certain times, as occasion shall serve, to know what Beasts are there; that none Common there but such as have right; and that the Forest be not over∣charged with the Beasts of Foreigners.

An Assart, is a great Offence committed in the Fo∣rest, by grubbing up the Woods, Coverts and Thick∣ets, and making them plain, as Arable Land, or the like.

Minoverie, is a Trespass or Offence committed by some Engine set up in the Forrest to catch Deer or the like.

Tritis, is a Freedom that one hath from holding a Greyhound in ones hand when the Lord of the Forrest is Hunting there, or be amerced for his default.

Protoforestarius, the first or chief Forester, this was a great Officer heretofore in Windsor Forest.

Stablestand, is when one is found standing in the Forest with his Bow ready bent, or Gun prepared to shoot at any Deer, or with his Greyhound in a Lease ready to slip.

Swainmote, or Swannimote, is a Court appoint∣ed to be held thrice in a year within a Forest, the first 15 days before Michaelmas, the second about Martin∣mas, and the third 15 days before St. Iohn Baptist.

Chiminage, is taken by Foresters in Fee thronghout their Bailywick for Bushes, Timber, &c. And signifieth the same with Toll.

Afforest, is to turn Lands into Forrest.

Disafforest, or Disforest, is to turn Land from be∣ing Forest to other uses.

Page  76

Proper Terms used for the Noises of Hounds.

We say that Hounds, They Challenge, that is when they open and make a noise at first cast off, ha∣ving found some Game or Chase.

They Bawl, when they are too busie before they find the scent good.

They Babble, if they be too busy after they find good scent.

They are in full Cry, if they run it endways or∣derly, making it good, and then hold in together mer∣rily.

They Lapse, when Spaniels open in the String (or a Greyhound in his course.

They Plod, is when Hounds hang behind, and beat too much upon the scent in one place.

They Bay, is when they have earthed a Vermine, or brought a Deer, or Boar, or such like, to turn head against them.

Different Terms in Hunting, for Hounds and Greyhounds.

A Brace of Greyhounds, is two.

A Couple of Hounds, is two.

A Leace of Greyhounds is three.

A Couple and half of Hounds is three.

A Kennel of Hounds, or

A Pack of Beagles, when many together.

Entries, are such places where Deer have lately pas∣sed into Thickets or Underwoods, by which we judg their greatness; and there put in the Hounds or Beagles, to take their view.

They draw amiss, when Hounds have the scent of their Chase contrary, as to run it up the Wind, when they should it down.

Hunt change, when either Hounds or Beagles take fresh scent, hunting another chase, until they stick, and have it again.

Hunt Counter, when Hounds hunt it by the Heel.

Hunt the Foile, when the Chase goes off, and comes on the same ground again, traversing it over and over to deceive the Hounds.

Ringwalks, usually called Dew-rounds, which are things made by Huntsmen, when they go drawing in their Springs.

Prickhead, is the first head of a Fallow Deer.

Run Mute, when Hounds or Beagles run long without opening, or making any cry.

Run Riot, when Hounds run at a whole Herd of Deer.

Draw on the Slot, is when the Hounds touch the scent, and draw on till they rouze or put up the chase.

Deers Gate, or to know a Deers bigness by his Gate, is by the Huntsmans observing the Slot or foot∣steps of the Deer.

She carryeth, is when a Hare runneth on rotten ground, or in the Frost, sometimes it sticks to her feet.

Yearn, is when Beagles Bark and Cry at their Prey.

A Spitter, is by some called an Hart of the first Year.

A Pricker, is an Huntsman on Horseback.

Wiles, are any kinds of Engines to take Deer withal.

A Uauntlay, is when Hounds or Beagles are set in a readiness, expecting the Chase to come by, and then cast them off before the rest come in.

A Blemish, is when Hounds or Beagles find where the Chase hath been, and made a proffer to enter, but have returned.

The Call, is a Lesson Blowed on the Horn to com∣fort the Hounds.

A Recheat, a Lesson also on the Horn.

The Mort or Death, is a Lesson blown at the Death of any Deer. There are several other Lessons Blown on the Horn, which you may find. See in the fol∣lowing notes, with the names of the Notes.


To call the Company in the Morning, Tone tavern ta∣vern tavern tone ton-tavern.

The Stroaks to the Field, Ton-ton-tavern tone ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone.

To uncouple the Hounds, tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern ton-tavern tone.

When the Hounds hunt a Game unknown, ton-ton-tav••n tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern, tavern 〈◊〉-ton-tavern tavern tavern.

A Recheat, when they hunt a right game, ton-ton-tavern tone, ton-ton tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ta∣vern tavern tavern, ton-ton-tavern tavern ton-ton-ta∣vern tone ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern tavern tavern tavern.

A double Recheat.

The trebble Recheat.

The Earthing of a Fox if recoverable, tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern ton-ton-tavern tone, ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton ton-tavern tavern ta∣vern tavern.

If not to call away, ton-tavern tone ton-tavern.

The Death of an Hare tone tavern tavern tavern ta∣vern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tone.

The Death of a Buck, Tone ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-ta∣vern tone.

The Death of a Stag or Hart, tone ton ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern tonton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-ta∣vern ton-ton tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-ta∣vern tone.

The Death of a Fox, tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern ta∣vern tone.

The Call for a Keeper in Park or Forest, ton-tavern tavern ton-tavern, ton-tavern tne tn-tavern, Page  77 ton-tavern ton tavern tavern tavern tone.

The Prize of a Heart-Royal, tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern ta∣vern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern.

The Stroaks for the Terriers when the Fox is Earthed, ton-tavern tone ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton ton ton tone.

To draw the company out of the Field, tone ton ton ton ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern tone.

A Recheate or Farewell at the parting, ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone tone-ton, ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone ton tone ton tone, ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone tone.

Ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone tone-ton, ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone tone ton ton-ta∣ven ton tone ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone ton tone ton tone.

XXVIII. He beareth Argent, a Falconer Cloathed in Gray; with a Glove on his right Hand, with a Fal∣con upon, his Lewre by his side, and his Staff in his left Hand holding it cross his Body in Bend sinister, all proper.

For the Terms of Art used by Falconers, and things necessary and useful for Hawks are set down to the full in lib. 2. chap. 11. numb. 62. sect. 7.

XXIX. He beareth Gules, a Cooke with a Cap, Sleeves, and Apron, Argent; Wastcoat and Brea∣ches, Azure: Hose of the second, Shoes Sable, hold∣ing of a Dish of Meat between his Hands proper. A Dresser fixed to the Dexter side Or.

Cooks Dressers and Tables, are Emblems of Good Housekeeping and Hospitality; a thing in this age much commended, but little practized. And seeing I am fallen upon this subject, it will not be amiss to give some little touch by the way, of the bounty of some Princes and Nobles in their Feasts and Hospitality towards Strangers in former times: Whereof I find King Solomon to be the most famous President; for his daily expences, that I read off wherein he exceeded all others that preceed∣ed or succeeded him, as we may see 1. Kin. 4.22.23 where it is said: And Solomons Victuals for one Day were thirty Measures of fine Flower, and thirty Measures of Meal, ten fat Oxen, and twenty Oxen of the Pastures, and one hundred Sheep, besides Harts, and Roebucks, and Fallow Deer, and fatted Fowl.

We read also of a notable Feast kept by Iosiah King of Iudah, viz. The Feast of the Passover, of which it is said that there was no such Feast as that from the Days of the Judges, nor in all the Days of the Kings of Israel, and of the Kings of Iudah. For Iosiah gave to the People, Sheep, Lambs and Kids for all the Passover, even to all that were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand Bullocks; and his Princes offered willing∣ly to the Priest and People eight thousand Bullocks, and seven thousand six hundred Sheep, as we read 2. Kin. 23.21. &c. 2. Chro. 35.8, 9.18.

And Darius who was the Soveraign Monarch of the Medes, Persians, and Caldans in the third year of his Raign made a Royal Feast for all his Princes and Ser∣vants even all the power of Persia and Media, and for the Captains and Governors of an hundred and seven and twenty Provinces, which were before him. And for to shew the Riches and Glory of his Kingdom, and the Ho∣nor of his Great Majestie, this Feasting he kept for an hundred and fourscore days. And when those days were expired, the King made a Feast for all the People great and small that were in Shushan the Seat of his Royal Pa∣lace for seven days, as we may read in the Book of Ester chap. 1. Where he is called by the name of Ahashierosh, and of some Historians is supposed to be Artaxerxes, Son of Darius Hystaspis.

From him we descend to the Hospitality of the ancient Kings of this Land: I find that King Lud commanded his Houshold Officers, to have the Table in the Hall dai∣ly covered from seven of the Clock in the Morning to seven in the Evening. His daily Diet was not much in rare and delicate Meats; but that he kept it constantly with good and wholsome Viands and such Cates as could then be gotten. And at the four great Feast, he made Proclamation in the Country for all manner of People to come thither.

Also it is mentioned that King Cassibelane made a Royal Feast at the second triumph over the Romans: in which he gave out his Royal command to all the Gentiles of Brittany, to come with their Wives to Magnifie his Feast: for which he slew Forty thousand Kine, and Oxen, one hundred thousand Sheep, thirty thousand Deer, and other Wild Beasts of the Woods, besides the diverse kinds of Pullin, Coneys, Wild and Tame Fowl, both of Sea and Land, with much other purveiance of Victuals, with many Disguisings, Plays, Minstrelsie and sports too long to recite.

But to leave all others I shall only give a relation of one Feast more, made by George Nevill Arc•• Bishop of York; at the time of his Consecration, 〈◊〉••tallation, 7. E. 4. about 1466. at which there was p••vided this Provision,

  • Wheat, 300 Quarters.
  • Ale, 300 Tuns.
  • Wine, 104 Tuns.
  • Ipocras, 1 Pipe.
  • Oxen, 80.
  • Wild-Bull, 6.
  • Muttons, 1004.
  • Veal, s 300.
  • Porks, 300.
  • Geese, 3000.
  • Capons, 2300.
  • Piggs, 2000.
  • Peacocks, 100.
  • Cranes, 200.
  • Kids, 200.
  • Chickens, 2000.
  • Pigeons, 4000.
  • Conies, 4000.
  • Bitters, 204.
  • Mallards and Teals, 4000.
  • Hearnsewes, 400.
  • Pheasants, 200.
  • Partriges, 500.
  • Woodcocks, 400.
  • Plovers, 400.
  • Curlewes, 100.
  • Quailes, 100.
  • Egrets, 1000.
  • Rees, 200.
  • Harts, Bucks and Roes, 400 and odd.
  • Pasties of Venison cold, 4000.
  • Pasties of Venison hot, 1506.
  • Dishes of Gelly Pacted, 1000
  • Plain Dishes of Gelly; 1000.
  • Cold Tarts, 4000.
  • Cold Custards, 4000.
  • Hot Custards, 2000.
  • Pykes, 300.
  • Breams, 300.
  • Seales, 8.
  • Purposes, 4.
  • Chief Cooks▪ 62.
  • Servants and Broach tur∣ners, 515.

Page  78

The Officers of the said Feast.

  • The Earl of Warwick Steward.
  • The Earl of Bedford Treasurer.
  • The Lord Hastings Controller.
  • The Lord Willoughby Carver.
  • Sir Iohn Buckingham Cup-Bearer.
  • Sir Richard Strangways Sewer.
  • Sir Walter Morley Chief Marshal of the Hall, with eight other Knights Marshals, besides Esquires and Grooms.
  • Sir Iohn Malvery Panter.
  • Serjeant of the Kings Ewry, the Ewer.
  • Iohn Graystock and Iohn Nevill, Keepers of the Cubbord.
  • Iohn Braynock Surveyor through the Hall.

The Ordering and Sending up of the Grand Feast abovesaid.

    First Course.
  • Brawn,
  • Furmenty viant Potage.
  • Pennade purple Potage.
  • Hare powdred.
  • Roe Powdred.
  • Pheasant Intrail.
  • Swans.
  • Capons in half Grease.
  • Heronsewes.
  • Carpet of Venison.
  • Pike in Harblet.
  • Leach Cant.
  • Frutters.
  • Venison Baked.
  • Custard Planted.
  • A Suttlety.
    Second Course.
  • Gelly pacted Pottage.
  • Rassens Pottage.
  • Venison Baked.
  • Peacocks in Rapil.
  • Conyes Reverse.
  • Lardis of Venison.
  • Partridges.
  • Woodcocks.
  • Plovers.
  • Breames in Spile.
  • Pumis Verte.
  • Leiche Sipers.
  • Fruter Napkin.
  • Dates in Molde.
  • Scatines Ryal.
  • A Suttlety.
    Third Course.
  • Blanke Desire.
  • Dates in Compst.
  • Bitters Roste.
  • Pheasants.
  • Egrets.
  • Rabbets.
  • Quailes.
  • Martins.
  • Great Birds.
  • Larks.
  • Porpose Roste.
  • Leach Blanke.
  • Fruter Crispin.
  • Quince Baked.
  • Chamblett Vial.
  • Suttlety.
  • Wafers and Ipocras plenty.

Terms for Carving and Sewing.

  • To Ca•••, is to Cut up a Dish of Meat, but according to the Meats use these Terms for their Carv∣ing,
  • Break that Deer.
  • Leach that Brawn.
  • Ulace that Coney.
  • Chine that Salmon.
  • String that Lamprey.
  • Splat that Pike.
  • Sauce that Plaice and Tench.
  • Splay that Bream.
  • Side that Haddock.
  • Tusk that Barbell.
  • Culpon that Trout.
  • Fin that Chevin.
  • Transon the Eel.
  • Tranch that Strgeon.
  • Tire that Egg.
  • Undertranch that Purpus.
  • Tame that Crab.
  • Barb that Lobster.
  • Dight that Crevis.
  • Rear that Goose.
  • Lift that Swan.
  • Sauce that Capon.
  • Spoil that Hen.
  • Frust that Chicken.
  • Unbrace that Duck or Mallard.
  • Dismember that Hern.
  • Display that Crane.
  • Disfigure that Peacock.
  • Unjoynt that Bittern.
  • Untach that Curlew, and Brew.
  • Allay that Pheasant.
  • Wing that Patridge, and Quail.
  • Mince that Plover.
  • Thigh that Pigeon, and Woodcock.
  • Cut up that Turky and Bustard.
  • Break that Teal or Sarcel.

Other Bills of Fare for Grand Feasts, and how to set the Meat in Order.

    Novembers Feast.
  • Oysters.
  • Brawn and Mustard.
  • A Capon in Stewed Broth with Mar∣row-Bones.
  • A Goose in Stuffado, or two Ducks.
  • A Grand Sallet.
  • A Shoulder of Mutton with Oysters.
  • A Bisk Dish baked, or
  • A Chine of Beef roasted.
  • Minced Pies or Chewits of Capon, Tongue, or Veal.
  • A Chine of Pork.
  • A Pastie of Venison.
  • A Swan or two Geese roasted.
  • A Loyn of Veal.
  • A French Pie of diverse compounds.
  • A Roast Turkey.
  • A Pigg Roasted.
  • 2 Brangeese Roasted, one larded.
  • Sowce Veal.
  • 2 Capons Roasted, one larded.
  • A Custard double bordered.
    Page  79The second Course.
  • Oranges and Lemons.
  • A Sowced Pigg.
  • A Young Lamb or Kidd roast.
  • 2 Shovelers.
  • 2 Herns, one larded.
  • A Potatoe Pie.
  • Duck and Mallard, one larded.
  • A Sowced Turbet.
  • 2 Pheasants, one larded.
  • Marinated Carp, or Bream, or Pike.
  • Partridges, some Larded.
  • ade Dish of Spinage Cream Bak∣ed.
  • A Rowl of Beef.
  • Tailes roast, some larded.
  • A cold Goose Pye.
  • A Sowced Mullet and Bace.
  • A Quince Pye.
  • C••lews, some larded.
  • Dried Neats-Tongues.
  • A Dish of Anchovis.
  • A Jole of Sturgeon.
  • Jellies and Tarts Royal.
  • Ginger-bread, and other Fruits ac∣cording to the Season.
    A Christmas Days Feast.
  • Oysters.
  • A Collar of Brawn.
  • Stewed Broth of Mutton and Marrow-Bones.
  • A Grand Sallet.
  • A Pottage of Capons.
  • A Breast of Veal in stufado.
  • Boiled Partridges.
  • A Chine or Surloin of Beef roasted.
  • Mince Pyes.
  • A Jegote of Mutton with Anchovis Sauce▪
  • A made Dish of Sweet-breeds.
  • A Swan roast.
  • A Pastie of Venison.
  • A Kid with a Pudding in his Belly.
  • A stake Pye.
  • A Haunch of Venison roasted.
  • A Turky roat, stuck with Cloves.
  • A made Dish of Chickens in puff Paste.
  • 2 Geese roast, one larded.
  • 2 Capons, one larded.
  • A Custard.
    The second Course.
  • Oranges and Lemons.
  • A young Lamb or Kid.
  • 4 Rabbits, two larded.
  • A Pigg sauced with Tongues.
  • Ducks, some larded.
  • 2 Pheasants, one larded.
  • A Swan or Goose Pye cold.
  • Partridges, some larded.
  • A made Dish in puff paste.
  • Bolonia Sausages. in a Dish.
  • Anchovis. in a Dish.
  • Mushroomes. in a Dish.
  • Cavieare. in a Dish.
  • Pickled Oysters. in a Dish.
  • Teales, some larded.
  • A Gammon of Westphalia Bacon.
  • Plovers, some larded.
  • A Quince or Warden Pye.
  • Woodcocks, some larded.
  • A Tart in puff paste.
  • Preserved Fruit and Pippins.
  • A Dish of Larks.
  • Neats-Tongues.
  • Sturgeon, and Anchovis, and Jellies.

Other Bills of Fare for every Season in the Year, also how to set forth Meat in Order accordingly.

First Course.

Oysters, Muskmelons.

1. Brawn and Mustard, Eggs and Collops, Hasty Pud∣ding, Pudding Boiled, a Pot Ball or Dumpling or baked of Bread, or Rice, Puddings in skins of Blood and Oate-Meal.

2. Boiled Capon in stewed Broth, Fresh Neats-Tongues and Udder, Hens and Bacon, Beef and Cabbage, Ca∣pon pottage, Panado, Compound-possed or white Broth, Olio, Gruel, Furmenty, Honey Sops, Soops, Caudles of Oate-Meal or Eggs, Alebury.

3. Turkies in Stuffado, Hash of Rabbits, Ducks in Stuf∣fado, Haunch of Venison Roasted, Scotch Collops of Beef, Mutton or Veal.

4. A Hash or a Shoulder of Mutton, a Grand Fricasee, Loyn of Pork, Hash Capons, Calves Head stewed, Bisk.

5. Geese boiled, a Grand Sallet.

6. A Boiled Meat of Ducks, Roast Pork.

7. A Marrow-Pudding baked.

8. A Surloyn of roast Beef, a Chine or Ribb of Beef.

9. Minced Pyes, Steak Pye, or Hare, Pumpion, Arti∣choke, Umble, Potatoes, an Oline or Pallate Pie, Chaldron Pye, Giblet Pie, Calves head or feet Pie.

10. Loyn of Veal, Roast Venison.

11. A Pasty of Venison or Mutton.

12. A Pig Roasted, Leg of Mutton Roasted, Hare Roa∣sted.

13. Geese Roasted, Swan Roasted.

14. Capons or Hens Roasted.

Second Course.

Oranges and Lemmons.

1. Lamb or Kid, Sallet of Herbs, Pease and French Beans, Rabbits.

2. Sowced Pig, Capon, Swines head and feet.

3. Rabbits roasted and larded, Widgeons, Teal, Dot∣terells, Curlews, Ruffs.

4. Ducks roasted and larded, Shovellers, Gulls, Herns, Cranes, Bittorn.

5. Teal or other Fowle, Woodcocks, Quailes.

6. A made Dish or Batalia Pie, Sweet-bread Pie, Fried Fish or Buttered Fish of any sort: as Pike, Salmon, Dace, Mullet, Turbu, Ray, Lump Fish, Plaice, Flounders, Soals, Lampry, Eels.

7. Neats-Tongues, Florentine of Tongues.

8. Pigeons, wild or 〈◊〉 larded: Olines or Plovers, Sparrows, Black-birds, Thrushes, Fieldfare, Railes.

9. Sowced Capon, Sowced Eels or other Fish, Ray, Salmon, Conger.

10. Pickled Mushrooms, Oysters and Anchovis, Lob∣sters.

11. Orangado Pie, or Tarts of green Pease, Hips, Rice, Cheries, Goosberies, Plums, Prunes, Barberies with wet Suckes, Pippin Pie, Warden Pie, Quince Pie, Codling Tarts of diverse colours in puff paste, Quak∣ing Pudding.

Page  8012. Sturgeon, Collar of Beef, Turbut, Pickled Puffins, Scallops, Cockles, Muscles, Sprawns, Shrimps, Crabs, Tortoise, Crawfish, Snails.

13. Westphalia Bacon, Bolonia Sausages.

14. Turkey or Goose Pie, Marinate Flounders, Arti∣choke Pie, Smelts, cold Hare Pie, Selsey Cockles.

15. Jelly of five or six colours, Tansies, Fritters, Pan∣cakes, Balls oasted.

16. Creams made of Codlings, Quince, Plums, Goos∣berries or Almonds, Clouted Cream, Snow Cream, fresh Cheese and Cream, Sillabubs & Cream, Egg Pies.

17. Custards, White pots, Fools, Leach, Blamangers.

18. Lay Tarts of diverse colours, Tarts Royal, Cod∣lings and Cream, Cheese.

Third Course.

1. March-pan set with several sorts of Sweet-Meats.

2. Preserves or wet Sweet-Meats in Plates as, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Quinces, Grapes Respass, Pippins, Oranges, Lemmons, young Walnuts, Apricocks, Pea∣ches, &c. with their Syrup aout them.

3. Dried Sweet-meats & Suckets of Oranges Lem∣mons Citron: or Conserves, or Candies, and Rock-Candies of Cherries, Apricocks, Plums, Damasius, Pippins, Pears, Angelica, Rosemary and Marygold Flowers, Pippins, Pears, Apricocks, Plums, Ringo roots: or Marmalet of Quinces, Damasins, Plums, Oran∣ges, 〈◊〉Pastes made of Citron: Pippins, Apricocks, Rasbery, English Currans.

4. Bikets, Mackroons, naple Bisket, Italian Bisket, Com∣feits round, Longs and Loseng like, Gingerbread, Al∣mond Cakes, Apricock Cakes, Lsenges, Quince Chips, Orange cakes, Marchpane Collops.

5. Sugar cakes, Iamballs, Iemelloes, Sugar Plate, Plum and Rasbury cakes, Cheese cakes.

6. Tree Fruit as Apples and Pears of diverse kinds, Che∣ries, Plums, Strawberies, Currans, Rapes, Walnut, Chestnuts, Filbernuts, Dates, Graps, iggs, Oranges, Lemmons, Apricocks, Peech, Dried Raisins and Currans, Prunes, Almonds blanched

According as the season is for them, all which several things are mixt and interchangably set on the Table ac∣cording to the discription of the Gentleman Sewer.

Cookery is an extraordinary, and an ordinary Art; the first exemplifieth in Dishes of such high Prices which none but Noble Hospitalities can reach unto, and those only Illustrate by new Terms of Art, more then any sub∣stantial sollid Dish-meats, which in truth for all their cost∣liness are meer Kick-shews, rather to please the Pallet with a dellicate Ho-goo, then wholesome feeding. Where∣as, the second may with less labour be better managed for the general good, and Treatments of meaner expences, given to Friends, Allies, and acquaintances; having handsome and relishing entertainment throughout all the Season in the Year: For I have found by Experience that some Country Cooks have out-gone, with mixtures easily prepared, and not too chargable to the Purse, those who have with cost made Hogg▪ podg Dish-meats, neither pleasing to the Pallet, or of credit to the Masters: But this is none of my business.

I have generally noted in great Feasts, Cooks have sent up their Dish-meats to the Table ad Libitum, accord∣ing to their own will; some first Boiled Meats, then Bake Meats, then Roast Meats all together, &c. Other Coo (but Gentlemen Sewers rather, whose Office it is to place Dishes on the Table) will send them, one Boiled, another Baked, another Roasted, &c. Alternately Dish for 〈◊〉 till the Table be furnished: and for that end I have a∣bovesaid gathered a Feast of twelve, fourteen, sixteen, or twenty Dishes for a considerable Feast for all times in the Year, noteing several Dish-meats ender one and the same figure, in the first and second Course intimateing thereby, that if the Season of the Year will not afford one kind, it is probable it may another, except in cases of scarcity, or places of great distance.

But let Cooks study new Dish-meats, and work out their Brains when they have done all they can, there is but four sorts of Meat which they can properly, and with safety work upon, viz. Flesh of Beasts, Flesh of Fowle, Flesh of Fish, and Field Fruits: and these a∣gain are according to their kinds, either Stewed, Boiled, Parboiled, Fryed, Broiled, Roasted, Baked, Hashed, Pickled, Souced, or made into into Sweet-Meats. Nil Vltra.

Sauces of all sorts, and of what Com∣pounded.

Also Sauces of all sorts, and for most Dish-meats of Flesh, Fish or Fowl; are by the Cooks Art com∣pounded of these Ingredients.

Fatnings, as Butter, Gravey, Hogs-Grease, Sewe, Marrow, Lard.

Liquids, as Muskadine, Sack, Claret, White-wine, Sider, Vergis, Vineger, Aliger, Cream, Milk, Sallet-Oyle, Pickles of several pickled things, Water, Jellies or several sorts, Strong-Broth.

Thicknings, as Eggs, Bread or Sops, Biskets, Onions, Leeks, Chibals, Garlick, Artichoke bottoms▪ Sweet herbs chopped, Asperagus, Skerrets, Parsnips, Turnips, Green Pease, Colliflowers, Apples, Samphir, Anchovis, Blood, Capers, Olis, Mustard.

Sweetnings, as Sugar, Cinamon, Cloves, Mace, Pepper, Nutmeg, Salt, Goosberies, Barberries, Grapes, Raisins, Currans, Plums, Dates, Oranges and Lemmos and them candied, Mellacattors.

It is an easie thing to be a famous Cook, when he flows in all things to his desire; but he is the best Cook that shews his Art with small cost, and little expence of Fire.

But for Drink to these sorts of Meat we must go to the Buttler, Yeoman of the Wine-Sellar and compounder of Liquors, and they will tell us that they have in their Custody these several sorts of Drinks.

  • Table-Beer.
  • Ale.
  • Sage-Ale.
  • Wormwood-Ale.
  • Scurvy-Grass, or Purle.
  • Mint-Ale.
  • Beer, mild and stale.
  • Mum.
  • Sack.
  • White-wine.
  • Claret.
  • Curran Wine.
  • Couslip Wine.
  • Iamaica Claret.
  • Page  81Punch.
  • Ipocras.
  • Muskadin.
  • Meath or Mead.
  • Metheglin.
  • Usquebach.
  • Stomach-Water.
  • Aqua Mirabilis.
  • Aqua Vitae.
  • Aqua Coelestis.
  • Coffee.
  • Chacolet.
  • Tea.
  • Sharbett.
  • Raisin Wine.
  • Rasberry Wine.
  • Gillyflower Wine, &c.

A Bill of Fare for Lent-time, or other Fish or Fast-Days.

    First Course.
  • Oysters if in Season.
  • A Pudding Pie.
  • Eggs and Butter.
  • Rice Pottage or Barly broth Milk or Pease pottage.
  • Stewed Oysters, Mucscles, Cockles, Wilks.
  • Buttred Eggs on Toasts.
  • Buttred Turnips, Carrets, Parsnips, Potatos.
  • Spinage Sallet boiled, or o∣ther cold or pickled Sal∣lets.
  • Boiled Rochet, or Gurnnet, or Flounders.
  • A Jole of Ling.
  • Stewed Carp.
  • Oysters Chewits.
  • Boiled Pike.
  • Roast Eels, or fresh Herring.
  • Haddock, fresh Cod, or Whiting.
  • Eel or Carp Pie.
  • Made dish of Spinage.
  • Salt Eels.
  • Souced Turbut or Salmon.
    Second Course.
  • Fried Soals.
  • Stewed Oysters in Scollop shells.
  • Fried Smelts.
  • Congers head boiled.
  • Baked Dish of Potatoes or Oyster Pie.
  • A Spitch-cock of Eels.
  • Quice Pie, or Tarts.
  • Buttred Crabs.
  • Fried Flounders or Flooks.
  • Jole of fresh Salmon.
  • Jole of Salmon.
  • Fried Turbet.
  • Cold Salmon Pie.
  • Fried Skirts.
  • Souced Conger.
  • Lobsters, or Crabs, or Spawn.
  • Sturgeon.

The Names of Several Dish-Meats and Cooks Terms Alphabetically.

Andolian, is a kind of Pudding made of Hogs Guts filled with Spices, and one Gut drawn over another: some writ it Annolia.

Almon Bread, bread made of Almon.

Angelot, is Curds made of Milk Cream and Runnet, into thin Cheese.

Alebury, Ale boiled with Sugar, Mace and Manchet.

A-la-Hugenotte, a Dish of Eggs dressed up with Gravey of roast Beef with boiled Mushromes and other Spices.

A-la-Sauces, Sauce made after the French Al∣maigne or German fashon.

A-la-Doode, is a French way of ordering any large Fowl, or Leg of Mutton, to be eaten cold with Mustard and Sugar: the thing is seasoned with Salt and Spice, Lar∣ded and Baked and kept cold.

A-la-Mode way, is the new or French way of dres∣sing all manner of boiled or baked Meat.

Buttered Ale, is Ale boiled with Butter, Eggs and Sugar.

Batalia Pie, the same order of meat as in a Bisk, and put in a Pie.

Basting of Meat, is to Butter meat roasting at the Fire to keep it from burning, some do it with Butter, o∣thers clarified Suet, Claret Wine, Water and Salt, Cream and Eggs, &c.

Broth, is the liquor flesh is boiled in, being thickned with herbs and groats.

Beef, the flesh of Ox, Cow, or Bull.

Biskque or Bisk, a Dish-meat made of a Rack of Veal, a Knuckle of Mutton, Pigeons, Chickens, a Roast Capon minced: Sweet-breads, Marrow, Artichokes (and what you will) boiled or stewed together with Spices in water, and so Dished up by Art.

Bisque, or Bisk Pie; is made of the like Ingredi∣ences either of Flesh or Fish.

Bisket Bread or Cakes, is made of Flower, Sugar, Eggs, Carroway seeds, baked.

Blanch, is to take the skin of Almonds, also it is u∣sed for the taking off the top crust of Bread, and Lamb stones blanched, is to take the skin off, and blanch a Neats-Tongue.

Blanch Manchet, is a fried Pudding made of Eggs and grated Bread.

Boile, is to put any meat into water, in a Pot over a Fire.

Boile Meat, are all boiled Dish-meats.

Blanchmanger, a made Dish of Cream, Eggs and Sugar, put into an open pu•• paste bottom, with a loose cover.

Brodo Lardiero, is an Italian term, and is the or∣dering of Tongues, Noses, Lips and Pallate of Beefs, by boiling and blanching them whole, by halfs or Gobbins: and served up in strong broth with Bacon interlarded.

Bolonia Sausages, these are only made in Septem∣ber, they are Beef Guts filled with minced Pork and stampt: to which mixt Pepper, Cloves, Nutmegs, Salt, and Salt-Peter, Caraway seeds, and Cinamon: tied a∣bout a Finger long.

Blamanger, is a Capon roast or boile minced small, planched Almonds beaten to paste, Cream, Eggs, Gratd Bread, Sugar and Spices boiled to a pap.

Breading of Meat, is Grate Bread and mix it with Flower, or do each it 〈◊〉: rowing it one 〈…〉 and ready to draw o the spit.

Balts, those to fry are compounded 〈…〉, old Cheese, Sugar Currans, made into paste: 〈…〉 little Pasties, Toasts, Scallops and such like, are made for Gar∣nishing: see Ransoles.

Bals or 〈…〉 to eat, see Dumpling.

Batter, is Flower Milk, Eggs and Spices, for the mak∣ing of Pancakes, Fritters, and several other things for Feasts.

Bovillon, is a kind of Broth or boiled meat made of several things.

Chips or Italian Chips, is a paste made of fine Flower Gum Dragon sleeped in Rose Water, rowled thin and cut them in peeces, and speck them with diverse colours.

Page  82Collar of Beef, is Beef half boiled and rowled up with Spices and sweet Herbs chopped small in it, and then baken in a Pot: Eels or Congers are so collared and Souced.

Calves Chaldron, the Intrails of a Calfe.

Chine, the Back-bone of any Beast or Fish.

Clouted Cream, is Milk, Cream and Rose water, get over a soft Fire for a Day and Night and it will be thick, then Sugar it well; it is made of Cream alone gon thick, which in some places is called thick Milk, or Bono-thlober.

Capilotadoe, or a made Dish-meat, or kind of Cu∣stard, called a Fool.

Collops, slices of Bacon.

Custard, open Pies, or without lids, filled with Eggs and Milk: called also Egg-Pie.

Cheesecakes, a case of paste filled with Cheese Curds Currans, Eggs, Spice, with other Ingrediences made by Art.

Cream and fresh Cheese, is Cheese, Curds and Cream.

Cream, is the top or setiling of new Milk: there is Rice Cream, Piramidis Cream, Sack Cream, &c. made by Art with those ingradiences.

Cracknels, is a Bread made of fine Flower, Corian∣der seeds, Sugar and Currans, made in form of a Pie.

Carbolion, is a liquor of Wine Water and Salt to boile Fish in.

Caudle, is made of Ale, Oate-Meal (or Eggs) Mace, Sugar, and Sliced Bread.

Calver, is a term used to a Flook or Flounder, when it is to be boiled in Wine, Vinegar, and all sorts of Spices: and so kept in it.

Chewit, or small Pie; minced or otherwise.

Chiveridg Pudding, is an Hogs longest and fatest Gut, filled with Nutmeg, Sugar, Ginger, Pepper, and sliced Dates boiled.

Carbonado, is to cut and slash any cold joynt o Meat and Salt it and then broiled it before the Fire: or Raw peeces of Meat thus broiled on the Fire, are termed of some Carbonadoes (of Beef because that is most used so) others call them Rashers of Beef.

Comsits, are round, long or square pellets of Sugar made by the Art of a Confectioner.

Champignions in Fricasee, is Mushrooms fried: they are also called Fungi and in English Toad Stools.

Deer, the flesh of Buck or Doe.


Dumpling, a Pudding of Meal or Grated Bread, Milk, Eggs, Suet, Currans &c. boiled in a cloth in a Pot: see Pudding.

Dredging, or breading of Meat.

Draw, as draw this Pullet, is to take the Guts out of its Belly.

Dress, is to prepare any Fowl for the Spit and Fire.

Eggs in Moon shine, are Eggs broken and boiled in Sallet-Oyle, till the Yolks become something hard, and so are eaten with slices of Unions fried in Oyle, Butter, Verjuce and Nutmeg, Salt: like Poached Eggs, with Butter, Vineger and Pepper.

Fricase, or Fricasey, or Fricasse, or Fricate; are variaties of Meat boiled together in a Broth.

Fritters, are small Pancakes, having slices of Apples, in the Batter.

Florentine, is a made Dish of any sort of Flesh, or Fowl, minced, with one part made in Balls, and the other part with Butter and Yolks of Eggs dressed up, which may be served in a Dish, Pie, or Patty-pan.

Furmetry, or Furmety.

Forced or Farced, a Forced Leg of Mutton, is to stuff or fill it (or any Fowl with a minced Meat of Beef, Veal &c. with Herbs and Spices.

Fry, is to order Flesh or Fish for eating, in a Pan with Butter.

Foole, is a kind of Custard, but more crudelly; being made of Cream, Yolks of Eggs, Cinamon, Mace boiled: and served on Sippets, with sliced Dates, Sugar, and white and red Comfits, strawed thereon.

Farcing, is stuffing of any kind of Meats with Herbs, or the like: some write it Forsing and Farsing. To Farce is to stuff any thing.

Fuel the Fire, see Timber.

Force Meat, is Meat with a stuffing of Herbs, or o∣ther things made to that purpose.

Fillet of Veal or Beef, is a round peece cut of a Leg of Veal or peece of Beef and stuffed with Herbs.

Flee, pull of the skin.

Ginger-Bread, is made of Grated Bread, Ginger, Cinnamon, Sugar, with other Spices made into a paste with Rose-water.

Giblets, the Entrals of any Fowl, especially the Goose, as Heart, Gissern, Liver, Head, and great Gutt.

Grwel, is a kind of Broth made only of Water, Grotes brused, and Currans, some add Mace, sweet Herbs, Butter and Eggs, and Sugar: some call it Pottage Gruel.

Grand Sallet, are of several sorts: some all sorts of pickles laid orderly in a great Dish, with a tree or some devise set in the middle of it, others of sorts of Souced Meats cut in slices, and others with all sorts of coloured Jellies.

Grand Dish-meat, is the chief, or Principal Dish in a Feast, whether it be Flesh or Fowl, which is generally filled with variety of things.

Gigget of Mutton.

Gobbin, or Gobbet, or Gubbins; Meat cut in large peeces, as large as an Egg.

Galendine, is a sauce for any kind of roast Fowl, made of Grated Bread, beaten Cinnamon and Ginger, Sugar, Claret wine, and Vineger, made as thick as Grewell.

Garnished, is to dress the sides of Dishes, to set them forth in great Feasts with Salt, Leaves, Flowers, Bees, Turnips, Carrots, and other kind of things, according to the Cooks ingenuity. Some say Garnish the Dishes.

Gammon of Bacon, or Ham.

Gravey, the fat as runs from Beef, or other Meat, in roasting.

Grilliade, is a Broiled Mess, o Meat broiled on a Grid-Iron.

Gelly, see Jelly.

Hash, is a Dish-meat made of any kind of flesh min∣ced or in Gobbets stewed in strong broth with Spices, and served up in a Dish with Sippets: to Hash is to stew any Meat that is cold. The French call it Hah or Hachee.

Page  83Haggas pudding, is either a Sheep, Calves, or Hogs great Gut, or Belly Gut filled with a Calves, or Sheeps Chaldron minced, Eggs, Cream, Sugar, grated Bread, Salt, Currans, Marrow, Sewet, and some sweet Herbs, and so boiled up: the ordinary way is with Blood, Grates, Herbs and Sewet,

Ham or Westphalia Ham, is a Leg of Pork (if right, of a young Cub, or Bear) Salted dried and made black.

Hachis, Hachee, or Hach, see Hash.

Hautgoust, a thing that hath an high aste, viz. a Ho-goo.

Ielly, a kind of oily or fat liquor drawn from Calves or Neats feet boiled.

Iumballs, a kind of sweet Bread, made up in rouls, compounded of fine Flour, Eggs, Cinnamon, and Su∣gar. Some call them Iamballs.

Ipocras, a compound Wine made of Sack and di∣vers Spices.

Iegote, see Giggett.

Iemelloes, is a Paste made like Butter, of fine Su∣gar, Yolks of Eggs, Musk, Carraway seeds seased, Gum Dragon steeped in Rosewater and Flour run through a Butter squirt, and made into what fashion you please.

Interlarded, Bacon that hath Fat and then Lean, then fat and then lean, between one another

Iole of Sturgion or Salmon, is the two quarters of them, the head parts being at them.

Indoice, is to rub the in-side of the Coffin of a Pie, with Butter very thn.

Leach, a kind of Jelly made of Cream, Ising-glass, Sugar and Almonds, with other compounds.

Links, a kind of Pudding, the skin being filled with Pork Flesh, and seasoned with diverse Spices, minced and tied up at distances.

Liveridg puddings, is the Hogs gut filled with the Liver boiled, and grated, and sifted through a Cullen¦der, to which add grated Bread, Milk, Herbs, Salt, and other Spices and Sugar.

Lumber pie, made of Flesh or Fish minced and made in Balls or Rouls, with Eggs and hard Eggs, and so Baked in a Pye with Butter.

Lyth, or Lything, is Oatmeal or bruised Groats that thickens Broth.

Lear or Leir of an Egg, the White after it is beat∣en into a foam.

Larded Meat, is when long slices of Bacon are run through several places of it; as a Duck or Turky Lard∣ed or interlarded in the Breast.

Mash, is to stamp and beat minced Flesh into a Paste almost.

Manchet, is White Bread made in Rouls, broad in the middle, and sharp at the ends.

Made Dish, is a Dish compounded or made of se∣veral sorts of Meat minced, or cut in pieces, stewed or Baked in paste, being liquor'd with Wine, Butter and Sugar.

Marchpane, is a round Cake raised in the edges with a Border, made of Almonds, Sugar, and Rose wa¦ter beaten to a paste.

Mead or Meath, a drink made of Ginger, Sugar, Honey and Spring water boiled together.

Metheglin, a drink made of all sorts of wholesom Herbs boiled and strained with Honey and Water, and set to work with Bearm, as Ale or Beer.

Mackerons, see Mackrooms.

Melacatons, a kind of Fruit.

Mince, is to cut and chop Flesh very small. Mince∣pies are made of any Flesh cut small, and mixt with Raisins, Currans, Sugar.

Mussard, is a kind of sharp biting sauce, made of a small seed bruised and mixt with Vinegar.

Murine or Marinate, is to pickle any sort of Fish, for to keep them for half a year or a year together, by frying the Fish crisp in Oil, and putting them into a pickle of Wine, Vinegar, sweet herbs and Spices, with Lemon peels.

Marrow, the fat in large Beasts Bones. Marrow∣pies are made with it, with several other Ingredients, as sweet-breads, Potatoes, Artichokes, Bacon, Eggs with Fruit and Spices.

Maremaid pies, is a round Pie to be eaten cold, and is made of a Pig Boned and Quartered, and Eels inter∣mixt with Spices.

Mackrooms, a kind of roul of sweet Bread made of the same stuff as the Bisket is made of.

Milk pottage, is made of Water, Oat-Meal, a little Milk or Cream, Salt, and Fresh Butter; so of Rice Pottage, and other kinds.

Midcalf, the Intrals of a Calf, as Lights, Liver, Heart, and its appurtenances.

Neat, Beef of Oxe or Cow; but it is most used to the Tongue, as Neats Tongue.

Olio, is made of Flesh or Fish Minced, putting to it sweet herbs, grated Bread, Egs, Salt, Nutmeg, Pepper and Barberries, and make them into little Balls or Rouls; and so put into a Pie with variety of other Meats and Fruit.

Olio podrida, is a Rump of Beef, Bolonia Sausa∣ges, Neats Tongues boiled with Beef, Mutton, Venison, Pork cut in Gobbits as big as Eggs, also Carrots, Tur∣neps, Onions, Cabbage, with a Faggot of sweet Herbs, &c. stewed together; then all sorts of Fowl stewed with Bread, Marrow, Artichokes, hard Yolks of Eggs all served together in strong Broth finely stewed up; others call it Ola podrida, an Hotch-potch.

Olives, or Olines of Beef or Mutton, are the same cut in thin slices, and backt with a Knife; then with a farsing, of sweet herbs, hard liggs, Beef Suet, or Lard Minced, Spices and Salt strowed or laid, on the slices, and so rolled up, and Roasted or Baked, and served up with a sauce of the Stuffing, Verjuice, and Gravy, and Sugar.

Omlt of Eggs, is Eggs beaten together with Min∣ced suet, and so fried in a Pan, about the quantity of an Egg together, on one side, not to be turned, and ser∣ved with a sauce of Vinegar and Sugar. An Omlet or Froise.

Ola, an Hotch-potch of several ingredients.

〈◊〉 Knights, are slices of White Bread dipt in Eggs, Cream and Sugar, fryed in Rose Water and But∣ter.

Puffe, is a roll of soft paste, made of Curds, Cream, Eggs and Flower, and so fryed in Suet purified.

Pomas of a sheep, is all the Intrals, see Mid∣calf.

Page  84Petipetes, are Pies made of Carps and Eels first roasted, and then minced, and with Spices made up in Pies.

Parmisan, or Parmisant, Old Cheese 7, 8, or 9 years of Age.

Parboile, is to half Boil any sort of Flesh or Fowl.

Po-tage, is strong Broth of Meat, with Herbs and Spices Boiled.

Pottage, is the Broth of Flesh or Fowl, with Herbs and Oatmeal boiled therein.

Paste, is fine Meal or Flower, Water and Butter mixed up.

Past Royal, is made of Flour, Sugar, Almond Milk, Butter, Eggs, Rose Water, Saffron, Ambergrife and Musk worked up all cold together.

Puffe-paste, is made of Flour, cold Water and But∣ter, and laid in fleeces, with Butter between each, which makes it rise and swell in the Baking.

Pelipate or petite, is a French way of Mincing meat for Pies, with Lard cut amongst the Meat.

Panado, is a kind of Caudle, made of Water, gra∣ted Bread, Currans, Mace, Cinnamon, Sack, or White Wine and Sugar, with Yolks of Eggs boiled.

Pap, of Nurses called papes, is Milk and Flour boiled together.

Pye, is any sort of Meat made up in a piece of fine Paste, made into diverse forms, as round, square cor∣nered, &c. and called according to their f••ling, as Mince, Steak, Chaldron, Umble, Artichoke, or Eel Pies.

Pull, is to take the Feathers off Fowl; Pull off the Feathers.

Pine-Molet, is a Manchet of French Bread, with a hole cut in the top, and all the crum taken out, and filled with a composition of rost or boiled Capons min∣ced and stamped to a Paste, with sweet Herbs, Eggs and Spices, &c. and so boiled in a cloth; and serve it in strong Broth, with several sorts of Fowls about it.

Posset, is hot Milk poured on Ale or Sack, having Sugar, grated Bisket, Eggs, with other ingredients boil∣ed in it, which goes all to a Curd.

Puffs, are slices of Lemon dipt in a Batter made of Eggs and sweet herbs minced small and Fried, after Su∣gared.

Pudding pie, is made of Bread, or Flour, or Rice and Milk Baked in a Dish.

Pudding, made of Groats and Blood and sweet herbs, and put in Swine or Beefs Guts, and Boiled.

A Pudding, or Ball, or Dumpling, or Pot-Ball, is Flour, Bread, Milk and Eggs, with Sugar, Raisins, Currans, and Suet minced mixt together and put in a Bag, or made stiff into a Ball, and boiled. Some call this a Bag Pudding.

Press, is a cold Dishmeat made of a Swines Feet, Ears, Snout, and Cheeks boiled to a Jelly with Spices, make a lay of it, and press it square in a Cloth, then serve it up in slices.

Pancakes, is made of Batter fryed in a thin Cake in a Pan.

Poacht Eggs, are Eggs broken into boiling Wa∣ter, and quickly taken out and eaten with Butter, Vine∣gar and Pepper.

Pickle, is a kind of drink that souced meats are kept in, and Fruit for Salleting is preserved with, gen••ally it is made of Salt and Water, or Vinegar, Dill, and some other Spices.


Pie-paste, is fine Flour, Butter, Eggs, Kneaden, or Moulden together.

Pasty, is paste rouled broad, and the Meat being laid in Order on it, it is turned over, and made up on three sides, with garnishes about.

Quaking pudding, it is made of crumbs of Bread, Cream, Eggs and Spices.

Quodlings, or Codlings, are green Apples boiled.

Quinee pie, or Coffin for Quinces, is an open crust set in corners, into which Baked Wardens or Quin∣ces Preserved are put.

Quelque shose, is a kind of Fricasee made of Eggs, Cream, Nutmeg, Salt, Rosewater; Sugar and Butter, and slices of Apples fried in Cakes.

Quiddony, is a kind of quaking Jelly made of fair Water and Pippins, or Quinces or Plums well sugared, and put into Boxes.

Rasher, is a slice of Beef Fried or Broiled.

Ransoles, are kind of small Balls rolled up in fine Past made of these compositions, Beet leaves beaten, Sweetbreads minced, Marrow, Herbs, Raisins, Dates, Naple Bisket grated and made in a paste.

Roast, is to turn Meat on a Spit before the Fire, till the Bloody part be taken away.

Roast meat, any thing roasted.

Rand or Ran of Sturgion, a thick piece out of the middle of the Sturgion.

Sauce; is any Liquor or liquid thing to be eaten with dry Meats, yet every Dish-meat hath its peculiar Sauce or Sallet.

Sallet, is either Sweet Herbs, or Pickled Fruit, as Cucumbers, Samphire, Elder-Buds, Broom-Buds, &c. eaten with Roasted meats.

Sausages, are Porket Gutts, or Hogs or Sheep Guts filled with Minced Pork, Suet, Salt, Pepper, and tied up in Links about a Fingers length.

Scotch Collops, are thin slices of Mutton or Beef, hackt and salted, then Broiled up quick; serve them up with Vinegar and Butter.

Stoffado, is a term for the Stuffing of any joint of Meat, or Belly of any Fowl, or the like.

Soops, are Broaths made diverse ways, according to the Cooks Art, or rather Sauces to be under Dish∣meats, though such are generally eaten with spoons.

Sop, is Toasted Bread steeped in Sack, Wine, or Al&c.

Soops, a kind of sweet pleasant Broth, made rich with Fruit and Spices.

Souce, or souce Drink, is a Liquor made of Salt and Water, or Vinegar, to preserve Flesh and Fish in; each thing having (in a manner) a peculiar Souse liquor to preserve it from stinking or putrifying.

Souced Meat, is either Flesh or Fish boiled whole, or rouled up in Collars, or like Brawn, with sweet herbs and spices; and are to be eaten cold, and kept in Souce, Pickle, or the like.

Steaks, are the Breast, Loin, or Neck of Veal or Mutton cut into pieces, the Bones with the Flesh, and either Boil, Fry, or make them into Pies, seasoning them Page  85 with Salt, Pepper, sweet herbs minced, Nutmeg, Gin∣ger, &c.

Sugar plate, is White Sugar sifted, White of Egs, Gum Dragon and Rose Water beaten into a Paste, then moulded into any form, and so Print it.

Stewed Broth, is strong Broth boiled up with Raisins, Currans, Prunes, Mace, &c.

Stewed Meat, is to boil Meat gently over a soft fire.

Skink, a kind of Pottage made of Beef Broth with sweet Herbs, sorts of Spices, Marrow Bones, and thick∣ned with grated Bread.

Snow Cream, is made of Cream, Eggs, Rose-water and Sugar, beaten into a Froth like Snow.

Sillibub, is made of Vinegar and New Milk, the Curd mixt with Cream, Sugar, Currans, Cinnamon.

Spitch-cock, is a dish of large Eels Fried cut into 3 or 4 pieces, with their skins on.

Sippets, are slices of Manchet, to set out dishes (as a Garnish) especially in Broths.

Slash, or Scorch, is to cut and scorch it cross with a Knife before it be Fryed.

Slice, a thin piece of Bread or Flesh.

Searce, or Sift, is to take fine Meal from the course.

Strain, is to force a liquid and soft thing through a Cloth, to keep it from dross and dreggs.

Salmagundi, an Italian dish-meat made of cold Turkey and other Ingredients.

Scald, is to put any Fowl or the like into hot boiling Water, and take it out again.

Spit such and such a thing, is to put the Broach through it.

Tansy Cake, is made of grated Bread, Eggs, Cream, Nutmeg, Ginger, mixt together and Fried in a Pan with Butter, with green Wheat and Tansy stamped.

Taffaty Tarts, are made like little Pasties, round square, or long, the Paste being rolled thin, and Apples in ays, strewed with Sugar, Fennel seeds, and Limon Peel cut small; then Iced in the Baking.

Tortelleti, or little Pasties.

Toasts, are shives of Bread, dried, and made hard and hot before a Fire.

Tripes, are the Belly of a Cow or Oxe, cut in pie∣ces and souced, and after fried with Butter, and eaten with Mustard.

Trotter Pie, is an Apple Pie mash'd in the Crust after it is Baked, having Cream and Yolks of Egs beat∣en together, put in it and stirred up.

Triffel, is Cream boiled with Sugar, Mace and Cin∣namon; when it is Blood warm, put in it a little Run∣er which thickens it, being cold, serve it up with Sugar scraped on it.

Tarts, are Apples laid in Paste, in Dishes, Patty pans, or round Pies, Stewed or Baked with Sugar and Orangado, or Lemond in sucket cut small. Tarts are thus ordered of all other kind of Fruits.

Timber the Fire, is to mend the Fire, make it burn better, by putting more Fuel of Wood or Coles to it.

Truss, or Trussing, is the dressing and ordering of Fowl for the Pot or Spit, by turning up the Legs and Wings.

Turn round, is to keep an even hand in turning the Spit, by the Turn-spit.

Uerjuice, is the juice of Crabs, or sour Apples.

Uinegar, is White or Claret Wine turned sour.

Umble Pie, is a Pie made of the Intrals of a Deer, as Heart, Liver, &c.

Wassell, is a drink of Ale, toasted Apples, Sugar and Cinnamon mixt. Of some called Lambs-Wool.

Whipt Cream, it is beaten thick with a Whisk, then eaten with Cream and Sugar.

White-pot, it is a kind of Custard, and is made in a Crust or Dish, with these compositions of Cream, Eggs, Pulp of Apples, Sugar, Mace, Cinnamon, and Sippets of White Bread.

Walm, a little seething or boiling up of any Liquor in a Pot.

Wivos me quidos, is the Spanish way of dressing Eggs, which is to set them over the Fire with Sack, Su∣gar, Nutmeg, Salt, and juice of Lemon, and let them heat till they be thick.

XXX. He beareth Sable, a Baker, with a Peel in his both hands Bendways, with a Loaf of Bread up∣on it, Or. Others who give a fuller description of it, Blazon it thus, a Baker with his Peel in his hands bend∣wise, with a Loaf thereon, Or, a Cap on his head, his Wastcoat stripped above his Elbows, Argent, Breech∣es and Hose, Grey, Shooes, Sable; having an Oven fixed to the dexter side, Gules. This was the ancient Crest of the Bread Bakers of Chester, which now they have relinquished.

Terms used by Bakers.

Grind the Corn, to put it on the Mill to crush and bruse it.

Dress the Meal, is to sift it through a Sive, to take the fine from the course.

Fine Flower, the Dant or Heart of the Corn.

Bran or Scufting, the Husk of the Corn.

Bolt the Meal, is to turn it through a courser cloth, to make a courser Flower. This is called a Bolter.

A Batch, is as much Flower made into Dough, as is baked at a time.

Season the Liquor, is to put Salt or Spices in the hot Water, that is to Knad the Meal.

Leaven, is Dough kept unbaked till it be Sower.

Leaven the Batch, is to put the Leaven broken in Water, and hide it into the middle of the Meal to sower the whole Batch.

Blend it up, is to mixt the Flower and Liquor to make it into a Paste.

Knead it, working the Flower and Liquor toge∣ther.

Dough or Paste, is the Batch unbaked.

Break it, is to beat it with a long round thick Bea∣ter.

Couch the Dough, is the taking of it up as the Breaking puts it abroad

Weigh the Dough, is to weigh it so and so accord∣ing to the Prices of the Loaves.

Mould it, make it into Loaves, or Roulls.

Cut it, is the running the Knie round the Loase, or Roul.

Page  86Prick the Loafe, is to make little holes on the top of the Loafe with a Bodkin.

Seal or Mark the Loafe, is to set the Bakers nam or mark on it, that it may be known whose Bread it is i faulty, or not well made.

Set in, is the putting of the Loafe into the Oven.

Draw the Bread, when it is well Baken, then it is taken out of the Oven.

Fire the Oven, put Fire and Fuel in it▪ to heat

Sweep the Oven, is to make it clean from Ashes.

Ashes, is the out-cast of the Fireing.

Close the Oven, is to draw the stock before the Oven Mouth.

Stop the Oven, is to Lute about the Oven stock; with Clay or Dirt out of the Street, to keep the heat in.

Several sorts of Bread.

White Bread▪ in Loaves, Roulls or Cakes: which is of pure fine Flower.

Manchent, or Roul bread; called also a Wigg.

Boulted Bread, or Wheaten Bread; being courser then White, and worked up with Barme or Yest.

Brown Bread, or Brown-George: the black∣est and coursest Bread, being the Meal and Bran to∣together.

French Bread, a light spungy Bread kneaden with Eggs.

Leaven Bread, a close well made Bread, worked up with Leaven.

Iannock Bread, a Sower Bread made of Oates.

Iamballs, a sweet Bread made up in Roulls.

Cracknel Bread, Kneaden with Saffron & Currans.

Bisket Bread, a sweet Bread made of fine Flower, Eggs and Sugar.

Almond Bread, made of fine Flower, Sugar and Almonds.

Mackeron, a Sweet Bread made in Roulls.

Barra Pickled, a light Bread made in round Cakes.

Oate-Bread, made of Oate-Meal Leavened.

Bread made of Roots, as Ground-Artichoke, Po∣tatos, Turnips, &c.

Horse Bread, made of Bean and Pease, &c. with Scuftings of other Corn.

XXXIII, He beareth Azure, a Tanner working at his Beam, on a Hill: Others term it a Tanner at his Beam Fleshing of an Hide, proper. But if the Reader will have the particulars of it, then thus: He beareth a Tanner (working at his Beam, or) Flesh∣ing of an Hyde, his Apparel Purpure, his Apron, Hose, Beam and Foot, Or; Fleshing Knife, Argent: the rest proper. This is the Crest of the Worshipful Company of Tanners of the City of Chester.

Terms of Art belonging to Tanners.

Scutching the Bark, is cleansing it from Moss, and the rough, crusty outward Bark.

Hewing the Bark, is chopping it into small peeces.

Grinding the Bark, is putting it under the Mill to crush it very small.

Drying the Bark, is to dry it that it may Grind.

Setting down.


Laying down.

Ouse, is the Water in which the Bark hath been steeped: Tanners-Ouse is of some termed so, when the Bark and Waters is together.

Turfe or Tanners — that is the Bark cast out of the Tan-Pits, which when it hath for a time lien for the Water to run out, it is wrought into Turfes, which dried is good fire Fuel.

The Wett-Glover.

The Trade and Occupation of a Glover, is in all re∣spects answerable to the Tanner, both useing one and the same way of work, with the same kind of Instru∣ments, only in this they differ; the Tanner is for Beasts Hydes, as Oxen, Cows, Horses and Calves, being thick and strong skins for which Tanning they use Oake Bark. The Glover is for Sheep, Goats, Lambs and Castling skins which are slender, thin and gentle: for the dressing whereof they use only Lime, and Bran; and this doth easily appear if you read the names of their In∣struments, only I do confess they differ something in their Terms of Art.

Terms used in the Art of a Wett-Glover.

Lyming, piting the skins with Lime and Wa∣ter.

Pigging, is hanging of many skins together.

Washing to pull, is cleansing them from Lyme.

Hanging, is to put them on a Horse or pale after they are washed that the Water may run off.

Pulling is stripping the Wooll of the skin.

Pelts, are the skins when the Wooll is taken off.

Working, is to lay them on the Beam and with the Fleshing knife and Vealing knife, to scrape off the lime and cleanse them from their Fleshyness.

Drenching, is the putting of the dressed skins into a liquor made of Barn and Water.

Drawing the Pits.



Drying, hanging them on ropes, lines, or laying them in the Sun on grassy Ground to dry.

Washing, is to scoure them in warm Water and Eggs to make them sast.


Withing, is to rub them on a Writhen, bent Iron, which makes the Leather soft and plumpe.


Tawing, is the treading of the Leather in a Trough.

Page  87Frizeing, is the working of the skin Woolly on one side.

Shammo, or Shammo Frizeing; is to make it Woolly on both sides like a peece of cloath.

The Currier.

This is the Dresser of Tanned Leather, for when the Tanner hath done his part, then the Currier he works the same so as it becoms soft, gentle, and serviceable for many uses and purposes; for without his Art, the Shoomakers, nor Sadlers and several other Trades could not make use of it, neither would it be good for any thing, save Cloutt Leather.

Terms used in the Curriers Art.

Scouring or Washing.

Shaveing, is the taking down of the thickness of the Leather.

Dyling or Liquoring.


Rowling and Beating, is the beating it on the Pin block.

Scowering, is to cleanse it with scowring.

Colouring, is to make it either black, red, yellow, blew, &c.

Graining, is to work it into rounds and squares by making small Crevices or Veins in the surface of the skin.

Slickenning, is to make the Leather smooth and bright as if it shined.

XXXII. He beareth Gules, a Butcher with an Axe, in his right Hand over his Head, and his left holding of a Swines head upon a Block, (as if he were about to cleave it) all proper. This is the Crest belonging to the name of Slaughter.

A Demy Butcher, with an Axe erected in his right hand, is the Crest of Dashperg; a German.

Terms used by Butchers in their Slaughtering.

Strike down, is the term of killing an Ox or Cow, which is by giving him a blow or two on the Forehead with the round end of the Ax.

Kill, or Slaughter Sheep, or Calf.

Slaughter-House, the place where they kill their Meat.

Shambles, the place where Butchers Meat is Sold and Bought.

Butchers Terms for the several Parts and Ioynts in a Cow, or Ox.

Beef, is the Flesh of either Bull, Cow, or Ox.

The four Quarters.

The further Quarter.

The hinder Quarter.

The Chin, is the Back-bone.

The Beast Cheek, is one side of the Head.

The Head, is the whole Head.

The Neats-Tongue, is the Tongue of Cow, Bull, or Ox.

The Roote of the Tongue.

The Neats Feet, are the Feet cut off at the Knees and Cambrel Joynts.

The Belly, or Tripp.

The Blood, and Puddings.

In the Farther Quarter.

The Shoulder, is when it is cut long from the Breast and Ribs, which being again divided hath

The Top of the Shoulder.

The Hogh.

The Marrow-Bone.

The Neck piece, or Bloody end.

The Breast, is all under the Shoulders: which being cut through the middle is called.

The Upper end of the Breast.

The Lower end end of the Breast.

The Sticking Draught, is a part of the Breast when it is cut long-ways over cross the Bones: having part of the Neck at,

The Ribs.

The Top of the Ribs.

In the Hinder Quarter.

The Sirloyne, is the top part of the hinder Quarter cut through the middle longways, which being cut in two, they are called,

  • The Maidens Bone.
  • The Tailick; or Rump, if it have the Rump at it.

The Lift or Buttock, is the Fleshy part of the Thigh which being cut and opened: then it is term∣ed,

The Out-side of the Lift, is that where the fat is.

The In-side of the Lift, or Buttock; is the inside of the Thigh.

The Marrow Bone, it is the Bone in the But∣tock.

The Bed of Beef, is the Belly or lower part of the hinder Quarter cut long ways, which being divided is.

The Flank, is the bottom of the Belly, next the Pissel, or Udder.

The Baking Draught, is the higher side of the Bed.

The Udder.

The several Parts of Ioynts of a Sheep or Calfe.

Ueal, is the Flesh of a Calfe.

Old Ueal or Young Beef, of some termed a Page  88Runner or Running Ueal, is the Flesh of a Calf a Year old, or thereabouts.

Mutton, the Flesh of a Sheep.

Lamb or Kid, is the Flesh of a young sucking Lamb.

Sheep Puminices, is the Head, Heart, Lights, Liver and Wind-Pipe of a Sheep all hanging toge∣ther.

Lambs Pumices, is the same of a Lamb: or Lambs Head and Purtinences.

Lambs-Stones, Sweet-Bread, and Kidney or Lully.

Calves-Feet, eight Feet makes a pair.

Calves-Head, and Midcalf: is the Heart, Lights, and Liver, and its Appurtenances.

A Side of Mutton or Ueal, is the half of a Sheep or Calf: the further and hinder quarter joyned toge∣ther.

In the Farther Quarters.

The Shoulder.

The Breast.

The Rack either of Veal or Mutton; is the top part of the Breast that as is half of the Back-bone, this being cut in two, are called

  • The Head end of the Rack, it is that next the Head.
  • The Lower end of the Rack.

The Calves Chaldron, are all the Intrells, Belly, Puddings, Manifolds, &c.

In the Hinder Quarters.

The Legg.

The Loym.

A Row of Ueal, is a peece cut from the Fleshy part of the Leg of Veal.

Suett, is the fat that cleaves to the Loin.

Ioynts, or parts of a Boar, Swine or Hogg.

Brawn, is the Flesh of a Boar.

Pork, is the Flesh of a Swine or Hogg.

Bacon, is Swins Flesh Salted and Dryed.

The Cheeks, or Swins Cheek, is the Head cut streight down the middle from Crown to the Snout.

Souce, is the Swins head, Ears, and Feet, boiled and pickled in Brine, made of small Bear, or Water and Salt.

The Quarters, two farther Quarters; two hinder Quarters.

A Side of Pork, is the half of the Swine, the farther and hinder quarter, having the Legs cut off.

Swines Grease or Lard, or Swines Leafe of fat.

A Flitch of Bacon, is the whole side of Pork, hav∣ing the four Hoghs cut off, when it is Salted and Dri∣ed.

A Gammon of Bacon, is the Thigh and Buttock part of the Flitch of Bacon.

A Ham of Bacon, is when it is Salted and Dried with the Hogh or Thigh at.

Farther Quarter,

The Hand of Pork, is the farther Hogh.

The Breast.

The Rack.

The Middle peece.

The Spar-Ribs, the Ribs when they are cut from the sides of such Pork as is intended for Bacon.

Hinder Quarters,

The Leg, is the hinder Thigh or Hogh.

The Loyn.

The Middle peece.

XXXIII. He beareth Vert, a Smith with his Ham∣mer working at his Anvile, all proper; or more parti∣cularly, a Smith with his Hammer in his right Hand elevated, as high as his Head; in his left hand, a Pair of Tongues holding a peece of Iron on the Anvile, Argent: the Anvile or Stiddy, Or: Cap Azure, turned up Ermin: Doublet, Breeches and Hose gray, Apron of a dirty swarthy colour, Shoos Sable. And is born by the name of Smith, a Dutch-Man.

A Demy Smith, holding his broad faced Hammer in his right hand, Cloaths Gules: is the Crest of Goldbeater.

Terms used by Smiths in their Trade,

Blow up the Fire, is to make the Fire Burn, some say blow up the Coals.

Not Feel the weight of the Hammer, is when Iron is so cold that it will not beat forth.

Red Sear, is when Iron is too hot, that it breaks or cracks under the Hammer in working between hot and cold.

An Heat, is when the Iron is made of the colour of the Fire.

Blood red Heat, is when the Iron wants a little hammering to smooth it.

Flame or white Heat, is when it is ready to the form∣ing of that thing it is intended for.

Welding or a Sparkling heat, is when it is to joyn with another peece of Iron.

Tew, is to Batter or draw out a peece of Iron.

Double up, is the laying of one peece of Iron on ano∣ther, by turning the end up, and working it into one so∣lid peece.

Up-set, is when at a heat the Iron is beaten back into the Body of the work; this is often done when a thing is made too thin, or too narrow.

Seat Rod, or Punch Rod; is With or Wrea∣then stick turned about the Head of a fire punch to hold it on the hot Iron, while it is striking through or making a hole in it.

Page  89Forgeing, is beating out hot Iron into any shape.

Brazing, is Sodering of two peeces of Iron together or the edges of any round thing, as a Hoope.

Loam, is a kind of mixture of Clay and Horse-dung, which is put about any peece of Iron that is to be sodery•••.

Cold Chissel, are all sorts of Chissels used to cut cold Iron.

Cold Punch, is such as is used to punsh holes through cold Iron.

Punching, is making a hole in any peece of Iron with a Punch.

Rivetting, is the battering of an Iron shank or pin, so that it fall not out of the hole it is put into.

Drill, is to bore a hole with an Instrument called a Drill.

Hammer-Harden, is hardning Iron or Steel with much beating it with a Hammer, the Iron being cold.

Screw, is a spindle of Iron cut into a Wreath.

Thrid of a Screw, is that part as stands up.

Grove of a Screw, is the hollow or sinking part be∣tween the Thrids.

Worm in a great Screw.

Nut, is the Screw box in which the Screw turneth.

Twisting of Iron, is the wreathing of a square bar when it is in a flame Heat.

Case Hardening, is the Hardning of Iron after the work upon it is finished: by heating it red hot and quenching it in Water, or by quenching it in Chamber∣ley, or White-wine Vinegar wherein Bay Salt and the Powder of a Cows hor hath been put.

Nealing of Steel, is to make it soft, that it may File or be Engraven upon: is by heating it red hot, and let it coole.

Hardning or Tempering of Steel, is quenching it in Water being red hot.

Let it down, is the making of a Steel spring soster if it be too hard.

The Farrier.

This is a Kindsman of the Black-Smith, and there∣fore may well succeed him: he is described by either Blooding, Shooing, or Dressing of the Wounded back of a Horse: and sometime by giving him a Drench or Drink out of a Horn.

Terms used by the Farrier as to Horse-Shooing.

  • Pare the Hoofe.
  • Unperfect Hoofe.
  • Broad Hoofe and Brittle Hoofe, or having a Raggedness on the out sides.
  • Long Hoofe.
  • Crooked Hoofe.
  • amise, or Flat Hoofe.
  • Hollow and over Hollow Hoofe.
  • Hoofe Worne.
  • Seat the Shooe, fit it to the Foot.
  • The Seat of the Shooe, that part of the Hoof where the Shooe is set on the Hoofe.
  • Well seated Shooe, is well placed on the Hoof.

Parts of an Horse-Shooe.



Calkin or Caukin Shooe, hawing tang ast the ends.


Trim Light Shooe, is a Light Shooe. Middle size Shooe. An heavy Shooe.

False quarter shooe, is such as have a shoulder in the in-side of the shooe, to keep it from lying on a weak or sore heel.

Lunett, or shooe without heel parts, made to secure weak heels.

A False quarter shooe, with one heel part.

Hollow shooe, it is wrought so much outwards, that it toucheth no part of the Ball of the foot.

A shooe disbord without the hoof, is when it is broader out than the hoof.

Web of the shooe, is the breadth of the shooe. Broad Web. Narrow Web.

Welt of the shooe,

Welt of the shooe indented, made like the teeth of a Saw.

Sponges of the shooe.

Pearses, or Pearsed, is the holes in the shooe: Nail-holes.

Deep pearsed shooe, is when the holes of the shooe are made at a good distance from the outside, or near the middle of the shooe, which is often done for long hooft Horses.

Middle part of the Web, is taken to be the inner part of the shooe that compasses the sole.

Out side of a shooe, where the nail holes or pearsings be.

Imbossed side of a shooe.

Drive in the Nails, is to nail the shooe o•• the hoo.

Horse-shooe Nails, Nails with foursquare heads.

Frost Nails, with sharp pointed heads.

Button Nails, with round heads.

Stump, a Nail overworn in a Horse-shooe.

Twitchings, ends of Horse-shooe Nails cut off. Some term them,

Pinchings, because pinched and writhen off from the out side of the hoof with the Pincers.

Tallon Nail, is that Nail driven in the shooe to∣wards the Horse heel.

Cut off the Nails, twist or writh of the ends with the Pincers.

Clinch the Nails, is to beat that part of the Nail which remains out of the Hoof (after the end 〈◊〉 cut away) with a Hammer on the hoof, to return it 〈◊〉 into the hoof.

Hide the Clenches, the clinches hidden in the hoof, when they are so beaten into the hoof, that they cannot discern where the points of the Nail came through the hoof in the shooeing of the Horse.

Page  90Unclinch the shooe, is to beat those clinched ends of Nails up again out of the hoof, that the shooe may be taken of.

Pair the Hoof round, that is with a Rasp, Rasp of the hoof as much as exceeds the breadth of the shooe.

Shod round, when a Horse hath four new shooes set on; shooed round.

Shod half round, when two shooes aree set on one side.

Shod behind,

Shod or shooed before.

Put on a Shooe.

A Remove, is when a shooe is taken off, and set on again with new Nails.

Removed round, when all the shooes are so set on again.

Rough shod, when the Nails are not yet worn that holds on the shooes.

Hoof Bound, is when the shooe is nailed too stret on the hoof.

Cast a shooe, is when the Horse looseth his shooe in Travel or otherwise.

Smooth shod, when the Nails are worn smooth.

Frosted, when the shooes are put on with Frost Nails.

Terms of Art used by Farriers about the Cure of Horses,

Accipum, a kind of Drench, and an Ointment, used about Horses.

Anodyna, or Liogs, are compositions of Simples to ease pains.

Baths, warm Waters to wash and bath Horses Limbs when stiff and benummed, or places for Horses to swim and wash themselves in.

Cauterize, is to Burn the sore place with a hot Iron.

Corrode, Burning hot sores. Inflamed sores.

Corrosives, Compositions made for Burnings; burning compositions.

Causticks, a Medicine that Burneth, which is used when a Disease cannot otherwise be mastered.

Conglutinate, to glew or set together.

Curtall, a Docking or cutting the Horse tail shorter.

Cordial, a Drink to cherish a Horse.

Crustick Medicines, strong Medicines inclining to Fire.

Drenches, Drinks or Mashes given to Horses to cleanse them.

Diapente, a composition made of five Simples.

Dissolve, to make soft and supple that place which is hard or swelled.

Docking, see Curtalls.

Fumigations, a smoaking, or operating through smoaky Perfumes.

Frictions, is the chafing and rubbing and fretting of any grieved place.

Incise, the cutting into Sores with a Knife or Lancet.

Lauuce, to cut open a swelling, or make a passage for coruption to issue forth.

Lyogs, see Anodyna.

Mundifie, cleanse.

Mollifie, make soft.

Narcotica, a composition of Simples to cause sleep; benumming.

Putrifaction, corruption.

Putrifactive Medicines, such as corrupt the com∣plexion of a Member; or such as takes away dead Flesh as Carbuncles, Cankers, Ulcers.

Purgation with Glisters.

Rowelling of Horses, is putting of hair rings through the Horse skin to draw out Corruption.

Repercussive Medicines, are such as drive back humours.

Sorance, is any sort of sore in Horses.

Sellander, or Seliander a kind of dry scab in the ham of a Horse hinder Leg.

Sarcotica, compositions of Simples that incarnate or breed flesh.

The terms of Horse Diseases, and things concerning them, are formerly set in lib. 2. c. 7. numb. 113.

The Iewellers Working Instruments.

  • Gravers of all sorts large and small.
  • Flat Scalper
  • Half round Scalper
  • Round Scalper
  • Plyers both flat and round
  • Sheers
  • Forging Hammer
  • Pinning or Rivetting Ham∣mer.
  • Setting Hammer
  • Dividers
  • Compasses
  • Painting Pencills small and larger
  • Cleansing Pencill
  • Brush
  • Bollishing Brush
  • Scratch Brush
  • Rough Pollishing Stone
  • Smooth Pollishing Stone
  • Trippilo or Pollishing Stick
  • Crucible
  • Boiling Pan
  • Simmon Stick
  • Muffler
  • Wax Stick
  • Wax Box
  • Using Stone
  • Corn Tongs
  • Flint Morter
  • Inamell Grinder, or Muller, or Pestel
  • Inamelling Point
  • Inamelling Bridge
  • Inamelling Tongs
  • Inamelling Plate
  • Sothering Coal
  • Blew Inamel solid
  • White Inamell
  • Green Inamell
  • Yellow Inamell, &c.
  • Blew Inamell transparent
  • White, &c.
  • Foiles of all colours
  • Tripillo
  • Purnice
  • Brimstone
  • Borax
  • Salt Peter
  • Mercury
  • Puttey
  • Sandifer
  • Salt

Terms of Art used by Goldsmiths and Iewellers.

Melting the Gold in a Crucible, some call it Smelt∣ing.

Casting it into a Langet.

Forging, beating it into a Form as the Workman will.

Page  91Planishing,

Turning up, the raising or turning a part of it, as in the turning up of the shanks of Rings, or Collets and Bizells.


Shank, is that part as compasseth the Finger, the Ring part.

Iesning, is fitting the Stone into the Collett.

Cramping the Collets together.

Mounting, is fixing the Colletts all together to the shank of the Ring.

Filing, or Filing up.

Graving the shanks of the Ring, and Scallops or Musells on the sides of the Colletts.

Clearing and Boiling.

Inamelling, is laying on of the Colours. Eamelling.

Nailing, is burning the Inamell colours, to make them soder and stick to the Graving.

Using off, is the clearing of the Inamell of the work.

Graining, is the making of little pearls or heads at the foot of the scallops of the Colletts.

Boyling off,

Putting in the Simmon.

Fitting the Stones.

Laying in the Foil, which is to make the Stone to make a Luster according to the colour of the Foil.

Setting the Stone.

Cutting the Cressants about the Bissell, or top of the Collett, which being turned down, holds the Stone fast in; they 〈◊〉 cut into Cressants or 〈◊〉.

Polish〈◊〉, making it bright▪ clear and Lustrous.

Ueeving, is 〈◊〉 the Ring with Cork. Ueiving.

Wafing, is 〈◊〉 the Stones from Dust with a Pencill.

Slat-ing of Inamell, is taking Inamell off a Ring, and Inamelling it with another colour.

Masticking, is setting a Black between the Stones to set them aff.


The Needle Maker.

    Sorts of Needles.
  • Pearl Needle, is the least size of Needles.
  • The first, second and third sort of Needles, accord∣ing to their sizes; so numbred till you come to ten.
  • Ordinary Needles.
  • Bush Lane Needles.
  • Glovers Needles have square points.
  • Book Binders Needles are long and round point
  • Sow-Gelders Needles are flat pointed.
  • Chyrurgions Needles are the same, flat pointed.
  • Pack Needles, crooked at the point, and some flat, others three square; others with a Back and Edge (like a Knife) at point.

The Cutlers Trade.

He beareth Argent, a Cutler at his Glassier or polishing Wheel, polishing of a Knife upon it, all proper.

Several sorts of Weapons under the Notion of Swords.

A Sword, the general term of all Cutting Wea∣pons, by which Mans Life is taken away.

A Back Sword, having an edge on one side.

A Two Edged Sword, edged on both sides.

A Waved Sword, the Blade being uneven.

A Back Rapier.

A Rapier, with two edges.

A Tuck, a four square Blade.

A Hanger, or Back Fauchion.

A Scimitar or Turks Fauchion.

A Hunting Hanger, some have a kind of Saw on the Back.

A Cuttoo, is a small Hanger.

A Dagger, or short Sword.

A Skean, or Irish Dagger, it is broad at the handle, and goes taper all along to the point.

A Baggonett, a Granadeers Dagger, to thrust into the Mussel of his Firelock.

Terms used by the Cutler.

A Forger, is him that makes Sword and Knife Blades

A Grinder, is him that works them out of the rough.

A Temperer, is him that brings it to its right tem∣er.

A Furberer, that polisheth and makes them up.

Burnish, to mae bright.

Frubish or Furbish, to clean a Sword Blade, and take all rusty spots out of it.

Glase, to put a gloss upon a Blade or Hilt, of what colour is desired.

Repairing, a mending or surbishing up of an old Sword.

Punching, to hollow or make holes in the Hilt.

Chaising, to make devises on the Hilt.

Hatching, is to Silver or gild the Hilt and Pomell of a Sword or Hanger.

Damasking, is to inlay a Hilt and Pomell with Silver, Gold, Copper or Tin.

Sanguining, is to make it of a pure Purple colour.

〈◊〉, is to anoint it with some Oil or Spirit, to keep it from Rust

Scabbard, is the Case for either Sword, Rapier, or Fauchion.

Sheath, is the cover for a Dagger, Skean or Knife.

False Scabbard, a Lether case to draw over it.

Draw out the Scale.

Rash it even.

Lining of the Scabbard, is the Linnen or Woollen Cloth in the inner side of the Scabbard.

Bind it up and glew it, is to tye the two sides of the scle when li••d, ogether, the Blade being between.

Cover it with 〈◊〉.

Page  92A Chape, is the Iron socket fastned at the end o the Scabbard or Sheath.

Hook and Socket, set at the top of the Scabbard to hang it by at the Belt. Ioyning of it up.

Mounting of the Sword, which is either well or ill; well mounted when the Point upon the Welding or Brandishing of it, is not too heavy for the Hilt and Pomell, but equally ballanced; ill mounted when ei∣ther is weightier than other, therefore it is, that a long and weighty Blade requires an heavy Pomell.

He beareth Sable, a Plummer, having a Ladle full of melted Lead, and pouring it into a Mould set at his feet, all proper. By the name of Plummer.

Plummers Terms of Art:

A Pig or Sow of Lead.

Melt it in the Furnace; some say Smelt it.

Put it into the Pan.

Plain the Mould, make the Sand smooth.

Set the Mould.

Cast it over, turn it out of the Pan upon the cast∣ing Frame.

Follow it with the strickles.

Catches, the waste Lead▪

Cut off the catches, cut it from the sheet.

A Sheet of Lead.

Selvage or edge of the Lead.

A Ioynt in the Lead, where two edges meet together.

Soder a Ioint, is to make them one.

Burn a Ioynt.

A Shem, is when two edges are turned one over the other.

A Crack or Flaw, when the Lead is not well cast.

He beareth Argent, a Card-Maker, seated upon a Block, with a Board on his Knees, setting of a Card Leaf, all proper. This is the proper Crest belonging to the Card-makers, but now laid aside.

Terms of Art used in the way of Card-making.

The Pattern.

Open the Wyre.

Head the Wyer, beat the ends all even together.

Cut the Wyre.

Double the Wyre.

Crook the Card teeth.

Card Teeth.

The Leaf, the Leather to set the Teeth in.

Pricking the Leaf, is making holes in the Leather, into which the teeth are put.

Setting the teeth.

Nailing the Leaf.

Paring of the Card.

Stoning of it, is burnishing of it.

The Lifts, are the narrow pieces of Leather which are Nailed about to hold the Leaf on the Board.

Cutting the Lits, is to make it even and, streight, and cut off the ends.

A Card, when it is all finished; of which there are several sorts.

Wool Cards have close and short Teeth.

Flax Cards, have longer and wider Teeth.

Stock Cards, are large Boards, one being fastned to a form, and the other by a top handle, is drawn with both hands.

XXXIV. He beareth Azure, a Sadler beating of his Hair upon a Table or Tressel, Or; Capped Ar∣gent, Clothed, Gules. This is the crest of Beatwell.

The like to this with a Black Cap and Bowing Ta∣ble, the rest Or, was the antient crest of the Hat-ma∣kers of the City of Cheser, as I find in an old roul of the Companies made in the year 1579.

Terms used in the Sadlers Art.

A Tree, is the Wooden part of the Saddle, to which all the other things are fixed.

Narve, or Narse, are Sinews pulled to Threads, or long slender pieces, and glewed on the Tree to hold the Tree from cracking or breaking.


Gullet plate, is a crooked Iron plate nailed on the fore part of the Saddle Tree to strengthen it.

Hinder Plate, is a like thin plate of Iron nailed be∣hind the Tree.

Barrs, the two sides of the Tree.

Civett, or Civetts, are square Buckles without Tongues, hung in Iron Plates or Chapes, and so nailed to the sides of the Tree, to hang the Straps and Stitrop Leathers at: Some call them Civett Irons.

Girth Webb, or Webb, is that Stuff as the Girths are made of.

Straining the Webb, is nailing the Girth Webb over the hollow of the Saddle Tree, that the seat fall not between the two sides.

Setting the Seat.

Shaping the Skirts, is the drawing out the form and fashion that the Skirts are to be of; which are ge∣nerally streight, and go from the Pomell to the Crupp••, or else round skirts, which ly under a Mans Thigh, and no where ehind.

Cutting the Seat.

Pomell, is the top of the fore part of the Saddle, and is usually in great and rich Saddles made of Brass or Iron silvered or gilt; it is round like the Pomell of a Sword.

Crupper Buckle, is a large square Buckle fixed to the Saddle Tree behind, to fasten the Crupper to, each Buckle having a rouer or turn on it, to make the same draw easily.

Crupper, is a roul of Leather put under the Horse tail, and so drawn up by Leather thongs, or a Crupper Band, to the Buckle behind the Saddle, and keeps a Horse from casting the Saddle forward on his Neck.

Page  93Strapps, are Leathers fastned to the sides of the Tree, to draw the Girths streight under the Horse Belly.

Pannel, is the under part of the Saddle, it lyeth be∣tween the Horse back and the tree, to keep his back from Gaulling; being made of strong Linnen cloth, welted a∣bout with Leather, and stuffed with soft beaten hair.

Stuff the Pannel, is to fill it with hair.

Tie the Pannel, is to make it fast with Leather ties or slices, to the Saddle tree, both behind and before: some term this, Tie the points in.

Buckling the Girth, is to fasten Buckles at both ends.

Buckle, or Girth Buckle; is a four square hoop, with a tonge: which is made stiddy with its going through a hole of Leather & fastned with a narrow thongs

Girth, is when it is Buckled, and compleat for use; else it is called no more then a Web, or Girth Web.

Sirsingle, or Sursingle; is a long peece of Web that will compass a Horse about his belly and back, hav∣ing at one end a Buckle, and the other a long strap of Lea∣ther with holes punched in it, to buckle at what distance the Horse keeper pleaseth: by the help of this the Horse cloth is kept on, and the Horse is Wadded with straw.

Wounty, it is a peece of Leather of a yard and half or more, and four inches broad, having an Iron hook fastned to one end, and long robe at the other; with this they tie Panniers, Hampiers and great Packs on Horse back to keep them from falling of the Pack-Saddles.

Rowler, or Body Girth; this hath a kind of Pad called a Rowler, which slippeth too and again on the body Gir••, or Sursingle, which is ever fixed upon the ridge of the Horse back, to keep the Girth from fret∣ting of the hair, or hurting his ridge.

Stirrope, Irons to ••t ones Feet in.

Stirrope Leathers, and Buckles.


Trappings, those Leathers which hang on the Horse Buttock, which are generally set with white and yellow Stud-Nails.

A Pad, is a soft thing made like the seat of a Sadle and stuffed with Feathers, which is fixed on the Saddle seat, that old men which cannot sit hard may ride thereon.


Male Pillen, is that which a Cloak-bag or Port∣mantu is fixed stiddy and sure on a Horse back part: to the Male belongs these things.

Male Stickes, the peeces of wood on the Male-pillen.

Male Strap, is to tie it behind the Saddle to two Leather Loopes.

Portmantu, vulgarly Portmantle.

Staples. all belonging to a Portmantu.

Chain. all belonging to a Portmantu.

Lock and Key. all belonging to a Portmantu.

Locking Flap. all belonging to a Portmantu.

The Great Flap. all belonging to a Portmantu.

Straps made fast to the great Flap.

Buckles, to keep down the great Flap by the straps.

Loopes, to put the ends of the straps through, to keep them from unbuckling.

Male Girths, are two long Leathers with a Buckle at one end, the other going through the Loopes on the Male sticks, and then through Iron Rings fixed behind the Saddle and so over the Portmantu all is buckled toge∣gether.

End straps for tying, or buckling the ends to the Belly Girths, that it lie not to one side more then another.

Bridle, it is so termed when it hath all its appurtenan∣ces fixed together, for the several parts of a Bridle: they are these.

The Bit, or Snaffle; is the Iron work put into the Horse mouth of which there is several sorts as you may see chp. 7. numb. 44.45.

Head stall, are the two short Leather that come from the top of the Head to the rings of the Bit.

Fillet, is that as lieth over the Fore-head, and under the fore-top: if the Horse have trapping this is usually a∣dorned with a Rose or such like of Leather set with studs.

Throat band, is that Leather as is buttoned (from the Head band) under the Throat.

Raines, is the long thong of Leather which comes from the rings of the Bit and being cast over the Horse head, the rider holds them in his hand by which he guides the Horse as he pleaseth.

Button and Loope at the end of the Rains by which it is fastned to the ring of the Bit: the other end of the rains having only a Button so large that it cannot go through the ring of the Bit on the other side, this is called a running Rains: by which a Horse is lead at a good distance, & hath liberty to leap a ditch or mount a hedge.

Nose band, a Leather that goeth over the middle of his Nose, and through Loopes at the back of the Head∣stall and so buckled under the Cheeks. This is usually adorned as the Fillet, if the Horse be trapped & studded.


Cavezan, a false Rien to hold or lead a Horse by.

Martingal, a thong of Leather, the one end fastned under the Horse Cheeks, and the other to the Girth be∣tween his Legs, to make him Reign well, and not cast up his Head.

Chass Halter.

Side Saddle, is a Saddle for a Woman her self to ride upon. It hath these several things belonging to it, to make it compleat.

The Tree in which is the seat that is round.

The Single Head, hath one bow in the middle o the forepart of the tree.

The Double Head side Saddle, is with two bows one long the other short.

The two Barrs that are the side Barrs, to which is joyned the fore part and the hinder part of the tree.

The Sivets, which are square rings in Plates, three on each side the tree to put the straps too.

The Straps, which are long Leathers for the Girths.

A Fore-Compass Plate, a Fore-Gullet Plate, Plates 〈◊〉 strengthen the tree.

A Crown, or little half round Plate; to secure the fore part of the tree.

Hind Gullet, or inside Plate; to strengthen the hin∣der part of the tree.

A Plate half round behind on the seat for the strengthning that part of the tree.

Two thin Plates on the fore part of the seat.

A Crupper Sivet, or Swivel; on the hinder part, to hold the Crupper.

Two Buckles on either side the fore part to hold the Breast-plate.

Page  94Narfing, are Beasts sinewes dried and beaten and Glewed on the tree for its strengthning.

Canvising the tree, also to strengthen it.

The Pannel, is Canvice stuffed with Wool to lie next the Horse.

The Skirts, the covers of the side of the tree, which are Fringed and wrought, and sometime plain.

The Out side, is the cover of the seat, which is Frin∣ed round the Rimm.

The Seat, hath a Boss in the middle, and a Rim about it.

The Quilting of the fore parts of the skirts.

The Rim set together with a small seming Fringe.

The Saddle Head, sei together with a small seming Fringe.

False, or loose Cover; a cover to keep the Saddle clean.

The Girths, which are three; are Girth Web, with Buckles at each end.

The Crupper, that as lieth on the Horse buttock, with its garnishings, which are studded or tufted with Silk.

The Dock, that as goes under the Horse tail.

The Breast-Plate, for the stidfastness of the Saddle, the fore part and two straps.

The Footstoole, with a Sivet, which is hung to the right side of the Saddle by a Leather strap.

The Bridle as a Mans Bridle, only this of a Womans is double Rained: see the figure o the side Saddle, chap. 9. numb. 168.

XXXV. He beareth Or, a Taylor sitting upon a square Table (Stone or Humrt, as others term it) Argent, with his right Leg over the left, and sewing a Garment Gules: his Cloaths Purpine. Hat and Shoes Sable. This is a Dtch bearing, and is born by the name of Cleermacker, which in English is Taylor.

Terms used by Taylors.

In a Womens Gown there are these several parts, as

  • The Stayes, which is the body of the Gown before the Sleeves are put too, or covered with the outward stuff: which have these peeces in it, and terms used about it
  • The fore Part, or fore Body: which is the Breast part, which hath two peeces in it; as,
    • The Right side of the Fore-body.
    • The Left side of the Fore-body.
  • The two side parts, which are peeces under both Arms on the sides.
  • The Back.
  • The Shoulder heads, or Shoulder straps; are two peeces that come over the Sholders and are fastned to the Forebody: through which the Arms are put.
  • Scoreing, or Strick iines on the Canvice to sow straight.
  • Stitching, is sowing all along the lines with close stitches to keep the Whale-Bone each peece from other.
  • — is the cleaving of the Whale-Bone to what substance or thickness the workman pleaseth.
  • Boning the Stays, is to put the slit Bone into eve∣ry one of the places made for it between each stitched line which makes Stayes or Bodies stiff and strong.
  • Cordy Robe skirts to the Staies, are such Stayes as are cut into Labells at the bottom, like long slender skirts.
  • Lining the Bodies, or Stayes; is covering the inside of the Stayes with Fustian, Linnen, and such like.
  • Binding the Neck, is sowing Galloon, at the edge of the Neck.
  • Eylet holes, or Eiglet holes, little round holes whipt-stitched about, through which laces are drawn to hold one side close to the other.
  • The Waist, is the depth of the Stayes from the Shoul∣ders to the setting on of the skirts: now it is distinguished by the Back Waist, and the fore-body Waist, which is each side of the Stomacher.
  • Side Waisted, is long or deep in the Body.
  • Short Waisted, is short in the Body.
  • The Stomacher, is that peece as lieth under the lacing or binding on of the Body of the Gown, which said body is somtimes in fashion to be.
  • Open before, that is to be laced on the Breast.
  • Open behind, laced on the Back, which fashion hath always a Maid or Woman to dress the wearer.
  • The Peake, is the bottom or point of the Stomacher, whether before or behind.
  • A Busk, it is a strong peece of Wood, or Whale-bone thrust down the middle of the Stomacher, to keep it streight and in compass, that the Breast nor Belly shall not swell too much out. These Buskes are usually made in length according to the necessity of the persons wearing it: if to keep in the fullness of the Breasts, then it extends to the Navel: if to keep the Belly down, then it reacheth to the Honor.
  • A Point.
  • Covering the Bodies or Stayes, is the laying the out∣side stuff upon it, which is sowed on the same after diverse fashious: as,
    • Smooth Covered.
    • Pleated or Wrinkled in the covering.
  • The Wings, are Welts or peeces set over the place on the top of the Shoulders, where the Body and Sleeves are set together: now Wings are of diverse fashi∣ons, some narrow, others broad; some cut in slits, cordy Robe like, others Scalloped.
  • The Sleeves, are those parts of the Gown, as covers the Arms: and in these there is as much variety of fashi∣on, as days in the Year: I shall only give the terms of the most remarkable.
  • The close, or narrow Sleeve; which reacheth from the Shoulder to the Wrist of the Arm, and is not much wider then for the Arm: which were of old turn∣ed up at the Hand, and faced or lined with some other sort of stuff.
  • The Wide, or full Sleeve; is such as are full and long, and stand swelling out: such are tied about the El∣bow close to the Arm with a Ribbon.
  • The open Sleeve, such are open the fore part of the Arm, that their bravery under may be seen whether it be a mock or cheat Waist-coat with Imbrauthery or the like; else their fine L••nens and Laces.
  • Page  95The slasht Sleeve, is when the Sleeve from Shoulder to the Sleeve hands are cut in long slices, or fillets: and are tied together at the Elbow with Ribbons, or such like.
  • The Sleeve and half Sleeve.
  • The Sleeves with hanging Sleeves, is a full Sleeve in any of the fashions aforesaid, with a long hang∣ing Sleeve of a good breadth hanging from under the back part of the Wing down behind, even to the ground; in the greater sorts of Gallants trailing a good length on the ground.
  • The half Sleeves with Hounds Ears, are such as extend to the Elbow and there turn up, and being slit or open hang at the Elbow like Dogs Ears.
  • The Rim of the Sleeve, is that part which is at the Sleeve hand either lined or Edged or Welted: but of these sorts of Sleeves see their figures and shapes, chap. 5. numb. 130.131. &c.
  • The Faceing.
  • The Skirt, or Gown Skirt; is the lower part of the Gown, which extends from the body to the ground: these are made several fashions, as
  • Open Skirts, is open before, that thereby rich and costly Peti-coat may be fully seen.
  • Turned up Skirts, are such as have a draught on the Ground a yard and more long; these is great Per∣sonages are called Trains, whose Honor it is to have them born up by Pages.
  • Bearers, Rowls, Fardingales; are things made purposely to put under the skirts of Gowns at their setting on at the Bodies; which raise up the skirt at that place to what breadth the wearer pleaseth, and as the fashion is.
  • Skirts about the Waist, are either whole in one en∣tire peece with Goares, or else cut into little laps or cordy robe skirts: Gowns with these skirts are called Waistcoat-Gowns.
  • Wastcoat, or Waistcoast; is the outside of a Gown without either stayes or bodies fastned to it; It is an Habit or Garment generally worn by the middle and lower sort of Women, having Goared skirts, and some wear them with Stomachers.
  • Goare, is a Cant or three cornered peece of cloath put into a skirt, to make the bottom wider then the top: so are Goared Peti-coats.
  • Peti-coat, is the skirt of a Gown without its body; but that is generally termed a Peti-coat, which is worn either under a Gown, or without it: in which Garment there are
  • Peating, that is gathering the top part in into Pleats or folding to make it of the same wideness as the Waist of middle of the wearer.
  • Laceing, is setting a Lace of Silk, Silver or Gold a∣bout the bottom of it; which in a Peti-coat is called the Skirt.
  • Bodering, is the lineing of the Peti-coat skirt or bot∣tom in the inner side.
  • Binding, is the sowing of some things (as Ribbon, Galloon or such like) on both sides the Edge of the skirt to keep it from ravelling; sometime it is done by a Hem: the top part of the Peti-coat hath its Binding also; that is, it hath either Incle, Filleting, or Galloon, sowed about the Edges of it, when pleated: which keeps the Pleats in their Pleats, the ends helping to make it fast about the wearers Waist.
  • Hem, is the turning of the Edge of the cloath in; two fould or more, then sowing it up, keeps it from ravelling.
  • Tucking, is to draw up the depth of a Peti-coat be∣ing too side or long, and that is by foulding a part over another
  • Pocket, or Pocket holes; are little Bags set on the inside, with a hole, or slit on the outside; by which any small thing may be carried about, or kept therein.
  • A Mantua, is a kind of loose Coat without any stayes in it, the Body part and Sleeves are of as many fa∣shions as I have mentioned in the Gown Body; but the skirt is sometime no longer then the Knees, others have them down to the Heels. The short skirt is open before, and behind to the middle: this is called,
    • A Semmer, or Samare; have a lose body, and four side laps, or skirs; which entend to the knee, the sleeves short not to the Elbow turned up and faced.
    • The Riding Suite for Women.
    • The Hood.
    • The Cap.
    • The Mantle, it is cut round, which is cast over the Shoulders to preserve from rain or cold.
    • The Safegard, is put about the middle, and so doth secure the Feet from cold, and dirt.
    • The Riding Coat, it is a long Coat buttoned down before like a Mans Jaket, with Pocket holes; and the sleeves turned up and buttons.

In a Mans Suite of cloaths there are these several parts: as

  • The Doublet, it is the whole covering for the upper part of the Man: in which there is these peeces and terms.
  • The two Fore Bodies.
  • The two Back parts.
  • The Waist, is the length form the shoulder to the middle, now in a Doublet it may be the fashion to be
  • Short Waisted.
  • Side Waisted.
  • The Skirts or Laps, because one lieth a little over another, they are distinguished by the fore skirts, side skirts and hinder skirts; sometimes the custom is to have them more or less, big and little: narrow or short, and large or deep.
  • The Collar, is that part as compsseth the Neck.
  • The Belly peeces, the inward stiffning of the Breast of the Doublet.
  • The Linning, is fine Flaxed or Linnen; called the out Lining.
  • The Inner Lining, is Canvice, Buckram, or such like, next to the cloth or stuff, between it and the foresaid Lining.
  • The Waist-band, is a — under the skirts to which the straps are fastned.
  • The Eyes, or Holders; are small Wiers made round through which the Breeches hooks are put, to keep them from falling.
  • Straps, are peeces of Leather fastned to the Waist-band instead of Eyes, or holders.
  • Waistcoat, is a close Garment worn under a Doub∣let, and within the Waist-band of the Breeches.
  • A Pacadile, a thing put about Man or Womans Neck to support and bear up the Band, or Gorget.
  • The Sleeves, are the covers of the Arms and are of Page  96 diverse fashions, as I have set down in Womens sleeves.
  • Sleeve hands, the lowest part of the sleeve next the Wrist.
  • Turn ups, or Cufts; are the turning up of the end of the Doublet next the hand.
  • A Slasht Doublet, is when both sleeves, and back, and fore-body, are cut like unto long slices, or fillets.
  • Button holes, are such long slitt holes whipped a∣bout with a Loop at each end, as are in the left part of the Fore-body, and at the sleeve hands, to receive the Buttons on the right side, and to keep it close together.
  • The Faceing, is to Face the sleeve hands, is to adorn the turn up, with some other sort of Stuff or Silk, then the suit of Cloaths is made off.
  • The Breeches, is that part of cloathing which covers a Man from his Waist to his Knees; of the fashion of them there is many extent, I shall tell of some few.
  • The Spanish Breeches, are those that are stret and close to the Thigh, and are buttoned up the sides from the Knee with about ten or twelve buttons: anciently called Trowses.
  • The Sailers Breeches, are full and gathered both in the Waist and at the Knees; standing full out.
  • The Open Breeches, are such as are full and wide and not gathered at the Knees, but hang loose and open.
  • The Pantiloon Breeches.
  • The Trunk Breeches.
  • The Peticoat Breeches, are short and wide Coats with Waist bands, having no petition, or sowing up be∣tween the Legs; but all open like a short Peticoat, from whence they are named.
  • Triming, is any thing put on, or about the Doublet, or Breeches: whereby they are adorne and made more Gent, whether it be by Ruffles, Laces, Ribons, But∣tons, Loopes, Scalloping, &c.
  • In the Brceches, there are these several parts.
  • The Waistband.
  • The Hookes.
  • The Cottonings, is that with which the cloth or outward stuff of the Breeches are Lined.
  • The Drawers, are Linnen Breeches worn under the Breeches which are tied about the Waist and either a∣bove or under the Knees.
  • The Pockets, are little bags set in the sides of the Breeches to put or carry any small thing in.
  • The Seat, the hinder part on which we sit; also the inner part which is at the Breech.
  • The Out side▪ of the Breeches.
  • The Cod-peece, or open of the Breeches before.
  • The Knees.

Loose Garments usually worn over the Doublet and Breeches are such as these following.

  • A Stret bodied Coat, this is close to the Body and Arms, and is usually worn without a Doublet, having un∣der it a Waistcote with side or deep skirts almost to the Knees. These kind of Waistcoats are called Chates; because they are to be seen rich and gaudy before, when all the back part is no such thing.
  • A Uest, is a kind of wide Garment reaching to the knees open before and turned up with a Faceing of line∣ing, the Sleeves wrought to the Elbows and there were turned up with a round faceing: under it was worn ano∣ther side skirted Coat made fit to the Body after the man∣ner of a Doublet, which was called a Tunick: the sleeves of it were narrow, and rought below the Elbow to the middle of the Arm, where it was all beset with knots of Ribbons: about the middle was worn a Silken Girdle, which was called a Zoan, or Sash: chap. 3. numb. 23.
  • A Iacket, or Iumpe, or loose Coat: It extendeth to the Thighs is open or buttoned down before, open or slit up behind half way: the Sleeves reach to the Wrist having the turn-up sometime round, then with Hounds Ears, and an other time square.
  • A Mandilion, or Madilion, or of old a Mante∣vil: It is a lose Coat without Sleeves it reacheth in the skirt to the seat of the Breeches, and is open before, it hath hanging Sleeves which hang down backwards, al∣most as side as the skirt: chap. 3. numb. 24.
  • A Coat, or Riding Coat; is a full Coat both wide and side with long and wide Sleeves to be drawn over o∣ther kind of Garments.
  • A Coat with a round Cape, is the same as aore hav∣ing a Cape added to the neck part of it.
  • A Mantle, is a round thing made of any stuff, having a round hole in the middle, and so is cut through to the hole, which being put about the neck hangs round about the wearer: which according to the fashion, is large or little, faced or laced &c. chap. 3. numb. 32.
  • A Rocket, is a Cloak without a Cape.
  • A Cloak, is a peece of Cloth or Stuff cut round with a hole in the Center of it as the Mantle, on the back of it, is a Cape placed; some are deepe Capes, some narrow, others loose from the Cloak part at Cape ends: chap. 3. numb. 34.35.

Several Terms used in Sowing of Cloath.

Basting, is a slight running of the Needle, and thrid through two peeces of cloth to keep them together while they are sowed with some of these following stitches.

  • Back-stitch.
  • Fore-stitch.
  • Whip-stitch.
  • Privy-stitch.

Fine Drawing, is sowing two peeces of Cloth toge∣ther so curiously, that it shall not be seen where the sow∣ing is.

Ravelling, is roveing or the loosing out of thrids or Silk-thrids from the peece of Cloth or Silk.

Stuff, is the general term given to that, of which any Garment is made, whether of Hare Wool, or Silk.

An Vpholdsterer.

He beareth Gules, an Upholdsterer covering of Stool, or else making up of a Stool, Or. Born by the name of Vpholder. This may be termed an Upholdsterer in his Shirt, his Breeches Tenne, s••fing of a Stool, the Cover and Frame, Or.

Page  97

Terms used about their Work in a Stool or Chair, Cushion or Bed, and Hanging of a Room.

Stool Terms.

Girth it, is to bottom it with Girth Webb stret drawn and crossed.

Canvice it, is to nail the Canvice on the top of the Stool or Chair Frame, over the Girth Webb.

Rowle it, is to put Rowls on the top edges.

Quilt it,

Stuffing, is to stuff it with Hay, Wool, Flocks or Feathers.

Fringing, is to Nail the Fringe about the Stool seat at the sides.

The Seat, is that place sitten upon.

Backing, is to Nail the Back on a Chair suitable to the Seat.

Garnishing, is the finishing it with Brass Nails.

Cushion and Bed Terms.

Bottom the Cushion, is to sow the lower part and top together.

Cuffs or Tuftings, are the Tassels at the corners of the Cushion.

Bed-Tick, to hold the Feathers.

Gumming, or UUaring, or Sizing, is to rub the in-side of the Bed Tick, with either Gum, Wax, or Size, to keep Feathers from coming through it.

Feathers, is the filling of the Bed-Tick, which are cleansed from Dirt and Foulness, these ways.

Dressing, making all clean from Quills.

Fanning or Driving, taking the Down away.

Stripping the Feathers from the Quills.

Clipping, is the cutting of the Feather part from the Quill with Scissars.

Down, is the Dant, or pure soft airy Feathers which have no Quills.

Quilting, is to put Cotton Wool of an equal thick∣ness between two Silks, or a Callicoe or other Cloth un∣dermost, and a Silk above, which is wrought in scrolls, flowers, &c. to keep the Cotton from shifting its place.

A Mat of Straw woven or platted together, to ly on the Bed Cords under a Feather Bed to preserve it from Fretting.

A Matrice, is a Quilted Straw or Flock Bed.

A Flock Bed, is Sack Cloth filled with Wool or Flocks, which is a course Wool.

A Chaff Bed, is filled with Oat or Wheat shoues.

Terms about Hanging of Rooms.

Hanging a Room, is to fix about it, either Cloth, Silk, Damask, gilt Leather, Arras, or Tapestry, or a∣ny other thing that will cover or hide bare Walls.

Hangings or Rich Hangings, are generally ta∣ken to be Silk, Arras, or Tapestry.

Plain Hangings, are such as have nothing on them of shape, but only plain Stuff or Cloth.

Pain Hangings, that are plain Cloth or the like, yet have gilt Ropes or Staves set down the hanging at a certain distance one from the other.

Mixed Hangings, that is, when a Paine or Pillar of Gilt Leather, or painted Fruitages of Flowerages, are fixed between each breadth, either of cloth or stuffe.

A Seamster.

The Seamster or Seamstry work follows next in or∣der to that of a Taylor; this being work to adorn the Head and Hands and Feet, as the other is for the cover∣ing of the Body; nay, very often the Seamster occupi∣eth the room and place of a Taylor in furnishing the Nobility and Gentry with such conveniencies as serve the whole body, especially in the Summer season. I shall therefore give you the Terms used about their Imploy, and then the names of such pieces of work both in the whole, and in the parts, as is usually done by them.

Terms used by a Seamster.

Patterns, Paper cut in fashions according as the Work is to be made.


Shaping, the ordering the Cloth to be cut.

Laying down, is the edges of the cut Cloth laid down to be hemmed.

Hemming, is sowing up the edges of Linnen, to keep it from ravelling.

Selvage, the out-side of the Cloth.

Seaming, is sowing two selvages together, which is called a Seam or two Hems together; or a Hem and a lay down.

Ravell, or Rovell, vulgarly Rove, when threads come out of the edges of the cloth.

Ining, or sowing down the Seam.

Sowing, Stitching.

Names of things made by Seamsters.

Shirt, or Shift for a Man.

Smock or Womans shift.

Fenting, binding at the sleeve hands.

Sleeve hands.

Sleeves and Gussets at the Arm-holes

Neck, the gathering.

Open of the Breast. Back. Skirts.

Goar, or Gussett, the side pieces in a Smock.

Band, as Collared Band, Neck Band, Shoulder Band.

Hollowing, the rounding of it for the Neck.

Clocks of the Band.

Stock, or Neck piece.

Hinder part of the Band.

Fore part of the Band.

Ruffs, pleated Bands of two or three heights.

Round Robins, narrow Ruffs only about the Doublet Collar.

Page  98Foulds. Sets. Ruffles.

Cravatts. Half-shirts.

Cuffs, or sleeve cufts.

Ruffles for the hands, both Plain and Laced.

Sleeves. Bibbs. Biggins.

Handkerchiefs for Womens Necks, both round and square.

Whisks, to be worn with a Gown.

Shapes for Mantua's.

Tuckers, or Dresses.

Gorgetts, round Dresses plaited to be deep about Womens Necks.

A Band for a Morning Gown.

A Roman Dress, the Mantua cut square behind and round before.

Night-Rails, or Cover-sluts.

Womens Head Dresses.

Quoifs. Chin-cloth. Caul. Chapparoon.

Crossett, or Crosscloth.

A Pinner is with long flaps hanging down the side of the Cheeks.

Towers, curled hair on the forehead.

Ear Knots, Forehead Knots, Head Knots, and Crown Knots falling backwards.

A Ruffled Quoif, also with a Knot of Rubin in every fould.

Fillet and Snood.

An Undress.

A Cornett, or Coif with long Ears, tyed under the Chin, and hanging down deep to the top of the Breast, made of Birds Eye or Gaues.

An Head Roll.

Hoods, made of either Gaues, Alamode, Lute∣string, Sarsenet, Ducape, Vinian Sarsnet, Persia, Lin∣dia Silk, or Gaues and Birds Eye flowered.

Womens Sleeves.

Half Sleeves with Hounds Ears, or Boat sleeves; these are made of Silk and Satin Imbrauthered, some with Puffs, or ruffled in the turn-up, or Fringed.

— Holland Sleeves with ruffle Cuffs tied about with Rubins.

House Cloths, or Linnen, as Sheets, Towells, Nap∣kins, Table cloths, Cupboard cloths, Pillow bears.

Bone-Lace and Parchment-Lace Makers.

Laces, or Bone-Lace wrought with Pegs.


Golberteene or Colbertain, a kind of open Lace with a square grounding.

Point, a kind of Lace worked with a Needle.

Point of Uenice, with raisings.

Point of Lorrain without raisings.

Purle Lace. Flanders Lace.

Lay it, is to stitch the seaming on the Parchment according to the Work drawn on it.

Overcast the laying.

Fill the Branches and Leaves with Diamond work overcast.

Loop-work. Purles.


Buttons, Ilet holes.

Edged on the side with Cocks Comb.

Laundresses Terms of Art.

Sorting. Soaping. Soap Sudds.

Scalding. Washing.

Wrenching, or Biorning.

Booking or Bouking.

Batting, or beating the Cloths to get the Bucking Stuff out.

Starching. Wringing the Cloaths, to force the Water out.

Drying. Smoothing or Ironing.

Hanging up, to Air and Dry throughly.

To Ladder, is beating the Soap and Water together, to make it rise to a Froth, which the call Suds.

The School Mistris Terms, and things to work with.

Needles, of several sizes.

Cruel of all colours.

Silk for sowing of all colours.

A Tent.

A Samcloth, a cloth to sow on, a Canvice cloth.

Slave Silk. Naples Silk.

Fine white Alcomy Wyre.

Ising Glass. Gum Arabick. Gum Dragon.

The School Mistris Terms of Art for all her ways of Sowing.

A Samcloth, vulgarly a Sampler.

Plar-Stitch, or single Plat Stitch, which is good on one side.

Plat-Stitch or double Plat-Stitch, which is alike on both sides.

Spanish stitch, true on both sides.

Tent-stitch on the Finger.

Tent-stitch in the Tent.

Irish stitch. Back-stitch.

Fore-stitch. Queens-stitch.

Gold-stitch. Satin-stitch.

Tent-stitch upon Satin.

Fern-stitch. Finny-stitch.

New-stitch. Chain-stitch:

Bread-stitch. Fishers-stitch.

Rosemary-stitch. Mow-stitch.

Whip-stitch. Cross-stitch.

Raised Work. Needie work Pearl.

Geneva Work. Uirgins Device.

Cut Work. Open Cut Work.

Laid Work. Stitch-work, & Through stitch.

Lap Work. Rock Work.

Frost work. Nett work.

Purle Work Tent Work.

Finger Work, all which are several sorts and man∣ners of Works wrought by the Needle with Silk of all Natures, Purles, Wyres, &c. which cannot be described.

Page  99Waft, or Finger Bread, are kind of Purse-strings woven on the Fingers either round or broad, one side of one colour, the other of another; or wrought in Letters, Flowers, Chequy or Losenge ways.

Other Works performed by School Mi∣stresses and their Scholars.

Gum Work, is by Gumming of several colours of sleeven Silk together, which being dry, they cut into shapes of Leaves and Flowers, and so tie them up upon Wyers.

Frost Work. Transparant Work.

Wax Work. Pull Work. Quill Work.

Paper Work, all which are the making of Leaves and Flowers of all the foresaid things, and binding them up in Branches or Poesies.

XXXVI. He beareth Argent, a Shooe-maker up∣on his Seat, with his Tools, (or St. Hugh's Bones) on his right hand thereon, sowing of a Shooe, all proper. It is also Blazoned, a Man on a Seat, with St. Hugh's Bones by him; exercising of the Gentle Craft, all in their proper colours; where note, that the Shooe makers Apron is always green. This is born by the name of St. Hugh.

Terms used in the Gentle Craft.

Cutting out.

Closing the Heel Quarters and Uamp.

Rounding the Sole.

Setting the Sole on the Last.

Sowing on the Sole.

Breasing down the Rann.

Stitching the Sole to the Rann.

Rounding the Soles on.

Channelling the Sole, is making a riggett in the outter Sole for the Wax Thread to ly in.

Sowing or stitching the sole round.

Rubbing it with a rubbing Stone.

Laying or beating too the stitch.

Sowing the Heel.

Pegging on the Heel pieces.

Slickening it off, polishing the upper Leather.

Pinking the over Leather, cutting the grain of the Leather into Roses, Knots, and orderly devices.

Colouring the soles, painting the edges with India red.

Burnishing the soles, setting a shining polish on the red.

Painting the stitches, laying the stitches which lie upon the Rann of the shooe with white.

Closing Thread, that as soweth the heel pieces and over leather.

Stitching Thread, is that as soweth the Soles to the Rann.

Leather or Heel thread, is that as sowes the heel to the shooe.

The Size of a shooe, is the measure of its length, which is in Children divided into 13 parts; and in Men and Women into 15 parts; the first of them being five Inches long before it be taken for a size, what the shooe exceeds that length, every fourth part of an Inch is ta∣ken for the size 1, 2, 3. and so forwards to 13 which is called the Boys or Girls thirteens, or the short thir∣teens, and contains in length 8 inches and a quarter, from which measure of 8 inches and a quarter, the Size of Men and Women, called the long size or Mans Size, begins at 1, 2, 3, &c. to the number 15, each size being about the fourth part of an Inch as aforesaid; so that a Shooe of the long fifteens is in length 12 Inches just. Some term it a Gage or Shooe Measure.

Grain of the Leather, the hairy side.

Flesh side of the Leather.

XXXVII. He beareth Argent, an Imbrautherer sowing a piece of Work in a Tent, the Table, Or, the Imbrauthery variable colours, Hat Sable, Clo∣thed in Scarlet.

The Praise of the Needle, both for its Antiquity and Excellency, doth abundantly surpass all other Arts; for the use of Sewing is so old, that it took beginning with our first Parents Adam and Eva in Paradice, as we may read Gen. 3.7. also we find that the coverings of the Tabernacle, viz. the Gu••ans had made in them Che∣rubims of Broidred wor〈◊〉. 26.1. And that by the Almighties great Comnd, Aaron the High Priest was invested with 〈…〉 Broidred work which were most glorious 〈◊〉ehold, Exod. 28.2.3. &c. And King Davd doth shw by an apt Similitude, the Majesty and Glory of our Mther the Church, by comparing it to a Kings fair Dauhter brought orth to her Spouse in Garments wro•••t o Needle Work of Gold, Psal. 45.13.14.

Terms used by Embrautherers and School Mistresses of the Needle, I have before set down under numb. 35. in the School Mistris terms, to which I shall refer you.

XXXVIII. He beareth Argent, on a Ground plot in Base, a Ioynes Bench with a UUrkman on the nearer side, plaining of a Board, all proper. This is the crest of cognizance of Don de Christierna, a Spanish Family.

XXXIX. He beareth Or, a Ioyner seated astride a piece of Timber with a Mllet in his right hnd lift∣ed up, and a Chissel in 〈◊〉eft, making of 〈◊〉Mortice all proper; his 〈◊〉, Gules▪ Breeches and Hose Grev. This is the Crest of Motle maine. Some term it a Ioyner set overcross a piece of Timber, with his Mallett and Chissell making a Mortice hole. This is born by Don Liago of Spain; he was an excellent Ship Carpenter, as my Author hath inormed me.

Page  100

Terms of Art used by Joyners in their way of Working, and explained.

First, for the Names of their Timber.

Raile, it is a piece of Timber, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 foot or more long, and carrieth four inches broad, and an inch or more thick. A Raile is an half Spare.

Spare, is two inches thick, and four inches broad; in some places it is termed a single Quarter.

Ioyce, it is four inches square. In some Counties called a double Quarter.

Bed posts, such as Beds either for Standards, Bed sides, or Beds seet are made of.

Stool feet.

Chair backs.

Munton, the short down right pieces in Wainscot.

Stile, the over cross pieces in Wainscot, in the ri∣get of which two, the Panell or middle pieces are fast∣ned.

Boards of several sorts, as

Plank of any length, but never under 2, 3, or 4 inches thick.

Inch Boards.

Half Inch Boards.

Uallens, narrow Boards, about 5 or 6 inches broad, and half inch thick, and of all lengths.

Pannell, little cleft Boards, about 2 foot high, and 16 or 20 inches broad, of these Wainscot is made.

Shingles, cleft Wood about 6 or 8 inches long, and 4, or 5 broad; with these in Wood Countreys they cover their Houses.

Secondly, for their Words or Term.

Architrave, is a plain or flat border, at the bottom moulding of a Cornish or Cornice.

Arras ways, is any thing set or hung Diamond wise, having one corner of the Square set upwards, the other downwards.

Base, the bottom, foot, or foundation of any work.

Bed moulding, is the smaller mouldings over a swelling Friese.

Bead, the inner part of any moulding, being only a square.

Batten, is the laying of a long narrow piece of Wood on a Door or the like, to counterfeit Wainscot, being moulded on each side.

Bevil, is any sloping Angle that is not a perfect square.

Bevil Ioint; see Joint.

Capitull, is the top mouldings or cornish of any Pillar or Pillaster.

Cast, it is when any Boards, or other stuff, doth cast, warp, or bend, or any way alter from its own flatness and straightness.

Clamp or Clampt, is when one piece of Timber with the grain, is fixed to another cross the grain; thus the ends of Tables are commonly clampt to preserve them from wraping.

Cornice or Cornish, is the top and overseeling moulding on the top of a piece of Wainscot.

Cross grained, is that part of the Timber, in which a Bough or Arm of the Tree hath grown from the main Trunk of the Tree; in some Boards they are curled Knots, but in Deal perfect Knots.

Curling Grain, see cross grain. This is also called curling stuff, and knotty stuff.

Cypher, as to cypher of a square edge, making 2 edges for that one.

Door Case, is the Frame work about the Door, to which it hangeth by Hinges.

Draw the Saw through, is cut or slit such a piece of Stuff through.

Facia, is a plain square in a moulding, under a projected cornish.

Fence, is a part of the Plow Plain, to keep it from going deeper, or out of the place it is designed to groove.

Fine set, that is, when the Iron of a Plain is set so fine, and stands so shallow below the Sole of the Plain, that in working it takes off a thin shaving. See Rank set.

Friese, or flat Friese, is a plain and broad square between a Fillet moulding, and a Cornice moulding.

Friese Pannel, is the uppermost Pannel in the Wainscot.

Friese Rail, is the Rail as lieth next under the said Pannel.

Frowy Stuff, is such Timber as is soft and gentle, easie to be wrought, being neither too hard nor too soft.

Free Stuff, Timber of a good condition to work upon.

Frames, are those Wooden mouldings set about Pi∣ctures, or Frames for Door Cases.

Groove, or Grooving, is the making of a long nick in a Spar, Board, or other Stuff with the Plow Plain.

Grain, is the running Veins, or breaking Lines which run all along the Wood, no Wood being without a cer∣tain Grain either more or less, wider or closer, longer or shorter.

Helve, or Haft, or Handle, the holding place for working of any Tool, as Chissels and Gouges. Some call them Heads.

Hard Stuff, is such Timber as is naturally hard, as Box, Lignum Vitae, &c. or else so Curling and Knotty, that a Plain cannot take a shaving off it as thick as a Groat.

Heads of Tools; see Helve.

Husk, is a square Frame of Moulding, like to a Pi∣cture Frame or the like, set over the Mantle Tree of a Chimney between two Pillasters, having Capitalls, Friese, and a projecting Cornish.

Inch Board, is a full Inch breadth in its thicknes, after it is sawed.

Inch prickt, wants of an Inch in the thickness of the Board, because the Saw Kerfe hath taken half its breadth away in Sawing; so all scantlins are called, as 1, 2, or 3 inch sawn or prickt.

Ioynt, is the edges of two Boards Joined and Glew∣ed together in an even and streight line; yet besides this there is other kinds of Joints made in Wood, as

Page  101The Square Ioynt, which is, when two pieces of Wood are set so together that it is the one half of a perfect square; four such Joynts making a square.

The Myter Ioynt, is the joining of two pieces of Wood, so as the Joynt makes but half a square and no more; three making a triangle frame.

The Bevil Ioynt, is the joining of two pieces toge∣ther, so as that they make any other sharp or acue an∣gle; these Joynts are used in Frames that are made Pen∣tagon, Hexagon, and Octagon, that is, with either five, six, or eight corners.

Kerf, or Saw Kerf, is the Sawn-away slit, which the Saw makes in any Board, or other Stuff.

Knot, is a hard place, or irregular part of a Board, which breaks the grain, or turns it in a round; being of a contrary nature to the freeness of the Wood.

Large Pannel, see Pannell.

Lying Pannell, see in Pannel.

Lower Raile, see Rail.

Lay a Kerfe in that piece, is to cut through such a piece.

Lining of Stuff, is to strike a Chalk Line upon it, to Saw it by.

Margent, the flat breadth of the Stile (of some cal∣led the Munton) between the moulding on each side, is called the Margent of the Stiles.

Miter Ioynt; see Joyn.

Miter, an Angle that maketh a three square.

Mouldings, the several ways of wrought Work made with Plains on Wood, are generally termed alto∣gether Mouldings, though each Moulding hath its pe∣culiar name.

Mortess, is a long or square hole cut in a piece of Timber, to hold another piece, or entertain a Tenant made fit for it.

Ogee, is a moulding in a Cornish, wherein one part swells out, and the other turns in after the man∣ner of a Roman S.

Over seile, is when one part of a Cornish stands further out than another. Some term it a Project, or Projecting.

Pannel, it is the flat, and either square or long long Boards in Wainscot, which have their several terms according to their positions, as

The Lying Pannels, are the lower rank of Boards next to the ground.

The Large Pannels, or Middle Pannels, are those that run through the middle of the Wainscot.

The Friese Pannells, are the top rank of Boards, which Pannells are generally according to Order of the Work set longways, and are not much more than a fourth part of the breadth of the other Pannells.

Par, or Paring, is the cutting of a thing, as a Joynt smooth with the Paring Chissel.

Plaster, is the half of a Pillar set to a Wall, as in Doors and Chimney peeces, and their Basis and Ca∣pital also cut off by the half; this term is given to such Pillar whether they be round or square.

A Pit-Man, the Sawyer that works in or at the Pit for Sawing of great Trees into several sorts of Tim∣ber for the Joyners use, is called a Pit-Man, but gene∣rally with us Sawyers.

Planchier, is a great round out swelling, between other smaller mouldings.

Plinth. is a Bevil, flat, or plain mould, whether in the Head or Capital Moulding, or Basis.

Project, see Over-seile.

Plow a Groove, is the working of a Groove in a Stile or Rail, to lay the edges of a Pannel Board in.

Paring of a Ioynt, is to make a Joynt fit, by cuttig it even with the Paring Chissel; see Shooting of a Ioynt.

Rack, is a part of the Instrument used in waving of Timber, and is a flat piece of hard wood about an inch and quarter broad.

Rail, is the overcross pieces in Wainscot, which have several names according to their places, as

The lower Rail, is that next the Ground; next it is the Surbase Rail.

The Middle Rail, is that in the middle of the Wainscot.

The Friese Rail, is that next to the top rail, or highmost rail.

The upper Rail, is the top Rail on which the Cor∣nice is set.

Rank, or Rankset, is when the Iron of the Plain, is set so far below the Sole of the Plain, that in the work∣ing it will take off a thick shaving; or the Teeth of a Saw set so wide that it makes a broad Kerfe.

Range or Run-range. is the side of any work that runs straight without breaking into Angles is said to run range; thus the Rails and Pannels of one streight side of Wainscoting being set to a straight corner of a Wall, is said to range or run range with the Wall.

Return, the side that falls away from the fore side or any straight or Range work, is called a Return, as in Corners of Chambers.

Rglet, is a flat, thin, square piece of Wood, fit∣ted to be Mo••ded and Waved in the Waving Instru∣ment.

Rub, that is, whet the Irons of the Plain when they are dull and blunt.

Scantlin, is the size that the Joyner intends to cut his Stuff to. Sometimes it is used to that piece of Stuff as will not hold out to do that piece of Work for which it is intended.

Scribe, is the drawing of a line or stroak with the point of the Compasses upon a piece of stuff that is straight, thereby to cut it so as it may join to an Ir∣regular piece, whether bowed or cornered.

Shoot a Ioynt, is the making of the two pieces to be joined, smooth and even with the Joynter Plain; that is the Joynts are made so exactly streight, that be∣ing put together, no Light can be seen between them; this is shooting of a Joynt.

Shoot a Board, is to make it have a straight edge; as in a Ruler, where the edges are shot straight, and one side shot off with a cyphered edge.

Stile, of some termed Munton, is all those up∣right pieces in Wainscot, in which the Pannels are fixed.


Stuffe, all sorts of Wood that Joyners work upon, are generally called Stuff.

Sur-Base, is the next Rail to the bottom Rail in a piece of Wainscoting.

Page  102Swelling Frize, is a round swelling between other smaller moulding: it is of some termed a Planchier.

Shaving, is the thin cutting of Wood that a plain take off.

Square Ioynt, see Ioynt.

Setting of a Saw, is the drawing of the Saw-teeth one one way, and the other another way, thereby to make the Kerfe broader or narrower, to cut the Timber more Rank.

Table, is a plain smooth board set about with Mould∣ings, whether it be round Oval or Square, or of what sort soever: but most used for those square Boards which have Frames about them for Pictures and Coats of Arms to be drawn and Painted upon.

Taper, is any sort of work that is smaller at one end then at the other: or diminisheth gradually from the biggest end, to the other.

Tennant, is a square end fitted into a Mortess made in another peece of Timber by which the two Peeces are closed and held together.

Top-Man, is the uppermost Man that is Sawing great Timber at a Pit; or on Trussels which are high Frames a little more then the height of a Man, on which the Wood is laid for want of a Pit.

Traverse, is working with the plain, or any other Tool cross the grain of the Timber.

Try, is to see by the help of a straight rule, laying it on a flat peece, whether the work be true, which it is if no light can be seen between the edge of the rule and the work.

Uaws-Cornice, is any small Cornish lying under a great swelling out peece, as under a Planchier, or swelling Friese.

Upper Cornice, is the highest Cornish in any Moulded work.

UUarp, see Cast.

UUedge, is a peece of Wood or Iron made taper, by which things are opened and made wide; or else to Wedge is to make a thing fast in another, by driving peeces of Wood so made between the open parts.

Whetting-block, is a peece of thick Timber haveing a Rigget in it, into which the blade of a new Saw is set and wedged that it cannot play whilest the Teeth are sharpning.

Wrest, is that by which Saw Teeth are set.

XL. He beareth Azure, a Chandler on the further side of his Mould, Dipping of a Staff or Rod of Candles in Tallow, all in their proper colours. This I have seen often times Painted on Sign-boards, to signi∣fie the dwelling-house of a Chandler, or Candle-Maker: But as a Badge or Coat Armour for any Fami∣ly I never saw it so born, Save by the Chandlers of Dublin, whose Crest it is, as I am informed by G. Thompson, my Author.

Terms used by Tallow-Chandlers.

Wind the Yard.

Candle Week, which is doubled Yarn, sometime four or six foulds, made either of Flax or Cotton loosely Spun.

Cut the week, is by a measure on a Board cut accord∣ing to the length & bigness that the Candles is to be made.

Twist the Week, is to roul the several foulds into one.

Rod the Week, is to put it or the Rod.

Ruff Tallow, Tallow made up in Cakes come from the Butchers shambles.

Break the Cake, is to pull it into peeces.

Chop the Tallow, is to cut it small with a chopping Knife to melt the better.

Tallow the Pail, is to put it in the melting Pan.

Stir the Tallow, when it is melting in the Pan.

Settle the Tallow, is to receive or put it melted into a Tub.

Render the Tallow, is to poure it through a strain∣ed, to keep the Dross from the pure Tallow.

Graves, or Cratchens; is the dross of the Tallow.

Press the Cratchens, is to squise them in a press to get what pure Tallow can be gotten out.

Fill the Mould, poure the Tallow into the same.

Dipp the Week, is the first dipping it into the Mould, or warm Tallow.

Cool the Candles, or Stage the Candles; is to la the Rod on the Stage to grow cold that then they may be dipt again and again for many times; for the oftner dipped, being cool the thicker is made the Candle.

Thrid the Candles, is to tie them by pounds.

Shop the Candles, is to hang them by pounds, do∣zens, two or three on the two ends of a strong saff, and so a Man on his shoulder brings them to the place where they are to be.

Week, is the burning part of the Candle, being still fed by the Tallow under it.

Snuff, the Week over burned which is Snuffed off, or cut away that the Candle may burn the better: or Snuff is the latter end when all the Candle is consumed and go∣eth out with a sunk.

Drop, is the running away of a Candle, when it is made of Kitchin ••uff, and not of good Tallow.

Thief, is when any thing is in the burning part of the Candle which makes it waste more then it would do.

Ends of Candles, as the bottom ends put out, and not fufered to burn any more.

Waste, is Tallow remaining unburnt about a Candle∣stick, or that as runs from the Candle into the Socket.

XLI. He beareth party per Fesse, Air and Water in a Fishing Boat (or Cock-Boat, as some term it) two Fishers Drawing of a Salmons Nett out of the Water, all proper. This is the Coat of Arms an∣ciently belonging to the Company of Fishers, or Drawrs in Dee (as we call them) in the City of Chester.

In the Chief of this square is a Demy UUoman Cloathed Gles, sns Arms; havin the Hands fixed at the Shoulders proper, Crowned Or. Which is the Crest of Van Konigseld of Franchsord.

A Demy Man sans Arms, wreathed about the Tempes, the ends Floan, A. and G. Cloathed with short round leeves, parted down the Breast of the said colours: Is the Crest of Van Konitz. Here I could not properly say the Cloaths parted per Pale, for then they should have come down with a streight line, when as this parting only bends out, as the Breast and Page  103 Belly doth: Yet in such cases all these kinds of parting are understood, and taken to be no other then per Pale, allowance being given for the bending of the Body.

Things necessary for Fishing or Drawing with Netts.

A Fishers-Boat.


A Pole with Iron hook at the end.

Lanch out.

A Draw Nett.

A Draught.

Cast the Nett over.

Stall Nett.

Cords and Corks.


Netting Needle.

Strong Hemp thrid.

Mask of the Nett.

XLII. He beareth Argent, on a Grassy Plat in base a Piscator, or Fisher, or Anger, with his Rod lifted up, and the Line Pendant from the same, all proper. This is born for the name of Angelaer, both for the Coat and Crest,

In this Quarter a Demy Boy, his Arms Metamor∣phosed into Fish Hookes, the Beards Reversed, Argent; Cloarhed, Azure: on his Head a Plume of feathers, Argent. This out of a Coronet is the Crest of Van Angelloch of Rhyne.

Tackles belonging to an Angler.

A Fishing Rod, of which there are several sorts: as,

  • A Trowing Rod, or a Trowler: hath a ring at the end of the Rod for the Line to run through, when it runs off a Reele.
  • A Whipper, or UUhipping Rod: is a slender top Rod, that is weak in the middle and top heavy, but all slender and fine.
  • A Dopper, is a strong long Rod very tite.
  • A Snapper, or Snap Rod: is a strong Pole, pecu∣liar for a Pike.
  • A Bottom Rod, is the same with a Dopper but somewhat more plyable.
  • A Snigleing, or Prokeing Stick: is a forked stick, and a short long Line with a Needle Bated with a Lob Worm; It is only for Eels in their holes.

Lines, of which there are several sorts, and of diverse making: as,

  • Silk Lines, Fishing Lines made of several Silk thrids.
  • Hair Lines, made of the long hairs of an Horse Tail either single or twisted two together, sometimes three or four.
  • Thrid Lines.
  • UUire Lines.

Hooks, or Fishing Hooks of several sizes, big and little, and of these some have peculiar names: as,

  • Single Hooks.
  • Double Hooks, Hooks that have two bending, one contrary to the other.
  • Snappers, or Gorgers; which are Hooks to Whip the Artificial Fly upon, or to bait with the natural Fly.
  • Springers, or Spring Hooks; a kind of double Hooke with a spring, which Flyes open being strucken into any Fish and so keeps its Mouth open.

Baits, are of several sorts, as UUorms of diverse colours and kinds; Flyes Artificial and Natural accord∣ing to the seasons: Grashoppers, and Pasts made up by Art.



Plumets of Lead, to stand at the bottom of the Line to make the Bait sink.

Reeles of several sorts to wind the Lines upon.

A Trash-Bagg, a little Bagg of Leather wherein is put Materials for all sorts and kinds of Fly fishing.

A Landing Hooke

A Landing Nett, to put under large Fish when the Rod and Line is not of strength to pull them out.

A UUater-Dog, is a round peece of Lead like a Ring: It is to unloose the Hookes if they be fastned at the bottom.

Swivells, turning Hookes in Rings to fasten Wyer Links to the Lines.

Baiting Needles.

A Knife and Scicssars.

UUax Thrid, and Silk; for the whipping of the Lines to the Hook.

An Apron with several Pockets to place the Anglers Implements in Order.

A Bagg to carry the Bait in.

A Pedd, or Basket, or Pannier; to carry the Fish in, when they are cought.

Terms used by Anglers.

A Ioynted Rod, is a Rod that may be made long∣er or shorter at pleasure, by putting the end of one staff into a hoope fixed upon the end of another.

A Top, is the twigg or plying part of the higher end of the Rod to which the Line is fastned.

The Noose.

Gorge, is to swallow the Bait and Hook.

Bait the Hook, is to put a Worm, or other kind of Meat for the Fish on the Hook.

Bait, is any thing that is put on the hook, for the Fish to bite at.

Cast, Throe, or Toss your Line: is to fling it into the Water.

Bitt, is when the Fish take the Bait.

Trailes or Drags, when the Hook and Line touch∣eth the Ground under Water.

It Bottoms, lies on the Ground in the River.

Mid-water Fishing, is to let the Bait Swims on the top of the Water.

Page  104Strikes, or Laceing: when the Hook is drawn into his Mouth or Gills by a sudden twitching of the Bait from him, and so pulleth it out of the Water.

Run or Eagar, when Fish run away with th Bait in his Mouth; Take his Run.

Plating or UUeaving, is twisting the Hairs of the Line together.

Single, or Double UUater Knot or Noose: the knots by which two, three, or four length of hairs are tied together.

Whipping, is both the fastning of the Line to the Hook▪ or to the Rod.

Cork Flotes, when the Cork swims above Water.

Dops, or Dives; when sinks under Water.

UUhipping, is also taken for the casting in the Hook, and drawing it gently on the Water, as in Fly Fish∣ing.

No Sport, is when the Fish will not bite, but lie a ground.

Good Sport, or Play; when Fish is eager at the Bait.

Snigle, or Proking; is a kind of Fishing for Eels in their holes.

Dart, or Spear; is to take Fish by a fishing Dart, or Spear: as Eels by Eels-Spears.

Troull, is a kind of fishing for Pike with a Rod whose lines runs on a Reele.

Snap, is a kind of fishing for Pike with a strong Rod, with a double hook at the Line, called Snappers.

Snare, is to take Fish in Wyer Gryns, or Snares, Wills, or stall Nets.


UUhip, is to fish with a Whipper Rod, for small Fish.

Dopp, is to Fish with a Dopper Rod, for Pike, or large and strong Fish.

Grope, or Tickle; is a kind of Fishing by Diving under Water, or in shallow Waters where Fish is seen, by putting ones hand into the water holes, where Fish lieth: and when felt tickle them about the Gills, they will lie so quiet, that you may take them in your hands and cast them a Land: or if great Fish thrust your Fingers into their Gills, and bring them out: to conclude,

For Pike, Dart, Spear, Troul, Snap, Gorge, Snare or Snickle,

For Trout, Chub and Eel: Whip, Dop, Sniggle, Grop or Tickle.

XLIII. He beareth Air, on an Hill in Base, an Horse loaded with UUater-Baggs, with a Man following of him bearing a Scoope upon his shoulders, all proper. This is the Coat belonging to the company of Water-Leaders, in the City of Chester: which Coat in brief we blazon thus, a UUater Leader following of his Baggs. But if you will go to the par∣ticulars then say a Horse passant Argent, bearing a pair of UUater-Baggs, and Bridled Sable; the UUa∣ter-Man, or Horse-Driver, in a russet Suite, with a Linnen Apron about him; Hat and Shooes, proper: holding a Scope upon his right shoulder, Or.

In the Chief of this Quarter is a Demy Man to the sinister, respecant or looking backward, with a Laurel about his Temples, his left Hand on his side, and with his right pointing to the Dexter corner, Cloathed and Girded about the middle: such a bear∣ing cloathed Gules, is the Crest of Van Waldendeck of Switzerland. Some term this a Demy Man to the Sinister, Regardant, or Face Revertant, or Re∣spiciant, or Looking to the Dexter: any of them are sufficient blazons. The like to the Dexter, is the Crest of Van Bittenheim of Alsatia.

XLIV. He beareth Argent, on a Mount in Base, two Men their UUaistcoats Gules, Aprons white, Breeches and Hose Grey, Hats and Shooes Sable; bearing between them on their right shoulders a Pole and Runge, Or. These are another sort of UUater Carriers, and do belong to the Occupation of Beer and Ale Brewers.

He beareth Argent, two Beer-Breewers slinging of a Barrel, is the Badge of the Apprentices, and Workmen at the Brewers Trade; and is a fit sign or cognizance for a Brewer, or a Brew-house: see the Additional Plate to this Chapter, numb. 146. after chap. 4.

Terms used by Beer-Brewers, and Ale-Brewers▪

Comb the Malt, is to put it into the Comb.

Heat the Liquor, boil the water the first time.

Strike it over into Steuk, put it into the the Malt in the Comb.


Mash it up, blend or mixt the Malt and warm Wa∣ter together in the Comb.

Soak, the steeping of the Malt in the Water, where∣by its strength and vertue is drawn out.

Draw it into the Trough.

UUort, is the running of the Water from the Malt.

Best UUort, or Wort of the first running, or drawing is for strong Beer.

Wort of the second running, it makes small Beer.

Wort of the last drawing, it is thin and makes small drink, of some called, put up drink, shower-trough or penny prich: this is only the washing of Grains and the Brewers Aprons, and to give it its true term, it is no o∣ther then Water bewitched.

Pump it into the the drawing Comb.

Pump or Guide it into the Copper.

Boyle the Wort, is the second Boiling.

Fire the Copper, put Fire under the Brewing Pan.

Lead it into the Cooler.

Run it into the yelling Comb.

Put to the store, is to put Barm or Yest to it, to set it on working.

Working of the wort, is the frothing and swelling of it up to the top of the Comb.

Stirring of the wort, is to beat it about the Comb to make the working of it fall, that it run not over.

Sweet wort, the Wort boiled, and not as yet hav∣ing any store put to it.

New Beer, or New Drink; so called whilest it is working in the Comb.

Page  105— Wort that will not work in the Comb, when the Vessels have been long unused.

Pritch Drink, is drink that drinks sweet and sower, through a tant that it hath taken through the foulness of the Vessels.

Tunning, is powering it into the Barrels when it hath worked enough.

Working in the Barrel, is foming and frothing out of the Bung hole.

Sellar it, is to set the Barrels on Stillages in the Sellar.

Horsing of Beer, is the setting of one Barrel upon two, when the Sellerage and Stillage are two little to con∣tain the Barrells one besides another.

Slinging of a Barrel, is to bear it up with Slings on Mens Shoulders.

Carrying it out, is to bring it to such Customers as are to have it.

Lecking, is when any Beer run though the joynts of the Barrel.

Flying of the Hoopes, is when a hoope come off, or breaketh.

Tap or Broach the Barrel, is to thrust the Spigot and Forcet into the Cork hole at the bottom of the Bar∣rel end, thereby to draw the Liquor out.

Brewing Uessels, is the general term for all the things that a Brewer useth in his Trade.

A Malt-Makers Instruments for making of Malt.

A Measure and Strickles, to measure his Barley.

A Large Cestern of Lead, or Stone.

A Kill, with good Floores and Loft Floores.

A Cockle, the place where the Fire is made to dry the Malt.

A Disperser.

A Sovel, or Malt-shovel, and Basket.

Ribbs on the drying Kill.

An Hair Cloth to dry the Malt on.

A Fan, to cleanse the Malt from its dust.

Terms used by Malt-Makers.

A Malster, is one that maketh and selleth Malt.

Malt, it is Barley wet and dryed again.

Wet the Barley, is to put it into a Cistern of Water.

A Wetting of Barley, is as much as the Cistern will hold at one time to Wet and swell up.

Couch the Barley, is to take it out off the wet and lay it on the Flooer a foot thick, for as large a compass as the Weeting will contain.

A Couching Floore, a Floor made of Plaister of Paris smooth and even which no water will hurt; where the wet Barley is laid to come.

The Comeing of Barley, or Malt; is the sprit∣ting of it, as if it cast out a Root.

Wither it, is to cast it abroad on the Kill Floor, when it is come, that the comeings may wither away; and for the Barley to dry. It must be turned every twelve hours.

Turning, is to cast it with a Shovel on a dry Floor, and laying it thin to dry.

Drying the Malt, is to lay it on a Hair cloth on Wooden Ribs, over a Fire made of Gorse, Sea-Coal or Coal Calcinde, or burned to Cinders, or Char-Coal.

Turning on the Kill, is to Shovel it over, that all parts may dry alikes

Fanning, is to clean it from dust and all small grains.

Malt Dust, is the comings of the Barley, which be∣ing dried on the Kill, when it runs through the Fan falls from the Malt into a kind of Dust, all small Corns fall∣ing through with it.

XLV. He beareth Gules, a Man passant, his Shirt or Shift turned up to his Shoulder, Breeches and Hose Azure, Cap and Shooes Sable, bearing on his Back a Bread Basket full of Fruits and Herbs, and a Staff in his left Hand, Or. This may be termed ei∣ther a Huxter, or a Gardiner, having his Fruts and Herbs on his Back for the Market. This were a fit Crest for the Company of Fruiterers, or Huxters.

XLVI. He beareth Argent, a Lath-Man (or Lath Cleever) with a Bundle, or Bunch of Laths on his right shoulder, Or: Doublett and Breeches Azure; Apron, Hat, and Shooes, Sable.

A Man in a yellow Waistcote, and black Bree∣ches close to the Legs and Thighs, with an Ynew Gar∣land about his Temples, carrying a bundle of Bow-Staves on his Shoulder, Vert. Is the Crest of the Bowyers in Chester.

Terms used by the Fletchers, or Arrow-Makers.

A Staff, the first cleeving out of the Timber, to make the Shaft.

Pointing of it out, is the first cutting of it round with a Knife out of the rough.

Ripping it, is to give it the first round.

Shaving, is round with an hollow Shave.

Smooth it, is to Polish the same smooth with a Fish-skin.

Sliting it, putting the Horn for the nick.

A Cross slit, making the nick of the Arrow.

Fitting the Head, cutting the end to put on the Pill head.

Heading the Arrow, is Gluing it on.

Drawing the Feathers.

Cutting, or stripping the Feathers of the Quills.

Parcing the Feathers, is to cut the backs to make them lie close.

Ribbing, is cutting the side skirts away.

Cutting them of a length, is to cut them to their shapes and breadth.

Pressing the Feathers, putting them in a wett cloth to keep them even and straight.

Page  106Pollishing, or Glazing, or Uarnishing the Arrow with Glue; is to rub it over as far as the Feathers go with Glue, before they are set on.

Feathering the Arrow, is to Glue on the Feathers.

Pareing or Cutting them down, is cutting the Feathers even and all of a length and breadth.

Poising the Arrows, is to know whether the pair of Arrows be of an equal weight as they are of a length.

Turning them, is to give them a Twerle in ones hand, to know whether they be straight.

Staff, the Bow-staff at its first cleft.

Hewing them with the Hatchet.

Pointing them.

Plaining them.

Set them to the right, is if they be crooked to set them straight.

Horn them.

Nick the Horns.

Plain them the second time.

String them to see whither they come right, one place as well as another.

Ras them, to make them in a little shape.

Pollish them, to make them smooth.

Rub them with a Boars tooth and an Oyle cloth, to them shine and set a gloss on them.

XLVII. He beareth Argent, a Stringer, or a Man in a side Skirted Coat per Pale Argent and ert, Breeches and Hose counterchanged, Cap & Shooes Sable: having a Staff on his left Shoulder, with a Buggs of Bow-strings hung at the end thereof, Or. This is the Crest of the Bow-String-Maker, com∣monly called the Stringers of the City of Chester.

XLVIII. He beareth Gules, a Man sitting on a Block Apron and Waistcoat, Argent: Hatchelling or Dressing of Flax, Or. This belongs to the Flax-Dressers Company: and is their Crest or Cognizance.

Things belonging to Dressing and Spin∣ning of Hemp and Flax.

A Gigge, is a hole in the Ground where Fire is made to dry the Flax.

A Flake, or Hurdle of sticks laid over the Gigge hole on which the Flax is laid.

A Brake, or Flax Brake: is two pieces of Timber with Teeth made in them to bruse Flax stalks.

A Swingle Foot.

A Swingle Hand, corruptly a Swingow Hond: a thing like a Wooden Fauchion with a square hole or handle.

An Hatchel, of which there are several sorts one finer then another, these are long Iron Pinns set orderly in a Board with which Hemp and Flax is combed into fine haires.

An Hurdle.

A UUheele and Distaffe, a Reel, and Reeling Pinn.

Yarringle blades, Foot or Stand, and Yarringle Pegs, or Pinns.

The Sowing and Dressing of Hemp and Flax is a Branch of Huswifery: and is generally performed by Good Houswives at home, though other make a Trade of it abroad, however if at home or abroad, so the Country be supplied I shall be satisfied. Yet here give me leave to set down all the Terms of Art used by all Good Houswives, in this their work of Huswifery, from the first growing of these Herbs or Plants, viz. Hemp and Flax, till the same be made fit for the Weaver to make it into Cloth.

Terms of Art used by Hemp and Flax Dressers and Spinners.

Linseed, is the seed of Flax.

Hemp-seeds, groweth to Hemp.

Pulling, is to pull it up by the Roots, when at the full growth.

Bundling, is tying the Stalks up in Bunges.

UUatering or Diving, is to lay the Bunges in wa∣ter with weight on them to keep them from smimming.

Spreading, is to lay them abroad to dry.

Gigging, is to dry the Hemp or Flax over a Fire, made in a hole of the ground, which is called the Gigg or Gigg hole; and so laid upon a Flake, after the manner of a Kilne.

Braking, is the crushing, and brusing the Stalks, between peeces of Wood with Teeth like a Saw, made in them.

Pilling, is to Pill off the outward skin of the stalks of the Hemp, when they do not break it, reserving the stalk whole.

Swingowing, is the beating off the brused inward Salk of the Hemp or Flax, from the outward pill, which as the Hemp or Flax.

o••ing it, is to tie the said Hemp or Flax so swin∣gled ••to small bundles, which they call Heads of Flax.

Hatchelling, is to comb with Iron pinns to make it finer.

Hemp Huerds, the couse that is drawn out of the dressed.

Hemp all one way, that is dressed.

Tee of Hemp, long and strong Hemp.

Stee Hemp, long and strong Hemp.

Kirtle Flax, is twelve heads in a bunch, and is about an hundred pounds in weight.

Rogisca, five heads is three pounds.

Pater Noster, ten handfulls in a strick, is 2 pounds.

Memble, five heads, is two pounds.

Podola, three Bands is a bunch, & is forty two pounds.

Quinsborough, three Bands in a bunch, forty two pounds.

Elvens, three Bands in a bunch, forty two pounds.

A Baile of Flax.

A Bunch of Flax.

A Hed of Flax, is twelve Stricks tied up to make a Bunch.

A Strick, is about ten handfulls made up together in a head.

A Handful, or hand of Flax, is an handful tied up.

Page  107Dysoning, is opening and drawing the Flax to put it on the Distaff.

Carding of Huerds.

Spinning, is to twist the Flax hairs into Yarn or Thrid.

Reeling, is to wind the Yarn of the Wheel Spool on a Reel.

Knotting, or Helching, is to make a Knot or Cagg at every hundred times winding the Yarn about the Reel.

Cagging with the made Hank.

A Slipping, is as much as is wond upon the Reel at a time, which is generally about a pound of Yarn.

An Hank, is a slipping made up into a Knot.

A Lay-band, is an Inkle or Packthrid as tieth the Hank in the middle, by which it is hung up.

A Houswives pound of Yarn, or Teer; is two Wax pounds.

A Wax pound, is sixteen Ounces.

Fine Hatchelling, and Round Hatchelling.

An Hurle, is the hair of the Flax, which is either fine or round.

Shoves, are the small breakings of the Hemp or Flax stalks which often sticketh in the coursest sort of them.

Huerds, is that as is pulled out of the Teere or fine Flax.

Fine Flax, or Teere.

Flax all one way, is Flax in the ruff, undressed.

Scalding, or Steeping the Yarn.

Bucking, is to make it something white by washing it in Lye made of Gorst Ashes.

Drying, is to hang it up in the Aire to dry after the Washing or Bucking.

Winding, is to make it out of Hanks into round Clues or Balls.

A Clue of Yard, is Yarn wond into a round Ball.

Yarn, is the single thrid of either Hemp or Flax.

Warping, is bringing to the Weavers to Lay for Cloth.

Weaving, is the Weavers work who make it into cloth, from whence it hath these Denominations, either.

Readings, is a course sort of Cloth.

Huswives Cloath, is the middle sort between fine and course.

Flaxen, is the finest sort of Cloth made of Flax.

UUhitning, is to make the Cloth white, which is the last thing of this part of Good Huswifry.

XLIX. He beareth Azure, a Weaver working at his Lomme, all proper. This is the Crest of the Silk Lace Weavers, and Ribbon Weavers, for the City of Che∣ster only: All other Weavers bearing the Coat and Crest belonging to the common Weavers of Woollen and Linnen.

The several Parts of a Loome, or Weavers Frame.

The Frame, is the four standing peeces with the cross peeces to hold them that they stand upright.

The Yarn Beam, is that as hath the Yarn rowled a∣bout it, at the end whereof is a Wheele with a catch or two or three on it.

The Latch, is an Iron or peece of Wood that falls in∣to the Catch of the Wheel aforesaid, which holds the Yarn Beam from turning.

The Leath, that is a moving Frame in which the reed is placed by which the Woof is knockt or beaten into the Warp.

The Reed, is that like Barrs of a Grate through which the Warp or Yarn runs.

The Coats, are the thrids that the Yarn run through: they are lifted up and down by help of the tradles, by means whereof they Warp at every cast of the Shuttle is crossed, one contrary to the other.

The Pullees, or Pullases; are those turning things on the top of the Frame by which with the help of the tradles the Spring-staves are raised up and down.

The Spring-staves, are the rising and falling staves, which have the Coats or Thrids fixed to them.

The Tradles, are playing staves at the bottom of the Frame from whence there goeth Robes or small Cords to Pulles and Spring-staves, which being put down with the Weavers Feet by help of the said Pullees raise and fall the Spring-staves, which by means of the Coats or thrid∣den Nuces fixed to them raises by turns. and falls every other thrid or yard in the Warp.

The Breast Beam, is that as the Workman sets his Breast unto when he is Weaving.

The Cloth Beam, is that as the cloth is rouled up∣on, as it is Woven: It hath an Iron Wheel full of Not∣ches, and a Catch, that is to hold it fast from turning.

The Thrum,••d a Fent; is the cuttings off of the cloth when it is Woven the remaining being the ends of the Warp, whih being so short cannot be Wover, hath only a narrow p••ce of cloth fixed to it.

Terms of Art used by Weavers.

Wind the Beam, is to turn the Beam that the Warp may wind about it.

Rod the Lace, is to put two Rods through the cross thrids which were crossed at the Warping.

Knit to the Thrum, is to tie the end of the Yarn to the end of the Thrid that hangs from the Fent of the Thrum.

Draw through the Coat, is to put every particu••ar thrid, through a particular Nuce of Pack-thrid hangling at the Stick or Rod.

Draw through th Reed, is to put the same through every cleft of the clove Reeds.

Cord the Rods, that is tie the Cords to the Rod that goeth throug••e Fent that holds the Thrum toge∣ther.

Trade the Tra•••es, is to make one fall, and ano∣ther rise, by setting the foot upon each.

Winding f Pinns, is the winding of Yarn upon a Reed or Pinn

Set the Pin, is to put it into the Trough or hole of the Shuttle.

Page  108Weave, is to cast the Shuttle through the cross Thrids or Yarn over cross the Loome.

Knock or beat the Warp, is the striking with the Reed the crossed Warp and Woofe close together.

Beere, is nineteen ends of Yarn running all together out of the Trough upon the VVall, all the length of the cloth.

Warp, is all the Yarn that runs the length of the cloth, let it have either more or less Beers in, according as the breadth of the cloth is intended: for the broader the cloth is, the more Beers, or nineteen thrids must be warp∣ed into it.

Woofe, is that Yarn which is wrought out of the Shuttle, in the overthwart working.

L. He beareth Sable, a Cooper in his Waistcote, and Cap, Argent: Breeches and Hose, Russet: with an Adds lifted up in his right Hand, and a Diver in his left, trussing up a Barrell with Fire out of the top of it, all proper.

Terms used in the Art of Coopery, viz. making of Barrells.

Trussing a Barrel, is putting it together from Boards or Staves within a Hoop.

Trussing Hoop, is a large strong Hoop which is first put about the Barrel staves to draw them to their com∣pass.

Paring the Staves.

Fireing and Driving.

Hooping or Hoop.

Twigging a Hoop, is binding the two ends toge∣ther with cloven Twiggs of Withy, or Osier Twiggs.

Noching of a Hoop, when the two ends are cut into two contrary cross Nochings or Nicks, which being put into the other, holds as fast as if it were Twigged.


Barrel staves, or Boards; are long and slender or narrow Boards, which Barrells and other Vessels for liquor are made off.

Grooping, is the making of the Rigget at the two ends of the Barrel to hold the head in.

Heading, or Head; is to put in the round Boards fitted together into the Groop made to receive them.

Cross Barr, is the fixing of a Bar or two over the head of the Barrel to keep it firmly and strongly in its place.

— the Peggs as keeps the cross Barrs on.

Chine, or Lag; is a piece put into the top of a Bar∣rel staff that is broken off at the Grooping.

Belly, is the round swelling bulk of the Barrell.

Bungg, is a large round hole in the side through which liquor is put into the Barrel.

Uent, is a small hole made to give Wind to the Bar∣rel.

Tap, is the Forset hole made in the head of the Bar∣rel to draw the Liquor out.

Several sorts of Vessells made after the Form and Fashion of Barrells.

A Dryfett.

A Tunn, is eight Barrells.

An Hogshead, is two Barrells.

A Pipe, is a Barrel and half.

An half Pipe, is three Firkins.

A Barrel, is four Firkins, or thirty six Gallons.

An half Barrel, is two Firkins.

A Firkin.

A Kilderkin.

An half Firkin.

A Rundlet of thirty six quarts, all other Vessels less are called Rundlets of twelve, ten, six, four quarts &c. till you come to a Rundlet for Oysters pickled, contain∣ing about a quart, or a pint and half.

Terms used by the White-ware Cooper.

Falling, is the falling of the Trees, to make the work with.

Cleeving, is the cutting it into length for the work, which are termed according to the work for which they are ordered: as Boards, Hoopes, Bottoms, Staves, Pinns, &c.

Hewing, is cutting it even from the running of the Grain.

Drawing, is putting the Wood into the pairing lad∣der, to shave and cut it to what thinness is fit for the work.

Ioynting, is fitting the Boards or Staves, so that the joynts lie close and tite.

Heel Shaving.


Grooping, is the making of the Rigget at the lower part of the Vessel to hold the bottom in.

Buckling, is the putting of the Vessel boards toge∣ther wirh a Hoop about them, so making its compass.

Sawing, is to make the Staves all even at the ends, or top and bottom.

Hooping, is fastning the Hoops on the work made.

Quarter Cleeving, Trees cloven into four quarters.

Boults, the sawed piecces into lengths, out of which Laths or Latts are cloven.

Bottoms, are pieces of Wood to put in the bottoms of Vessels to make them hold any kind of Liquor: called Bottom Boards.

Staves, are cleft Wood, made either longer or shor∣ter as the work requires.

Hoops, are long, slender, narrow peeces, cleft all the length of a Tree.

Pinns, short, round, or square pieces of Wood, about six, eight, or ten inches long, and an inch or more in Dia∣meter: or much larger if they be for great Work, as Combs, Tubs, &c.

Page  109LI. He beareth Azure, a Carpenter squaring of a long piece of Timber, lying on two Rowlers, Or: his UUaistcote Gules, Breeches and Hose Russet, ••t and Shooes, Sable.

In the Dexter base of this quarter, is the Figures of a Man and UUoman walking together: and such a like bearing I find to belong to the Coat Armour of the City of Dantzig in the Empire of Germany, viz. Or on a Fesse Vert, between an Eagle Displaid Sable: and a Cross Patee Azure: two Spaniards and their UUives Walking together, Argent. I might call them either French, or Spanish; because they contrary to us English, ever take the better hand of their Wives: as it is here to be seen. Some term them Mu∣tually walking, or Coambulant, or Main a Main Ambulant.

Terms used in Carpentery.

Arch, is any work wrought circular, as the tops of Window frames, the top of Gates, and the Roof of Vaults.

Back, or Hip Moulding, is the Moulding in the back Hips, or Vally Rafters in the angle or corner of the back part of a Building.

Bannister, is the little Pillars set in a Balcony or Stair-case.

Base, is commonly the bottom of a Pillar or Co∣lumn, or Pillaster, or the bottom of any Building; term∣ed also the Basis or Foundation.

Batement, is to cut off or waste a piece of Timber to form it to the purpose designed; that a Workman instead of asking how much was cut off such a piece of Stuff, will say what Batement had such a piece.

Batter, is when the side, or part of the side of a Wall, or any Timber Bulges out from its foundation or bottom; this is said to Batter or hang over the foun¦dation.

Battlement, is a flat Roof or Platform to walk on; but Battlements are more properly used for Walls built above the Plat-form to inclose it, as is seen in Towers and Castles of Defence.

Bauk, is a piece of Fir unslit, from four to ten inch∣es sqare, and is of any length.

Bear, that is Timber is said to bear at its whole length, when neither a Prop, Wall, or any thing stands between the ends of it; but if any such things be un∣der it, and that the Timber rests upon it, then it is said to bear only in that distance where it hath no sup∣port. Thus Carpenters ask what

Bearing such a piece of Timber hath? The An∣swer is 10, 12, 15, &c. foot, according to the length of the whole Timber unsupported, or distance between each end of the Timber.

Bearer, is a prop, post, or wall made up between the two ends of a piece of Timber to shorten its bearing, or help the weight that lyeth upon it.

Bond, is to make fast two or more pieces of Timber well together, either by good Tennanting and Mortes∣sing, or by Duff-tailing and such like.

Brad, is a Nail without a head to floor Rooms withall, it is with us termed a Sprig, and is about the size of a ten penny Nail.

Bulge, see Batter.

Break in, is when with the Ripping Chissel Car∣penters are forced to make a hole in a Brick or Stone Wall, to lay the end of a piece of Timber in it.

Bring up, is a term used by Carpenters to Brick-layers or Masons; that is to bring up such a Wall or Chimney, that is, build the Foundation so high, or build the Wall or Chimney.

Butment, is the support of a piece, or a stay of any thing that is laid against it; as a Summer in a Wall, which if the Wall be not strong to support it, but shrink or yield to its weight, it is said not to have good Butment, the Wall is not able to bear it.

Camber, is a piece of Timber cut Arching, so as when a considerable weight is laid upon it, it may in length of time be reduced to a straight.

Cantilevers, pieces of VVood framed into the front or sides of a House, to sustain the Moulding and Eaves over them; called also Cantelevers.

Carcase, is (as it were) the Skelleton or Frame of an House new raised, having neither Laths nor Plaster on it.

Cartouses, or Catouses, are VVooden Corbells ornamented, or wrought with turned Carved VVork.

Clear Story Window, are such VVindows that have no transum or cross piece in the middle of them to break the same into two Lights.

Coping over, is a sort of VVork hanging over its upright VVall, which is generall Bevelling on its under side.


Corbel, is a piece of Timber set under another piece to discharge its bearing.

Discharge a Wall, or piece of Timber, set up to another cross piece, that is not able to bear the weight said upon it, is said to be a discharge to that bearing.

Double Quarter, see Quarter.

Draft, is the form and manner of an intended Building described on a Paper, wherein is laid down the devised divisions and partitions of every room in a due proportion according to its scale. Some term it a Mo∣del or Ground Plot.

Drag, as a Door is said to drag, when either by its ill hanging on its Hinges, or the ill Boarding of the Room, the bottom edge of the Door rides (in its sweep) upon the Floor.

Enter, is when the Tennant is put into the Mortess, they are said to enter the Mortesses.

Feather Edge, Boards or Planks that have one edge thinner than another, are called Feather Edge stuff.

Furrings, is the making good of the Rafters feet in the Cornice.

Flyers, are Stairs made of an oblong square figure, whose fore and back sides are Parallel to each other, and so are their ends. The second kind of these Flyers stand Parallel behind the first, the third behind the second, and so are said to fly off from one another.

Foot-pace, is a broad place in a pair of Stairs, where∣on you may take two or three paces before you ascend another Step, which is looked upon to be a great ease to Page  110 the Legs in ascending the rest of the Steps.

Floor, it is as well taken from the whole frame of the Floor, as the boarding of it over.

Gable, or Gable End, is the top end of an House, which reacheth just so far as the covering of the House, Eaves excepted, for they generally are lower.

Gain, is the letting of one piece of Timber Bevell∣ways into another; that is, by shouldering or lapping of the end of a Joyce or Spar, &c. and then the cutting the thickness of the said shoulder in another piece be∣villing it upwards, so that it may receive the Gain, and so the two pieces lie even and level upon their super∣ficies.

Ground-plot, is the piece of Ground a Building is to be erected upon.

Hang over, see Batter.

Hand-spike, see Lever.

Iuffers, are pieces of Stuff or Timber about 4 or 5 inches square, and of several lengths.

Knee, or Knee piece, or Kneeler, is a piece of Timber growing angularly or crooked; that is, a great Branch shooting out near the top of the Trunk of the Tree, and is so cut that the Trunk and the Branch makes an Angle. Some call it a Crook, or a Knee-Rafter.

Landing place, it is the uppermost step of a pair of Stairs; that is the floor of a room you ascend upon.

Levet, is the same piece in Wood as the Crow is in Iron; it is an Instrument whereby great Timber is lift∣ed up; in some places called Hand-spikes.

Lintel, is a piece of Timber laid over a Window or Door-Case, either in Brick or Stone-work, to trim or fall even with the same Frames; and is as well to bear the thickness of the Wall laid over it, as to make a Bond, or be a binding to the sides of the VVall.

Modillion, see Cantelever.

Mouldings, are the running of several sorts of Plains upon the edges of Spars, Joyce or other Stuff to adorn it; as in Chimney pieces, the inward edges of VVindow Frames, Shelves, &c.

Modell, is the first draught, or frame, or fashion by which a House is to be Built.

Plate, is a piece of Timber upon which some con∣siderable weight is framed; hence it is, that we call the place where any work is framed, Ground Plate, Win∣dow Plate, &c.

Profile, is the same with Ground Plot.

Projecture, is the Jetting over the upright of a Building with another Building; thus Balconies project into the Street; and one Story in a House projects that below it.

Puncheous, are short pieces of Timber placed un∣der some considerable weight to support it.

Props, are longer pieces of Timber used to support a decay•• Building.

Pulaies, are short pieces of Stuff used instead of Handspikes.

Quarters, are Timber of two sizes, viz. Single Quarters are Sawn Stuff, two inches thick, and four inch∣es broad.

Double Quarters are Sawn to four inches square, and are of any length as the Workman ordereth.

Quartering, in the Front or sides of the House, in each Story all the working in of cross pieces or cants, into the principal Posts, Jaums, or Window frames, viz. the upright Trimmings and the Braces as some call them, are called Quartering.

Quirk, is a piece taken out of any regular Ground Plot or Floor; which said piece so taken out, is general∣ly of a square nature; a square being struck into four parts, one of those parts in Carpentry Terms is called a Quirk.

Rail, Rails, stand over and under Banisters of Bal∣conies and Stair-cases, &c.

Raiser, is the Board set on edge under the foreside of a Step in a pair of Stairs, which makes the height of the Step.

Raising-piece, are such pieces that lie under the ends of Beams and Summers upon Brick or Stone Work, or upon Timber Wall Plats by the sides of Houses.

Rellish, see Projecture.

Return, is either of the adjoining sides of the front of an House, or Ground-plot, of some called a Return side.

Ridge, is the top of the House; where the meeting of the Spars or Rafters is on both sides of the House, is called the Ridge.

Roof, is the covering of the House; but the word is used in Carpentry, for the Timber work of the cover∣ing.

Scribe, see in Joyners Terms.

Shake, is such Stuff as is crackt either with the heat of the Sun, or Drought, or Wind, is called shaken Stuff.

Shingles, small pieces of Wood used to cover Hou∣ses with ins••ad of Tiles or Slates.

Shreadings, are the lower ends of the princ••al Rafte•• in the front of the House. Some term 〈◊〉Flirrings.

So••s, or Sells, are either Ground Sells, 〈…〉 bottom 〈◊〉 of Timber on which the Hous••• Built; or Wind••ells, which are the bottom piece•• Window frames. Some term these Sils.

Stair-Cae, is the inclosure of a pair of Stairs, ••e∣ther it be with Walls, or with Rails and Bannisters, &c.

Stancheons, see Puncheons.

Scale, is the measure of the ground Plot on the Pa∣per draught, by which the work is made.

Skirts, are the projecting of the Eaves over the Wall plat, to secure the Wall from Rain.

Transom, is the piece that is framed a cross; a dou∣ble Light Window.

Trim, is when Workmen fit a piece into another piece, they say they trim in a piece.

Tusk, is a Bevel shoulder made to strengthen the Tennant of a Joyst, which is let into the Summer or Girder.

Ualley Rafter, see Back Moulding.

Well-Hose, is the void place in the middle of a square Stair case, by which one may see from the bot∣tom to the top of the Stair.

Wall-plate, is the side of the Wall; or more pe∣culiarly used by Workmen for the Timber in the Wall, whether upright or overthwart; all together makes but a Wall or Wall-plate.

Page  111LII. He beareth Argent, upon an Hill in Base, Vert, a Mason skabling of an Ashler, Or, Wast∣coat, Gules, Hat, Breeches, Stockings and Shoos, Sable, Pick Are, Azure. By the help of Ma∣sonry the most glorious Structures in the World have been set up; as if their Art did endeavour to imitate the Handy Works of God, in making little Worlds in the great Fabrick of the Universe.

Terms of Art used by Free Masons Stone-Cutters.

Guttering, is to make Gutters or Furrows in the top of the Rock, thereby to loosen it from the rest of the Rock.

Rigalding, is to set in the Wedges.


Driving, is to strike in the Wedges, to force up the Bed of Lift of Stone, or that great piece of the Rock which was guttered about, or on two sides.

Cutting, is to cut that great piece of the Rock into any piece or shape as the Workman gives Order for, whether it be into Ashlers, Perpins, Flags, Gravestones, &c.

Skable, is the first working of a Stone out of the rough, and making it into shape for the use it is to be put unto.

Broach, is to ew away the rough skabling stroaks.

Axe, is to work the Stone smooth, with a broad sharp Axe.

Rub, is to rub the wrought Stone with another, thereby to make it even, and wear away all the stroaks the Axe hath left in the Stone.

Cleanse. is to make the Joynts in a Wall or Floor even, so that one edge of a Stone shall not e higher than another.

Hewing, see Skable.

Levell, is to see that a Floor be laid streight and even.

Plime, is to be streight in Walls, which is tried by the Plime Rule.

Champher, is to take the square edge of a Stone off Bevile ways.

Names of Stons according to their big∣ness, and the use they are put to.

Rough Stone, or Penny Stone, such as are rough cut out of the Quarry, and are without any shape or form to make work of.

Perpin, are less than the size of Ashlers.

Ashler, is a Stone a Yard long, and 8, 9, or 10 inches square, according as the work will bear it.

Flag, Broad Stones for Floors of several breadths and lengths, and about three or four inches thick.

Grindle-stone, round Stones to sharpen Tooles upon

Mill-stone, a mixt stone of great and small Piples, made round for grinding of Corn.

Grave-stone, long and broad Stones to lay on Bu∣ried Bodies, which are about five or six inches thick.

Fractable, are the wrought stones that run up the Ga∣ble ends or Dormant Windows, which are made of Brick or Houses of Stones.

Crow-stone, is a Stone cut to rest upon the end, or point of the Gable end, on which a Pinacle of Stone is fixed.

Finishing, or Pinacle-stones.

Gutter-stone, is to have an half round cut in Stone, for water to run in, thereby to convey it away.

Crists, are wrought Stones, either half round, or with Bottles, or triangular; to lay on Brick or Stone Walls to secure them from weather. Some call them Top Stones.

Corvills, Stones set out of Walls to hold things on.

Coin, or Coin-end; are Stones laid in a Brick Wall at the corners of a House: called also Quine∣stones. They are a yard long, and three Brick in thick∣ness.

Note that Sixty Ashlers is reconed for an Hundred.

There are several other terms used by the Free-Ma∣sons which belong to buildings, Pillars and Columbs, to which places I shall refer you, lib. 3. chap. 13. numb. 55, 56. &c.

Terms of Art used by Free-Masons.

Antiques or Antique Work, is Carvings, of several forms and figures either Men, Beasts, Birds, Flowers and the like; turning and Winding into fouldage, or Scrowles, or jagged leaves.

Architrave, is the bottom part of a Cornish or several ways of Mouldings.

Abacus, is any flat or square in a Cornish.

Annuietts, are all the small Rings or Fillets made in Pillars, or between Mouldings in Corniches.

Astragal, or Astragolus; are the round Rings with Fillets on each side, set at the bottom of Capitals, or Pil∣lar Heads.

Buttresses, are square Pillars set at the out side of a Wall to support it from falling.

Butment, is good strong building on which Arches are built, or any part that other work is built against, which it must support.

Battlements, the top of Castle Walls.

Basis, or Base; the Foot of a Columb, or Bottom, or Foundation of a Wall or other building.

Breaking of a Cornice, when it runs not straight, but is made with returns: under which breakings are set Catouses, or hung Drops (or pendals in Wood work) for Ornament.

Collarino, the bottom Ring, with its Fillets in the foot of a Capital. The same to Astragal.

Cambia, the same to Annulett.

Ceinctures, the same.

Corona, is a flat in a Cornice, with a Channel or Rigget at the Bottom inwards.

Page  112Cima, or Cimatia, or Cimatium; is a bending in the top of a Cornice in form of an S. but not so much bending: of some it is called an O. G. see Scima.

Capital, the Head, or Moulding, or Carved work on the top of a Columb or Pillar or Pillaster.

Chapiter, that which is set upon the Head or Capital of a Pillar to further Adorn or Beautifie the work, as Balls, Pine Apples, Beasts sitting holding Shields, with such like.

Cavetto, is an half round of a Cornice inward, in the Capital of a Pillar: the same to Scotia.

Cartouches, or Catouces; the turning Scrowles in form of an S. which are generally Carved, and set un∣der the breaking of a Cornice, or support of a Beam, or such like.

Center, the middle of any round Body, or Circum∣ference.

Columb, a round Pillar: see Pillar.

Cantilevers, Stones wrought into Scrowles, Corbills, on which a Wall may be further jetted out, for the bene∣fit of some Room or Place of Easment.

Cornice, is any kind of Moulding work that over seileth or projects the place it stands upon.

Clarester Windows, that have no cross Barrs in them.

Dado, or Dye; is a flat in a Cornice or Pedestal, a square and broad Fillet.

Diametre, or Diameter; the breadth of any round fro side to side over the Center.

Dentilles, are squares left on a square or flat part of a Cornice, to set out the work.

Echinus, the same to Ovolo.

Frize, is the second part of work in the bottom of a Cornice or Capital, and next after the Architrave: And it may e plain, or swelling out with a round.

Flutes, are the hollows, or channells in a Corin∣thian Pillar.

Fascia, are flats in a Cornish towards the Bottom: also termed a Frise.

Fillets, see Annulets.

Gutta, are Drops, or square pieces, or things like Bells, cut on the Frize, to set out the work.

Gradetten, are certain kind of Mouldings, or Car∣ved work, on the flatts of Cornices.

Head, the top of a Pillar, or of a Window or Door.

Hypotra-chelium, is a Frise or Freze.

Impostes of Arches, are the Capitals of Pillasters, on which the springal of the Arch resteth,

Inter-columes, the distance of the Columb from a Wall.

Iaumes, the sides of a stone Window, or Door case: see Peers.

Liscella and Ceincture, the same to Annulet.

Mullion or Munnions, the upright stands of a Stone VVindow.

Modulle, the Patern by which a Fabrick or Building is wrought, a rule to make his work by.

Modlions, things like ends of Sparrs fixed on the Cimatium of the Cornice.

Metopa, the Frize or flat of a Cornice, or any other place wherein Dropps, Scrowles, Triangle peeces and such like are set to Adorn the Cornice.

Mouldings, the general terms for all the rounds, flatts, and other turnings in the parts of a Cornice.

Nowel, is the middle Pillar, or Post of a turning, or winding Stairs.

Ovolo, is a quarter round under a projecting square: a Moulding that is out at the top, and turns in at the bottom.

Orlo, see Plynth.

Project, or Projecture; is that as over hangs, or stands further out then the thing it stands upon; as the Capital doth the Pillar.

Plynth, is the bottom part of the Basis of a Pillar, and also of the Pedestal.

Pedestal, is the Foot or Foundation of a Columb, and its Basis.

Pillar, is that which is square in the Body; a Co∣lumb round.

Pillaster, is half a Pillar, or Columb fixed to a VVall.

Pecres, the sides of Windows or Doors.

Rustick, is in the joynts of every stone, either for Fra∣ctable or Pillasters taken of square, so it looks like a square set on a square.

Revailed, is in the same way of work, but in this the joynts are but champhered, so that it is two edges of the joynt taken off.

Springall, is the foot or bottom of an Arch, or the place of its Foundation or beginning to rise.

Scima, see Cima, and Cimatium.

Scima Reca, is the top of a Cornice or Capital in form of an S.

Scima Reversa, is the bottom of the Basis or Pedestal and turns contrary to the former: an S the wrong way.

Stilobatum, is the Pedestal.

Scotia, is an inward half round, either in Capital, or Pedestal: se Cavetto.

Scrowles, see Cartouches.

Trg••fs, are triangle peeces set on the Frise, to set it out handsome to the Eye.

Torus, the same to Scima Reversa; but usually this is round: if two be in a Pedestal, they are called the upper and the lower Torus. Some call it Torcus.


Transome Window, that hath cross Barrs in it, to the third part.

Trasery, is the working of the top part of a Window to several forms and fashions.

Uausing, is to make the Jaumes, or sides of Stone Windows and Doors, to over sail the other part of the Wall they are set in: and this is performed with any kind of Cornice the Master pleaseth.

Zocco, the same to Plynth: called the Zocco of the Base or of the Pedestal.

See more concerning these Terms in their true shapes, chap. 13. numb,

LIII. He beareth Or, on a Mount in Base, a La∣bourer rowling of a Wheel-Barrow, Gules; Clo∣then Azure: Hat and Shooes, Sable. Some term him a Barrow-Labourer, as being only imployed in that work to fetch and bring Burthens: Some term him only a Wheeler: or Barrow-Men when it is carried between two Labourers.

Page  113In the Dexter side of this square, is the figure of a Fools Head couped at the Shoulders, Or: Cap, and Ass Ears, Azure: Beled, Or. Which is the Crest of Balschoff of Alsaia. Some only term this a Fools Head clothed O. Capped B. the Fools Cap being ever drawn with long Ears, and round Bells hanging at the tip ends thereof: see numb. 69.

LIV. He beareth Gules, a Potter sitting on a Stoole working at his Wheel, Or; Cap and Shift, Argent: Apron, Vert: Breeches and Hose, Azure. This Crest belongs to the Potters, or sellers of Earthen or Tickney Ware.

LV. He beareth Argent, a Rope-Makers Spin∣ning or Twistings Wheel, Tenne; with a Man sit∣ting thereat, Clothed Azure: Hat and Shooes Sa∣ble. Some more short blazon it, a Man sitting and turning of a Rope-Makers Wheel. See in the addition Plate for this Chapter, numb. 42. the manner of Twisting several Ropes into one Gable.

Terms used by the Roper.

Spinning, is the Twisting of the Hemp into a Yarn, or single Thrid.

Rope Yarn, the Yarn spun by the Roper.

Warping, is the laying of so many Thrids or Rope Yarns together, as will make a Rope.


Laying, is the putting of so many Ropes into the Slead as will make a Gable; that is Laying a Gable.

Sarve or Plat the Gable.

Strands, the Twists of a Rope.

Fakes, one of the Ropes made into a Cable, or by Fakes is ment one of the lesser Thrids, or Rope Yarn; used to the making up of any small Cord, or Rope.

Sorts of Ropes.

Rope Yarn, the first spinning of the Hemp.

Packthrid, is 2 small yarns or thrids twisted together.

Small Cord, is two thicker or three twisted together.

Cord, Bed-Cord, or an Halter, a Pack-Cord: is also three large Fakes Twisted.

Rope, Cart-rope, Bucked or Well-rope, a Bell-rope: all aforesaid being a Degree one thicker then another.

Gable, a small Gable, middling Gable, or a great and thick Gable: which are used at Great and Tall Ships, Men of Warr, &c.

LVI. He beareth Argent, a Printer Working at his Printing-Press, all proper. Printing as som Au∣thors have it, was used in China, and Preser Iohn, above a 1000 Years since; though it was not known in this part of the World till about the Year 1430. In which in∣fancie the Letters were cut in Wooden blocks altogether, by one Laurensz Iansz Koster of Harlem, who after est Wood off, and cut Letters in Steel, and cast them in Met∣tle: yet Iohn Gutenberg of Mentz in Germany promotes his claim to the first invention of this Art by single Let∣ters before Koster, and is more generally accepted to be so. After this it was practized in Oxford in the Year 1461. and in London 1471. and about 1480. it began to be received into Venice, Italy, Germany, and other places in these We∣stern parts of the World: insomuch that it is now disputed whether Tipography and Arcitecture may not be accoun∣ted Liberal Sciences, being so Famous ARTS.

Persons Instrumental about Printing.

  • The Master Printer, who is the Soul of Printing; all other workmen about it, are as Members to the Body.
  • The Letter Cutter — all called Let∣ter Founders
  • The Mattrice or Mould-Maker all called Let∣ter Founders
  • The Letter Caster — all called Let∣ter Founders
  • The Letter Dresser — all called Let∣ter Founders
  • The Compositer all goe under the Notion of Printers.
  • The Corrector all goe under the Notion of Printers.
  • The Press-Man all goe under the Notion of Printers.
  • The Ik-Maker all goe under the Notion of Printers.

Besides several other Trades they take into their assist∣ance without whose help they could not work: as Smith, Ioyner, Wett-Glover, &c.

The several Parts of a Press.

The Press, is a Machine consisting of many Mem∣bers, as

The Feet, are the two bottom peeces on which the Cheeks are fixed by Mortess and Tennants.

The Cheeks, are the 2 upright standards of the Press.

The Cap, is the top peece, which fastens the Cheeks above.

The Winter, is a peece under the Carriage: to hold the two Cheeks at a due distance.

The Head, is that peece 〈◊〉 ough which the top of the Screw goeth, having a Female Screw fixed in it.

The Till, is a Board aout an Inch thick, through the middle whereof the Shank of the Spindle goeth.

The Hose, is that peece of Iron work through which the Shank of the Spindle goeth.

The Hose Screws, are Screws with cars to turn them, whereby the Platin Cords are made more loose or yght.

The Hooks on the Hose, on which the Plattin hangs, are 4 Hooks on the out sides of the said Iron work.

The Spindle, is the thick peece of Iron on whose top is a Screw of three Worm.

The Neck of the Spindle, that part just under the square.

The Eye of the Spindle, the square hole in the middle.

The Shank of the Spindle, all from the square part to the end.

The Toe of the Spindle, is the very bottom of it, which is of an Hemispherical forth.

The Worm, is the out part of the Screw, of which one part lieth below the head of the Press, and the other lies in the Nut in the Head.

The Nut or Screw Box, in which the great Scew turneth.

The Platin, a square Planck with a Smooth Face, to press down on the Letters, and is tied on the Hooks of the Hose.

Page  114The Platin hooks, are four Iron Hooks at the four corners Wormed or Screwed into the said Plank on the upper side.

The Platin Plate, is an Iron fixed in the middle of the Plank, on which is an Iron Frame.

The Stud of the Platin, is a kind of a square Pan set on the middle of the Iron Frame, so as to take out and put in, in the middle whereof is a center hole, for the Toe of the Spindle to work in.

The Platin Cords, are them as tie the Hooks to the Hose Hooks.

The Bar, is the crooked Iron on which the handle of Wood is fixed.

The Catch of the Bar, it is a Bevile Piece of Wood to stay the Bar when it flies back.

The Handle of the Bar, is that by which the Work∣man turns the Screw.

The Hind Posts, are two upright Posts wrought with round tops, set behind the Cheeks of the Press.

The Hinder Railes, are them as fastens the Posts to the Cheeks, by Mortess and Tennants: There are six of them, two behind, and two on each side.

The Wedges of the Till.

The Motesses in the Cheeks, are the square holes in which the Tennants of the head are placed.

The Carriage, is the sliding Plank on which the Marble Stone is laid.

The Outward Frame of the Carriage,

The Cramp Irons, are square Irons with battered Heads to nal on the under side of the Plank of the Coffin to make it slide the bter on the Iron Ribs.

The Iron Ribs, are long Irons fastned on the Woo∣den Ribs, for the Carriage to slide upon.

The Wooden Ribbs on which the Iron Ribbs are fastned, they are four set at an equal distance, and so fastned by two end Railes.

The Stay of the Carriage, or the Stay; is the Girth fastned to the Carriage, to hold it that it shall go so far, and no further.

The Coffin, is a square Frame at the fore-end of the Carriage, and is the place where the Marble ston, or Lignum Uitae plank lieth; or is Beded.

The Stone of Marble, or Plank of Lignum Uitae.

The Gutter, is a peece of Wood three Inches larger then the Coffin, and is placed behind it: having a grove in the said Wood.

The Plank, is that on which the Coffin is placed.

The Gailows, is a thing of Wood like it, set on the hinder part of the Plank, and fastned thereon by two Male Duftaile proves.

The Timpan, is a square Frame, three sides are Wood and one Iron.

The Matcht Ioynt, is the Joynt or Hing fastned to the Timpan and hinder Raile of the Coffin.

The Inner Timpan, is a Frame three sides Wood, and one Iron.

The Frisket, is that as is laid on the Paper when it is Printing, to keep it clean.

The Stay of the Frisket, is that as holds it from falling back when it is opened.

The Points, are Iron Plates with a sharp point at one end of them.

The Point Screws, is a square head with a square Shank at the end whereof is a Screw, on which is a N•• with a Female Screw with Ears to twist it about.

The Studs, the peeces of Wood that the Iron Pinns of the Barrel turns in.

The Rowler or Barrell, with its shoulder on each side, for the Girth to run in.

The Iron Wheel with Teeth, which upon its turn∣ning is stopt against a clicker.

The Turning Clasp, is that as holds the inner Tim∣pan close within the outer Timpan.

The Clicker, or stop for the Iron Wheel that it turn not.

The Cue, the square part in the middle of the Spin∣dle.

The Axis or Spindle, is a long Bar of Iron on which the Girth Barrel is fixed.

The Winch, is the Iron by which the Barrel or Girth Rowle is turned.

The Rounce, is the handle of the Winch which is of Wood.

The Sockets, are two Irons in which the Spindle turns.

The Garter or Coller, is the round hoop in com∣passing the flat Groove, or Neck in the Shank of the Spindle.

The Half Ioynt, and the Match half Ioynt; are the hinges upon which the Frisket moves, and are taken asunder by taking out the Iron Pin.

The Terms of the Letters according to their Size or Bigness.

  • 1. Pearl, 184. contained in 1 Foot
  • 2. ••mparel, 150. contained in 1 Foot
  • 3. Br••••r, 112. contained in 1 Foot
  • 4. Long Primmer, 92. contained in 1 Foot
  • 5. Pica 75. contained in 1 Foot
  • 6. English, 66. contained in 1 Foot
  • 7. Great Primmer, 50. contained in 1 Foot
  • 8. Double Pica, 38. contained in 1 Foot
  • 9. Two Lined English, 33. contained in 1 Foot
  • 10. Great Cannon, 17 and half.

A Body, is the quantity of each Letter.

A Fount, or Fund of Letters; is so many as are cast of each Body, whither more or less; which are pro∣vided sutable to the Work he designs to do.

Terms Relateing to the Face of a Letter.

Here you must note that the Body of a Letter hath four principal lines passing through it (or at least imagined to pass through it) at Right angles t the Body; viz.

The Top Line, or the Topping; is the straight fie stroak or stroaks that in the top Line of ascending Let∣ters, as b. d. f. h. k. l. s.

Page  115The Head Line, is that as ascends above the Body of the Letter.

The Body, is that part as is contained between two Lines, having neither Head nor Foot at it: as a. c. e. i. m. n. o. r. s. v. x. z.

The Foot Line, or Footing; is the straight de∣scending part of the Letter which is below the Body of it.

The Bottom Line, or Bottom Footing; is the fine straight stroak or stroaks that lie in the foot Line of descending Letters, as p. q y.

The Stem of a Letter, is the straight down right stroak in every Capital or other Letters, as in B. the straight stroak on the left hand is the Stem: And in I. it is all Stem, excep topping and footing.

The Fat Stroaks in a Letter, are the thick and gross stroaks or crookes used in all the Capital Letters, in some part of the Letter.

The Lean Stroaks, are the narrow fine stroaks in a Letter, as the left hand stroak of A. and the right hand▪ stroak of V. are lean: and so of all the other Capitals.

The Beak of Letters, is the fine stroak or touch that stands on the left hand of the Stem, either in the top line, as b. d. h. &c. or in the head line, as i. m. n. &c. or on the right hand the Stem, as f. s. t.

The Tails of Letters, is a stroak proceeding from the right hand side of the Stem, in the foot line, as in a. d. t. u. and most of the Italick small Letters have Tails: as also have most swash Letters, but several of their Tails reach down to the bottom line.

The Swash Letters, are Italick Capitals, which have generally long dashing squanging stroaks in them, either at the head or foot.

Note that all Topping and Bottoming Lines, in the Roman Letters pass at right Angles; but oblique Angles in the Italick through the Stems.

The Stem and other fat stroak of Capital Romans is 5 parts of 42 of the whole body, or a 6 part of the height of an ascending Letter (as all Capitals are ascen∣dants) the Body.

The Stem and other fat stroaks of Italick Capitals is 4 parts of 42 the Body.

The Stem of English Capitals is 6 parts of 42 the Body.

The Stem of small Roman is 3 and an half part of 42 the Body.

The Stem of small Italick is 3 parts of 42 the Body.

The Stem of small English is 4 parts of 42 the Body.

Notes of Carrection made by the Corrector.

The Corrector in his first reading of the Printed Cop∣py ought to be very carefull and vigilantly examine the proofe, and consider diligently the Poynting, Italick∣ing, Capitaling, or any errour which through mistake is committed by the Compositor, which in the Margent e notes that they may be mended: using these follow∣ing notes.

c | If he find one Letter instead of another, as tho for the word the, he dashes out the wrong Letter, & writts the Letter it should be in the Margent of the Page or Colume right against the same Line where the mistake is: Some making a dash behind it as afore is noted.

o | r | c | a If two or three or more words in the same line have faults in them, as an o for an a, or e instead of c, and t instead of r, and c in place of o, he marks in an orderly succession towards the same line, beginning near the end of the line with the first faulty Letter, and so the others after it.

smile | If one word be set instead of another, as Scoff instead of Smile, here he scores out scoff and writs smile in the Margent over against it.

⁁ If a word, or words, or Letter, or Comme, or Point be left out he makes such a mark between the Words or Letters where it is left out, for a mark of In∣sertion (as it is termed) and write in the Margent what must come in.

# If a Space be left out between two words he makes the former mark of Insertion where it should come in, and makes this mark in the Margin.

out If a whole Line or Sentence be left out, too long to be writ in the Margent, he makes the mark of Inser∣tion where it is left out and only Writs (out, or wants) in the Margent. If it be very long that is left, that it can∣not be writ in the left hand Margent or under the Page: Some Correctors will write in the Margent, see the Coppy.

〈☐〉 If a Word or Sentence be set twice as him him, he marks out one him, and makes this mark against it in Margent, which is termed a Deleator of Deleo, to take out.

〈☐〉 If a Letter be turned or set up side down, he dash∣eth it out makes this mark in the Margent. It is termed a Uertex or Uertigon from Verto to turn.

〈☐〉 If Words or Letters are Transposed, (that is) one word stands in another words place, or thus; no I love Swearing, when it should be I love no Swearing: he marks this fault by drawing the crooked Line o∣ver the (no) and under the word (I love) to the place it should come in, this is Termed a Transpositi∣on.

〈☐〉 The like mark he makes in the Matter and in the Margin over against it, if two Letters are tran∣sposed; as shuold, where the u is before the o. Yet sme Correctors will make a dash with a Pen through o and make such a mark in the Margent.

| If a Space or an n or m Quadrate &c. stricks up and Prints black, as betwen these words, he makes such a mark in the Margin over against the Line it is in.

Ital. Eng. If the word be set in Roman Letters instead of Italick or English Letters, he makes a dash under the word, and Writs Ital. or Eng. in the Mar∣gent.

In the like manner, if a single Letter or more Letters be set in Roman Letter, and it should be in Italick or English Letter: or if in English or Italick and it should be Roman Letter, he dashes under the Letter or Letters, and Writs in the Margin what it should be, either Ita. Rom. or Eng.

Page  116〈☐〉 If words 〈◊〉 Coppies are to be set in Italick or En∣lish or in Capital Letters, they are to have a line or lines drawn under them: for the Italick word a single line is to be drawn under it. If English words a double or two lines thus 〈☐〉 under; and if the word must be all in Capitals, then a line of Pricks thus 〈☐〉 is drawn under it, or else a line with red Ink.

[ If there be cause to make a break where there is none, in such case he makes a Crotchet thus [at the word e would have begin his new Paragraph.

Cap. If lower Case Letters be set instead of Ca∣pitals, he dashes them underneath or upon the Letter and Writs in the Margin Cap.

Ater all this the Corrector examines that all the Signatures are right, and all the Titles and Folio's: a Proof of the mending of each particular fault by the Compositor being again given him, which is call∣ed a Revise Sheet, he examins in this Revise, fault by fault: if all the faults he marks in the first or second Proof Sheet were carefully mended, if not he marks them in the Revise.

Points used in Printing.

A Comma which i thus, and is used as a breath∣ing place

A Semi-Colon thus;

A Colon thus: it is used in the middle of the Sen∣tence.

A Period or full Point thus. which is at the end of a Sentence.

An Introgation Point thus ? It is used in asking of Questions.

An Admiration Point thus ! when a thing is wondred at.

An Apostrophe thus ' this is used when some Vo∣wel is cut off as 'twas, for it was.

A Parenthesis thus ( ) It is used between words in a Sentence, as a Sentence, without which the Sentence remains entire.

A Brace thus } which joyns one two or three Lines together.

A Division Point thus - or = it is when part of a word ends a Line, and the other begins a Line.

A Crochet thus [ ] It is used in Folio's instead of Parenthesis.

A Section thus § and stands generally for a Section.

A Paragraph thus ¶ or thus ¶ or thus ¶ which stands for a Paragraph.

A Marginal Note or Mark, thus * or † or ‖ which is a guide to direct in what part of the Margin an∣swereth that part in the Verse or Paragraph.

Accent Letters, see in Printers Terms.

Several other things belonging to the Art of Printing.

Assidue or Assidie, is thin brass Plate, such as adorn hobby Horses: Founders use it to underlay the Body or Mouth piece of their Moulds, if they be too thin.

Balls, are those with which the Letters are inked or made black that they may Print.

Ball Knife, is a blunt Knife laid by, with which the Balls are scraped.

Ball Leather, is Pelts of Sheep skins, of which they cover the Balls.

Ball Nails,

Ball Stocks,

Beard Gage, a thing to try Angles, whether they be true or not.

Bearer, is a Riglet made Letter high and fastned to the Frisket, to keep the white Pages adjacent to the sides of the other Pages, from spots, and that they shall not cause the other to Print hard, as otherwise they will do.

Blankets, Woollen Cloth or white Bays to lay be∣tween the Timpans.

Blocks Groves, are hard Wood, made with taper Groves in to receive Wedges.

Blocks, are the Male Wedges fitted for the said Groves, to hold a thing fast in it.

Brace, is a Character cast in Mettle thus marked 〈☐〉 of which there are to be of them several breadths, to hook in or Brace so many Lines as is required.

Brass Rules, thin Plates the height of the Letter, which serves to make black Lines in Columes and Pages: Printing Rules.

Brayer, is a round wooden Rubber, flat at the bottom, it is used in the Inke-block to Bray and Rub Inke.


Composing Stick, it is a wooden Rule with a back ledge for cast Letters to be set up in, that the Founder may scrape and dress them.

Case or Cases, are the Boxes in which each Letter is put, called the Upper Case, and the Lower Case; one holding the Capitals, the other the small Let∣ters.

Chase, is an Iron Frame about 22 Inches long, and 18 broad, having a cross in the middle, in this are the Letters made fast when Printed.

Cards, is about a quire of Paper which Press-men use to lay upon a Form, when he hangs the Platin, see Card.

Composing Rule, is a thin Brass Rule cut the exact length as the sliding measures it set to make its Lines, it hath a small notch at one end to take it out of the Com∣posing Stick.

Composing Stick, it is made of Iron, with sliding measures, in it the letters are set in that length of Lines as the Workman pleaseth.

Correcting Stone, is a Marble or Purbeck-Stone, large enough to hold two Chases, on which the Compo∣siter makes up his Forms, and corrects them.

Counter Punches, are Punches to strike into the Face of Letters, to make them hollow or open from the body of the Letter.

Characters of Astronomical Sign, are Planet Characters, Aspects; also Physical and Chimical Cha∣racters.

Coyns, are also Quadrat high, and have one of their sides Beviled away, that they may Wedge or Lock up the Form, that the Letters fall not out of the Chase: their further office is to make Register at the Press, Page  117 to keep the Form that it move not.

Cross long, and Cross short; are the cross pieces of Iron set in the middle of the Chase.

Distributing Stick, or Riglet; is that which the Distributer holds the Letters upon while he is distributing them into their several Boxes.

Dressing Block, and Dressing Block-Groove; are Male and Female Blocks one Wedging in another, by which Letters are held fast to be dressed.

Dressing Hook, Dressing Knife, and Dressing Sticks; are Instruments by which Letters are made smooth, even, and tite.

Distributing Frame, the Frame on which the Forms are set to be Distributed.

Female Gage, Screws, &c. are the hollow Gage or hollow Screw that receives its Match Gage, or Screw, &c. the Screw Nut, or Box.

Flat Gage, is a flat piece of Box or hard Wood made square, with several corners to hold a Rod of Steel or Body of a Mould.

Flat Table, is a Brass about an Inch and half square, to trie if the Shanks of Punches be exactly perpendicu∣lar.

Foot Step, is an Inch board nailed on a piece of Timber, fet under the Press for the Press-man to stay his right Foot against when he pulls at the Press.

Foot-stick, see Furniture.

Furnice, the place where the Mettle is melted to cast the Letter with.

Funnel, is the place where the smoak goeth through from the Furnace Fire.

Furniture, by which is ment all the Wood work used in the Chase, to keep the Form of Letter fast Wedged therein, as Head Sticks, Foot Sticks, Side Sticks, Gutter Sticks, Riglets, Quoins and Scabbords.

Frame, is that on which the Case of Boxes rest; It is also taken for the out side of Case, which is stronger then the Boxes within, and is also an Inch broader at the bottom.

Face Gage,

Finger Stalls, Leather to put on Boys Fingers to se∣cure them in rubbing of Letters.

Gage, Gages mentioned and used by Letter maker have an ajunct name as, Flat Gage, Ioynt Gage, Italick Gage, Long Gage▪ Male Gage, Short Gage, Steel Gage, Standing Gage, which see in their respective Alphabets.

Gally, is a board with ledges on three sides of it, in which the Compositr emptieth his Stick ••ll of Letters to compose a Page, it hath a handle to pull the board in the Grove in and out, see Slice.

Geat, is the little spot or gutter made in the brim of Founders casting Ladles.

Gutter Sticks, are Sticks with Gutters in, which are used to be set between Pages on each side of the crosses in the Chase.

Girth or Girts, are thogs of Leather cut out of a Horse Hide or Bull, these are nailed to the Barrel and the end of the Carrage, that by the turning of the Rounce, the said Carrage is drawn in and out from the Plattin.

Gage Plate, a Gage for the trial of Letters sides and heights.

Head Stick, see Furniture; those Sticks as are at the Head of a Form, in the Chase▪

Horse, the Form or Bench Pressmen set the heaps of Paper on.

Hammer, it is a large Hammer commonly use, but hath no Claws but a Pen.

Ioynt flat Gage, this consists of two Cheeks fastned together at one end like a Carpenters Joynt Rule.

Italick Gage, and other standing Gages; are only to measure the slope of the Letter Stem.

Inke, of Printing Inke there are two sorts, weak Inke and strong Inke, one for to use in the Summer, the other for Winter.

Kerning Knife, is a strong piece of a broken Knife, set in a Wooden handle with which Founders kern their kerned Letters.

Kerning Stick, is a small stick according to the big∣ness of the Letter that is to be kerned or scraped.

Knife-Backt Sculptor, is a Sculptor or Graver with a thin edge on its back.

Knife File, a File with a thin edge.

Knot, is a small square piece of Box Wood, the one above, the other below the Tongue of the Plow, as a Stay for it, when it runs through the Block.

Lades, are those things as the hot Mettle is taken out of the Melting Furnice and powred into the casting Moulds, see Letter Lades.

Leather Grove, the Matrice being justified; there is a Grove filed round about it (or a Notch or Nick) in the top to tie a Leather fast to.

Letter Boards, are oblong squares, about two foot long, and eighteen Inches broad, plain and flat, with two ledges at the under side, to bear them off the Ground: on these the Letters are laid when Unlocked from the Chase, where they are ready to be Distributed.

Letter Ladles, differ nothing from common Ladles save in the size, of these the Caster of Letters hath many of several sizes, to fit the several sizes of Letters he has to cast, both for Body and Thickness.

Liner, is a straight Plate of Iron or Brass, made sharp and fine, that it may try the face of a Punch or other work, whether it be straight or no.

Lining stick, it is all made of Bra••, having a plain, a side ledge, a bottom ledge and a Stilt: It ••an inside square exactly wrought, and with small Riv••• fastned on the side edge and bottom.

Long Cross, see Chase.

Long Gage, are Notches, or Gages ut into a thin Plate of Steel, Iron, or Brass: of which the 〈◊〉 one is for long Letters, and the short 〈…〉 Letters.

Lower Case, is the lower 〈◊〉 the smaller 〈◊〉 of Letters to be distriuted into.

Lye-Trough, to wash 〈…〉.

Letters of all sorts and 〈…〉 Italick.

Lye-Kettle, it is to 〈…〉 the black of the Letters.

Lye-Brush,〈…〉 rub the Lye upon the 〈◊〉.

Male Gage,〈…〉 or fits its 〈…〉.

Page  118Mallet,


Mettie, that of which the Body of the Letter are cast.

Mould, is that in which the Letters are cast accord∣ing to their shape.

Mouth Piece.

Notch of the Matrice, it is a stay on the back of it, to hold the point of a Wyer or Spring of the Mould in, that the Matrice start not back.

Nest Frames, these are Frames made to hold Cases, Letter Boards, &c. that lie out of present use.

Nails, viz. Ball Nails or Pumping Nails; having round or square heads.

Open Furnace, so called because the Aire blows in through all the sides to fan the fire.

Oyle, viz. Sallet Oyle to make the Press run easie; and Linseed Oyle to make Varnish for Printing Ink.

Pack-thrid, fine Pack-thrid it is to tie up the Pages when composed.

Pan, the great ladle that Founders melt their Mettle in, when they are casting Letters.

Paper Bench, see Horse.

Paper Board, see Letter Boards.

Peel, is an Instrument made of a Board with a long or short handle or stail, according to the height of the place where it is used; by this Printed Sheets are hung upon Cords, Poles, or Racks, to dry, and by them taken down again.

Pelts, Sheep skins untanted, used for Ball Lea∣thers.

Plow, it is almost like a Joyners common Plain, sawe through the length of the Sole runs such a tongue as throw the Male Block.

Press, or Printing Press.

Paper Windows, which keep out heat and the Suns Glory in Summer, and Frost in the Winter.

Points, or marks in Printing, such as are used in Sentences, as Comme's, Colon's, full Points, &c. of which the particulars in Points used in Printing.

Partchment, or Forrel, or Uellom.


Quadrates, large Spaces which make white lines

Quoins, are Wedges to lock the Form.

Quotation Quadrats, these are cast of different Bodies, that the Compositer may have choise of them to justifie his Notes and Quotations exactly against the de∣signed line of the Page: they are cast the height of the Quotations.

Racks, to hang Printed Paper on to dry.

Riglets, is a sort of Furniture of an equal thickness all its length. It is Quadrat high of several thickness, viz. a Nomparel, Brevier, Long-Primmer, Pica, &c. thick.

Rincing Trough, the Trough wherein Forms are Washed and Rinced in.

Rules, viz. Brass Rules Letter height, by which black lines are made under the running Titles of Books, and on the sides of Pages, and between Colums.


Shank, the square Mettle the face of a Letter stands on, is its Shank.

Sheeps Foot, that as the Press-man driveth Nails into his Ball-stocks, or any other thing he hath occasion to Nail: It hath at one end a Hammers face, and the o∣ther end a Claw to draw Nails.

Shooting Stick, it is made of Box or other hard Wood and tough, its shape is a perfect Wedge; with it are the Quoins knocked up in the Chase to lock the Form.

Short Cross, is the over cross piece of Iron work set in the middle of the Chase, in which long holes are made through, for the Points fixed on the Tympan to fall into.

Side Sticks, are the outer side sticks which are placed against the out sides of Pages; which are sloped, or made Wedge-wise from one end to the other, and are Quadrat height.

Slice, is a little thin Iron Shovel, through the handle whereof is fixed a cross piece about the thickness of a small curtain rod: It is principally used about the black on the Ink block. The Slice is also the Board with a handle that runs into the Galley.

Sliding Gage, it differeth but little from the Joy∣ners running Gage: Its use is to set off distances between the Shoulder and the Tooth, and so to mark it.

Smoak Uent, is the hole in the Furnice through which the Smoak passeth.

Soft Ink, Ink or Varnish moderately boiled.

Solace, see Customs of the Chappel.

Spaces, are those Shanks which have no letter on the faces but lie below them, and are set between Word and Word to keep them asunder.

Stick, the composing stick is often so called.

Stirring Pot, is a long strong Iron Pot, with an handle about two yards, with it being red hot, is stirred the Mettle and Lead together in melting Pots, till they be well incorporated.

Stoak Hole, a round hole out of which the fire in the Furnice proceeds.

Stoaking Rod, a Rod of thick Wyer put into such a handle as is the handle of a Letter Ladle, Founders use it to stir up the fire in the Furnace.

Stop, or Stops; these are kind of Matrices with∣out any Letters sunk into them, by which are cast in the Mould Spaces thick and thin, N Quadrats, M Qua∣drats, Quadrats of several bigness.

Superior Letters, are Letters often set to Marginal Notes: they are Letters of a small face, high justified by the Founder in the Mould near the top line.

Sheers, are such as Taylors use, which are for cutting of Brass Rules, and Scabboard.

Stake, or Anvil; a great Iron for a Smith to Forge Iron or Steel work upon.

Tache, a small board with Noches in the fore edge, either nailed upon the fore edge of the Work-bench, or Screwed into the Uice, so as the Noches may stand forwards to rest the Shank of a Punch in.

Timpan Cloth,

Timpan Sheets, Paper Sheets fixed on it.

Underlays, are small slips of Scabbord put under letters to raise them higher for the Printing of red Letters or Words.

Uarnish, a boiled Oyle with which Printing ink of di∣verse colours is made.

Page  119Uisorum, this is used for direction to the Compositr to have his Eye quick upon his Coppy, by pricking the point of the Visorum upon the Frame at the & box, then fold the leaf of the Coppy so as it may rest on the square Shoulder near the bottom of the Visorum.

Wind Furnace, see Open Furnace.

Wind Hole, or Air hole in the Furnace; is a square hole to let in Air that the fire may burn the freer.

The Terms used in the Art of Print∣ing Alphabetically Explained.

ABreviations, are Characters, or Marks on Letters to signifie either a Word or Syllable, as e over the Head of y ignifies (the) and a t over y signifies that. And a straight stroak over the head of Vowels abreviates m or n.

Accents, are dashes or marks over the Vowels.

Accented Letters, are marked Letters of which there are these kinds: First the Grave Accent thus over a Vowels head marked The Accute Accent, thus mark∣ed The Circumflex Accent thus marked The Deerecis Accent thus marked

Aire-hole, a hole under the Hearth of the Founders Furnice, to let in the Aire, that the Fire may burn the freer.

Ash-hole, the place where the Ashes that fall from the Hearth are taken away.

Ashes, Letter Founders call the skimmings of their Mettle, and the 〈◊〉 of their Houses Ashes, and save both to be refined 〈…〉Lean Ashes.

Ascending Gage, is 〈…〉 of Letters that rise a∣bove the Body.

Assidue or Assidine, is thin Brass Plate, such as adorn Hobby-horses; Founders use it to underlay the Body or Mouth piece of their Moulds, if they be too thin.

Back of the Composing Stick.

Back side of the Form, is the under side that tou∣ches the Correcting-Stone, or Press-Stone.

Bad Coppy, when a Book to be Printed is badly Written or unperfect.

Bad Work, any fault at the Case or Press, or at the Furnice, or at the Dressing-block &c. is in Workmens Language called so.

Bake, is when Letters stick together in distributing, which the Compositer cannot without great trouble get asunder: This is called the Letter is Baked.


Beard of a Letter, is the outer angle or edge at the square shoulder of the shank, which reaches almost up to the Face of the Letter, and is commonly scraped off by the Founde.

Bearer, is a stay or support to any thing they work at: But it is generally taken for a Riglet of a convenient thickness put on the Frisket to keep the sides of white Pages from hard Printing.

Beat, is blacking the Letters with the Ink Ball, by beating upon the Face of the Letters set in the Form.

Beat Fat, if the Press-Man takes too much Inke on his Balls, they will make the Letters too black. Yet the black English faced Letters is generally beaten fat.

Beat Lean, is to take but little Inke and often: for all small Letters must be beaten Lean for ear of filling with Inke.

Benvenue, the ancient Customs of the Printers.

Bite or Bites, is when the Frisket Prints upon the sides of the Pages.

Body, is the sanke of the cast Letter, which they call the Body of the Letter.

Botthing of a Matrice, is to strike a Bur into the side of it, to make it stand of the Register, if in case it be too thin, or past a Paper or Card to the side to thicken it.

Bottom Line, is the lower place that a descending Letter can be made too.

Bottom of the Matrice, is the lower end of it, near which the Letter is Punched.

Break, is a piece of a line, or ending of the Para∣graph.

Break, is also the Mettle that is contiguous to the Shank of a new cast Letter: this is made in the Mouth piece of the Letter Mould, and is called a Break because always broken off from the Shank of the Letter.

Breaking off, is breaking the said Break off the Let∣ter.


Broad side, is a Form of one full Pape, Printed on one side of a whole Sheet of Paper, as a Sheet Almanack.

Broken Letter, by it is ment the breaking of the or∣derly succession the Letters stood in, either in a Line, Page or Form: Also it is used for the mingling of Letters toge∣ther, which mingling is called Pic.

Bur, see Rag.

Bed the Stone, the Stone is well and evenly laid in the Cossin of the Coriage.

Burn Oyle, is to boil it, and then fire it, that the oyliness may be consolidated and drawn out: but this must be done with Art, else they may fire the house in burning the Oyl.

Batter, when the face of a Letter is spoiled, they say it is Battered.

Botches, it is a kind of bad Workman-ship, that is, when it hath Pidgeon holes, thin Spaces, no Spaces before Capitals, short &'s, abbreviated words, and titled Letters, &c. with several other Settings are esteemed Botches.

Canon, the great Canon is the name of the largest Letter for Printing that is used in England.

Card, is when several Bodies of Letters are set in a Page, Compositers to justifie that Page to an exact length, put a Card to some white line, or other Break and length∣en out the Page the thickness of a Card. And Press-Men also use a Card sometime for an underlaying.

Case Lyes, is into what Box the several Letters are disposed.

Case is Low, when a Case grows empty of Letters, Compositers say the Case is low, the Boxes having but few Letters in them.

Case is Full, viz. a Case full of Letters, wanting no sorts.

Case stands Still, when the Compositer is not at Work at his Case, it is said the Case stands still.

Page  120Cassie Quires, are the two out side Quires in a Ream, called also Cording Quires.

Cassie Paper, are Quires made up by Paper-maker of Torn, Wrinkled, Stained or otherwise naughty Sheets.

Cast, is to cast Letters in the Moulds.

Cast off Coppy, or Counting of Coppy (for both Phrases are indifferently used) is to examine and find out how much either Printed or Written Coppy will come in into an intended number of Sheets, of a different Body or Measure from the Coppy.

Chappel, every Printing-House is Termed a Chap∣pel.

Charge, is to fill Paper with great Pages: It is also used for the filling of a Page with long and many Lins▪ Also to fill a Line with many Letters: And to fill a Pot with Stus and Antimony.

Choake, if a Form be not washed in due time, 〈◊〉 Inke will get into and dry in the hollows of the 〈…〉 the Letter, and that getting in of the Inke, is 〈◊〉Choaking of the Letters, or Choaking of the Form.

Clean Proofe, when a Proofe hath but few faults in it.

Close Matter, Matter that hath but few Breaks or Whites in it.

Close Work, the same.

Collation Books, or Colationing of Books; is first to examine whether the whole number of Sheets that belong to a Book are rightly gathered: Secondly to examine that two Sheets of one sort be not gathered into the Book. Thirdly to examine whether the proper Sig∣nature of every Sheet lie on its proper corner of the ga∣thered Book.

Come, or Comes; when the Face and Shank of a Letter is cast perfect, Founders say, it comes well; If un∣perfect, they say, it does not come, or it comes not well.

Come Down, the Toe of the Spindle is said to come down by pulling the Bar; so the Bar is said to come down when it is pulled near the hither Cheek of the Press. Also the Press-Man is said to come down the Form with his Balls, when he beateth down the Form.

Companions, are two Press-Men working at one Press; the one, which is named the first hath his choise to Pull or Beat: the second take the refuse.

Comes off, a Form that receives a good Impression, is said to come off well: If a bad Impression, it comes off ill, or it comes not well off. Also it is used in gathering of Books, for a Heap that is gathered off, is said to come off.

Compositer, he that Composes or Sets the Letters.

Cording-Quires, the outside Quires of a Ream.

Correct, when the Corrector reads the Proof, or the Compositer mend the faults he marked in the Proof, they are both said to Correct; that is, the Corrector the Proof, the Compositer corrects the Form.

Corrections, the Letters marked in a Proof, are called Corrections.

Counting of Coppy, see Cast off Coppy.

Cull Paper, are the good and whole Sheets picked out of the Cassie Quires.

Cutting the Frisket, is the cutting so much of the Partchment away from the Frisket cover, as the Form doth Print on the Sheet.

Chapter, the Head of a Matter: Books are common∣ly divided in Chapters, and Chapters into Sections, and Sections into Paragraphes or Breaks as Printers call them; which is the breaking off at a full Point, and be∣ginning a new line.

Column, is when a Page or side of a Leaf Written or Printed, is divided into two or more parts along the Pa∣per, those divisions are called Columns.

Dance, when the Form is locked up, if upon the ri∣sing of it from the Stone, he finds there are many Letters do not rise with the Form, but are ready to drop out, he saith the form Dances.


Distribute, is putting the Letter into their several Boxes again after the Form is Printed off.

Devil, the Press-Man sometimes have a Week Boy to take Sheets as they are Printed off the the Tym∣pn; or run of Arrants: These Boys do in a Printing-House commonly black and daw themselves; whence the Workmen do jocosely call them Devils, and some∣times Spirits, and sometimes Flies.

Direction, is the word that stands alone on the right Hand in the bottom line of a Page, is the Direction word for the following side of the Leaf.

Direction Line, the Line the Direction stands in.

Double Letter, as aestsh and several others cast on one Shank are called Double Letters.

Double, or Doubling; is a Sheet that is twice pul∣led and hath a double Impression, this Sheet is said to be double: or if the Pressman run him in so far, as the fur∣ther side in some part of the Sheet Print with the first pull, or the hinder edges of the first pull, Print with the second pull, either of these twice Printings is called Dou∣bling.

Dress a Chase, or Dress a Form, is all one: It is to fi the Pages and Chase with Furniture and Quoins.

Dressing Letter, is to make them straight and tite, that they may come well, and lie even both in the Face and Shank.

Drive out, is when a Compositer sets his Words wide, he is said to Run out, or to Drive out: Also in Found∣ing, if Letter be cast too thick in the Shank it is said to Drive out. Also if it be cast too thick in any part of the Shank, as at the Head, Foot, Side, they say it Drives out at Head, it Drives out at Foot, &c.

Dep Cut, Letters that are deep cut and stand high above the Shank, Print clear the longer, and are less sub∣ject to entertain picks.

Dedication, the Patronizing or Presenting of a Book by the Author to some particular Person.

Doubling, or Slurring; is when Paper is double Printed, which oft happens by the removing of the Sheet on the Tympan at going under the Plattin.

Empty Case, see Case is Low.

Easie Pull, see Soft Pull.

Easie Work, is a Printed Coppy, or a fair Written Hand, and full of Breaks is that as pleaseth a Compositer, and is by them called, Good Coppy, Light, Easie Work: Also a great Letter and small Form, is called Easie Work.

Empty Press, a Press that stands by, which no Workman works at: most commonly every Printing-House hath one of them for a Proof Press, viz. to make Proofs on.

Page  121English Body, are the cast Letters of the English Alphabet.

English Face, are English face Letters.

Even Page, the first Page of a Sheet or Form is called an Odd Page, but the second, fourth, sixth, or any other even numbered Page, is called an Even Page.

Face of a Letter, is that flat part of the Punch on which letter is cut, to be stamped or sunk into the Matrice.

Face of a Page, or Form; the Superficies or top part of the Page or Form, where the Faces of every Letter lieth in the same plain.

Fat Ashes, Founders call their Ashes Fat, if they are considerable heavy, because then they have much Met∣tle in them.

Fat, see Beat Fat.

Fat Letter, or Fat Face; is a broad Stemmed Letter.

First, is the first or chief Workman at the Press, he that takes his choise whether he will Beat or Pull.

First Form, the Form the white Paper is Printed on, which generally by rule ought to have the first Page of the Sheet in it.

First Page,

First Pull, is the Pull that Prints the first running half Sheet under the Press, or the first pulled side of the Sheet.

Fly, see Devil.

Follow, viz. see if it follow, is a term as well used by the Corrector as by the Compositer and Press-Man, and it is to examine how the beginning matter of a suc∣ceeding Page, 〈◊〉 with the ending matter of the prece∣dent Page; and how the Folio's of those Pages numeri∣cally follow and succeed one another, least the Pages should be Transposed: and whether the Signature of the Pages follows orderly according to the Volume, least the Form should be laid wrong in the Press.

Foot of the Letter, the break end of the Shank of a Letter.

Foot Line, the bottom Line to which a letter extends.

Foot of a Page, the bottom or end of a Page.

Form, are the Pages of Composed Letters▪ when they are fitted to the Chase.

Foul Proof, is when a Proof Sheet hath many Let∣ters and Faults marked in it.

Fount, is the whole number of Letters that are cast of the same Body and Face at one time.

Froze out, in the Winter when the Paper is Frozen, and the Letter Frozen, so as the Workmen cannot Work▪ they say, they are Froze out.

Fryer, is when the Balls do not take, the untaking part of the Balls that touches the Form will be left white; or if the Pressman skip over any part of the Form, and touch it not with the Balls though they do take, yet in both these cases the white places is called a Fryer.

Full Form, or Page; is a Form or Page with few or no breaks or white lines.

Full Press, is when two Men work at the Press.

Furnace open, or Wind Furnace; is the pul∣ling down of the out Furnace Wall where the Mettle is made, and rake away the fire that the Mettle may cool in the Pots.

Folio, is two Pages and comprehends both sides of a Leaf: Some confounds Folio and Page calling a large Volume, a Book by Folio's; others by Pages when it is a small or Quarto Book.

Form Rises, that is, it is so well locked up in the Chase, that in the raising of it up neither a Letter or Space drops out of it.

Fur up a Form, or Choak the Letters; is when the Inke is too thick and strong that it fills up in beating, the Hollow of the Letter.

Gathering of Books, is to take one Sheet off eve∣ry heap of Printed Sheets, which make a Book.

Get in, that is, Matter is got in, in a Line, Page, Sheet or Book, if Letters be thinner cast then the Printed Coppy the Compositer sets by: or Matter is got in, if he sets closer: or if he widens his Measure; or puts more lines in a Page, then he is said to get in.

Good Colour, is Sheets Printed neither too black, nor too white.

Good of the Chappel, Forfeitures and other Chap∣pel dues are collected for the good of the Chappel, viz. to be spent as the Chappel approves.

Good Work, is called so in a two fold sense: the Ma∣ster Printer calls it so, when the Compositers and Press∣men have done their Duty. And the Workmen call it Good Work, if it be light, easie Work, and they have a good price for it.

Going up the Form, it is a Pressman phrase, when he beat over the first and thrid rows or colums of the Form with his Ink Balls.

Great Numbers, above 2000 Printed of one Sheet are counted Great Numbers: see Lay on.

Great Bodies, or Letter termed English, and all a∣bove their bigness are accounted Great Bodies: But Long Primmer, and all downwards are Small Bo∣dies.

Half a Line, when Letters drives out or gets in, in the body, in a number of lines, Founders say, it drives out, or gets in half a line, a whole line, a quarter of a line &c. viz. half a body, a whole body, a quarter &c. of a Body.

Half a Press, when but one Man works at the Press, it is called Half a Press.

Half Work, he that works but three days in a Week, does but Half Work.

Hangs, see Letter Hangs.

Hang the Plattin, is the tying of it with Whipcord to the end of the Spindle by the Hose-Hooks and Plattin-Hooks.

Hang up Paper, is to hang it upon Rails or Cords to dry after it is Printed.

Hard Ink, is Ink very well boiled.

Hard Iustifying, when the line or lines in the Com∣posing stick are too close Wedged in.

Hard Pull, that which makes a hard pull in the Press is putting into the Mortesses of the Cheeks solid blocks of Wood, which will scarce squeeze by the strength of a pull which makes the Press go hard to be pull∣ed.

Hard Work▪ is so termed by Compositer when the Written Coppy is bad and hard to read, and hath but few Breaks: also small Letter and a large Form, Pressmen call hard Work.

Head Line, that part or line which the higher part of the body of a Letter toucheth.

Page  122Head of a Page, the top or beginning of a Page.

Heap, so many Reams or Quires as is set out by the Ware-house keeper for the Press-man to Wet, is call∣ed an Heap: but then it is a Dry Heap, when it is wet, then it is indeed called a Heap.

Heap holds out, when it hath its full inteded num∣ber of Sheets according to its Quiers.

Heighth, see High against Paper.

High against Paper, is when a punched Letter is not sunk deep enough into the Matrice, then the let∣ter cast will not stand high enough against the Paper to make a good impression; And if it be sunk too deep, then the cast letter will be too high against Paper, and be apt to cut it.

Holds out, or Holds not out; these terms are applicable to the Quires of white Paper, also to Wrought of Heaps, and also to the Gathering of Books. If Quires have twenty five Sheets, they say the Paper holds out twenty five Sheets of wrough off Heaps, the Heap as comes off first in gathering or wants of the number of the rest, is said, not to hold out. And in the gathering of Books, if the intended number of perfect Books are gathered, they say, the Impression holds out: but if the inten∣ded number cannot be gathered off the Heap, they say the Impression holds not out. And so for sorts of Letter, either when it is in the Founding-House, or the Printing-House, are so said, if they hold or not, one Box with another in the Compo∣sing.

Hole, by it in Printing Dialect, is ment a place where privat Printing is used, viz. the Printing of unlicensed Books, or other Mens Coppies.

Hollow of a Letter, is the sinking in of the Counter-punch into another Punch which makes such holes or hollows, and so doth sculping into the face of a Punch.

Horse Flesh, is if any Journeyman set down in his Bill on Saturday Night more Work then he hath done that Week, that suplusage is called Horse Flesh: and he abate it in his next bill.

Hours, Press-Men reckon their Work by the Hours, accounting every Token to an Hours Work: also they make their prices of different Work by the hour, and passes currant for a Token. Also if two Men Work at the Press 10 Quires it is an hour; if one Man 5 Quires it is an hours Work.

Half a Body, it is in Founders and Printers Language, taken to be the driveing out of half a line, or a whole line, or more or less, in the Com∣posing.

Imperfections of Books, are the latter end of the gathered Heaps, which other Heaps not holding out to them, make them imperfect, which are bund∣led up, and Written upon Imperfections of such or such a Book, and the Signature of the Sheet or Sheets wanting.

Imperfections of Letters, is when the Founder hath not cast a proportionable number of each sort of Letter, the want of any make the Fount unperfect: see Sorts.

Impose, Impoing is the placing of the Pages that belong to a Sheet, within the Chase and Furniture about them in order, that when the Sheet is wrought off at the Press, all the Pages may be foulded into an orderly succession.

Impression holds out, see Holds out.

In-page, see Out-page.

Insertion, if the Compositer have left Words or Lines, the Corrector inserts it, and makes a mark where it is left out; which is called the the mark of Insertion, see Notes of Correcti∣on.

Iustifie, or Iustifying; is first to make the face of a sunken letter, lie an exact depth in the face of the Matrice, and on all sides of an equal depth: this is called Iustifie a Matrice. It is also to set or justifie the foot line of the letter exactly in line. It is likewise to set the sides of the Matrice to an ex∣act thickniss.

Iustifying a Mould, is the working it so exact that in casting of the letter, the Shank be Parallel, and sides of an even thickness; And also that the Mould be clear from Ragging; which without seve∣ral proofs and tryings it cannot be expected to be perfectly true.

Iustifie a Stick, viz. the Composing Stick, is the stiff or loose filling of his Stick with Letters; if it be filled very stiff with Letters or Spaces, they say it is hard justified; if loolely, it is loose justifi∣ed.

Iustifiers, are either Pastboard or Scaboard or such like put into Mortesses to make the same more bind∣ing and close.

Keep in, is a caution given to, or resolved on by the Compositer, when there may be doubt of Driv∣ing out the Matter beyond his counting off, there∣fore hSets close, to keep within his compass: this is to Keep in.

Keep out, is a caution of the Compositer, given or resolved upon, when there may be doubt of getting in Matter too fast for his Counting off, where∣fore he sets his Words wide, to Drive or Keep out.

Kern, or Kerned Letter; such as have part of their face hanging over one side, or both sides of their Shanks: and that part hanging over is the Kern.

Knock up Balls, is the nailing of the Pelts or Sheep skins on the Ball stocks, with Wool under it, to make them stand round and full; they are well done when the Wool is equally dispersed about all the sides, and the middle smoothly covered with Leather, viz. not rising in Hillocks.

Knock up Books, is when they are gather∣ed out of several Heaps, he take them between his hands and knock them on a Table to make them lye even and straight in the backs and edges.

Knock up a Letter, is when a Letter by working is worn so low in the face, that it will nor Print well in the Page; which the workman takes out and puts a better in. But if Letters be scare and that another of the same be wanting, he takes out the old one and bat∣ters Page  123 its Shank to raise it higher against the Paper.

Lay in Sheets, is when the Press-man lays Sheets on the Timpan, it is stiled Laying in Sheets.

Lay out Sheets, is the taking the Sheets off the Timpan when they are Printed, and laying them on the Heap.

Lay on, a Phrase used for the number of Books to be Printed, thus they say, there is 1000.2000.3000. &c. Laid on: see great numbers, see small numbers.

Lean Ashes, Founders call their Ashes Lean, if they be light, because then they have but little Mettle in them; see Fat Ashes.

Lean, see Beat Lean.

Lean Face, a Letter whose Stems and other stroaks have not their full widness.

Lean Stroaks, are the fine stroaks of a Let∣ter.

Letter Hangs, if the Compositer hath been careless in emptying his composing Sticks, so as to let the Letters loosely down in the Galley so as that they stand not perfectly square and upright, they say the Letter Hangs: or if after overrunning on the correcting Stone, the Letters are not set square and in a right positi∣on, before he locks up the Form; the matter stand∣ing thus out of square, is said to Hang.

Letter Break, see Squabble.

Light Work, see Easie Work.

Lock up, is to Wedge the Form fast in the Chase, that not a Letter or Space fall out.

Long Pull, is to give a stronger pull to a Form that is large and the Letters small; then to a small Form, and large Letters, which needs but a small pull, and it is in Printers Language called a Short pull, see Hard Pull.

Loose Iustifying, see Iustifie.

Low against Paper, see High against Paper.

Low Case, when the Compositer hath composed al∣most all his Letters out of his Case, he says his Case is Low.

M thick, is ment an M Quadrat thick.

Make a Measure, is to set the Composing Stick to that Measure or length of the Letter line he intends to Work by.

Make ready the form, is to put the composed Pa∣ges into the Chase, aud lock them up, for the taking off of a Proof: besides all this under this pharse of Making ready the Form, is comprehended all thing to be done by the Press-man before he can go to work, as first to make Register, secondly to cut the Frisket, third to wet the Timpan, fourth lock up the Form well and fast, &c.

Matter, is the Series of the discourse of the Compo∣siters Coppy which he doth compose by.

Measure, is the wideness of a Page, see Make a Measure.

Monk, when the Press-man hath not well be distri∣buted his Ball, some spots or splotches of Ink may lie on one Letter, or more of them, which in beating he leaves upon the Form; so that the Sheet Printed on, hath a black blotch on it: which blotch is called a Monk.

Marginal Notes, are note set on the side (or sides if the Page have two columns.)

N thick, is ment an N Quadrat thick.

Naked Form, or Page; is when the Furniture is taken from about all sides of the Form or Page.

Neck of a Letter, so much of the Punch as is sunk into the Matrice, is called the Neck; and when that Letter is cast off in Mettle, it is so much as comes above the square of the Shank, viz. above the Beard.

Notes, are Quotations down the side of a Page.

Number laid on, see Lay on.

Odd Page, is the first, third, fifth, seventh &c. all unen numbred Pages, are odd Pages.

Off, a Press-man usually says I am off, meaning he hath wrought off his Token, his Heap, his Form.

Open Matter, is when Pages Printed are full of Breaks and Whites.

Open the Form, is removing the Quoins from about the Form till they stand loose: and▪ then opens the Furni∣ture, that is, takes the Head sticks, and the inner Side sticks and Gutter sticks from about the Form.

Open Work, see Open Matter.

Over-Run, is when a Word or more is left out in the correcting as cannot be put in, except he must put so much of the fore part of the line into the line above it, or somuch of the hinder part of the line into the next under it, as will make room for what is left out. Thus if he have left out much, he must over-run many line, either backwards o forwards, or both, till he come to a Break.

Out, a Compositer usually says, I am Out, mean∣ing he hath set out his Page, Form or Coppy. Also out marked in the Margent of Corrections, denots that some Line, Sentence, or considerable part of the Matter is left out in composing.

Out-page, in Octavo's, Twelves, Sixteens &c. eve∣ry out side Page in the Sheet is called an Out-page, the rest are called In-pages.

Out of Register, is bad Register, that is when the Printing on both 〈…〉 Sheet stands not even together both at head and foot; 〈◊〉Register.

Page, is the side of a Leaf in a Book; see Fo∣lio.

Paragraph, see Chapter.

Pale Colour, if there be not blacking enough in the Ink, or the Form be beaten with too lean Balls, the work will be said to have a pale colour.

Pick or Picks, is when either pieces of the skin or Film that grows on the Ink with standing by, or any Dirt get into the hollows of the face of the Letter, that Film or Dirt will fill and choak up the Letter and Print black: which is called a Pick, because the Press-man with the point of a Needle picks it out.

Paper the Case, is to ut paper in every Box in the upper and lower Cases to keep the Letters from falling through the clifts of te Boxes.

Paper up Letters, or Pages; are two phrases in∣differently used for the same meaning; for the Press-man having wrought off the Form and washed the Letters, the Compositer having stript the Form, whips Cords about every Page, to tie them up from falling, so puts them on papers ouding up the corners or lappets of the paper, and sets them by, till they have occasion to use them again.

Pidgeon Holes, when whites between words are as great o greater then between line and line: these wide Page  124 whites are by Compositers (in way of scandal) called Pigeon Holes, and are no good Work, but in case of necessity.

Points, as these and other marks used by Founders and Printers, ; : _ - = ? ! ( ' ) * [ ] &c. are all called Points, yet have different Terms.

Point Holes, the two holes the Points fixed on the Tympan pricks into the Printed Sheet of Paper.

Press-Man, is him that Works at the Print∣ing-Press.

Press goes, when the Press-men are at work, the Press is said to go.

Press goes Hard or Heavy, or It goes Easie and Light: It is by the Justifying of the Mortesses of the Cheeks and Head of the Press either too hard or more loose which makes the Press goe either hard or ea∣sie.

Press stands still, is when the Press-men are not at work.

Preface, the beginning or interduction of Matter to follow.

Proof or Proof Sheet, is that as is to be corrected.

Proof Letters, are patters Letters by which the Founder or Maker of the Moulds doth justifie his Mould by. And also by them new Fount Letters are tried by setting them together in the composing Stick.

Print hand, are Letters of Sentences Written in the same or like Characters as the Letters printed.

Pull Easie, or Hard, Short, Long or Soft; see Hard Pull.

Pye, when a page is broken, those broken Letters are called Pye: see Broken Leters.

Printing-House, is taken for the House wherein Printing is used: but more peculiarly used for the Print∣ing Tooles, which they usually call a Printing-House, as such a one hath removed his Printing-House, that is the Tooles used in his former House.

Printing in Quires, when quire work is Printed, ac∣cording to the number of Sheets Quired one in the other, then the Signature of the first Page is A, then the Signa∣ture of the Sheet Quired next within the first Sheet A 2. so that the Signatures of all the Sheets in the first Quire is A. A 2. A 3 &c. according to the number of Sheets Quired together: the second Quire begins, B. B 2. B 3. &c. the third Quire is C. C 2. C 3. &c. according to the number of Quires.

Quarters, as Quarto's, Octavo's, and Twelves Forms are imposed in Quarters: they are called Quarters be∣cause they are lock up apart. Also the short Cross in the Chase as in a Twelves Form, is called a Quarter, though it be but one sixth part of the Form.

Quires, is when Sheets are Printed one to go into a∣nother, whether they consists of two or three Sheets they are called Quires, and their Printing is termed, Printing in Quires.

Rag, when Letters cast hath a Bur or Selvage on any of its edges, that is called a Rag.

Register, is to Quoin up the Form on the Carrage of the Press, so that when the second Form of the same Sheet, Volume, Measures, and Whites, is placed in the same position, that all sides of each page shall fall exactly upon all the sides of the pages of the first Form. This is termed True Register.

Register Sheet, the Sheet or Sheets printed to make Register with.

Reteration, the second Form, or Form printed on the back side of the white Paper.

Revise, that is a proof Sheet taken off after the first or second corrected Sheet, wherein the Corrector examins in this Revise, all the faults, fault by fault, if all he mark∣ed in the last proof Sheet be carefully mended, if not he marks them in the Revise.

Rince the Form, the washing away of the Lie that Pressman cleansed the Form withal, after he had done the Printing.

Rise, a Form is said to Rise, when in rearing it off the Correcting-stone, no Letter or Furniture drops out, or stays behind.

Rowl up the Ball Leathers.

Rub Letter, is dressing the Shanks by rubbing them on a stone.

Rubs not, when the Shank is cast too thin, that in Rubbing, part of the face, or topping, or footing Rubs away: Founders say It does not Rub.

Rub well, when the Shank of a Letter hath a proper thickness, Founders say, it Rubs well.

Rub out Ink, it is only to spread some part of the Ink pretty equally oven the top of the Ink-block, from the corner of it, where the Ink generally lieth in a quan∣tity or Mass together.

Run in the Carrage, is by giving the Winch one turn round about, which runs it into the middle: the second Run in, is by a nother turn.

Runs on Sorts, is when Matter runs much on some few Letters, they say it Runs on Sorts.

Runs out from Coppy, see Drives out.

Register be out, is when the two Printed sides meet not even at head and foot.

Setting up, is putting the new Cast Letter into the Founders composing Stick.

Sliding Measure, is the inner part of the com∣posing Stick.

Second at the Press.

Small Bodies, see Great Bodies.

Second pull, is the second pull of the Bar, when the Carrage at the second turn of the Winch is run under the Plattin.

Short pull, is also called an hard pull, because it is suddenly performed, and the Form quickly feels the force of the Spindle.

Set Letters, is the Compositers putting each Letter into his Stick.

Sets foul, see Foul proof.

Sets clean, see Clean proof.

Sets close, see Get in.

Sets wide, see Drive out.

Set out paper, is the counting so many Quires out, as the Heap requires: see Token.

Set the Rounce, is so to set or fix the handle of the Winch as with one turn round, it shall run in the Car∣rage to the just middle of it: for by the well setting of the Rounce contributes much to the Riddance in a Train of Work.

Sets off, work that is newly wrought off at the press often sets off, especially if it be fat beaten with soft Ink: that is when the said paper comes to be beaten, or hard Page  125 prest by the Book-binder, the moist Ink spreads and de∣lates it self round about the face of every Letter, and Sullies and stains the white paper.

Short Page, having but little Printed in it.

Section, it a cutting or dividing of a Matter: see Chapter.

Signature, at the first page of the Sheet, at the bot∣tom thereof is set a Capital Letter, as thus: If it be the first Page of the first Sheet of a Book, the Signature is A. I the first Page of the second Sheet, it hath a B. If the first of the third a C. and so successively till he come to W. which is alway skipt, because the Latin Alphabet hath not that Letter, but next V. follows X. Y. Z. So that if the Book contains above 23 Sheets, the Signature of the 24 Sheet must be A a, if 25 B b, till in like manner he run through the second Alphabet, and comes to the third which is A a a, and fourth which is A a a a. To the second Page or any other even Page he sets no Signiture, but to the third Page which is an odd Pape he sets an A 2. the figure 2 being no part of the Signature, but only an adjunct to shew the Book-binder the second Leaf of that Sheet, that he may the surer fould the Sheet right see Printing in Quires.

Sinck Matrices, see Sinck Punches.

Sinck Punches, is the sincking of the Letter Pun∣ches into the Matrices, which is done with the face of an Hammer fizeable to the bigness of his Punch, by cautions knocks on the end of the Punch, with reiterated blows, till he have driven the punch deep enough into the Ma∣trice.

Small Number, under 1500. laid on is accounted a Small Number, see Great Numbers, and see Lay on.

Smout, Workmen when they are out of constant Work, do sometimes accept of a day or two Work, or a Weeks work a another Printing-House: this By work they call Smouting.

Soft pull, or Soaking pull; is when the Form feels the force of the Spindle by degrees, because it comes soft and easily down; see Short pull.

Sop the Ball, when a Press-man hath taken too much Ink on his Balls, he is said to Sop his Balls.

Sorts, the Letters that lie in every Box of the Case are seperatly called sorts in Printers and Founders Language; thus a is a sort, b is a sort, c is a sort, &c.

Spirit, see Devil.

Squable, a Page or Form is Squabled when the Let∣ter of one or more lines are got into any of the adjacent Lines; or that the Letter or Letters are twisted about out of their square position.

Stem, the straight fat stroaks of a straight Letter, is called the Stem of the Letter.

Stick full, is when the composing Stick is filled with so many Lines that it can contrain no more.

Stiff Iustified, see Hard Iustified.

Space thick, or Space thin; are ment the thick∣ness or thinness of such Spaces, see m and n thick, and thick and thin Spaces.

Spaces, are thin bodies set between words to keep them asunder, which ought by a strict orderly rule, and Methodical measure to be made the thickness of the se∣venth part of the body of the Letter is in height; though Founders make them indifferently thicker and thin∣ner.

Strip a Form, is to take away all the Furniture from about it, and lett it so remain on the Letter board to be distributed.

Stroaks in Letters, are either fat, lean, fine, hair stroaks; that is thick or thin stroaks.

Taking off, is ment so many Lines on his rule, as he doth distribute at a time, they being taken off and put into the Boxes.

Take up, as many lines as he takes upon his Rule or Riglet at a time to distribute, is a taking up; and thus he takes up Letters and distributs by taking of his Riglet and putting into the Boxes till the Case be full.

Take Ink, when the Balls are neither Grasie nor too Wet, the Ink will stick to them and distribute it self from one Ball to another, then it is said to Take Ink, else not to Take: Also Take Ink is to dab one of the Balls on the Ink block to furnish the Form with blacking when the Balls are wanting, they say, Take Ink.

Teze Wool, or Hair; is to pull it asunder or card it, that neither Dirt or hard Lumps remain in it to hin∣der the Balls soft working.

Thick Letter, a Fount of Letter that rubs not high enough into the Neck, is called Thick Letter, and con∣sequently will drive out Matter.

Thick Space, m and n Spaces are called Thick Space.

Thin Spaces, are then m or n Spaces, and are ge∣nerally called Space Thick, that is one quarter so thick as the body of the Letter is high, though Spaces are sel∣dom cast so thick.

Token Sheet, a Sheet foulded down at the end of every Token Printed.

Token, when Quires are counted out for the Prin∣ting, as many as are for one and the same work is called an Heap: Now in every Heap whether greater or lesser every 5 Quires is called a Token, that is an hours work for half a Press, vz. single Press-man. But if it be for a whole Press, then every Token in the Heap contains 10 Quires.

Turn for a Letter, it often happens that Matter runs upon sorts, especially in Capitals, or some sorts sel∣dom used, and that the Compositer wants that sort the Matter runs on: And being loath to distribute Letter for that sort, or perhaps his Case is otherwise full. Then instead of that Letter or sort, he Turns a Lerter of the same thickness with the Foot of the Shank, and the Face downwards: which turned Letter being easie to be seen, ••e afterwards when he can accomodate himself with a right sort, takes the Turned Letter out and puts the right Letter in its room.

Turn for it, it is a word used jocosely in the Chap∣pel (that is the Printing-House) when any of the Work∣men complains of want of Money, or any thing else, he shall by another Workman be answered, Turn for it, viz. make shift for it.

Three Worm Spindle, is a Screw with three thrids or rising in it, all going by the side of one ano∣ther.

Train of Work, is a great deal of Work of one and the same sort.

Page  126Title, either the name of the Book, or content of a Chapter or Section is termed the Title of such a thing.

Transposed Page, is when one Page is set in the o∣ther Pages place.

Timpan Sheet, that Sheet as is pasted on the Timpan, which is to lay all the Printed Sheets in the Heap even by.

Uantage, when a white Page or more happens in a Sheet, the Compositer calls that Uantage, so does the Pressman, when a Form of one pull comes to the Press. But this is when they are agreed for so much the Sheet.

Unlock the Form, is to beat the Quoins back, that the Form be loosly held in the Chase.

Underlay, a Phrase used by Pressmen for the Light and Easie, or Hard and Heavy running in of the Car∣riage: thus they say, the Press goes Light and Easie under Hand, or above Hand, or it goes Heavy or Hard under Hand.

Upper Hand, when the Spindle goes soft and easie, the Pressman saith, it goes well under Hand or a∣bove Hand. But the Contrary if it goes Hard and Heavy.

Wash the Form,

Weak Ink, see Soft Ink.

White Line, a line of Quadrats, which Print not the Paper.

White Page, a Page that no Matter comes in.

Well Currying of the Steel, is an operation of the Smith▪ in working Iron out of Steel, that the Steel may be sound and entire of it self.

White Paper, although the first Form be Printed of, yet Pressmen erronically call that Heap white Paper, till the reteration be Printed.

Whole Press, see Full Press.

Wood, that part of the Letter Mould as is of Wood.

Wooden Letters, great Capital Letters with Flo∣rishes about them, anciently uses to be set in the begin∣ning of Chapters and Section, Dedications and Prefaces to Books.

Wetting of Paper, is to Wet it Quire by Quire in fair Water, to prepare it for the Press, laying it all on a Heap on the Paper Board.

Waste Sheet, is Paper laid on the Paper Board un∣der the Wet Heap to keep the Board from foulding the first Sheet. Also it is Paper first Printed for a Proof which after Correction is termed Waste Pa∣per.

Customs of the Chappel.

Every Printing-House is called a Chappel, in which there are these Laws and Customs for the well and good Government of the Chappel, and for the orderly deport∣ment of all its Members while in the Chappel.

Every Workman belonging to it are Members of the Chappel, and the Eldest Freeman is Fa∣ther of the Chapel; and the Penalty for the Breach of any Law or Custom is in Printers Language call∣ed a Solace.

1. Swearing in the Chappel, a Solace.

2. Fighting in the Chappel a Solace.

3. Abusive Language or giving the Lie in the Chap∣pel a Solace.

4. To be Drunk in the Chappel, a Solace.

5. For any of the Workmen to leave his Candle burning at Night, a Solace.

6. If a Compositer fall his composing Stick and ano∣ther take it up, a Solace.

7. For three Letters and a Space to lie under the Compositers Case, a Solace.

8. If a Press-man let fall his Ball or Balls and a∣nother take them up, a Solace.

9. If a Press-man leave his Blankets in the Timpan at Noon or Night, a Solace.

10. For any Workman to mention joyning their pen∣ny or more a piece to send for Drink, a Solace.

11. To mention spending Chappel Money till Satur-Day Night, or any other before agreed time, a Solace.

12. To play at Quadrats or excite others in the Chappel to play for Money or Drink, a Solace.

13. A Stranger to come to the Kings Printing-House and ask for a Ballad, a Solace.

14. For a Stranger to come to a Compositer and en∣quire if he had News of such a Galley at Sea, a Solace.

15. For any to bring a Wisp of Hay directed to a Press-man, is a Solace.

16. To call Mettle Lead in a Founding-House, is a Forfeiture.

17. A Workman to let fall his Mould, a Forfei∣ture.

18. A Workman to leave his Ladle in the Mettle at Noon or at Night, a Forfeiture.

And the Judges of these Solaces or Forfeitures and o∣ther Controversies in the Chappel or any of its Mem∣bers was by Plurality of Votes in the Chappel; it being asserted as a Maxime, that the Chappel cannot Err. Now these Solaces or ines were to be bought off for the good of the Chappel, which never exceeded 1 s. 6 d. 4 d. 2 d. 1 d. ob. according to the Nature and Quality there∣of.

But if the Delinquent proved obstinate and will not pay, the Workmen takes him by force and lays him on his Belly over the correcting stone and holds him there whilest another with a Paper board gives him 10 l. in a Purse viz. 11 blows on his Buttocks, which he lays on ac∣cording to his own Mercy.

Customs for Payments of Money.

Every new Workman to pay for his Entrance half a Crown, which is called his Benvenue, till then he is no Member, nor enjoys any benefit of Chappel Mo∣ney.

Every Journeyman that formerly worked at the Chappel and goes away, and afterwards comes again to work pays but half a Benvenue.

If Journeymen Smout one another they pay half a Benvenue.

Page  127All Journeymen are paid by their Master Printer fo all Church Holy-days that falls not on a Sunday whethe they work or no, what they can earn every working day, be it 2. 3. or 4 s.

If a Journeyman Marries, he pays half a Crown to the Chappel.

When his Wife comes to the Chappel she pays 6 d. and then all the Journeymen joyns their 2 d. a piece to make her drink, and to welcome her.

If a Journeyman have a Son born, he pays 1 s. if a Daughter, 6 d.

If a Master-Printer have a Son born, he pays 2 s. 6 d. if a Daughter, 1 s. 6 d.

An Apprentice when he is Bound, pays half a Crown to the Chappel, and when he is made Free, another half Crown: and if he continues to work Journeywork in the same House he pays another, and i then a Member of the Chappel.

It is Customary for all Journeymen to make every Year new Paper Windows about 〈…〉-Tide, at which time the Master Printer makes them a Feast called a Way-Goos, to which is invited the Corrector, Founder, Smith, Ink-maker, &c. who all open their Purses and give to the Workmen to spend in the Tavern or Ale-House, after the Feast. From which time they begin to work by Candle light.

The Printers, Journeymen, with the Founders and Ink-makers have every Year a general Feast, which is kept in the Stationers Hall on or about May-day. It is made by 4 Stewards, 2 Masters, and 2 Journeymen; and with the Collection of half a Crown a piece of every Guest: the charges of the whole Feast is defrayed.

About 10 of the Clock in the Morning on the Feast day the Company invited, meet at the place apointed, and from thence go to some Church thereabouts in this follow∣ing Order. First, 4 Whifflers (as Servitures) by two and two walking before with white Staves in their Hands, and red and blw Ribbons hung Belt-wise upon their Shoul∣ders: these makes way for the Company.

Then walks the Beadle of the Company of Stationers, with the Companies Staff in his Hand, and Ribbons as afore.

Then the Minister, whom the Stewards have engaged to Preach the Sermon▪ and his Reader or Clerk.

Then the Stewards walks by two and two with long white Wands in their Hands, and all the rest of the Com∣pany follows in like order till they enter the Church &c. Service ended, and a Sermon 〈◊〉 fo the occasion fi∣nished, they all return to their Hall i the same order, where upon their entrance ech Guest delivers his Tic∣ket to a Person appointed, which gives him admittance; where every one Feast himself wih what he likes best, being delighted all the while with Musicks and Songs, &c.

After Dinner the Ceremony of Electing new Stewards for the next Year begins: then the Stewards withdraws into another Room, and puts Garlands of Laurel or Box on their Heads, and white Wands in their Hands, and are Ushered out of the withdrawing Room thus; first, the Companies Beadle with his Staff in his Hand, and Musick sounding before him, then followed one of the Whifflers with a great Bowl of White-wine and Sugar in his right Hand, and his Staff in the left, after him follows the eldest Steward.

Then another Whiffler as aforesaid, before the second Steward: in like manner another Whiffler before the third; and another before the fourth Steward.

And thus they walk with Musick sounding before them three times round the Hall, and in the fourth round, the first Steward takes the Bowl from his Whiffler and Drinks to one (whom before he resolved on) by the Title of Mr. Steward Elect: and taking the Garland of his own Head, puts it on the Steward Elects Head, at which all the Company claps their Hands in token of Joy.

Then the present Steward takes out the Steward elect, and Walks with him hand in hand, (giving him the right Hand) behind the three other Stewards another round the Hall; and in the next round as aforesaid, the second Steward Drinks to another with the same Ceremony as the first did; and so the third, and so the fourth. And then all walks one round more hand in hand about the Hall, that the Company may take Notice of the Stewards Elect: and so ends the Ceremony of the Day.

LVII. He beareth Argent, a Barber bare Headed, with a Pair of Cisers in his right hand, and a Comb in his left, cloathed in Russet, his Apron Cheque of the first and Azure. A Barber is always known by his Cheque parti-coloured Apron, therefore it needs not mentioning; neither can he be termed a Barber (or Poller or Shaver, as anciently they were called) till his Apron be about him.

Instruments of a Barber.

The Instrument Case, in which are placed these following things in their severl divisions.

The Glass〈◊〉seeing Glass.

A Set of Horn Combs, with Teeth on one side, and wide.

A Set of Box Combs.

A Set of Ivory Combs, with fine Teeth, and toothed on both sides.

An Ivory Beard Comb.

A four square Bottle with a Screw'd head for sweet Water, or Benjamin Water, &c.

The like Bottle with sweet Powder in; but this is now not used.

A Row of Razers.

A pair of Tweesers, or Twitchers: with an Ear pick at the other end of it.

A Rasp or File, to file a point of a tooth that stands out.

A Set of Cisers, for the cutting of the Hair and Beard.

A Curling Iron, or Beard Iron, called the For∣ceps.

A Hone, to 〈◊〉 or sharpen the Razers.

A Bottle 〈◊〉, or sweet Oyle, or Oyle Olive for the Hoe.

Page  128A Powder Box, with sweet Powder.

A Puff or Tuff, to powder the Hair.

A Barbers Candlestick, to stick at his Girdle.

A Barbers Apron.

A Bason or Barbers Bason, having a circle in the brim to compass the Mans Throat, and a place like a little Dish to put the Ball in after Lathering.

Wash Balls, and Sweet Balls.

Water made sweet with having Bay Leaves, or other Leaves heated therein.

A Chaffer to heat Water in.

A Small Chaffer to carry Water in, with a hang∣ing or falling handle to hold it by.

Linnens of several sorts; as

  • Caps for the Head, to keep the Hair up
  • Trimming Cloaths, to put before a Man.
  • Napkins to put about the Neck, to dry the Face and Hands with.

Terms of Art used in Barbing and Shaving.

Take the Chair, is for the Person to be Trimmed, to sit down.

Clear the Neck, is to unbutton and turn down the collar of the Mans Neck.

Cloath him, is to put a Trimming Cloth before him, and so fasten it about his Neck.

Comb round the Hair, is to ready the Hair with a wide tooth Comb.

Powder the Hair, is to puff Sweet Powder into it.

Rub the Hair with a Napkin, is to dry it from its swettiness and filth in the head.

Comb out the Hair, and Power 〈…〉 Comb the Hair straight with a wide tooth Horn Comb.