FROM the several sorts of Habits (as they are born in their diversity of parts, we shall now pro∣ceed to shew you how they are born in whole, both as they pertain to Regallity, Nobility, Gen∣try, Husbandry, and Artificery; together with the fa∣shions of People both in Court, City and Countrey: We shall begin with the first in Nobility, which is the Emperour.
The Original of this Title amongst the Romans, de∣noted only a General of an Army, but Iulius Caesar Translated it to an Honorary Title, who being made perpetual Dictator, took also that of Emperator unto his Title, which hath continued in his Successors to this day, and so became Superiour to the Title of King.
This Title supplied that of a King, which not long before had been cast out by Brutus for Tyranny and Oppression, which Caesar seeing was fresh in the Memory of the Romans, and odious amongst them, did not of a long time use any Title of Kingly Government, though his Power was as much, and the Ceremonies and En∣signs of R•gality the same, and the Emperours Throne at Rome, was called Sedile Regni.
This Empire at length became to be divided, to Con∣stantinople for the East parts, and to Rome for the West parts; and then again Constantinople being lost to the Turks, and Rome gotten into the hands of the Papacy, it was removed into Germany, which is now the Empire; and in the Reign of Otho the Third, the Election was granted to seven Princes of Germany, viz. the Arch-Bi∣shops of Mentz, Treves, and Collen, the Count Palatine of Rhin•, the Duke of Saxony, the Marquess of Bran∣denburgh, and the King of Bohemia, then called Duke of Bohemia.
Page 39He hath the Superiority allowed him by all Secular Princes; and whereas other Princes of Regal Authority are Crowned but with one Crown, he is Crowned with three, the first of Iron, which he receiveth of the Bishop of Callen at Aquisgrave; the second of Silver he receives at Modena, from the Bishop of Millan; the third of Gold, wherewith he is crowned at Rome by the Pope.
The Ensigns of his Imperial Dignity, are a Ring and Bracelet, a Cross, a Launce, a Sword, a Scepter, a Mound and a Crown, with Royal Robes, and is stiled Sanctissimus, Clarissimus, Gloriosissimus, Eminentia & Magnificentia, &c.
The Emperour of Russia is not crowned, but is adorn∣ed with a Rich Cap of Purple: Neither is the Greek Sul∣tan, or Emperour of Turkie; but invested with a migh∣ty Rich Tulipant; and though the Emperour have no Diadem, yet the Sultaness is adorned with a Rich Crown.
As for other matters of State and Regality pertaining to the Emperour, as the Ceremonies of his Coronation, Manual Servants and Officers of State, &c. being such will be treated on in the Office of a King, I shall there∣fore refer such things to that place.
I. He beareth Topaz, a King in his Royal Robes (or Parliament Robes, or Robes of State,) hold∣ing in his right hand a covered Cup, and in his left a Sword, all proper. In the Blazoning of Kings, to name a King, is sufficient; for it is to be supposed, that he is both Crowned, and in his Habiliments of State. Yet Mr. Gwillim to make all sure, Blazons it thus, a Crown∣ed King in his Robes, Ruby, doubled Ermine, su∣staining or holding a covered Cup in his right hand, and a Sword in his left, Argent: They are born sometime in Armour under their Mantle; and sometimes the Robes are of contrary colours to what our English Kings have them; then in such cases, the several parts of the Habi∣liments of State ought to be named.
G. 3 Beasants, each charged with such a King, is the Coat of Tho. Lloyd, alias Lyld, the 18 Bishop of Ely.
A. a Kings head with an Imperial Crown, couped at the Shoulders, is the Coat of Graveneck.
Out of a Coronet, a demy King with an Imperial Crown, Robes Gules, Lined, Ermin, holding a Scepter and Mound, proper, is the crest of Van Herberstein.
II. He beareth Topaz, a King Enthroned, in his Robes, with his Ensigns of Majesty, all proper. This is sufficient, if (as I said before) the Robes be Scar∣let, and the Linings Ermine, as our King of England hath them; but if they be of any other colour, then follow Gwillims Blazoning, viz. He beareth Topaz, a King Enthroned on his Seat Royal, Crowned, Scep∣tered, and Mounded of the same, Invested or Ro∣bed Saphire, Lined, (or the cape and turnings up of his Robe) Ermine. A third Blazon take thus, a King in his Robes of State, Saphire, Faced or Lined, Ermine; Crowned, holding a Sword in his right hand, and a Mound in his left, of the first; Enthroned or set in his Seat Royal, proper; these are the Arms of the City of Sivil, in Spain.
This Coat may be yet shorter Blazoned, as a King in his Throne of Majesty.
The Robes and Ensigns of Kings.
A Crown, it is an ancient Ensign of Regal Autho∣rity, having a Cap of Dignity within it of Purple or Scarlet Velvet, turned up or doubled with Ermine. It is the Emblem of Triumph and Victory.
A Scepter is another Ensign of Soveraign Com∣mand, and is every where spoken of both in Scripture and Prophane Stories; and the extending thereof a spe∣cial note of the Royal favour of the King, as we see in Hester 15.14. It betokens Peace and Justice mixed with Mercy and compassion.
A Ring, which is put upon his Finger, as a sign of Faithfulness and Integrity.
A Mound, this is a third Ensign of Authority; it is a Globe with a Cross; it hath been in use amongst us since Edward the Confessor, and is placed in the left hand; the Cross denotes his Faith, and the Globe his Empire or Rule both by Sea and Land, as it is said of Iusitman, who was the first Emperour that ever had it.
A Bracelet put about his Arm, denoting Charity and richness in good Works.
A Mantle of Estate, which is a long Scarlet Cloak or Mantle, Lined with Ermine Furr, which is so •arge as to draw some Yards on the ground, if the Train or Tail of it were not born up.
The Cordals or String of the Mantle, with its But∣tons and Tassels, all made of Purple Silk and Gold Thread interwoven after the manner of a Cord.
A Robe of Estate, which is for Awfulness and Ro∣verence.
A Garter, which is a Rich Jewel made after the form of St. George on Horseback slaying of the Dragon, all beset with Diamonds, and hung in a Blew Silk Rib∣bon, •hich is the Badge of his Knighthood of the Gar∣ter, or order of St. George.
A Kirtle, or loose Robe, worn under the Mantle of Estate, of Purple colour, overlaid with Borders, or Welts of Gold; and doubled with the Ermine Skins.
A Surcote or Gown, of Purple, lined and welted, or edged with Ermine Skins.
A Belt or Girdle of fine Silk, to tye the under Gown or Surcoat about the middle. This is called the Girdle of Honour.
A Spur, or a Gilt Spur, which was put upon his Heel in token of Knighthood.
A Sword of State, which is a Rich Gilt Sword, with an Imbrauthered Scabbard which is born before the King, and is an Emblem of Majesty and Magistracy, Honour and Rule.
A Naked Sword, carried before him, as a token of Vengeance and the Punishment of Rebellion, 1. In the Laity. 2. In the Clergy.
A Naked pointless Sword, betokening Mercy, Pity and compassion.
A Mace, carried before the King is the Emblem of Justice.
A Throne or Seat of Majesty, is a Chair of Gold richly Imbossed, mounted upon Steps, or an Ascent of Page [unnumbered]
The Stile, he speaketh in the plural number, We will and tomman, We by the consent and advice of Our Council, do so and so.
The Title given Him is, Majesty, Sacred Majesty, High and Mighty, Dei Gratia, Grace, or by the Grace of God, Defendor of the Faith; Supream Head and Gover∣nor, &c. Most Excellent, Illustrous.
Coronation Ceremonies used at the Crowning of the Kings of England.
The Crowning of King Richard the third, Anno 1483.
The Heralds Marshalling the way.
A Priest or Fryer bearing the Cross.
Priests, in fine Surplices and gray Amysses upon them.
The Bishops and Abbots in Rich Copes all of them Mitred with their Crosses in their Hands.
The Barons in their Robes.
The Viscount in their Robes.
An Earl Bearing a pair of Gilt Spurs.
An Earl bearing St. Edwards Staff, as a Relique.
An Earl bearing a naked Sword without a point.
A Lord bearing a Mace between two Earls which car∣ried each of them a Naked Sword sharp pointed.
A Duke carrying the Scepter.
A Duke carrying the Mond, or Globe and Cross.
An Earl bearing the Sword of Estate.
Then Garter King of Arms, between the Usher of the Privy Chamber, on his left hand, and the Lord Mayor with a Mace in his hand.
A Duke bearing the Kings Crown between his hands.
Then the King himself in a Surcoat and Robe of Pur∣ple Velvet, bare Footed walking upon Ray Cloath; having over his head a Canopie born by the Barons of the Cinque-Ports. The Bishop of Bath on his right Hand, and the Bishop of Durham on his left.
A Duke bearing up the Kings Train.
The Queens Train or Attendants, followed: after whom,
Then one bearing a Scepter.
Then one bearing the Ivory Rod with a Dove.
One bearing the Crown.
Then the Queen Apparelled in Robs like the King. Under a Rich Canopie, at each corner a Gold Bell, on Her Head she had a Circlet, set full of Precious Stones.
A Countess bearing up her Train.
Two Dutchess's in their Coronets Attendans.
Twenty Ladies following orderly in rich Attire.
In this Order they passed from the Pallace to the Abby and ascending to the High Altar, there shifted their Robs, and having other Robs open in diverse places from the middle upwards, were both Anointed, and Crowned: He with St. Edwards Crown, having the Scepter delivered into his left Hand, and the Globe with the Cross into the right. The Queen had a Scepter given into her right Hand, and the Ivory Dove into her left.
Then after the Sermon, and the Sacrament received (having the Host divided between them) they both offered at St. Edwards Altar, or Shrine; where the King left his Crown, and put on his own: and thus done, in the same Order and State as they came, returned to West∣minster-Hall; and there held a most Princely Feast.
The Earl Marshal (when all persons were set, and the Hall voided and cleared of the multitude) with the High Constable, Lord Steward, Lord Treasurer and Comp∣troller came in and served the King Solemnly with one Dish of Gold and another of Silver: and the Queen all in Gilt Vessels, and the Bishops all in Silver. At the Second Course of the Feast, a Champion in compleat Armour well mounted, comes into the Hall; one Riding before him, which carried his Launce: this Champion having his Sword drawn, Proclaims the King with a loud voice, to be the lawful and undoubted King, and Heir of the Crown of England: which if any did deny, he was ready to defend by Combate and Dint of Sword.
The Order of the Feast was thus in short, at the head of the Table the King is Seated by Himself at the lower, end of the same Table, are placed the Embassadors of diverse Princes. Before the King stood the Carver, Sewer, Cup-bearer, with a great number of Gentlemen-waiters, Attending his Person; the Ushers making place to strangers that come to behold his Person.
At the side Table on the right hand near adjoyning to the King, are placed the Lord Chancellor, Chamberlain, Keeper of the Great Seal, Steward, Treasurer; being the five Great Peers of the Kingdom, with diverse other Ho∣norable Persons.
At the side Table on the left hand, are placed the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, the Treasurer of the Houshold, Secretaries of State, Serjeant at Law, Master of the Re∣vels, Kings at Arms, and the Dean of the Chappel.
At another Table at the other side are set the new made Knights of the Bath and others, the Master of the Game, chief Ranger, Masters of the Houshold, Clarks of the Green Cloath, and Exchequer: with strangers to furnish it.
At another Table over against it, are placed the Knights and Gentlemen of the Kings House, Lieutenant of the Tower, with diverse Captains and Commanders, both of Foot and Horse.
At a Table at the lower end of the Hall, are set the Butler, the Panther, Clarks of the Kitchin, and diverse o∣thers of the Kings House, furnished throughout with the Kings Guard, and at every course or mess, the Trumpets with other Musick, are to sound.
But to lay a side the formality of the Kings and Queens passage from the Pallace to the Abby (being a part of Marshalling, or Triumphal Progressions) is more proper for another place, the which I shall have occasion hear∣after to treat off, in lib. 4. chap. 11.
Officers and Servants in the Kings Majesties Houshold with their Fees.
Chief Officers, and Attendants.
- Lord High Steward, 383.7.8.
- Lord High Constable,
- Earl Marshal,
- Lord High Chamberlain, 200.
- Lord High Treasurer, 368 l.
- Lord High Admiral,
- Lord High Almoner,
- Lord President of K. Council,
- Lords of the Privy Council
- Knight Marshal,
- Treasurer of the House, 124.14.8.
- Controller, 107.17.4.
- Cofferer, 100 l.
- Clerk of the Coffer, 20 l.
- 2 Clerks of the green Cloath, 44.6.8.
- 2 Clerks Controllers, 44.6.8.
- A Serjeant or Yeoman, 6.13.4.
- A Groom, 2.13 4.
- 2 Messengers,
- Mr. of the House, 100. Marks.
- Messenger of the Counting-House,
- Master, 50 l.
- Yeoman, 6.13.4.
- Groom, 5.6.8.
The Robes or Ward-Robe.
- Yeoman, 5 l.
- Groom, 2.13.4.
- Page, 2 l.
- 2 Yeomen each 10 l.
- 3 Grooms, each 3.8.4.
- 2 Pages, each 2 l.
- Clerk, 10 l.
- Serjeant, 11.8.1. ob.
- 3 Yeomen, each 5 l.
- 4 Grooms, each 2.13.4.
- 2 Pages, each 2 l.
- Bread-Bearer, 1.10.4.
- A Gentleman Pantler, or Bread-Keeper.
- 4 Yeoman, 5 l.
- 4 Grooms or Purveyors, 2.13.4.
- 2 Pages, each 2 l.
- Naperer, or Keeper of the Table Lin∣nen.
- Serjeant, 11.8.1. ob.
- 7 Yeoman, each 5 l.
- Groom, 2.13.4.
- 2 Pages, 2 l.
- 8 Wine Porters.
- A Serjeant,
- Gentleman of the Ewty, 7 d. ob. per diem
- 3 Yeomen, each 5. l.
- 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Pages, each 2 l.
- 3 Clerks, each 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
- 2 Mr. Cookes, each 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
- 6 Yeomen, each 5. l.
- 6 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 8 Children, each 2 l.
- Gallapines, 50 l.
- Surveyor of the Dresser, 22 l. 1 s. 3 d.
- Cooks Largess at Easter, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Idem to •c•llery, 1 l.
- Idem to P••tery, 2 l.
- Serjant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
- A Garnitor,
- 7 Yeomen, each 5 l.
- 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 3 s. 4 d.
- 6 Conductors, 3 d. per Diem.
- — Purveyors,
- A Grocer.
- Clerk of the Spicery, 20 l.
- Yeoman, 5 l.
- Serjeant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
- Groom, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Page, 2 l.
- 2 Yeomen, each 5 l.
- 3 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Pages, each 2 l.
- 3 Yeomen, 5 l.
- 3 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Pages, 2 l.
- Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Yeoman, 5 l.
- 2 Grooms, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
The Acatrye, or Caterers Oce.
- A Serjeant,
- 6 Yeomen, each 7 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Pages, each 2 l.
- Serjeant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
- Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Yeomen, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 4 Grooms, each 5 l.
- 4 Children, each 2 l.
- Serjeant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
- Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 4 Yeomen Purveyors, 5 l.
- Yeoman, 5 l.
- 2 Grooms, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Pages, or Purveyors.
The Squillery, or Scullery.
- A Serjeant,
- A Clerk,
- 3 Yeomen, each 5 l.
- 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 4 Pages, each 2 l.
- Dean, 200 l.
- Sub-Dean, 100 l.
- 12 Priests, each 70 l.
- 12 Singing Boys,
- A Vergero,
- A Serjeant,
- 4 Yeomen,
- Page 43a Groom,
- 48 Chaplains in Ordinary.
The Almoury, or Eleemosinary.
- Lord Almoner
- Sub-Almoner, 6 l. 16 s. 10 d. ob.
- 4 Yeomen, each 2 l.
- 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Gentlemen 7 d. per Diem, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
- A Serjeant,
- 2 Yeomen,
- 2 G•ooms,
- A Page.
- A Serjeant,
- 2 Yeomen,
- A Groom,
- A Page,
- A Woman Laundress, 10 l.
- 2 Yeomen, 5 l.
- 2 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Pages, each 2 l.
- A Draper,
The Harbingers Office.
- A Knight Harbinger, 20 marks.
- 3 Gentlemen Harbingers,
- 7 Yeomen Harbingers,
The Knight Marshalsea.
- Knight Marshal,
- 6 Provost Marshal or Virgers.
The Kings-Gard, or Life-Gard.
- 3 Captains, 20 s. per Diem.
- 4 Lieutenants,
- 3 Cornets,
- 3 Guidon,
- 3 Quarter-Master,
- 12 Brigadiers of Horse, 4 s. per Diem.
The Band of Gentlemen Pensioners.
- Captain, 1000 l.
- Lieutenant, 260 l.
- Standard Bearer, 200 l.
- Clerk, 120 l.
- 100 Battle-Axes, or Pole-Axes, 100 l.
The Gard Chamber.
- 200 Ordinary Yeomen, 20 d. per Diem.
- A Captain, 1000 l.
- Leiutenant, 500 l.
- Ensign, 300 l.
- Clerk of the Cheque, 150 l.
- 4 Corporals, each 150.
- Yeomen, 5 l.
- Groom, 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Serjeant, 11 l. 8 s. 1 d. ob.
- Clerk, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- A Serjeant,
- 6 Cart Takers,
- 4 Yeomen, each 5 l.
- 4 Grooms, each 2 l. 13 s. 4.
- 2 Pages, each 2 l.
- 2 Wood-bearers, each 1 l. 10 s. 5 d.
- Largess at Mid-Summer, 5 l.
- 6 Porters and Scoorers, each 2 l.
- Largess to them all at Easter, 5 l.
- A Serjeant Porter,
- 4 Marshalls of the Hall,
- 5 Sewers of the Hall,
- 12 Waiters,
- A Bell-Ringer,
- Cock of the Court,
- Mr. of the Horse, 100 l.
- Chief Avenor, 40 l.
- 14 Quirriers, each 20l.
- 2 Riders, each 30 l.
- Clerk, 11 d. per Diem.
- 3 Surveyors, each 11 d.
- Serjeants of the carriage, 15 d.
- 3 Sadlers, 9 d.*
- Yeoman Coach-maker, 12 d.
- Yeoman of the Stirrope, 9 d.
- 4 Yeomen Purveyors, 9 d.
- 3 Yeomen Granators, 9 d.
- Serjeant Farrier, 13 d.
- 3 Yeomen Farriers, 6 d.
- Yeoman of the Male, 8 d.
- Yeoman Bit-maker, 3 d.
- Yeoman of the Close-cart, 7 d.
- 64 Grooms, to all 584 l.
- 26 Footmen in Liveries.
So that all the Fees to the Officers of the Kings Houshold, amounts to 16868 l. 10 s. 1 d.
A List of the Kings Officers in Ordinary that Attend His Person above Staires.
In the Bed-Chamber.
- 18 Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, each 100 l.
- Groom of the Stool,
- Servant of the Robe or Vestment,
- Lord Great Chamberlain,
- Keeper of the Privy Purse,
- Treasurer of the Chamber,
- Master of the Robes,
- 12 Grooms of the Bed-Chamber, eace 50 l.
- 6 Pages of the Bed-Chamber,
- Keeper of the Kings Cabinet Closet,
- 4 Gentlemen Ushers of the Privy Chamber,
- 48 Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber.
- 6 Grooms of the Privy Chamber,
The Presence Chamber, or Great Chamber.
- 4 Gentlemen Ushers,
- 4 Waiters,
- 8 Gentlemen Ushers that are quarter Waiters
- 14 Grooms,
- 4 Pages.
- 6 Gentlemen Waiters
- 5 Cup-bearers
- Pincern Cup Waiters
- 4 Carvers for His Person,
- 3 Gentlemen Sewers to His Person,
- 6 Esquires of the Body,
- 8 Sewers of the Chamber,
- Groom Porter,
- 16 Serjants at Arms,
- 42 Messengers of the Chamber,
- The Master of Ceremonies, 200 l.
- An Assistant, 120 l.
- A Marshall,
The Removing Wardrobe.
- A Yeoman, 200 l.
- 2 Grooms, each 100.
- 3 Pages, each 100 marks.
The Officers of the Robes.
- A Yeoman,
- Page 443 Grooms,
- A Page,
- A Purveyor,
- A Brusher,
- A Dyer,
- A Taylor,
- A Girdler,
- A Clerk,
- A Laceman,
- A Cutter and Racer,
- An Imbrautherer,
- 2 Silkmen,
- A Shoomaker,
- A Perfumer,
- A Feather maker,
- A Milliner,
- A Mercer,
- A Hosier,
- A Draper,
- A Surveyor,
Masters of the Game.
- Mr. of the Fighting Cocks,
- Mr. of the Bears,
- A Serjeant,
- Mr. of the Bulls,
- A Yeoman,
- Mr. of the Bowling Green,
- Mr. of the Tennis-court,
- Mr. of the Pall-Mall,
- Keeper of the Theater,
- Keeper of the Birds and Fowl,
- 2 Gentlemen of the Bows,
- Chief Ranger, 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
Other Officers of Court which Pertain to the Kings Houshold, with their Fees.
The Secretaries of Estate.
- Principal Secretaries, 100 l.
- Secretary of French Tongue, 66.13.4.
- Secretary of the Latin, 40 mar.
- 4 Clerks of the Signet,
- Clerk of the Council, 26 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Clerk of the Parliament, 40 l.
- Clerk of the Market, 20 l.
- Clark of the Privy Council, 40 l.
- Lieutenant of the Ordinance,
- Mr. of the Armory, 130 l. 10 s. 9 d.
- 20 other Officers, each 15 l. 5 s.
- Lacksmith, 15 l. 12 s.
- Labourer, 10 l.
- Gilder, 5 l.
- Brigender 10 l.
The Officers at Arms.
- Garter King at Arms, 40 l.
- Clarencieux K. at Arms, 20 l.
- Norroy K. at Arms, 20 l.
- 6 Heralds, each 13 l 6 s. 8 d.
- 6 Pursivants, have 93 l. 6 s. 8d.
- 25 Serjeants at Arms, 1 s per Diem.
- Treasurer, 100 l.
- Controllor, 100 mar.
- Assay Master, 100 mar.
- Auditor, 44 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Teller of Money, 33 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Surveyor of the Melting-house, 26 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Clerk of the Irons, 20 marks.
- Clerk of the Mynt, 10 l.
- Chief Graver, 30 l.
- Chief Finer, 20 l.
- Sincker of the Irons, 10 l.
- 3 Melters, each 20 marks.
- Purveyors, 10 l.
- Pot-makers, 10 l.
- Porter, 10 l.
The Buttlerage of England.
- Chief Buttler, 50 m.
- Under Buttler,
- Mr. of the Kings Barge, 10 l. 8 s. 8 d.
- Servants amongst them, 20 l.
The Great Wardrobe.
- Master, 115 l.
- Clerk, 18 l. 5 s.
- Under Clerk, 4 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Porter, 6 l. 1 s. 8 d.
- Rent gatherer, 5 l.
- 3 Taylors, each 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
- 3 Embrautherers, each 18 s. 5 d.
The Tents, or Povillions.
- 2 Masters, 30 l.
- Controllor, 12 l 13 s. 4 d.
- Clerk, 13 l. 7 s. 4.
- Ke•per of the •ents, 10 l.
- 4 Yeoman, 5 l.
- Groom, 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
- Master of the Revells, 100 l.
- Yeoman, 9 l. 2 s. 10 d.
- Master of the Request, 100 l.
- Surveyor, 30 l.
- Controllor, 30 l.
- Clerk, 18 l. 5 s.
- Purveyor, 24 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Keeper of the Store-house, 9 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Clerk of the Check, 15 l. 3 s. 4 d.
- Carpenter, 18 l. 5 s.
- Mason, 18 l. 5 s.
- 3 Joyners, each 18 l. 5 s.
- Glasier, 18 l. 5 s.
- Surveyors of the Mines, 36 l. 10 s.
- Deviser of Building, 36 l. 10 s.
The Hunters Fees.
- Master of the Hounds, 18 l. 5 s.
- The Yeoman, 6 l.
- Mr. of Buck-hounds, 50 marks.
- 2 Servants, each 20 l.
- 2 Yeomen Prickers, each 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
- Master of Otter Hounds, 13 l. 6 s.
- 40 others under them.
The Apothocary & Physician, &c.
- 6 Surgeons, all 196 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 3 Physicians, all 260 l.
- 3 Apothocaries, all 64 l. 9 s. 2 d.
- Astronomers, 20 l.
- 4 Physicians to His Majesty,
- 2 Physicians for the Houshold and Tower.
- 2 Barbers,
The Musicians and Players.
- Serjeant Trumpeter, 24 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- 16 Trumpeters, all 389 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- 6 Sack-Buts, each 24 l.
- 8 Violls, each 30 l. 8. 4 d.
- 3 Drumslades, each 18 l. 5 s.
- 2 Players on the Flute, 18 l. 5 s.
- 3 Players on the Virginals, 5 l.
- 8 Players of Enterludes, each 3 l. 6 s.
- 2 Makers of Instruments, 30 l.
Ths Artificers Fees.
- Printer, 4 l.
- Stationer, 10 l.
- Cutler, 6 l. 1 s. 8 d.
- 3 Weavers, each 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
- Bowyer, 9 l. 2 s. 6 d.
- Wheel Wright, 18 l. 5 s.
- Cross-Bow maker, 6 l. 1 s. 8 d.
- Clock-maker, 18 l. 10 s.
- Feather Dresser, 13 l. 6 s.
- Lock-Smith 2 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Arrow-Maker, 6 l. 1 s. 8 d.
- Buckler-Maker, 3 l. 8 d.
- Hand-Gun-maker, 1 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Page 45Stone Graver, 20 l.
- Serjeant Painter, 25 l. 10 s.
- Gardiner, 25 l. 10 s.
- Stillers of Water, 40 l.
- Clock keeper, 12 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Wollen Draper,
- 2 Taylors,
- Sejeant Skinner,
- Tennis-Ball maker,
- 2 Imbrautherers,
- 2 Keepers of the Privy Lodgings,
- Prospective maker,
- Master Fencer,
- Haberdasher of Hats,
- Comb maker,
- 55 Water-men,
- Button-maker, &c.
The Falconry Office.
- Master of the Hawks,
- 33 Under Falconers, or Officers.
The Kings Officers for Law.
- 4 Serjeants at Law.
- Attorney General,
- Sollicitor General,
- Chief Justice of Chester.
- 2 Council at Law.
- 2 Advocates for the Civil Law.
- 2 Secretaries of Estate,
- 2 Clerks of the Council,
- 2 Masters of Request,
- 4 Clerks of the Signet,
Officers of Estate, and the Kings Houshold with their Allowances.
In the Exchequer of London.
- Lord High Treasurer, 368 l.
- Chancellor, 113 l.
- Lord chief Baron, 100 l.
- 3 Barons, 40 l. 13 s. 4 d. apeece.
- Kings Remembrancer, 55 l. 17 s. 4 d.
- Treasurer, 63 l. 2 s. 1 d.
- Clerk of the Pipe, 65 l. 4 s. 2 d.
- 5 Auditors, to each 10 l.
- Clerk of the Extracts, 15 l.
- Clerk of the Plees, 5 l.
- 2 Marshals, to each 2 l. 10 s.
- Ushers in all, 140 l.
- 8 Porters, each 4 l. and Liveries.
- Clerk of Talis, 41 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Clerk of the Peal, 61 l. 16 s. 8 d.
- 2 Chamberlains, each 52 l. 3 s. 4 d.
- Under Treasurer, 173 l.
- 2 Debuty Chamberlains, 6 l.
- 6 Messengers, each 4 d. ob per Diem.
- Besides other under Officers.
- Customer Fee and reward, 47 13 4
- Controllor, 20 l.
- Collector, 66 l.
- Surveyor, 46 l.
- 16 Waiters, to each 44 l.
- 6 Clerks, to each 10 l.
Receivers of Crown Lands.
- 9 Receivers, each 200 m.
- Clerks allowance, each 37 l. 8 s. 8 d.
Surveyor of Crown Lands.
- One in each County, 13 l. 6 s. 4 d.
The Duchy Court of Lancaster.
- Chancellor, 142 l. 16 s.
- Attornies, each 45 l.
- Receiver General, 38 l. 16 s. 4 d.
- Clerk, 27 l. 10 s.
- Messenger, 10 l.
- Usher, 20 s.
- 4 Council at Law, each 7 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- 2 Auditors of the Revenue, each 197 l.
- 22 Receivers, each 5 l.
- 3 Surveyors, each 13 l. 6 s. 8 d.
Court of first Fruits.
- Chancellor, 242 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Treasurer, 136 l.
- Attorney, 26 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Auditor, 140 l. 3 d.
- Clerk, 40 l.
- Reeper of the Records, 20 l.
- Messenger, 16 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Usher, 6 l. 6 s. 8 d.
Court of Wards.
- Master of the Wards, 352 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Receiver, 70 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Attorney, 70 l.
- Surve•or, 100 l.
- Auditor, 145 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Clerks, each 24 l. 13 s. 8 d.
- Messenger, 6 l. 2 d.
- Usher▪ 5 l.
- 45 Feodaries, each 9 l.
So that the Fees of the Courts of Revenues to the said Officers and their Substitutes aforesaid, amounts to 13825 l. 8 s. 4 d.. ob.
The Court of Chancery.
- Lord Chancellor, or
- Lord Keeper of the great Seal, 1047 l.
- Master of the Rolls, 71 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- Clerk of the Hamper, 43 l.
- Clerk of the Crown, 60 l.
- Controllor, 10 l.
- Prothonotory, 33 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Sealer, 6 l. 16 s. 10 d. ob.
- Chaffer of Wax, 3 l. 16 s. 1 d.
- Cryer, 6 l. 6 s. 10 d. ob.
- Enroller of Evidences, 20 l.
- 12 Masters of Chancery,
The Privy Seal.
- Lord Keeper his Fee 20 s. pre Diem.
The Kings-Bench Court.
- Lord chief Justice, 228 l. 6 s. 5 d.
- 3 Lords Justices, each 148 l.
- Clerk of the Crown, 10 l.
- Prothonotory n l.
- Keeper of the Records, nil.
The Court of Common Pleas.
- Lord chief Justice, 182 l.
- 3 Lords Justices, each 148 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Keeper of the Rolls, 4 l.
- 4 Serjeants at Law, each 53 l. 6 s. 7 d.
- Attorney General, 81 l.
- Sollicitor General, 50.
The Council in the North.
- Lord President, 1000 l.
- 7 Councellors, each 50 l.
- Secretary, 33 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Messenger, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
The Marches of Wales.
- Lord President, 1040 l.
- 7 Councellors, each 13 l. 6 s. 8 d.
The Admiralty Court.
- Lord Admiral of England, 200 m:
- Lieutenant, 230 l.
- Treasurer, 220 l.
- Page 46Mr. of the Ordinance, 180 l.
- Controllor, 100 l.
- Surveyor, 70 l.
- Clerk of the Ships, 60 l.
- Clerk of the Store-House, 52 13 4
- Victualler of the Navye, 128 l.
The Principality of South-Wales.
- Chancellor, 20. l.
- Secretary, 13 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Attorney, 13 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Sollicitor, 10 l.
The Principallity of North-wales
- Chancellor, 20 l.
- Attorney, 66 s.
- Controllor, 12 l. 13 s. 4 d.
- 2 Justices, each 23 l. 6 s. 8 d.
The Palatine of Lancaster.
- Clerk of the Crown, 6 l.
- Clerk of the Common Pleas, 4 l.
- Clerk of the Estracts, 1 l.
- 2 Barons of the Exchequer, each 2 l.
- 2 Attorneys, each 6 l. 31 s. 4 d.
- Cryer, 2 l.
- Messenger, 2 l.
- Chamberlain, 20 l.
The Palatine of Chester.
- 2 Baron of the Exchequer, 9 l. 2 s. 4 d.
- 2 Serjeants at Law, each 3 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- 2 General Attorneys, each 3 l. 6 s. 8 d.
- Escheator, 10 l. 10 s.
Iustices of Oyer and Terminer.
- From Trent Southward, 100 l.
- From Trent Northward, 100 l.
- Masters of Request, each 200.
III. He beareth Argent, a Prince in his Parlia∣ment Robes Gules, Doubled Ermin; the Surcoat, or Uested, Purpure: with a Girdle about his middle of the first; a Chatter in his right Hand, and a Rod of Estate or Government in his left, and his Sword by his side all proper.
The Kings eldest Son in England, is called Prince, and the first that we read of was Edward eldest Son to King Henry the third, and after him the Eldest Son of the King hath been ever by Patent, and Ceremonies of Enstalment Created Prince of Wales, & Earl of Chester, being born Duke of Cornwall: and hath the Title of Illustrious, or Most Illustrious Prince.
The Prince or first Son of the King of France, is called the Dolphin of France. In Spain the Infanta of Spain: and in other Countrys there are Princes by Creation, as the Prince of Piemont, and the Prince of Orange, with several others which now become He∣reditory: and in some Countrys all the Royal line are Stiled Princes, as in Bohemia the eldest Son called the Palsgrave, and all the other Princes. In Denmark, all the younger Sons are called Princes.
The Creation of a Prince.
When a Prince is to be Created, he is after diverse So∣lemnities, at length presented before the King in Princely Robs, who puteth about his Neck a Sword bendways, a Cap upon his Head, with a Coronet according to His Degree over it, a Ring on his middle Finger, and a Uerge o•Wand of Gold in his Hand, and his Letters Patents after they are read.
Henry the fourth bestowed the said Principalitie on his eldest Son Henry, with the Title of Earl of Chester and Flint, by the said Solemn Investures, and a Kiss in full Parliament.
Yet here is to be noted that the Mantle of a Prince, is once more doubled then the Dukes: and his Cap of Estate in its doubling is indented, having (as all Caps of Dignity have) a Button and Tassel of Gold on the Crown or Top of the Cap.
Besides he hath a Surcote and Girdle and the Man¦tle with Cordals Buttons, and Tassels, as the Kings Mantle of State hath.
The Revenues of the Prince of Wales.
Edward the Third in a Parliament held at Westminster in the 15 Year of His Reign, Created Edward His Son and Heir Surnamed the Black Prince, Prince of Wales: and for his better maintenance in Honourable Support, according to his State and Dignity, by Charter the 18 of E. 1. gave him all His Lordships and Lands in North-Wales, South-Wales, and West-Wales or Powyes: which have since appertain to this Principalitie, as
1. The Lordship, Castle, Town and County of Carnarvon, 1134 l. 16 s. 2 d. ob. q.
2. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Conway.
3. The Lordship, Castle, and Town of Crucketh.
4. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Bewmaris.
5. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Harlagh.
6. The Lordship, Castle, Towns and Counties of Anglesey, and Merioneth, 1581 l. 5 s. 10 d. ob.
7. The Lordship, Castle, Town and County of Caer∣mardin, 406 l. 1 s. 7 d.
8. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Llanbider-Vaur.
9. The Lordship, and Stewardship of Cantermawer.
10. The Lordship, Castle, Town and County of Car∣digan, 374 l. 11 s. 3 d. ob.
11. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Emelyn.
12. The Lordship, Castle & Town of Buelt, 113 l. 6 s. 8 d.
13. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Haverford.
14. The Lordship, Castle and Town of Mont∣gomory, 56 l. 13 s. 4 d.
And all the Lands that were Rice ap Meridick which came to the hands of King E. 1. (who Rebelled against the English Crown after the Conquest of Wales) together with all the Lordships, Citties, Castles, Towns, Ma•ners, Members Hamlets, Lands, Tenements, Knights Fees, Voidances of Bishopricks, Advowsons of Churches and of Abbies, Prio∣ries and of Hospitals, with Customs, and Prisages of Wines, the Exercise and Execution of Justice, and a Chancery, Forests, Chases, Parks, Woods, Warrens, Hundreds, Co∣mots, &c. besides,
15. The Perquisites and Profits of the Sessions of the Justices of North-Wales.
16. The Prequisites and Profits of the Sessions of the Justices of South-Wales, 738 l. 6 s. 9 d. ob.
17. The Prequisites, of the Courts of Haverford, 41 l. 5 s. 3 d. ob.
Page 47Deduct for the Fees of the Justices of North-Wales 40 l. and of South-Wales 50 l.
Then the Revenue of the Principality is clear 4681 l. 12 s. 5 d. 1 f.
Officers about the Person of the Prince of Wales.
The Governor of the Princes Person.
The Council of the Prince were diverse Honorable and worthy Persons.
The Chamberlain, and chief Chamberlain.
The Attorney General.
The Clerk of the Princes Council, or Secretary and the keeper of His Books of Records, &c. his Fee 100 l. per Annum.
The Usher of the Council-Chamber, his Fee 10 l.
The Gentleman Usher to the Princes Privy Chamber.
The Keeper of the Princes Ward-Robe, his Fee 5 l. 10 s.
The Treasurer or Receiver General.
The Princes chief General.
The Mr. of the Princes Horse, and the Equiryes and such as teach him to Ride, besides many other inferiour Officers and Servants not mentioned in any Record.
The Ancient Officers of State and other Places of Iudicature, for the Princi∣pality of Wales; with their Fees Per Annum.
In every of the said Circuits or Counties, there is a Chamberlain, or Treasurers of the Revenue, and Keep∣ers of the Seal, 20 l.
The Princes Attorney, and Princes Solicitor.
The Prothonotory or chief Register.
The Clerk of the Crown.
The Marshal to attend the Judges.
The chief Justices of North-Wales and South-Wales, 50 l. a piece, the latter 40 l. a piece.
The Justices of the Peace, which are to preserve the Peace and to punish turbulent persons.
The Custos Rotulorum or chief Justice of Peace, that keeps the Records of their proceedings.
The Justice of Peace and Quorum, without him no Session can be holden.
The Clerk of the Peace and Sessions 5 l.
The Sheriffs of each county 2 l. 10 s. of some 5 l.
The Constables in every Hundred in the Shire.
The Bailiffs or catch-poles.
The Marshal and keeper of the Justice house in Carnar∣•••▪ 1 l. 6 s. 8 d.
The chief Forester of Snowden, 11 l. 8 s.
The Steward General of the Comots of the County of Carmarthen, 6 l. 13 s. 4 d. of Cardigan 10 l.
The Clerk of the County Courts and small Sessions, each 2 l.
The Cryers of the same, each 6 s. 8 d.
The Office of Penkeys in the Comots of Widegada and Elvet, 4 s.
The Steward of the same, 3 l. 13 s. 4 d.
The Clerk, 6 s. 8 d.
The Bailiff Itinerant, 5 l. and some 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.
The Auditors, each 10 l. per Annum, and 10 s. per Diem in executing his Office and making his accounts.
The Controllors of all Pleas &c, 12 l. 3 s. 4 d.
The Attorneys in each County, 2 l. 16 s. 8 d. in South-Wales each 8 l. 13 s. 4 d.
The Surveyor or Supervisors, each 10 l.
The Constable of the several Castles and Towns, 40 l. viz. Carnarvon, Conway, Hardli•gh, Be•maris, Carmarthen, Abeenstowith, Cardig•n.
The Captains 12 l. 3 s. 4 d. and every Soldier of the Gard, 4 d. per Diem.
The Porters of the Gates, 3 l. 10 s.
The Office of the Steward of Newbrough and Roffaire, 10 l.
This Title is not used in England but in Germany: and proper only to the House of Austria, though some others have assumed the title, as Mr. S•ldon inform us.
He taketh place of all other Dukes, and he is allowed at his creation, a Surcoat, a Mantle, and a Hood of Crimson Velvet: He hath also a Chapeaur, or Du∣cal Cap doubled Ermin, and indented with a Coronet about the same with one Arch of Gold with a Globe and Cross upon it: and a Uerge, or Wand of Gold.
A Duke was at the first a title of Office, afterwards Hono••ry, and since Feudal and Hereditory: and were at first created without any Ceremony, except the girding of a Sword about them. But •ohn Son of Edward the third▪ had a Cap of Furr added to the Ceremony when created Duke of Lancaster: and succeding time have to them added, Surcoat, Mantle, Hood, a Uerge of Gold, a Ducal Crownett, with a Cap doubled Er∣min, but not indented as that of the Princes is.
The Duke, Marquess and Earl at their Creation have a Sword put over their Heads to their shoulders, which the Viscount and Baron have not.
The Creation of a Duke.
The King being Seated in His Chamber of Salutation called the pre•ence Chamber; the Heralds proceeded by two & two then came Garter with the Charter in his Hand, after him came an Earl bearing the Rod of Gold, then another Earl carrying the Cap of State with the Du∣cal Crown on it, and after him another Earl bearing the Page 48Sword with the Hilt upwards, then came the Person to be created between a Duke, and a Marquess vested with an inner Gown or Surcoat (gird about the middle) of a Scarlet colour Eimbriated or Bordered with Ermine skins: coming before the King they made three obeisance, the Person then kneeled before the King, the Charter was Audiably read which at the word Investivimus, the King with his own Hands puts upon him the Ducal Robe: and at the Sword, Gladio Cincturavimus, the King puts the Belt and Sword over his Head: and at the word, Cappae & Circ•lis Aurei Impositio∣nem, the King with his own Hands, puts the Coronet on his Head; and at the word, Virgae Aureae Traditionem, the King puts the Rod into his Hands; and when the rest of the Charter is read over, the King declares him to be Duke of such and such a place, so giving him the Letters Patent, and thanks given for the great Favour, &c. They go out orderly as they came in: the rest of the Ceremo∣nies in the Feast, see in the creation of a Baron▪
A Duke is Stiled, and Esteemed Princely, and gene∣rally Gracious, and Excellent: the High and Mighty Prince, or Most High Potent and Noble Prince.
Dukes of the Blood Royal, as the Kings Son, Bro•her, Uncle, Nephew, ought to be repated as Arch-Dukes, and to have precedency before all other Dukes not o• the Blood Royal.
It was a word at first used to all Earls and Barons, that were Lords Marchers, or Lords of Frontiers: and came after to a Title of Dignity, and Hereditory: be∣ginning in the time of Richard the Second, who Created Robert de Vere Earl of Oxford, Marquess of Dublin, by the girding on of his Sword, and puting on his Head a Cir∣cle, or Crownet of Gold. The Ceremony at these times are such, or much at one, with them of the Earls.
The Marquess is Honored with a Crownet of Gold, Flowred and Pointed, being both of equal height• his Mantle also lined with Ermine, the Cape or Doub∣ling the same, having only five rows of Ermine, whereas the Earl hath but four.
The Creation of a Marquess.
The Rites and Ceremonies of a Marquess Creation dif∣fereth in nothing from the Dukes only he is conducted into the Kings presence between a Marquess and an Earl, neither hath he any Rod delivered to him.
He is Stiled as the Duke, Earl, and Viscount are by the King (Consanguinei Nostri) our cousins: and if he be written unto, he is titled the most Noble, and Potent Lord: or the Right Honorable and Grand (or puissant) Seignor.
IV. He beareth Luna, an Earl in his Parliament Robes holding a Charter in his right hand with the Seal pendant all proper. If you desire a more exact bla∣zon, say an Earl in his Creation Robes Mars, Lined Ermine; Surcoat Mercury, Girdle Luna: having a Sword and Belt about his Neck, Crowned according to his degree, holding a Charter in his right hand, Seal pendant proper.
A Count, or Earl.
The word Earl is derived from the Saxons 〈◊〉 or Ear-el, which the Dutch called Eorle, and by abre∣viation we call it Earl. The Title and office, with that of Than•, we find both Honorary, and Feudal, or Heredi∣tory, whose possessions were sometimes the whole Territo∣ries they derived their Title from; and sometimes not, but some particular part, or place of it.
At the coming in of the Normans this word was turned into Comes, or Count; since which time it hath re∣mained. In the Empire of Germany there are sundry sorts of Earls, which they title Graves: as Land-graves, Paisgrave, Margraves, Burgrave, and Rem∣grave, &c. that is Earls of Regions, or Provin∣ces: Earls Palatine, or Priviledge places: Earls of Marts, Bounds, Limits, Fields or Towns. Earls of Cities, Towers, Forts, Castles, and Earls of Rivers, Waters, &c. Comes Rusticis.
And so this Title since the conquest hath continued with us, either Local, or Personal, from the denomination of some Countrey Town, or City: or from some great Office, as Earl-Marshal and the like. But of Local Earls we have in our Kingdom but two kinds, Earls Palatines, and Earls not Palatines: of the first we have those of Chester and Lancaster, the Bishoprick of D••∣ham, and Ely.
Chester-Palatine was given to Hugh Lupe, to hold of the Conqueror, as freely by the Sword, as he himself held En•land by the Crown; in which case he scarcely acknowledged a Superior, but was equal to the Prince, for he created eight Barons under him, he had his Cham∣berlain, Justices, Baron o• the Exchequer, High Consta∣ble, Sheriff, and other Officers proportionable to those of the Crown at Westminster.
Lancaster was made a Palatine by K. Edward the third, and had Barons, a Chancery, and Seal, and so had the Palatinate Bishops of Durham and Ely. The Office of those Barons was to sit in Council and Judgment with the Earl.
Of those Earls that are not Palatinate, but have their Creation from places, these are as ancient as the conquest, for William the first by Patent Created Al•n Fergent Earl of Richmond. Where we find many times in their Patents they had annual Rents, and sometimes Land granted them, for the support of their Ti∣tle and Dignity.
The Creation Robes belonging to an Earl is a Sarcoat, a Mantle; with the Cape of three rows, or turnings down of the Ermine Furr: a Hood, a Coro∣net of Gold with points, not Flowers; (Circulus Aureus) a Sword, and a Cap of Honor, with an Ermine turn∣ing up, and a Button, and Tassel of Gold on the top.
Earls that have their Office Personal, is only the Earl-Marshal of England, and the first was Tho: Mowbray Earl of Nottingham, made Earl-Marshal of England, or Marescallus Angliae for Life, and after to him and his Heirs Males, by King Richard the Second: but since Page 49 the 14 of Queen Elizabeth, the Office hath been only for Life; and to these Earls (besides what is before said) be∣longs as an Ensign of Authority, a Rod, or Staff of Gold, Enamelled at each end with Black.
There is another kind of Earl, which is only nomi∣nal, viz. Earl Rivers, who takes his Title from the de∣nomination of an Illustrious Family, as the rest do from some noted place.
The Creation of an Earl.
The King seated in State in the Chamber of Presence, the Trumpets sounding before, the Pursevants at Arms, the Heralds of Arms, and the two Kings of Arms Cla∣r••tieux and Norroy followed by two and two, after them came Garter the principal King of Arms alone with the Charter of Creation in his hand; after him fol∣lowed an Earl bearing a Cap of Dignity, with an Earls Coronett on it; after him succeeded another Earl, bearing a Sword and Belt, with the Hilt and Pomel erected; after him came the person to be created, be∣tween two Earls, having on him a Coat or under Uestment, called a Surcoat of Scarlet Silk, covered with a long Mantle or Cloak of the same colour, Li∣ned with Ermine, they being all come into the Kings Presence, and having made three Obeisances, the person to be created kneels before the King, the rest standing round about; Garter gives the Charter to the King, and he to the Secretary of State, who reading it, at the word Cincturiavimus, the King puts the Belt (with the Sword hanging at it) over his head obliquely towards the left side; and at the reading of the word, Cappae & Circuli Aurei, the King puts upon his head the Cap and Coronet; when the rest of the Charter is read over, he pronounceth the said person, that before was so called, is how Earl of such a place, to him and his Heirs Male, &c. then the Secretary delivers the Charter to the Cham∣berlain, and he to the King, and the King to the per∣son created, who giving him humble thanks for his great favour, &c. in the same manner and order as they came in, they went out: For the rest of their Ceremo∣nies, at and after Dinner, see in the creation of a Ba∣ron.
He is stiled the most Noble and Potent Lord, or the thrice honourable and puissant Seignior, W. Earl of A. Viscount B. Baron F. and G. Knight of the thrice No∣ble Order of the Garter, &c.
Officers of State and Domestical belong∣ing to the Earl of Chester, with their Fees.
The Baron of Halton.
The Baron of Montalto.
The Baron of Malbanek.
The Baron of Shipbrooke.
The Baron of Malpass.
The Baron of Dunham-Massey.
The Baron of Kinderton.
The Baron of Stockport.
The Chief Justice of Chester 100 0 0
The General of his Army
The Constable of Chester
The Steward to the Earl
The Abbot of St. Wereburg, in Chester, now to the Dean and Chapter 19 10 0
The Chamberlain of Chester 22 0 0
The Sherriff of Chester 20 0 0
The Sewer, or Dapifer to the Earl
The Ranger of his Forests. Keepers 4 11 3
The Constable of the Castle 18 5 0
The Bailiff Itinerant 3 1 6
The Attorney General 3 6 8
4 Serjeants 14 6 8
8 Clerks or Attorneys 9 2 6
Clerk of the Sword, now of the Crown
Cryer of the Exchequer at Chester 3 15 0
Escheator 10 10 0
Prothonotary, Keeper of the Rolls
Customers of the Port, as
Controller of the Counties 12 3 4
Houshold Servants, as
Steward of the House
Vice Chamberlain, or Sub Chamberlain
Keeper of the Wardrobe
Gentlemen of his Chamber
Master of his Horse
Groom of the Stable
Captain of his Guard
Almoner, or giver to the Poor
Chaplain 2 0 0
Master of the Hospital 4 11 0
Pentions in Alms of the said Earldom of old 61 6 0
Porter. Janitor. Door Keeper 6 1 8
Cook and Scullions
Gardiner 4 11 3
Carpenter 9 12 6
Mason 8 12 6
Surveyor of the Works 6 1 8
The Ancient and Modern Revenues of the Earldom of Chester.
In the time of the Conquest Hugh Lupe. Earl of Chester, held these Towns in Cheshire and Flintshire.
Page 50In Roelau, now Edesbury Hundred. Weverham. Kenardesley. Dunham. Elton. Traf∣ford. Manley. Helsby. Prodsham.
In Bochelau, now Buckley Hundred. Ollarton. Alderley. Done. Edesbery. Antrobus.
In Dudefton, now Broxton Hundred. Eaton. Lea. Coddington. Lea by Chester. Rush∣ton. Upton. Budworth parva. Olton. Ouver.
In Wilaweston, now Wirrall Hundred. Estham. Trafford.
In Hamstan, now Maxfield Hundred. Maxfield, Adlington. Merton. Gawsworth. (Hun∣ger Wenitune.) Henbury. Capeston. Henshall. Tingwee•el. Hollinworth. Wernith. Romiley. Laiton.
In Mildestwic, now Northwich Hundred. Alsacher. Sandbach. Cliffe. Sutton by Middlewich. Wimbaldesley. Weever. Occleston.
In Attiscros, now Flintshire part. Harden. Radington. Ledbrock. Wepper. Claiton. Marleston by Chester. Claverton. Dodleston. A∣ston by Harden. Broughton. Sutton.
The Revenues of the Earl of Chester, taken 50 E. 3.
Fee Farm of Chester, 100 0 0
Other Profits therefrom, 4 0 0
Farm of Medwick, 64 0 0
Farm of Dee Mills, 240 0 0
Mannor of Draklow, 49 1 10
Forest of Mara, 51 7 0
Northwich, 66 0 0
Mannor of Shotwick, 30 14 1
Mannor of Frodsham, 56 13 4
Profits of the Office of Sherriff of County Chester 124 7 4
Perquisites of Courts held by Justice of Chester 180 0 0
Profits of the Escheators Office, 100 0 0
Mannor of Hope and Hopedale, 63 0 0
Mannor of Ewlow and Mynes, 6 0 0
Profits of Constable of Rothlan, 8 14 0
Rent of Flint, 56 0 0
Colshull, 4 7 10
Carouse, 22 6 8
Bachagree, 14 3 4 ob.
Voynal, 13 6 8
Rothland Rent, 72 9 2
Mosten, 15 6 8
Escheator Office of Englefield, 56 0 0
Perquisits of Flint Sessions, 30 0 0
Escheators Office for Flintshire, 8 0 0
The Bloglot of the County of Flint, which consisted of the profits of the Hundred Courts, 72 11 9 ob.
Borough of Maxfield, 31 0 0
Profits of Maxfield Hundred, 31 14 0
Maxfield Forest, 88 0 0
Profits of the Store of Maxfield, 13 6 8
Herbage and Agistments of Maxfield Park, 6 0 0
Sum total 1694 9 8
The Revenue as it now stands. 1630.
The Farm of Chester, 22 2 4 ob.
Escheated Lands there, 0 7 0
Draklow and Rudheath, 26 2 6
Farm of Medywick, 21 6 0
Profits of Mara and Mondram Forest, 34 9 0
Shotwick Park, 23 19 0
Fulling Mills at D•e, 11 0 0
Frodsham, 48 0 0
Hundred of Maxfield profits, 6 1 8
Profits of the Forest there, 85 12 11 ob. q.
From Escheator of Chester, 24 19 0
Sherriffs Office, 43 12 3
Chamberlains Office, 55 14 0
E•low Rent, 20 8 0
Farm of Flint, 33 19 4
Farm of Carouse, 7 2 4
Castle of Ruthland, 5 12 10
Rent and Profits of Mostyn, 7 0 0
Rent of Colshill, 2 14 10
Town of Ruthland, 44 17 6
Lands of Englefield, 23 0 10
Voynal profits, 5 9 0
Office of Escheator of Flint, 6 11 9
Mines of Coal and Wood in Mostyn 0 10 0
Office of Sherriff in Rents and Casualties, 120 0 0
Mines and profits of Fairs of Northop, 3 9 2
Summ total 699 7 2 q.
But since this time Places have been sold, Castles rui∣ned, and Offices laid aside, so that the Revenue is much shorter.
It was a Name first substituted to Earls, but getting themselves in Power, got also to have the Title Honora∣ry, and Hereditary, being between an Earl and a Ba∣ron, it is the same word in Latine (Vicecomes) which sig∣nifieth our Sheriff, and begun not with us till about the 18 H. 6. who then created Iohn Lord Beaumont, Uis∣count Beaumont, by Letters Patent, though Sir Iohn Ferne tells us of it in the time of Henry the First, and King Stephen.
To this degree is allowed a Surcoat and Girdle, a Mantle, a Hood, and a Circulet set only with Pearls, having neither flowers or points, as is to be seen in chap. 1. numb. 9. and is created with the same Ceremonies as the Earl and Marquess aforesaid are: Yet note, that the Circulet or Chaplet set with Pearl, hath a Cap of State, turned up with a White Furr, and a Button and Tassel of Gold, as Earls caps, and they have no Ermine on their Mantles, but three doublings of Mi•i∣ver, or plain White Furr, the Baron having but two on the cape of his Mantle.
Page 51The creation of a Uiscount, is answerable to that of a Baron, only the Viscount is conducted into the Kings Presence, between an Earl and a Baron, (if a Viscount be wanting) whereas the Baron is brought in between two Barons. And the Viscount is stiled, The Right Honourable Lord, or The Right Noble and Potent Lord, or grave Seignior, &c.
V. He beareth Argent, a Baron in his Parlia∣ment Robes, bare headed, holding a Charter in his right hand, all proper.
This word was used by the Danes, and was a Title of great Honour, being such as had not only Castles, and Towns, and a great part of Countreys in their Jurisdi∣ction; but having under them Valvasores majores & mi∣nores, Milites & libere tenente, as Sir Henry Spelman in his Glossary saith, which should signifie an Honour of Command in the Common Wealth.
☞ It hath been a common Opinion, that antient∣ly every Duke had under him Ten Earls or Earldoms, and every Earl had Ten Baronies, and every Baron had Ten Knights Fees, but that is uncertain.
A Baron hath not Potesta•em Principis, yet he is numbred among Noble Personages, yet some Barons have such power over their Uassals, that if they conspire against them, that Offence is called Treason; in which respect the Title of Baron is so much the more honora∣ble. But if he have Iura Regalia, then he is reputed e∣qual to an Earl, notwithstanding the Earldom and Baro∣ny do differ in Dignity.
The greatest Estates in England, are generally called by the names of Barons, Lords Spiritual and Temporal; But of Baron indeed, which have the Ti∣tle of Barons, there are several sorts; as Barons by name, yet not Noble, and Barons by name Honora∣ble.
The Barons in Name not Noble, are the Barons of the Cinque Ports, Barons of the Exchequer, and the Barons of London; whom Bractor mentions in these words, Sicut Barones London, coram me testantur: Also the ancient Barons created by the Earls Palatines, though they have the Name and Cignity, yet they are not cal∣led Honorable.
The Barons Honorable are of three kinds, by Te∣nure, by Creation, by Writ. Barons by Tenure, are Bishops chiefly, who are called Lords or Barons Spiritual; and are ever reputed Honourable; not in respect of Nobleness of Blood, but for their Function and Office: They are Peers and Barons of the Realm; and were ever first in nomination (as Lords Spiritual and Temporal) and take place on the Princes Right hand in Parliament; they are stiled Right Honorable Lords, and Reverend Fathers in God; they have been capable of Temporal Dignities; and some of them be accounted Counts, or Earls Palatine in their proper Jurisdiction, as the Bishop of Durham.
There are also another kind of Barons by Tenure▪ and they are by Tenure Temporal, which are such as hold their Honour, Castle or Mannor as the head of their Barony (per Baroniam) which is grand Serjan∣cy, by which Tenure they are not to appear in Parlia∣ment, except they be summoned to it; for he is no Lord of the Parliament, till he be called by Writ to the Parliament, as saith Mr. Bracton, lib. 5. fol. 351.357. Coke part 2. pag. 5.
These Barons by Temporal Tenure, because of their numerousness in the Conquest, and after, were di∣stinguished into Majores & Minores, and summoned ac∣cordingly to Parliament, the Majores, by immediate Writ from the King, and these were termed Barons by Tenure, the Minores were summoned from the High Sherriff at the Kings Command, and these were termed Tenants in Chief, which were after quite ex∣cluded the Parliament in the Reign of H. 3. by a Law then made, that none of the Barons should assemble in Parliament, but such as were summoned by special Writ from the King, as saith Mr. Camben, fol. 122. S•lden, fol. 712.
Barons by Writ, are such (as is aforesaid) as were by their proper Names and Surnames, as A. B. Cheva∣lier, although he be no Knight; now this Dignity of Barons by Writ, was in the pleasure of the King, in that he did summon the Father, and omitted it in the Son, if he was not answerable to the Parent in Understanding; and that sometime Private Gentlemen, or Knights, and often, many Secular Priests, Priors, Abbots, Deans, and Deacons, were by the King called by Writ to Parliament; by reason whereof it was the Opi∣nion of some, that this Title and Dignity was only Temporary, pro termino Parliamenti, but that cannot be, for the Ceremony of his Admittance signifies more than a Titular or Temporary Honour, which is this; He is first brought by Garter King of Arms in his Sove∣raigns Coat to the Lord Chancellor, between two of the youngest Barons, who bears the Robe of a Baron; there he shews his Prescript, which the Chancellor read∣eth, and then congratulates him as a Baron, and invests him with those Robes, and sends him to take his place, then the Writ is delivered to the Clerk of the Parlia∣ment, and the King of Arms then shews him to the Ba∣rons, and placeth him in the House.
Barons by Creation, or by Patent, hath a Dig∣nity Hereditary established upon a person, which had its first beginning in the time of Richard the second, who created Iohn de Beauchamp Steward of the Houshold, Ba∣ron of Kiderminster, to him and the Heirs Male of his Body for ever, which Hereditary Title and Dignity, is now in our times more used than those by Writ. These Barons are as Lords of the Parliament, reckoned amongst the Peers of the Realm, and priviledged among them in all these things.
First, In all Trials of Criminal Causes, he is not Tryed by a Jury, but by a Bench of Peers.
If he •e Indicted for Treason, and stand Mute, he shall be Convicted, but not P••st; but if it be for Felo∣ny that he stands Indicted, his Silence shall not Convict him.
Upon any Trial of Peers, the Lords that are to give Verdict, are not like a Jury, put upon their Oaths, but do it upon their Honor.
Page 52A Peer of the Realm, is not to be Impannelled in a∣ny Jury, but what concerns the Kings Enquiry.
They are not to be Arrested by any Warrant of Ju∣stice of Peace, either for the Peace, or Good Beha∣viour.
They are not to be put upon their Oaths upon any appearance they shall make in any Court; but his Ho∣nour to be esteemed as Binding.
And whereas all Burgesses of the House of Commons are to take the Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy; the Barons of the Upper House of Parliament are not.
These, with many other Priviledges, the Barons do enjoy; but it is to be noted, that these are only meant to such as are Lords of the Parliament, not to the Sons of Dukes, Marquesses or Earls, during the life of their Father; nor to any Baron of another Kingdom, that liveth in this; nay, though he be under the same Alle∣giance, who are not tryable out of their own Kingdom, unless they enjoy some Honour or Seigniory, Mannor or Castle in this, in which respect they are according to their condition. Of these matters, see Stamfords Pleas del Coronae, lib. 3. cap. 1. Diar. fol. 205.300.315. Fitz Natura brreve, fol. 165. Lambert Instic. lib. 2. chap. 1. fol. 17.
Though this Dignity at first was not allowed the Princely distinction of a Coronet, yet in after times it was allowed them to have a Circle of Gold round their Caps of Dignity, to which Circle, (at the Corona∣tion of King Charles the Second) was added the adorn∣ment of six Pearl, and no more; so that there is this dif∣ference only between a Barons and Viscounts Coronet, the first having only six Pearls, the latter as many Pearls close together, as the circle will contain; their Caps Fur∣red, Buttons and Tassels both alike.
The Creation of a Baron.
The form of the creation of a Baron, is in this man∣ner; The King sitting in State in the Presence Chamber; first the Heralds by two and two proceed; then comes Garter, principal King of Arms, bearing in his hand the Patent of creation, next followeth a Baron bearing the Robes, and then the Person to be created between two other Barons; being entred the Presence Chamber, they make their Obeisance to the King three times; Garter then delivers the Patent to the Lord Chamberlain of the Houshold, and he to the King, and the King to one of his Secretaries of State, who reads it, and at the word Investimus, the King puts on him the Barons Robe, and at the word Coronamus, puts on him the Barons Cap and Crown.
As soon as the Patent is read, it is delivered to the King, who gives it to him that is created, then he re∣turning Thanks for his great Honour, withdraws in the same order and manner as they came in, the Trumpets sounding, and so he goes to Dinner; where after the second Service is gone up, Garter with the rest of the He∣ralds coming near the Table, first Proclaiming Largess with a loud Voice, he declareth the Kings Stile in Latin, French and English; and then standing somewhat farther off, pronounceth Largess again, then declares the Stile of him that is new created in haec Verba; The Right Noble Lord A. B. Baron D, &c. And so making Reve∣rence to him, aftea 2 largess more, they retire and de∣part to their several places and abodes.
VI. He beareth Argent, a Knight of the Garter, all in his Creation Robes, proper. This is an Or∣der of Knighthood established here in England, by King Edward the Third, Anno 1350; the Patron of which Order is St. George, unto whom it was first Dedicated, therefore called the Order of St. George.
The Sovereign is the King of England, the number of Knights doth not exceed 26; which when any of them Die, the number is made up; when they are out of their Robes, they are generally known by the Garter a∣bout their left Legg, and the George on Horseback hang∣ing on their Breast in a Chain or Blew Riband; and on their outward Garment, as Cloak of whatsoever colour it is, hath a Silver Star Embrauthered on the left shoulder.
Creation of a Knight of the Garter.
First, for the Habit of these Knights, they have an under Garment, or Gown of Crimson Velvet, of some called a Kirtle; over which is worn a Mantle of Blew Velvet, Lined with White Sarsnet; on the left Shoulder thereof is Imbrauthered in a Garter, an Esco∣chion of St. George, viz. Argent a Cross Gules; and o∣ver his right Shoulder hangs his Hood of Crimson Velvet Lined with White, the Cordons of the Mantle, Buttons and Tassels, are Purple Silk and Gold.
Above all which, about his Neck on his Shoulders, is a Collar of his Order, being of pure Gold, made of Garters and Knots, and enamelled with Roses, white in red; with the Image of St. George richly gar∣nished with precious Stones pendant thereat.
About his left Leg, he weareth Buckled a Garter en∣riched with Gold, Pearl and Stones, whereupon these French Words are Imbrauthered HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE, which may be thus Englished, Shame to him t•at Evil thinketh.
They also wore Caps and Feathers, the Caps be∣ing of Black Velvet, made after the fashion of Bonnets, but the Crown part raised high, after the manner of a flat Crowned Hat, but laid in plaits or crisps; and the Feathers of three falls, all pure white.
☞ Here note also, that what Clergy are of this Order, they are to wear their Hoods over their left shoulder, according to old use and custom; but all the Lords of the Honourable Order, do wear their Hoods on the right shoulder, that the Cross being on the left shoulder, may better appear.
Them of this Order are stiled, the Sovereign, and Companions of the Order of St. George, or the Garter; of whom if any be dead, at a time when the Sovereign doth think fit, there is an Assembly called (which is termed a Chapter, at which Chapter they proceed to the Election of a new Knight, in room of him deceased; which generally is the 23 of April, being St. Georges day. The party elected, is thus first made choice Page 53 of; Nine are first nominated by the Soveraign, his De∣puty, and six of the said Companions, viz. 3 Dukes, 3 M•rquesses, Earls, or great Estates, 3 Barons or Banne∣•••s, 3 Batchelor Knights; from which nomination the King doth choose one whom he thinks most Honoura∣•••; the partie thus Elected, is by two of the Compani∣〈◊〉 of the Order led from the door of the Chapter,〈◊〉 the Stall in the Chappel, where being, he taketh a• Oath as follows.
YOV being chosen to be one of the Companions of the most Honourable Order of the Garter, shall Promise, and by these Holy Evangelists by you manifestly touched, 〈◊〉 Truly and Faithfully to observe and keep all the 〈◊〉 of the said Order, and every Article in the same 〈◊〉, for so much as to you belongeth and appertain∣eth: And further, That you shall help to defend and main∣tain, so much as in you lieth, the Right and Liberties of the Colledge of our Blessed Lady, and St. George the Martyr, wherein the Honourable Order of the Garter is founded.
The Oath administred, the Sovereign, or his Chancellor giveth him the Garter, saying unto him these Words; To the Laud and Honour of Almighty God, his Immaculate Mother, and St. George the Holy Martyr, ti• or gird your Leg with this Noble Garter, wearing it to the increase of your Honour, and in token and re∣•••••ance of this most Noble Order, being admonished and 〈◊〉 thereby in all Iust Battels and Wars, which you 〈◊〉 hand, you both Strongly Fight, Valiantly Stand, and Honourably to have the Victory.
Then delivering to him the Robe, saith, Take this Robe to the increase of your Honour, and in Token or Sign of the most Noble Order you have received, wherewith you being defended, may be bold, not only strongly to Fight, but also to offer your self, to shed your Blood for Christs Faith; the Liberties of the Church, and the j••t and neces∣sary Defence of them that be Oppressed and Needy.
Then giving him the Mantle, saith, Take the Man∣tle of Heavenly colour, in token of the most Honourable Or∣der you have received, and to the increase of your Honour, ••gned and marked as you may see, with an Escochion of the Lords Cross, to the intent, that you being always defended by the Virtue and Strength thereof, may pass through your Enemies, and them also Overcome and Van∣quish; so that at the last, for your worthy and approved Acts, you may after this Temporal Chivalry, come to the Eternal Triumphant Ioys in Heaven.
Then putting the Collar about his Shoulders, saith, To the Increase of your Honour, and in token of the most Honourable Order you have received, take this Collar about your Neck, with the Image of the Holy Martyr and Christs 〈◊〉, St. George, by whose Aid you being defended, may so pass through the Prosperities and Adversities of this World, that having here the Victory as well of yo•r Ghost∣ly as Bodily Enemies, you may not only receive the Glory and Renown of Temporal Chivalry, but also at the last, the 〈◊〉 and everlasting Reward of Victory.
Orders and Statutes of the Knights of the Garter; Reformed by H. 8. Anno 1522.
That the King, his Heirs and Successors, Kings of En•land, shall be the Sovereign of the said Order of St. George, called the Garter; and that he shall be the Reformer and Interpreter of all Obscurities or Doubts contained in the Statutes of the said Or∣der.
That none shall be Elected or chosen to be a Fellow, or Companion, or Co-Brother, and confrere Knight, except he be a Gentleman of Blood, a Knight, and without reproach, viz. not an Heretick, a Traytor, or a Coward in Fight.
That all the Knights of the Order, in what place soever they be, shall on St. Georges Vigil, or Even, and St. Georges day, wear all the Robes of his Order.
That every Knight that stayeth after the Soveraign, and giveth not his due attendance at the Chapter, and come too late to Mass, or Evening Service, shall for •is Pennance kneel before his Stall in the place of the Choristers; and if he attend not on St. Georges day ha∣ving no License to be absent, shall for his Pennance not come into his Stall the next Feast before his Soveraign, nor to his Stall in the Colledge of Windsor, but shall pay ten pounds to be bestowed to the use of the Orna∣ments of the said Colledge.
That the Soveraign may at his pleasure appoint the Feast of St. George to be kept any where in England as well as at Windsor.
That the Soveraign may appoint his Deputy at the Feast at Windsor, if he be not there himself.
That every Knight of the Order shall have his Ban∣ner, Sword, Helmet and Crest set over his Stall, there to remain during his life.
That if any Knight be seen to be without his Gar∣ter, if any of the Five Officers challenge him, he shall pay a Mark of Money except he be Booted to Ride, then a Blew Riband shall serve to be under the Boot, in signification of the Garter.
That in the going Procession, the Knights of the Order, shall go two and two before the Soveraign, as they are in their Stalls; but at any Offering the Sove∣raign shall go first, and the Knights follow, and the Of∣ficers after.
That at Dinner or Supper, they shall sit after their Stall, or Creations, not according to their States, except Children of Kings, Princes, or Dukes, that be Strangers.
That all Knights of the Order, shall leave their Mantles within the said Colledge, for any sudden chance of a Chapter that may be called.
That upon the Death of any of the Knighes of the Order, all the Companions remaining, shall give to Works of Charity these Sums following. The Sovereign 8.6.8. A King of another Realm 6.13.4. The Prince 6.1.8. A Duke 5.0.0. A Marquess 3.15 0 Page 54 An Earl 2.10.0. A Viscount 2.1.8. A Baron 1.13.4. A Batchelor Knight 0.16.8. which the Dean and Register is to give an account how it is disbursed.
That every Knight at his first entrance shall give af∣ter their Estate for the maintenance of the Channons, and the Poor Knights, and for Alms Deeds as fol∣lows; the Soveraign 40 Mark. A Stranger King 20.0.0. The Prince 20 Mark. A Duke 10.0.0. A Marquess 8.6.8. An Earl 10 Mark. A Viscount 5.16.8. A Baron and Banneret 5.0.0. A Batchelor Knight 5 Mark; and not to have their Banner, Sword, or Helmet and Crest, set over their Stall till the same be paid, and the Sovereign is bound to pay for every Stranger.
That every Knight of the Order shall have Co∣pies of the Statutes first collected and perused by the Register or King of Arms, which after his Death shall be re-delivered by his Heirs or Executors within 3 Months.
That none of the said Order shall go out of the Realm without the Kings License; and if they be sent any where, they are for the Order sake to be preferred before all others.
That two of this Order shall not Fight one against the other in any Foreign Wars, but he that was last en∣tertained on the contrary party, shall excuse himself, and leave the Quarrel.
That all the Knights of the Order, shall wear on So∣lemn days, the Collar, with the George hanging at it, (as aforesaid) which shall not exceed 30 Ounces of Troy weight•; but on the other days they shall wear a small Chain of Gold, or a Blew Lace, or Riband, with the Image of St. George killing of the Dragon hanging thereat.
That the same Admission and Ceremonies shall be used at the Stallation of the said Noble Order, to eve∣ry Knight and Subject of the Realm, as are given to Foreign Kings, Princes and Nobles.
That a Chapter, according to the Statutes of the Order cannot be held without the number of six, till 1642, at which time four were ordered to be sufficient to hold a Chapter upon any immergent occasions.
The Five Officers belonging to the Chapter of the Knights of the Garter, and their Signs or Tokens of Honour.
The Prelate of the Garter, which is ever the Bishop of Winchester, he weareth the Order of St. George in a Collar of SS. about his Neck, as the other Knights do; and hath the Garter set about the Arms of his Sea, and his own, as they are Impaled.
The Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, doth wear about his Neck in a Gold Chain, the cognizance of a Rose of Gold, inclosed and compassed with the Garter of the Order. It is his Office to keep the Seal of the Order, with which all Commissions and Letters of License are Sealed, he is not to be 20 Mile from the King, but either deliver it to him, or to one he shall appoint.
The Register, or the Writer of the Atchievements of the Chapter of the Knights of the Garter, and who are made the Companions thereof, and when.
The King at Arms, called Garter, King of Arms for the said Order, doth wear in sign of the said Order, the Arms of the Soveraign within a Garter, and an Im∣perial Crown on the same, hung in a Gold Chain, or a Blew Riband about his neck.
The Usher of Arms, called the Black Rod, or Usher of the Black Rod for the Order of the Gar∣ter, as a sign of the said Order, shall wear about his Neck hanging at a Gold Chain or Riband, a Knot within a Garter, such a Knot of True Love, as i• joined to the Roses in the great Collar of the most Ho∣norable Order.
Besides the aforesaid, there belongs to this Noble Or∣der for the Service of the Church, and Prayers for them of the Order.
A Dean, or Dean of Windsor.
A Warden of the Colledge.
12 Channons Secular, or Priests, in Orders of the Church.
8 Petty Channons.
13 Uicars, all Priests in Orders.
13 Choristers, or Singing Boys.
13 Poor Knights, called the Knights of Wind∣sor, who having not wherewith to Live, have places provided for them in the Castle, and are maintained on the Kings Gifts, having every one of them a Gown and Mantle of Scarlet, with the Arms of St. George without a Garter, whose Office it is to Pray for the Prosperity of the Soveraign, and his Successors, and all the other Knights of the said Noble Order.
See Cambdens Brittannia,
S•gars Honor Military and Civil, fol. 65.
Sel•ens Titles of Honour, Part 2. fol. 792.
Of the rest of the Ceremonies, Installments, Right, Ordinances, Statutes, Feasts at the day of St. George, with other things thereunto belonging; if any desire far∣ther knowledge, let them peruse the Book intituled The Institutions, Laws and Ceremonies of the most Noble Order of the Garter; set forth by Elias Ashmole, Esq Printed at London 1672.
VII. He beareth Argent, a Knight of the Bath, in his Creation Robes, all proper. This hath been an Ancient Order of Knighthood in England, and gene∣rally made at the Kings Coronation.
The Creation, and Habit of a Knight of the Bath.
First, for the Robes, they have for their Watch, a Russet Gown and Hood, after the manner of an Her∣mite.
Secondly, For their Creation Robes, a Cap, or Page 55Coif of — a Kirtle of red Tartarine, with a White Leather Girdle, a Mantle of Crimson Silk li•ed with White Silk, tied with a long Lace of White Silk, with a pair of White Gloves at the end of the Lace. A Sword and Belt, besides Spurs, Shield, and Helmet.
Thirdly, After all is finished, he is to wear a Long Robe of Blew, with streight sleeves after the manner of a Priests, reaching almost to his Feet.
But in these days, a Knight of the Bath is only known by his wearing of a red Riband about his neck, with a Medal hanging at it, and his Horse trapping adorned with a Cross Patee on his Forehead and B•est.
When first he comes to be made a Knight, he is ho∣nourably received by the Officers of the Court, who con∣duct him to his Lodging (if he come before Dinner, he shall carry up one Dish of the first course, to the Kings Table) then be seen no more that day.
In the Evening, the Barber Trimmeth him, and prepareth him for the Bath, which is covered with Blan∣kets to keep him from the cold; after which the Es∣quires and Governours, who have the charge of him, inform the King, that the person to be Knighted is fitted for the Bath, to whom he sends Minstrels, his Chamberlain, and several grave Knights, to inform him touching the Order and Feats of Chivalry, who Play, Sing and Sport to the Chamber door.
At the hearing of the Musick, he is und•est and put naked into the Bath; the grave Knight• entring the Chamber, where saluting each other, to consider who shall instruct him in the order of the Bath, at length one kneeling down before it, saith with a soft voice, Sir, Be this Bath of great Honour to you; then shall he instr•ct him in the Feats of the Order, putting part of the Water on his Shoulders, and then takes his leave; and so the rest of the Knights shall wash him one after another, till all have done.
Then he is taken out of the Bath, and put in a Bed without Curtains till he be dry; then he is taken out of Bed, and over his inner Garments is put a Robe of Russet, to his feet, with a Hood like an Her∣mits, and long Sleeves to his hands; in this habit he shall be conducted to the Chappel by the grave Knights, with Minstrels and Trumpets before them.
The grave Knights and Esquires taking their leaves, he is to Watch and Pray in the Chappel all Night, Day breaking, the Priest and Chandler and Watch, having said and heard Martins, and Mass or Morning Service; the Governour holding a Candle to the Read∣ing of the Gospel, at which time the person to be Knighted shall hold it, and being ended, it shall be set down to Burn before him, till Prayers be end∣ed.
At the Elevation of the Host, his Hood shall be ta∣ken from him, and a Taper put into his hand, which he shall Offer to the Altar with a Penny or more; that is, The Taper to the Honour of God, and the Penny to the Honour of him as shall make him a Knight.
This being performed, he is conducted to his Bed-Chamber, where he takes his rest till it be full day; at which time the Governour goes to the King and says, Sir, When doth it please you that our Master shall rise? whereupon the King shall command the Minstrels and grave Knights to go and dress him, and bring him before him into the Hall.
All things being in a readiness, the Knights shall en∣ter the Chamber and say, Good Morrow Sir, It is time to Rise, and make your self ready; thereupon one gives him a Shirt, another his Breeches, the third his Doublet; another puts on him a Kirtle of red Silk or Tartarine; two others put on his nether Stockings with Soles of Leather sowed to them; another La∣ceth his Sleeves; another girdeth him with a white Leather without any Buckle thereon; another Combs his head and puts on his Coif; another his Mantle of Silk, putting it over his Kirtle) tying it with a Lace of White Silk, with a pair of White Gloves at the end of the Lace; all things thus done, the Minstrels going before, the Heralds and grave Knights orderly fol∣lowing; a young Esquire Riding after, Bare headed, ca•rying his Sword with the Pomeii upward, and his Spurs at it, with a White Leather Scabbard, and Girdle without Buckles. Then follows the Esquire that is to be Knighted, on a Horse with Black Bridle, Saddle, Brest Plate, &c. with a Gilt Cross on his Forehead and Breast.
Thus Riding to the great Hall, he alighteth, and be∣ing conducted before the King; the King gives his Spurs to a Noble person there, and bids him put it on the Es∣quires Heel; that done he commands another to put the other Spur on the other Heel, who performing the same, makes a Cross on his Knee and Kisseth it, as the other did before: Then the King taketh the Sword and girdeth it about him, the Esquire holding up his Arms with his Gloves together in his hands over his Head; then the King puts his own Arms about the Esquires neck, and Kisseth him, saying, Be Thou a Good Knight.
Then the new Knight is conducted to the Chappel, where laying his Hand on the Altar, promiseth to Maintain the Right of the Church; then ungirding his Sword, Offers it there, with great Devotion, then having taken a draught of Wine, he departeth.
At the Chappel Door, the Kings Cook with his Axe in his hand, meets him, and saith, I the Kings Master Cook am come to receive your Spurs for my Fee, and if you do any thing contrary to the Order of Knight-hood, I shall hack your Spurs from your heels.
Then he is conducted to the Hall, and set at the high∣er side end of the Table, where he must neither Eat nor Drink, nor look about him, till the King be risen from the Table; then shall the Knight be conducted to his Chamber with Minstrels and Musick, where the Knights shall take their leaves of him.
Then is the new Knight disrobed, and clothed with a Blew Robe after the fashion of a Priest, with a Lace of white Silk hanging on his left shoulder, which he shall wear till he hath gained some Honour and Renown by Feats of Arms, &c.
He that desires a fuller account, let him peruse the
- History of Warnick-shire, fol. 532. &c.
- Honours Military and Civil, fol. 69, 70.
- Dish, his Notes upon Upton.
Fees at a Knight of the Baths Creation.
The Barber hath the Bath, with whatsoever pertains thereunto, according to the custom of the Court.
The Chandler, hath for his Fee, all the Garments, with the whole array and necessaries wherewith he came Apparelled and Clothed on the day that he came to Court to receive Orders; also the Bed wherein he first lay after his Bathing, together with the Singleton, and other Necessaries. In consideration whereof he finds on his proper cost, the Knights Coif, the Gloves, the Lace, and the Girdle.
The Marshal of the Hall, when the Knight is light∣ed from his Horse, taketh him as his Fee, or else hath in Money five Pounds.
The Master Cook hath his Spurs, or a Fee for them.
The Kings at Arms, have for their Fees all the New Robes and Mantle, in which he received his Knighthood, with a Mark of Silver, but if he be a Baron, it is double to that; if an Earl, or of a su∣perior rank double thereunto.
The Watch in the Chappel hath the Russet Gown and Cap, or else a Noble in Money.
He must provide 18 or 20 Ells of White Linnen Cloth to cover his Bath or Bawyne, the price 5 d. or 6 d. the yard; also he must have a Carpet or Mantle for the said Bawine, price 13 s. Some are accustomed to have five or six yards of red Say for the same use, which is the Fee for the Serjeant of the Ewry, with all that toucheth the Bawyne.
The Fee for the Esquires of Honour, 4 pounds, or according to pleasure; and rewards for the Officers of the Houshold, the Knights make a common Purse.
A Knight Bannerett.
Other Orders of Knighthood there are in Eng∣land, but they wear no Garments, Badg, or Sign, to distinguish them from other Gentlemen, so that they are not known to Strangers; but we know them, because every one having such dignity, is stiled, or called Sir Thomas, Sir Iohn, Sir William, Sir Henry, &c. But first of Knights Banneretts.
A Knight, that is to receive this Honour, shall be led between two other Knights, before the King or General, bearing his Penon of Arms in his own hands, and in the presence of all the Captains, the He∣rald shall say, This Gentleman hath shewed himself Valiant in the Field, and therefore deserves to be advan∣ced to the degree of a Knight Banneret; being worthy henceforth to bear a Banner in the War.
Then the King, or General, causeth the point of his Penon to be cut off; then the new made Knight re∣turns to his Tent (the Trumpets sounding before him) being conducted there between two Heralds.
A Bannerett thus made, may bear his Banner displaid with his coat of Arms thereon, as other degrees above him, and that in the setting forth of his Atcheivements with Mantle, Helmet and Crest, he may, and an∣ciently hath had the same Supported, as the Baron or Viscount hath.
This Order was of so great estimation, that diverse Knights Batchelors and Esquires served under them; and was a Title, as it seems in many ancient Writs, and writ∣ten Monuments, hath been mis-writ Baronetts for Ban∣neretts; as in the Patent of Sir Ralph Fane, a Knight Bannerett under King Edward the Sixt, where he is cal∣led Baronettus for Bannerettus. And in the South Chap∣pel of Malpass Church about the top of the Screen, cut in Wood, in Saxon Characters is this, ☞ Pray Good people for the prosperous estate of Sir Rondulph Brereton, Knight Baronet, of this Work Edificatour, &c. which we may well sup∣pose to be Banneret; being long before the time of King Iames the First; it being dated 1522, which was 14 H. 8.
Now although a Knight Baronett be an Honour gi∣ven by Patent; yet it was by King Iames, in the tenth Year of his Reign, Decreed and Established, that all such Banneretts as shall be made by the King, his Heirs and Successors, under the Standard displaid in an Army Royal, in open War; the King personally present, such Banneretts shall for the term of their Lives, take place and precedency, as well before all other Banneretts, as younger Sons of Viscounts and Barons, and also before all Baronetts, but not otherwise.
A Knight Baronett.
This was a Title erected by King Iames, in the ninth year of his Reign, they are an Hereditary Dignity gi∣ven by Patent, which are all of one form, the Proem or Argument at first, being for the Propagation of a Plantation of Vlster in Ireland, to which the aid of these Knights was required; the aid was to maintain 30 Sol∣diers in that Province for 3 years; their Title was to descend to the Heirs Males of their Body, and to take place before all Knights Batchelors, Knights of the Bath, and Knights Bannerets (the other De∣cree in the Knight Bannerett before specified, being af∣terwards made) and that to their Sir-name, Baronett should be added; and that the addition of Sir, should precede in all mentioning of his or their names, as the Title of Lady and Madam is to their Wives.
After this it was ordained in the Tenth year of his Reign, that they and their descendents, being of full Age should be Knighted, and that they should either in a Canton or an Inescochion in Chief or Fesse, bear the Arms of Ulster upon their own Coat Ar∣mour, which is Argent, a Sinister hand couped, Gules.
There is no other Ceremony at his Creation, but the delivery of his Patent, except he be Dubbed a Knight.
Officers Fees for the making of a Ba∣ronett.
In the Signet Office these Fees; for drawing the Bill, and discharging the Clerks pains, 3 l. For the Signett 3.6.8. To the Clerks 0.10.0. For the discharge 1.6.8. To the Clerks 0.6.8. For the Privy Seal 2.6.8. To the Clerks 0.13.4. For the discharge 1.6.8. To the Lord Privy Seal his Secretary 1.0.0. To the Lord Chamberlains Secretary 0.5.0. For Ex∣pedition. 0 11.0.
In the Tally Office, For Poundage 18.5.0. For the Tally 1.10.0. For the Enrollment of the Pri∣vy Seal. 0.13.4. To the Clerk of the Master of the Tallies 0.5.0. To the other Master of the Tallies Clerk 0.5.0. To the Tally cutter 0.3.0.
In the Office of Arms, for Registring it 2.0.0.
Fees belonging to the Great Seal. For the Seal of the Clerk of the Hamper 2.11.8. For the Docket 0.5.0. For the Dividend and Enrollment. 2.0.0. To the Clerk of the Crown 3.6.8. For Vellom, and flourishing the Patent 1.0.0. To the Deputy Clerk of the Crown 2.0.0. To the Seal, if of Schake Wax 0.15.0. To the Gentlemen of the Lord Keepers Cham∣ber 2.0.0. To the Officers of his House 1 5.0. To the Deputy Clerk of the Hamper 0.5.0. To the Gen∣tlemen Usher of the Privy Chamber 2.0.0. To the Pages of the Bed Chamber 4.0.0. To the Gentle∣men of the Buttery, Sellar and Robes 5.12.0.
The total Summ of all Fees, is 70.10.0.
A Knight Batchelor, or of the Spur.
This Knight is indifferently stiled, Knight, or Miles, and Chivalier, and sometimes Miles Sim∣plex, to distinguish him from the other Knight, which is a Bannerett. It hath been a Soldier like ti∣tle of great Antiquity, as Selden in his Titles of Honour testifieth, part 2. fol. 770. And for that cause they are called, having admittance to beautify their Horses with Caparisons of their Horses and their Armour with Gold) Equites Aurati, Golden Knights, or else from the Golden Spurs which they were created Knights withal, as you shall hear shortly.
The persons that gave this dignity in former times, are of two sorts especially; which we may call Courtly Knighthood, and Sacred Knighthood.
The first is performed by the King, or his General, or one commissionated by him; which was anciently per∣formed by Feasts, giving of Robes, Arms, Spurs; and sometimes by Horse and Armour; but of late times there is a new Ceremony produced, by the Party kneeling before the King, who with a Stroak on the •houlder with a Naked Sword, saith Sois Chevalier au Nu• de Dieu, Rise up Knight in the Name of God; though the putting on of the Spur, and the girding on of the Sword hath lately been observed as a Ceremo∣ny of Knighting, either by the King for the greater Honour, or else by some commissionated from him.
These Knights have their Spurs and Swords carried before them in their Funeral, the Spurs being hanged at the Staff of the Standart, if Knighted in the Field.
To the name of Knight was added the name of Ba∣chelor, as it seems about the 33 H. 3. as Math. Paris informeth, and that such Knights were then known by a Gold Ring on their Thumb, a Chain of Gold a∣bout their Necks, and Gilt Spurs on their Heels; al∣so we read of Girdles, and Collars of Gold, and Swords were delivered at making of Knights, with Garments of Scarlet, which things none were to wear but them of such degrees.
A Knights bearing a Shield and Gauntletts, sheweth him to be a Man at Arms; this creation is an Universal Honour, for a Knight is a Knight in all Kings Dominions; when as other degrees extend no farther than the Longitude and the Latitude of their own Coun∣trey.
The second way of Knighting, is by Sacred Ce∣remonies, and it was a great use and custom in for∣mer times, by either Bishops or Abbots, so to receive the dignity of Knighthood, and this was done by a so∣lemn Confession of Sin, a Uigil or Watch in the Church, then receiving of the Sacrament after that the person had first Offered his Sword upon the Altar, and redeemed it with a certain Summ, which the Bi∣shop, or •bbot, or Priest girded about him, and so made hi•Knight; using many Prayers, which they termed Benedictiones Ensis, Prayers of the Sword: But this (through the multitude of Sir Knights thus made) was at length forbidden, and appropriated only as the Priviledge of the Crown.
A Clergy Man, or any in the Order of Priest∣hood, is debarred the Honour of Knighthood of the Sword or Spurs, though anciently they have been al∣lowed the same, but not without first laying aside their Spiritual Cures.
A Knight of the Green Cloth.
All such as have Studied Law, either Civil, or Com∣mon, Phisick, or any other Arts and Sciences, whereby they have become Famous and Serviceable to the Court, City, or State, and thereby have merited Honour, Wor∣ship or Dignity from th• Sovereign, and Fountain of Honour; if it be the Kings Pleasure to Knight any such persons, seeing they are not Knighted as Soldiers, they are not therefore to use the Horsemans Title or Spurs; they are only termed simply Miles & Milites, Knight, or Knights of the Carpet, or Knights of the Green Cloth; to distinguish them from Knights that are Dubbed as Soldiers are in the Field; though in these our days, they are created or Dubbed with the like Ce∣remony as the others are, by the stroak of a Naked Sword upon their Shoulder, with the Words, Rise up 〈◊〉•. A. Knight.
Page 58Now, these Knights, of what degree or creation so∣ever, according to their power, should excel in these ac∣complishments; they are to be Faithful, Religious, Iust in Engagement, Ualiant in Enterprises, Obedient to Superiours, Expert in Military affairs, Watchful and Temperate, Charitable to the Poor, Free from Debauchery, not a Boaster, ready to Help and De∣fend Ladies, especially the Widows and Orphans, and to be ever in a readiness with Horse and Arms, to at∣tend the commands of his Sovereign, in all Wars both Civil and Foreign.
The degrading of a Knight.
The neglect of those Duties aforesaid, are in Knights Arrants, Crimes as great as to Fight against the Sove∣reign; and merits at the least a shameful degrading; and indeed, for these or any other notable Fact against Loy∣alty and Honour, the Knight was Apprehended, and caused to be Armed from Head to Foot, and on a high Scaffold in a Church, he was placed; and after the Priest had sung some Funeral Psalm, as though he had been dead; first they take off his Helmet, then by degrees his whole Armour, the Heralds crying, this is the Helmet of a Disloyal Miscreant, &c. and so with many other ignoble Ceremonies, he was by 12 Knights thrown down the Stage by a Rope, then was he brought before the Al∣tar, and their laid groveling on the ground, where the Priest read over him a Psalm full of Curses.
This was the antient way of Degrading; the mo∣dern is not altogether so severe, of which we have many examples: He that Dishonourably absents from the Kings Service; and for other Treasons, hath all that he enjoys, seized on (except his Horse) because in all Countreys the Title of Knighthood relates to a Horse, and from serving on Horse-back; then hath he his Spurs cut off his Heels, and then is his Sword taken from him, and the Herald as a Traytor doth reverse his Coat of Arms.
A List or Catalogue of the several Or∣ders of Knights Seculars.
- A Knight, Miles, a Carpet Knight.
- A Knight of the Spur, Equus Auratus, a Knight in the Field.
- A Knight Baronett.
- A Knight of the Garter, or Order of St. George, in England.
- A Knight of the Bath.
- A Knight Bannerett.
- A Knight of St. Andrew of Scotland, or Order of the Thistle.
- A Knight of the Gennet in France.
- A Knight of the Star in France.
- A Knight of St. Stephen of Florence, and in Tus∣cany.
- A Knight of the Porcupine of France and Orleans.
- A Knight of the Cressant, or Half Moon of Anjou, and Sicily.
- A Knight of the Order of St. Saviour of Arragon.
- A Knight of the White Eagle, in Poland.
- A Knight of Iesus Christ, in Portugal and Rome.
- A Knight of the Birds, in Portugal.
- A Knight of St. George, in A•stria, Corinthia, and Genewey.
- A Knight of the Lilly of Navarre.
- A Knight of St. Iames of the Sword in Navarre.
- A Knight of the Holy Bottle, in France.
- A Knight of the Royal Crown, in France.
- A Knight of the Broom Flower in France.
- A Knight of the Order of the Ship in France.
- A Knight of St. Michael, in France.
- A Knight of the Order of the Holy Ghost, in France.
- A Knight of the Order of Christian Charity.
- A Knight of St. Lazarus, and St. Maurice, in Sa∣voy.
- A Knight of our Lady and the Thistle, in Bour∣bon.
- A Knight of the Golden Shield, in Bourbon.
- A Knight of St. Magdalen.
- A Knight of the Hermine, or Ears of Corn, in Britaigne.
- A Knight of the Band, or Red Scarf, in Castile and Lions.
- A Knight of the Golden Fleece, in France and B•r∣gundy.
- A Knight of the Dove, in France, and in Castile.
- A Knight of Our Ladyes Looking Glass, in Ca∣stile.
- A Knight of the Dragon, in Hungaria.
- A Knight of the Swan, of Cleveland.
- A Knight of the Elephant, in Denmark.
- A Knight of the Order of Cherubims, or of Iesus in Sweden.
- A Knight of the Order of the Bear, of St. Gall, in Switzerland.
- A Knight of the Annuntiation of the Uirgin Mary of Savoy.
- A Knight of St. Paul, in Rome.
- A Knight of St. Anthony, in Rome.
- A Knight of the Uirgin Mary, in Italy.
- A Knight of Mantua, or of the Blood of Iesus Christ.
- A Knight of the Sword, in Cyprus and Lu•ignan.
- A Knight of the Sepulcher of Ierusalem.
- A Knight of the Temple, in Ierusalem.
- A Knight of St. Lazarus, in Ierusalem.
- A Knight of St. Katherine, of Mount Sinai.
- A Knight of Mount Ioy.
- A Knight of St. Iohn of Acres.
- A Knight of St. Thomas, St. Gerion, and St. Blaze.
- A Knight of St. Mark, in Venice.
- A Knight of St. Mary de Mercede, in Arragon.
- A Knight of Montesia, in Valentia.
- A Knight of the Order of Christian Charity, in France.
- A Knight of St. Iulian, or the Pear Tree, in Leon.
Page 59These Orders of Knights, whether instituted by the Emperours, Kings, Popes, or Princes, were all called Chevaliers, having permission (though they were under Religious Vows and Rules) to bear Arms, wear Swords, and Gilt Spurs; as well as the rest of Secular Knights, whose Habit and Badges of Honour, see fully described in lib. 4. cap. 10.
Thus have I in short given a touch of the several de∣grees in England, whosoever desires a larger Story of these things, let them peruse these Authors.
- William Malmesbury de gestis Regnum.
- Ingulphus Histor.
- Segars Honour Military and Civil.
- Dugdales Warwick-shire, fol. 531.
- Seldens Titles of Honour.
- Matthew of Westminster, in Anuo 1306.
- Glover Somerset de Nobilitate Civili, Anno 1414.
- Carters Analysis of Honour.
- Fernes Glory of Generosity.
- Stows Annals, pag. 693.694.
- Mills Nobility.
- Camdens Britannia, pag. 170.
VIII. He be•reth Argent, an Herald arrayed in his Soveraigns Coat of Arms, proper, with a Basti∣nado in his right hand, Or; and his left upon his side, a Cap of Dignity on his head Azure, turned up of the first; Breeches, Stockings and Shooes, Sa∣ble; if it may be believed, these kind of persons called Heralds, are sometimes stiled Dukes of Arms; and so I find both E. Chamberlain, in his Present State of Eng∣land, pag. 166. and Carter in his Analysis of Armory, speaking of Heralds, pag. 31. terms them Dukes of Arms, if so, then in great Solemnities, they ought to wear Crowns as well as the Kings of Arms, but of that I shall say no more.
This Figure set down in the Plate, is the representation of an Herald, that is the second degree of the Officers of Arms, viz. Kings of Arms, Heralds of Arms, Pursevants of Arms, which in regard of their Of∣fice and place, may be termed Lords, or Barons of Arms. If it had a Crown, such as Kings of Arms wear at great and pompious Solemnities, with a Robe under the Heralds Coat, it were then to be termed a King of Arms.
2 Angels clad in the Soveraigns Coat of Arms, hold∣ing two Banners of the same, are the Supporters of the French King, as Iohn Boissau, in his Armorial sets it forth.
The Creation of the Kings of Arms.
I have in the First Chapter of the First Book, in brief said something of the Name, Office, Fees, &c. of Heralds, referring the Reader to other Authors which have spoken more largely on that subject; so that I shall in this place (which is only wanting there) give you the Ceremonies in short, of the manner of the Installment in to those Offices.
When any is called to the Office of Garter, princi∣pal King of Arms, he is first by the High Consta∣ble, or Earl Marshal of England, commended to the King, by a Bill Signed with his Hand; which done, the King Signs the same, and so it passeth the Privy Seal, and Broad Seal; and that once obtained, he is to be Sworn and created by the King himself, or the Earl Mar∣shal, in manner following.
First goeth the Pursevants, and then the Heralds in their Coats, carrying the several necessary Instruments, and things to be used; one the Coat of Arms where∣with the new King is to be invested; another the Crown; another the Patent; another a Bole of Water; ano∣ther the Book and Sword; another the Book or Bi∣ble, whereon he receiveth his Oath; then followeth the King of Arms called Garter, led between a King of Arms, and a Herald, in their Coats of Arms; co∣ming before the King, all make their several Obeisance; then he kneeleth down, with those two that conducted him; one of them holds the Book and Sword where∣on he is Sworn, the other reads his Oath: Then his Pa∣tent is read, and at the words Creamus & Investimus, his Coat is put on; and at the words, Nomen Imposu∣mus Garter, the Water is poured on his head, giving him that Name; and lastly, at the word Coronavimus, he hath the Crown put upon his Head; and then he is a perfect King of Arms.
Creation of Heralds and Pursevants.
The two other Kings of Arms, Stiled Clarenceux, and Norroy, are Created after the same manner, order, and ceremonies: the six Heralds being all of equal de∣gree, only proceeding according to the seniority of their Creations, their Patents being all under the broad Seal of England, have the same ceremonies at their Creation, save they are not Crowned.
The Pursevants are all of the same manner, having their Patents under the broad Seal, and are Created as the Heralds are. Only Leigh saith that in the investing of them, the Coat of Arms is cast over thwart, the Man∣ches or sleeves thereof to be on the Breast and Back, and so they are to wear the same as long, as they are Purse∣vants. But now there is no such thing observed both the Herald and Pursevant wearing them a like.
The Chivaler of Arms, are such saith Leigh and Vpton, pag. 40. which have served and behaved them∣selves wisely and discreetly in an under office, as a Cur∣ror, or Foot messenger for the space of seven Years: at which time they were set on Horseback, and termed Chivallers or Horsemen at Arms, because they were then permitted to ride on their Soveraigns Messages.
Then were they clad in one coloured Garment, the Borders and Sleeves, garded of the colours of the Sove∣raign, •earing their Boxes or Badges with the Kings Coat 〈…〉 painted thereon, on the left Shoulder, and 〈…〉.
〈…〉 Created by the Heralds of Arms of the 〈◊〉, first by ministring to the Chivaller an Oat•▪ Page 60 the Knight Chivaller (for so he Stiles him) humbly kneeling upon his Knee, at which time he shall have no Spurrs on: then removes his Badge from his Breast, and placeth it upon his left Shoulder: setting him on Horseback to see if he can ride.
The Currour at Arms, or Foot Messengers of Arms, are such Foot Servants, as are imployed by the Heralds of Arms for the expedition of their bussiness: whose Office is to pass and repass on foot, being clad in the Princes colours parted upright on the Back and Breast one side blew, and the other red: like as the Serjeants at Law do give their Liveries, in the time of their Feasts.
These are Knights in their Office, but not Nobles, and are called Knights Caligates of Arms, because they wear Startuppes (or half Hose turned down) to the middle of the Legs: and the Arms of their Soveraign painted on their Boxes, like Badges, are fixed to their Backs. It is not permited to them, to wear the Arms of their Lord, in any other sort.
There is also belonging to the Heralds Office, a Regi∣ster a Marshal, and other Officers and Servants which are needless to mention. But amongst the rest, there are Painters called Herald-Painters, or Arms Pain∣ters: for every King of Arms hath power to commis∣sion, or depute in all Shires of his Province, one of that imploy, to officiate for him in such things as are appro∣piats to his Business.
IX. He beareth Argent, a Major of a City in his Formalities, with his White Staff in his right Hand all proper. Every City by their Charters or Priviledges, is a little Common-Wealth, governed by themselves, choosing their own Governor, (which is called a Mayor) out of 12 16 or 24 Aldermen. In some other Corpo∣rations, a Bailiff is chosen out of a certain number of Burgesses.
The Office of a Mayor of a Corporation.
The Mayor of a City is the Kings Lieutenant, and doth give place to none save the King and Prince, his Heir. He with the Recorder, Aldermen and common Council (as it were King, Lords, and Commons in Par∣liament) can make Laws, called By-Laws, for the Weal and good Government of the City. The Mayor is for his time (which is but for one Year) Justice of the Coram, Judge of the Court, a Determiners of Matters, and doth mitigate the Rigor of the Law.
The Government of Borroughs and other Towns corporate, is much after the same Manner. In some there is a Mayor and Sheriffs: In others a Mayor and two Bailiffs: In others a Bailiff and two Serjeants: and in other places two Bailiffs: which have equal power within their Limits to a Mayor and Sheriffs; and dureing their Office are Justics of the Peace, having the same power, as Justices of the Peace have in the Country.
The Government of Uillages, is usually by the Lords of the said places who keep Court-Leets, and Court-Barons (because ancieetly such Lords were called Barons) that is Court of Freeholders to which they own suit and service, where they may be tried smal∣ler matters happening within the Manner, as Debts, Trespasses, Escheats upon Felonies, Wafes, or o∣ther accidents, Custody of Infants, Lunaticks, power of passing Estates, admitting of Tenants, Reliefs, Hariots, &c. Under the Lord is a Consta∣ble or Headborough, or Petty Constable, chosen e∣very Year, whose office is to keep the Peace, in case of quarrels, to search any house for Robbers, Murtherers, or other Malefactors, to raise hue and cry after such upon their flying, to seize on them, keep them in the Stocks, or other Prison, till they can bring them to a Justice of Peace, and so to carry them by their command to the common Prison.
The Officers of a Coporation with their Habits.
A Mayor, is a Person elected for the chief Governor of a civil Society or Body corporate, who is usually known by those Emblems of Magistracy carried before him: as Sword and Mace, &c. or by what he beareth himself, as a Virge, or white Rod, or Staff: and in most great Cor∣poration, according todays, hath distinctions of Gowns, as a Morning or Walking Gown, which is a light loose Gown, made according to his own Fancie; a black Gown, a Murrey or Purple Gown, and a Scarlet Gown, all which are of one fashion, either Garded with Velvet, or lined with Furr, called Foines.
Sheriffs, they are the Possa Co•mitatis, the conser∣vers of the Peace, the Executioners of all Writs, and punisher of all offenders. They are in some places call∣ed Bailiffs: But in Cities and grand Corporations they wear Gowns, and White Rods in their Hands, like the Mayor.
A Recorder is the Mouth of the Mayor, and Citi∣zens: and Minister of the Law for the distri•ution of Justice and Judgment. These are generally Men Learn∣ed in the Law, whose habit or fashion of Gown is after the manner of the figure set down, numb. 11.
An Alderman, and Iustice of the Peace, is such an one, as hath born the Office of a Mayor of a City or Corporation, whose Gown is the like to that of the chief Magistrate, or Mayor.
An Alderman or a Single Alderman, is one that is called to that place but as yet hath not been Mayor, yet is capable of it, and in Election for it: His Gown is black, garded and faced with Velvet. But when the Mayor is in Scarlet, his Gown is Purple, faced with Foines.
A Council, in some places is called a Livery Man: is such a Person, as is of the House, in time of their meeting or Assemblies, for the Weal and b•hoof of the Corporation: with us they are called a Forty M•n, be∣cause the common Council consists just of Forty: out of which number all Superior Officers are chosen. Their Gowns have no Shoulders but open at that place, having the Sleeves hanging on the Back, garnished with tu•t•d Buttons and Loops, and faced with Stuff or Silk, or Satinesco.
Page 61A Treasurer, is an office for the receiving of the Rents, and disburshing Money, for the concerns of the Corporation: which with us, is generally chosen out of such as are single Aldermen, or such as have been Sheriffs.
A Leavelooker, is an Office in Chester, but rare in a∣ny other City (as I could ever hear off) they are chosen out of the Forty: to gather and receive all customs due to the City, for goods brought there for sale, either by Sea or Land; which receits are disbursed for the City Affairs, but chiefly for the Repairs of the City Walls.
A Murenger, is one chosen out of the Aldermen and Iustice of the Peace, whose Office aud care it is to look after the City Walls, to keep them in good repair, and if any breaches be, to built it up again: for which end, there is a City Mason to do the work, who besides his Wages daily hath an Yearly Sallery, and a City Pa∣ver to keep the City Streets, Lanes and High-ways in good Repair, who hath also a City Sallery.
A Crowner or Coroner, whose Office is out of such as have been Sheriffs. They examine all Murtherers, Felo de Se's, accidental Deaths, &c. And accordingly bring in their Presentments.
A Constable, of which there are several in a Corpo∣ration; two or three in each division or ward, whose Of∣fice it is to preserve the Kings Peace, make hue and cry af∣ter Malefactors, search and fetch Offenders to the Seat of Justice, Imprison or bring to places of punishment such as deserve it. With an hundred other things whose Office it is to perform, but few know th power of their place.
A Goaler, is the keeper of the Prison, where all crimi∣nal Offender are secured, and Men for debt are Impri∣soned.
A Keeper of the House of Correction, to keep the Poor on work, and to punish Stubborn and Rebellious Apprentices, Idle Rogues and Vagabonds: where they are bridled, stockt, and whipped.
A Fraternity, or Society, or Brotherhood, or Company: are such in a Corporation, that are of one and the same trade, or occupation, who being joyned to∣gether by oath and covenant, do follow such orders and rules, as are made, or to be made for the good order, rule, and support, of such and every of their occupations. These several Fraternities are generally governed by one or two Masters, and two Wardens, but most Companies with us by two Aldermen, and two Stewards, the later, being to receive and pay what concerns them.
A Sword-Bearer, is him that earrieth the Sword of state before the Mayor or his Deputy.
A Mace-Bearer, is him that carrieth the Mace of Authority before the said Ma•or: both these Officers wear in the Execution of their Offices Silk Gowns, or Stuff Gowns trimed with Buttons and Loops, and faced with Silks, like to the Council or Freemans Gown.
A Town Clerk, who is the City Secretary, and Keeper of the Records of the Courts within the Corpora∣tion, Enters all Actions, and prepares causes to the pleadings, &c. We call such, the Clerk of the Pentice.
A Officer, or City Attorney, or Mayors Of∣ficers, are such as give Summons to Persons, and do Attach others, for their appearance in the City Courts in some places they are called Catch-Poles, or Bailles. But the Gentle name is Serjeants at Mace.
A Sheriffs Officer, doth (besides Summons and Ar∣rest) serve all Writs of Execution, as Atachments, Judg∣ments, Rebellions, &c.
A Cryer, is only in use in time of Court holding, to command silence, call Juries, swear them, and witnesses, with several other things belonging to his Office; he weareth a Gown, and carieth a Mace.
A Porter, his Office is to keep the Court, or Council-House Door, and the Mayors-House Door; he weareth a Gown of Cloth faced with black Furr, Fitchet or Coney Furr: and carrieth a Porters Staff.
A Beadle, or Bang-Begger; is to keep the City clear from poor strangers, and send such a packing to the places from whence they c•me, they have Coats gathered about the Waste, and a Badge of the Arms of of the Corporation on their left Arm.
A Beadsman, such as live in Hospitals, and have an allowance for their maintenance, being old and infirme: in some places called the Poor Knights of Windsor, or Hospitallers, and Almesmen. These with us go in Gowns, and go two and two before the Mayor on se∣veral Feastival Days in the Year.
A Scavenger, such as make the Streets clean, and carry away the Dirt.
X. He beareth Argent, a Chief Iustice (or a Iudge) in his Robes and Square Cap, holding a Charter in his right Hand all proper.
The Chief Iustice is one set apart by the King for the executive power in all Temporal Affairs, under whose Commission he doth only act: for it is the King Him∣self who is the Lord Chief Iustice of England: there∣fore all the Laws of England are called the Kings Laws, being made by Him, and without Him nothing can have the force of a Law, but what He will: so all the Courts of Judicature are called the Kings Courts, and all the Judges of those Courts, the Kings Iudges.
The Highest Court in England, is the House of Lords in Parliament; being a Court of Judicature, consisting of Lords Spirituall and Temporal, and these assisted with the most Grave and Eminent Lawyers of England, both in Common and Civil Law.
To this Bar of High Court, may the House of Com∣mons, as the Grand Inquest of England, Impeach the Highest Subject in the Nation, whether of the Clergy, or of the Laity: and Prosecute them till they come to Sen∣tence, after which it lyeth in the Kings Breast whether to Punish or Pardon.
The next Court for the Execution of Laws, is the Kings Bench so called, because the King sometimes there set in Person on an High Bench, and his Judges on a low Bench at his Feet, to whom the J•dicature belonged in the Kings, absence. In this Court are handled all Pleas of the Crown, that is Matters between the King and the Subject, as Treasons, Felonies, Brea•• of Peace, Oppressions, Mis-government, Loss of Life or Member of any Subject, &c. It doth also examine and Correct Errors in Fa•••, and in Iu••, of all the Jud••s in •ngland, in their Iudgments, and, Proceedings; both in P•eas of the Crown, Pleas Real, and Personal, and Mix; except only in the Exchequer.
The Officers, and Habits of such as are Members of the Kings-Bench.
The Lord Chief Iustice, the Judge of the Court; who ought to be a Serjeant of the degree of the Coife, that is a Serjeant at Law, who upon taking this High degree, is oblidged to wear a Lawn Coife under his Cap, for ever after.
The Iustices, as Assistances, are three in number.
The Clerk of the Crown.
The Prothonotary, or Protonotary.
The Marshal or Keeper of the Kings-Bench Pri∣son.
The Custos Brevium, two in number.
The Clerks of the Papers, two.
The Clerk of the Rules.
The Clerk of the Errors.
The Sealer of the Writs.
The Clerk for Filing the Declarations.
The Head Cryer, and two under Cryers.
The Ushers, two.
The Filizars for the several Counties in England, fifteen in number.
The Officers and their Habits in the Courts of Common-Pleas.
This is the Next Court, and is called the Common-Pleas, because there are debated the Pleas between Sub∣ject and Subject: Real Actions are pleaded in no other Court, nor Fines levied, or Recoveries suffered: none but Serjeants at Law plead in this Court.
The Lord Chief Iustice of the Common-Pleas, or Common-bench.
The Iustices three in number as Assistants: or the three Puisne Judges.
The Custos Brevium, is the first Clerk of the Court, whose Office is to receive and keep all Writs, and the Records of Nisi Prius, called Pastea's.
The Prothonotories in numbe three: they are to Enter and Enroll all Declarations and Pleadings.
The Chyrographer, doth Enter and Ingrose Fines ac∣knowledged. All these Officers afore mentioned sit in the Court, their Heads covered with black round Caps or Bonnets, according to the Mode before Hats were Invent∣ed.
The Clerk of the Treasury, he keeps the Records.
The Clerk of the Inrollments of Fines and Recoveries, &c.
The Clerk of the Out-Lawries, who make the Writs of Capias Vtlegatum, after Parties are returned Out-Lawed.
The Clerk of the Kings Silver, who receives the Money for the King which is agreed upon at all Sale of Lands.
The Clerk of the Warrant, who make all such Warrants of Attorney for Bailiffs, for the Plantiff or De∣fendant.
The Clerk of the Juries who makes out Writ for the Juries appearance either in this Court, or County Assizes.
The Clerk of Essoins, or Excuses for lawful cause of absence.
The Clerk of the Supersedeas.
The Filizars, for the several Counties of England, in number 15.
The Prothonotory Filizar.
The Exigenters five in number, who make out all Exigents Proclamations in all Actions where Out-Lawry doth lye.
The Cryers in number, four.
The Officers and their Habits belong∣ing to the Eqchequer.
This Court is called the Exchequer, from a Chequer wrought Carpet, which covered the Great Table of the Court: as the Court of Green cloth in the Kings House is so called from the Green Carpet. In this Court, call∣ed the Court of Equity, are Trials of Debts accounts, Revenues, Disbursments, Customs, Fines unposed, &c.
The Lord Treasurer.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer.
The Lord Chief Baron.
The Barons of the Exchequer, three in number.
The Cursitor Baron, who gives Oaths to Sheriffs, Undersheriffs, Bailiffs, Searchers, Surveyors, &c. of the Custom-House.
All these Iudges belonging to these three Courts a∣foresaid, sit in Scarlet Robes, and square Caps, like Do∣ctors of Divity: because (as some say) they were ancient∣ly most commonly Clergy Men and Doctors, Bishops or Prelates that sat there.
The Chamberlains of the Exchequer.
The Auditor of Receipts, called Scriptor Talliarum. He hath five Clerks to manage the whole Estate of Mo∣nies received, disbursed and remaining.
The Tellers in number four, who receives all Monies due to the King.
The Clerk of the Pells, who enters every Tellers Bill in Parchtment (which in Latin is Pellis) whence the Office hath it name) he hath four Clerk to assist him.
The Deputy Chamberlains two, who sit in the Tally Court, cleave the Tallies and examin each piece apart.
The Ushers of the Exchequer two, that look to it Night and Day.
The Messengers four.
Officers in the Higher or Vupper Exchequer.
The Kings Remembrancer.
The Clerks of the Remembrancer eight in number: of which two are Secondaries.
Page 63The Lord Treasurers Remembrancer.
The Clerks of this Remembrancer, twelve: whereof the two first are called Secondaries.
The Clerk of the Pipe.
The under Clerks of the Pipe Office, eight.
The Controllor, or Comptrollor of the Pipe.
The Clerk of the Pleas.
The Attornies four in number.
The Forreign Opposer.
The Clerk of the Estreates.
The Auditors of the Imprest, two.
The Auditors of the Revenue, seven.
The Remembrancer of first Fruits and Tenches.
Th Deputy Remembrancers, two.
The Clerk of the Parcells.
The Clerk of the Nichils.
Officers belonging to the High Court of Chancery.
This Court is for the Mittigating the Rigor of that Law practized in the Court of Kings-Bench, and Com∣mon Pleas. It is called Curia Cancellariae: because anc•ently the Judge of the Court sat intra Cancellos, or Lattices: within Railes, Bars or Lattices, as the East end of our Churches being seperated per Cancellos, by Skreens or Lattice, Railes, &c. as peculiarly belonging to the Priest, were thence called Chancels.
This Court hath two in one, the first in Latin by which it grants out Writs Mandatory, and Remedial, Writs of Grace, or according to equity and conscien•. The second by English Bills, Answers and Decrees, &c.
The Lord High Chancellor of England.
The Masters of Chancery, twelve in number.
The Masters of the Rolls.
The six Clerks.
The Examiners, two.
The Clerks of the Petti-Bag, three.
The Clerk of the Crown, and his Deputy.
The Clerk of the Hamper or Hanaper, or Warden of the Hanaper.
The Warden or Keeper of the Fleet Prison.
The Serjeant at Arms, who bears the Mace be∣fore the Lord Chancellor, or Lord Keeper.
The Clerk of the Subpena Office.
The Clerk of the Patents, or of Letters Patents un∣der the Great Seal of England.
The Register of the Chancery.
The Deputy Registers, three.
The Registers of the Rolls.
To Clerk of the Reports.
The Clerk for fileing Affidavits.
The Cursiters twenty four in number: these make out Original Writs.
Officers in the Marshes of Wales.
The Lord President.
The President, who is ever the chief Justice of Che∣shire.
The Iudges Assistants.
The Clerk of the Crown with other inferior Officers.
Officers in the Dutchy Court of Lancaster.
The Attorney General.
The Receiver General.
The Anditors, in number two.
The Clerk of the Dutchy.
The Attorueys, two.
Officers of the Palatinate Courts in Chester.
- The Chief Iustice.
- The Puisne Iustice.
- The Kings Attorney.
- The Attorneys, sans •u.
- The So•licitor.
- The Petty Fogers.
- Constable of the Castle.
- The Prothonotary.
- The Under Goaler.
- Clerk of the Crown.
- Clerk of the Indictments.
- The Marshall.
- The Cryer.
- The Custos Rotulorum
- The Sheriff.
- The Iustice of Peace.
- The Under Sheriff.
- The Clerk of the Peace.
- The Bai•iffs.
- The Catch-poses.
- The Chamberlain.
- The Uice-Chamber∣lain.
- The Baron of the Ex∣chequer.
- The Deputy Baron.
- The Examiner.
- The Bailiff Itenerant, and his Deputy.
- The Kings-Attorney.
- The Seal-Keeper.
- The Filazar, and Depu∣ty Filazar.
- The Attorneys.
- The Cryer.
- The Messenger.
- The Clerks.
- The Bailiffs.
- The Catch-poles.
XI. He beareth Or, a Doctor of the Civil Law in his Gown, with a Roll of Paper in his left Hand, and the right extended, all proper. This may also be term∣ed a Doctor of Physick, their Gowns being in a man∣ner one▪ and the same: also a Chaucellor, or Uicar-General.
The Civil Law, is the Law of Nations, which for the executive Power, in Church Matters, there are diverse excellent Courts, the Highest for criminal causes, was the High Commis•ion Court: the Commissioners where∣of had power to exercise Jurisdiction throughout the Realm; to Visit, Reform, and correct Errors, Here∣sies Page 64 Schismes, Abuses and Deliquencies, that they be cor∣rected and reformed.
The Civil Affair which concern the Church the Highest Court, is the Court of Delegates, to which Appeales may be made from the Highest Courts under the Arch, bishops, and from this to none other.
The next is the Arch-bishops Courts, where any Ecclesiastical Suite between any Persons within their Pro∣vince may (waving all Inferior Courts) be decided: a∣mong them the Highest Court is,
The Court of Arches, so called from the Arched Church or Tower of St. Marys in London, where it was wont to beheld: the Judge whereof is called the Dean of the Arches. To this Court belongs diverse Advocates, all Doctors of the Civil Law: two Registers and ten Proctors.
The next is the Prerogative Conrt, called also the Spiritual Court: which each Bishop hath in his Diocess, which judgeth of Estates fallen by Will, or In∣testates, giving Probats and granting Administrati∣ons, other causes belonging to Ecclesiastical Courts, are Blasphemy, Apostasie, Heresies, Schismes, Ordinati∣ons, Justitutions of Clerks to Benefics, Cerebration of Di∣vine Service, Rights of Matrimony, Divorces, Bastardy, Adultery, Fornication, Incest, Pennances, &c. also Tithes Oblations, Mortuaries Delapidations, and Reparations of Churches, with several other Matters, which belongs not to the common Law of England.
The Consistory Court, is a Court Commissionated by a Bishop who hath a large Diocess, to a certain Person in a certain place, for the ease and benefit of the People.
The Dean Rurals Court, and the Arch-deacons Court, and Dean and Chapters Court: are Conrts where smaller differences are pleaded which arise within their Limits, or Bounds of the Cathedral.
Lastly there are certain Jurisdictions belonging to some Parishes, the Inhabitants whereof are exempt, some from the Arch-Deacons Court, and some from the Bishops.
The Officers in a Perogative Court.
An Arch-Bishop. A Bishop.
A Suffragan Bishop, or Subsidiary Bishop, or Titular Bishop; such were of old Ordained for the ease of Bishops whose Diocess were large. These had the Name, Title, Stile and Dignity of Bishops, and were consecrated by the Arch-bishop of the Province, and were to execute such Power, Jurisdiction, and Autho∣rity, as are limited in his Commission by the Bishop or Diocesan, whose Suffragan he is.
- A Dean.
- A Chancellor.
- A Proctor.
- A Parater, or Promooter.
- A Dean Rulal.
- An Advocate.
- A Parater General.
Now the Punishment inflicted by these▪ Spiritu∣al or Ecclesiastical Courts are these as follow.
First, the Lesser Excommunication, which Ex∣cluds the Offender from the Church, or if not from the Communion of the Lords Supper: is disenabled from be∣ing a Plantiff in a Law Suite. And this is generally for con∣tempt, and not appear upon a Citation, or not obeying the Orders of the Court.
The Greater Excommunication, which excluds from the company of Christians in Spiritual Duties, but also in temporal Affairs; and this is commonly for Heresie, Schisme, Incest, Perjury and such Griveous Crimes.
The Anathematismus, is only inflicted upon an ob∣stinate Heretick, whereby he is declared a publick E∣nemy to God, rejected and cursed, and Delivered o∣ver to Eternal Damnation.
The Interdictum, wherein is prohibited all Di∣vine Officers, as Christian Burial, Administration of Sacraments, &c.
Penance publick, is for the Offender, to be com∣pelled to confess his fault, and to bewail it before the whole Congregation in the Church, stand bare headed, and bare feet, in a white Sheet. But if the crime be not hainous, it may at the parties request be commuted into a Pecuniary Mult, for the Poor, or some Pious uses.
XII. He beareth Argent, a Livery Man of the City of London in his Guarded Gown, Furred down before with his Hood hanging behind his left Shoulder, all pro∣per. As soon as the Apprentice hath by his servitude satisfied his Master, and that his freedom is now at hand; •e is then brought by his Master to the Chamberlain of London his Office, where he is first made Free of the City, and enrolled to be so, that thereby he may enjoy a right and Priviledge to the Franchizes of the City, and to fol∣low that (or any other) Trade he was bound Apprentice unto.
That finished he is brought to the Hall-mote, the Place or Hall for the Assembling of every Guild of Fra∣ternity, for regulating of what doth belong to each com∣pany or Trade in particular; where the new Freeman of the City is admitted a Brother of the said Hall.
The Traders of London are divided into several com∣panies or corporations, and are so many Bodies politique, all which have Assembly places (as I said) called Halls, and each Company or Mistery hath a Master (or two) annually chosen from amongst themselves, by which the said Societies are Regulated and Governed, and all Mis∣demeanors corrected and punished, by Fines and Forfei∣tures: and in each Company there is other subordinate Officers, called Wardens (or Stewaads in some) or assistance; The remaining part of the Hall, or Member of the Trades are termed Livery-Men, or Gow•-Men: So that each Brotherhood do exactly correspond to the General Government of the City by a Lord May∣or, Aldermen, and common Council.
Now these Livery-Men, or Gown-Men are not admitted as Fellows o• the Hall and to wear Gowns, as soon as made free of the Hall: but are counted as Free-men, and have liberty to follow their Trads for a conside∣rable time, till they be Selected and by the Votes of the Hall, they be brough• in to be Gown-Men, and (as it were) Council Men of their said Societies. And out of these Livery Men in each Hall, is again selected such Per∣sons as are thought fit to make Council-Men for the City: which by degrees advance higher and higher till they be Sheriffs, Aldermen, &c.
Page 65During their time of being Livery-Men they wear on the left Shoulder of their Gowns, an Hood behind with a long Tippet at it down before of two colours, one half Scarlet, the other green Silk: But when chosen to be of the City Conucil, they wear a long Tippet of the same colours about their Necks, reaching down before to the middle of the Belly.
XIII. He beareth Argent, a Beads-Man, or an old Man in and Hospital (or Poor Mans) Gown, with a Bonnet or Cap on his Head Azure; Faced and Lined, Or: with a Palmers Staff in his right hand, Sable. It hath ever been the minde and care of Pious People to be charitable to the Poor, and therefore for that end have either built Hospitals or Alms-Houses for the dwellings of poor old and indegent People, en∣du•ing them with Lands and Revenues for their lively∣hood and maintenance when past their Labours: or else to bring up poor. Fatherless and Motherless Children that cannot help themselves, till such times as they were able to do Service, and become Apprentices; of which kind of Hospitals this Kingdom through the bounty of Benefa∣ctors is well Stored.
Hospitals are of several Natures according to the In∣stitutions of their Benefactors, some are for Poor People and Orphan Children, in which they are brought up to Learning, have Meat, Drink and Cloaths providee for them, Men and Women Servants to look to them: be∣sides other officers pertaining to the said Hospital or Al∣monary: as
The Benefactors that Builds, Erects and endues the place.
The Trustees or Overseers, to look after the Re∣venue, to place in, and put out.
The Steward and Caterer, that receives and lay∣eth out for the necessaries of the place.
The Cooke, Buttler and Baker, that orders Meat and Drink.
The Washers and House-Keepers, to make and keep all clean.
The Masters to teach, and his Usher to enter the Boys into the first rudiments.
The Chaplain to Pray and Preach, all which and more is necessary for a well Beneficed Hospital.
Other Hospitals are for old and aged Men: Others for old Women, and some for both, as the Hospital in Chester, called the Fraternity of the Brothers and Sisters of S•. Anns.
Others for Sick, Sore, and Lunitick Persons, who are kept and maintained at the Hospital charge till recover∣ry, then sent away: as the Hospital at the Savoy and Bethelem in London, and St. Egitha for Lezars near Chester.
These that are called Alms-Houses, are of another Nature, which have some of them Houses to dwell in, or Chambers to lodge in, and an Yearly Stipend to buy them their own Meat and Cloaths: of such we ha•• several in our City.
Others of these Alms People have only small Houses to dwell in, and have no other provision made for them, but what they get by begging, of these kind are the poor Mendicants, who get their living by going from Door to Door.
Others there are which have neither House nor Har∣bour, but what they Rent, yet have Yearly Mainte∣nance for the Support in old Age, and Caps and Gowns every second or third Year, to keep them Warm; and these are generally called Beadsmen, or such as are lotted to have Poor Mens Gowns: which I have observed in several Towns upon Set, or Principal Days, to walk before the Magistrates, or Bene∣factors by two and two. And in some places to go in the same order before Dead Persons carried to their Fune∣rals.
XIV. He beareth Argent, an Esquire in his Ruffe, or apparelled according to his Degree, standing in full aspect: thus in short he may be Blazoned, but if we must go to the particulars of his Habit then take it thus, an Esquire in his bravery standing in full Uiew▪ having a Beaver with a Feather of three falls on his Head, a Satin Pinked Doublet, Breeches and Cloak cast over his left Arm, Scarlet: Imbrauthe red with Gold▪ with Silk Stockins, Gatters and Roses at his Shooes: a Belt over his Shoulder with a Sword Pendant thereat: having a Staff in his right hand pointing to the Dexter Corner, and with his left to the Sinister Base. This was the habit of either a Knight or Esquire, or Ancient Gentleman of a considerable Rewenue, in King Charles the first his Reign: being then (as it is now in our Days) no distinction at all by their Garbs, every one going as it seemed best in his own Eyes: for now the Kinght is not known from an Esquire, or an Esquire from a Gentleman by their Habits: nay it is a hard thing to distinctinguish a Master from his Man, but only that he goes after, and stands with •is Head uncovered before him.
Now though fashion in apparel both in Men and Wo∣men do very much vary: yet as to the Principals of the Garments, they constantly stick to them; as Doublet, Breeches, Hat, Hose, and Sh•os; and for their c•ver•ng, i• is a Cloak, or Coat with Sleeves.
Now the next below a Knight, is the degree of a• Esquire, so called from the French word 〈◊〉, Scu••∣•eri or Scutigeri: because they were wont to bear before the Prince in War, or before the better sort of Nobility▪ a shield, o• else because they bear a Coat of 〈…〉 Ensigns of their descent; and by our Lawyers are called A•migeri.
Several Degrees of Esquires.
1. Of this Title (by the common Law of this Land) are all the Sons of Dukes, Marquesses and Earls, are Esquires, and no more.
2. The next of this Title are the Eldest and Youn∣ger Sons of all Uiscounts and Barons: and the Eldest Sons of their Younger Sons, and their Elder Sons for ever.
Page 663. Then the Esqires of the Kings Body: which are mentioned among the Officers of the Kings Court. These are Esteemed before the Eldest Sons of Knights, and indeed in all Processions of Estate, they go before the Master of the Jewel house, and all Judges, and Serjeants at the Law.
4. The Eldest Son of a Knight claimes the next place, as an Esquire by Birth, which he and his Eldest Son for ever, have that Title, and taketh his place ac∣cording to the Seniority of his Family.
5. The next are Esquires Created by the King, by by putting about their Nocks a Collar of SS's, and be∣stowing on them a pair of Silver Spurrs: which Silver Spurs shewed a difference of Honor from the Golden Spurrs, given to a Knight: from whence these Esquires were called White-Spurrs, whose Eldest Son saith Mr. Segar fol. 224. i, an Esquire for ever.
6. An Esquire by Office, or that is in Superior pub∣lick Office, for the King, or State: such are Serjeants of the several Offices in the Kings Court, and other Officers of Rank and Quality; as Mayors of Corporations, Justi∣ces of the Peace, Sheriffs, Escheators, and such like.
7. An Esquire by Repute, is such a Person who hath been, and is of an ancient Family, and considerable Estate, though neither himself, or any of his Ancestors have born any publick Office, yet such by the curtesie of England, and out of respect to their Family, are called Esquires.
8. To these may be joyned Councellors at Law, Bat∣chelors of Divinity, Law and Physick, who take upon them the Title of Esquire, are reputed Esquires, or equal to Esquires, although none of them are really so.
Of this Degree, with each particular circumstance a∣bout it, you may peruse these Authors.
- Seldens Title of Honor, fol. 555.
- Ferns Glory of Generosity, pag. 100.
- Spelmans Glossary, fol. 51.
- Salcers Analysis of Honor, pag. 26.
- Chamberlains Present State of England, pag. 280.
XV. He beareth Argent, a Gentleman in a Hunt∣ing or Walking posture, with his long Staff in his right Hand. This is termed either a Hunting or Walking posture, because in those time they cast of all outward Garments, as Cloak or Coat, that they may either go, or run with the more ease and dexterity.
Among the lower rank of Nobility are accounted the Gentry, which have no other Title, but Gentleman or Master, which are such as are descended of ancient Families, that have always born a Coat of Arms. The word Gentleman first rise from the word Gens or Gentes, Gentiles: which the Primitive Christians used for all such, and were neither Iews nor Christians, which the French called Payons, for Pagans; and the Dutch Hey∣den, or Heydenen, for Heathens. So that the Romans took it to be a distinction, or note of Honor to them, which the Christians had before in Scorn expressed them.
So then this Title, Gentilhomme, and Genttlehom∣bre (which we received from the French, at the Norman Conquest; for till then we used no such word) as Gen∣tleman, but the Saxon word, which was Aedel: then I say was the word made. And in all Latin Writs, pleading, and the like; the word Gentleman was generally used, till King Henry the Eights time, since which they have u∣sed the word Generosus, for a Gentleman; of what sort soever, as Mr. Selden testifieth fol. 858.
XVI. He beareth Argent, a Gentleman with his Cloak on the left Shoulder and cast about his middle, with his right Hand on his side, Hat, Boots and Spurs with his Sword by his side all in their proper co∣lours.
In the Sinister Base of this Quarter, is a Demy M•••ans Arms, with a sharp Pointed Beard, Cloaths open at the Neck: which is a kind of bearing much used by the Germans and Dutch, both for Coats and Crests; some with Hats, some with Caps, others with C••∣pews, and others Bare Headed, &c. Others young Face, Spanish Beards, Bush Beards, or old Mens Faces: and with full Faces.
The Several Degrees of Gentility.
The first is a Gentleman of Blood, termed Gen∣tilitas Nativa; to the making of which Gentleman perfect in his Blood, is required a Lineal descent on his Fathers side to the fift Generation, as Father, Grand-Father, Great-Grand-Father, Great-Grand-Fathers▪ Father, and Great-Grand-Fathers-Grand-Father: And as much on the Mothers side, this doth not only make a Gentleman of Blood perfect, but of Ancestors too.
A Gentleman by prescription, is when for a long time and many Years, to the beginning whereof the Me∣mory of Man runneth not to the contrary, causeth him that can duely without intermission of time, challenge the same prescription, ought to be had and reputed as rightly Noble and Gentle, as him that can shew it by Blood. For this time Immemorable, hath the •orce of a Law, & is Masqued, with the Title of Justice, of Priviledge, and of Truth: for our Legist doth tell us, Magis rel•cet, a Pa∣rentibus, per tempus immemoriale, Nobilitas recta, quam a Principe, sine Virtute Donata; So that this Nobleness or Gentry by prescription, is as all one, agreeing with that Gentleness of Stock, or Linage.
Now this Gentility by Blood, if seconded by Merit and Virtue, is justly esteemed the most worthy & honorable▪ and certainly is the least if attended by vicious actions; for the Glory they shine in, being but the reflections of their Ancestors, and not their own proper Rays.
The second is Gentilitas Dativa, a Gentleman made so by the gift or bounty of the Prince: Exam∣ples of many of this Nature Mr. Seldon shews in King Richard the Second, Henry the Sixth, King Iames, and by Forreign Princes, the Emperor, King of France and o∣thers: Titles of Honour, fol. 832.853.870. Where Men have been ennabled by Letters Patents from their Prin∣ces, though they have no Superior Titles added: Yet thereby have been received into the State of Gentlemen, and are Stiled Gentlemen of Paper and Wax, Glo: pag. 61.
Page 67In General if any Person be Advanced by Lawful Commission of his Prince to any Office, Dignity or pub∣lick Administration, be it either Ecclesiastical, Military, or Civil; so that the said Office comprehend in it, Digni∣tatem, or Dignitatis Titulum, the Title or Stile of Digni∣ty, he ought to be Matriculated into the rank of Gen∣tility.
So the King may make or create a Gentleman, and give him a Coat of Arms, though he be a single Subject, or unworthy of the same: but this is a Counterfeit Gentility, and only shrouds him from the name of a Plebeian: Such not exercising the Qualities beseeming them, bring to the Purchaser but little more then the shadow of Honor, being excluded from the Priviledges of Gentility, nay ought, as saith Sir William Segar: to be deprived of his Title of a Gentleman, if he behave not himself virtuously according to his Title.
The third is Atchieved, or Merited Gentility: this is nobleness of proper Virtue, which is certainly to be esteemed above the other, for as Kingdoms happiness, and safety depends upon the Wisdom, Counsel, and Cou∣rage of the Virtuous, Ecclesiastes 9.15, 16, 18. When the vain boasts of an ancient Stock or Linage, where Virtue fails; doth add nothing to the relief of a Coun∣trey in time of need.
What these Virtues are, Sir Iohn Fern pag. 30.31. 96.97. hath taken great care to set down: which we shall pass over and take notice only of these two Cardi∣nal Virtue, Prudence and Fortitude; the merit At∣chived by the Pike and Pen, Learning and Soldi∣ery. Now to which of these the precedency should be allowed, hath ever been the despute, some gives it to the Scholar, others to the Soldier; one preferrs t•e Doctor before the Knight, yet most esteem t•e lat•er predominate to the former, to which I do rather ad∣here.
For to obtain the Estate of Gentility by Learning, and discovering the Secrets of Heaven is certainly very Honorable: But to Atchive it by Service in his Sove∣reigns Wars, the defence of the Church, King and Country, is of all most excellent and worthy: In as much as War is permitted by the Law of God taught by the Law of Nature, and commanded by the Law of Na∣tions, Anal: of Honor pag. 10.
For the Soldiery, they who by their Valour and Service done in the Soveraigns Wars, to defend the Church, King and Country, are worthy of their Atcheived Honor and ought to be Stiled Gentlemen, which is peculiar to all Listed, and are called Gentle∣men Soldiers: of which these more especially (let their Original be what it will) may be admitted to bear Arms in the Military or Marshal Government, viz. The General, High Constable, Lieutenant-Gene∣ral, Governers or Gardians of Frontiers, and March Countrys, Admirals, Uice-Admirals, Treasurers, Marshalls, Majors-general, of Horse and Foot, Masters of the Artillery, Collonells, Majors, Captaines, Provolts, Serjeant-Ma∣jors, Lieutenants, and such commissionated Officers for Martial Affairs.
For the State Ecclesiastical, these in the Church• being Officers of Dignity do merit Gentlene•s, and Coat Armour: as Patriarches, Primars, Arch-B•∣ships, Cardinals, Bishops, also all Uicars-Gene∣ral, Gardians or Keeper of Spiritualities, Deans of Cathedral Churches, Arch-Deacons, Chancel∣lors, Registers, Treasurers, Chantors, Advocats, Doctors, likewise all Rectors, Provosts, Deans and Governors of Collegial Assemblies with diverse others in the Church, which are to this place, to be re∣ferred.
For the Civil or Pollitical Estate, diverse Officers of Dignity and Worship do merit Coats of Arms: as the Chancellor, President, Treasurer; with such as oc∣cupy the Seat of Judgment, as Iudges, Iustices, Chief Officers in the Soveraigns Pallace, Secretaries of the Estate: also all Mayors, Sheriffs, Bailiffs of Ci∣ties and ancient Burroughs or Towns Incorporated, Pro∣thonotories, and Chief Remembrancers, to High Court of Justice, with many other to long to receit.
Also Gentleness or the bearing of Arms may be ob∣tained by the Service of the Soveraign, or any of his Superior Officers, according to this Rule. Adhe∣rentes lateri Princ•pis & Officialis, & eis•em, in Officio quo∣cun•ue minimo, Ministrantes no•ilitant•r.
From which we may conclude that all the Officers in the King Houshold, as Buttler, Cooke, Baker, Groom of the Chamber, Keeper of the Ward∣robe, and the like: also the Officers of Chief note be∣longing to Justices of Superior Courts, and Cities, as Sword-bearers, Mace-bearers, Marshals, Ushers, Messengers, Serjeants at Mace, and such like.
For the Liberal Sciences which are the Mistresses of a•• V•rtues, Letters, and good Learning: the Excel∣〈◊〉 whereof worthily deserve the Title of Noble-〈◊〉 therefore merit a Coat of Arms. They are call∣〈…〉 Sciences, for four reasons. Because the study of 〈◊〉 req•ired a free and liberal mind. Because of puting 〈◊〉nce between them and other Servile Arts, called M•cha•ical Arts, which require more the service of the Body, then travail of the Wi•. Because▪ Children of Freemen ought to be put to the learning of them. And lastly because they are lawful, and may be learned wit•out servitude of Sin or Superstition. These Sciences whereby the Ancients termed seven, to which may be added an eight (saith Sir Iohn Fern) pap. 32. and that is Theologia a Science of God, and Heavenly things, surpas∣sing Nature, and the capacitie of Nature. However we may pass it under the Science of Letters and Lear∣ning, the Professors thereof having received their De∣grees, meriteth sufficiently (though they were un•entle born) to obtain Arms and have the Honor to be called a Gentleman: as Masters of Art, Ba•chelers o• Divinity, Doctors of Divinity, Law and Physick, Rhetorick, Logique, Mathematick, Musick, Geo∣metry, Astronomy and Astrology, also the Poe•s Historiographers and such like, being most necessary in Cities, and c•mmon Weales, and accounted off a∣mo•gst the Learned, are not excluded from the hope of Honor, therefore unto such must be due the Ensigns of Gen•ly, as the desert o• their parts and callings shall •equire.
The •our•he is Gentilitas Adoptiva, a Gentility a∣•••• from Adoption; this is, when a Gentleman of Blood and Coat Armour, for some special affection Page 68 which he beareth to one, neither allied to him by Blood, nor a Gentleman otherways, adopteth a Stranger to be his Son, and constituteth him to succeed; as well in his Estate of Gentry, as to his name, Coat of Arms, and Possessions. This is termed a Gentleman by Adop∣tion.
There is another kind of Gentility of this Nature, call¦ed Nobilitas Feudalis, or Ratione Feudi: a Gentleman of Purchase, as having a Possession bought by himself being both large and fair: as if a Merchant, Artificer, Burgess or Farmer purchaseth a Signiory or Lord¦ship from the King. By reason the owner died without Heir, or fell to him by an Attenture; to this purchasing from the King, may also be confired by the Law of Arms, the Coat Armour of the Owner of the Lordship: which he may bear as his own to himself, and his Posterity.
For Mechanical Sciences, though their Professors in some respects be debarred the preheminence of Gen∣try, yet it will not be denied, but that some such n•t•ble and collateral Merits, and worthiness may appear in them that they shall duely obtain the name of Gentles, and have a Coat of Arms: of these Mechanick Trades (my Author Sir Iohn Fern pag. 70) will admit but of seven, which have the Title of Necessity, Honesty and Laudableness; which are, first Agriculture, which is the Tillage, Culture, and Manurance of the Earth. This is Sowing of Corn and Seeds, Planting of Trees of all sorts: Grafting of Orchards, and making of Gar∣dens: and Pasturing and Feeding of Cattle, which is all comprehended in the word Husbandry. The second is Lanificium, the skill in Weaving and Makeing of Cloath, or any such like Matter, in which is compre∣hended all the Arts of Spinning, Weaving, Fulling, Dressing and Sowing. The third is Architectture, or the skill in Building, Frameing and Erecting of Tem∣ples, Theaters, Pyramides, Castles, For•s, Bastilions, Pallaces, Houses, and all sorts of Edifices: which is divid∣ed into Cementurie, or Masonrie, and Carpentary, the first working in Stone, or Brick; the latter in Wood. The fourth is Mercatura, the Trade of Merchandize∣ing, or Buying and Selling: exchanging of Goods For∣raign for Domestick: by which that Noble Art of Na∣vigation hath been maintained, which did breed the two famous skills of Cosmography, and Geometry. The fift Mechanick Art is Armatura, the skill of work∣ing in all sorts of Mettles: as the Forging of Weapons, Armour, and of other Instruments for Artists: which is comprehended under these two Heads; Malleatoria, the skill to work with Hammers, and Files: and the o∣ther Fusoria, which is casting Mettles into Molds. The sixt is Ars Uenatoria, the Art of Hunting, which is a Gentlemans Occupation in England, France and Germany: It is divided into three Arts, Ferina, the killing of wild Beast; Aucupium, the killing of Fowl: and Piscatoria, the taking of Fish. The seventh and last, is called Theatrica, the Art and skill of Plays practized in Theaters, or exposed to publick view: of which there are four sorts, as Ludus Gymnicus, the skill and activitie of Wrestling, Leaping, Running, Cast∣ing the Dart, &c. And Ludus Circensis, the Run∣ning of a Chariott, or Horse in a Ring swiftly: then Lu∣dus •ladiatorius, the Art of Fencing, or skill to use any Weapon, either for the defence of our selves, or offence of our Enemies: And lastly Ludus Tormeamenti, the Game and Play of Turney and Barriers, a most Warlike and Military Exercise.
Honors and Exemptions proper to Gentility.
The Lower Degrees of Nobility have less and fewer priviledges then those in other Monarchies, see Glo▪ of Geaerosity, pag. 77. &c. by which I mean Baronetts, Knights, Esquires and Gentlemen.
If a Knight be under Age, yet he shall be out of Wardship, both for Lands, Body and Marriage.
A Knight is Excused from attendance at Court-Leets.
A Knight and his Eldest Son, not compellable to find pledges at the Visus Franchi Plegij.
A Knight by Magna Charta, chap. 21. are so freed that no demesn Cart of theirs may be taken.
A Son, or Brother of a Knight; by Statute Law, is capacitated to hold more then one Benefice Eccle∣siastical.
A Knight and his Son, though he cannot spend 10 l. per Annum, nor be worth 200 l. may keep Grey-Hounds, Setting-Dogs, and Nets to take Pheasants and Partriges, Stat. 1. Iac.
Anciently if an Ignoble Person did strike a Gentle∣man in England, he was to loose his hand.
A Gentleman may not be compelled to serve in Husbandry.
A Child of a Gentleman brought up to sing, can∣not be taken without the Parents consent to serve in the Kings Chappel, as others may.
An Horse of a Gentleman, may not be taken to ride Post.
A Gentleman having his Honor detracted by a Churle, his remedy is an Action of Trespass: but if one Gentleman shall detract from the Honor of another, then Combate was engaged.
The Ungentle, is bound to yield obedience to a Gentleman in these things, to keep silence whilst a Gentleman speaks, to stand while he is in presence, to give him the right hand in going, and the chief Seat in sitting.
A Gentleman to Write his Name in any Instru∣ment, or Solemn Act, next after the Bishop, or Pre∣late.
If in Common Elections for Officers, Votes be equal, then them of the most Gentlemen shall pre∣vail.
A Gentleman is Honored with the Attire of his Body, to whom it is lawful to bear Silk and Purple colour.
A Gentleman is Honored with a Title to his name, even as a Bishop and Doctor are not spo∣ken too, but with this Title (most Reverend) so Knights, Esquires, and Gentlemen, without an Ad∣dition of Sir, Worship, or Master.
Page 69It is the Duty of the unnoble to Honor and Salute a Gentleman with the Gestures of his Body.
The word of a Gentleman is of as much Validity, as his Deed; confirmed with Witnesses and Seal. The Laws presuming they had or ought to have a reverent regard to the preservation of their promise in all sinceri∣ty.
A Gentleman ought to be preferred to Offices before the unnoble.
The Testimony of two Gentlemen by oath before the Judge as Witnesses, is of more Credence then a mul∣titude of ungentle Persons.
A Gentleman might erect Images, and Statutes of their Ancestors and himself, which the Laws do mightily defend.
To deface the Arms of a Benefactor out of a pub∣lick work is punishable; but to wipe out the mark of a Merchant, or Artificer, is not.
The ungentle may not challenge a Gentleman to the Combate.
Vertues to be Imbraced by the Gentry.
All Gentlemen by the observing of nine Uertues, with the avoiding of nine Uices following, will leave an Honorable Memory of his Gentle conversation to all Men: and these extend not only to the Simple Gen∣tleman, but to each degree of Nobleness, even to the Soveraign: because they bear Coat Armours.
- 1. To be Meek, Dutiful, and Obedient to Gods Laws.
- 2. To be Free from Oaths, Swearing, and Blasphe∣mies.
- 3. To be Fearful, or Dreading to offend the King, and his Commands.
- 4. To know thy self and thy original Birth, and so accordingly to behave thy self towards all Men.
These are the Soveraign Uertues, which tend chiefly to the rectifying of the Soul. These following are called the Amarous Uertues, because they win Love, and a good Report at all Mens hands: a matter worthy the observation of all that desire, to seek to be Gentle∣men.
- 1. To be of a Cheerful, and Lixam Countenance.
- 2. To be Affable, and Tractable in his Language.
- 3. To be Wise and Discreet in his Answers.
- 4. To be Just, and Perfect in his Rule, and Govern∣ment.
- 5. To be Careful to bear good Will and Affection to Faithfullness.
Vices to be Eschewed by the Gentry.
Gentlemen are to fly from all Uice & Wickedness for that is a great Rebatement of his Honor, and Stains▪ his Coat of Arms, making his Gentleness Ungentle and especially in these nine things.
- 1. To fly from his Severaigns Banner in the Field.
- 2. To Revoke or Forsake his own Challenge.
- 3. to Slay his Prisoner with his own Hands, when he humbly yeildeth himself.
- 4. To tell his Soveraign false Tails.
These are called Terminata, Uices Terminable, because they are determined by sharp Punishments ac∣cording to the Law of Arms. and are such as will deter∣mine and end his Gentility. These following are In∣determinable.
- 1. To be full of Lechery, giving his Body to Whore∣dom, and Uncleaness.
- 2. To be a Subject of Bacchus, a Riotous, Drunken, and Intemperate Person.
- 3. To be Slothful in the Warrs, or about the Kings Bussiness.
- 4. To be a Boasters of Man-hood.
- 5. To be Cowardly in the Face of his Enemy.
Of these things concerning the Gentry, peruse Ferns Glory of Generosity, pag. 14. to 98.
Chamberlains Present State, pag. 280.
Spelmans Glossary in Verbo, Generosus.
XVII. He beareth Or, a Yeoman, or Country-man, or a Freeholder of the Country with a Staff in his right hand, proper. This habit (as to their inner Gar∣ments) Yeoman usually did wear in King Iames his time, viz. narrow brimed Hats with flat Crowns, Doublets with large Wings, and short Skirts and Girdles about their Wasts, Trunk Breeches, with Hosen drawn up to the Thighs, and Gartered under the Knees.
Under the Title of Yeoman, in Latin Villani, is comprehended the Husbandman, Country man, a Franklein, a Farmer, or any other sort of People, busie in Culture, or Tillage of the Earth.
The next to the lower Nobility, and the first degree of the Commons or Plebeans, are the Freehold∣ers; commonly called Yeomen: It is a name from the High Dutch (Gemen or Gemain) in English Com∣mon. In the Kings Court, it is an Officer set in a mid∣dle Station between a Serjeant and a Groom. And they are termed Freeholders, because they hold Lands and Tenements inheritable, by a perpetual right to them and their Heirs for ever. This Tenure is called a Fee-Tail.
Others Freeholders there are by Copy-hold, such are they who hold some Lands within a Manner or Lord∣ship, only by Coppy of Court-roll of the said Mannor, &c: And have a perpetual right, and Lords Utileg; though no absolute Freeholders or direct Lord of what he holueth; seeing he holdeth by Sute and Service, Herriots and Fines; some ra•eable, others certain, and some customarie. This is also called a Freehold by Law.
An other sort of Freehold is by Lease for Lives, or Lives Absolute: These are such Freeholders as are ca∣pable of giving Votes for Election of Parliament Men; to serve upon Juries; to bear the Offices of Constable, and Church-Warden. This is called a Freehold by Deed, or for Life.
Page 70The next sort of commonalty is the 〈◊〉, or ••••ker, or Dairy-Man, which are such as 〈…〉 Livings, Farms and Demesnes, from the Lords ther•of upon the Rack, or half Rack▪ that is upon the Yearly value, or half value: having no certain term of holding but from Year to Year: or from thre• to three Years, avoiding at the Land-lords pleasure at such exspirations of times.
The next Tradsmen are reconned as of the com∣monalty of England, which are such as live by buying and selling, amongst whom Merchants of Forreign Traffick, have for their great benefit to the publick, and for their great endowments and Generous living, been of best repute in England, and have got great and vast Estates. But amongst Tradsmen there are Wholesale-Men, then Retailers, and lastly Me∣chanicks or Handy-crafts-men. These are all capable of bearing some sway, or office, in Cities and Towns Corporate. Yet notwithstanding, the Law of Arms hath forbidden these sorts of commoners, both from Honor, and the Ensigns of Nobility, till atchived by other mains, or offices, as is afore shewed.
The third sort of People Ungentle, and of the Commonalty also; are those which are called Nati∣vi and Servi, Natives or home born People, yet Servants and Slaves to their Lords and Masters: i• the English they are called Ui•lains, such as live without Liberty and Freedom: Bondsmen, Apprencices: because during a certain time, they are bound to Service, for the attaining, and apprehending that Craft or Mistery, they are set unto: dureing which time they are little better in Quality and Condition then Servile Slav•s, and Vas∣sels.
The lowest Members, the Feet of the Body pollitick, are the Day Labourers; who have no c•nstant Ma•ster, but follow labouring from House to House, for Dai•ly Wages: but of these see more numb. 21.
The Liberties and Priviledges of the Commons.
The Commons of England for Hereditary funda∣mental liberties and properties are best above and beyond the Subjects of any Monarch in the World: for
No Commoner, or Free Denisen of England: is to be Imprisoned, or otherwise restrained without cause shewed, for which by Law he ought to be Imprison∣ed.
To him Imprisoned may not be denied a Writ of Habeas Corpus if it be desired.
If no cause of Imprisonment be alledged, and the same be returned upon the Habeas Corpus, then the Pri∣soner ought to be set at liberty.
No Soldier can be quartered in the House of a Free-man, in the time of Peace without his Will, though they pay for their quarters.
Every Man hath a full and absolute property in his Goods, that no Taxes, Loans or Benevolences, Ordinary or Legally can be imposed on them, without their own consent, by their representative in Parliament.
They may also Dispose of all they have, how they •ease, even from their own Children, and to them in •hat equality they will, without shewing any cause: which other Nations Governed by the Civil Law, can∣not do.
No Freeman can be tried, but by his Peers or equals, nor condemned, but by the Laws of the Land, or by Act of Parliament.
No English Man can be Prest or Compelled (un∣less bound by his Tenure) to serve as a Soldier in the War, or March forth of his Country, except in case of an Invation by a Forreign Enemy, or a Rebellion at home.
Neither may he be sent out of the Realm against his Will, upon any Forreign Imployment, by way of an Honorable Banishment.
No Freeman may be Fined for any Crime, but ac∣cording to the Merit of the offence, always Salva sibi Con∣tenemento suo, in such a manner that he may continue, and go on in his calling.
In brief their Liberties and Properties must be acknowledged to be transcendent, and their wordly con∣dition most Happy and Blessed: for if it be considered, they are ordinarily Subject to no Laws but what they make themselves, nor no Taxes but what they impose on themselves, and pray the King, and the Lords to consent thereunto.
XVIII. He beareth Argent, the Lord Mayor of Lon∣don, his — or Boy in his Pride; the Lord Mayors Page some term him; his Habit is constant, viz Doublet and Breeches, Hose and Shooes, all of a colour; with a Loose Coat, or Iacket of Scarlet, reaching to the middle of his Thighs, with∣out Sleeves, but such as hang upon his back, being of the same length of his Coat; having a Gold Chain about his Neck, a Uelvet Bonnet on his head, with a Feather therein: in his left hand he carrieth a White Staff, with an Handkerchief Laced, tied on the top of it, with a Poesie of Flowers. In this habit doth a young Boy about 10 or 12 Years of Age, walks before the Lord Mayor every Easter, &c. when the Aldermen and Sherriffs in their Pomp, wait upon him to the Spit∣tle.
A Page, is in some Sence taken to be an Office of of Servile Imploy and to follow business as in the Kings House, there are in several places Yeomen, Grooms, Pages, as in the Pantry, Cellar, Buttery, Pitcher House, &c. where they are to bear, and carry, and come and go at the Masters command. But Pages in the best acceptati∣on, are young Youths of good Birth and Quality, which wait and attend upon Lords and Ladies, Kings and Prin∣ces, &c. none under the degree of a Lord having such a person, and by such a Title to attend him: Their Ha∣bit is Trunk Breeches, answerable to the figure of the Men before and after, numb. 17.19.
A Footman, is generally, for the ease of his speedy going, clothed in light thin cloaths, and all in white, as Doublet slashed or open, Breeches or Drawers, and Stock∣ings of the same, with thin soled Shooes called Pumps; these Men run by their Lords Coach, or Horses side, and are ready to wait on him, and fetch and bring on all occasions; and sometimes make and maintain Foot Ra∣ces.
Page 71A Querrie, is an Officer or Servant under the Ma∣ster of the Horse to the King, and none other; they are after the nature of Foot-men, whose Office is to attend the King in his Progress or Hunting, or on any occasion of Riding abroad, to help his Majesty up and down from his Horse, they generally go in the Kings Livery, and are 12 in number.
A Lacky, is the same for Office and imploy as the precedent, only he hath not as yet attained his Age; yet for Archness he exceeds, for it is seldom known but such Boys are as full of Roguery, as an Egg is full of Meat: While they are Boys or Youths, they are generally ter∣med Lacky; but when they come to riper Years, then Foot-men.
Upon the division score between these numbers 17 and 18, is fixed the figure of a demy Man to the sinister, sans Arms, bare headed, with a sharp pointed Beard, and two Elephants Teeth out of his mouth Argent, Clothed, Gules, a Ruffe about his Neck. This kind of Creature, out of a Coronett, is the crest of Froschell van Martzel, of Bavaria. This is termed a demy Man with Elephants Teeth, A. sans Arms, clothed G. ruffed, &c.
XIX. He beareth Argent, two Lovers, (or a Man and Woman walking together Arm in Arm 〈◊〉, proper colours: But if you will go to a far her descripti∣on of them, then say thus, a Man and Woman walk∣ing, their Arms Imbracing, his Hat Sable, Doublet with Broad Wings, and little Skirts, and Tru••k Breeches, and Huse Purpure; her Hood and Gown of the second, Gorget or Whisk and Apron of the first; see numb. 51. This is the Coat Armour of Antho∣ny Iohn Valeire, of Spain, as my Author in an old Manu∣script tells me.
XX. He beareth Or, a Serving Man, or a Gen∣tlemans Servant standing (with a full Body or) in full Aspect, with his two Hands on his sides, his Head uncovered, cloathed with Breeches Doublet, Ho•e, Azure, Shooes, Sable, overcast with a hanging or loose Coat, with the Sleeves hang•ng backwards, Gules. This kind of loose Coat with hanging sleeves cast over a Doublet or under Coat, was in the Reign of Q. Eliza∣beth termed a Mandilion, which is a loose Cassock, such as her Soldiers used to wear.
A Waiting Man, is such a person as goeth abroad with his Master or Mistriss as a Companion, Manning or taking her by the hand in all dangerous places, for fear of a slip or fall; the Waiting Man is a degree above a Servant or a Lacky, they following their Ladies and Mi∣stresses, but he goeth before them.
A Gentleman Usher, is an Office belonging to him that attends, and waiteth on Persons of Quality, none under the degree of a Lady to have such a person as is termed a Gentleman Usher.
A Servant, is such an one as doth follow Manual •mploys, and do the Work of the House, and are un∣der Wages for such Drudgery Work as belongs to Fa∣milies; they are commonly Hired by the Year, at the end whereof they may be Free to go and do Service for another Master. It is accounted discourteous and un∣friendly, to take another Mans Servant before he hath fairly parted with his Master; and indiscreet to take a Servant without Certificate of his diligence and faithful∣ness to his former Master.
A Servant, or an Apprentice, is a Servant for a certain space of time, as 5, 7, or 9 years, by Covenant, for the Exercise and Learning of Arts, Misteries, and Trades; these for that time carry the Mark of Villains and Bond Slaves, being subject to Correction for their Faults by their Masters and Mistresses; and resistance in a Servant, is punished with a severe punishment; and to take away either of their Lives, is Petty Treason, and hath a peculiar Punishment.
A Slave, from Foreign parts, we have none since Christianity, and any brought into England, are upon Landing, Ipso Facto, Free from Slavery, but not from Ordinary Service.
XXI. He beareth Argent, a Labouring Man with a Spade on his right shoulder, a Staff in the other hand, and an Apron before him, all proper. These kind of persons are such as work for Day Wages, either with Spade, Shovel, Mattock, Axe or Trowel, &c. of which there are several Operations.
The several sorts of Labouring Men.
The Fundator, a Digger of the Earth to lay a Foundation, or make a ground work to Build upon.
The Fossor, is a Digger of the Earth, to make Dit∣ches and Trenches.
The Pastinator, a Labourer as Digs and Delves the Earth, to make it even and streight, such as delve Gar∣dens, and such like Ground.
The Putearius, a Pit Digger, and such as Dig Wells for Water.
The Ablaqueator, a Digger or Delver about the Roots of Trees, to make them more Fruitful, and such are they who keep Orchards, Dress Vinyards, and cure Hop-Yards.
The Cuniculator, a Miner, or digger under the Earth, such are all them that dig in Mines of Silver, Gold, Brass, Iron, Tin, Lead, Coal, and the like. Such are termed Pioneers, that undermine Forts, Towers and Ca∣stles, to Blow them up.
The Lapicidor, or Lapidary, a Cutter of Stones a Digger of Stones, such are they as w•rk, in Quarries, Quarry Men, Hewers of Stone, Masons, getters of Stone.
The Manuporter, is him that bears or carries any thing by strength of hands; and such are Packing Por∣ters, and them that carry with their hands by the help of Ways, Spikes or Putlocks, great Stones and Timber, •h•h Masons and Carpenters use in large Fabricks.
The Barrow Men, such as carry on a Barrow be∣tween two; and they are Labourers in Brick and Stone Work; and carry Burthens of several natures by that means.
The Wheeler, is such as transport weighty things from place to place; see numb. 53.
The Munginator, is such as blend Clay and Wa∣ter, Page 72 of these kind of Labouring Men, are the Daubers, Mortar Temperers, Plaster makers, and the like.
The Manufactor, or Workers with the hand, and such as follow handy craft labouring, as Trowel Men, Axe Men, and seilers and coverers of Houses either with Straw, Shingles, Tiles or Slate; •ee numb. 126.96.36.199, &c.
The Lator, or Porter, a Bearer or Carrier of Burthens on their Backs or Shoulders, and such are they that wait at Custom Houses, attend Merchants Cellars and Grocers Shops, to carry their Goods from place to place. A Miller, or Mill carrier, see numb. 45.
The Marianus, is a kind of Traveller, or Way-faring person, which in his Journey carries or bears Burthens on his Back with the help of a Staff; and such Labourers I take Pedlars, Tinkers and Crate Carriers to be; and all such who bear Fardels or Trusses on Staves upon their shoulders; see numb. 188.8.131.52.
The Phalangary or Palangarij, are Porters which bear Burthens on Slings, or in Ropes, with Ways, Hand-spikes, or Poles, as Beer-Brewers, Wine-Coopers, and such as bear Burthens, more than a Man or two is able to carry, see numb. 44.
XXII. He beareth Argent, a Shepherd habited or clothed in a loose Coat, and round or close Kneed Breeches, supporting a Shepherds Crook in his right hand, with his Hat in a Complemental posture in his left, all in their proper colours. A Shepherd is, and ever was esteemed a Noble Employ, it being the bu∣siness of the Patriarchs Abraham and Iacob, Gen. 47.3. and who knoweth not, that David from following his Ewes, was made King of Iudah, and gave Laws unto Is∣rael, Psal. 78.70.71. And Tullius Hostilius was a Cow-Herd, and Praemislaus a Keeper of Cattel, the one at∣tained the Government of Rome, the other of Bohemia. T•mberlain, in his Youth was a Hog-herd, or Swincherd, and after by his Vertues, a Stout Warriour and King of Scythia: And the Prophet Amos, a Herdman, yet called to be an Embassador of the Lord.
XXIII. He beareth Argent, a Countrey Clown, with a Staff on his right shoulder, with a Hand Basket hanging on it; and in his left hand, a Kettle or Pan, with a hanging Handle. This is the habit of a Country un∣bred fellow, which the Dutch term the Boors of the Countrey, such as have neither Learning, Wit, nor Manners.
A Churl, is one of a dogged and evil condition, that fears not God, nor reverences Man; such a person was that churlish Nabal, mentioned 1 Sam. 25.3. &c. who though he was able, yet returned a reviling Answer, and was so wicked that none could speak to him; a co∣covetous fellow, an inhumane person, one of no pity or manners.
A Boor, or Swain, is a Countrey Man that hath neither Breeding or Manners, one that lives in the coun∣trey Villages, and knows nothing at all of Civil Behavi∣our.
A Rustick Fellow, one without City or School breeding, without cleanliness, and of a slovenly Speech; one born of mean Parentage, and without Learning, ha∣ving neither been civilized or brought into good man∣ners.
A Plebeian, is one of the meanest commoners, or low∣est rank of people, and of a vulgar Speech or Lan∣guage.
XXIV. He beareth Or, a Mower, or a Man hold∣ing of a Sithe, as if he were Mowing, his Cloaths and hat, Russet, the rest proper. This is the crest of Mow•r of Rushmower.
The like to this, having his Suit per pale from Hat to Shooe, each counterchanged from the other A. and S. is the crest of Ashton of Ashton in Lan∣cashire; and of Chatterton in the same County. This Mower hath the point of his Sithe turned the wrong way, which if it were to the dexter side, the right hand then should be uppermost; but Pardon is desired for this fault, by the Graver.
Terms used by the Mower and Hay-makers.
To Mow, is to cut down the Grass with a Sithe.
To Mowe with a Crather, is to cut Corn that is short in the Straw, with a Sith having a kind of Rack fix∣ed to it for the Ears of Corn to fall on.
A Day Math, a Days Mowing, is as much as a Mower can cut down in a day.
A Swaffe, or Sithe Swaffe, as much as the Sithe cuts at one stroak of the Mower.
— the Sithe stroaks or marks, which are left in the Grass that the Sithe leaves growing.
The Swarth — are the rows of the cut Grass as the Sithe leaves it.
Edgrewe, is the Grass left growing after Mowing; some term it the Latter grass, or latter growing.
Tedding, is with a Pitchfork or Pikill, throwing it abroad out of those rows in which the Sithe left it on the ground.
Turning, is to turn the Grass over, that the under part may wither and dry.
Making it into Wind-rows, is to gather it up with a Rake into long Rows.
Making it into Grass Cocks, is from the Windrows to gather it into little heaps, in which it lieth the first day to dry.
Breaking, is to throw the Grass Cocks all abroad.
Turning it again and again, is to cast it over se∣veral times, that is may wither and dry throughly: cal∣led Casting it.
Plecks, is to make it, or turn it into square Beds.
Making it into midling Cocks.
Brokeing it again, then putting it into Windrows again.
Making it into Hay Cocks, is to raise it into great heap when it is perfect Hay, and well dried; and so re∣mains till it be taken away. Some term this Cocking or Coileing.
Raking the Bottom Stalls, is to Rake up all the scattered Hay about the Cocks, and cast it thereon.
Loading it, putting the Hay into the Cart.
Pitching it into the Cart.
Page 73Lead if Home, is to draw it to the place it must be kept in.
A Course, is every Fleece or turn of Hey laid on the Cart▪
A Binding Course, is the top course of Hay, which is put on before it be bound on the Cart with the •art-Rope.
Cast it off the Cart.
Pitch it into the Window.
Tread down the Hay, is treading with the feet the Hay sad down, when it is laid in the Barn, Stable or Hay loft.
A Mow, or Hay Mow, is several Loads of Hay 〈◊〉 together in a Barn or Stable.
A Stack, or Hay Stack, is several Loads of Hay, laid about, and trodden close together about a Stack Pole, being shaped broad at the bottom and narrow at rop; Pyramid-wise.
A Rick, or Hay Rick, is Hay Mowed without in the open Air, and made after the form of a Barn with a sheeding Ridg.
Treading it, is to sadden it down either in the Mow or Rick, &c.
Sweating of the Mow, when the Hay heats in the Mow.
Drawing it out, to draw it out of the Mow or Stack with an Hay hook, to give it to the Cattel, which Husband Men call Foddering of the Cattel or Beasts.
A Lock of Hay, as much as hangs together in ones hand.
A Pikell of Hay, as much as hangs together on the points or grains of a Pikell.
A Truss of Hay, as much as can be tied together in an Hay Rope, for a Man to carry on his shoulder.
A Iagg of Hay, is a small Load of Hay.
A Load of Hay, is a good Load, containing about 2000 Weight.
XXV. He beareth Azure, a Thrasher habited, or apparelled, or cloathed, of a party colour, each part counterchanged of the other Argent and Gules, with his Flail, or Thrashing Instrument raised over his head, and a Garbe at his right foot, Or. This is the crest of that worthy Family, Sir Cecill Trafford, of Traf∣ford, in Lancashire.
Terms used by Husband Men, for the Tillage and Sowing of Corn.
Fallow ground, is ground not of a long time bro∣ken up with the Plough; Ground unbroken up.
Marled ground, is laid over with a kind of fat mel∣low clay.
Mucked grounds, is ground spread over with dung of Beasts.
Faugh ground, or ground lying Faugh, is to let it lie a year or more Unplowed; the same to Fallow.
Ploughed ground, is that as is broken up with the Plow.
Fallowing, is the first Plowing for Barley, or the breaking up of Fallow ground.
Stirring, is the second Plowing for Barley.
Cogling, or Hurling, is Harrowing after the se∣cond Plowing▪
Sowing, is the third Plowing for Barley, and the Sowing of it just upon the Plowing.
A Furrow, is so much 〈◊〉 the Plow 〈…〉 a time, and may be either a broad or narrow Furrow.
A Rick, or Ridges, or Buts, are parcels of Land of several breadths and lengths.
Casting into Ricks or Ridges, is to make such by Plowing.
A Ree-an, is the distance between two Buts.
An Hadland, or Headland, is the end of a Butt, which the Plow in Plowing turneth up.
Sowing, is the casting Corn upon the ground.
Harrowing, is the renting and tearing of the Earth, that the same may cover the Seed sowed, or Corn cast upon the Earth.
Breaking of Clods, is the bruising of the Earth, which is in hard clods, that in dry Seasons the Harrow cannot rent in pieces.
Weeding, is cutting up the Weeds, lest the same overgrow, and so spoil the growth of the Corn.
Harvest time, the time when Corn is ripe.
Hay Harvest, Barley Harvest, Wheat Har∣vest, are the times for cu••ing of Grass, and those kinds of Grain.
Spritt, or Blasted, when it is beaten down by Rain, and through moisture begins to grow again.
Full Eared, w•en it is full and well growth Corn.
Rea•ing, is cutting down of Ripe Corn.
Laying in Rapes, is laying it in heaps to be bound up.
Gathering and Binding, is making them into Sheats.
The Bond, is that as ties the Corn into Bundles.
A Sheaf of Corn, is a Bundle tied together.
An Hattock, is three Sheafs-laid together.
Half Thraves, are 12 Sheafs set up together.
A Thrave, is 24 Sheafs of Corn set up together.
Pitching, putting the Sheafs into the Cart, and out of the Cart.
Loading, is the orderly laying the Sheafs in the Cart.
Layding, or Carrying, is to bring the Corn to the Barn.
Gleaning, or Leesung, or Songoing, is gather∣ing of the loose Ears of Corn, after Binding and Load∣ing.
Cutting the Neck, is the last handful of standing Corn, which when it is cut down, the Reapers give a shout, and fall to Eating and Drinking; it being the end of that Mans Harvest for that year.
Mowing, Stacking, or Ricking of Corn, as before in Hay.
Sweating, is when it is hot in the Mow, Stack, or Rick.
Threshing, is the beating of the Corn out of the husk.
Straw, that as the Ears of Corn groweth upon.
Page 74Blade, the first springing of the Corn out of the ground, which is like Grass.
Chaffy the husk as covers the Corn, making them into Ears.
Winnowing, Winding, or Haveing, is to cast the Corn and Chaff into the Wind, to blow and cleanse the chaff from it.
Mant••ng, or Mantle Wind, is to make Wind with a Winnow sheet or course cloth held by two per∣sons.
Ridling, is a sifting the corn from the chaff
Reeving, is to sift the Corn, to cleanse it from small seeds.
Knottings, or Light Corn, such as is thin, and not well grown.
Paling of Barley, is the beating of it, to get the beards from it▪
Bagging, or Sacking of it, is to put the clean Corn into big or little Bags, to carry it into the Garners or Granaries.
XXVI. He beareth Argent, an Hunter, or Hun∣ster, his Horn by his side, and Staff upon his shoul∣der, and Grey hounds at his right side, proper, his clothes Azure. This is the coat and crest of the Family of Hunsters. Some term this a Courser, but then he hath no Horn by his side.
The like Hunter with a Blood Hound on his left side, with a Collar and Liame in his left hand, is the Seal of the Town of Huntington, as Mr. Speed in his Map sets it forth.
A demy Hunter to the Sinister, holding his Staff Bend∣ways before his Breast, with both hands each side his bo∣dy, with an Insula Cap imbowed and clothed, Gules, is the crest of Stangen zu Cunitz.
XXVII. He beareth Argent, a Forester all in green, with his Steel Bow on his right shoulder, his Fau∣chion by his side, leading an Hound Collared and Liamed, all proper. This is the crest of Baskervile, of Old Withington, in Cheshire. Some do term this a For∣rester with an Hound on the near, or nearer side of him, &c. The Hunter (aforesaid) with his Greyhound on the farther side of him, &c.
The Excellencies which are contained in the Noble and Worthy Exercise of Hunting and Coursing with Greyhounds, is so well known to all Gentlemen who delight in this Pleasant Sport and Healthy Pastime, I shall pass over; and insist only upon some terms former∣ly omitted in lib. 2. chap. 9. numb. 58. And first for the Laws of Coursing, according as they were allowed and commanded by the Duke of Norfolk in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, set down by Mr. Markham.
Laws of Coursing with Grey-Hounds.
1. It was Ordered, that the Fewterer, or Letter loose of the Greyhounds, shall receive the Greyhounds matched to run together, into his Leash, as soon as he comes into the Field, and follow next to the Hare-find∣er, till he come unto the Form; and that no Horseman or Footman, on pain of disgrace to go before them, or on any side, but directly behind, the space of 40 yards or thereabouts.
2. That the Hare-finder, shall give the Hare three Soho's before he put her from her Lear, to make the Greyhounds gaze and attend her rising.
3. That not above one Brace of Greyhounds do course a Hare at one instant.
4. That the Fewterer shall give the Hare twelve score Law, before he loose the Greyhounds, except it be in danger of loosing sight.
5. That Dog which gives the first Turn, if after the Turn there be given neither Coat, Slip or Wrench extraordinary; he that gives the first Turn shall be held to win the Wager.
6. If one Dog give the first Turn, and the other bear the Hare, then he which bore the Hare shall win.
7. If one give both first and last Turn, and no other advantage be between them, the odd Turn shall win the Wager.
8. That a Coat shall be more than two Turns, and a Go-By, or the Bearing of the Hare, shall be equal with two Turns.
9. If neither of the Dogs Turn the Hare, then he that Leadeth last at the Covert, shall be held to win the Wager.
10. If one Dog turn the Hare, serve himself, and Turn her again, those two Turns shall be as much as a Coat.
11. If all the Course be equal, then he that Bears the Hare shall win only; and if she be not Born, the Course must be adjudged dead.
12. If he that comes first in to the death of the Hare, takes her up, and saves her from breaking, cherisheth the Dogs, and cleanseth their Mouths from the Wooll, or other filth of the Hare; for such courtesie done, he shall in Right challenge the Hare, but not doing it, he shall have no Right, Priviledge, or Title therein.
13. If any Dog shall take a Fall in the Course, and yet perform his part, he shall challenge the advantage of a Turn more than he giveth.
14. If one Dog turn the Hare, serve himself, and give diverse Coats; yet in the end stand still in the Field, the other Dog without Turn giving, running home to the Covert; that Dog that stood still in the Field shall be adjudged to loose the Wager.
15. If any Man shall Ride over a Dog, and overthrow him in his Course, (though the Dog were the worse Dog in opinion, yet) the Party for the Offence shall ei∣ther receive the disgrace of the Field, or pay the Wa∣ger; for between the Parties it shall be adjudged no Course.
16. Lastly, Those which are chosen Iudges of the Leash, shall give their Judgment presently, before they depart the Field, or else he in whose default it lieth, shall pay the Wager by a general Vote and Sentence.
☞ Here note, that the Laws of Coursing, may and do often alter according to some Mens swaying Fan∣cies; for it ever lieth in the power of him that hath the office of the Leash conferred on him, to make Laws according to the customs of Countreys, and the Rule of Reason.
Some other Terms and Descriptions re∣lating to Forests and Forest Laws, and the different terms between Hounds and Greyhounds.
A Forrest, is a place Priviledged by Royal Authori∣ty, and differs from a Park, Warren and Chase, and is purposely alotted for the nourishment of Beasts and Fowls thereunto belonging; for which there are certain Laws, Officers, and Orders; part of which are in the great Charter of the Forest.
A Forester, is an Officer of the Forest, sworn to preserve the Uert and Uenison therein, and to Appre∣hend all Offenders, and present them to the Forest Courts, to the end they may be punished according to their misdemeanors.
A Purlieu, is all that ground adjoining to Forests, which being made Forest by the King; was afterwards by the King, severed again from the same Forest, and made Perambulations.
A Purlieu-Man, is he that hath ground within the Purlieu of 40 s. Freehold. And such an one with some caution may Hunt within his own Purlieu.
A Regarder, is an Officer in the Kings Fo•••• that is sworn to take care of the Uert and Uenis••〈◊〉 to view and enquire of all Offences committed •her•〈◊〉 and of all Concealments, and whither all other Offi∣cers do execute their Office or not.
A Raunger, whose Office is to look after the Pur∣lieu, and to drive back the Deer into the Forest again; and to see, hear, and enquire after Offenders, and to present their Offences.
A Uerderor, is an Officer of the Kings Forest, and chosen by the Freeholders of the County where the Fo∣rest is, by the Kings Writ directed to the Sherriff for that purpose; such are chiefly to look after the Wood and Grass in the Forest.
An Agistor, is an Officer of the Forest, that takes in to Feed the Cattel of Strangers, and receives for the Kings use all such Tack-Money as becomes due from those Strangers.
Woodgeld, is the gathering or cutting of Wood in the Forest, or the Money paid for it to the use of the Forester, or an Immunity for this by the Kings Grant.
A Chase, is a place used for the Receipt of Deer, and Beasts of the Forrest; it differs from a Forrest and a Park; it may be in the hands of a Subject, which a Forest in its proper nature cannot be; neither is it inclosed as a Park always is; it hath a larger com∣pass, more Store of Game, and more Keepers and Over∣seers than the Park.
Expeditate, is the cutting out of the Ball of the foot of great Dogs in the Forest (as some say) yet others, that it is the cutting off the three fore-claws by the skin; and that the Owner of every such Dog unexpeditated in the Forest, shall forfeit 3 s. 4 d.
Fence Month hath 31 days, begins 15 days be∣fore Midsummer, and ends 15 days after; in which time it is unlawful for any to Hunt in the Forest, or to go among the Deer to disquiet them, because it is the time of Fawning.
Frank Chase, is a liberty of Free Chase in a circuit annexed to the Forest, whereby all Men that have ground within the circuit of the Forest are forbidden to cut down Wood, or discover, &c. within the view of the Forest, though it be his own Demesne.
Green Hue, or Uert, they both signifie every thing that doth grow or bear green Leaves within the Forest, that may cover or hide the Deer.
Over-Uert, is all manner of high Wood.
Nether-Uert, is all sorts of Under-wood.
Cablish, is all sorts of Brushwood.
Horngeld, is a Tax within the Forest for all manner of Horned Beasts.
Footgeld, is an Amercement on such as live within the Forest, for not expeditating their Dogs; and to be quit of Footgeld, is a priviledge to keep Dogs there unlawed, without Punishment or Controllment.
Pawnage, is Money taken by the Agistors for the feed of Hogs with the Mast or Acorns of the Forest: But (Mr. Crompton saith) it is most properly the Mast, Woods, Lands, or Hedged Rows, or Money due to the Owners of the same for it.
A Scotale, is where any Officer of the Forest keeps an Ale-house in the Forest by colour of his Office, cau∣sing Men to come to his House, and spend their Money there, for fear of having a displeasure; but this is sor∣〈◊〉 by Ch•rta Foresta.
•erambulation, is the measuring and setting down 〈…〉 and limits of the Forest.
•••ft of the Fortest, is an exact view and exami∣nation taken at certain times, as occasion shall serve, to know what Beasts are there; that none Common there but such as have right; and that the Forest be not over∣charged with the Beasts of Foreigners.
An Assart, is a great Offence committed in the Fo∣rest, by grubbing up the Woods, Coverts and Thick∣ets, and making them plain, as Arable Land, or the like.
Minoverie, is a Trespass or Offence committed by some Engine set up in the Forrest to catch Deer or the like.
Tritis, is a Freedom that one hath from holding a Greyhound in ones hand when the Lord of the Forrest is Hunting there, or be amerced for his default.
Protoforestarius, the first or chief Forester, this was a great Officer heretofore in Windsor Forest.
Stablestand, is when one is found standing in the Forest with his Bow ready bent, or Gun prepared to shoot at any Deer, or with his Greyhound in a Lease ready to slip.
Swainmote, or Swannimote, is a Court appoint∣ed to be held thrice in a year within a Forest, the first 15 days before Michaelmas, the second about Martin∣mas, and the third 15 days before St. Iohn Baptist.
Chiminage, is taken by Foresters in Fee thronghout their Bailywick for Bushes, Timber, &c. And signifieth the same with Toll.
Afforest, is to turn Lands into Forrest.
Disafforest, or Disforest, is to turn Land from be∣ing Forest to other uses.
Proper Terms used for the Noises of Hounds.
We say that Hounds, They Challenge, that is when they open and make a noise at first cast off, ha∣ving found some Game or Chase.
They Bawl, when they are too busie before they find the scent good.
They Babble, if they be too busy after they find good scent.
They are in full Cry, if they run it endways or∣derly, making it good, and then hold in together mer∣rily.
They Lapse, when Spaniels open in the String (or a Greyhound in his course.
They Plod, is when Hounds hang behind, and beat too much upon the scent in one place.
They Bay, is when they have earthed a Vermine, or brought a Deer, or Boar, or such like, to turn head against them.
Different Terms in Hunting, for Hounds and Greyhounds.
A Brace of Greyhounds, is two.
A Couple of Hounds, is two.
A Leace of Greyhounds is three.
A Couple and half of Hounds is three.
A Kennel of Hounds, or
A Pack of Beagles, when many together.
Entries, are such places where Deer have lately pas∣sed into Thickets or Underwoods, by which we judg their greatness; and there put in the Hounds or Beagles, to take their view.
They draw amiss, when Hounds have the scent of their Chase contrary, as to run it up the Wind, when they should it down.
Hunt change, when either Hounds or Beagles take fresh scent, hunting another chase, until they stick, and have it again.
Hunt Counter, when Hounds hunt it by the Heel.
Hunt the Foile, when the Chase goes off, and comes on the same ground again, traversing it over and over to deceive the Hounds.
Ringwalks, usually called Dew-rounds, which are things made by Huntsmen, when they go drawing in their Springs.
Prickhead, is the first head of a Fallow Deer.
Run Mute, when Hounds or Beagles run long without opening, or making any cry.
Run Riot, when Hounds run at a whole Herd of Deer.
Draw on the Slot, is when the Hounds touch the scent, and draw on till they rouze or put up the chase.
Deers Gate, or to know a Deers bigness by his Gate, is by the Huntsmans observing the Slot or foot∣steps of the Deer.
She carryeth, is when a Hare runneth on rotten ground, or in the Frost, sometimes it sticks to her feet.
Yearn, is when Beagles Bark and Cry at their Prey.
A Spitter, is by some called an Hart of the first Year.
A Pricker, is an Huntsman on Horseback.
Wiles, are any kinds of Engines to take Deer withal.
A Uauntlay, is when Hounds or Beagles are set in a readiness, expecting the Chase to come by, and then cast them off before the rest come in.
A Blemish, is when Hounds or Beagles find where the Chase hath been, and made a proffer to enter, but have returned.
The Call, is a Lesson Blowed on the Horn to com∣fort the Hounds.
A Recheat, a Lesson also on the Horn.
The Mort or Death, is a Lesson blown at the Death of any Deer. There are several other Lessons Blown on the Horn, which you may find. See in the fol∣lowing notes, with the names of the Notes.
To call the Company in the Morning, Tone tavern ta∣vern tavern tone ton-tavern.
The Stroaks to the Field, Ton-ton-tavern tone ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone.
To uncouple the Hounds, tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern ton-tavern tone.
When the Hounds hunt a Game unknown, ton-ton-tav••n tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern, tavern 〈◊〉-ton-tavern tavern tavern.
A Recheat, when they hunt a right game, ton-ton-tavern tone, ton-ton tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ta∣vern tavern tavern, ton-ton-tavern tavern ton-ton-ta∣vern tone ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern tavern tavern tavern.
A double Recheat.
The trebble Recheat.
The Earthing of a Fox if recoverable, tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern ton-ton-tavern tone, ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton ton-tavern tavern ta∣vern tavern.
If not to call away, ton-tavern tone ton-tavern.
The Death of an Hare tone tavern tavern tavern ta∣vern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tavern tone.
The Death of a Buck, Tone ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-tavern ton-ta∣vern tone.
The Death of a Stag or Hart, tone ton ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton•ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-ta∣vern ton-ton tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-ta∣vern tone.
The Death of a Fox, tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern ta∣vern tone.
The Call for a Keeper in Park or Forest, ton-tavern tavern ton-tavern, ton-tavern t•ne t•n-tavern, Page 77 ton-tavern ton• tavern tavern tavern tone.
The Prize of a Heart-Royal, tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern ta∣vern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tone tavern tavern tavern tavern.
The Stroaks for the Terriers when the Fox is Earthed, ton-tavern tone ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern ton ton ton tone.
To draw the company out of the Field, tone ton ton ton ton-tavern ton-ton-tavern tone.
A Recheate or Farewell at the parting, ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone tone-ton, ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone ton tone ton tone, ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone tone.
Ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone tone-ton, ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone tone ton ton-ta∣ven ton tone ton tone ton tone ton-tavern ton tone ton tone ton tone ton tone.
XXVIII. He beareth Argent, a Falconer Cloathed in Gray; with a Glove on his right Hand, with a Fal∣con upon, his Lewre by his side, and his Staff in his left Hand holding it cross his Body in Bend sinister, all proper.
For the Terms of Art used by Falconers, and things necessary and useful for Hawks are set down to the full in lib. 2. chap. 11. numb. 62. sect. 7.
XXIX. He beareth Gules, a Cooke with a Cap, Sleeves, and Apron, Argent; Wastcoat and Brea∣ches, Azure: Hose of the second, Shoes Sable, hold∣ing of a Dish of Meat between his Hands proper. A Dresser fixed to the Dexter side Or.
Cooks Dressers and Tables, are Emblems of Good Housekeeping and Hospitality; a thing in this age much commended, but little practized. And seeing I am fallen upon this subject, it will not be amiss to give some little touch by the way, of the bounty of some Princes and Nobles in their Feasts and Hospitality towards Strangers in former times: Whereof I find King Solomon to be the most famous President; for his daily expences, that I read off wherein he exceeded all others that preceed∣ed or succeeded him, as we may see 1. Kin. 4.22.23 where it is said: And Solomons Victuals for one Day were thirty Measures of fine Flower, and thirty Measures of Meal, ten fat Oxen, and twenty Oxen of the Pastures, and one hundred Sheep, besides Harts, and Roebucks, and Fallow Deer, and fatted Fowl.
We read also of a notable Feast kept by Iosiah King of Iudah, viz. The Feast of the Passover, of which it is said that there was no such Feast as that from the Days of the Judges, nor in all the Days of the Kings of Israel, and of the Kings of Iudah. For Iosiah gave to the People, Sheep, Lambs and Kids for all the Passover, even to all that were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand Bullocks; and his Princes offered willing∣ly to the Priest and People eight thousand Bullocks, and seven thousand six hundred Sheep, as we read 2. Kin. 23.21. &c. 2. Chro. 35.8, 9.18.
And Darius who was the Soveraign Monarch of the Medes, Persians, and Cald•ans in the third year of his Raign made a Royal Feast for all his Princes and Ser∣vants even all the power of Persia and Media, and for the Captains and Governors of an hundred and seven and twenty Provinces, which were before him. And for to shew the Riches and Glory of his Kingdom, and the Ho∣nor of his Great Majestie, this Feasting he kept for an hundred and fourscore days. And when those days were expired, the King made a Feast for all the People great and small that were in Shushan the Seat of his Royal Pa∣lace for seven days, as we may read in the Book of Ester chap. 1. Where he is called by the name of Ahashi•erosh, and of some Historians is supposed to be Artaxerxes, Son of Darius Hystaspis.
From him we descend to the Hospitality of the ancient Kings of this Land: I find that King Lud commanded his Houshold Officers, to have the Table in the Hall dai∣ly covered from seven of the Clock in the Morning to seven in the Evening. His daily Diet was not much in rare and delicate Meats; but that he kept it constantly with good and wholsome Viands and such Cates as could then be gotten. And at the four great Feast, he made Proclamation in the Country for all manner of People to come thither.
Also it is mentioned that King Cassibelane made a Royal Feast at the second triumph over the Romans: in which he gave out his Royal command to all the Gentiles of Brittany, to come with their Wives to Magnifie his Feast: for which he slew Forty thousand Kine, and Oxen, one hundred thousand Sheep, thirty thousand Deer, and other Wild Beasts of the Woods, besides the diverse kinds of Pullin, Coneys, Wild and Tame Fowl, both of Sea and Land, with much other purveiance of Victuals, with many Disguisings, Plays, Minstrelsie and sports too long to recite.
But to leave all others I shall only give a relation of one Feast more, made by George Nevill Arc•• Bishop of York; at the time of his Consecration, 〈◊〉••tallation, 7. E. 4. about 1466. at which there was p••vided this Provision,
- Wheat, 300 Quarters.
- Ale, 300 Tuns.
- Wine, 104 Tuns.
- Ipocras, 1 Pipe.
- Oxen, 80.
- Wild-Bull, 6.
- Muttons, 1004.
- Veal, s 300.
- Porks, 300.
- Geese, 3000.
- Capons, 2300.
- Piggs, 2000.
- Peacocks, 100.
- Cranes, 200.
- Kids, 200.
- Chickens, 2000.
- Pigeons, 4000.
- Conies, 4000.
- Bitters, 204.
- Mallards and Teals, 4000.
- Hearnsewes, 400.
- Pheasants, 200.
- Partriges, 500.
- Woodcocks, 400.
- Plovers, 400.
- Curlewes, 100.
- Quailes, 100.
- Egrets, 1000.
- Rees, 200.
- Harts, Bucks and Roes, 400 and odd.
- Pasties of Venison cold, 4000.
- Pasties of Venison hot, 1506.
- Dishes of Gelly Pacted, 1000
- Plain Dishes of Gelly; 1000.
- Cold Tarts, 4000.
- Cold Custards, 4000.
- Hot Custards, 2000.
- Pykes, 300.
- Breams, 300.
- Seales, 8.
- Purposes, 4.
- Chief Cooks▪ 62.
- Servants and Broach tur∣ners, 515.
The Officers of the said Feast.
- The Earl of Warwick Steward.
- The Earl of Bedford Treasurer.
- The Lord Hastings Controller.
- The Lord Willoughby Carver.
- Sir Iohn Buckingham Cup-Bearer.
- Sir Richard Strangways Sewer.
- Sir Walter Morley Chief Marshal of the Hall, with eight other Knights Marshals, besides Esquires and Grooms.
- Sir Iohn Malvery Panter.
- Serjeant of the Kings Ewry, the Ewer.
- Iohn Graystock and Iohn Nevill, Keepers of the Cubbord.
- Iohn Braynock Surveyor through the Hall.
The Ordering and Sending up of the Grand Feast abovesaid.
- Furmenty viant Potage.
- Pennade purple Potage.
- Hare powdred.
- Roe Powdred.
- Pheasant Intrail.
- Capons in half Grease.
- Carpet of Venison.
- Pike in Harblet.
- Leach Cant.
- Venison Baked.
- Custard Planted.
- A Suttlety.
- Gelly pacted Pottage.
- Rassens Pottage.
- Venison Baked.
- Peacocks in Rapil.
- Conyes Reverse.
- Lardis of Venison.
- Breames in Spile.
- Pumis Verte.
- Leiche Sipers.
- Fruter Napkin.
- Dates in Molde.
- Scatines Ryal.
- A Suttlety.
- Blanke Desire.
- Dates in Comp•st.
- Bitters Roste.
- Great Birds.
- Porpose Roste.
- Leach Blanke.
- Fruter Crispin.
- Quince Baked.
- Chamblett Vial.
- Wafers and Ipocras plenty.
Terms for Carving and Sewing.
- To Ca•••, is to Cut up a Dish of Meat, but according to the Meats use these Terms for their Carv∣ing,
- Break that Deer.
- Leach that Brawn.
- U•lace that Coney.
- Chine that Salmon.
- String that Lamprey.
- Splat that Pike.
- Sauce that Plaice and Tench.
- Splay that Bream.
- Side that Haddock.
- Tusk that Barbell.
- Culpon that Trout.
- Fin that Chevin.
- Transon the Eel.
- Tranch that St•rgeon.
- Tire that Egg.
- Undertranch that Purpus.
- Tame that Crab.
- Barb that Lobster.
- Dight that Crevis.
- Rear that Goose.
- Lift that Swan.
- Sauce that Capon.
- Spoil that Hen.
- Frust that Chicken.
- Unbrace that Duck or Mallard.
- Dismember that Hern.
- Display that Crane.
- Disfigure that Peacock.
- Unjoynt that Bittern.
- Untach that Curlew, and Brew.
- Allay that Pheasant.
- Wing that Patridge, and Quail.
- Mince that Plover.
- Thigh that Pigeon, and Woodcock.
- Cut up that Turky and Bustard.
- Break that Teal or Sarcel.
Other Bills of Fare for Grand Feasts, and how to set the Meat in Order.
- Brawn and Mustard.
- A Capon in Stewed Broth with Mar∣row-Bones.
- A Goose in Stuffado, or two Ducks.
- A Grand Sallet.
- A Shoulder of Mutton with Oysters.
- A Bisk Dish baked, or
- A Chine of Beef roasted.
- Minced Pies or Chewits of Capon, Tongue, or Veal.
- A Chine of Pork.
- A Pastie of Venison.
- A Swan or two Geese roasted.
- A Loyn of Veal.
- A French Pie of diverse compounds.
- A Roast Turkey.
- A Pigg Roasted.
- 2 Brangeese Roasted, one larded.
- Sowce Veal.
- 2 Capons Roasted, one larded.
- A Custard double bordered.
The second Course.
- Oranges and Lemons.
- A Sowced Pigg.
- A Young Lamb or Kidd roast.
- 2 Shovelers.
- 2 Herns, one larded.
- A Potatoe Pie.
- Duck and Mallard, one larded.
- A Sowced Turbet.
- 2 Pheasants, one larded.
- Marinated Carp, or Bream, or Pike.
- Partridges, some Larded.
- •ade Dish of Spinage Cream Bak∣ed.
- A Rowl of Beef.
- Tailes roast, some larded.
- A cold Goose Pye.
- A Sowced Mullet and Bace.
- A Quince Pye.
- C••lews, some larded.
- Dried Neats-Tongues.
- A Dish of Anchovis.
- A Jole of Sturgeon.
- Jellies and Tarts Royal.
- Ginger-bread, and other Fruits ac∣cording to the Season.
A Christmas Days Feast.
- A Collar of Brawn.
- Stewed Broth of Mutton and Marrow-Bones.
- A Grand Sallet.
- A Pottage of Capons.
- A Breast of Veal in stuf•ado.
- Boiled Partridges.
- A Chine or Surloin of Beef roasted.
- Mince Pyes.
- A Jegote of Mutton with Anchovis Sauce▪
- A made Dish of Sweet-breeds.
- A Swan roast.
- A Pastie of Venison.
- A Kid with a Pudding in his Belly.
- A stake Pye.
- A Haunch of Venison roasted.
- A Turky roa•t, stuck with Cloves.
- A made Dish of Chickens in puff Paste.
- 2 Geese roast, one larded.
- 2 Capons, one larded.
- A Custard.
The second Course.
- Oranges and Lemons.
- A young Lamb or Kid.
- 4 Rabbits, two larded.
- A Pigg sauced with Tongues.
- Ducks, some larded.
- 2 Pheasants, one larded.
- A Swan or Goose Pye cold.
- Partridges, some larded.
- A made Dish in puff paste.
- Bolonia Sausages. in a Dish.
- Anchovis. in a Dish.
- Mushroomes. in a Dish.
- Cavieare. in a Dish.
- Pickled Oysters. in a Dish.
- Teales, some larded.
- A Gammon of Westphalia Bacon.
- Plovers, some larded.
- A Quince or Warden Pye.
- Woodcocks, some larded.
- A Tart in puff paste.
- Preserved Fruit and Pippins.
- A Dish of Larks.
- Sturgeon, and Anchovis, and Jellies.
Other Bills of Fare for every Season in the Year, also how to set forth Meat in Order accordingly.
1. Brawn and Mustard, Eggs and Collops, Hasty Pud∣ding, Pudding Boiled, a Pot Ball or Dumpling or baked of Bread, or Rice, Puddings in skins of Blood and Oate-Meal.
2. Boiled Capon in stewed Broth, Fresh Neats-Tongues and Udder, Hens and Bacon, Beef and Cabbage, Ca∣pon pottage, Panado, Compound-possed or white Broth, Olio, Gruel, Furmenty, Honey Sops, Soops, Caudles of Oate-Meal or Eggs, Alebury.
3. Turkies in Stuffado, Hash of Rabbits, Ducks in Stuf∣fado, Haunch of Venison Roasted, Scotch Collops of Beef, Mutton or Veal.
4. A Hash or a Shoulder of Mutton, a Grand Fricasee, Loyn of Pork, Hash Capons, Calves Head stewed, Bisk.
5. Geese boiled, a Grand Sallet.
6. A Boiled Meat of Ducks, Roast Pork.
7. A Marrow-Pudding baked.
8. A Surloyn of roast Beef, a Chine or Ribb of Beef.
9. Minced Pyes, Steak Pye, or Hare, Pumpion, Arti∣choke, Umble, Potatoes, an Oline or Pallate Pie, Chaldron Pye, Giblet Pie, Calves head or feet Pie.
10. Loyn of Veal, Roast Venison.
11. A Pasty of Venison or Mutton.
12. A Pig Roasted, Leg of Mutton Roasted, Hare Roa∣sted.
13. Geese Roasted, Swan Roasted.
14. Capons or Hens Roasted.
Oranges and Lemmons.
1. Lamb or Kid, Sallet of Herbs, Pease and French Beans, Rabbits.
2. Sowced Pig, Capon, Swines head and feet.
3. Rabbits roasted and larded, Widgeons, Teal, Dot∣terells, Curlews, Ruffs.
4. Ducks roasted and larded, Shovellers, Gulls, Herns, Cranes, Bittorn.
5. Teal or other Fowle, Woodcocks, Quailes.
6. A made Dish or Batalia Pie, Sweet-bread Pie, Fried Fish or Buttered Fish of any sort: as Pike, Salmon, Dace, Mullet, Turbu•, Ray, Lump Fish, Plaice, Flounders, Soals, Lampry, Eels.
7. Neats-Tongues, Florentine of Tongues.
8. Pigeons, wild or 〈◊〉 larded: Olines or Plovers, Sparrows, Black-birds, Thrushes, Fieldfare, Railes.
9. Sowced Capon, Sowced Eels or other Fish, Ray, Salmon, Conger.
10. Pickled Mushrooms, Oysters and Anchovis, Lob∣sters.
11. Orangado Pie, or Tarts of green Pease, Hips, Rice, Cheries, Goosberies, Plums, Prunes, Barberies with wet Sucke•s, Pippin Pie, Warden Pie, Quince Pie, Codling Tarts of diverse colours in puff paste, Quak∣ing Pudding.
Page 8012. Sturgeon, Collar of Beef, Turbut, Pickled Puffins, Scallops, Cockles, Muscles, Sprawns, Shrimps, Crabs, Tortoise, Crawfish, Snails.
13. Westphalia Bacon, Bolonia Sausages.
14. Turkey or Goose Pie, Marinate Flounders, Arti∣choke Pie, Smelts, cold Hare Pie, Selsey Cockles.
15. Jelly of five or six colours, Tansies, Fritters, Pan∣cakes, Balls •oasted.
16. Creams made of Codlings, Quince, Plums, Goos∣berries or Almonds, Clouted Cream, Snow Cream, fresh Cheese and Cream, Sillabubs & Cream, Egg Pies.
17. Custards, White pots, Fools, Leach, Blamangers.
18. Lay Tarts of diverse colours, Tarts Royal, Cod∣lings and Cream, Cheese.
1. March-pan set with several sorts of Sweet-Meats.
2. Preserves or wet Sweet-Meats in Plates as, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Quinces, Grapes Respass, Pippins, Oranges, Lemmons, young Walnuts, Apricocks, Pea∣ches, &c. with their Syrup a•out them.
3. Dried Sweet-meats & Suckets of Oranges Lem∣mons Citron: or Conserves, or Candies, and Rock-Candies of Cherries, Apricocks, Plums, Damasius, Pippins, Pears, Angelica, Rosemary and Marygold Flowers, Pippins, Pears, Apricocks, Plums, Ringo roots: or Marmalet of Quinces, Damasins, Plums, Oran∣ges, 〈◊〉Pastes made of Citron: Pippins, Apricocks, Rasbery, English Currans.
4. Bikets, Mackroons, naple Bisket, Italian Bisket, Com∣feits round, Longs and Loseng like, Gingerbread, Al∣mond Cakes, Apricock Cakes, L•senges, Quince Chips, Orange cakes, Marchpane Collops.
5. Sugar cakes, Iamballs, Iemelloes, Sugar Plate, Plum and Rasbury cakes, Cheese cakes.
6. Tree Fruit as Apples and Pears of diverse kinds, Che∣ries, Plums, Strawberies, Currans, Ra•pes, Walnut, Chestnuts, Filbernuts, Dates, Graps, •iggs, Oranges, Lemmons, Apricocks, Peech, Dried Raisins and Currans, Prunes, Almonds blanched
According as the season is for them, all which several things are mixt and interchangably set on the Table ac∣cording to the discription of the Gentleman Sewer.
Cookery is an extraordinary, and an ordinary Art; the first exemplifieth in Dishes of such high Prices which none but Noble Hospitalities can reach unto, and those only Illustrate by new Terms of Art, more then any sub∣stantial sollid Dish-meats, which in truth for all their cost∣liness are meer Kick-shews, rather to please the Pallet with a dellicate Ho-goo, then wholesome feeding. Where∣as, the second may with less labour be better managed for the general good, and Treatments of meaner expences, given to Friends, Allies, and acquaintances; having handsome and relishing entertainment throughout all the Season in the Year: For I have found by Experience that some Country Cooks have out-gone, with mixtures easily prepared, and not too chargable to the Purse, those who have with cost made Hogg▪ podg Dish-meats, neither pleasing to the Pallet, or of credit to the Masters: But this is none of my business.
I have generally noted in great Feasts, Cooks have sent up their Dish-meats to the Table ad Libitum, accord∣ing to their own will; some first Boiled Meats, then Bake Meats, then Roast Meats all together, &c. Other Coo• (but Gentlemen Sewers rather, whose Office it is to place Dishes on the Table) will send them, one Boiled, another Baked, another Roasted, &c. Alternately Dish for 〈◊〉 till the Table be furnished: and for that end I have a∣bovesaid gathered a Feast of twelve, fourteen, sixteen, or twenty Dishes for a considerable Feast for all times in the Year, noteing several Dish-meats ender one and the same figure, in the first and second Course intimateing thereby, that if the Season of the Year will not afford one kind, it is probable it may another, except in cases of scarcity, or places of great distance.
But let Cooks study new Dish-meats, and work out their Brains when they have done all they can, there is but four sorts of Meat which they can properly, and with safety work upon, viz. Flesh of Beasts, Flesh of Fowle, Flesh of Fish, and Field Fruits: and these a∣gain are according to their kinds, either Stewed, Boiled, Parboiled, Fryed, Broiled, Roasted, Baked, Hashed, Pickled, Souced, or made into into Sweet-Meats. Nil Vltra.
Sauces of all sorts, and of what Com∣pounded.
Also Sauces of all sorts, and for most Dish-meats of Flesh, Fish or Fowl; are by the Cooks Art com∣pounded of these Ingredients.
Fatnings, as Butter, Gravey, Hogs-Grease, Sewe•, Marrow, Lard.
Liquids, as Muskadine, Sack, Claret, White-wine, Sider, Vergis, Vineger, Aliger, Cream, Milk, Sallet-Oyle, Pickles of several pickled things, Water, Jellies or several sorts, Strong-Broth.
Thicknings, as Eggs, Bread or Sops, Biskets, Onions, Leeks, Chibals, Garlick, Artichoke bottoms▪ Sweet herbs chopped, Asperagus, Skerrets, Parsnips, Turnips, Green Pease, Colliflowers, Apples, Samphir, Anchovis, Blood, Capers, Oli•s, Mustard.
Sweetnings, as Sugar, Cinamon, Cloves, Mace, Pepper, Nutmeg, Salt, Goosberies, Barberries, Grapes, Raisins, Currans, Plums, Dates, Oranges and Lemmo•s and them candied, Mellacattors.
It is an easie thing to be a famous Cook, when he flows in all things to his desire; but he is the best Cook that shews his Art with small cost, and little expence of Fire.
But for Drink to these sorts of Meat we must go to the Buttler, Yeoman of the Wine-Sellar and compounder of Liquors, and they will tell us that they have in their Custody these several sorts of Drinks.
- Scurvy-Grass, or Purle.
- Beer, mild and stale.
- Curran Wine.
- Couslip Wine.
- Iamaica Claret.
- Page 81Punch.
- Meath or Mead.
- Aqua Mirabilis.
- Aqua Vitae.
- Aqua Coelestis.
- Raisin Wine.
- Rasberry Wine.
- Gillyflower Wine, &c.
A Bill of Fare for Lent-time, or other Fish or Fast-Days.
- Oysters if in Season.
- A Pudding Pie.
- Eggs and Butter.
- Rice Pottage or Barly broth Milk or Pease pottage.
- Stewed Oysters, Mucscles, Cockles, Wilks.
- Buttred Eggs on Toasts.
- Buttred Turnips, Carrets, Parsnips, Potatos.
- Spinage Sallet boiled, or o∣ther cold or pickled Sal∣lets.
- Boiled Rochet, or Gurnnet, or Flounders.
- A Jole of Ling.
- Stewed Carp.
- Oysters Chewits.
- Boiled Pike.
- Roast Eels, or fresh Herring.
- Haddock, fresh Cod, or Whiting.
- Eel or Carp Pie.
- Made dish of Spinage.
- Salt Eels.
- Souced Turbut or Salmon.
- Fried Soals.
- Stewed Oysters in Scollop shells.
- Fried Smelts.
- Congers head boiled.
- Baked Dish of Potatoes or Oyster Pie.
- A Spitch-cock of Eels.
- Quice Pie, or Tarts.
- Buttred Crabs.
- Fried Flounders or Flooks.
- Jole of fresh Salmon.
- Jole of Salmon.
- Fried Turbet.
- Cold Salmon Pie.
- Fried Skirts.
- Souced Conger.
- Lobsters, or Crabs, or Spawn.
The Names of Several Dish-Meats and Cooks Terms Alphabetically.
Andolian, is a kind of Pudding made of Hogs Guts filled with Spices, and one Gut drawn over another: some writ it Annolia.
Almon Bread, bread made of Almon.
Angelot, is Curds made of Milk Cream and Runnet, into thin Cheese.
Alebury, Ale boiled with Sugar, Mace and Manchet.
A-la-Hugenotte, a Dish of Eggs dressed up with Gravey of roast Beef with boiled Mushromes and other Spices.
A-la-Sauces, Sauce made after the French Al∣maigne or German fashon.
A-la-Doode, is a French way of ordering any large Fowl, or Leg of Mutton, to be eaten cold with Mustard and Sugar: the thing is seasoned with Salt and Spice, Lar∣ded and Baked and kept cold.
A-la-Mode way, is the new or French way of dres∣sing all manner of boiled or baked Meat.
Buttered Ale, is Ale boiled with Butter, Eggs and Sugar.
Batalia Pie, the same order of meat as in a Bisk, and put in a Pie.
Basting of Meat, is to Butter meat roasting at the Fire to keep it from burning, some do it with Butter, o∣thers clarified Suet, Claret Wine, Water and Salt, Cream and Eggs, &c.
Broth, is the liquor flesh is boiled in, being thickned with herbs and groats.
Beef, the flesh of Ox, Cow, or Bull.
Biskque or Bisk, a Dish-meat made of a Rack of Veal, a Knuckle of Mutton, Pigeons, Chickens, a Roast Capon minced: Sweet-breads, Marrow, Artichokes (and what you will) boiled or stewed together with Spices in water, and so Dished up by Art.
Bisque, or Bisk Pie; is made of the like Ingredi∣ences either of Flesh or Fish.
Bisket Bread or Cakes, is made of Flower, Sugar, Eggs, Carroway seeds, baked.
Blanch, is to take the skin of Almonds, also it is u∣sed for the taking off the top crust of Bread, and Lamb stones blanched, is to take the skin off, and blanch a Neats-Tongue.
Blanch Manchet, is a fried Pudding made of Eggs and grated Bread.
Boile, is to put any meat into water, in a Pot over a Fire.
Boile Meat, are all boiled Dish-meats.
Blanchmanger, a made Dish of Cream, Eggs and Sugar, put into an open pu•• paste bottom, with a loose cover.
Brodo Lardiero, is an Italian term, and is the or∣dering of Tongues, Noses, Lips and Pallate of Beefs, by boiling and blanching them whole, by halfs or Gobbins: and served up in strong broth with Bacon interlarded.
Bolonia Sausages, these are only made in Septem∣ber, they are Beef Guts filled with minced Pork and stampt: to which mixt Pepper, Cloves, Nutmegs, Salt, and Salt-Peter, Caraway seeds, and Cinamon: tied a∣bout a Finger long.
Blamanger, is a Capon roast or boile minced small, planched Almonds beaten to paste, Cream, Eggs, Grat•d Bread, Sugar and Spices boiled to a pap.
Breading of Meat, is Grate Bread and mix it with Flower, or do each it 〈◊〉: •rowing it one 〈…〉 and ready to draw o• the spit.
Balts, those to fry are compounded 〈…〉, old Cheese, Sugar Currans, made into paste: 〈…〉 little Pasties, Toasts, Scallops and such like, are made for Gar∣nishing: see Ransoles.
Bal•s or 〈…〉 to eat, see Dumpling.
Batter, is Flower Milk, Eggs and Spices, for the mak∣ing of Pancakes, Fritters, and several other things for Feasts.
Bovillon, is a kind of Broth or boiled meat made of several things.
Chips or Italian Chips, is a paste made of fine Flower Gum Dragon sleeped in Rose Water, rowled thin and cut them in peeces, and speck them with diverse colours.
Page 82Collar of Beef, is Beef half boiled and rowled up with Spices and sweet Herbs chopped small in it, and then baken in a Pot: Eels or Congers are so collared and Souced.
Calves Chaldron, the Intrails of a Calfe.
Chine, the Back-bone of any Beast or Fish.
Clouted Cream, is Milk, Cream and Rose water, get over a soft Fire for a Day and Night and it will be thick, then Sugar it well; it is made of Cream alone gon thick, which in some places is called thick Milk, or Bono-thlober.
Capilotadoe, or a made Dish-meat, or kind of Cu∣stard, called a Fool.
Collops, slices of Bacon.
Custard, open Pies, or without lids, filled with Eggs and Milk: called also Egg-Pie.
Cheesecakes, a case of paste filled with Cheese Curds Currans, Eggs, Spice, with other Ingrediences made by Art.
Cream and fresh Cheese, is Cheese, Curds and Cream.
Cream, is the top or setiling of new Milk: there is Rice Cream, Piramidis Cream, Sack Cream, &c. made by Art with those ingradiences.
Cracknels, is a Bread made of fine Flower, Corian∣der seeds, Sugar and Currans, made in form of a Pie.
Carbolion, is a liquor of Wine Water and Salt to boile Fish in.
Caudle, is made of Ale, Oate-Meal (or Eggs) Mace, Sugar, and Sliced Bread.
Calver, is a term used to a Flook or Flounder, when it is to be boiled in Wine, Vinegar, and all sorts of Spices: and so kept in it.
Chewit, or small Pie; minced or otherwise.
Chiveridg Pudding, is an Hogs longest and fatest Gut, filled with Nutmeg, Sugar, Ginger, Pepper, and sliced Dates boiled.
Carbonado, is to cut and slash any cold joynt o• Meat and Salt it and then broiled it before the Fire: or Raw peeces of Meat thus broiled on the Fire, are termed of some Carbonadoes (of Beef because that is most used so) others call them Rashers of Beef.
Comsits, are round, long or square pellets of Sugar made by the Art of a Confectioner.
Champignions in Fricasee, is Mushrooms fried: they are also called Fungi and in English Toad Stools.
Deer, the flesh of Buck or Doe.
Dumpling, a Pudding of Meal or Grated Bread, Milk, Eggs, Suet, Currans &c. boiled in a cloth in a Pot: see Pudding.
Dredging, or breading of Meat.
Draw, as draw this Pullet, is to take the Guts out of its Belly.
Dress, is to prepare any Fowl for the Spit and Fire.
Eggs in Moon shine, are Eggs broken and boiled in Sallet-Oyle, till the Yolks become something hard, and so are eaten with slices of Unions fried in Oyle, Butter, Verjuce and Nutmeg, Salt: like Poached Eggs, with Butter, Vineger and Pepper.
Fricase, or Fricasey, or Fricasse, or Fricate; are variaties of Meat boiled together in a Broth.
Fritters, are small Pancakes, having slices of Apples, in the Batter.
Florentine, is a made Dish of any sort of Flesh, or Fowl, minced, with one part made in Balls, and the other part with Butter and Yolks of Eggs dressed up, which may be served in a Dish, Pie, or Patty-pan.
Furmetry, or Furmety.
Forced or Farced, a Forced Leg of Mutton, is to stuff or fill it (or any Fowl with a minced Meat of Beef, Veal &c. with Herbs and Spices.
Fry, is to order Flesh or Fish for eating, in a Pan with Butter.
Foole, is a kind of Custard, but more crudelly; being made of Cream, Yolks of Eggs, Cinamon, Mace boiled: and served on Sippets, with sliced Dates, Sugar, and white and red Comfits, strawed thereon.
Farcing, is stuffing of any kind of Meats with Herbs, or the like: some write it Forsing and Farsing. To Farce is to stuff any thing.
Fuel the Fire, see Timber.
Force Meat, is Meat with a stuffing of Herbs, or o∣ther things made to that purpose.
Fillet of Veal or Beef, is a round peece cut of a Leg of Veal or peece of Beef and stuffed with Herbs.
Flee, pull of the skin.
Ginger-Bread, is made of Grated Bread, Ginger, Cinnamon, Sugar, with other Spices made into a paste wit•h Rose-water.
Giblets, the Entrals of any Fowl, especially the Goose, as Heart, Gissern, Liver, Head, and great Gutt.
Gr•wel, is a kind of Broth made only of Water, Grotes brused, and Currans, some add Mace, sweet Herbs, Butter and Eggs, and Sugar: some call it Pottage Gruel.
Grand Sallet, are of several sorts: some all sorts of pickles laid orderly in a great Dish, with a tree or some devise set in the middle of it, others of sorts of Souced Meats cut in slices, and others with all sorts of coloured Jellies.
Grand Dish-meat, is the chief, or Principal Dish in a Feast, whether it be Flesh or Fowl, which is generally filled with variety of things.
Gigget of Mutton.
Gobbin, or Gobbet, or Gubbins; Meat cut in large peeces, as large as an Egg.
Galendine, is a sauce for any kind of roast Fowl, made of Grated Bread, beaten Cinnamon and Ginger, Sugar, Claret wine, and Vineger, made as thick as Grewell.
Garnished, is to dress the sides of Dishes, to set them forth in great Feasts with Salt, Leaves, Flowers, Bee•s, Turnips, Carrots, and other kind of things, according to the Cooks ingenuity. Some say Garnish the Dishes.
Gammon of Bacon, or Ham.
Gravey, the fat as runs from Beef, or other Meat, in roasting.
Grilliade, is a Broiled Mess, o• Meat broiled on a Grid-Iron.
Gelly, see Jelly.
Hash, is a Dish-meat made of any kind of flesh min∣ced or in Gobbets stewed in strong broth with Spices, and served up in a Dish with Sippets: to Hash is to stew any Meat that is cold. The French call it Ha•h or Hachee.
Page 83Haggas pudding, is either a Sheep, Calves, or Hogs great Gut, or Belly Gut filled with a Calves, or Sheeps Chaldron minced, Eggs, Cream, Sugar, grated Bread, Salt, Currans, Marrow, Sewet, and some sweet Herbs, and so boiled up: the ordinary way is with Blood, Grates, Herbs and Sewet,
Ham or Westphalia Ham, is a Leg of Pork (if right, of a young Cub, or Bear) Salted dried and made black.
Hachis, Hachee, or Hach, see Hash.
Hautgoust, a thing that hath an high •aste, viz. a Ho-goo.
Ielly, a kind of oily or fat liquor drawn from Calves or Neats feet boiled.
Iumballs, a kind of sweet Bread, made up in rouls, compounded of fine Flour, Eggs, Cinnamon, and Su∣gar. Some call them Iamballs.
Ipocras, a compound Wine made of Sack and di∣vers Spices.
Iegote, see Giggett.
Iemelloes, is a Paste made like Butter, of fine Su∣gar, Yolks of Eggs, Musk, Carraway seeds sea•sed, Gum Dragon steeped in Rosewater and Flour run through a Butter squirt, and made into what fashion you please.
Interlarded, Bacon that hath Fat and then Lean, then fat and then lean, between one another
Iole of Sturgion or Salmon, is the two quarters of them, the head parts being at them.
Indoice, is to rub the in-side of the Coffin of a Pie, with Butter very th•n.
Leach, a kind of Jelly made of Cream, Ising-glass, Sugar and Almonds, with other compounds.
Links, a kind of Pudding, the skin being filled with Pork Flesh, and seasoned with diverse Spices, minced and tied up at distances.
Liveridg puddings, is the Hogs gut filled with the Liver boiled, and grated, and sifted through a Cullen¦der, to which add grated Bread, Milk, Herbs, Salt, and other Spices and Sugar.
Lumber pie, made of Flesh or Fish minced and made in Balls or Rouls, with Eggs and hard Eggs, and so Baked in a Pye with Butter.
Lyth, or Lything, is Oatmeal or bruised Groats that thickens Broth.
Lear or Leir of an Egg, the White after it is beat∣en into a foam.
Larded Meat, is when long slices of Bacon are run through several places of it; as a Duck or Turky Lard∣ed or interlarded in the Breast.
Mash, is to stamp and beat minced Flesh into a Paste almost.
Manchet, is White Bread made in Rouls, broad in the middle, and sharp at the ends.
Made Dish, is a Dish compounded or made of se∣veral sorts of Meat minced, or cut in pieces, stewed or Baked in paste, being liquor'd with Wine, Butter and Sugar.
Marchpane, is a round Cake raised in the edges with a Border, made of Almonds, Sugar, and Rose wa¦ter beaten to a paste.
Mead or Meath, a drink made of Ginger, Sugar, Honey and Spring water boiled together.
Metheglin, a drink made of all sorts of wholesom Herbs boiled and strained with Honey and Water, and set to work with Bearm, as Ale or Beer.
Mackerons, see Mackrooms.
Melacatons, a kind of Fruit.
Mince, is to cut and chop Flesh very small. Mince∣pies are made of any Flesh cut small, and mixt with Raisins, Currans, Sugar.
Mussard, is a kind of sharp biting sauce, made of a small seed bruised and mixt with Vinegar.
Murine or Marinate, is to pickle any sort of Fish, for to keep them for half a year or a year together, by frying the Fish crisp in Oil, and putting them into a pickle of Wine, Vinegar, sweet herbs and Spices, with Lemon peels.
Marrow, the fat in large Beasts Bones. Marrow∣pies are made with it, with several other Ingredients, as sweet-breads, Potatoes, Artichokes, Bacon, Eggs with Fruit and Spices.
Maremaid pies, is a round Pie to be eaten cold, and is made of a Pig Boned and Quartered, and Eels inter∣mixt with Spices.
Mackrooms, a kind of roul of sweet Bread made of the same stuff as the Bisket is made of.
Milk pottage, is made of Water, Oat-Meal, a little Milk or Cream, Salt, and Fresh Butter; so of Rice Pottage, and other kinds.
Midcalf, the Intrals of a Calf, as Lights, Liver, Heart, and its appurtenances.
Neat, Beef of Oxe or Cow; but it is most used to the Tongue, as Neats Tongue.
Olio, is made of Flesh or Fish Minced, putting to it sweet herbs, grated Bread, Egs, Salt, Nutmeg, Pepper and Barberries, and make them into little Balls or Rouls; and so put into a Pie with variety of other Meats and Fruit.
Olio podrida, is a Rump of Beef, Bolonia Sausa∣ges, Neats Tongues boiled with Beef, Mutton, Venison, Pork cut in Gobbits as big as Eggs, also Carrots, Tur∣neps, Onions, Cabbage, with a Faggot of sweet Herbs, &c. stewed together; then all sorts of Fowl stewed with Bread, Marrow, Artichokes, hard Yolks of Eggs all served together in strong Broth finely stewed up; others call it O•la podrida, an Hotch-potch.
Olives, or Olines of Beef or Mutton, are the same cut in thin slices, and backt with a Knife; then with a farsing, of sweet herbs, hard liggs, Beef Suet, or Lard Minced, Spices and Salt strowed or laid, on the slices, and so rolled up, and Roasted or Baked, and served up with a sauce of the Stuffing, Verjuice, and Gravy, and Sugar.
Oml•t of Eggs, is Eggs beaten together with Min∣ced suet, and so fried in a Pan, about the quantity of an Egg together, on one side, not to be turned, and ser∣ved with a sauce of Vinegar and Sugar. An Omlet or Froise.
O•la, an Hotch-potch of several ingredients.
〈◊〉 Knights, are slices of White Bread dipt in Eggs, Cream and Sugar, fryed in Rose Water and But∣ter.
Puffe, is a roll of soft paste, made of Curds, Cream, Eggs and Flower, and so fryed in Suet purified.
Poma•s of a sheep, is all the Intrals, see Mid∣calf.
Page 84Petipetes, are Pies made of Carps and Eels first roasted, and then minced, and with Spices made up in Pies.
Parmisan, or Parmisant, Old Cheese 7, 8, or 9 years of Age.
Parboile, is to half Boil any sort of Flesh or Fowl.
Po-tage, is strong Broth of Meat, with Herbs and Spices Boiled.
Pottage, is the Broth of Flesh or Fowl, with Herbs and Oatmeal boiled therein.
Paste, is fine Meal or Flower, Water and Butter mixed up.
Past Royal, is made of Flour, Sugar, Almond Milk, Butter, Eggs, Rose Water, Saffron, Ambergrife and Musk worked up all cold together.
Puffe-paste, is made of Flour, cold Water and But∣ter, and laid in fleeces, with Butter between each, which makes it rise and swell in the Baking.
Pelipate or petite, is a French way of Mincing meat for Pies, with Lard cut amongst the Meat.
Panado, is a kind of Caudle, made of Water, gra∣ted Bread, Currans, Mace, Cinnamon, Sack, or White Wine and Sugar, with Yolks of Eggs boiled.
Pap, of Nurses called papes, is Milk and Flour boiled together.
Pye, is any sort of Meat made up in a piece of fine Paste, made into diverse forms, as round, square cor∣nered, &c. and called according to their f••ling, as Mince, Steak, Chaldron, Umble, Artichoke, or Eel Pies.
Pull, is to take the Feathers off Fowl; Pull off the Feathers.
Pine-Molet, is a Manchet of French Bread, with a hole cut in the top, and all the crum taken out, and filled with a composition of rost or boiled Capons min∣ced and stamped to a Paste, with sweet Herbs, Eggs and Spices, &c. and so boiled in a cloth; and serve it in strong Broth, with several sorts of Fowls about it.
Posset, is hot Milk poured on Ale or Sack, having Sugar, grated Bisket, Eggs, with other ingredients boil∣ed in it, which goes all to a Curd.
Puffs, are slices of Lemon dipt in a Batter made of Eggs and sweet herbs minced small and Fried, after Su∣gared.
Pudding pie, is made of Bread, or Flour, or Rice and Milk Baked in a Dish.
Pudding, made of Groats and Blood and sweet herbs, and put in Swine or Beefs Guts, and Boiled.
A Pudding, or Ball, or Dumpling, or Pot-Ball, is Flour, Bread, Milk and Eggs, with Sugar, Raisins, Currans, and Suet minced mixt together and put in a Bag, or made stiff into a Ball, and boiled. Some call this a Bag Pudding.
Press, is a cold Dishmeat made of a Swines Feet, Ears, Snout, and Cheeks boiled to a Jelly with Spices, make a lay of it, and press it square in a Cloth, then serve it up in slices.
Pancakes, is made of Batter fryed in a thin Cake in a Pan.
Poacht Eggs, are Eggs broken into boiling Wa∣ter, and quickly taken out and eaten with Butter, Vine∣gar and Pepper.
Pickle, is a kind of drink that souced meats are kept in, and Fruit for Salleting is preserved with, gen••ally it is made of Salt and Water, or Vinegar, Dill, and some other Spices.
Pie-paste, is fine Flour, Butter, Eggs, Kneaden, or Moulden together.
Pasty, is paste rouled broad, and the Meat being laid in Order on it, it is turned over, and made up on three sides, with garnishes about.
Quaking pudding, it is made of crumbs of Bread, Cream, Eggs and Spices.
Quodlings, or Codlings, are green Apples boiled.
Quinee pie, or Coffin for Quinces, is an open crust set in corners, into which Baked Wardens or Quin∣ces Preserved are put.
Quelque shose, is a kind of Fricasee made of Eggs, Cream, Nutmeg, Salt, Rosewater; Sugar and Butter, and slices of Apples fried in Cakes.
Quiddony, is a kind of quaking Jelly made of fair Water and Pippins, or Quinces or Plums well sugared, and put into Boxes.
Rasher, is a slice of Beef Fried or Broiled.
Ransoles, are kind of small Balls rolled up in fine Past made of these compositions, Beet leaves beaten, Sweetbreads minced, Marrow, Herbs, Raisins, Dates, Naple Bisket grated and made in a paste.
Roast, is to turn Meat on a Spit before the Fire, till the Bloody part be taken away.
Roast meat, any thing roasted.
Rand or Ran of Sturgion, a thick piece out of the middle of the Sturgion.
Sauce; is any Liquor or liquid thing to be eaten with dry Meats, yet every Dish-meat hath its peculiar Sauce or Sallet.
Sallet, is either Sweet Herbs, or Pickled Fruit, as Cucumbers, Samphire, Elder-Buds, Broom-Buds, &c. eaten with Roasted meats.
Sausages, are Porket Gutts, or Hogs or Sheep Guts filled with Minced Pork, Suet, Salt, Pepper, and tied up in Links about a Fingers length.
Scotch Collops, are thin slices of Mutton or Beef, hackt and salted, then Broiled up quick; serve them up with Vinegar and Butter.
Stoffado, is a term for the Stuffing of any joint of Meat, or Belly of any Fowl, or the like.
Soops, are Broaths made diverse ways, according to the Cooks Art, or rather Sauces to be under Dish∣meats, though such are generally eaten with spoons.
Sop, is Toasted Bread steeped in Sack, Wine, or Al•▪ &c.
Soops, a kind of sweet pleasant Broth, made rich with Fruit and Spices.
Souce, or souce Drink, is a Liquor made of Salt and Water, or Vinegar, to preserve Flesh and Fish in; each thing having (in a manner) a peculiar Souse liquor to preserve it from stinking or putrifying.
Souced Meat, is either Flesh or Fish boiled whole, or rouled up in Collars, or like Brawn, with sweet herbs and spices; and are to be eaten cold, and kept in Souce, Pickle, or the like.
Steaks, are the Breast, Loin, or Neck of Veal or Mutton cut into pieces, the Bones with the Flesh, and either Boil, Fry, or make them into Pies, seasoning them Page 85 with Salt, Pepper, sweet herbs minced, Nutmeg, Gin∣ger, &c.
Sugar plate, is White Sugar sifted, White of Egs, Gum Dragon and Rose Water beaten into a Paste, then moulded into any form, and so Print it.
Stewed Broth, is strong Broth boiled up with Raisins, Currans, Prunes, Mace, &c.
Stewed Meat, is to boil Meat gently over a soft fire.
Skink, a kind of Pottage made of Beef Broth with sweet Herbs, sorts of Spices, Marrow Bones, and thick∣ned with grated Bread.
Snow Cream, is made of Cream, Eggs, Rose-water and Sugar, beaten into a Froth like Snow.
Sillibub, is made of Vinegar and New Milk, the Curd mixt with Cream, Sugar, Currans, Cinnamon.
Spitch-cock, is a dish of large Eels Fried cut into 3 or 4 pieces, with their skins on.
Sippets, are slices of Manchet, to set out dishes (as a Garnish) especially in Broths.
Slash, or Scorch, is to cut and scorch it cross with a Knife before it be Fryed.
Slice, a thin piece of Bread or Flesh.
Searce, or Sift, is to take fine Meal from the course.
Strain, is to force a liquid and soft thing through a Cloth, to keep it from dross and dreggs.
Salmagundi, an Italian dish-meat made of cold Turkey and other Ingredients.
Scald, is to put any Fowl or the like into hot boiling Water, and take it out again.
Spit such and such a thing, is to put the Broach through it.
Tansy Cake, is made of grated Bread, Eggs, Cream, Nutmeg, Ginger, mixt together and Fried in a Pan with Butter, with green Wheat and Tansy stamped.
Taffaty Tarts, are made like little Pasties, round square, or long, the Paste being rolled thin, and Apples in •ays, strewed with Sugar, Fennel seeds, and Limon Peel cut small; then Iced in the Baking.
Tortelleti, or little Pasties.
Toasts, are shives of Bread, dried, and made hard and hot before a Fire.
Tripes, are the Belly of a Cow or Oxe, cut in pie∣ces and souced, and after fried with Butter, and eaten with Mustard.
Trotter Pie, is an Apple Pie mash'd in the Crust after it is Baked, having Cream and Yolks of Egs beat∣en together, put in it and stirred up.
Triffel, is Cream boiled with Sugar, Mace and Cin∣namon; when it is Blood warm, put in it a little Run∣•er which thickens it, being cold, serve it up with Sugar scraped on it.
Tarts, are Apples laid in Paste, in Dishes, Patty pans, or round Pies, Stewed or Baked with Sugar and Orangado, or Lemond in sucket cut small. Tarts are thus ordered of all other kind of Fruits.
Timber the Fire, is to mend the Fire, make it burn better, by putting more Fuel of Wood or Coles to it.
Truss, or Trussing, is the dressing and ordering of Fowl for the Pot or Spit, by turning up the Legs and Wings.
Turn round, is to keep an even hand in turning the Spit, by the Turn-spit.
Uerjuice, is the juice of Crabs, or sour Apples.
Uinegar, is White or Claret Wine turned sour.
Umble Pie, is a Pie made of the Intrals of a Deer, as Heart, Liver, &c.
Wassell, is a drink of Ale, toasted Apples, Sugar and Cinnamon mixt. Of some called Lambs-Wool.
Whipt Cream, it is beaten thick with a Whisk, then eaten with Cream and Sugar.
White-pot, it is a kind of Custard, and is made in a Crust or Dish, with these compositions of Cream, Eggs, Pulp of Apples, Sugar, Mace, Cinnamon, and Sippets of White Bread.
Walm, a little seething or boiling up of any Liquor in a Pot.
Wivos me quidos, is the Spanish way of dressing Eggs, which is to set them over the Fire with Sack, Su∣gar, Nutmeg, Salt, and juice of Lemon, and let them heat till they be thick.
XXX. He beareth Sable, a Baker, with a Peel in his both hands Bendways, with a Loaf of Bread up∣on it, Or. Others who give a fuller description of it, Blazon it thus, a Baker with his Peel in his hands bend∣wise, with a Loaf thereon, Or, a Cap on his head, his Wastcoat stripped above his Elbows, Argent, Breech∣es and Hose, Grey, Shooes, Sable; having an Oven fixed to the dexter side, Gules. This was the ancient Crest of the Bread Bakers of Chester, which now they have relinquished.
Terms used by Bakers.
Grind the Corn, to put it on the Mill to crush and bruse it.
Dress the Meal, is to sift it through a Sive, to take the fine from the course.
Fine Flower, the Dant or Heart of the Corn.
Bran or Scufting, the Husk of the Corn.
Bolt the Meal, is to turn it through a courser cloth, to make a courser Flower. This is called a Bolter.
A Batch, is as much Flower made into Dough, as is baked at a time.
Season the Liquor, is to put Salt or Spices in the hot Water, that is to Knad the Meal.
Leaven, is Dough kept unbaked till it be Sower.
Leaven the Batch, is to put the Leaven broken in Water, and hide it into the middle of the Meal to sower the whole Batch.
Blend it up, is to mixt the Flower and Liquor to make it into a Paste.
Knead it, working the Flower and Liquor toge∣ther.
Dough or Paste, is the Batch unbaked.
Break it, is to beat it with a long round thick Bea∣ter.
Couch the Dough, is the taking of it up as the Breaking puts it abroad
Weigh the Dough, is to weigh it so and so accord∣ing to the Prices of the Loaves.
Mould it, make it into Loaves, or Roulls.
Cut it, is the running the Kni•e round the Loase, or Roul.
Page 86Prick the Loafe, is to make little holes on the top of the Loafe with a Bodkin.
Seal or Mark the Loafe, is to set the Bakers nam• or mark on it, that it may be known whose Bread it is i• faulty, or not well made.
Set in, is the putting of the Loafe into the Oven.
Draw the Bread, when it is well Baken, then it is taken out of the Oven.
Fire the Oven, put Fire and Fuel in it▪ to heat
Sweep the Oven, is to make it clean from Ashes.
Ashes, is the out-cast of the Fireing.
Close the Oven, is to draw the stock before the Oven Mouth.
Stop the Oven, is to Lute about the Oven stock; with Clay or Dirt out of the Street, to keep the heat in.
Several sorts of Bread.
White Bread▪ in Loaves, Roulls or Cakes: which is of pure fine Flower.
Manchent, or Roul bread; called also a Wigg.
Boulted Bread, or Wheaten Bread; being courser then White, and worked up with Barme or Yest.
Brown Bread, or Brown-George: the black∣est and coursest Bread, being the Meal and Bran to∣together.
French Bread, a light spungy Bread kneaden with Eggs.
Leaven Bread, a close well made Bread, worked up with Leaven.
Iannock Bread, a Sower Bread made of Oates.
Iamballs, a sweet Bread made up in Roulls.
Cracknel Bread, Kneaden with Saffron & Currans.
Bisket Bread, a sweet Bread made of fine Flower, Eggs and Sugar.
Almond Bread, made of fine Flower, Sugar and Almonds.
Mackeron, a Sweet Bread made in Roulls.
Barra Pickled, a light Bread made in round Cakes.
Oate-Bread, made of Oate-Meal Leavened.
Bread made of Roots, as Ground-Artichoke, Po∣tatos, Turnips, &c.
Horse Bread, made of Bean and Pease, &c. with Scuftings of other Corn.
XXXIII, He beareth Azure, a Tanner working at his Beam, on a Hill: Others term it a Tanner at his Beam Fleshing of an Hide, proper. But if the Reader will have the particulars of it, then thus: He beareth a Tanner (working at his Beam, or) Flesh∣ing of an Hyde, his Apparel Purpure, his Apron, Hose, Beam and Foot, Or; Fleshing Knife, Argent: the rest proper. This is the Crest of the Worshipful Company of Tanners of the City of Chester.
Terms of Art belonging to Tanners.
Scutching the Bark, is cleansing it from Moss, and the rough, crusty outward Bark.
Hewing the Bark, is chopping it into small peeces.
Grinding the Bark, is putting it under the Mill to crush it very small.
Drying the Bark, is to dry it that it may Grind.
Ouse, is the Water in which the Bark hath been steeped: Tanners-Ouse is of some termed so, when the Bark and Waters is together.
Turfe or Tanners — that is the Bark cast out of the Tan-Pits, which when it hath for a time lien for the Water to run out, it is wrought into Turfes, which dried is good fire Fuel.
The Trade and Occupation of a Glover, is in all re∣spects answerable to the Tanner, both useing one and the same way of work, with the same kind of Instru∣ments, only in this they differ; the Tanner is for Beasts Hydes, as Oxen, Cows, Horses and Calves, being thick and strong skins for which Tanning they use Oake Bark. The Glover is for Sheep, Goats, Lambs and Castling skins which are slender, thin and gentle: for the dressing whereof they use only Lime, and Bran; and this doth easily appear if you read the names of their In∣struments, only I do confess they differ something in their Terms of Art.
Terms used in the Art of a Wett-Glover.
Lyming, piting the skins with Lime and Wa∣ter.
Pigging, is hanging of many skins together.
Washing to pull, is cleansing them from Lyme.
Hanging, is to put them on a Horse or pale after they are washed that the Water may run off.
Pulling is stripping the Wooll of the skin.
Pelts, are the skins when the Wooll is taken off.
Working, is to lay them on the Beam and with the Fleshing knife and Vealing knife, to scrape off the lime and cleanse them from their Fleshyness.
Drenching, is the putting of the dressed skins into a liquor made of Barn and Water.
Drawing the Pits.
Drying, hanging them on ropes, lines, or laying them in the Sun on grassy Ground to dry.
Washing, is to scoure them in warm Water and Eggs to make them sast.
Withing, is to rub them on a Writhen, bent Iron, which makes the Leather soft and plumpe.
Tawing, is the treading of the Leather in a Trough.
Page 87Frizeing, is the working of the skin Woolly on one side.
Shammo, or Shammo Frizeing; is to make it Woolly on both sides like a peece of cloath.
This is the Dresser of Tanned Leather, for when the Tanner hath done his part, then the Currier he works the same so as it becoms soft, gentle, and serviceable for many uses and purposes; for without his Art, the Shoomakers, nor Sadlers and several other Trades could not make use of it, neither would it be good for any thing, save Cloutt Leather.
Terms used in the Curriers Art.
Scouring or Washing.
Shaveing, is the taking down of the thickness of the Leather.
Dyling or Liquoring.
Rowling and Beating, is the beating it on the Pin block.
Scowering, is to cleanse it with scowring.
Colouring, is to make it either black, red, yellow, blew, &c.
Graining, is to work it into rounds and squares by making small Crevices or Veins in the surface of the skin.
Slickenning, is to make the Leather smooth and bright as if it shined.
XXXII. He beareth Gules, a Butcher with an Axe, in his right Hand over his Head, and his left holding of a Swines head upon a Block, (as if he were about to cleave it) all proper. This is the Crest belonging to the name of Slaughter.
A Demy Butcher, with an Axe erected in his right hand, is the Crest of Dashperg; a German.
Terms used by Butchers in their Slaughtering.
Strike down, is the term of killing an Ox or Cow, which is by giving him a blow or two on the Forehead with the round end of the Ax.
Kill, or Slaughter Sheep, or Calf.
Slaughter-House, the place where they kill their Meat.
Shambles, the place where Butchers Meat is Sold and Bought.
Butchers Terms for the several Parts and Ioynts in a Cow, or Ox.
Beef, is the Flesh of either Bull, Cow, or Ox.
The four Quarters.
The further Quarter.
The hinder Quarter.
The Chin, is the Back-bone.
The Beast Cheek, is one side of the Head.
The Head, is the whole Head.
The Neats-Tongue, is the Tongue of Cow, Bull, or Ox.
The Roote of the Tongue.
The Neats Feet, are the Feet cut off at the Knees and Cambrel Joynts.
The Belly, or Tripp.
The Blood, and Puddings.
In the Farther Quarter.
The Shoulder, is when it is cut long from the Breast and Ribs, which being again divided hath
The Top of the Shoulder.
The Neck piece, or Bloody end.
The Breast, is all under the Shoulders: which being cut through the middle is called.
The Upper end of the Breast.
The Lower end end of the Breast.
The Sticking Draught, is a part of the Breast when it is cut long-ways over cross the Bones: having part of the Neck at,
The Top of the Ribs.
In the Hinder Quarter.
The Sirloyne, is the top part of the hinder Quarter cut through the middle longways, which being cut in two, they are called,
- The Maidens Bone.
- The Tailick; or Rump, if it have the Rump at it.
The Lift or Buttock, is the Fleshy part of the Thigh which being cut and opened: then it is term∣ed,
The Out-side of the Lift, is that where the fat is.
The In-side of the Lift, or Buttock; is the inside of the Thigh.
The Marrow Bone, it is the Bone in the But∣tock.
The Bed of Beef, is the Belly or lower part of the hinder Quarter cut long ways, which being divided is.
The Flank, is the bottom of the Belly, next the Pissel, or Udder.
The Baking Draught, is the higher side of the Bed.
The several Parts of Ioynts of a Sheep or Calfe.
Ueal, is the Flesh of a Calfe.
Old Ueal or Young Beef, of some termed a Page 88Runner or Running Ueal, is the Flesh of a Calf a Year old, or thereabouts.
Mutton, the Flesh of a Sheep.
Lamb or Kid, is the Flesh of a young sucking Lamb.
Sheep Puminices, is the Head, Heart, Lights, Liver and Wind-Pipe of a Sheep all hanging toge∣ther.
Lambs Pumices, is the same of a Lamb: or Lambs Head and Purtinences.
Lambs-Stones, Sweet-Bread, and Kidney or Lully.
Calves-Feet, eight Feet makes a pair.
Calves-Head, and Midcalf: is the Heart, Lights, and Liver, and its Appurtenances.
A Side of Mutton or Ueal, is the half of a Sheep or Calf: the further and hinder quarter joyned toge∣ther.
In the Farther Quarters.
The Rack either of Veal or Mutton; is the top part of the Breast that as is half of the Back-bone, this being cut in two, are called
- The Head end of the Rack, it is that next the Head.
- The Lower end of the Rack.
The Calves Chaldron, are all the Intrells, Belly, Puddings, Manifolds, &c.
In the Hinder Quarters.
A Row• of Ueal, is a peece cut from the Fleshy part of the Leg of Veal.
Suett, is the fat that cleaves to the Loin.
Ioynts, or parts of a Boar, Swine or Hogg.
Brawn, is the Flesh of a Boar.
Pork, is the Flesh of a Swine or Hogg.
Bacon, is Swins Flesh Salted and Dryed.
The Cheeks, or Swins Cheek, is the Head cut streight down the middle from Crown to the Snout.
Souce, is the Swins head, Ears, and Feet, boiled and pickled in Brine, made of small Bear, or Water and Salt.
The Quarters, two farther Quarters; two hinder Quarters.
A Side of Pork, is the half of the Swine, the farther and hinder quarter, having the Legs cut off.
Swines Grease or Lard, or Swines Leafe of fat.
A Flitch of Bacon, is the whole side of Pork, hav∣ing the four Hoghs cut off, when it is Salted and Dri∣ed.
A Gammon of Bacon, is the Thigh and Buttock part of the Flitch of Bacon.
A Ham of Bacon, is when it is Salted and Dried with the Hogh or Thigh at.
The Hand of Pork, is the farther Hogh.
The Middle peece.
The Spar-Ribs, the Ribs when they are cut from the sides of such Pork as is intended for Bacon.
The Leg, is the hinder Thigh or Hogh.
The Middle peece.
XXXIII. He beareth Vert, a Smith with his Ham∣mer working at his Anvile, all proper; or more parti∣cularly, a Smith with his Hammer in his right Hand elevated, as high as his Head; in his left hand, a Pair of Tongues holding a peece of Iron on the Anvile, Argent: the Anvile or Stiddy, Or: Cap Azure, turned up Ermin: Doublet, Breeches and Hose gray, Apron of a dirty swarthy colour, Shoos Sable. And is born by the name of Smith, a Dutch-Man.
A Demy Smith, holding his broad faced Hammer in his right hand, Cloaths Gules: is the Crest of Goldbeater.
Terms used by Smiths in their Trade,
Blow up the Fire, is to make the Fire Burn, some say blow up the Coals.
Not Feel the weight of the Hammer, is when Iron is so cold that it will not beat forth.
Red Sear, is when Iron is too hot, that it breaks or cracks under the Hammer in working between hot and cold.
An Heat, is when the Iron is made of the colour of the Fire.
Blood red Heat, is when the Iron wants a little hammering to smooth it.
Flame or white Heat, is when it is ready to the form∣ing of that thing it is intended for.
Welding or a Sparkling heat, is when it is to joyn with another peece of Iron.
Tew, is to Batter or draw out a peece of Iron.
Double up, is the laying of one peece of Iron on ano∣ther, by turning the end up, and working it into one so∣lid peece.
Up-set, is when at a heat the Iron is beaten back into the Body of the work; this is often done when a thing is made too thin, or too narrow.
Seat Rod, or Punch Rod; is With or Wrea∣then stick turned about the Head of a fire punch to hold it on the hot Iron, while it is striking through or making a hole in it.
Page 89Forgeing, is beating out hot Iron into any shape.
Brazing, is Sodering of two peeces of Iron together or the edges of any round thing, as a Hoope.
Loam, is a kind of mixture of Clay and Horse-dung, which is put about any peece of Iron that is to be sodery•••.
Cold Chissel, are all sorts of Chissels used to cut cold Iron.
Cold Punch, is such as is used to punsh holes through cold Iron.
Punching, is making a hole in any peece of Iron with a Punch.
Rivetting, is the battering of an Iron shank or pin, so that it fall not out of the hole it is put into.
Drill, is to bore a hole with an Instrument called a Drill.
Hammer-Harden, is hardning Iron or Steel with much beating it with a Hammer, the Iron being cold.
Screw, is a spindle of Iron cut into a Wreath.
Thrid of a Screw, is that part as stands up.
Grove of a Screw, is the hollow or sinking part be∣tween the Thrids.
Worm in a great Screw.
Nut, is the Screw box in which the Screw turneth.
Twisting of Iron, is the wreathing of a square bar when it is in a flame Heat.
Case Hardening, is the Hardning of Iron after the work upon it is finished: by heating it red hot and quenching it in Water, or by quenching it in Chamber∣ley, or White-wine Vinegar wherein Bay Salt and the Powder of a Cows hor• hath been put.
Nealing of Steel, is to make it soft, that it may File or be Engraven upon: is by heating it red hot, and let it coole.
Hardning or Tempering of Steel, is quenching it in Water being red hot.
Let it down, is the making of a Steel spring soster if it be too hard.
This is a Kindsman of the Black-Smith, and there∣fore may well succeed him: he is described by either Blooding, Shooing, or Dressing of the Wounded back of a Horse: and sometime by giving him a Drench or Drink out of a Horn.
Terms used by the Farrier as to Horse-Shooing.
- Pare the Hoofe.
- Unperfect Hoofe.
- Broad Hoofe and Brittle Hoofe, or having a Raggedness on the out sides.
- Long Hoofe.
- Crooked Hoofe.
- •amise, or Flat Hoofe.
- Hollow and over Hollow Hoofe.
- Hoofe Worne.
- Seat the Shooe, fit it to the Foot.
- The Seat of the Shooe, that part of the Hoof where the Shooe is set on the Hoofe.
- Well seated Shooe, is well placed on the Hoof.
Parts of an Horse-Shooe.
Calkin or Caukin Shooe, hawing tang ast the ends.
Trim Light Shooe, is a Light Shooe. Middle size Shooe. An heavy Shooe.
False quarter shooe, is such as have a shoulder in the in-side of the shooe, to keep it from lying on a weak or sore heel.
Lunett, or shooe without heel parts, made to secure weak heels.
A False quarter shooe, with one heel part.
Hollow shooe, it is wrought so much outwards, that it toucheth no part of the Ball of the foot.
A shooe disbord without the hoof, is when it is broader out than the hoof.
Web of the shooe, is the breadth of the shooe. Broad Web. Narrow Web.
Welt of the shooe,
Welt of the shooe indented, made like the teeth of a Saw.
Sponges of the shooe.
Pearses, or Pearsed, is the holes in the shooe: Nail-holes.
Deep pearsed shooe, is when the holes of the shooe are made at a good distance from the outside, or near the middle of the shooe, which is often done for long hooft Horses.
Middle part of the Web, is taken to be the inner part of the shooe that compasses the sole.
Out side of a shooe, where the nail holes or pearsings be.
Imbossed side of a shooe.
Drive in the Nails, is to nail the shooe o•• the hoo•.
Horse-shooe Nails, Nails with foursquare heads.
Frost Nails, with sharp pointed heads.
Button Nails, with round heads.
Stump, a Nail overworn in a Horse-shooe.
Twitchings, ends of Horse-shooe Nails cut off. Some term them,
Pinchings, because pinched and writhen off from the out side of the hoof with the Pincers.
Tallon Nail, is that Nail driven in the shooe to∣wards the Horse heel.
Cut off the Nails, twist or writh of the ends with the Pincers.
Clinch the Nails, is to beat that part of the Nail which remains out of the Hoof (after the end 〈◊〉 cut away) with a Hammer on the hoof, to return it 〈◊〉 into the hoof.
Hide the Clenches, the clinches hidden in the hoof, when they are so beaten into the hoof, that they cannot discern where the points of the Nail came through the hoof in the shooeing of the Horse.
Page 90Unclinch the shooe, is to beat those clinched ends of Nails up again out of the hoof, that the shooe may be taken of.
Pair the Hoof round, that is with a Rasp, Rasp of the hoof as much as exceeds the breadth of the shooe.
Shod round, when a Horse hath four new shooes set on; shooed round.
Shod half round, when two shooes aree set on one side.
Shod or shooed before.
Put on a Shooe.
A Remove, is when a shooe is taken off, and set on again with new Nails.
Removed round, when all the shooes are so set on again.
Rough shod, when the Nails are not yet worn that holds on the shooes.
Hoof Bound, is when the shooe is nailed too stret on the hoof.
Cast a shooe, is when the Horse looseth his shooe in Travel or otherwise.
Smooth shod, when the Nails are worn smooth.
Frosted, when the shooes are put on with Frost Nails.
Terms of Art used by Farriers about the Cure of Horses,
Accipum, a kind of Drench, and an Ointment, used about Horses.
Anodyna, or Liogs, are compositions of Simples to ease pains.
Baths, warm Waters to wash and bath Horses Limbs when stiff and benummed, or places for Horses to swim and wash themselves in.
Cauterize, is to Burn the sore place with a hot Iron.
Corrode, Burning hot sores. Inflamed sores.
Corrosives, Compositions made for Burnings; burning compositions.
Causticks, a Medicine that Burneth, which is used when a Disease cannot otherwise be mastered.
Conglutinate, to glew or set together.
Curtall, a Docking or cutting the Horse tail shorter.
Cordial, a Drink to cherish a Horse.
Crustick Medicines, strong Medicines inclining to Fire.
Drenches, Drinks or Mashes given to Horses to cleanse them.
Diapente, a composition made of five Simples.
Dissolve, to make soft and supple that place which is hard or swelled.
Docking, see Curtalls.
Fumigations, a smoaking, or operating through smoaky Perfumes.
Frictions, is the chafing and rubbing and fretting of any grieved place.
Incise, the cutting into Sores with a Knife or Lancet.
Lauuce, to cut open a swelling, or make a passage for coruption to issue forth.
Lyogs, see Anodyna.
Mollifie, make soft.
Narcotica, a composition of Simples to cause sleep; benumming.
Putrifactive Medicines, such as corrupt the com∣plexion of a Member; or such as takes away dead Flesh as Carbuncles, Cankers, Ulcers.
Purgation with Glisters.
Rowelling of Horses, is putting of hair rings through the Horse skin to draw out Corruption.
Repercussive Medicines, are such as drive back humours.
Sorance, is any sort of sore in Horses.
Sellander, or Seliander a kind of dry scab in the ham of a Horse hinder Leg.
Sarcotica, compositions of Simples that incarnate or breed flesh.
The terms of Horse Diseases, and things concerning them, are formerly set in lib. 2. c. 7. numb. 113.
The Iewellers Working Instruments.
- Gravers of all sorts large and small.
- Flat Scalper
- Half round Scalper
- Round Scalper
- Plyers both flat and round
- Forging Hammer
- Pinning or Rivetting Ham∣mer.
- Setting Hammer
- Painting Pencills small and larger
- Cleansing Pencill
- Bollishing Brush
- Scratch Brush
- Rough Pollishing Stone
- Smooth Pollishing Stone
- Trippilo or Pollishing Stick
- Boiling Pan
- Simmon Stick
- Wax Stick
- Wax Box
- Using Stone
- Corn Tongs
- Flint Morter
- Inamell Grinder, or Muller, or Pestel
- Inamelling Point
- Inamelling Bridge
- Inamelling Tongs
- Inamelling Plate
- Sothering Coal
- Blew Inamel solid
- White Inamell
- Green Inamell
- Yellow Inamell, &c.
- Blew Inamell transparent
- White, &c.
- Foiles of all colours
- Salt Peter
Terms of Art used by Goldsmiths and Iewellers.
Melting the Gold in a Crucible, some call it Smelt∣ing.
Casting it into a Langet.
Forging, beating it into a Form as the Workman will.
Page 91 Planishing,
Turning up, the raising or turning a part of it, as in the turning up of the shanks of Rings, or Collets and Bizells.
Shank, is that part as compasseth the Finger, the Ring part.
Iesning, is fitting the Stone into the Collett.
Cramping the Collets together.
Mounting, is fixing the Colletts all together to the shank of the Ring.
Filing, or Filing up.
Graving the shanks of the Ring, and Scallops or Musells on the sides of the Colletts.
Clearing and Boiling.
Inamelling, is laying on of the Colours. Eamelling.
Nailing, is burning the Inamell colours, to make them soder and stick to the Graving.
Using off, is the clearing of the Inamell of the work.
Graining, is the making of little pearls or heads at the foot of the scallops of the Colletts.
Putting in the Simmon.
Fitting the Stones.
Laying in the Foil, which is to make the Stone to make a Luster according to the colour of the Foil.
Setting the Stone.
Cutting the Cressants about the Bissell, or top of the Collett, which being turned down, holds the Stone fast in; they 〈◊〉 cut into Cressants or 〈◊〉.
Polish〈◊〉, making it bright▪ clear and Lustrous.
Ueeving, is 〈◊〉 the Ring with Cork. Ueiving.
Waf•ing, is 〈◊〉 the Stones from Dust with a Pencill.
Slat-ing of Inamell, is taking Inamell off a Ring, and Inamelling it with another colour.
Masticking, is setting a Black between the Stones to set them aff.
The Needle Maker.
Sorts of Needles.
- Pearl Needle, is the least size of Needles.
- The first, second and third sort of Needles, accord∣ing to their sizes; so numbred till you come to ten.
- Ordinary Needles.
- Bush Lane Needles.
- Glovers Needles have square points.
- Book Binders Needles are long and round point
- Sow-Gelders Needles are flat pointed.
- Chyrurgions Needles are the same, flat pointed.
- Pack Needles, crooked at the point, and some flat, others three square; others with a Back and Edge (like a Knife) at point.
The Cutlers Trade.
He beareth Argent, a Cutler at his Glassier or polishing Wheel, polishing of a Knife upon it, all proper.
Several sorts of Weapons under the Notion of Swords.
A Sword, the general term of all Cutting Wea∣pons, by which Mans Life is taken away.
A Back Sword, having an edge on one side.
A Two Edged Sword, edged on both sides.
A Waved Sword, the Blade being uneven.
A Back Rapier.
A Rapier, with two edges.
A Tuck, a four square Blade.
A Hanger, or Back Fauchion.
A Scimitar or Turks Fauchion.
A Hunting Hanger, some have a kind of Saw on the Back.
A Cuttoo, is a small Hanger.
A Dagger, or short Sword.
A Skean, or Irish Dagger, it is broad at the handle, and goes taper all along to the point.
A Baggonett, a Granadeers Dagger, to thrust into the Mussel of his Firelock.
Terms used by the Cutler.
A Forger, is him that makes Sword and Knife Blades
A Grinder, is him that works them out of the rough.
A Temperer, is him that brings it to its right tem∣•er.
A Furberer, that polisheth and makes them up.
Burnish, to ma•e bright.
Frubish or Furbish, to clean a Sword Blade, and take all rusty spots out of it.
Glase, to put a gloss upon a Blade or Hilt, of what colour is desired.
Repairing, a mending or surbishing up of an old Sword.
Punching, to hollow or make holes in the Hilt.
Chaising, to make devises on the Hilt.
Hatching, is to Silver or gild the Hilt and Pomell of a Sword or Hanger.
Damasking, is to inlay a Hilt and Pomell with Silver, Gold, Copper or Tin.
Sanguining, is to make it of a pure Purple colour.
〈◊〉, is to anoint it with some Oil or Spirit, to keep it from Rust
Scabbard, is the Case for either Sword, Rapier, or Fauchion.
Sheath, is the cover for a Dagger, Skean or Knife.
False Scabbard, a Le•ther case to draw over it.
Draw out the Scale.
Rash it even.
Lining of the Scabbard, is the Linnen or Woollen Cloth in the inner side of the Scabbard.
Bind it up and glew it, is to tye the two sides of the sc•le when li••d, •ogether, the Blade being between.
Cover it with 〈◊〉.
Page 92A Chape, is the Iron socket fastned at the end o• the Scabbard or Sheath.
Hook and Socket, set at the top of the Scabbard to hang it by at the Belt. Ioyning of it up.
Mounting of the Sword, which is either well or ill; well mounted when the Point upon the Welding or Brandishing of it, is not too heavy for the Hilt and Pomell, but equally ballanced; ill mounted when ei∣ther is weightier than other, therefore it is, that a long and weighty Blade requires an heavy Pomell.
He beareth Sable, a Plummer, having a Ladle full of melted Lead, and pouring it into a Mould set at his feet, all proper. By the name of Plummer.
Plummers Terms of Art:
A Pig or Sow of Lead.
Melt it in the Furnace; some say Smelt it.
Put it into the Pan.
Plain the Mould, make the Sand smooth.
Set the Mould.
Cast it over, turn it out of the Pan upon the cast∣ing Frame.
Follow it with the strickles.
Catches, the waste Lead▪
Cut off the catches, cut it from the sheet.
A Sheet of Lead.
Selvage or edge of the Lead.
A Ioynt in the Lead, where two edges meet together.
Soder a Ioint, is to make them one.
Burn a Ioynt.
A Shem, is when two edges are turned one over the other.
A Crack or Flaw, when the Lead is not well cast.
He beareth Argent, a Card-Maker, seated upon a Block, with a Board on his Knees, setting of a Card Leaf, all proper. This is the proper Crest belonging to the Card-makers, but now laid aside.
Terms of Art used in the way of Card-making.
Open the Wyre.
Head the Wyer, beat the ends all even together.
Cut the Wyre.
Double the Wyre.
Crook the Card teeth.
The Leaf, the Leather to set the Teeth in.
Pricking the Leaf, is making holes in the Leather, into which the teeth are put.
Setting the teeth.
Nailing the Leaf.
Paring of the Card.
Stoning of it, is burnishing of it.
The Lifts, are the narrow pieces of Leather which are Nailed about to hold the Leaf on the Board.
Cutting the Li•ts, is to make it even and, streight, and cut off the ends.
A Card, when it is all finished; of which there are several sorts.
Wool Cards have close and short Teeth.
Flax Cards, have longer and wider Teeth.
Stock Cards, are large Boards, one being fastned to a form, and the other by a top handle, is drawn with both hands.
XXXIV. He beareth Azure, a Sadler beating of his Hair upon a Table or Tressel, Or; Capped Ar∣gent, Clothed, Gules. This is the crest of Beatwell.
The like to this with a Black Cap and Bowing Ta∣ble, the rest Or, was the antient crest of the Hat-ma∣kers of the City of Ches•er, as I find in an old roul of the Companies made in the year 1579.
Terms used in the Sadlers Art.
A Tree, is the Wooden part of the Saddle, to which all the other things are fixed.
Narve, or Narse, are Sinews pulled to Threads, or long slender pieces, and glewed on the Tree to hold the Tree from cracking or breaking.
Gullet plate, is a crooked Iron plate nailed on the fore part of the Saddle Tree to strengthen it.
Hinder Plate, is a like thin plate of Iron nailed be∣hind the Tree.
Barrs, the two sides of the Tree.
Civett, or Civetts, are square Buckles without Tongues, hung in Iron Plates or Chapes, and so nailed to the sides of the Tree, to hang the Straps and Stitrop Leathers at: Some call them Civett Irons.
Girth Webb, or Webb, is that Stuff as the Girths are made of.
Straining the Webb, is nailing the Girth Webb over the hollow of the Saddle Tree, that the seat fall not between the two sides.
Setting the Seat.
Shaping the Skirts, is the drawing out the form and fashion that the Skirts are to be of; which are ge∣nerally streight, and go from the Pomell to the Crupp••, or else round skirts, which ly under a Mans Thigh, and no where •ehind.
Cutting the Seat.
Pomell, is the top of the fore part of the Saddle, and is usually in great and rich Saddles made of Brass or Iron silvered or gilt; it is round like the Pomell of a Sword.
Crupper Buckle, is a large square Buckle fixed to the Saddle Tree behind, to fasten the Crupper to, each Buckle having a rou•er or turn on it, to make the same draw easily.
Crupper, is a roul of Leather put under the Horse tail, and so drawn up by Leather thongs, or a Crupper Band, to the Buckle behind the Saddle, and keeps a Horse from casting the Saddle forward on his Neck.
Page 93Strapps, are Leathers fastned to the sides of the Tree, to draw the Girths streight under the Horse Belly.
Pannel, is the under part of the Saddle, it lyeth be∣tween the Horse back and the tree, to keep his back from Gaulling; being made of strong Linnen cloth, welted a∣bout with Leather, and stuffed with soft beaten hair.
Stuff the Pannel, is to fill it with hair.
Tie the Pannel, is to make it fast with Leather ties or slices, to the Saddle tree, both behind and before: some term this, Tie the points in.
Buckling the Girth, is to fasten Buckles at both ends.
Buckle, or Girth Buckle; is a four square hoop, with a tonge: which is made stiddy with its going through a hole of Leather & fastned with a narrow thongs
Girth, is when it is Buckled, and compleat for use; else it is called no more then a Web, or Girth Web.
Sirsingle, or Sursingle; is a long peece of Web that will compass a Horse about his belly and back, hav∣ing at one end a Buckle, and the other a long strap of Lea∣ther with holes punched in it, to buckle at what distance the Horse keeper pleaseth: by the help of this the Horse cloth is kept on, and the Horse is Wadded with straw.
Wounty, it is a peece of Leather of a yard and half or more, and four inches broad, having an Iron hook fastned to one end, and long robe at the other; with this they tie Panniers, Hampiers and great Packs on Horse back to keep them from falling of the Pack-Saddles.
Rowler, or Body Girth; this hath a kind of Pad called a Rowler, which slippeth too and again on the body Gir••, or Sursingle, which is ever fixed upon the ridge of the Horse back, to keep the Girth from fret∣ting of the hair, or hurting his ridge.
Stirrope, Irons to ••t ones Feet in.
Stirrope Leathers, and Buckles.
Trappings, those Leathers which hang on the Horse Buttock, which are generally set with white and yellow Stud-Nails.
A Pad, is a soft thing made like the seat of a Sadle and stuffed with Feathers, which is fixed on the Saddle seat, that old men which cannot sit hard may ride thereon.
Male Pillen, is that which a Cloak-bag or Port∣mantu is fixed stiddy and sure on a Horse back part: to the Male belongs these things.
Male Stickes, the peeces of wood on the Male-pillen.
Male Strap, is to tie it behind the Saddle to two Leather Loopes.
Portmantu, vulgarly Portmantle.
Staples. all belonging to a Portmantu.
Chain. all belonging to a Portmantu.
Lock and Key. all belonging to a Portmantu.
Locking Flap. all belonging to a Portmantu.
The Great Flap. all belonging to a Portmantu.
Straps made fast to the great Flap.
Buckles, to keep down the great Flap by the straps.
Loopes, to put the ends of the straps through, to keep them from unbuckling.
Male Girths, are two long Leathers with a Buckle at one end, the other going through the Loopes on the Male sticks, and then through Iron Rings fixed behind the Saddle and so over the Portmantu all is buckled toge∣gether.
End straps for tying, or buckling the ends to the Belly Girths, that it lie not to one side more then another.
Bridle, it is so termed when it hath all its appurtenan∣ces fixed together, for the several parts of a Bridle: they are these.
The Bit, or Snaffle; is the Iron work put into the Horse mouth of which there is several sorts as you may see ch•p. 7. numb. 44.45.
Head stall, are the two short Leather that come from the top of the Head to the rings of the Bit.
Fillet, is that as lieth over the Fore-head, and under the fore-top: if the Horse have trapping this is usually a∣dorned with a Rose or such like of Leather set with studs.
Throat band, is that Leather as is buttoned (from the Head band) under the Throat.
Raines, is the long thong of Leather which comes from the rings of the Bit and being cast over the Horse head, the rider holds them in his hand by which he guides the Horse as he pleaseth.
Button and Loope at the end of the Rains by which it is fastned to the ring of the Bit: the other end of the rains having only a Button so large that it cannot go through the ring of the Bit on the other side, this is called a running Rains: by which a Horse is lead at a good distance, & hath liberty to leap a ditch or mount a hedge.
Nose band, a Leather that goeth over the middle of his Nose, and through Loopes at the back of the Head∣stall and so buckled under the Cheeks. This is usually adorned as the Fillet, if the Horse be trapped & studded.
Cavezan, a false Rien to hold or lead a Horse by.
Martingal, a thong of Leather, the one end fastned under the Horse Cheeks, and the other to the Girth be∣tween his Legs, to make him Reign well, and not cast up his Head.
Side Saddle, is a Saddle for a Woman her self to ride upon. It hath these several things belonging to it, to make it compleat.
The Tree in which is the seat that is round.
The Single Head, hath one bow in the middle o• the forepart of the tree.
The Double Head side Saddle, is with two bows one long the other short.
The two Barrs that are the side Barrs, to which is joyned the fore part and the hinder part of the tree.
The Sivets, which are square rings in Plates, three on each side the tree to put the straps too.
The Straps, which are long Leathers for the Girths.
A Fore-Compass Plate, a Fore-Gullet Plate, Plates 〈◊〉 strengthen the tree.
A Crown, or little half round Plate; to secure the fore part of the tree.
Hind Gullet, or inside Plate; to strengthen the hin∣der part of the tree.
A Plate half round behind on the seat for the strengthning that part of the tree.
Two thin Plates on the fore part of the seat.
A Crupper Sivet, or Swivel; on the hinder part, to hold the Crupper.
Two Buckles on either side the fore part to hold the Breast-plate.
Page 94Narfing, are Beasts sinewes dried and beaten and Glewed on the tree for its strengthning.
Canvising the tree, also to strengthen it.
The Pannel, is Canvice stuffed with Wool to lie next the Horse.
The Skirts, the covers of the side of the tree, which are Fringed and wrought, and sometime plain.
The Out side, is the cover of the seat, which is Frin∣ed round the Rimm.
The Seat, hath a Boss in the middle, and a Rim about it.
The Quilting of the fore parts of the skirts.
The Rim set together with a small seming Fringe.
The Saddle Head, sei together with a small seming Fringe.
False, or loose Cover; a cover to keep the Saddle clean.
The Girths, which are three; are Girth Web, with Buckles at each end.
The Crupper, that as lieth on the Horse buttock, with its garnishings, which are studded or tufted with Silk.
The Dock, that as goes under the Horse tail.
The Breast-Plate, for the stidfastness of the Saddle, the fore part and two straps.
The Footstoole, with a Sivet, which is hung to the right side of the Saddle by a Leather strap.
The Bridle as a Mans Bridle, only this of a Womans is double Rained: see the figure o• the side Saddle, chap. 9. numb. 168.
XXXV. He beareth Or, a Taylor sitting upon a square Table (Stone or Hum•rt, as others term it) Argent, with his right Leg over the left, and sewing a Garment Gules: his Cloaths Purpine. Hat and Shoes Sable. This is a D•tch bearing, and is born by the name of Cleermacker, which in English is Taylor.
Terms used by Taylors.
In a Womens Gown there are these several parts, as
- The Stayes, which is the body of the Gown before the Sleeves are put too, or covered with the outward stuff: which have these peeces in it, and terms used about it
- The fore Part, or fore Body: which is the Breast part, which hath two peeces in it; as,
- The Right side of the Fore-body.
- The Left side of the Fore-body.
- The two side parts, which are peeces under both Arms on the sides.
- The Back.
- The Shoulder heads, or Shoulder straps; are two peeces that come over the Sholders and are fastned to the Forebody: through which the Arms are put.
- Scoreing, or Strick iines on the Canvice to sow straight.
- Stitching, is sowing all along the lines with close stitches to keep the Whale-Bone each peece from other.
- — is the cleaving of the Whale-Bone to what substance or thickness the workman pleaseth.
- Boning the Stays, is to put the slit Bone into eve∣ry one of the places made for it between each stitched line which makes Stayes or Bodies stiff and strong.
- Cordy Robe skirts to the Staies, are such Stayes as are cut into Labells at the bottom, like long slender skirts.
- Lining the Bodies, or Stayes; is covering the inside of the Stayes with Fustian, Linnen, and such like.
- Binding the Neck, is sowing Galloon, at the edge of the Neck.
- Eylet holes, or Eiglet holes, little round holes whipt-stitched about, through which laces are drawn to hold one side close to the other.
- The Waist, is the depth of the Stayes from the Shoul∣ders to the setting on of the skirts: now it is distinguished by the Back Waist, and the fore-body Waist, which is each side of the Stomacher.
- Side Waisted, is long or deep in the Body.
- Short Waisted, is short in the Body.
- The Stomacher, is that peece as lieth under the lacing or binding on of the Body of the Gown, which said body is somtimes in fashion to be.
- Open before, that is to be laced on the Breast.
- Open behind, laced on the Back, which fashion hath always a Maid or Woman to dress the wearer.
- The Peake, is the bottom or point of the Stomacher, whether before or behind.
- A Busk, it is a strong peece of Wood, or Whale-bone thrust down the middle of the Stomacher, to keep it streight and in compass, that the Breast nor Belly shall not swell too much out. These Buskes are usually made in length according to the necessity of the persons wearing it: if to keep in the fullness of the Breasts, then it extends to the Navel: if to keep the Belly down, then it reacheth to the Honor.
- A Point.
- Covering the Bodies or Stayes, is the laying the out∣side stuff upon it, which is sowed on the same after diverse fashious: as,
- Smooth Covered.
- Pleated or Wrinkled in the covering.
- The Wings, are Welts or peeces set over the place on the top of the Shoulders, where the Body and Sleeves are set together: now Wings are of diverse fashi∣ons, some narrow, others broad; some cut in slits, cordy Robe like, others Scalloped.
- The Sleeves, are those parts of the Gown, as covers the Arms: and in these there is as much variety of fashi∣on, as days in the Year: I shall only give the terms of the most remarkable.
- The close, or narrow Sleeve; which reacheth from the Shoulder to the Wrist of the Arm, and is not much wider then for the Arm: which were of old turn∣ed up at the Hand, and faced or lined with some other sort of stuff.
- The Wide, or full Sleeve; is such as are full and long, and stand swelling out: such are tied about the El∣bow close to the Arm with a Ribbon.
- The open Sleeve, such are open the fore part of the Arm, that their bravery under may be seen whether it be a mock or cheat Waist-coat with Imbrauthery or the like; else their fine L••nens and Laces.
- Page 95The slasht Sleeve, is when the Sleeve from Shoulder to the Sleeve hands are cut in long slices, or fillets: and are tied together at the Elbow with Ribbons, or such like.
- The Sleeve and half Sleeve.
- The Sleeves with hanging Sleeves, is a full Sleeve in any of the fashions aforesaid, with a long hang∣ing Sleeve of a good breadth hanging from under the back part of the Wing down behind, even to the ground; in the greater sorts of Gallants trailing a good length on the ground.
- The half Sleeves with Hounds Ears, are such as extend to the Elbow and there turn up, and being slit or open hang at the Elbow like Dogs Ears.
- The Rim of the Sleeve, is that part which is at the Sleeve hand either lined or Edged or Welted: but of these sorts of Sleeves see their figures and shapes, chap. 5. numb. 130.131. &c.
- The Faceing.
- The Skirt, or Gown Skirt; is the lower part of the Gown, which extends from the body to the ground: these are made several fashions, as
- Open Skirts, is open before, that thereby rich and costly Peti-coat may be fully seen.
- Turned up Skirts, are such as have a draught on the Ground a yard and more long; these is great Per∣sonages are called Trains, whose Honor it is to have them born up by Pages.
- Bearers, Rowls, Fardingales; are things made purposely to put under the skirts of Gowns at their setting on at the Bodies; which raise up the skirt at that place to what breadth the wearer pleaseth, and as the fashion is.
- Skirts about the Waist, are either whole in one en∣tire peece with Goares, or else cut into little laps or cordy robe skirts: Gowns with these skirts are called Waistcoat-Gowns.
- Wastcoat, or Waistcoast; is the outside of a Gown without either stayes or bodies fastned to it; It is an Habit or Garment generally worn by the middle and lower sort of Women, having Goared skirts, and some wear them with Stomachers.
- Goare, is a Cant or three cornered peece of cloath put into a skirt, to make the bottom wider then the top: so are Goared Peti-coats.
- Peti-coat, is the skirt of a Gown without its body; but that is generally termed a Peti-coat, which is worn either under a Gown, or without it: in which Garment there are
- Peating, that is gathering the top part in into Pleats or folding to make it of the same wideness as the Waist of middle of the wearer.
- Laceing, is setting a Lace of Silk, Silver or Gold a∣bout the bottom of it; which in a Peti-coat is called the Skirt.
- Bodering, is the lineing of the Peti-coat skirt or bot∣tom in the inner side.
- Binding, is the sowing of some things (as Ribbon, Galloon or such like) on both sides the Edge of the skirt to keep it from ravelling; sometime it is done by a Hem: the top part of the Peti-coat hath its Binding also; that is, it hath either Incle, Filleting, or Galloon, sowed about the Edges of it, when pleated: which keeps the Pleats in their Pleats, the ends helping to make it fast about the wearers Waist.
- Hem, is the turning of the Edge of the cloath in; two fould or more, then sowing it up, keeps it from ravelling.
- Tucking, is to draw up the depth of a Peti-coat be∣ing too side or long, and that is by foulding a part over another
- Pocket, or Pocket holes; are little Bags set on the inside, with a hole, or slit on the outside; by which any small thing may be carried about, or kept therein.
- A Mantua, is a kind of loose Coat without any stayes in it, the Body part and Sleeves are of as many fa∣shions as I have mentioned in the Gown Body; but the skirt is sometime no longer then the Knees, others have them down to the Heels. The short skirt is open before, and behind to the middle: this is called,
- A Semmer, or Samare; have a lose body, and four side laps, or skirs; which entend to the knee, the sleeves short not to the Elbow turned up and faced.
- The Riding Suite for Women.
- The Hood.
- The Cap.
- The Mantle, it is cut round, which is cast over the Shoulders to preserve from rain or cold.
- The Safegard, is put about the middle, and so doth secure the Feet from cold, and dirt.
- The Riding Coat, it is a long Coat buttoned down before like a Mans Jaket, with Pocket holes; and the sleeves turned up and buttons.
In a Mans Suite of cloaths there are these several parts: as
- The Doublet, it is the whole covering for the upper part of the Man: in which there is these peeces and terms.
- The two Fore Bodies.
- The two Back parts.
- The Waist, is the length form the shoulder to the middle, now in a Doublet it may be the fashion to be
- Short Waisted.
- Side Waisted.
- The Skirts or Laps, because one lieth a little over another, they are distinguished by the fore skirts, side skirts and hinder skirts; sometimes the custom is to have them more or less, big and little: narrow or short, and large or deep.
- The Collar, is that part as compsseth the Neck.
- The Belly peeces, the inward stiffning of the Breast of the Doublet.
- The Linning, is fine Flaxed or Linnen; called the out Lining.
- The Inner Lining, is Canvice, Buckram, or such like, next to the cloth or stuff, between it and the foresaid Lining.
- The Waist-band, is a — under the skirts to which the straps are fastned.
- The Eyes, or Holders; are small Wiers made round through which the Breeches hooks are put, to keep them from falling.
- Straps, are peeces of Leather fastned to the Waist-band instead of Eyes, or holders.
- Waistcoat, is a close Garment worn under a Doub∣let, and within the Waist-band of the Breeches.
- A Pacadile, a thing put about Man or Womans Neck to support and bear up the Band, or Gorget.
- The Sleeves, are the covers of the Arms and are of Page 96 diverse fashions, as I have set down in Womens sleeves.
- Sleeve hands, the lowest part of the sleeve next the Wrist.
- Turn ups, or Cufts; are the turning up of the end of the Doublet next the hand.
- A Slasht Doublet, is when both sleeves, and back, and fore-body, are cut like unto long slices, or fillets.
- Button holes, are such long slitt holes whipped a∣bout with a Loop at each end, as are in the left part of the Fore-body, and at the sleeve hands, to receive the Buttons on the right side, and to keep it close together.
- The Faceing, is to Face the sleeve hands, is to adorn the turn up, with some other sort of Stuff or Silk, then the suit of Cloaths is made off.
- The Breeches, is that part of cloathing which covers a Man from his Waist to his Knees; of the fashion of them there is many extent, I shall tell of some few.
- The Spanish Breeches, are those that are stret and close to the Thigh, and are buttoned up the sides from the Knee with about ten or twelve buttons: anciently called Trowses.
- The Sailers Breeches, are full and gathered both in the Waist and at the Knees; standing full out.
- The Open Breeches, are such as are full and wide and not gathered at the Knees, but hang loose and open.
- The Pantiloon Breeches.
- The Trunk Breeches.
- The Peticoat Breeches, are short and wide Coats with Waist bands, having no petition, or sowing up be∣tween the Legs; but all open like a short Peticoat, from whence they are named.
- Triming, is any thing put on, or about the Doublet, or Breeches: whereby they are adorne• and made more Gent, whether it be by Ruffles, Laces, Ri•bons, But∣tons, Loopes, Scalloping, &c.
- In the Brceches, there are these several parts.
- The Waistband.
- The Hookes.
- The Cottonings, is that with which the cloth or outward stuff of the Breeches are Lined.
- The Drawers, are Linnen Breeches worn under the Breeches which are tied about the Waist and either a∣bove or under the Knees.
- The Pockets, are little bags set in the sides of the Breeches to put or carry any small thing in.
- The Seat, the hinder part on which we sit; also the inner part which is at the Breech.
- The Out side▪ of the Breeches.
- The Cod-peece, or open of the Breeches before.
- The Knees.
Loose Garments usually worn over the Doublet and Breeches are such as these following.
- A Stret bodied Coat, this is close to the Body and Arms, and is usually worn without a Doublet, having un∣der it a Waistcote with side or deep skirts almost to the Knees. These kind of Waistcoats are called Chates; because they are to be seen rich and gaudy before, when all the back part is no such thing.
- A Uest, is a kind of wide Garment reaching to the knees open before and turned up with a Faceing of line∣ing, the Sleeves wrought to the Elbows and there were turned up with a round faceing: under it was worn ano∣ther side skirted Coat made fit to the Body after the man∣ner of a Doublet, which was called a Tunick: the sleeves of it were narrow, and rought below the Elbow to the middle of the Arm, where it was all beset with knots of Ribbons: about the middle was worn a Silken Girdle, which was called a Zoan, or Sash: chap. 3. numb. 23.
- A Iacket, or Iumpe, or loose Coat: It extendeth to the Thighs is open or buttoned down before, open or slit up behind half way: the Sleeves reach to the Wrist having the turn-up sometime round, then with Hounds Ears, and an other time square.
- A Mandilion, or Madilion, or of old a Mante∣vil: It is a lose Coat without Sleeves it reacheth in the skirt to the seat of the Breeches, and is open before, it hath hanging Sleeves which hang down backwards, al∣most as side as the skirt: chap. 3. numb. 24.
- A Coat, or Riding Coat; is a full Coat both wide and side with long and wide Sleeves to be drawn over o∣ther kind of Garments.
- A Coat with a round Cape, is the same as a•ore hav∣ing a Cape added to the neck part of it.
- A Mantle, is a round thing made of any stuff, having a round hole in the middle, and so is cut through to the hole, which being put about the neck hangs round about the wearer: which according to the fashion, is large or little, faced or laced &c. chap. 3. numb. 32.
- A Rocket, is a Cloak without a Cape.
- A Cloak, is a peece of Cloth or Stuff cut round with a hole in the Center of it as the Mantle, on the back of it, is a Cape placed; some are deepe Capes, some narrow, others loose from the Cloak part at Cape ends: chap. 3. numb. 34.35.
Several Terms used in Sowing of Cloath.
Basting, is a slight running of the Needle, and thrid through two peeces of cloth to keep them together while they are sowed with some of these following stitches.
Fine Drawing, is sowing two peeces of Cloth toge∣ther so curiously, that it shall not be seen where the sow∣ing is.
Ravelling, is roveing or the loosing out of thrids or Silk-thrids from the peece of Cloth or Silk.
Stuff, is the general term given to that, of which any Garment is made, whether of Hare Wool, or Silk.
He beareth Gules, an Upholdsterer covering of Stool, or else making up of a Stool, Or. Born by the name of Vpholder. This may be termed an Upholdsterer in his Shirt, his Breeches Tenne, s••f•ing of a Stool, the Cover and Frame, Or.
Terms used about their Work in a Stool or Chair, Cushion or Bed, and Hanging of a Room.
Girth it, is to bottom it with Girth Webb stret drawn and crossed.
Canvice it, is to nail the Canvice on the top of the Stool or Chair Frame, over the Girth Webb.
Rowle it, is to put Rowls on the top edges.
Stuffing, is to stuff it with Hay, Wool, Flocks or Feathers.
Fringing, is to Nail the Fringe about the Stool seat at the sides.
The Seat, is that place sitten upon.
Backing, is to Nail the Back on a Chair suitable to the Seat.
Garnishing, is the finishing it with Brass Nails.
Cushion and Bed Terms.
Bottom the Cushion, is to sow the lower part and top together.
Cuffs or Tuftings, are the Tassels at the corners of the Cushion.
Bed-Tick, to hold the Feathers.
Gumming, or UUaring, or Sizing, is to rub the in-side of the Bed Tick, with either Gum, Wax, or Size, to keep Feathers from coming through it.
Feathers, is the filling of the Bed-Tick, which are cleansed from Dirt and Foulness, these ways.
Dressing, making all clean from Quills.
Fanning or Driving, taking the Down away.
Stripping the Feathers from the Quills.
Clipping, is the cutting of the Feather part from the Quill with Scissars.
Down, is the Dant, or pure soft airy Feathers which have no Quills.
Quilting, is to put Cotton Wool of an equal thick∣ness between two Silks, or a Callicoe or other Cloth un∣dermost, and a Silk above, which is wrought in scrolls, flowers, &c. to keep the Cotton from shifting its place.
A Mat of Straw woven or platted together, to ly on the Bed Cords under a Feather Bed to preserve it from Fretting.
A Matrice, is a Quilted Straw or Flock Bed.
A Flock Bed, is Sack Cloth filled with Wool or Flocks, which is a course Wool.
A Chaff Bed, is filled with Oat or Wheat shoues.
Terms about Hanging of Rooms.
Hanging a Room, is to fix about it, either Cloth, Silk, Damask, gilt Leather, Arras, or Tapestry, or a∣ny other thing that will cover or hide bare Walls.
Hangings or Rich Hangings, are generally ta∣ken to be Silk, Arras, or Tapestry.
Plain Hangings, are such as have nothing on them of shape, but only plain Stuff or Cloth.
Pain Hangings, that are plain Cloth or the like, yet have gilt Ropes or Staves set down the hanging at a certain distance one from the other.
Mixed Hangings, that is, when a Paine or Pillar of Gilt Leather, or painted Fruitages of Flowerages, are fixed between each breadth, either of cloth or stuffe.
The Seamster or Seamstry work follows next in or∣der to that of a Taylor; this being work to adorn the Head and Hands and Feet, as the other is for the cover∣ing of the Body; nay, very often the Seamster occupi∣eth the room and place of a Taylor in furnishing the Nobility and Gentry with such conveniencies as serve the whole body, especially in the Summer season. I shall therefore give you the Terms used about their Imploy, and then the names of such pieces of work both in the whole, and in the parts, as is usually done by them.
Terms used by a Seamster.
Patterns, Paper cut in fashions according as the Work is to be made.
Shaping, the ordering the Cloth to be cut.
Laying down, is the edges of the cut Cloth laid down to be hemmed.
Hemming, is sowing up the edges of Linnen, to keep it from ravelling.
Selvage, the out-side of the Cloth.
Seaming, is sowing two selvages together, which is called a Seam or two Hems together; or a Hem and a lay down.
Ravell, or Rovell, vulgarly Rove, when threads come out of the edges of the cloth.
Ining, or sowing down the Seam.
Names of things made by Seamsters.
Shirt, or Shift for a Man.
Smock or Womans shift.
Fenting, binding at the sleeve hands.
Sleeves and Gussets at the Arm-holes
Neck, the gathering.
Open of the Breast. Back. Skirts.
Goar, or Gussett, the side pieces in a Smock.
Band, as Collared Band, Neck Band, Shoulder Band.
Hollowing, the rounding of it for the Neck.
Clocks of the Band.
Stock, or Neck piece.
Hinder part of the Band.
Fore part of the Band.
Ruffs, pleated Bands of two or three heights.
Round Robins, narrow Ruffs only about the Doublet Collar.
Page 98 Foulds. Sets. Ruffles.
Cuffs, or sleeve cufts.
Ruffles for the hands, both Plain and Laced.
Sleeves. Bibbs. Biggins.
Handkerchiefs for Womens Necks, both round and square.
Whisks, to be worn with a Gown.
Shapes for Mantua's.
Tuckers, or Dresses.
Gorgetts, round Dresses plaited to be deep about Womens Necks.
A Band for a Morning Gown.
A Roman Dress, the Mantua cut square behind and round before.
Night-Rails, or Cover-sluts.
Womens Head Dresses.
Quoifs. Chin-cloth. Caul. Chapparoon.
Crossett, or Crosscloth.
A Pinner is with long flaps hanging down the side of the Cheeks.
Towers, curled hair on the forehead.
Ear Knots, Forehead Knots, Head Knots, and Crown Knots falling backwards.
A Ruffled Quoif, also with a Knot of Rubin in every fould.
Fillet and Snood.
A Cornett, or Coif with long Ears, tyed under the Chin, and hanging down deep to the top of the Breast, made of Birds Eye or Gaues.
An Head Roll.
Hoods, made of either Gaues, Alamode, Lute∣string, Sarsenet, Ducape, Vinian Sarsnet, Persia, Lin∣dia Silk, or Gaues and Birds Eye flowered.
Half Sleeves with Hounds Ears, or Boat sleeves; these are made of Silk and Satin Imbrauthered, some with Puffs, or ruffled in the turn-up, or Fringed.
— Holland Sleeves with ruffle Cuffs tied about with Rubins.
House Cloths, or Linnen, as Sheets, Towells, Nap∣kins, Table cloths, Cupboard cloths, Pillow bears.
Bone-Lace and Parchment-Lace Makers.
Laces, or Bone-Lace wrought with Pegs.
Golberteene or Colbertain, a kind of open Lace with a square grounding.
Point, a kind of Lace worked with a Needle.
Point of Uenice, with raisings.
Point of Lorrain without raisings.
Purle Lace. Flanders Lace.
Lay it, is to stitch the seaming on the Parchment according to the Work drawn on it.
Overcast the laying.
Fill the Branches and Leaves with Diamond work overcast.
Buttons, Ilet holes.
Edged on the side with Cocks Comb.
Laundresses Terms of Art.
Sorting. Soaping. Soap Sudds.
Wrenching, or Biorning.
Booking or Bouking.
Batting, or beating the Cloths to get the Bucking Stuff out.
Starching. Wringing the Cloaths, to force the Water out.
Drying. Smoothing or Ironing.
Hanging up, to Air and Dry throughly.
To Ladder, is beating the Soap and Water together, to make it rise to a Froth, which the call Suds.
The School Mistris Terms, and things to work with.
Needles, of several sizes.
Cruel of all colours.
Silk for sowing of all colours.
A Samcloth, a cloth to sow on, a Canvice cloth.
Slave Silk. Naples Silk.
Fine white Alcomy Wyre.
Ising Glass. Gum Arabick. Gum Dragon.
The School Mistris Terms of Art for all her ways of Sowing.
A Samcloth, vulgarly a Sampler.
Plar-Stitch, or single Plat Stitch, which is good on one side.
Plat-Stitch or double Plat-Stitch, which is alike on both sides.
Spanish stitch, true on both sides.
Tent-stitch on the Finger.
Tent-stitch in the Tent.
Irish stitch. Back-stitch.
Tent-stitch upon Satin.
Raised Work. Needie work Pearl.
Geneva Work. Uirgins Device.
Cut Work. Open Cut Work.
Laid Work. Stitch-work, & Through stitch.
Lap Work. Rock Work.
Frost work. Nett work.
Purle Work Tent Work.
Finger Work, all which are several sorts and man∣ners of Works wrought by the Needle with Silk of all Natures, Purles, Wyres, &c. which cannot be described.
Page 99Waft, or Finger Bread, are kind of Purse-strings woven on the Fingers either round or broad, one side of one colour, the other of another; or wrought in Letters, Flowers, Chequy or Losenge ways.
Other Works performed by School Mi∣stresses and their Scholars.
Gum Work, is by Gumming of several colours of sleeven Silk together, which being dry, they cut into shapes of Leaves and Flowers, and so tie them up upon Wyers.
Frost Work. Transparant Work.
Wax Work. Pull Work. Quill Work.
Paper Work, all which are the making of Leaves and Flowers of all the foresaid things, and binding them up in Branches or Poesies.
XXXVI. He beareth Argent, a Shooe-maker up∣on his Seat, with his Tools, (or St. Hugh's Bones) on his right hand thereon, sowing of a Shooe, all proper. It is also Blazoned, a Man on a Seat, with St. Hugh's Bones by him; exercising of the Gentle Craft, all in their proper colours; where note, that the Shooe makers Apron is always green. This is born by the name of St. Hugh.
Terms used in the Gentle Craft.
Closing the Heel Quarters and Uamp.
Rounding the Sole.
Setting the Sole on the Last.
Sowing on the Sole.
Breasing down the Rann.
Stitching the Sole to the Rann.
Rounding the Soles on.
Channelling the Sole, is making a riggett in the outter Sole for the Wax Thread to ly in.
Sowing or stitching the sole round.
Rubbing it with a rubbing Stone.
Laying or beating too the stitch.
Sowing the Heel.
Pegging on the Heel pieces.
Slickening it off, polishing the upper Leather.
Pinking the over Leather, cutting the grain of the Leather into Roses, Knots, and orderly devices.
Colouring the soles, painting the edges with India red.
Burnishing the soles, setting a shining polish on the red.
Painting the stitches, laying the stitches which lie upon the Rann of the shooe with white.
Closing Thread, that as soweth the heel pieces and over leather.
Stitching Thread, is that as soweth the Soles to the Rann.
Leather or Heel thread, is that as sowes the heel to the shooe.
The Size of a shooe, is the measure of its length, which is in Children divided into 13 parts; and in Men and Women into 15 parts; the first of them being five Inches long before it be taken for a size, what the shooe exceeds that length, every fourth part of an Inch is ta∣ken for the size 1, 2, 3. and so forwards to 13 which is called the Boys or Girls thirteens, or the short thir∣teens, and contains in length 8 inches and a quarter, from which measure of 8 inches and a quarter, the Size of Men and Women, called the long size or Mans Size, begins at 1, 2, 3, &c. to the number 15, each size being about the fourth part of an Inch as aforesaid; so that a Shooe of the long fifteens is in length 12 Inches just. Some term it a Gage or Shooe Measure.
Grain of the Leather, the hairy side.
Flesh side of the Leather.
XXXVII. He beareth Argent, an Imbrautherer sowing a piece of Work in a Tent, the Table, Or, the Imbrauthery variable colours, Hat Sable, Clo∣thed in Scarlet.
The Praise of the Needle, both for its Antiquity and Excellency, doth abundantly surpass all other Arts; for the use of Sewing is so old, that it took beginning with our first Parents Adam and Eva in Paradice, as we may read Gen. 3.7. also we find that the coverings of the Tabernacle, viz. the Gu••a•ns had made in them Che∣rubims of Broidred wor•〈◊〉. 26.1. And that by the Almighties great Co•m•nd, Aaron the High Priest was invested with 〈…〉 Broidred work which were most glorious 〈◊〉•ehold, Exod. 28.2.3. &c. And King Dav•d doth sh•w by an apt Similitude, the Majesty and Glory of our M•ther the Church, by comparing it to a Kings fair Dau•hter brought •orth to her Spouse in Garments wro•••t o• Needle Work of Gold, Psal. 45.13.14.
Terms used by Embrautherers and School Mistresses of the Needle, I have before set down under numb. 35. in the School Mistris terms, to which I shall refer you.
XXXVIII. He beareth Argent, on a Ground plot in Base, a Ioyne•s Bench with a UU•rkman on the nearer side, plaining of a Board, all proper. This is the crest of cognizance of Don de Christierna, a Spanish Family.
XXXIX. He beareth Or, a Ioyner seated astride a piece of Timber with a M•llet in his right h•nd lift∣ed up, and a Chissel in 〈◊〉•eft, making of 〈◊〉Mortice all proper; his 〈◊〉, Gules▪ Breeches and Hose Grev. This is the Crest of Mo•t•le maine. Some term it a Ioyner set overcross a piece of Timber, with his Mallett and Chissell making a Mortice hole. This is born by Don Liago of Spain; he was an excellent Ship Carpenter, as my Author hath in•ormed me.
Terms of Art used by Joyners in their way of Working, and explained.
First, for the Names of their Timber.
Raile, it is a piece of Timber, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 foot or more long, and carrieth four inches broad, and an inch or more thick. A Raile is an half Spare.
Spare, is two inches thick, and four inches broad; in some places it is termed a single Quarter.
Ioyce, it is four inches square. In some Counties called a double Quarter.
Bed posts, such as Beds either for Standards, Bed sides, or Beds seet are made of.
Munton, the short down right pieces in Wainscot.
Stile, the over cross pieces in Wainscot, in the ri∣get of which two, the Panell or middle pieces are fast∣ned.
Boards of several sorts, as
Plank of any length, but never under 2, 3, or 4 inches thick.
Half Inch Boards.
Uallens, narrow Boards, about 5 or 6 inches broad, and half inch thick, and of all lengths.
Pannell, little cleft Boards, about 2 foot high, and 16 or 20 inches broad, of these Wainscot is made.
Shingles, cleft Wood about 6 or 8 inches long, and 4, or 5 broad; with these in Wood Countreys they cover their Houses.
Secondly, for their Words or Term.
Architrave, is a plain or flat border, at the bottom moulding of a Cornish or Cornice.
Arras ways, is any thing set or hung Diamond wise, having one corner of the Square set upwards, the other downwards.
Base, the bottom, foot, or foundation of any work.
Bed moulding, is the smaller mouldings over a swelling Friese.
Bead, the inner part of any moulding, being only a square.
Batten, is the laying of a long narrow piece of Wood on a Door or the like, to counterfeit Wainscot, being moulded on each side.
Bevil, is any sloping Angle that is not a perfect square.
Bevil Ioint; see Joint.
Capitull, is the top mouldings or cornish of any Pillar or Pillaster.
Cast, it is when any Boards, or other stuff, doth cast, warp, or bend, or any way alter from its own flatness and straightness.
Clamp or Clampt, is when one piece of Timber with the grain, is fixed to another cross the grain; thus the ends of Tables are commonly clampt to preserve them from wraping.
Cornice or Cornish, is the top and overseeling moulding on the top of a piece of Wainscot.
Cross grained, is that part of the Timber, in which a Bough or Arm of the Tree hath grown from the main Trunk of the Tree; in some Boards they are curled Knots, but in Deal perfect Knots.
Curling Grain, see cross grain. This is also called curling stuff, and knotty stuff.
Cypher, as to cypher of a square edge, making 2 edges for that one.
Door Case, is the Frame work about the Door, to which it hangeth by Hinges.
Draw the Saw through, is cut or slit such a piece of Stuff through.
Facia, is a plain square in a moulding, under a projected cornish.
Fence, is a part of the Plow Plain, to keep it from going deeper, or out of the place it is designed to groove.
Fine set, that is, when the Iron of a Plain is set so fine, and stands so shallow below the Sole of the Plain, that in working it takes off a thin shaving. See Rank set.
Friese, or flat Friese, is a plain and broad square between a Fillet moulding, and a Cornice moulding.
Friese Pannel, is the uppermost Pannel in the Wainscot.
Friese Rail, is the Rail as lieth next under the said Pannel.
Frowy Stuff, is such Timber as is soft and gentle, easie to be wrought, being neither too hard nor too soft.
Free Stuff, Timber of a good condition to work upon.
Frames, are those Wooden mouldings set about Pi∣ctures, or Frames for Door Cases.
Groove, or Grooving, is the making of a long nick in a Spar, Board, or other Stuff with the Plow Plain.
Grain, is the running Veins, or breaking Lines which run all along the Wood, no Wood being without a cer∣tain Grain either more or less, wider or closer, longer or shorter.
Helve, or Haft, or Handle, the holding place for working of any Tool, as Chissels and Gouges. Some call them Heads.
Hard Stuff, is such Timber as is naturally hard, as Box, Lignum Vitae, &c. or else so Curling and Knotty, that a Plain cannot take a shaving off it as thick as a Groat.
Heads of Tools; see Helve.
Husk, is a square Frame of Moulding, like to a Pi∣cture Frame or the like, set over the Mantle Tree of a Chimney between two Pillasters, having Capitalls, Friese, and a projecting Cornish.
Inch Board, is a full Inch breadth in its thicknes, after it is sawed.
Inch prickt, wants of an Inch in the thickness of the Board, because the Saw Kerfe hath taken half its breadth away in Sawing; so all scantlins are called, as 1, 2, or 3 inch sawn or prickt.
Ioynt, is the edges of two Boards Joined and Glew∣ed together in an even and streight line; yet besides this there is other kinds of Joints made in Wood, as
Page 101The Square Ioynt, which is, when two pieces of Wood are set so together that it is the one half of a perfect square; four such Joynts making a square.
The Myter Ioynt, is the joining of two pieces of Wood, so as the Joynt makes but half a square and no more; three making a triangle frame.
The Bevil Ioynt, is the joining of two pieces toge∣ther, so as that they make any other sharp or acu•e an∣gle; these Joynts are used in Frames that are made Pen∣tagon, Hexagon, and Octagon, that is, with either five, six, or eight corners.
Kerf, or Saw Kerf, is the Sawn-away slit, which the Saw makes in any Board, or other Stuff.
Knot, is a hard place, or irregular part of a Board, which breaks the grain, or turns it in a round; being of a contrary nature to the freeness of the Wood.
Large Pannel, see Pannell.
Lying Pannell, see in Pannel.
Lower Raile, see Rail.
Lay a Kerfe in that piece, is to cut through such a piece.
Lining of Stuff, is to strike a Chalk Line upon it, to Saw it by.
Margent, the flat breadth of the Stile (of some cal∣led the Munton) between the moulding on each side, is called the Margent of the Stiles.
Miter Ioynt; see Joyn.
Miter, an Angle that maketh a three square.
Mouldings, the several ways of wrought Work made with Plains on Wood, are generally termed alto∣gether Mouldings, though each Moulding hath its pe∣culiar name.
Mortess, is a long or square hole cut in a piece of Timber, to hold another piece, or entertain a Tenant made fit for it.
Ogee, is a moulding in a Cornish, wherein one part swells out, and the other turns in after the man∣ner of a Roman S.
Over seile, is when one part of a Cornish stands further out than another. Some term it a Project, or Projecting.
Pannel, it is the flat, and either square or long long Boards in Wainscot, which have their several terms according to their positions, as
The Lying Pannels, are the lower rank of Boards next to the ground.
The Large Pannels, or Middle Pannels, are those that run through the middle of the Wainscot.
The Friese Pannells, are the top rank of Boards, which Pannells are generally according to Order of the Work set longways, and are not much more than a fourth part of the breadth of the other Pannells.
Par, or Paring, is the cutting of a thing, as a Joynt smooth with the Paring Chissel.
P•laster, is the half of a Pillar set to a Wall, as in Doors and Chimney peeces, and their Basis and Ca∣pital also cut off by the half; this term is given to such Pillar whether they be round or square.
A Pit-Man, the Sawyer that works in or at the Pit for Sawing of great Trees into several sorts of Tim∣ber for the Joyners use, is called a Pit-Man, but gene∣rally with us Sawyers.
Planchier, is a great round out swelling, between other smaller mouldings.
Plinth. is a Bevil, flat, or plain mould, whether in the Head or Capital Moulding, or Basis.
Project, see Over-seile.
Plow a Groove, is the working of a Groove in a Stile or Rail, to lay the edges of a Pannel Board in.
Paring of a Ioynt, is to make a Joynt fit, by cutti•g it even with the Paring Chissel; see Shooting of a Ioynt.
Rack, is a part of the Instrument used in waving of Timber, and is a flat piece of hard wood about an inch and quarter broad.
Rail, is the overcross pieces in Wainscot, which have several names according to their places, as
The lower Rail, is that next the Ground; next it is the Surbase Rail.
The Middle Rail, is that in the middle of the Wainscot.
The Friese Rail, is that next to the top rail, or highmost rail.
The upper Rail, is the top Rail on which the Cor∣nice is set.
Rank, or Rankset, is when the Iron of the Plain, is set so far below the Sole of the Plain, that in the work∣ing it will take off a thick shaving; or the Teeth of a Saw set so wide that it makes a broad Kerfe.
Range or Run-range. is the side of any work that runs straight without breaking into Angles is said to run range; thus the Rails and Pannels of one streight side of Wainscoting being set to a straight corner of a Wall, is said to range or run range with the Wall.
Return, the side that falls away from the fore side or any straight or Range work, is called a Return, as in Corners of Chambers.
R•glet, is a flat, thin, square piece of Wood, fit∣ted to be Mo••ded and Waved in the Waving Instru∣ment.
Rub, that is, whet the Irons of the Plain when they are dull and blunt.
Scantlin, is the size that the Joyner intends to cut his Stuff to. Sometimes it is used to that piece of Stuff as will not hold out to do that piece of Work for which it is intended.
Scribe, is the drawing of a line or stroak with the point of the Compasses upon a piece of stuff that is straight, thereby to cut it so as it may join to an Ir∣regular piece, whether bowed or cornered.
Shoot a Ioynt, is the making of the two pieces to be joined, smooth and even with the Joynter Plain; that is the Joynts are made so exactly streight, that be∣ing put together, no Light can be seen between them; this is shooting of a Joynt.
Shoot a Board, is to make it have a straight edge; as in a Ruler, where the edges are shot straight, and one side shot off with a cyphered edge.
Stile, of some termed Munton, is all those up∣right pieces in Wainscot, in which the Pannels are fixed.
Stuffe, all sorts of Wood that Joyners work upon, are generally called Stuff.
Sur-Base, is the next Rail to the bottom Rail in a piece of Wainscoting.
Page 102Swelling Frize, is a round swelling between other smaller moulding: it is of some termed a Planchier.
Shaving, is the thin cutting of Wood that a plain take off.
Square Ioynt, see Ioynt.
Setting of a Saw, is the drawing of the Saw-teeth one one way, and the other another way, thereby to make the Kerfe broader or narrower, to cut the Timber more Rank.
Table, is a plain smooth board set about with Mould∣ings, whether it be round Oval or Square, or of what sort soever: but most used for those square Boards which have Frames about them for Pictures and Coats of Arms to be drawn and Painted upon.
Taper, is any sort of work that is smaller at one end then at the other: or diminisheth gradually from the biggest end, to the other.
Tennant, is a square end fitted into a Mortess made in another peece of Timber by which the two Peeces are closed and held together.
Top-Man, is the uppermost Man that is Sawing great Timber at a Pit; or on Trussels which are high Frames a little more then the height of a Man, on which the Wood is laid for want of a Pit.
Traverse, is working with the plain, or any other Tool cross the grain of the Timber.
Try, is to see by the help of a straight rule, laying it on a flat peece, whether the work be true, which it is if no light can be seen between the edge of the rule and the work.
Uaws-Cornice, is any small Cornish lying under a great swelling out peece, as under a Planchier, or swelling Friese.
Upper Cornice, is the highest Cornish in any Moulded work.
UUarp, see Cast.
UUedge, is a peece of Wood or Iron made taper, by which things are opened and made wide; or else to Wedge is to make a thing fast in another, by driving peeces of Wood so made between the open parts.
Whetting-block, is a peece of thick Timber have•ing a Rigget in it, into which the blade of a new Saw is set and wedged that it cannot play whilest the Teeth are sharpning.
Wrest, is that by which Saw Teeth are set.
XL. He beareth Azure, a Chandler on the further side of his Mould, Dipping of a Staff or Rod of Candles in Tallow, all in their proper colours. This I have seen often times Painted on Sign-boards, to signi∣fie the dwelling-house of a Chandler, or Candle-Maker: But as a Badge or Coat Armour for any Fami∣ly I never saw it so born, Save by the Chandlers of Dublin, whose Crest it is, as I am informed by G. Thompson, my Author.
Terms used by Tallow-Chandlers.
Wind the Yard.
Candle Week, which is doubled Yarn, sometime four or six foulds, made either of Flax or Cotton loosely Spun.
Cut the week, is by a measure on a Board cut accord∣ing to the length & bigness that the Candles is to be made.
Twist the Week, is to roul the several foulds into one.
Rod the Week, is to put it or the Rod.
Ruff Tallow, Tallow made up in Cakes come from the Butchers shambles.
Break the Cake, is to pull it into peeces.
Chop the Tallow, is to cut it small with a chopping Knife to melt the better.
Tallow the Pail, is to put it in the melting Pan.
Stir the Tallow, when it is melting in the Pan.
Settle the Tallow, is to receive or put it melted into a Tub.
Render the Tallow, is to poure it through a strain∣ed, to keep the Dross from the pure Tallow.
Graves, or Cratchens; is the dross of the Tallow.
Press the Cratchens, is to squise them in a press to get what pure Tallow can be gotten out.
Fill the Mould, poure the Tallow into the same.
Dipp the Week, is the first dipping it into the Mould, or warm Tallow.
Cool the Candles, or Stage the Candles; is to la• the Rod on the Stage to grow cold that then they may be dipt again and again for many times; for the oftner dipped, being cool the thicker is made the Candle.
Thrid the Candles, is to tie them by pounds.
Shop the Candles, is to hang them by pounds, do∣zens, two or three on the two ends of a strong s•aff, and so a Man on his shoulder brings them to the place where they are to be.
Week, is the burning part of the Candle, being still fed by the Tallow under it.
Snuff, the Week over burned which is Snuffed off, or cut away that the Candle may burn the better: or Snuff is the latter end when all the Candle is consumed and go∣eth out with a sunk.
Drop, is the running away of a Candle, when it is made of Kitchin ••uff, and not of good Tallow.
Thief, is when any thing is in the burning part of the Candle which makes it waste more then it would do.
Ends of Candles, as the bottom ends put out, and not fuf•ered to burn any more.
Waste, is Tallow remaining unburnt about a Candle∣stick, or that as runs from the Candle into the Socket.
XLI. He beareth party per Fesse, Air and Water in a Fishing Boat (or Cock-Boat, as some term it) two Fishers Drawing of a Salmons Nett out of the Water, all proper. This is the Coat of Arms an∣ciently belonging to the Company of Fishers, or Draw•rs in Dee (as we call them) in the City of Chester.
In the Chief of this square is a Demy UUoman Cloathed G•les, s•ns Arms; havin the Hands fixed at the Shoulders proper, Crowned Or. Which is the Crest of Van Konigseld of Franchsord.
A Demy Man sans Arms, wreathed about the Temp•es, the ends Flo•an•, A. and G. Cloathed with short round •leeves, parted down the Breast of the said colours: Is the Crest of Van Konitz. Here I could not properly say the Cloaths parted per Pale, for then they should have come down with a streight line, when as this parting only bends out, as the Breast and Page 103 Belly doth: Yet in such cases all these kinds of parting are understood, and taken to be no other then per Pale, allowance being given for the bending of the Body.
Things necessary for Fishing or Drawing with Netts.
A Pole with Iron hook at the end.
A Draw Nett.
Cast the Nett over.
Cords and Corks.
Strong Hemp thrid.
Mask of the Nett.
XLII. He beareth Argent, on a Grassy Plat in base a Piscator, or Fisher, or Ang•er, with his Rod lifted up, and the Line Pendant from the same, all proper. This is born for the name of Angelaer, both for the Coat and Crest,
In this Quarter a Demy Boy, his Arms Metamor∣phosed into Fish Hookes, the Beards Reversed, Argent; Cloarhed, Azure: on his Head a Plume of feathers, Argent. This out of a Coronet is the Crest of Van Angelloch of Rhyne.
Tackles belonging to an Angler.
A Fishing Rod, of which there are several sorts: as,
- A Trow•ing Rod, or a Trowler: hath a ring at the end of the Rod for the Line to run through, when it runs off a Reele.
- A Whipper, or UUhipping Rod: is a slender top Rod, that is weak in the middle and top heavy, but all slender and fine.
- A Dopper, is a strong long Rod very tite.
- A Snapper, or Snap Rod: is a strong Pole, pecu∣liar for a Pike.
- A Bottom Rod, is the same with a Dopper but somewhat more plyable.
- A Snigleing, or Prokeing Stick: is a forked stick, and a short long Line with a Needle Bated with a Lob Worm; It is only for Eels in their holes.
Lines, of which there are several sorts, and of diverse making: as,
- Silk Lines, Fishing Lines made of several Silk thrids.
- Hair Lines, made of the long hairs of an Horse Tail either single or twisted two together, sometimes three or four.
- Thrid Lines.
- UUire Lines.
Hooks, or Fishing Hooks of several sizes, big and little, and of these some have peculiar names: as,
- Single Hooks.
- Double Hooks, Hooks that have two bending, one contrary to the other.
- Snappers, or Gorgers; which are Hooks to Whip the Artificial Fly upon, or to bait with the natural Fly.
- Springers, or Spring Hooks; a kind of double Hooke with a spring, which Flyes open being strucken into any Fish and so keeps its Mouth open.
Baits, are of several sorts, as UUorms of diverse colours and kinds; Flyes Artificial and Natural accord∣ing to the seasons: Grashoppers, and Pasts made up by Art.
Plumets of Lead, to stand at the bottom of the Line to make the Bait sink.
Reeles of several sorts to wind the Lines upon.
A Trash-Bagg, a little Bagg of Leather wherein is put Materials for all sorts and kinds of Fly fishing.
A Landing Hooke•
A Landing Nett, to put under large Fish when the Rod and Line is not of strength to pull them out.
A UUater-Dog, is a round peece of Lead like a Ring: It is to unloose the Hookes if they be fastned at the bottom.
Swivells, turning Hookes in Rings to fasten Wyer Links to the Lines.
A Knife and Scicssars.
UUax Thrid, and Silk; for the whipping of the Lines to the Hook.
An Apron with several Pockets to place the Anglers Implements in Order.
A Bagg to carry the Bait in.
A Pedd, or Basket, or Pannier; to carry the Fish in, when they are cought.
Terms used by Anglers.
A Ioynted Rod, is a Rod that may be made long∣er or shorter at pleasure, by putting the end of one staff into a hoope fixed upon the end of another.
A Top, is the twigg or plying part of the higher end of the Rod to which the Line is fastned.
Gorge, is to swallow the Bait and Hook.
Bait the Hook, is to put a Worm, or other kind of Meat for the Fish on the Hook.
Bait, is any thing that is put on the hook, for the Fish to bite at.
Cast, Throe, or Toss your Line: is to fling it into the Water.
Bitt, is when the Fish take the Bait.
Trailes or Drags, when the Hook and Line touch∣eth the Ground under Water.
It Bottoms, lies on the Ground in the River.
Mid-water Fishing, is to let the Bait Swims on the top of the Water.
Page 104Strikes, or Laceing: when the Hook is drawn into his Mouth or Gills by a sudden twitching of the Bait from him, and so pulleth it out of the Water.
Run or Eagar, when Fish run away with th Bait in his Mouth; Take his Run.
Plating or UUeaving, is twisting the Hairs of the Line together.
Single, or Double UUater Knot or Noose: the knots by which two, three, or four length of hairs are tied together.
Whipping, is both the fastning of the Line to the Hook▪ or to the Rod.
Cork Flotes, when the Cork swims above Water.
Dops, or Dives; when sinks under Water.
UUhipping, is also taken for the casting in the Hook, and drawing it gently on the Water, as in Fly Fish∣ing.
No Sport, is when the Fish will not bite, but lie a ground.
Good Sport, or Play; when Fish is eager at the Bait.
Snigle, or Proking; is a kind of Fishing for Eels in their holes.
Dart, or Spear; is to take Fish by a fishing Dart, or Spear: as Eels by Eels-Spears.
Troull, is a kind of fishing for Pike with a Rod whose lines runs on a Reele.
Snap, is a kind of fishing for Pike with a strong Rod, with a double hook at the Line, called Snappers.
Snare, is to take Fish in Wyer Gryns, or Snares, Wills, or stall Nets.
UUhip, is to fish with a Whipper Rod, for small Fish.
Dopp, is to Fish with a Dopper Rod, for Pike, or large and strong Fish.
Grope, or Tickle; is a kind of Fishing by Diving under Water, or in shallow Waters where Fish is seen, by putting ones hand into the water holes, where Fish lieth: and when felt tickle them about the Gills, they will lie so quiet, that you may take them in your hands and cast them a Land: or if great Fish thrust your Fingers into their Gills, and bring them out: to conclude,
For Pike, Dart, Spear, Troul, Snap, Gorge, Snare or Snickle,
For Trout, Chub and Eel: Whip, Dop, Sniggle, Grop or Tickle.
XLIII. He beareth Air, on an Hill in Base, an Horse loaded with UUater-Baggs, with a Man following of him bearing a Scoope upon his shoulders, all proper. This is the Coat belonging to the company of Water-Leaders, in the City of Chester: which Coat in brief we blazon thus, a UUater Leader following of his Baggs. But if you will go to the par∣ticulars then say a Horse passant Argent, bearing a pair of UUater-Baggs, and Bridled Sable; the UUa∣ter-Man, or Horse-Driver, in a russet Suite, with a Linnen Apron about him; Hat and Shooes, proper: holding a Scope upon his right shoulder, Or.
In the Chief of this Quarter is a Demy Man to the sinister, respec•ant or looking backward, with a Laurel about his Temples, his left Hand on his side, and with his right pointing to the Dexter corner, Cloathed and Girded about the middle: such a bear∣ing cloathed Gules, is the Crest of Van Waldendeck of Switzerland. Some term this a Demy Man to the Sinister, Regardant, or Face Revertant, or Re∣spiciant, or Looking to the Dexter: any of them are sufficient blazons. The like to the Dexter, is the Crest of Van Bittenheim of Alsatia.
XLIV. He beareth Argent, on a Mount in Base, two Men their UUaistcoats Gules, Aprons white, Breeches and Hose Grey, Hats and Shooes Sable; bearing between them on their right shoulders a Pole and Runge, Or. These are another sort of UUater Carriers, and do belong to the Occupation of Beer and Ale Brewers.
He beareth Argent, two Beer-Breewers slinging of a Barrel, is the Badge of the Apprentices, and Workmen at the Brewers Trade; and is a fit sign or cognizance for a Brewer, or a Brew-house: see the Additional Plate to this Chapter, numb. 146. after chap. 4.
Terms used by Beer-Brewers, and Ale-Brewers▪
Comb the Malt, is to put it into the Comb.
Heat the Liquor, boil the water the first time.
Strike it over into Steuk, put it into the the Malt in the Comb.
Mash it up, blend or mixt the Malt and warm Wa∣ter together in the Comb.
Soak, the steeping of the Malt in the Water, where∣by its strength and vertue is drawn out.
Draw it into the Trough.
UUort, is the running of the Water from the Malt.
Best UUort, or Wort of the first running, or drawing is for strong Beer.
Wort of the second running, it makes small Beer.
Wort of the last drawing, it is thin and makes small drink, of some called, put up drink, shower-trough or penny prich: this is only the washing of Grains and the Brewers Aprons, and to give it its true term, it is no o∣ther then Water bewitched.
Pump it into the the drawing Comb.
Pump or Guide it into the Copper.
Boyle the Wort, is the second Boiling.
Fire the Copper, put Fire under the Brewing Pan.
Lead it into the Cooler.
Run it into the yelling Comb.
Put to the store, is to put Barm or Yest to it, to set it on working.
Working of the wort, is the frothing and swelling of it up to the top of the Comb.
Stirring of the wort, is to beat it about the Comb to make the working of it fall, that it run not over.
Sweet wort, the Wort boiled, and not as yet hav∣ing any store put to it.
New Beer, or New Drink; so called whilest it is working in the Comb.
Page 105— Wort that will not work in the Comb, when the Vessels have been long unused.
Pritch Drink, is drink that drinks sweet and sower, through a tant that it hath taken through the foulness of the Vessels.
Tunning, is powering it into the Barrels when it hath worked enough.
Working in the Barrel, is foming and frothing out of the Bung hole.
Sellar it, is to set the Barrels on Stillages in the Sellar.
Horsing of Beer, is the setting of one Barrel upon two, when the Sellerage and Stillage are two little to con∣tain the Barrells one besides another.
Slinging of a Barrel, is to bear it up with Slings on Mens Shoulders.
Carrying it out, is to bring it to such Customers as are to have it.
Lecking, is when any Beer run though the joynts of the Barrel.
Flying of the Hoopes, is when a hoope come off, or breaketh.
Tap or Broach the Barrel, is to thrust the Spigot and Forcet into the Cork hole at the bottom of the Bar∣rel end, thereby to draw the Liquor out.
Brewing Uessels, is the general term for all the things that a Brewer useth in his Trade.
A Malt-Makers Instruments for making of Malt.
A Measure and Strickles, to measure his Barley.
A Large Cestern of Lead, or Stone.
A Kill, with good Floores and Loft Floores.
A Cockle, the place where the Fire is made to dry the Malt.
A Sovel, or Malt-shovel, and Basket.
Ribbs on the drying Kill.
An Hair Cloth to dry the Malt on.
A Fan, to cleanse the Malt from its dust.
Terms used by Malt-Makers.
A Malster, is one that maketh and selleth Malt.
Malt, it is Barley wet and dryed again.
Wet the Barley, is to put it into a Cistern of Water.
A Wetting of Barley, is as much as the Cistern will hold at one time to Wet and swell up.
Couch the Barley, is to take it out off the wet and lay it on the Flooer a foot thick, for as large a compass as the Weeting will contain.
A Couching Floore, a Floor made of Plaister of Paris smooth and even which no water will hurt; where the wet Barley is laid to come.
The Comeing of Barley, or Malt; is the sprit∣ting of it, as if it cast out a Root.
Wither it, is to cast it abroad on the Kill Floor, when it is come, that the comeings may wither away; and for the Barley to dry. It must be turned every twelve hours.
Turning, is to cast it with a Shovel on a dry Floor, and laying it thin to dry.
Drying the Malt, is to lay it on a Hair cloth on Wooden Ribs, over a Fire made of Gorse, Sea-Coal or Coal Calcinde, or burned to Cinders, or Char-Coal.
Turning on the Kill, is to Shovel it over, that all parts may dry alikes
Fanning, is to clean it from dust and all small grains.
Malt Dust, is the comings of the Barley, which be∣ing dried on the Kill, when it runs through the Fan falls from the Malt into a kind of Dust, all small Corns fall∣ing through with it.
XLV. He beareth Gules, a Man passant, his Shirt or Shift turned up to his Shoulder, Breeches and Hose Azure, Cap and Shooes Sable, bearing on his Back a Bread Basket full of Fruits and Herbs, and a Staff in his left Hand, Or. This may be termed ei∣ther a Huxter, or a Gardiner, having his Fruts and Herbs on his Back for the Market. This were a fit Crest for the Company of Fruiterers, or Huxters.
XLVI. He beareth Argent, a Lath-Man (or Lath Cleever) with a Bundle, or Bunch of Laths on his right shoulder, Or: Doublett and Breeches Azure; Apron, Hat, and Shooes, Sable.
A Man in a yellow Waistcote, and black Bree∣ches close to the Legs and Thighs, with an Ynew Gar∣land about his Temples, carrying a bundle of Bow-Staves on his Shoulder, Vert. Is the Crest of the Bowyers in Chester.
Terms used by the Fletchers, or Arrow-Makers.
A Staff, the first cleeving out of the Timber, to make the Shaft.
Pointing of it out, is the first cutting of it round with a Knife out of the rough.
Ripping it, is to give it the first round.
Shaving, is round with an hollow Shave.
Smooth it, is to Polish the same smooth with a Fish-skin.
Sliting it, putting the Horn for the nick.
A Cross slit, making the nick of the Arrow.
Fitting the Head, cutting the end to put on the Pill head.
Heading the Arrow, is Gluing it on.
Drawing the Feathers.
Cutting, or stripping the Feathers of the Quills.
Parcing the Feathers, is to cut the backs to make them lie close.
Ribbing, is cutting the side skirts away.
Cutting them of a length, is to cut them to their shapes and breadth.
Pressing the Feathers, putting them in a wett cloth to keep them even and straight.
Page 106Pollishing, or Glazing, or Uarnishing the Arrow with Glue; is to rub it over as far as the Feathers go with Glue, before they are set on.
Feathering the Arrow, is to Glue on the Feathers.
Pareing or Cutting them down, is cutting the Feathers even and all of a length and breadth.
Poising the Arrows, is to know whether the pair of Arrows be of an equal weight as they are of a length.
Turning them, is to give them a Twerle in ones hand, to know whether they be straight.
Staff, the Bow-staff at its first cleft.
Hewing them with the Hatchet.
Set them to the right, is if they be crooked to set them straight.
Nick the Horns.
Plain them the second time.
String them to see whither they come right, one place as well as another.
Ras• them, to make them in a little shape.
Pollish them, to make them smooth.
Rub them with a Boars tooth and an Oyle cloth, to them shine and set a gloss on them.
XLVII. He beareth Argent, a Stringer, or a Man in a side Skirted Coat per Pale Argent and •ert, Breeches and Hose counterchanged, Cap & Shooes Sable: having a Staff on his left Shoulder, with a Buggs of Bow-strings hung at the end thereof, Or. This is the Crest of the Bow-String-Maker, com∣monly called the Stringers of the City of Chester.
XLVIII. He beareth Gules, a Man sitting on a Block Apron and Waistcoat, Argent: Hatchelling or Dressing of Flax, Or. This belongs to the Flax-Dressers Company: and is their Crest or Cognizance.
Things belonging to Dressing and Spin∣ning of Hemp and Flax.
A Gigge, is a hole in the Ground where Fire is made to dry the Flax.
A Flake, or Hurdle of sticks laid over the Gigge hole on which the Flax is laid.
A Brake, or Flax Brake: is two pieces of Timber with Teeth made in them to bruse Flax stalks.
A Swingle Foot.
A Swingle Hand, corruptly a Swingow Hond: a thing like a Wooden Fauchion with a square hole or handle.
An Hatchel, of which there are several sorts one finer then another, these are long Iron Pinns set orderly in a Board with which Hemp and Flax is combed into fine haires.
A UUheele and Distaffe, a Reel, and Reeling Pinn.
Yarringle blades, Foot or Stand, and Yarringle Pegs, or Pinns.
The Sowing and Dressing of Hemp and Flax is a Branch of Huswifery: and is generally performed by Good Houswives at home, though other make a Trade of it abroad, however if at home or abroad, so the Country be supplied I shall be satisfied. Yet here give me leave to set down all the Terms of Art used by all Good Houswives, in this their work of Huswifery, from the first growing of these Herbs or Plants, viz. Hemp and Flax, till the same be made fit for the Weaver to make it into Cloth.
Terms of Art used by Hemp and Flax Dressers and Spinners.
Linseed, is the seed of Flax.
Hemp-seeds, groweth to Hemp.
Pulling, is to pull it up by the Roots, when at the full growth.
Bundling, is tying the Stalks up in Bunges.
UUatering or Diving, is to lay the Bunges in wa∣ter with weight on them to keep them from smimming.
Spreading, is to lay them abroad to dry.
Gigging, is to dry the Hemp or Flax over a Fire, made in a hole of the ground, which is called the Gigg or Gigg hole; and so laid upon a Flake, after the manner of a Kilne.
Braking, is the crushing, and brusing the Stalks, between peeces of Wood with Teeth like a Saw, made in them.
Pilling, is to Pill off the outward skin of the stalks of the Hemp, when they do not break it, reserving the stalk whole.
Swingowing, is the beating off the brused inward S•alk of the Hemp or Flax, from the outward pill, which as the Hemp or Flax.
•o••ing it, is to tie the said Hemp or Flax so swin∣gled ••to small bundles, which they call Heads of Flax.
Hatchelling, is to comb with Iron pinns to make it finer.
Hemp Huerds, the couse that is drawn out of the dressed.
Hemp all one way, that is dressed.
Tee• of Hemp, long and strong Hemp.
Stee• Hemp, long and strong Hemp.
Kirtle Flax, is twelve heads in a bunch, and is about an hundred pounds in weight.
Rogisca, five heads is three pounds.
Pater Noster, ten handfulls in a strick, is 2 pounds.
Memble, five heads, is two pounds.
Podola, three Bands is a bunch, & is forty two pounds.
Quinsborough, three Bands in a bunch, forty two pounds.
Elvens, three Bands in a bunch, forty two pounds.
A Baile of Flax.
A Bunch of Flax.
A He•d of Flax, is twelve Stricks tied up to make a Bunch.
A Strick, is about ten handfulls made up together in a head.
A Handful, or hand of Flax, is an handful tied up.
Page 107Dysoning, is opening and drawing the Flax to put it on the Distaff.
Carding of Huerds.
Spinning, is to twist the Flax hairs into Yarn or Thrid.
Reeling, is to wind the Yarn of the Wheel Spool on a Reel.
Knotting, or Helching, is to make a Knot or Cagg at every hundred times winding the Yarn about the Reel.
Cagging with the made Hank.
A Slipping, is as much as is wond upon the Reel at a time, which is generally about a pound of Yarn.
An Hank, is a slipping made up into a Knot.
A Lay-band, is an Inkle or Packthrid as tieth the Hank in the middle, by which it is hung up.
A Houswives pound of Yarn, or Teer; is two Wax pounds.
A Wax pound, is sixteen Ounces.
Fine Hatchelling, and Round Hatchelling.
An Hurle, is the hair of the Flax, which is either fine or round.
Shoves, are the small breakings of the Hemp or Flax stalks which often sticketh in the coursest sort of them.
Huerds, is that as is pulled out of the Teere or fine Flax.
Fine Flax, or Teere.
Flax all one way, is Flax in the ruff, undressed.
Scalding, or Steeping the Yarn.
Bucking, is to make it something white by washing it in Lye made of Gorst Ashes.
Drying, is to hang it up in the Aire to dry after the Washing or Bucking.
Winding, is to make it out of Hanks into round Clues or Balls.
A Clue of Yard, is Yarn wond into a round Ball.
Yarn, is the single thrid of either Hemp or Flax.
Warping, is bringing to the Weavers to Lay for Cloth.
Weaving, is the Weavers work who make it into cloth, from whence it hath these Denominations, either.
Readings, is a course sort of Cloth.
Huswives Cloath, is the middle sort between fine and course.
Flaxen, is the finest sort of Cloth made of Flax.
UUhitning, is to make the Cloth white, which is the last thing of this part of Good Huswifry.
XLIX. He beareth Azure, a Weaver working at his Lomme, all proper. This is the Crest of the Silk Lace Weavers, and Ribbon Weavers, for the City of Che∣ster only: All other Weavers bearing the Coat and Crest belonging to the common Weavers of Woollen and Linnen.
The several Parts of a Loome, or Weavers Frame.
The Frame, is the four standing peeces with the cross peeces to hold them that they stand upright.
The Yarn Beam, is that as hath the Yarn rowled a∣bout it, at the end whereof is a Wheele with a catch or two or three on it.
The Latch, is an Iron or peece of Wood that falls in∣to the Catch of the Wheel aforesaid, which holds the Yarn Beam from turning.
The Leath, that is a moving Frame in which the reed is placed by which the Woof is knockt or beaten into the Warp.
The Reed, is that like Barrs of a Grate through which the Warp or Yarn runs.
The Coats, are the thrids that the Yarn run through: they are lifted up and down by help of the tradles, by means whereof they Warp at every cast of the Shuttle is crossed, one contrary to the other.
The Pullees, or Pullases; are those turning things on the top of the Frame by which with the help of the tradles the Spring-staves are raised up and down.
The Spring-staves, are the rising and falling staves, which have the Coats or Thrids fixed to them.
The Tradles, are playing staves at the bottom of the Frame from whence there goeth Robes or small Cords to Pulles and Spring-staves, which being put down with the Weavers Feet by help of the said Pullees raise and fall the Spring-staves, which by means of the Coats or thrid∣den Nuces fixed to them raises by turns. and falls every other thrid or yard in the Warp.
The Breast Beam, is that as the Workman sets his Breast unto when he is Weaving.
The Cloth Beam, is that as the cloth is rouled up∣on, as it is Woven: It hath an Iron Wheel full of Not∣ches, and a Catch, that is to hold it fast from turning.
The Thrum,••d a Fent; is the cuttings off of the cloth when it is Woven• the remaining being the ends of the Warp, whi•h being so short cannot be Wover, hath only a narrow p••ce of cloth fixed to it.
Terms of Art used by Weavers.
Wind the Beam, is to turn the Beam that the Warp may wind about it.
Rod the Lace, is to put two Rods through the cross thrids which were crossed at the Warping.
Knit to the Thrum, is to tie the end of the Yarn to the end of the Thrid that hangs from the Fent of the Thrum.
Draw through the Coat, is to put every particu••ar thrid, through a particular Nuce of Pack-thrid hang•ling at the Stick or Rod.
Draw through th• Reed, is to put the same through every cleft of the clove• Reeds.
Cord the Rods, that is tie the Cords to the Rod that goeth throug•••e Fent that holds the Thrum toge∣ther.
Trade the Tra•••es, is to make one fall, and ano∣ther rise, by setting the foot upon each.
Winding •f Pinns, is the winding of Yarn upon a Reed or Pinn
Set the Pin, is to put it into the Trough or hole of the Shuttle.
Page 108Weave, is to cast the Shuttle through the cross Thrids or Yarn over cross the Loome.
Knock or beat the Warp, is the striking with the Reed the crossed Warp and Woofe close together.
Beere, is nineteen ends of Yarn running all together out of the Trough upon the VVall, all the length of the cloth.
Warp, is all the Yarn that runs the length of the cloth, let it have either more or less Beers in, according as the breadth of the cloth is intended: for the broader the cloth is, the more Beers, or nineteen thrids must be warp∣ed into it.
Woofe, is that Yarn which is wrought out of the Shuttle, in the overthwart working.
L. He beareth Sable, a Cooper in his Waistcote, and Cap, Argent: Breeches and Hose, Russet: with an Adds lifted up in his right Hand, and a Diver in his left, trussing up a Barrell with Fire out of the top of it, all proper.
Terms used in the Art of Coopery, viz. making of Barrells.
Trussing a Barrel, is putting it together from Boards or Staves within a Hoop.
Trussing Hoop, is a large strong Hoop which is first put about the Barrel staves to draw them to their com∣pass.
Paring the Staves.
Fireing and Driving.
Hooping or Hoop.
Twigging a Hoop, is binding the two ends toge∣ther with cloven Twiggs of Withy, or Osier Twiggs.
Noching of a Hoop, when the two ends are cut into two contrary cross Nochings or Nicks, which being put into the other, holds as fast as if it were Twigged.
Barrel staves, or Boards; are long and slender or narrow Boards, which Barrells and other Vessels for liquor are made off.
Grooping, is the making of the Rigget at the two ends of the Barrel to hold the head in.
Heading, or Head; is to put in the round Boards fitted together into the Groop made to receive them.
Cross Barr, is the fixing of a Bar or two over the head of the Barrel to keep it firmly and strongly in its place.
— the Peggs as keeps the cross Barrs on.
Chine, or Lag; is a piece put into the top of a Bar∣rel staff that is broken off at the Grooping.
Belly, is the round swelling bulk of the Barrell.
Bungg, is a large round hole in the side through which liquor is put into the Barrel.
Uent, is a small hole made to give Wind to the Bar∣rel.
Tap, is the Forset hole made in the head of the Bar∣rel to draw the Liquor out.
Several sorts of Vessells made after the Form and Fashion of Barrells.
A Tunn, is eight Barrells.
An Hogshead, is two Barrells.
A Pipe, is a Barrel and half.
An half Pipe, is three Firkins.
A Barrel, is four Firkins, or thirty six Gallons.
An half Barrel, is two Firkins.
An half Firkin.
A Rundlet of thirty six quarts, all other Vessels less are called Rundlets of twelve, ten, six, four quarts &c. till you come to a Rundlet for Oysters pickled, contain∣ing about a quart, or a pint and half.
Terms used by the White-ware Cooper.
Falling, is the falling of the Trees, to make the work with.
Cleeving, is the cutting it into length for the work, which are termed according to the work for which they are ordered: as Boards, Hoopes, Bottoms, Staves, Pinns, &c.
Hewing, is cutting it even from the running of the Grain.
Drawing, is putting the Wood into the pairing lad∣der, to shave and cut it to what thinness is fit for the work.
Ioynting, is fitting the Boards or Staves, so that the joynts lie close and tite.
Grooping, is the making of the Rigget at the lower part of the Vessel to hold the bottom in.
Buckling, is the putting of the Vessel boards toge∣ther wirh a Hoop about them, so making its compass.
Sawing, is to make the Staves all even at the ends, or top and bottom.
Hooping, is fastning the Hoops on the work made.
Quarter Cleeving, Trees cloven into four quarters.
Boults, the sawed piecces into lengths, out of which Laths or Latts are cloven.
Bottoms, are pieces of Wood to put in the bottoms of Vessels to make them hold any kind of Liquor: called Bottom Boards.
Staves, are cleft Wood, made either longer or shor∣ter as the work requires.
Hoops, are long, slender, narrow peeces, cleft all the length of a Tree.
Pinns, short, round, or square pieces of Wood, about six, eight, or ten inches long, and an inch or more in Dia∣meter: or much larger if they be for great Work, as Combs, Tubs, &c.
Page 109LI. He beareth Azure, a Carpenter squaring of a long piece of Timber, lying on two Rowlers, Or: his UUaistcote Gules, Breeches and Hose Russet, ••t and Shooes, Sable.
In the Dexter base of this quarter, is the Figures of a Man and UUoman walking together: and such a like bearing I find to belong to the Coat Armour of the City of Dantzig in the Empire of Germany, viz. Or on a Fesse Vert, between an Eagle Displaid Sable: and a Cross Patee Azure: two Spaniards and their UUives Walking together, Argent. I might call them either French, or Spanish; because they contrary to us English, ever take the better hand of their Wives: as it is here to be seen. Some term them Mu∣tually walking, or Coambulant, or Main a Main Ambulant.
Terms used in Carpentery.
Arch, is any work wrought circular, as the tops of Window frames, the top of Gates, and the Roof of Vaults.
Back, or Hip Moulding, is the Moulding in the back Hips, or Vally Rafters in the angle or corner of the back part of a Building.
Bannister, is the little Pillars set in a Balcony or Stair-case.
Base, is commonly the bottom of a Pillar or Co∣lumn, or Pillaster, or the bottom of any Building; term∣ed also the Basis or Foundation.
Batement, is to cut off or waste a piece of Timber to form it to the purpose designed; that a Workman instead of asking how much was cut off such a piece of Stuff, will say what Batement had such a piece.
Batter, is when the side, or part of the side of a Wall, or any Timber Bulges out from its foundation or bottom; this is said to Batter or hang over the foun¦dation.
Battlement, is a flat Roof or Platform to walk on; but Battlements are more properly used for Walls built above the Plat-form to inclose it, as is seen in Towers and Castles of Defence.
Bauk, is a piece of Fir unslit, from four to ten inch∣es sqare, and is of any length.
Bear, that is Timber is said to bear at its whole length, when neither a Prop, Wall, or any thing stands between the ends of it; but if any such things be un∣der it, and that the Timber rests upon it, then it is said to bear only in that distance where it hath no sup∣port. Thus Carpenters ask what
Bearing such a piece of Timber hath? The An∣swer is 10, 12, 15, &c. foot, according to the length of the whole Timber unsupported, or distance between each end of the Timber.
Bearer, is a prop, post, or wall made up between the two ends of a piece of Timber to shorten its bearing, or help the weight that lyeth upon it.
Bond, is to make fast two or more pieces of Timber well together, either by good Tennanting and Mortes∣sing, or by Duff-tailing and such like.
Brad, is a Nail without a head to floor Rooms withall, it is with us termed a Sprig, and is about the size of a ten penny Nail.
Bulge, see Batter.
Break in, is when with the Ripping Chissel Car∣penters are forced to make a hole in a Brick or Stone Wall, to lay the end of a piece of Timber in it.
Bring up, is a term used by Carpenters to Brick-layers or Masons; that is to bring up such a Wall or Chimney, that is, build the Foundation so high, or build the Wall or Chimney.
Butment, is the support of a piece, or a stay of any thing that is laid against it; as a Summer in a Wall, which if the Wall be not strong to support it, but shrink or yield to its weight, it is said not to have good Butment, the Wall is not able to bear it.
Camber, is a piece of Timber cut Arching, so as when a considerable weight is laid upon it, it may in length of time be reduced to a straight.
Cantilevers, pieces of VVood framed into the front or sides of a House, to sustain the Moulding and Eaves over them; called also Cantelevers.
Carcase, is (as it were) the Skelleton or Frame of an House new raised, having neither Laths nor Plaster on it.
Cartouses, or Catouses, are VVooden Corbells ornamented, or wrought with turned Carved VVork.
Clear Story Window, are such VVindows that have no transum or cross piece in the middle of them to break the same into two Lights.
Coping over, is a sort of VVork hanging over its upright VVall, which is generall Bevelling on its under side.
Corbel, is a piece of Timber set under another piece to discharge its bearing.
Discharge a Wall, or piece of Timber, set up to another cross piece, that is not able to bear the weight said upon it, is said to be a discharge to that bearing.
Double Quarter, see Quarter.
Draft, is the form and manner of an intended Building described on a Paper, wherein is laid down the devised divisions and partitions of every room in a due proportion according to its scale. Some term it a Mo∣del or Ground Plot.
Drag, as a Door is said to drag, when either by its ill hanging on its Hinges, or the ill Boarding of the Room, the bottom edge of the Door rides (in its sweep) upon the Floor.
Enter, is when the Tennant is put into the Mortess, they are said to enter the Mortesses.
Feather Edge, Boards or Planks that have one edge thinner than another, are called Feather Edge stuff.
Furrings, is the making good of the Rafters feet in the Cornice.
Flyers, are Stairs made of an oblong square figure, whose fore and back sides are Parallel to each other, and so are their ends. The second kind of these Flyers stand Parallel behind the first, the third behind the second, and so are said to fly off from one another.
Foot-pace, is a broad place in a pair of Stairs, where∣on you may take two or three paces before you ascend another Step, which is looked upon to be a great ease to Page 110 the Legs in ascending the rest of the Steps.
Floor, it is as well taken from the whole frame of the Floor, as the boarding of it over.
Gable, or Gable End, is the top end of an House, which reacheth just so far as the covering of the House, Eaves excepted, for they generally are lower.
Gain, is the letting of one piece of Timber Bevell∣ways into another; that is, by shouldering or lapping of the end of a Joyce or Spar, &c. and then the cutting the thickness of the said shoulder in another piece be∣villing it upwards, so that it may receive the Gain, and so the two pieces lie even and level upon their super∣ficies.
Ground-plot, is the piece of Ground a Building is to be erected upon.
Hang over, see Batter.
Hand-spike, see Lever.
Iuffers, are pieces of Stuff or Timber about 4 or 5 inches square, and of several lengths.
Knee, or Knee piece, or Kneeler, is a piece of Timber growing angularly or crooked; that is, a great Branch shooting out near the top of the Trunk of the Tree, and is so cut that the Trunk and the Branch makes an Angle. Some call it a Crook, or a Knee-Rafter.
Landing place, it is the uppermost step of a pair of Stairs; that is the floor of a room you ascend upon.
Levet, is the same piece in Wood as the Crow is in Iron; it is an Instrument whereby great Timber is lift∣ed up; in some places called Hand-spikes.
Linte•l, is a piece of Timber laid over a Window or Door-Case, either in Brick or Stone-work, to trim or fall even with the same Frames; and is as well to bear the thickness of the Wall laid over it, as to make a Bond, or be a binding to the sides of the VVall.
Modillion, see Cantelever.
Mouldings, are the running of several sorts of Plains upon the edges of Spars, Joyce or other Stuff to adorn it; as in Chimney pieces, the inward edges of VVindow Frames, Shelves, &c.
Modell, is the first draught, or frame, or fashion by which a House is to be Built.
Plate, is a piece of Timber upon which some con∣siderable weight is framed; hence it is, that we call the place where any work is framed, Ground Plate, Win∣dow Plate, &c.
Profile, is the same with Ground Plot.
Projecture, is the Jetting over the upright of a Building with another Building; thus Balconies project into the Street; and one Story in a House projects that below it.
Puncheous, are short pieces of Timber placed un∣der some considerable weight to support it.
Props, are longer pieces of Timber used to support a decay•• Building.
Pu•laies, are short pieces of Stuff used instead of Handspikes.
Quarters, are Timber of two sizes, viz. Single Quarters are Sawn Stuff, two inches thick, and four inch∣es broad.
Double Quarters are Sawn to four inches square, and are of any length as the Workman ordereth.
Quartering, in the Front or sides of the House, in each Story all the working in of cross pieces or cants, into the principal Posts, Jaums, or Window frames, viz. the upright Trimmings and the Braces as some call them, are called Quartering.
Quirk, is a piece taken out of any regular Ground Plot or Floor; which said piece so taken out, is general∣ly of a square nature; a square being struck into four parts, one of those parts in Carpentry Terms is called a Quirk.
Rail, Rails, stand over and under Banisters of Bal∣conies and Stair-cases, &c.
Raiser, is the Board set on edge under the foreside of a Step in a pair of Stairs, which makes the height of the Step.
Raising-piece, are such pieces that lie under the ends of Beams and Summers upon Brick or Stone Work, or upon Timber Wall Plats by the sides of Houses.
Rellish, see Projecture.
Return, is either of the adjoining sides of the front of an House, or Ground-plot, of some called a Return side.
Ridge, is the top of the House; where the meeting of the Spars or Rafters is on both sides of the House, is called the Ridge.
Roof, is the covering of the House; but the word is used in Carpentry, for the Timber work of the cover∣ing.
Scribe, see in Joyners Terms.
Shake, is such Stuff as is crackt either with the heat of the Sun, or Drought, or Wind, is called shaken Stuff.
Shingles, small pieces of Wood used to cover Hou∣ses with ins••ad of Tiles or Slates.
Shreadings, are the lower ends of the princ••al Rafte•• in the front of the House. Some term 〈◊〉Flirrings.
So••s, or Sells, are either Ground Sells, 〈…〉 bottom 〈◊〉 of Timber on which the Hous••• Built; or Wind•••ells, which are the bottom piece•• Window frames. Some term these Sils.
Stair-Ca•e, is the inclosure of a pair of Stairs, ••e∣ther it be with Walls, or with Rails and Bannisters, &c.
Stancheons, see Puncheons.
Scale, is the measure of the ground Plot on the Pa∣per draught, by which the work is made.
Skirts, are the projecting of the Eaves over the Wall plat, to secure the Wall from Rain.
Transom, is the piece that is framed a cross; a dou∣ble Light Window.
Trim, is when Workmen fit a piece into another piece, they say they trim in a piece.
Tusk, is a Bevel shoulder made to strengthen the Tennant of a Joyst, which is let into the Summer or Girder.
Ualley Rafter, see Back Moulding.
Well-Hose, is the void place in the middle of a square Stair case, by which one may see from the bot∣tom to the top of the Stair•.
Wall-plate, is the side of the Wall; or more pe∣culiarly used by Workmen for the Timber in the Wall, whether upright or overthwart; all together makes but a Wall or Wall-plate.
Page 111LII. He beareth Argent, upon an Hill in Base, Vert, a Mason skabling of an Ashler, Or, Wast∣coat, Gules, Hat, Breeches, Stockings and Shoos, Sable, Pick Are, Azure. By the help of Ma∣sonry the most glorious Structures in the World have been set up; as if their Art did endeavour to imitate the Handy Works of God, in making little Worlds in the great Fabrick of the Universe.
Terms of Art used by Free Masons Stone-Cutters.
Guttering, is to make Gutters or Furrows in the top of the Rock, thereby to loosen it from the rest of the Rock.
Rigalding, is to set in the Wedges.
Driving, is to strike in the Wedges, to force up the Bed of Lift of Stone, or that great piece of the Rock which was guttered about, or on two sides.
Cutting, is to cut that great piece of the Rock into any piece or shape as the Workman gives Order for, whether it be into Ashlers, Perpins, Flags, Gravestones, &c.
Skable, is the first working of a Stone out of the rough, and making it into shape for the use it is to be put unto.
Broach, is to •ew away the rough skabling stroaks.
Axe, is to work the Stone smooth, with a broad sharp Axe.
Rub, is to rub the wrought Stone with another, thereby to make it even, and wear away all the stroaks the Axe hath left in the Stone.
Cleanse. is to make the Joynts in a Wall or Floor even, so that one edge of a Stone shall not •e higher than another.
Hewing, see Skable.
Levell, is to see that a Floor be laid streight and even.
Plime, is to be streight in Walls, which is tried by the Plime Rule.
Champher, is to take the square edge of a Stone off Bevile ways.
Names of Stons according to their big∣ness, and the use they are put to.
Rough Stone, or Penny Stone, such as are rough cut out of the Quarry, and are without any shape or form to make work of.
Perpin, are less than the size of Ashlers.
Ashler, is a Stone a Yard long, and 8, 9, or 10 inches square, according as the work will bear it.
Flag, Broad Stones for Floors of several breadths and lengths, and about three or four inches thick.
Grindle-stone, round Stones to sharpen Tooles upon
Mill-stone, a mixt stone of great and small Piples, made round for grinding of Corn.
Grave-stone, long and broad Stones to lay on Bu∣ried Bodies, which are about five or six inches thick.
Fractable, are the wrought stones that run up the Ga∣ble ends or Dormant Windows, which are made of Brick or Houses of Stones.
Crow-stone, is a Stone cut to rest upon the end, or point of the Gable end, on which a Pinacle of Stone is fixed.
Finishing, or Pinacle-stones.
Gutter-stone, is to have an half round cut in Stone, for water to run in, thereby to convey it away.
Crists, are wrought Stones, either half round, or with Bottles, or triangular; to lay on Brick or Stone Walls to secure them from weather. Some call them Top Stones.
Corvills, Stones set out of Walls to hold things on.
Coin, or Coin-end; are Stones laid in a Brick Wall at the corners of a House: called also Quine∣stones. They are a yard long, and three Brick in thick∣ness.
Note that Sixty Ashlers is reconed for an Hundred.
There are several other terms used by the Free-Ma∣sons which belong to buildings, Pillars and Columbs, to which places I shall refer you, lib. 3. chap. 13. numb. 55, 56. &c.
Terms of Art used by Free-Masons.
Antiques or Antique Work, is Carvings, of several forms and figures either Men, Beasts, Birds, Flowers and the like; turning and Winding into fouldage, or Scrowles, or jagged leaves.
Architrave, is the bottom part of a Cornish or several ways of Mouldings.
Abacus, is any flat or square in a Cornish.
Annuietts, are all the small Rings or Fillets made in Pillars, or between Mouldings in Corniches.
Astragal, or Astragolus; are the round Rings with Fillets on each side, set at the bottom of Capitals, or Pil∣lar Heads.
Buttresses, are square Pillars set at the out side of a Wall to support it from falling.
Butment, is good strong building on which Arches are built, or any part that other work is built against, which it must support.
Battlements, the top of Castle Walls.
Basis, or Base; the Foot of a Columb, or Bottom, or Foundation of a Wall or other building.
Breaking of a Cornice, when it runs not straight, but is made with returns: under which breakings are set Catouses, or hung Drops (or pendals in Wood work) for Ornament.
Collarino, the bottom Ring, with its Fillets in the foot of a Capital. The same to Astragal.
Cambia, the same to Annulett.
Ceinctures, the same.
Corona, is a flat in a Cornice, with a Channel or Rigget at the Bottom inwards.
Page 112Cima, or Cimatia, or Cimatium; is a bending in the top of a Cornice in form of an S. but not so much bending: of some it is called an O. G. see Scima.
Capital, the Head, or Moulding, or Carved work on the top of a Columb or Pillar or Pillaster.
Chapiter, that which is set upon the Head or Capital of a Pillar to further Adorn or Beautifie the work, as Balls, Pine Apples, Beasts sitting holding Shields, with such like.
Cavetto, is an half round of a Cornice inward, in the Capital of a Pillar: the same to Scotia.
Cartouches, or Catouces; the turning Scrowles in form of an S. which are generally Carved, and set un∣der the breaking of a Cornice, or support of a Beam, or such like.
Center, the middle of any round Body, or Circum∣ference.
Columb, a round Pillar: see Pillar.
Cantilevers, Stones wrought into Scrowles, Corbills, on which a Wall may be further jetted out, for the bene∣fit of some Room or Place of Easment.
Cornice, is any kind of Moulding work that over seileth or projects the place it stands upon.
Clarester Windows, that have no cross Barrs in them.
Dado, or Dye; is a flat in a Cornice or Pedestal, a square and broad Fillet.
Diametre, or Diameter; the breadth of any round fro• side to side over the Center.
Dentilles, are squares left on a square or flat part of a Cornice, to set out the work.
Echinus, the same to Ovolo.
Frize, is the second part of work in the bottom of a Cornice or Capital, and next after the Architrave: And it may •e plain, or swelling out with a round.
Flutes, are the hollows, or channells in a Corin∣thian Pillar.
Fascia, are flats in a Cornish towards the Bottom: also termed a Frise.
Fillets, see Annulets.
Gutta, are Drops, or square pieces, or things like Bells, cut on the Frize, to set out the work.
Gradetten, are certain kind of Mouldings, or Car∣ved work, on the flatts of Cornices.
Head, the top of a Pillar, or of a Window or Door.
Hypotra-chelium, is a Frise or Freze.
Impostes of Arches, are the Capitals of Pillasters, on which the springal of the Arch resteth,
Inter-columes, the distance of the Columb from a Wall.
Iaumes, the sides of a stone Window, or Door case: see Peers.
Liscella and Ceincture, the same to Annulet.
Mullion or Munnions, the upright stands of a Stone VVindow.
Modulle, the Patern by which a Fabrick or Building is wrought, a rule to make his work by.
Mod•lions, things like ends of Sparrs fixed on the Cimatium of the Cornice.
Metopa, the Frize or flat of a Cornice, or any other place wherein Dropps, Scrowles, Triangle peeces and such like are set to Adorn the Cornice.
Mouldings, the general terms for all the rounds, flatts, and other turnings in the parts of a Cornice.
Nowel, is the middle Pillar, or Post of a turning, or winding Stairs.
Ovolo, is a quarter round under a projecting square: a Moulding that is out at the top, and turns in at the bottom.
Orlo, see Plynth.
Project, or Projecture; is that as over hangs, or stands further out then the thing it stands upon; as the Capital doth the Pillar.
Plynth, is the bottom part of the Basis of a Pillar, and also of the Pedestal.
Pedestal, is the Foot or Foundation of a Columb, and its Basis.
Pillar, is that which is square in the Body; a Co∣lumb round.
Pillaster, is half a Pillar, or Columb fixed to a VVall.
Pecres, the sides of Windows or Doors.
Rustick, is in the joynts of every stone, either for Fra∣ctable or Pillasters taken of square, so it looks like a square set on a square.
Revailed, is in the same way of work, but in this the joynts are but champhered, so that it is two edges of the joynt taken off.
Springall, is the foot or bottom of an Arch, or the place of its Foundation or beginning to rise.
Scima, see Cima, and Cimatium.
Scima Rec•a, is the top of a Cornice or Capital in form of an S.
Scima Reversa, is the bottom of the Basis or Pedestal and turns contrary to the former: an S the wrong way.
Stilobatum, is the Pedestal.
Scotia, is an inward half round, either in Capital, or Pedestal: s•e Cavetto.
Scrowles, see Cartouches.
Tr•g••f•s, are triangle peeces set on the Frise, to set it out handsome to the Eye.
Torus, the same to Scima Reversa; but usually this is round: if two be in a Pedestal, they are called the upper and the lower Torus. Some call it Torcus.
Transome Window, that hath cross Barrs in it, to the third part.
Trasery, is the working of the top part of a Window to several forms and fashions.
Uausing, is to make the Jaumes, or sides of Stone Windows and Doors, to over sail the other part of the Wall they are set in: and this is performed with any kind of Cornice the Master pleaseth.
Zocco, the same to Plynth: called the Zocco of the Base or of the Pedestal.
See more concerning these Terms in their true shapes, chap. 13. numb, 184.108.40.206.
LIII. He beareth Or, on a Mount in Base, a La∣bourer rowling of a Wheel-Barrow, Gules; Clo∣then Azure: Hat and Shooes, Sable. Some term him a Barrow-Labourer, as being only imployed in that work to fetch and bring Burthens: Some term him only a Wheeler: or Barrow-Men when it is carried between two Labourers.
Page 113In the Dexter side of this square, is the figure of a Fools Head couped at the Shoulders, Or: Cap, and Ass Ears, Azure: Bel•ed, Or. Which is the Crest of Balschoff of Alsa•ia. Some only term this a Fools Head clothed O. Capped B. the Fools Cap being ever drawn with long Ears, and round Bells hanging at the tip ends thereof: see numb. 69.
LIV. He beareth Gules, a Potter sitting on a Stoole working at his Wheel, Or; Cap and Shift, Argent: Apron, Vert: Breeches and Hose, Azure. This Crest belongs to the Potters, or sellers of Earthen or Tickney Ware.
LV. He beareth Argent, a Rope-Makers Spin∣ning or Twistings Wheel, Tenne; with a Man sit∣ting thereat, Clothed Azure: Hat and Shooes Sa∣ble. Some more short blazon it, a Man sitting and turning of a Rope-Makers Wheel. See in the addition Plate for this Chapter, numb. 42. the manner of Twisting several Ropes into one Gable.
Terms used by the Roper.
Spinning, is the Twisting of the Hemp into a Yarn, or single Thrid.
Rope Yarn, the Yarn spun by the Roper.
Warping, is the laying of so many Thrids or Rope Yarns together, as will make a Rope.
Laying, is the putting of so many Ropes into the Slead as will make a Gable; that is Laying a Gable.
Sarve or Plat the Gable.
Strands, the Twists of a Rope.
Fakes, one of the Ropes made into a Cable, or by Fakes is ment one of the lesser Thrids, or Rope Yarn; used to the making up of any small Cord, or Rope.
Sorts of Ropes.
Rope Yarn, the first spinning of the Hemp.
Packthrid, is 2 small yarns or thrids twisted together.
Small Cord, is two thicker or three twisted together.
Cord, Bed-Cord, or an Halter, a Pack-Cord: is also three large Fakes Twisted.
Rope, Cart-rope, Bucked or Well-rope, a Bell-rope: all aforesaid being a Degree one thicker then another.
Gable, a small Gable, middling Gable, or a great and thick Gable: which are used at Great and Tall Ships, Men of Warr, &c.
LVI. He beareth Argent, a Printer Working at his Printing-Press, all proper. Printing as som• Au∣thors have it, was used in China, and Pres•er Iohn, above a 1000 Years since; though it was not known in this part of the World till about the Year 1430. In which in∣fancie the Letters were cut in Wooden blocks altogether, by one Laurensz Iansz Koster of Harlem, who after •est Wood off, and cut Letters in Steel, and cast them in Met∣tle: yet Iohn Gutenberg of Mentz in Germany promotes his claim to the first invention of this Art by single Let∣ters before Koster, and is more generally accepted to be so. After this it was practized in Oxford in the Year 1461. and in London 1471. and about 1480. it began to be received into Venice, Italy, Germany, and other places in these We∣stern parts of the World: insomuch that it is now disputed whether Tipography and Arc•itecture may not be accoun∣ted Liberal Sciences, being so Famous ARTS.
Persons Instrumental about Printing.
- The Master Printer, who is the Soul of Printing; all other workmen about it, are as Members to the Body.
- The Letter Cutter — all called Let∣ter Founders
- The Mattrice or Mould-Maker all called Let∣ter Founders
- The Letter Caster — all called Let∣ter Founders
- The Letter Dresser — all called Let∣ter Founders
- The Compositer all goe under the Notion of Printers.
- The Corrector all goe under the Notion of Printers.
- The Press-Man all goe under the Notion of Printers.
- The I•k-Maker all goe under the Notion of Printers.
Besides several other Trades they take into their assist∣ance without whose help they could not work: as Smith, Ioyner, Wett-Glover, &c.
The several Parts of a Press.
The Press, is a Machine consisting of many Mem∣bers, as
The Feet, are the two bottom peeces on which the Cheeks are fixed by Mortess and Tennants.
The Cheeks, are the 2 upright standards of the Press.
The Cap, is the top peece, which fastens the Cheeks above.
The Winter, is a peece under the Carriage: to hold the two Cheeks at a due distance.
The Head, is that peece 〈◊〉 ough which the top of the Screw goeth, having a Female Screw fixed in it.
The Till, is a Board a•out an Inch thick, through the middle whereof the Shank of the Spindle goeth.
The Hose, is that peece of Iron work through which the Shank of the Spindle goeth.
The Hose Screws, are Screws with cars to turn them, whereby the Platin Cords are made more loose or •yght.
The Hooks on the Hose, on which the Plattin hangs, are 4 Hooks on the out sides of the said Iron work.
The Spindle, is the thick peece of Iron on whose top is a Screw of three Worm.
The Neck of the Spindle, that part just under the square.
The Eye of the Spindle, the square hole in the middle.
The Shank of the Spindle, all from the square part to the end.
The Toe of the Spindle, is the very bottom of it, which is of an Hemispherical forth.
The Worm, is the out part of the Screw, of which one part lieth below the head of the Press, and the other lies in the Nut in the Head.
The Nut or Screw Box, in which the great Sc•ew turneth.
The Platin, a square Planck with a Smooth Face, to press down on the Letters, and is tied on the Hooks of the Hose.
Page 114The Platin hooks, are four Iron Hooks at the four corners Wormed or Screwed into the said Plank on the upper side.
The Platin Plate, is an Iron fixed in the middle of the Plank, on which is an Iron Frame.
The Stud of the Platin, is a kind of a square Pan set on the middle of the Iron Frame, so as to take out and put in, in the middle whereof is a center hole, for the Toe of the Spindle to work in.
The Platin Cords, are them as tie the Hooks to the Hose Hooks.
The Bar, is the crooked Iron on which the handle of Wood is fixed.
The Catch of the Bar, it is a Bevile Piece of Wood to stay the Bar when it flies back.
The Handle of the Bar, is that by which the Work∣man turns the Screw.
The Hind Posts, are two upright Posts wrought with round tops, set behind the Cheeks of the Press.
The Hinder Railes, are them as fastens the Posts to the Cheeks, by Mortess and Tennants: There are six of them, two behind, and two on each side.
The Wedges of the Till.
The Mo•tesses in the Cheeks, are the square holes in which the Tennants of the head are placed.
The Carriage, is the sliding Plank on which the Marble Stone is laid.
The Outward Frame of the Carriage,
The Cramp Irons, are square Irons with battered Heads to na•l on the under side of the Plank of the Coffin to make it slide the b•t•er on the Iron Ribs.
The Iron Ribs, are long Irons fastned on the Woo∣den Ribs, for the Carriage to slide upon.
The Wooden Ribbs on which the Iron Ribbs are fastned, they are four set at an equal distance, and so fastned by two end Railes.
The Stay of the Carriage, or the Stay; is the Girth fastned to the Carriage, to hold it that it shall go so far, and no further.
The Coffin, is a square Frame at the fore-end of the Carriage, and is the place where the Marble ston•, or Lignum Uitae plank lieth; or is Beded.
The Stone of Marble, or Plank of Lignum Uitae.
The Gutter, is a peece of Wood three Inches larger then the Coffin, and is placed behind it: having a grove in the said Wood.
The Plank, is that on which the Coffin is placed.
The Gailows, is a thing of Wood like it, set on the hinder part of the Plank, and fastned thereon by two Male Duftaile proves.
The Timpan, is a square Frame, three sides are Wood and one Iron.
The Matcht Ioynt, is the Joynt or Hing fastned to the Timpan and hinder Raile of the Coffin.
The Inner Timpan, is a Frame three sides Wood, and one Iron.
The Frisket, is that as is laid on the Paper when it is Printing, to keep it clean.
The Stay of the Frisket, is that as holds it from falling back when it is opened.
The Points, are Iron Plates with a sharp point at one end of them.
The Point Screws, is a square head with a square Shank at the end whereof is a Screw, on which is a N•• with a Female Screw with Ears to twist it about.
The Studs, the peeces of Wood that the Iron Pinns of the Barrel turns in.
The Rowler or Barrell, with its shoulder on each side, for the Girth to run in.
The Iron Wheel with Teeth, which upon its turn∣ning is stopt against a clicker.
The Turning Clasp, is that as holds the inner Tim∣pan close within the outer Timpan.
The Clicker, or stop for the Iron Wheel that it turn not.
The Cu•e, the square part in the middle of the Spin∣dle.
The Axis or Spindle, is a long Bar of Iron on which the Girth Barrel is fixed.
The Winch, is the Iron by which the Barrel or Girth Rowle is turned.
The Rounce, is the handle of the Winch which is of Wood.
The Sockets, are two Irons in which the Spindle turns.
The Garter or Coller, is the round hoop in com∣passing the flat Groove, or Neck in the Shank of the Spindle.
The Half Ioynt, and the Match half Ioynt; are the hinges upon which the Frisket moves, and are taken asunder by taking out the Iron Pin.
The Terms of the Letters according to their Size or Bigness.
- 1. Pearl, 184. contained in 1 Foot
- 2. ••mparel, 150. contained in 1 Foot
- 3. Br••••r, 112. contained in 1 Foot
- 4. Long Primmer, 92. contained in 1 Foot
- 5. Pica 75. contained in 1 Foot
- 6. English, 66. contained in 1 Foot
- 7. Great Primmer, 50. contained in 1 Foot
- 8. Double Pica, 38. contained in 1 Foot
- 9. Two Lined English, 33. contained in 1 Foot
- 10. Great Cannon, 17 and half.
A Body, is the quantity of each Letter.
A Fount, or Fund of Letters; is so many as are cast of each Body, whither more or less; which are pro∣vided sutable to the Work he designs to do.
Terms Relateing to the Face of a Letter.
Here you must note that the Body of a Letter hath four principal lines passing through it (or at least imagined to pass through it) at Right angles t• the Body; viz.
The Top Line, or the Topping; is the straight fi•e stroak or stroaks that in the top Line of ascending Let∣ters, as b. d. f. h. k. l. s.
Page 115The Head Line, is that as ascends above the Body of the Letter.
The Body, is that part as is contained between two Lines, having neither Head nor Foot at it: as a. c. e. i. m. n. o. r. s. v. x. z.
The Foot Line, or Footing; is the straight de∣scending part of the Letter which is below the Body of it.
The Bottom Line, or Bottom Footing; is the fine straight stroak or stroaks that lie in the foot Line of descending Letters, as p. q y.
The Stem of a Letter, is the straight down right stroak in every Capital or other Letters, as in B. the straight stroak on the left hand is the Stem: And in I. it is all Stem, excep topping and footing.
The Fat Stroaks in a Letter, are the thick and gross stroaks or crookes used in all the Capital Letters, in some part of the Letter.
The Lean Stroaks, are the narrow fine stroaks in a Letter, as the left hand stroak of A. and the right hand▪ stroak of V. are lean: and so of all the other Capitals.
The Beak of Letters, is the fine stroak or touch that stands on the left hand of the Stem, either in the top line, as b. d. h. &c. or in the head line, as i. m. n. &c. or on the right hand the Stem, as f. s. t.
The Tails of Letters, is a stroak proceeding from the right hand side of the Stem, in the foot line, as in a. d. t. u. and most of the Italick small Letters have Tails: as also have most swash Letters, but several of their Tails reach down to the bottom line.
The Swash Letters, are Italick Capitals, which have generally long dashing squanging stroaks in them, either at the head or foot.
Note that all Topping and Bottoming Lines, in the Roman Letters pass at right Angles; but oblique Angles in the Italick through the Stems.
The Stem and other fat stroak of Capital Romans is 5 parts of 42 of the whole body, or a 6 part of the height of an ascending Letter (as all Capitals are ascen∣dants) the Body.
The Stem and other fat stroaks of Italick Capitals is 4 parts of 42 the Body.
The Stem of English Capitals is 6 parts of 42 the Body.
The Stem of small Roman is 3 and an half part of 42 the Body.
The Stem of small Italick is 3 parts of 42 the Body.
The Stem of small English is 4 parts of 42 the Body.
Notes of Carrection made by the Corrector.
The Corrector in his first reading of the Printed Cop∣py ought to be very carefull and vigilantly examine the proofe, and consider diligently the Poynting, Italick∣ing, Capitaling, or any errour which through mistake is committed by the Compositor, which in the Margent •e notes that they may be mended: using these follow∣ing notes.
c | If he find one Letter instead of another, as tho for the word the, he dashes out the wrong Letter, & writts the Letter it should be in the Margent of the Page or Colume right against the same Line where the mistake is: Some making a dash behind it as afore is noted.
o | r | c | a If two or three or more words in the same line have faults in them, as an o for an a, or e instead of c, and t instead of r, and c in place of o, he marks in an orderly succession towards the same line, beginning near the end of the line with the first faulty Letter, and so the others after it.
smile | If one word be set instead of another, as Scoff instead of Smile, here he scores out scoff and writs smile in the Margent over against it.
⁁ If a word, or words, or Letter, or Comme, or Point be left out he makes such a mark between the Words or Letters where it is left out, for a mark of In∣sertion (as it is termed) and write in the Margent what must come in.
# If a Space be left out between two words he makes the former mark of Insertion where it should come in, and makes this mark in the Margin.
out If a whole Line or Sentence be left out, too long to be writ in the Margent, he makes the mark of Inser∣tion where it is left out and only Writs (out, or wants) in the Margent. If it be very long that is left, that it can∣not be writ in the left hand Margent or under the Page: Some Correctors will write in the Margent, see the Coppy.
〈☐〉 If a Word or Sentence be set twice as him him, he marks out one him, and makes this mark against it in Margent, which is termed a Deleator of Deleo, to take out.
〈☐〉 If a Letter be turned or set up side down, he dash∣eth it out makes this mark in the Margent. It is termed a Uertex or Uertigon from Verto to turn.
〈☐〉 If Words or Letters are Transposed, (that is) one word stands in another words place, or thus; no I love Swearing, when it should be I love no Swearing: he marks this fault by drawing the crooked Line o∣ver the (no) and under the word (I love) to the place it should come in, this is Termed a Transpositi∣on.
〈☐〉 The like mark he makes in the Matter and in the Margin over against it, if two Letters are tran∣sposed; as shuold, where the u is before the o. Yet s•me Correctors will make a dash with a Pen through •o and make such a mark in the Margent.
| If a Space or an n or m Quadrate &c. stricks up and Prints black, as betwen these words, he makes such a mark in the Margin over against the Line it is in.
Ital. Eng. If the word be set in Roman Letters instead of Italick or English Letters, he makes a dash under the word, and Writs Ital. or Eng. in the Mar∣gent.
In the like manner, if a single Letter or more Letters be set in Roman Letter, and it should be in Italick or English Letter: or if in English or Italick and it should be Roman Letter, he dashes under the Letter or Letters, and Writs in the Margin what it should be, either Ita. Rom. or Eng.
Page 116〈☐〉 If words 〈◊〉 Coppies are to be set in Italick or En∣•lish or in Capital Letters, they are to have a line or lines drawn under them: for the Italick word a single line is to be drawn under it. If English words a double or two lines thus 〈☐〉 under; and if the word must be all in Capitals, then a line of Pricks thus 〈☐〉 is drawn under it, or else a line with red Ink.
[ If there be cause to make a break where there is none, in such case he makes a Crotchet thus [at the word •e would have begin his new Paragraph.
Cap. If lower Case Letters be set instead of Ca∣pitals, he dashes them underneath or upon the Letter and Writs in the Margin Cap.
A•ter all this the Corrector examines that all the Signatures are right, and all the Titles and Folio's: a Proof of the mending of each particular fault by the Compositor being again given him, which is call∣ed a Revise Sheet, he examins in this Revise, fault by fault: if all the faults he marks in the first or second Proof Sheet were carefully mended, if not he marks them in the Revise.
Points used in Printing.
A Comma which i• thus, and is used as a breath∣ing place
A Semi-Colon thus;
A Colon thus: it is used in the middle of the Sen∣tence.
A Period or full Point thus. which is at the end of a Sentence.
An Introgation Point thus ? It is used in asking of Questions.
An Admiration Point thus ! when a thing is wondred at.
An Apostrophe thus ' this is used when some Vo∣wel is cut off as 'twas, for it was.
A Parenthesis thus ( ) It is used between words in a Sentence, as a Sentence, without which the Sentence remains entire.
A Brace thus } which joyns one two or three Lines together.
A Division Point thus - or = it is when part of a word ends a Line, and the other begins a Line.
A Crochet thus [ ] It is used in Folio's instead of Parenthesis.
A Section thus § and stands generally for a Section.
A Paragraph thus ¶ or thus ¶ or thus ¶ which stands for a Paragraph.
A Marginal Note or Mark, thus * or † or ‖ which is a guide to direct in what part of the Margin an∣swereth that part in the Verse or Paragraph.
Accent Letters, see in Printers Terms.
Several other things belonging to the Art of Printing.
Assidue or Assidi•e, is thin brass Plate, such as adorn hobby Horses: Founders use it to underlay the Body or Mouth piece of their Moulds, if they be too thin.
Balls, are those with which the Letters are inked or made black that they may Print.
Ball Knife, is a blunt Knife laid by, with which the Balls are scraped.
Ball Leather, is Pelts of Sheep skins, of which they cover the Balls.
Beard Gage, a thing to try Angles, whether they be true or not.
Bearer, is a Riglet made Letter high and fastned to the Frisket, to keep the white Pages adjacent to the sides of the other Pages, from spots, and that they shall not cause the other to Print hard, as otherwise they will do.
Blankets, Woollen Cloth or white Bays to lay be∣tween the Timpans.
Blocks Groves, are hard Wood, made with taper Groves in to receive Wedges.
Blocks, are the Male Wedges fitted for the said Groves, to hold a thing fast in it.
Brace, is a Character cast in Mettle thus marked 〈☐〉 of which there are to be of them several breadths, to hook in or Brace so many Lines as is required.
Brass Rules, thin Plates the height of the Letter, which serves to make black Lines in Columes and Pages: Printing Rules.
Brayer, is a round wooden Rubber, flat at the bottom, it is used in the Inke-block to Bray and Rub Inke.
Composing Stick, it is a wooden Rule with a back ledge for cast Letters to be set up in, that the Founder may scrape and dress them.
Case or Cases, are the Boxes in which each Letter is put, called the Upper Case, and the Lower Case; one holding the Capitals, the other the small Let∣ters.
Chase, is an Iron Frame about 22 Inches long, and 18 broad, having a cross in the middle, in this are the Letters made fast when Printed.
Cards, is about a quire of Paper which Press-men use to lay upon a Form, when he hangs the Platin, see Card.
Composing Rule, is a thin Brass Rule cut the exact length as the sliding measures it set to make its Lines, it hath a small notch at one end to take it out of the Com∣posing Stick.
Composing Stick, it is made of Iron, with sliding measures, in it the letters are set in that length of Lines as the Workman pleaseth.
Correcting Stone, is a Marble or Purbeck-Stone, large enough to hold two Chases, on which the Compo∣siter makes up his Forms, and corrects them.
Counter Punches, are Punches to strike into the Face of Letters, to make them hollow or open from the body of the Letter.
Characters of Astronomical Sign, are Planet Characters, Aspects; also Physical and Chimical Cha∣racters.
Coyns, are also Quadrat high, and have one of their sides Beviled away, that they may Wedge or Lock up the Form, that the Letters fall not out of the Chase: their further office is to make Register at the Press, Page 117 to keep the Form that it move not.
Cross long, and Cross short; are the cross pieces of Iron set in the middle of the Chase.
Distributing Stick, or Riglet; is that which the Distributer holds the Letters upon while he is distributing them into their several Boxes.
Dressing Block, and Dressing Block-Groove; are Male and Female Blocks one Wedging in another, by which Letters are held fast to be dressed.
Dressing Hook, Dressing Knife, and Dressing Sticks; are Instruments by which Letters are made smooth, even, and tite.
Distributing Frame, the Frame on which the Forms are set to be Distributed.
Female Gage, Screws, &c. are the hollow Gage or hollow Screw that receives its Match Gage, or Screw, &c. the Screw Nut, or Box.
Flat Gage, is a flat piece of Box or hard Wood made square, with several corners to hold a Rod of Steel or Body of a Mould.
Flat Table, is a Brass about an Inch and half square, to trie if the Shanks of Punches be exactly perpendicu∣lar.
Foot Step, is an Inch board nailed on a piece of Timber, fet under the Press for the Press-man to stay his right Foot against when he pulls at the Press.
Foot-stick, see Furniture.
Furnice, the place where the Mettle is melted to cast the Letter with.
Funnel, is the place where the smoak goeth through from the Furnace Fire.
Furniture, by which is ment all the Wood work used in the Chase, to keep the Form of Letter fast Wedged therein, as Head Sticks, Foot Sticks, Side Sticks, Gutter Sticks, Riglets, Quoins and Scabbords.
Frame, is that on which the Case of Boxes rest; It is also taken for the out side of Case, which is stronger then the Boxes within, and is also an Inch broader at the bottom.
Finger Stalls, Leather to put on Boys Fingers to se∣cure them in rubbing of Letters.
Gage, Gages mentioned and used by Letter maker have an ajunct name as, Flat Gage, Ioynt Gage, Italick Gage, Long Gage▪ Male Gage, Short Gage, Steel Gage, Standing Gage, which see in their respective Alphabets.
Gally, is a board with ledges on three sides of it, in which the Composit•r emptieth his Stick ••ll of Letters to compose a Page, it hath a handle to pull the board in the Grove in and out, see Slice.
Geat, is the little spo•t or gutter made in the brim of Founders casting Ladles.
Gutter Sticks, are Sticks with Gutters in, which are used to be set between Pages on each side of the crosses in the Chase.
Girth or Girts, are tho•gs of Leather cut out of a Horse Hide or Bull, these are nailed to the Barrel and the end of the Carrage, that by the turning of the Rounce, the said Carrage is drawn in and out from the Plattin.
Gage Plate, a Gage for the trial of Letters sides and heights.
Head Stick, see Furniture; those Sticks as are at the Head of a Form, in the Chase▪
Horse, the Form or Bench Pressmen set the heaps of Paper on.
Hammer, it is a large Hammer commonly use, but hath no Claws but a Pen.
Ioynt flat Gage, this consists of two Cheeks fastned together at one end like a Carpenters Joynt Rule.
Italick Gage, and other standing Gages; are only to measure the slope of the Letter Stem.
Inke, of Printing Inke there are two sorts, weak Inke and strong Inke, one for to use in the Summer, the other for Winter.
Kerning Knife, is a strong piece of a broken Knife, set in a Wooden handle with which Founders kern their kerned Letters.
Kerning Stick, is a small stick according to the big∣ness of the Letter that is to be kerned or scraped.
Knife-Backt Sculptor, is a Sculptor or Graver with a thin edge on its back.
Knife File, a File with a thin edge.
Knot, is a small square piece of Box Wood, the one above, the other below the Tongue of the Plow, as a Stay for it, when it runs through the Block.
Lad•es, are those things as the hot Mettle is taken out of the Melting Furnice and powred into the casting Moulds, see Letter Lad•es.
Leather Grove, the Matrice being justified; there is a Grove filed round about it (or a Notch or Nick) in the top to tie a Leather fast to.
Letter Boards, are oblong squares, about two foot long, and eighteen Inches broad, plain and flat, with two ledges at the under side, to bear them off the Ground: on these the Letters are laid when Unlocked from the Chase, where they are ready to be Distributed.
Letter Ladles, differ nothing from common Ladles save in the size, of these the Caster of Letters hath many of several sizes, to fit the several sizes of Letters he has to cast, both for Body and Thickness.
Liner, is a straight Plate of Iron or Brass, made sharp and fine, that it may try the face of a Punch or other work, whether it be straight or no.
Lining stick, it is all made of Bra••, having a plain, a side ledge, a bottom ledge and a Stilt: It ••an inside square exactly wrought, and with small Riv••• fastned on the side edge and bottom.
Long Cross, see Chase.
Long Gage, are Notches, or Gages •ut into a thin Plate of Steel, Iron, or Brass: of which the 〈◊〉 one is for long Letters, and the short 〈…〉 Let•ters.
Lower Case, is the lower 〈◊〉 the smaller 〈◊〉 of Letters to be distri•uted into.
Lye-Trough, to wash 〈…〉.
Letters of all sorts and 〈…〉 Italick.
Lye-Kettle, it is to 〈…〉 the black of the Letters.
Lye-Brush,〈…〉 rub the Lye upon the 〈◊〉.
Male Gage,〈…〉 or fits its 〈…〉.
Page 118 Mallet,
Mettie, that of which the Body of the Letter are cast.
Mould, is that in which the Letters are cast accord∣ing to their shape.
Notch of the Matrice, it is a stay on the back of it, to hold the point of a Wyer or Spring of the Mould in, that the Matrice start not back.
Nest Frames, these are Frames made to hold Cases, Letter Boards, &c. that lie out of present use.
Nails, viz. Ball Nails or Pumping Nails; having round or square heads.
Open Furnace, so called because the Aire blows in through all the sides to fan the fire.
Oyle, viz. Sallet Oyle to make the Press run easie; and Linseed Oyle to make Varnish for Printing Ink.
Pack-thrid, fine Pack-thrid it is to tie up the Pages when composed.
Pan, the great ladle that Founders melt their Mettle in, when they are casting Letters.
Paper Bench, see Horse.
Paper Board, see Letter Boards.
Peel, is an Instrument made of a Board with a long or short handle or stail, according to the height of the place where it is used; by this Printed Sheets are hung upon Cords, Poles, or Racks, to dry, and by them taken down again.
Pelts, Sheep skins untanted, used for Ball Lea∣thers.
Plow, it is almost like a Joyners common Plain, sawe through the length of the Sole runs such a tongue as throw the Male Block.
Press, or Printing Press.
Paper Windows, which keep out heat and the Suns Glory in Summer, and Frost in the Winter.
Points, or marks in Printing, such as are used in Sentences, as Comme's, Colon's, full Points, &c. of which the particulars in Points used in Printing.
Partchment, or Forrel, or Uellom.
Quadrates, large Spaces which make white lines
Quoins, are Wedges to lock the Form.
Quotation Quadrats, these are cast of different Bodies, that the Compositer may have choise of them to justifie his Notes and Quotations exactly against the de∣signed line of the Page: they are cast the height of the Quotations.
Racks, to hang Printed Paper on to dry.
Riglets, is a sort of Furniture of an equal thickness all its length. It is Quadrat high of several thickness, viz. a Nomparel, Brevier, Long-Primmer, Pica, &c. thick.
Rincing Trough, the Trough wherein Forms are Washed and Rinced in.
Rules, viz. Brass Rules Letter height, by which black lines are made under the running Titles of Books, and on the sides of Pages, and between Colums.
Shank, the square Mettle the face of a Letter stands on, is its Shank.
Sheeps Foot, that as the Press-man driveth Nails into his Ball-stocks, or any other thing he hath occasion to Nail: It hath at one end a Hammers face, and the o∣ther end a Claw to draw Nails.
Shooting Stick, it is made of Box or other hard Wood and tough, its shape is a perfect Wedge; with it are the Quoins knocked up in the Chase to lock the Form.
Short Cross, is the over cross piece of Iron work set in the middle of the Chase, in which long holes are made through, for the Points fixed on the Tympan to fall into.
Side Sticks, are the outer side sticks which are placed against the out sides of Pages; which are sloped, or made Wedge-wise from one end to the other, and are Quadrat height.
Slice, is a little thin Iron Shovel, through the handle whereof is fixed a cross piece about the thickness of a small curtain rod: It is principally used about the black on the Ink block. The Slice is also the Board with a handle that runs into the Galley.
Sliding Gage, it differeth but little from the Joy∣ners running Gage: Its use is to set off distances between the Shoulder and the Tooth, and so to mark it.
Smoak Uent, is the hole in the Furnice through which the Smoak passeth.
Soft Ink, Ink or Varnish moderately boiled.
Solace, see Customs of the Chappel.
Spaces, are those Shanks which have no letter on the faces but lie below them, and are set between Word and Word to keep them asunder.
Stick, the composing stick is often so called.
Stirring Pot, is a long strong Iron Pot, with an handle about two yards, with it being red hot, is stirred the Mettle and Lead together in melting Pots, till they be well incorporated.
Stoak Hole, a round hole out of which the fire in the Furnice proceeds.
Stoaking Rod, a Rod of thick Wyer put into such a handle as is the handle of a Letter Ladle, Founders use it to stir up the fire in the Furnace.
Stop, or Stops; these are kind of Matrices with∣out any Letters sunk into them, by which are cast in the Mould Spaces thick and thin, N Quadrats, M Qua∣drats, Quadrats of several bigness.
Superior Letters, are Letters often set to Marginal Notes: they are Letters of a small face, high justified by the Founder in the Mould near the top line.
Sheers, are such as Taylors use, which are for cutting of Brass Rules, and Scabboard.
Stake, or Anvil; a great Iron for a Smith to Forge Iron or Steel work upon.
Tache, a small board with Noches in the fore edge, either nailed upon the fore edge of the Work-bench, or Screwed into the Uice, so as the Noches may stand forwards to rest the Shank of a Punch in.
Timpan Sheets, Paper Sheets fixed on it.
Underlays, are small slips of Scabbord put under letters to raise them higher for the Printing of red Letters or Words.
Uarnish, a boiled Oyle with which Printing ink of di∣verse colours is made.
Page 119Uisorum, this is used for direction to the Composit•r to have his Eye quick upon his Coppy, by pricking the point of the Visorum upon the Frame at the & box, then fold the leaf of the Coppy so as it may rest on the square Shoulder near the bottom of the Visorum.
Wind Furnace, see Open Furnace.
Wind Hole, or Air hole in the Furnace; is a square hole to let in Air that the fire may burn the freer.
The Terms used in the Art of Print∣ing Alphabetically Explained.
ABreviations, are Characters, or Marks on Letters to signifie either a Word or Syllable, as e over the Head of y •ignifies (the) and a t over y signifies that. And a straight stroak over the head of Vowels abreviates m or n.
Accents, are dashes or marks over the Vowels.
Accented Letters, are marked Letters of which there are these kinds: First the Grave Accent thus over a Vowels head marked • The Accute Accent, thus mark∣ed • The Circumflex Accent thus marked • The Deerecis Accent thus marked •
Aire-hole, a hole under the Hearth of the Founders Furnice, to let in the Aire, that the Fire may burn the freer.
Ash-hole, the place where the Ashes that fall from the Hearth are taken away.
Ashes, Letter Founders call the skimmings of their Mettle, and the 〈◊〉 of their Houses Ashes, and save both to be refined 〈…〉Lean Ashes.
Ascending Gage, is 〈…〉 of Letters that rise a∣bove the Body.
Assidue or Assidine, is thin Brass Plate, such as adorn Hobby-horses; Founders use it to underlay the Body or Mouth piece of their Moulds, if they be too thin.
Back of the Composing Stick.
Back side of the Form, is the under side that tou∣ches the Correcting-Stone, or Press-Stone.
Bad Coppy, when a Book to be Printed is badly Written or unperfect.
Bad Work, any fault at the Case or Press, or at the Furnice, or at the Dressing-block &c. is in Workmens Language called so.
Bake, is when Letters stick together in distributing, which the Compositer cannot without great trouble get asunder: This is called the Letter is Baked.
Beard of a Letter, is the outer angle or edge at the square shoulder of the shank, which reaches almost up to the Face of the Letter, and is commonly scraped off by the Founde•.
Bearer, is a stay or support to any thing they work at: But it is generally taken for a Riglet of a convenient thickness put on the Frisket to keep the sides of white Pages from hard Printing.
Beat, is blacking the Letters with the Ink Ball, by beating upon the Face of the Letters set in the Form.
Beat Fat, if the Press-Man takes too much Inke on his Balls, they will make the Letters too black. Yet the black English faced Letters is generally beaten fat.
Beat Lean, is to take but little Inke and often: for all small Letters must be beaten Lean for •ear of filling with Inke.
Benvenue, the ancient Customs of the Printers.
Bite or Bites, is when the Frisket Prints upon the sides of the Pages.
Body, is the s•anke of the cast Letter, which they call the Body of the Letter.
Botthing of a Matrice, is to strike a Bur into the side of it, to make it stand of the Register, if in case it be too thin, or past a Paper or Card to the side to thicken it.
Bottom Line, is the lower place that a descending Letter can be made too.
Bottom of the Matrice, is the lower end of it, near which the Letter is Punched.
Break, is a piece of a line, or ending of the Para∣graph.
Break, is also the Mettle that is contiguous to the Shank of a new cast Letter: this is made in the Mouth piece of the Letter Mould, and is called a Break because always broken off from the Shank of the Letter.
Breaking off, is breaking the said Break off the Let∣ter.
Broad side, is a Form of one full Pape, Printed on one side of a whole Sheet of Paper, as a Sheet Almanack.
Broken Letter, by it is ment the breaking of the or∣derly succession the Letters stood in, either in a Line, Page or Form: Also it is used for the mingling of Letters toge∣ther, which mingling is called Pic.
Bur, see Rag.
Bed the Stone, the Stone is well and evenly laid in the Cossin of the Cor•iage.
Burn Oyle, is to boil it, and then fire it, that the oyliness may be consolidated and drawn out: but this must be done with Art, else they may fire the house in burning the Oyl.
Batter, when the face of a Letter is spoiled, they say it is Battered.
Botches, it is a kind of bad Workman-ship, that is, when it hath Pidgeon holes, thin Spaces, no Spaces before Capitals, short &'s, abbreviated words, and titled Letters, &c. with several other Settings are esteemed Botches.
Canon, the great Canon is the name of the largest Letter for Printing that is used in England.
Card, is when several Bodies of Letters are set in a Page, Compositers to justifie that Page to an exact length, put a Card to some white line, or other Break and length∣en out the Page the thickness of a Card. And Press-Men also use a Card sometime for an underlaying.
Case Lyes, is into what Box the several Letters are disposed.
Case is Low, when a Case grows empty of Letters, Compositers say the Case is low, the Boxes having but few Letters in them.
Case is Full, viz. a Case full of Letters, wanting no sorts.
Case stands Still, when the Compositer is not at Work at his Case, it is said the Case stands still.
Page 120Cassie Quires, are the two out side Quires in a Ream, called also Cording Quires.
Cassie Paper, are Quires made up by Paper-maker of Torn, Wrinkled, Stained or otherwise naughty Sheets.
Cast, is to cast Letters in the Moulds.
Cast off Coppy, or Counting of Coppy (for both Phrases are indifferently used) is to examine and find out how much either Printed or Written Coppy will come in into an intended number of Sheets, of a different Body or Measure from the Coppy.
Chappel, every Printing-House is Termed a Chap∣pel.
Charge, is to fill Paper with great Pages: It is also used for the filling of a Page with long and many Lin•s▪ Also to fill a Line with many Letters: And to fill a Pot with Stu•s and Antimony.
Choake, if a Form be not washed in due time, 〈◊〉 Inke will get into and dry in the hollows of the 〈…〉 the Letter, and that getting in of the Inke, is 〈◊〉Choaking of the Letters, or Choaking of the Form.
Clean Proofe, when a Proofe hath but few faults in it.
Close Matter, Matter that hath but few Breaks or Whites in it.
Close Work, the same.
Collation Books, or Colationing of Books; is first to examine whether the whole number of Sheets that belong to a Book are rightly gathered: Secondly to examine that two Sheets of one sort be not gathered into the Book. Thirdly to examine whether the proper Sig∣nature of every Sheet lie on its proper corner of the ga∣thered Book.
Come, or Comes; when the Face and Shank of a Letter is cast perfect, Founders say, it comes well; If un∣perfect, they say, it does not come, or it comes not well.
Come Down, the Toe of the Spindle is said to come down by pulling the Bar; so the Bar is said to come down when it is pulled near the hither Cheek of the Press. Also the Press-Man is said to come down the Form with his Balls, when he beateth down the Form.
Companions, are two Press-Men working at one Press; the one, which is named the first hath his choise to Pull or Beat: the second take the refuse.
Comes off, a Form that receives a good Impression, is said to come off well: If a bad Impression, it comes off ill, or it comes not well off. Also it is used in gathering of Books, for a Heap that is gathered off, is said to come off.
Compositer, he that Composes or Sets the Letters.
Cording-Quires, the outside Quires of a Ream.
Correct, when the Corrector reads the Proof, or the Compositer mend the faults he marked in the Proof, they are both said to Correct; that is, the Corrector the Proof, the Compositer corrects the Form.
Corrections, the Letters marked in a Proof, are called Corrections.
Counting of Coppy, see Cast off Coppy.
Cull Paper, are the good and whole Sheets picked out of the Cassie Quires.
Cutting the Frisket, is the cutting so much of the Partchment away from the Frisket cover, as the Form doth Print on the Sheet.
Chapter, the Head of a Matter: Books are common∣ly divided in Chapters, and Chapters into Sections, and Sections into Paragraphes or Breaks as Printers call them; which is the breaking off at a full Point, and be∣ginning a new line.
Column, is when a Page or side of a Leaf Written or Printed, is divided into two or more parts along the Pa∣per, those divisions are called Columns.
Dance, when the Form is locked up, if upon the ri∣sing of it from the Stone, he finds there are many Letters do not rise with the Form, but are ready to drop out, he saith the form Dances.
Distribute, is putting the Letter into their several Boxes again after the Form is Printed off.
Devil, the Press-Man sometimes have a Week Boy to take Sheets as they are Printed off the the Tym∣p•n; or run of Arrants: These Boys do in a Printing-House commonly black and daw• themselves; whence the Workmen do jocosely call them Devils, and some∣times Spirits, and sometimes Flies.
Direction, is the word that stands alone on the right Hand in the bottom line of a Page, is the Direction word for the following side of the Leaf.
Direction Line, the Line the Direction stands in.
Double Letter, as ae•st•sh and several others cast on one Shank are called Double Letters.
Double, or Doubling; is a Sheet that is twice pul∣led and hath a double Impression, this Sheet is said to be double: or if the Pressman run him in so far, as the fur∣ther side in some part of the Sheet Print with the first pull, or the hinder edges of the first pull, Print with the second pull, either of these twice Printings is called Dou∣bling.
Dress a Chase, or Dress a Form, is all one: It is to fi• the Pages and Chase with Furniture and Quoins.
Dressing Letter, is to make them straight and tite, that they may come well, and lie even both in the Face and Shank.
Drive out, is when a Compositer sets his Words wide, he is said to Run out, or to Drive out: Also in Found∣ing, if Letter be cast too thick in the Shank it is said to Drive out. Also if it be cast too thick in any part of the Shank, as at the Head, Foot, Side, they say it Drives out at Head, it Drives out at Foot, &c.
D•ep Cut, Letters that are deep cut and stand high above the Shank, Print clear the longer, and are less sub∣ject to entertain picks.
Dedication, the Patronizing or Presenting of a Book by the Author to some particular Person.
Doubling, or Slurring; is when Paper is double Printed, which oft happens by the removing of the Sheet on the Tympan at going under the Plattin.
Empty Case, see Case is Low.
Easie Pull, see Soft Pull.
Easie Work, is a Printed Coppy, or a fair Written Hand, and full of Breaks is that as pleaseth a Compositer, and is by them called, Good Coppy, Light, Easie Work: Also a great Letter and small Form, is called Easie Work.
Empty Press, a Press that stands by, which no Workman works at: most commonly every Printing-House hath one of them for a Proof Press, viz. to make Proofs on.
Page 121English Body, are the cast Letters of the English Alphabet.
English Face, are English face Letters.
Even Page, the first Page of a Sheet or Form is called an Odd Page, but the second, fourth, sixth, or any other even numbered Page, is called an Even Page.
Face of a Letter, is that flat part of the Punch on which letter is cut, to be stamped or sunk into the Matrice.
Face of a Page, or Form; the Superficies or top part of the Page or Form, where the Faces of every Letter lieth in the same plain.
Fat Ashes, Founders call their Ashes Fat, if they are considerable heavy, because then they have much Met∣tle in them.
Fat, see Beat Fat.
Fat Letter, or Fat Face; is a broad Stemmed Letter.
First, is the first or chief Workman at the Press, he that takes his choise whether he will Beat or Pull.
First Form, the Form the white Paper is Printed on, which generally by rule ought to have the first Page of the Sheet in it.
First Pull, is the Pull that Prints the first running half Sheet under the Press, or the first pulled side of the Sheet.
Fly, see Devil.
Follow, viz. see if it follow, is a term as well used by the Corrector as by the Compositer and Press-Man, and it is to examine how the beginning matter of a suc∣ceeding Page, 〈◊〉 with the ending matter of the prece∣dent Page; and how the Folio's of those Pages numeri∣cally follow and succeed one another, least the Pages should be Transposed: and whether the Signature of the Pages follows orderly according to the Volume, least the Form should be laid wrong in the Press.
Foot of the Letter, the break end of the Shank of a Letter.
Foot Line, the bottom Line to which a letter extends.
Foot of a Page, the bottom or end of a Page.
Form, are the Pages of Composed Letters▪ when they are fitted to the Chase.
Foul Proof, is when a Proof Sheet hath many Let∣ters and Faults marked in it.
Fount, is the whole number of Letters that are cast of the same Body and Face at one time.
Froze out, in the Winter when the Paper is Frozen, and the Letter Frozen, so as the Workmen cannot Work▪ they say, they are Froze out.
Fryer, is when the Balls do not take, the untaking part of the Balls that touches the Form will be left white; or if the Pressman skip over any part of the Form, and touch it not with the Balls though they do take, yet in both these cases the white places is called a Fryer.
Full Form, or Page; is a Form or Page with few or no breaks or white lines.
Full Press, is when two Men work at the Press.
Furnace open, or Wind Furnace; is the pul∣ling down of the out Furnace Wall where the Mettle is made, and rake away the fire that the Mettle may cool in the Pots.
Folio, is two Pages and comprehends both sides of a Leaf: Some confounds Folio and Page calling a large Volume, a Book by Folio's; others by Pages when it is a small or Quarto Book.
Form Rises, that is, it is so well locked up in the Chase, that in the raising of it up neither a Letter or Space drops out of it.
Fur up a Form, or Choak the Letters; is when the Inke is too thick and strong that it fills up in beating, the Hollow of the Letter.
Gathering of Books, is to take one Sheet off eve∣ry heap of Printed Sheets, which make a Book.
Get in, that is, Matter is got in, in a Line, Page, Sheet or Book, if Letters be thinner cast then the Printed Coppy the Compositer sets by: or Matter is got in, if he sets closer: or if he widens his Measure; or puts more lines in a Page, then he is said to get in.
Good Colour, is Sheets Printed neither too black, nor too white.
Good of the Chappel, Forfeitures and other Chap∣pel dues are collected for the good of the Chappel, viz. to be spent as the Chappel approves.
Good Work, is called so in a two fold sense: the Ma∣ster Printer calls it so, when the Compositers and Press∣men have done their Duty. And the Workmen call it Good Work, if it be light, easie Work, and they have a good price for it.
Going up the Form, it is a Pressman phrase, when he beat over the first and thrid rows or colums of the Form with his Ink Balls.
Great Numbers, above 2000 Printed of one Sheet are counted Great Numbers: see Lay on.
Great Bodies, or Letter termed English, and all a∣bove their bigness are accounted Great Bodies: But Long Primmer, and all downwards are Small Bo∣dies.
Half a Line, when Letters drives out or gets in, in the body, in a number of lines, Founders say, it drives out, or gets in half a line, a whole line, a quarter of a line &c. viz. half a body, a whole body, a quarter &c. of a Body.
Half a Press, when but one Man works at the Press, it is called Half a Press.
Half Work, he that works but three days in a Week, does but Half Work.
Hangs, see Letter Hangs.
Hang the Plattin, is the tying of it with Whipcord to the end of the Spindle by the Hose-Hooks and Plattin-Hooks.
Hang up Paper, is to hang it upon Rails or Cords to dry after it is Printed.
Hard Ink, is Ink very well boiled.
Hard Iustifying, when the line or lines in the Com∣posing stick are too close Wedged in.
Hard Pull, that which makes a hard pull in the Press is putting into the Mortesses of the Cheeks solid blocks of Wood, which will scarce squeeze by the strength of a pull which makes the Press go hard to be pull∣ed.
Hard Work▪ is so termed by Compositer when the Written Coppy is bad and hard to read, and hath but few Breaks: also small Letter and a large Form, Pressmen call hard Work.
Head Line, that part or line which the higher part of the body of a Letter toucheth.
Page 122Head of a Page, the top or beginning of a Page.
Heap, so many Reams or Quires as is set out by the Ware-house keeper for the Press-man to Wet, is call∣ed an Heap: but then it is a Dry Heap, when it is wet, then it is indeed called a Heap.
Heap holds out, when it hath its full inteded num∣ber of Sheets according to its Quiers.
Heighth, see High against Paper.
High against Paper, is when a punched Letter is not sunk deep enough into the Matrice, then the let∣ter cast will not stand high enough against the Paper to make a good impression; And if it be sunk too deep, then the cast letter will be too high against Paper, and be apt to cut it.
Holds out, or Holds not out; these terms are applicable to the Quires of white Paper, also to Wrought of Heaps, and also to the Gathering of Books. If Quires have twenty five Sheets, they say the Paper holds out twenty five Sheets of wrough off Heaps, the Heap as comes off first in gathering or wants of the number of the rest, is said, not to hold out. And in the gathering of Books, if the intended number of perfect Books are gathered, they say, the Impression holds out: but if the inten∣ded number cannot be gathered off the Heap, they say the Impression holds not out. And so for sorts of Letter, either when it is in the Founding-House, or the Printing-House, are so said, if they hold or not, one Box with another in the Compo∣sing.
Hole, by it in Printing Dialect, is ment a place where privat Printing is used, viz. the Printing of unlicensed Books, or other Mens Coppies.
Hollow of a Letter, is the sinking in of the Counter-punch into another Punch which makes such holes or hollows, and so doth sculping into the face of a Punch.
Horse Flesh, is if any Journeyman set down in his Bill on Saturday Night more Work then he hath done that Week, that suplusage is called Horse Flesh: and he abate it in his next bill.
Hours, Press-Men reckon their Work by the Hours, accounting every Token to an Hours Work: also they make their prices of different Work by the hour, and passes currant for a Token. Also if two Men Work at the Press 10 Quires it is an hour; if one Man 5 Quires it is an hours Work.
Half a Body, it is in Founders and Printers Language, taken to be the driveing out of half a line, or a whole line, or more or less, in the Com∣posing.
Imperfections of Books, are the latter end of the gathered Heaps, which other Heaps not holding out to them, make them imperfect, which are bund∣led up, and Written upon Imperfections of such or such a Book, and the Signature of the Sheet or Sheets wanting.
Imperfections of Letters, is when the Founder hath not cast a proportionable number of each sort of Letter, the want of any make the Fount unperfect: see Sorts.
Impose, Impo•ing is the placing of the Pages that belong to a Sheet, within the Chase and Furniture about them in order, that when the Sheet is wrought off at the Press, all the Pages may be foulded into an orderly succession.
Impression holds out, see Holds out.
In-page, see Out-page.
Insertion, if the Compositer have left Words or Lines, the Corrector inserts it, and makes a mark where it is left out; which is called the the mark of Insertion, see Notes of Correcti∣on.
Iustifie, or Iustifying; is first to make the face of a sunken letter, lie an exact depth in the face of the Matrice, and on all sides of an equal depth: this is called Iustifie a Matrice. It is also to set or justifie the foot line of the letter exactly in line. It is likewise to set the sides of the Matrice to an ex∣act thickniss.
Iustifying a Mould, is the working it so exact that in casting of the letter, the Shank be Parallel, and sides of an even thickness; And also that the Mould be clear from Ragging; which without seve∣ral proofs and tryings it cannot be expected to be perfectly true.
Iustifie a Stick, viz. the Composing Stick, is the stiff or loose filling of his Stick with Letters; if it be filled very stiff with Letters or Spaces, they say it is hard justified; if loolely, it is loose justifi∣ed.
Iustifiers, are either Pastboard or Scaboard or such like put into Mortesses to make the same more bind∣ing and close.
Keep in, is a caution given to, or resolved on by the Compositer, when there may be doubt of Driv∣ing out the Matter beyond his counting off, there∣fore h•Sets close, to keep within his compass: this is to Keep in.
Keep out, is a caution of the Compositer, given or resolved upon, when there may be doubt of getting in Matter too fast for his Counting off, where∣fore he sets his Words wide, to Drive or Keep out.
Kern, or Kerned Letter; such as have part of their face hanging over one side, or both sides of their Shanks: and that part hanging over is the Kern.
Knock up Balls, is the nailing of the Pelts or Sheep skins on the Ball stocks, with Wool under it, to make them stand round and full; they are well done when the Wool is equally dispersed about all the sides, and the middle smoothly covered with Leather, viz. not rising in Hillocks.
Knock up Books, is when they are gather∣ed out of several Heaps, he take them between his hands and knock them on a Table to make them lye even and straight in the backs and edges.
Knock up a Letter, is when a Letter by working is worn so low in the face, that it will nor Print well in the Page; which the workman takes out and puts a better in. But if Letters be scare and that another of the same be wanting, he takes out the old one and bat∣ters Page 123 its Shank to raise it higher against the Paper.
Lay in Sheets, is when the Press-man lays Sheets on the Timpan, it is stiled Laying in Sheets.
Lay out Sheets, is the taking the Sheets off the Timpan when they are Printed, and laying them on the Heap.
Lay on, a Phrase used for the number of Books to be Printed, thus they say, there is 1000.2000.3000. &c. Laid on: see great numbers, see small numbers.
Lean Ashes, Founders call their Ashes Lean, if they be light, because then they have but little Mettle in them; see Fat Ashes.
Lean, see Beat Lean.
Lean Face, a Letter whose Stems and other stroaks have not their full widness.
Lean Stroaks, are the fine stroaks of a Let∣ter.
Letter Hangs, if the Compositer hath been careless in emptying his composing Sticks, so as to let the Letters loosely down in the Galley so as that they stand not perfectly square and upright, they say the Letter Hangs: or if after overrunning on the correcting Stone, the Letters are not set square and in a right positi∣on, before he locks up the Form; the matter stand∣ing thus out of square, is said to Hang.
Letter Break, see Squabble.
Light Work, see Easie Work.
Lock up, is to Wedge the Form fast in the Chase, that not a Letter or Space fall out.
Long Pull, is to give a stronger pull to a Form that is large and the Letters small; then to a small Form, and large Letters, which needs but a small pull, and it is in Printers Language called a Short pull, see Hard Pull.
Loose Iustifying, see Iustifie.
Low against Paper, see High against Paper.
Low Case, when the Compositer hath composed al∣most all his Letters out of his Case, he says his Case is Low.
M thick, is ment an M Quadrat thick.
Make a Measure, is to set the Composing Stick to that Measure or length of the Letter line he intends to Work by.
Make ready the form, is to put the composed Pa∣ges into the Chase, aud lock them up, for the taking off of a Proof: besides all this under this pharse of Making ready the Form, is comprehended all thing to be done by the Press-man before he can go to work, as first to make Register, secondly to cut the Frisket, third to wet the Timpan, fourth lock up the Form well and fast, &c.
Matter, is the Series of the discourse of the Compo∣siters Coppy which he doth compose by.
Measure, is the wideness of a Page, see Make a Measure.
Monk, when the Press-man hath not well be distri∣buted his Ball, some spots or splotches of Ink may lie on one Letter, or more of them, which in beating he leaves upon the Form; so that the Sheet Printed on, hath a black blotch on it: which blotch is called a Monk.
Marginal Notes, are note set on the side (or sides if the Page have two columns.)
N thick, is ment an N Quadrat thick.
Naked Form, or Page; is when the Furniture is taken from about all sides of the Form or Page.
Neck of a Letter, so much of the Punch as is sunk into the Matrice, is called the Neck; and when that Letter is cast off in Mettle, it is so much as comes above the square of the Shank, viz. above the Beard.
Notes, are Quotations down the side of a Page.
Number laid on, see Lay on.
Odd Page, is the first, third, fifth, seventh &c. all unen numbred Pages, are odd Pages.
Off, a Press-man usually says I am off, meaning he hath wrought off his Token, his Heap, his Form.
Open Matter, is when Pages Printed are full of Breaks and Whites.
Open the Form, is removing the Quoins from about the Form till they stand loose: and▪ then opens the Furni∣ture, that is, takes the Head sticks, and the inner Side sticks and Gutter sticks from about the Form.
Open Work, see Open Matter.
Over-Run, is when a Word or more is left out in the correcting as cannot be put in, except he must put so much of the fore part of the line into the line above it, or somuch of the hinder part of the line into the next under it, as will make room for what is left out. Thus if he have left out much, he must over-run many line, either backwards o• forwards, or both, till he come to a Break.
Out, a Compositer usually says, I am Out, mean∣ing he hath set out his Page, Form or Coppy. Also out marked in the Margent of Corrections, denots that some Line, Sentence, or considerable part of the Matter is left out in composing.
Out-page, in Octavo's, Twelves, Sixteens &c. eve∣ry out side Page in the Sheet is called an Out-page, the rest are called In-pages.
Out of Register, is bad Register, that is when the Printing on both 〈…〉 Sheet stands not even together both at head and foot; 〈◊〉Register.
Page, is the side of a Leaf in a Book; see Fo∣lio.
Paragraph, see Chapter.
Pale Colour, if there be not blacking enough in the Ink, or the Form be beaten with too lean Balls, the work will be said to have a pale colour.
Pick or Picks, is when either pieces of the skin or Film that grows on the Ink with standing by, or any Dirt get into the hollows of the face of the Letter, that Film or Dirt will fill and choak up the Letter and Print black: which is called a Pick, because the Press-man with the point of a Needle picks it out.
Paper the Case, is to •ut paper in every Box in the upper and lower Cases to keep the Letters from falling through the clifts of t•e Boxes.
Paper up Letters, or Pages; are two phrases in∣differently used for the same meaning; for the Press-man having wrought off the Form and washed the Letters, the Compositer having stript the Form, whips Cords about every Page, to tie them up from falling, so puts them on papers •ou•ding up the corners or lappets of the paper, and sets them by, till they have occasion to use them again.
Pidgeon Holes, when whites between words are as great o• greater then between line and line: these wide Page 124 whites are by Compositers (in way of scandal) called Pigeon Holes, and are no good Work, but in case of necessity.
Points, as these and other marks used by Founders and Printers, ; : _ - = ? ! ( ' ) * [ ] &c. are all called Points, yet have different Terms.
Point Holes, the two holes the Points fixed on the Tympan pricks into the Printed Sheet of Paper.
Press-Man, is him that Works at the Print∣ing-Press.
Press goes, when the Press-men are at work, the Press is said to go.
Press goes Hard or Heavy, or It goes Easie and Light: It is by the Justifying of the Mortesses of the Cheeks and Head of the Press either too hard or more loose which makes the Press goe either hard or ea∣sie.
Press stands still, is when the Press-men are not at work.
Preface, the beginning or interduction of Matter to follow.
Proof or Proof Sheet, is that as is to be corrected.
Proof Letters, are patters Letters by which the Founder or Maker of the Moulds doth justifie his Mould by. And also by them new Fount Letters are tried by setting them together in the composing Stick.
Print hand, are Letters of Sentences Written in the same or like Characters as the Letters printed.
Pull Easie, or Hard, Short, Long or Soft; see Hard Pull.
Pye, when a page is broken, those broken Letters are called Pye: see Broken Let•ers.
Printing-House, is taken for the House wherein Printing is used: but more peculiarly used for the Print∣ing Tooles, which they usually call a Printing-House, as such a one hath removed his Printing-House, that is the Tooles used in his former House.
Printing in Quires, when quire work is Printed, ac∣cording to the number of Sheets Quired one in the other, then the Signature of the first Page is A, then the Signa∣ture of the Sheet Quired next within the first Sheet A 2. so that the Signatures of all the Sheets in the first Quire is A. A 2. A 3 &c. according to the number of Sheets Quired together: the second Quire begins, B. B 2. B 3. &c. the third Quire is C. C 2. C 3. &c. according to the number of Quires.
Quarters, as Quarto's, Octavo's, and Twelves Forms are imposed in Quarters: they are called Quarters be∣cause they are lock• up apart. Also the short Cross in the Chase as in a Twelves Form, is called a Quarter, though it be but one sixth part of the Form.
Quires, is when Sheets are Printed one to go into a∣nother, whether they consists of two or three Sheets they are called Quires, and their Printing is termed, Printing in Quires.
Rag, when Letters cast hath a Bur or Selvage on any of its edges, that is called a Rag.
Register, is to Quoin up the Form on the Carrage of the Press, so that when the second Form of the same Sheet, Volume, Measures, and Whites, is placed in the same position, that all sides of each page shall fall exactly upon all the sides of the pages of the first Form. This is termed True Register.
Register Sheet, the Sheet or Sheets printed to make Register with.
Reteration, the second Form, or Form printed on the back side of the white Paper.
Revise, that is a proof Sheet taken off after the first or second corrected Sheet, wherein the Corrector examins in this Revise, all the faults, fault by fault, if all he mark∣ed in the last proof Sheet be carefully mended, if not he marks them in the Revise.
Rince the Form, the washing away of the Lie that Pressman cleansed the Form withal, after he had done the Printing.
Rise, a Form is said to Rise, when in rearing it off the Correcting-stone, no Letter or Furniture drops out, or stays behind.
Rowl up the Ball Leathers.
Rub Letter, is dressing the Shanks by rubbing them on a stone.
Rubs not, when the Shank is cast too thin, that in Rubbing, part of the face, or topping, or footing Rubs away: Founders say It does not Rub.
Rub well, when the Shank of a Letter hath a proper thickness, Founders say, it Rubs well.
Rub out Ink, it is only to spread some part of the Ink pretty equally oven the top of the Ink-block, from the corner of it, where the Ink generally lieth in a quan∣tity or Mass together.
Run in the Carrage, is by giving the Winch one turn round about, which runs it into the middle: the second Run in, is by a nother turn.
Runs on Sorts, is when Matter runs much on some few Letters, they say it Runs on Sorts.
Runs out from Coppy, see Drives out.
Register be out, is when the two Printed sides meet not even at head and foot.
Setting up, is putting the new Cast Letter into the Founders composing Stick.
Sliding Measure, is the inner part of the com∣posing Stick.
Second at the Press.
Small Bodies, see Great Bodies.
Second pull, is the second pull of the Bar, when the Carrage at the second turn of the Winch is run under the Plattin.
Short pull, is also called an hard pull, because it is suddenly performed, and the Form quickly feels the force of the Spindle.
Set Letters, is the Compositers putting each Letter into his Stick.
Sets foul, see Foul proof.
Sets clean, see Clean proof.
Sets close, see Get in.
Sets wide, see Drive out.
Set out paper, is the counting so many Quires out, as the Heap requires: see Token.
Set the Rounce, is so to set or fix the handle of the Winch as with one turn round, it shall run in the Car∣rage to the just middle of it: for by the well setting of the Rounce contributes much to the Riddance in a Train of Work.
Sets off, work that is newly wrought off at the press often sets off, especially if it be fat beaten with soft Ink: that is when the said paper comes to be beaten, or hard Page 125 prest by the Book-binder, the moist Ink spreads and de∣lates it self round about the face of every Letter, and Sullies and stains the white paper.
Short Page, having but little Printed in it.
Section, it a cutting or dividing of a Matter: see Chapter.
Signature, at the first page of the Sheet, at the bot∣tom thereof is set a Capital Letter, as thus: If it be the first Page of the first Sheet of a Book, the Signature is A. I• the first Page of the second Sheet, it hath a B. If the first of the third a C. and so successively till he come to W. which is alway skipt, because the Latin Alphabet hath not that Letter, but next V. follows X. Y. Z. So that if the Book contains above 23 Sheets, the Signature of the 24 Sheet must be A a, if 25 B b, till in like manner he run through the second Alphabet, and comes to the third which is A a a, and fourth which is A a a a. To the second Page or any other even Page he sets no Signiture, but to the third Page which is an odd Pape he sets an A 2. the figure 2 being no part of the Signature, but only an adjunct to shew the Book-binder the second Leaf of that Sheet, that he may the surer fould the Sheet right see Printing in Quires.
Sinck Matrices, see Sinck Punches.
Sinck Punches, is the sincking of the Letter Pun∣ches into the Matrices, which is done with the face of an Hammer fizeable to the bigness of his Punch, by cautions knocks on the end of the Punch, with reiterated blows, till he have driven the punch deep enough into the Ma∣trice.
Small Number, under 1500. laid on is accounted a Small Number, see Great Numbers, and see Lay on.
Smout, Workmen when they are out of constant Work, do sometimes accept of a day or two Work, or a Weeks work a• another Printing-House: this By work they call Smouting.
Soft pull, or Soaking pull; is when the Form feels the force of the Spindle by degrees, because it comes soft and easily down; see Short pull.
Sop the Ball, when a Press-man hath taken too much Ink on his Balls, he is said to Sop his Balls.
Sorts, the Letters that lie in every Box of the Case are seperatly called sorts in Printers and Founders Language; thus a is a sort, b is a sort, c is a sort, &c.
Spirit, see Devil.
Squable, a Page or Form is Squabled when the Let∣ter of one or more lines are got into any of the adjacent Lines; or that the Letter or Letters are twisted about out of their square position.
Stem, the straight fat stroaks of a straight Letter, is called the Stem of the Letter.
Stick full, is when the composing Stick is filled with so many Lines that it can contrain no more.
Stiff Iustified, see Hard Iustified.
Space thick, or Space thin; are ment the thick∣ness or thinness of such Spaces, see m and n thick, and thick and thin Spaces.
Spaces, are thin bodies set between words to keep them asunder, which ought by a strict orderly rule, and Methodical measure to be made the thickness of the se∣venth part of the body of the Letter is in height; though Founders make them indifferently thicker and thin∣ner.
Strip a Form, is to take away all the Furniture from about it, and lett it so remain on the Letter board to be distributed.
Stroaks in Letters, are either fat, lean, fine, hair stroaks; that is thick or thin stroaks.
Taking off, is ment so many Lines on his rule, as he doth distribute at a time, they being taken off and put into the Boxes.
Take up, as many lines as he takes upon his Rule or Riglet at a time to distribute, is a taking up; and thus he takes up Letters and distributs by taking of his Riglet and putting into the Boxes till the Case be full.
Take Ink, when the Balls are neither Grasie nor too Wet, the Ink will stick to them and distribute it self from one Ball to another, then it is said to Take Ink, else not to Take: Also Take Ink is to dab one of the Balls on the Ink block to furnish the Form with blacking when the Balls are wanting, they say, Take Ink.
Teze Wool, or Hair; is to pull it asunder or card it, that neither Dirt or hard Lumps remain in it to hin∣der the Balls soft working.
Thick Letter, a Fount of Letter that rubs not high enough into the Neck, is called Thick Letter, and con∣sequently will drive out Matter.
Thick Space, m and n Spaces are called Thick Space.
Thin Spaces, are then m or n Spaces, and are ge∣nerally called Space Thick, that is one quarter so thick as the body of the Letter is high, though Spaces are sel∣dom cast so thick.
Token Sheet, a Sheet foulded down at the end of every Token Printed.
Token, when Quires are counted out for the Prin∣ting, as many as are for one and the same work is called an Heap: Now in every Heap whether greater or lesser every 5 Quires is called a Token, that is an hours work for half a Press, v•z.• single Press-man. But if it be for a whole Press, then every Token in the Heap contains 10 Quires.
Turn for a Letter, it often happens that Matter runs upon sorts, especially in Capitals, or some sorts sel∣dom used, and that the Compositer wants that sort the Matter runs on: And being loath to distribute Letter for that sort, or perhaps his Case is otherwise full. Then instead of that Letter or sort, he Turns a Lerter of the same thickness with the Foot of the Shank, and the Face downwards: which turned Letter being easie to be seen, ••e afterwards when he can accomodate himself with a right sort, takes the Turned Letter out and puts the right Letter in its room.
Turn for it, it is a word used jocosely in the Chap∣pel (that is the Printing-House) when any of the Work∣men complains of want of Money, or any thing else, he shall by another Workman be answered, Turn for it, viz. make shift for it.
Three Worm Spindle, is a Screw with three thrids or rising in it, all going by the side of one ano∣ther.
Train of Work, is a great deal of Work of one and the same sort.
Page 126Title, either the name of the Book, or content of a Chapter or Section is termed the Title of such a thing.
Transposed Page, is when one Page is set in the o∣ther Pages place.
Timpan Sheet, that Sheet as is pasted on the Timpan, which is to lay all the Printed Sheets in the Heap even by.
Uantage, when a white Page or more happens in a Sheet, the Compositer calls that Uantage, so does the Pressman, when a Form of one pull comes to the Press. But this is when they are agreed for so much the Sheet.
Unlock the Form, is to beat the Quoins back, that the Form be loosly held in the Chase.
Underlay, a Phrase used by Pressmen for the Light and Easie, or Hard and Heavy running in of the Car∣riage: thus they say, the Press goes Light and Easie under Hand, or above Hand, or it goes Heavy or Hard under Hand.
Upper Hand, when the Spindle goes soft and easie, the Pressman saith, it goes well under Hand or a∣bove Hand. But the Contrary if it goes Hard and Heavy.
Wash the Form,
Weak Ink, see Soft Ink.
White Line, a line of Quadrats, which Print not the Paper.
White Page, a Page that no Matter comes in.
Well Currying of the Steel, is an operation of the Smith▪ in working Iron out of Steel, that the Steel may be sound and entire of it self.
White Paper, although the first Form be Printed of•, yet Pressmen erronically call that Heap white Paper, till the reteration be Printed.
Whole Press, see Full Press.
Wood, that part of the Letter Mould as is of Wood.
Wooden Letters, great Capital Letters with Flo∣rishes about them, anciently uses to be set in the begin∣ning of Chapters and Section, Dedications and Prefaces to Books.
Wetting of Paper, is to Wet it Quire by Quire in fair Water, to prepare it for the Press, laying it all on a Heap on the Paper Board.
Waste Sheet, is Paper laid on the Paper Board un∣der the Wet Heap to keep the Board from foulding the first Sheet. Also it is Paper first Printed for a Proof which after Correction is termed Waste Pa∣per.
Customs of the Chappel.
Every Printing-House is called a Chappel, in which there are these Laws and Customs for the well and good Government of the Chappel, and for the orderly deport∣ment of all its Members while in the Chappel.
Every Workman belonging to it are Members of the Chappel, and the Eldest Freeman is Fa∣ther of the Chapel; and the Penalty for the Breach of any Law or Custom is in Printers Language call∣ed a Solace.
1. Swearing in the Chappel, a Solace.
2. Fighting in the Chappel a Solace.
3. Abusive Language or giving the Lie in the Chap∣pel a Solace.
4. To be Drunk in the Chappel, a Solace.
5. For any of the Workmen to leave his Candle burning at Night, a Solace.
6. If a Compositer fall his composing Stick and ano∣ther take it up, a Solace.
7. For three Letters and a Space to lie under the Compositers Case, a Solace.
8. If a Press-man let fall his Ball or Balls and a∣nother take them up, a Solace.
9. If a Press-man leave his Blankets in the Timpan at Noon or Night, a Solace.
10. For any Workman to mention joyning their pen∣ny or more a piece to send for Drink, a Solace.
11. To mention spending Chappel Money till Satur-Day Night, or any other before agreed time, a Solace.
12. To play at Quadrats or excite others in the Chappel to play for Money or Drink, a Solace.
13. A Stranger to come to the Kings Printing-House and ask for a Ballad, a Solace.
14. For a Stranger to come to a Compositer and en∣quire if he had News of such a Galley at Sea, a Solace.
15. For any to bring a Wisp of Hay directed to a Press-man, is a Solace.
16. To call Mettle Lead in a Founding-House, is a Forfeiture.
17. A Workman to let fall his Mould, a Forfei∣ture.
18. A Workman to leave his Ladle in the Mettle at Noon or at Night, a Forfeiture.
And the Judges of these Solaces or Forfeitures and o∣ther Controversies in the Chappel or any of its Mem∣bers was by Plurality of Votes in the Chappel; it being asserted as a Maxime, that the Chappel cannot Err. Now these Solaces or •ines were to be bought off for the good of the Chappel, which never exceeded 1 s. 6 d. 4 d. 2 d. 1 d. ob. according to the Nature and Quality there∣of.
But if the Delinquent proved obstinate and will not pay, the Workmen takes him by force and lays him on his Belly over the correcting stone and holds him there whilest another with a Paper board gives him 10 l. in a Purse viz. 11 blows on his Buttocks, which he lays on ac∣cording to his own Mercy.
Customs for Payments of Money.
Every new Workman to pay for his Entrance half a Crown, which is called his Benvenue, till then he is no Member, nor enjoys any benefit of Chappel Mo∣ney.
Every Journeyman that formerly worked at the Chappel and goes away, and afterwards comes again to work pays but half a Benvenue.
If Journeymen Smout one another they pay half a Benvenue.
Page 127All Journeymen are paid by their Master Printer fo• all Church Holy-days that falls not on a Sunday whethe• they work or no, what they can earn every working day, be it 2. 3. or 4 s.
If a Journeyman Marries, he pays half a Crown to the Chappel.
When his Wife comes to the Chappel she pays 6 d. and then all the Journeymen joyns their 2 d. a piece to make her drink, and to welcome her.
If a Journeyman have a Son born, he pays 1 s. if a Daughter, 6 d.
If a Master-Printer have a Son born, he pays 2 s. 6 d. if a Daughter, 1 s. 6 d.
An Apprentice when he is Bound, pays half a Crown to the Chappel, and when he is made Free, another half Crown: and if he continues to work Journeywork in the same House he pays another, and i• then a Member of the Chappel.
It is Customary for all Journeymen to make every Year new Paper Windows about 〈…〉-Tide, at which time the Master Printer makes them a Feast called a Way-Goos•, to which is invited the Corrector, Founder, Smith, Ink-maker, &c. who all open their Purses and give to the Workmen to spend in the Tavern or Ale-House, after the Feast. From which time they begin to work by Candle light.
The Printers, Journeymen, with the Founders and Ink-makers have every Year a general Feast, which is kept in the Stationers Hall on or about May-day. It is made by 4 Stewards, 2 Masters, and 2 Journeymen; and with the Collection of half a Crown a piece of every Guest: the charges of the whole Feast is defrayed.
About 10 of the Clock in the Morning on the Feast day the Company invited, meet at the place apointed, and from thence go to some Church thereabouts in this follow∣ing Order. First, 4 Whifflers (as Servitures) by two and two walking before with white Staves in their Hands, and red and bl•w Ribbons hung Belt-wise upon their Shoul∣ders: these makes way for the Company.
Then walks the Beadle of the Company of Stationers, with the Companies Staff in his Hand, and Ribbons as afore.
Then the Minister, whom the Stewards have engaged to Preach the Sermon▪ and his Reader or Clerk.
Then the Stewards walks by two and two with long white Wands in their Hands, and all the rest of the Com∣pany follows in like order till they enter the Church &c. Service ended, and a Sermon 〈◊〉 fo• the occasion fi∣nished, they all return to their Hall i• the same order, where upon their entrance e•ch Guest delivers his Tic∣ket to a Person appointed, which gives him admittance; where every one Feast himself wi•h what he likes best, being delighted all the while with Musicks and Songs, &c.
After Dinner the Ceremony of Electing new Stewards for the next Year begins: then the Stewards withdraws into another Room, and puts Garlands of Laurel or Box on their Heads, and white Wands in their Hands, and are Ushered out of the withdrawing Room thus; first, the Companies Beadle with his Staff in his Hand, and Musick sounding before him, then followed one of the Whifflers with a great Bowl of White-wine and Sugar in his right Hand, and his Staff in the left, after him follows the eldest Steward.
Then another Whiffler as aforesaid, before the second Steward: in like manner another Whiffler before the third; and another before the fourth Steward.
And thus they walk with Musick sounding before them three times round the Hall, and in the fourth round, the first Steward takes the Bowl from his Whiffler and Drinks to one (whom before he resolved on) by the Title of Mr. Steward Elect: and taking the Garland of his own Head, puts it on the Steward Elects Head, at which all the Company claps their Hands in token of Joy.
Then the present Steward takes out the Steward elect, and Walks with him hand in hand, (giving him the right Hand) behind the three other Stewards another round the Hall; and in the next round as aforesaid, the second Steward Drinks to another with the same Ceremony as the first did; and so the third, and so the fourth. And then all walks one round more hand in hand about the Hall, that the Company may take Notice of the Stewards Elect: and so ends the Ceremony of the Day.
LVII. He beareth Argent, a Barber bare Headed, with a Pair of Cisers in his right hand, and a Comb in his left, cloathed in Russet, his Apron Cheque of the first and Azure. A Barber is always known by his Cheque parti-coloured Apron, therefore it needs not mentioning; neither can he be termed a Barber (or Poller or Shaver, as anciently they were called) till his Apron be about him.
Instruments of a Barber.
The Instrument Case, in which are placed these following things in their sever•l divisions.
The Glass〈◊〉seeing Glass.
A Set of Horn Combs, with Teeth on one side, and wide.
A Set of Box Combs.
A Set of Ivory Combs, with fine Teeth, and toothed on both sides.
An Ivory Beard Comb.
A four square Bottle with a Screw'd head for sweet Water, or Benjamin Water, &c.
The like Bottle with sweet Powder in; but this is now not used.
A Row of Razers.
A pair of Tweesers, or Twitchers: with an Ear pick at the other end of it.
A Rasp or File, to file a point of a tooth that stands out.
A Set of Cisers, for the cutting of the Hair and Beard.
A Curling Iron, or Beard Iron, called the For∣ceps.
A Hone, to 〈◊〉 or sharpen the Razers.
A Bottle 〈◊〉, or sweet Oyle, or Oyle Olive for the Ho•e.
Page 128A Powder Box, with sweet Powder.
A Puff or Tuff, to powder the Hair.
A Barbers Candlestick, to stick at his Girdle.
A Barbers Apron.
A Bason or Barbers Bason, having a circle in the brim to compass the Mans Throat, and a place like a little Dish to put the Ball in after Lathering.
Wash Balls, and Sweet Balls.
Water made sweet with having Bay Leaves, or other Leaves heated therein.
A Chaffer to heat Water in.
A Small Chaffer to carry Water in, with a hang∣ing or falling handle to hold it by.
Linnens of several sorts; as
- Caps for the Head, to keep the Hair up
- Trimming Cloaths, to put before a Man.
- Napkins to put about the Neck, to dry the Face and Hands with.
Terms of Art used in Barbing and Shaving.
Take the Chair, is for the Person to be Trimmed, to sit down.
Clear the Neck, is to unbutton and turn down the collar of the Mans Neck.
Cloath him, is to put a Trimming Cloth before him, and so fasten it about his Neck.
Comb round the Hair, is to ready the Hair with a wide tooth Comb.
Powder the Hair, is to puff Sweet Powder into it.
Rub the Hair with a Napkin, is to dry it from its swettiness and filth in the head.
Comb out the Hair, and Power 〈…〉 Comb the Hair straight with a wide tooth Horn Comb.
Comb it smooth and even with a Box Comb.
Comb it against the Grain, is to Comb it round the Head upwards to the Crown.
Walk your Combs, is to use two Combs in each Hand one, and so Comb the Hair with one after the o∣ther
Quever the Combs, is to use them as if they wer• scratting on each side the Temples.
Quever the Head round, is to scrat it with the Combs all over.
Divide the Hair, is to lay it straight, or part it on the top of the head, even with the Nose.
Cut it up in heights, that is to cut as each person will have it, for there is variety of ways in cutting of Hair, as
- Cutting it all off the Top, and so they use it that wear Peruwicks.
- Cutting it close, so that the remainder stands up∣right, this is called Round Cutting, and Prick Ear∣ed Cutting, because the hair is so short that it scarce covers the Ears.
- Cutting in Falls, when the hair is cut to fall down each side the head, and extends it self to the shoulders. This is termed Parting of the Hair.
Iecimy the Hair, is to put Jecimin on the palms of your hands and rub it on the hair, and in the hair, by putting the locks between your hands, and rubbing the hands together.
Powder the hair.
Clap on the Cap, and divide the hair alike on each side.
Curle up the hair, is to rowle it about a pair of cur∣ing or beard Irons, and thrust it under the Cap.
Handle the Bason, and Ball; pour in the Wa∣ter.
Lather the Face, is to wash the Beard with the Suds which the Ball maketh by cha••ing it in the warm Water.
Hand the Razer, set it in a right order between the Thumb and Fingers.
Shave the Beard, is to take off superfluous hairs.
Wash the Face, with a Ball and Water, or a sweet Ball.
Clear the Face from the Ball, is to wash it over with clean Water to take off the sopiness.
Dry the Face, is airing of a Napkin (if cold Wea¦ther) and drying off the wet.
Trim the Beard, take away stragling hairs, and cut it thinner.
Take off the Cap, and fall the hair.
Comb out the hair.
Hold him the Glass, to see his new made Face, and to give the Barber instructions where it is amiss.
Take off the Linnens.
Brush his Clo•ths.
Present him with his Hat, and according to his hire, he makes a bow, with your humble Servant Sir.
Other Terms used by Barbers.
A Barber from Barba a Beard, is a cutter of hair.
Poler an ancient term used for the cutter of ••ir.
Pole me, is cut my hair.
Shave, is to cut off the Beard with a Razer and Wa∣ter.
Trim, is to cut the Beard (after shaving) into form and order.
Set the Razer, is to make it sharp and keen, on the Hone with Oyle.
T•y the Razer.
Return the Razer, is to fould it up. and put it into the case.
Case, or Box the Instruments; is to put all the things into the case that was used about Trimming of a Person.
Fould the Cloaths.
Dry the Bason, wipe it with a Napkin after he hath done shaving.
Scoure the Dishes,
Instruments, a general Term for all the things that a Barber hath in his Case or Box.
Page 129LVIII. He beareth Azure, on a Ground Plot, or Mount in Base, a Feltmaker, Walking of a Hat on his Plank, Or, the Pot to receive his Liquor, Argent, his Shirt or Wastcoat of the same. This is born by the name of Feltman.
Terms used in their Trade.
Bow the Wooll.
Brake the Wooll over.
Fly the Wooll out.
Make your Bate.
Go to Bason.
Set up the Hat.
Boil the Hat.
Cover it with Stuff, lay the Shagg upon it.
Water the Hat.
Walke the Hat.
Block the Hat.
Round it, cut the Edges and Brims round and even.
Colour, or Dye the Hat.
Glase it, or Finish it.
Sorts of Hats.
The Felt, it is made of Sheeps Wooll only.
The Caster, it is made of Coney Wool, mixt with Polony Wooll.
The Beever, it is made of Beever haire and Red Wool.
The French-felt, it is between a Felt and a Caster.
The Cordiback Felt.
The Carolina Felt.
LIX. He beareth Azure, on a Ground Plot, or Mount in Base, Vert; an Astronomer in his short Gown, Sable; Cap (or Bonnet) Hose and Shooes of the same; holding up a Quadrant in his right hand, and a Iacobs Staff in the left, Or. This is either termed an Astronomer or an Astrologer, both Scien∣ces taking notice of the motions and effects of the Stars, and Heavenly Constellations.
Astronomy and Astrology described.
They are of the Seven Liberal Arts and Scien∣ces, which though they be of a double Name, yet their Art tends to one and the same thing, viz. the measuring of the Heavens, observing the course and motions of the Planets, with all the moveable Constel∣lations, only in this the words differ, Astronomy teach∣eth the Art of measuring the Heavens, the course and motion, setting and rising of the Planets; and Astrolo∣gy telleth the future effect of things by their Motions, Conjunctions and Aspect, &c. they are both in one fi∣gure described, viz. either by Men, or Women, or both, with the Celestial Sphere before them with several Instruments belonging to that Art, drawn on Tables, or lying on the ground, as Books, Sun Dials, Quadrants, Jacobs Staff, and the Astrolabe, with such like.
As for the Terms of Art used in Astronomy and Astro∣logy, I have formerly set them down (in some part) where I did speak of the Globe, or Celestial Sphere, to which I shall refer you, see lib. 2. cap. 1. numb. 77. and shall only take an occasion in this place to Treat so much of these Sciences as concern Heraldry and Antiquity, and that is of the course of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, as they manifest unto us Times and Seasons, Days, Months and Years, &c. the knowledge whereof I must confi∣dently affirm to stand such in great use.
I shall begin first with the year, which consisteth of four Seasons or Quarters; each Quarter containing three Months, each Month four Weeks and some odd days; and every Week exactly seven days; every day being 24 hours, and every hour 60 minutes. Now how these several times were in former Ages distinguished, is the thing I am about to relate; and the ensuing Table will make to appear.
A Year hath by the course of the Sun 12 months, and by the course of the Moon 13 Months; of Weeks 52; and Days 365, except Leap-Year, and then it hath 366 days.
A Rule to know how many days each Month hath, and the Moveable Feasts.
Thirty days hath September, April, June and Novem∣ber; February hath 28 alone, and all the rest have Thirty one. But the Leap Year at that time, gives to February Twenty Nine.
How the Sundays or Sabbath days are reckoned throughout the Year.
Advent Sunday hath been by the Church in all Ages accounted for the first Sabbath or Lords Day in the year, which is the 5 Sunday before the Birth, or coming of Christ into the World, in his Humanity; after which followeth then this Account, viz.
- The 1 Advent Sunday.
- The 2 after Advent.
- The 3 after Advent.
- The 4 after Advent.
- The 1 Sunday after Christmas day, which is 25 De∣cember.
- The 2 after Christmas.
- The 1 Sunday after Epiphany (or Twelfth day) which is ever on the 6 of Ianuary.
- Page 130The 2 Sunday after Epiphany.
- The 3 after Epiphany.
- The 4 after Epiphany.
- The 5 after Epiphany.
- The 6 after Epiphany.
- The Septuagesima Sunday, so called of seventy days, or the Sunday 70 days before the Passeover, or Feast of Easter, or 9 Weeks.
- The Sexagesima Dominia, or Sunday 60 days before Easter, or 8 Weeks.
- The Quinquagesima Sunday 50 days before Easter, or 7 Weeks.
- The Quadragesima Sunday 40 days before Easter (but this falls out very seldom, but when Easter is high in the year) it is 6 Weeks before Easter.
- The 1 Sunday in Lent.
- The 2 Sunday in Lent.
- The 3 Sunday in Lent.
- The Midlent Sunday.
- The 5 Sunday in Lent, called Carle Sunday.
- The 6 Sunday in Lent, called also Palm Sunday.
- The Paschal, or Easter Sunday.
- The 1 Sunday after Easter, or Low Sunday.
- The 2 after Easter.
- The 3 after Easter.
- The 4 after Easter.
- The Rogation Sunday.
- The Sunday after Ascention, or Holy Thursday.
- The Whitsunday, or the day of Pentecost.
- Trinity Sunday.
- The 1 Sunday after Trinity.
- The 2 after Trinity.
- The 3 after Trinity, &c. to the 24, 25, or 26 Sunday after Trinity, if Easter fall to be in the beginning of the year, which is called a Low Lent or Easter.
To know the Moveable Feasts in the Year.
It is necessary for both an Herald, and an Historian amongst other things to know all the Moveable Feasts in the Year, and to whom and how Dedicated, there∣by to give a true and exact account of the times; and this he may do if he observe these few heads.
Take notice that all the Moveable Feasts have their dependance on that day called Shrove Tuesday, now it is known by the first Change of the Moon in the Month of February, and the next Tuesday after the said first Change, is the undoubted Shrove Tuesday; But if it change on a Tuesday, then the next Tuesday follow∣ing, is Shrove Tuesday.
Shrove Sunday, is the Sunday before the said Shrove-Tuesday.
Ash-Wednesday, is the day after Shrove-Tuesday.
Ember Week or Ember days, are the Wednes∣day, Friday and Saturday in the Week after the first Sunday in Lent, or Sunday after Shrove-Tuesday.
The Fast of Lent, is all the time from Ash Wednes∣day to the Feast of Easter, 40 days.
Midlent, or the Sunday in the middle of Lent, is the 4 Sunday after Shrove Tuesday.
Palm Sunday, is the 6 Sunday from Shrove-Tues∣day.
Carle Sunday, is the second Sunday before Easter, or the fifth Sunday from Shrove-Tuesday.
Passion Week, is the Week after the 6 Sunday, or Palm Sunday, and before Easter.
Good Friday, is the Friday in the 6 Week, or after the 6 Sunday from Shrove-Tuesday.
Easter-day, or Easter Sunday, called also the Paschal Sabbath, or the Eucharist day, (because then the Celebration of the Lords Supper was chiefly performed) and the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; be∣cause on that day he rose from the dead; This day of Easter is (in memory thereof) kept annually the 7 Sunday after Shrove-Tuesday; or the first Sunday after the Full Moon which happens next after the 21 day of March; if it be on a Sunday, Easter is next Sunday af∣ter.
Low Sunday, is the Sunday after Easter.
Rogation Sunday, so called from their Catechi∣sing or manner of asking of Questions. It is the fifth Sunday after Easter.
Ascention day, from Christs going into Heaven in the sight of his Disciples, called also Holy Thursday; it is just the Portieth day from Easter, Easter day being one of the account; or take it to be the Thursday in the Rogation Week.
Pentecost, or the Feast of Pentecost, or Whitsun∣day, is the 7 Sunday after Easter, vulgarly called Whit∣suntide.
Ember Week, or days in Pentecost, are the Wens∣day, Friday and Saturday in Whitsun Week.
Trinity Sunday, is the 8 Sunday after Easter.
Advent Sunday, is always the nearest Sunday to the Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, whether before or after it; and St. Andrews day is always the last of No∣vember; so that it is ever the fourth Sunday before the Nativity of Christ, called Christmas day.
The necessity of the knowledg of these days, and in what time of the year they happen to fall, is very use∣ful to Antiquaries, and Keepers of old and antient Re∣cords; nay to all Gentlemen who delight in the Study of Antiquities, thereby to know the exact time of the date of their Deeds, Evidences, Records, Edicts, Charters, with other kind of Manuscripts: for you must know that in ancient times they did not date their Writings as we do now, such a day of such a Month in the Year of our Lord, so and so. But their manner of Dateing, was by the Days before or after such a Feast Day of Jesus Christ, or of a Day Dedicated to such and such a Saint: with the Year of the Kings Reign, or of the Popes Pontifical Chair, or Bishops and Archbishops time of their Conse∣cration and Inauguration into their Cathedral Office: as thus.
- D•ta Die Sabbathi proximum post Festum Epiphanie Anno Regni Regis Edwardi Primi, ••cundo.
- Data Die Martis proximum post Fes•um Ascentionis Do∣mini Anno Regni Regis Iohannis Decimo.
- Inquisicio Capta Die Ven•ris ante Pascam Anno Regni Regis Edwardi tertij post conquestum tert•o,
- Data Die Pentecasta Anno Pontifici Domini Nostri Vr∣bani Divini Providentiae Pape Sexti, Secundo.
- Page 131Data Die Sabbathi in crastino ante Rogationis Domini∣cum Pontificatus Domini Nicholai Pape Quarte, Anno Se∣cundo.
- Data Nona Calendas Aprili Anno Primo Pontificatus Clementis Episcopi (aut Pape.)
- Data V. Idus Marcij Anno Pontificati Honorij Pape tirtij, quinto.
- Rogetus Dei Gratia Coventrie & Litchfield Episcopus, &c. Data 14 Calend. Maij Anno Gratiae 1277. & Conse∣cratione Nostri vicesimo.
- Bonificius Episcopus Servus Servorum Dei, &c. Data 12 Calend. Iulij Pontificatus Nostri Anno tertio.
Thus much for Dates that are Moveable Feasts: I shall give some whose Dates are on Saints Days which are fixed to certain Days of the Month: as thus,
- Data in Vigilo Sancti Egidij Anno Regni Regis Henrici Secundi, post conquestum Anglia Secundo.
- Data Die Sabbat•i in crastino omnium Sanctorum Anno Regni Regis Edwardi Tertij post Conquestum tricesimo.
- Data Die Dominica proximum ante Fest•m Sancti Petri in avincula Anno Regni Regis Edwardi Tertij post Con∣questum Secundo.
- Data Die Lune in Festo Sanctorum Sabastini & Fabiani, Anno Regni Regis Edwardi Primi, post Conquestum Deci∣mo.
Now for the certain knowledg of these Saints Days and Years, I have not thought it amiss in the next place to give you a Catalogue of the Kings of England, and the times of their Reigns, and the Calender of all the Saints Feast Days throughout the Year, which will be a great help to find out the very Day of the Date of an old Deed.
- William the Conqueror, began his Reign, 14. Octo. 1066.
- William Rufus, began his Reign, 9. Sept 1087.
- Henry the first, began his Reign, 1. August 1100.
- King Stephen, began his Reign, 2 Decemb. 1136.
- Henry the second, began his Reign, 25. Octob. 1154.
- Richard the first, began his Reign, 6. Iuly 1189.
- King Iohn, began his Reign, 14. Octob. 1199.
- Henry the third, began his Reign, 19. Octob. 1217.
- Edward the first, began his Reign, 16. Novemb. 1273.
- Edward the second, began his Reign, 7. Iuly 1307.
- Edward the third, began his Reign, 25. Ianuary 1327.
- Richard the second, began his Reign, 21. Iune 1377.
- Henry the fourth, began his Reign, 21. Sept. 1400.
- Henry the fifth, began his Reign, 20. March 1413.
- Henry the sixth, began his Reign, 31. August 1422.
- Edward the fourth, began his Reign, 4. Mar. 1461.
- Edward the fifth, began his Reign, 9. April 1483.
- Richard the third an Usurper, began his Reign, 22. Iuly 1484.
- Henry the seventh, began his Reign, 22. August 1486.
- Henry the eigth, began his Reign, 22. April 1509.
- Edward the sixth, began his Reign 28. Ianuary 1547.
- Queen Mary, began her Reign, 6. Iuly 1553.
- Philip and Mary, began their Reign, 25. Iuly 1554.
- Queen Elizabeth, began her Reign 17. Novemb. 1559.
- Iames the first, began his Reign, 24. March 1603.
- Charles the first, began his Reign, 27. March 1625.
- Charles the second, began his Reign, 30. Ian. 1648.
- Iames the second, began his Reign, 6. Feb. 1684.
|calend. Jan.||1||Circum. of Christ. New Years-day. S. Basil the Great.|
|4. nonas||2||St. Stephen.|
|3. nonas||3||St. John the Divine.|
|prid. non. Jan.||4||Innocence-day.|
|nonas Jan.||5||St. Tho. Beckner. St. Simeon.|
|8. idus||6||Epiphanie, or Twelve-day.|
|7. idus||7||St. Felix.|
|6. idus||8||St. Lucian.|
|5. idus||9||St. Agapets the Virgin. S. Julianus Mar.|
|4. idus||10||St. Paul 1. Hermit.|
|3. idus||11||St. Linus, and Higinus.|
|prid. idus||12||St. Archade the Martyr.|
|idus||13||St. Hillary Bishop.|
|19. calend. feb.||14||St. Felicia.|
|18. calend.||15||St. Maurice.|
|17. calend.||16||St. Marcel.|
|16. calend.||17||St. Anthony.|
|15. calend.||18||St. Prysea.|
|14. calend.||19||St. Wolstan, and Pontianus.|
|13. calend.||20||St. Sebastin, and Fabian.|
|12. calend.||21||St. Agnes.|
|11. calend.||22||St. Vincent.|
|10. calend.||23||St. Emerence.|
|9. calend.||24||St. Timothy. St. Babylas Bishop.|
|8. calend.||25||Conversion of St. Paul.|
|7. calend.||26||St. Policarpe Bishop.|
|6. calend.||27||St. Agnes the 2d. John Chrisostom Bishop.|
|5. calend.||28||St. Valerius.|
|4. calend.||29||St. Theodore, and Char. the Great.|
|3. calend.||30||St. Batilde, and Marcellinus.|
|prid. cal. feb.||31||St. Victor, and Saturnus.|
Badd and Evil Days in this Month are the first, second, fourth, fifth, tenth, fifteenth, sixteenth; of some the seventeenth, nineteenth, others say the twenty fift: as the Egyptian and Caldean Astronomers. Innocence-Day on what Day of the Week soever it lights upon, that Day of the Week is by Astronomers taken to be a Cross Day all that Year through.
The Iews call this their eleventh Month by the name of Shebat: and their Week Days, the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, the seventh Day the Sabbath: and the Christians the Lords-Day, and the first Day of the Week: Zach. 1.7.
The Romans call it Ianuarius from Ianus their first Heathen King, and God; and their Week Days, Dies Lunae, Dies Mar•is, Dies Mercurij, Dies Iovis, Dies Vene∣ris, Dies Saturni, Dies Solis: and from the Christians, Dies Dominici.
The Saxons, and English, call the Days of the Week, Sunday, Moonday, Tuiscos or Tuesday, Woden's or Wednes∣day, Thorsday, Freasday, or Friday, and Seaterday.
|calend. feb.||1||St. Briget. Ignatius Bish. & Mar.|
|4. nonas||2||Purifi. of Mary, or Chandlemas day.|
|3. nonas||3||St. Blase.|
|prid. non. Feb.||4||St. Gilbert.|
|non. Febru.||5||St. Agatha Virgin.|
|8. idus.||6||Vedastus. Amandus. Dorothy.|
|7. idus||7||Angulus a Bishop.|
|6. idus||8||St. Paul a Bishop, and Lucius.|
|5. idus||9||St. Apolin.|
|4. idus||10||St. Scholastica. St. Will. confessor.|
|3. idus||11||St. Eufrastus.|
|prid. idus||12||St. Eulalie.|
|idus. •ep.||13||St. Wolston, and Wolfrane.|
|16. car. mar.||14||St. Valentine.|
|15. calend.||15||St. Faustine, and Jonett.|
|14. calend.||16||St. Julian the Virgin.|
|13. calend.||17||St. Policron.|
|12. calend.||18||St. Simeon.|
|11. calend.||19||St. Sabinus.|
|10. calend.||20||St. Mildred.|
|9. calend.||21||69. Martyrs, alii 97. Martyrs.|
|8. calend.||22||St. Peter in Cathedra, or the Chair.|
|7. calend.||23||St. Policronius, a fast Day.|
|6. calend.||24||St. Matthias the Apostle.|
|5. calend.||25||St. Paul.|
|4 calend.||26||St. Nector, and Alexander.|
|3. calend.||27||St. Augustine.|
|prid. cal. Mar||28||St. Oswold.|
Bad and Evil Days in this Month are the fourth, but Erra Pater the Iewish Astronomer, saith the eigth, tenth, seventeenth.
The Iews calls this their 12. Month, and give it the name of Adar: Est. 9.1.17.
The Romans calls it Februarius from Februa, Feasts then Celebrated to Pluto the feigned God of Hell.
|calch. March||1||St. David.|
|6. nonas||2||St. Chadd.|
|5. nonas||3||St. Martine.|
|4. nonas||4||St. Adrian.|
|3. nonas||5||St Eusebius, and Foce.|
|prid. non. Mar.||6||St. Victorine.|
|nonas.||7||St. Perpetua. St. Thomas Aquinas.|
|8. idus||8||St. Felix.|
|7. idus||9||40. Martyrs.|
|6. idus||10||St. Agapite.|
|5. idus||11||St. Quirion.|
|4. idus||12||St. Gregory Pope or Bishop.|
|3. idus||13||St. Theodore.|
|prid. idus||14||St. Candide, and Leo.|
|17. cal. Apr.||16||St. Boniface Bishop.|
|16. calend.||17||St. Patrick, and Gertrude.|
|15. calend.||18||St Edward Confessor and King.|
|14. calend.||19||St. Joseph Husband to Mary.|
|13. calend.||20||St. Cuthbert.|
|12. calend.||21||St. Benett or Benedict.|
|11. calend.||22||St. Aphrodosie.|
|10. calend.||23||St. Theodore.|
|9. calend.||24||St. Agapie, a fast Day.|
|8. calend.||25||Annun. of Mary, or Conception of Christ.|
|7. calend.||26||St Castor Martyr.|
|6. calend.||27||St. Drizipar.|
|5. calend.||28||St. Dorothy.|
|4. calend.||29||St. Quintine.|
|3. calend.||30||St. Quirine.|
|prid. cal. Apr.||31||St. Adelme.|
Bad and Evil Days in this Month, are the first, fifteenth, say the Egyptians: but the Iews say, the fifteenth, sixteenth, twenty first.
The Iews calls this the first Month, or the Month Ahib, or Nisan: as Exod. 13.4. and Est. 3.7.
The Romans calls it Martius from Mars, feigned by the Heathens to be the God of War.
|calend. Apr.||1||St. Theodore.|
|4. nonas||2||St. Mary of Egypt.|
|3. nonas||3||St. Richard Bishop.|
|prid. non. Apr.||4||St. Ambrose.|
|8. idus||6||St. Sextus Bishop.|
|7. idus||7||St. Egisippus.|
|6. idus||8||St. Perpetuus.|
|5. idus||9||Passion of 7. Virgins.|
|4. idus||10||Ezekiel. Tiburcus and Valet.|
|3. idus||11||St. Julian Bishop.|
|prid. idus||12||St. Oswald Archbishop.|
|idus||13||St. Zenoni. St. Justinus Martyr.|
|18. cal. Maii.||14||St. Olyffe. Tiburtius.|
|17. calend.||15||St. Leonard.|
|16. calend.||16||St. Ysidore Bishop. Ireneus.|
|15. calend.||17||St. Cosmie, and Anicete.|
|14. calend.||18||St. Quintine, and Valerian.|
|13. calend.||19||St. Alphege Bishop, and Osmund.|
|12. calend.||20||St. Victor Martyr.|
|11. calend.||21||St. Simeon Bish. St. Anselme Bish.|
|10. calend.||22||St. Sother Virgin.|
|9. calend.||23||St. George Martyr.|
|8. calend.||24||St. Wilfride Bishop, and Adelme.|
|7. calend.||25||St. Mark the Evan. St Pauls Conv.|
|6. calend.||26||St. Clere, or Cletus Bish. St. Basil Bish.|
|5. calend.||27||St. Anastasius Bish.|
|4. calend.||28||St. Vitalis Martyr.|
|3. calend.||29||St. Peter Mediolensis.|
|prid. cal. Maii.||30||St. Arkenwald, a fast Day.|
Bad and Evil Days in this Month, are the 10.16 ••, 21. as the Caldeans saith, but the Iews say only the 15.21. Days are not lucky.
The Iews calls this the second Month, or 〈◊〉. or the Month Ijar: as in 1. Kin. 6.1.
The Romans calls it Aprilis, as some affirm from Aphro∣dites Venus, the frothy and filthy Goddess.
|Calend. Maij||1||S. Phillip and Jacob Apostles.|
|6. nonas||2||S. Athanasie Bishop.|
|5. non.||3||Invention of the Holy Cross.|
|4. non.||4||Feast of the Crown of Thorns.|
|3. non.||5||S. Godard. St. Austins Conversion.|
|Prid. non. Maij||6||S. John Port Latin. S. John Damascen|
|Nonas.||7||S. John of Beverley.|
|8. idus.||8||Apparition of St. Michael Archangel.|
|7. idus.||9||Transl. S. Nicholas. S. Greg. Nazian. Bp.|
|6. idus||10||S. Gordian and Epimachy.|
|5. idus||11||S. Anthony.|
|4. idus||12||S. Acheley, And Pancrace. Epiph. Bp.|
|3. idus||13||S. Boniface and Servatius.|
|Pridicidus||14||S. Isidore Martyr.|
|17. cal. Junii||16||Transl. of S. Barnard. and Adelgune|
|16. calend.||17||S. Diaicori Martyr.|
|15. calend.||18||S. Barnardine.|
|14. calend.||19||S. Dunstan.|
|13. calend.||20||S. Elen Queen.|
|12. calend.||21||S. Julian Virgin. Urbanus|
|11. calend.||22||S. Desiderius Martyr and Juliana.|
|10. calend.||23||Translation of St. Francis.|
|9. calend.||24||S. Adelme Bishop.|
|8. calend.||25||S. Austin of England.|
|7. calend.||26||S. Bede Presbyter.|
|6. calend.||27||S. Germane.|
|5. calend.||28||S. Coronia Martyr, and Monica.|
|4. calend.||29||S. Felix|
|3. calend.||30||S. Petronil.|
|Pridie Junii||31||S. Nertus.|
Bad and Evil days in this Month are the 3, 7, 15. but the Jews say the 7, 15, 20.
It is by them called the 3 Month, or Month Sivan, Est. 8, 9. The Romans call it Maius, from Maia, a Hea∣then Goddess, called also Flora.
|Calendas||1||S. Nichomede Martyr.|
|4. nonas||2||S. Marceline and Peter.|
|3. nonas||3||S. Erasmus Martyr.|
|Pridie nonas||4||S. Petrosius Confessor.|
|Nonas Junij||5||S. Boniface Bishop.|
|8. idos||6||S. Wolstane.|
|7. idus||7||S. Midard and Gil.|
|6. idus||8||S. William Confessor.|
|5. idus||9||Translation of S. Edmund. Filician.|
|4. idus||10||Innocent Confessor and Onophrius.|
|•. idus||11||Longest day. St. Barnabas Apostle.|
|Pridie idus||12||S. Basil Confessor.|
|idus||13||S. Anthony and Filicula.|
|18. cal. Julii||14||S. Basil Bishop. Valerius.|
|17. calend.||15||S. Rowland.|
|16. calend.||16||Translation of S. Richard.|
|15. calend.||17||S. Botolph.|
|14. calend.||18||S. Marcelline.|
|13. calend.||19||S. Gervest and Pro.|
|12. calend.||20||Translation of S. Edward. Silverius.|
|11. calend.||21||Walburge Virgin.|
|10. calend.||22||Alban Martyr.|
|9. calend.||23||Andre. a Fast day▪ and Etheldred.|
|8. calend.||24||S. John Baptists Nativity.|
|7. calend.||25||Translation of S. Elegi|
|6. calend.||26||S. John and Paul.|
|5. calend.||27||S. Crescent Martyr, and 7 Sleepers.|
|4. calend.||28||S. Leo Bishop, a Fasting day.|
|3. calend.||29||S. Peter and Paul Apostles.|
|Pridie Julii||30||Conversion of S. Paul.|
Bad and Evil days in this Month are the 4, 7, 10, 16. but the Jews say that the 4, and 7, are only unfortu∣nate.
This the Jews call the 4 Month, or the Month Tam∣nuz; it is not any where named in Scripture. The Ro∣mans call it Iunius and Iunonium, from Iuno a Heathen Goddess.
|Ca•end. Julii||1||Octaves of St. John Baptist.|
|6. nonas||2||Visitation of our Lady.|
|5. nonas||3||Transl. S. Tho. Ap. S. Landfranc. Bp.|
|4. nonas||4||Translation of S. Martyn.|
|3. nonas||5||S. Zoe Virgin and Martyr.|
|Pridie nonas||6||Octaves of St. Peter.|
|Nonas Julii||7||Translation of S. Thomas Becket.|
|8. Idus||8||S. Chilianus.|
|7. idus||9||S. Cyrill Bishop.|
|6. idus||10||6 Brethren Martyred.|
|5. idus.||11||Translation of S. Bennet. Pius.|
|4. idus.||12||S. Nabor and Felix.|
|3. idus.||13||S. Private. Bonaventura Cardinal.|
|Pridie idus||14||S. Revell. Bonavent.|
|Idus||15||Translation of S. Swithine.|
|17. Cal. Aug.||16||S. Osmand.|
|16. calend.||17||S. Kenelme and Alexius.|
|15. calend.||18||S. Arnulphe Bishop. Rosina.|
|14. calend.||19||S. Ruffine and Justine.|
|13. calend.||20||S. Margaret Virgin.|
|12. calend.||21||S. Praxedis Virgin and Arbogast.|
|11. calend.||22||S. Mary Magdalen.|
|10. calend.||23||S. Apolin Bishop.|
|9. calend.||24||S. Christine Virgin, a Fast day.|
|8. calend.||25||S. James Apostle. S. Christopher Mar.|
|7. calend.||26||S. Anne. St. Vigilius Bishop.|
|6. calend.||27||The 7 Sleepers.|
|5. calend.||28||S. Sampson Bishop and Pantaleon.|
|4. calend.||29||S. Felix and Fellows. Beatrix. Olaus|
|3. calend.||30||S. Abdon and S•ui.|
|Pridie Augusti||31||S. Germane Bishop. S. Ignatius Loyola King.|
Bad and Evil days in this Month are the 13, 20, 22. and the Jews say the 15, and 20, are only unfortunate. Al∣so from the 19. day of Iuly, to the 26. day of August, are called the Canicular, or Canical, or Dog-days, all which are days of great danger for any enterprise.
The Jews call this the 5 Month, and give it the name of Ab. The Romans anciently called it Quintilis, but afterwards in honour of Iulius C••sar, their first Pagan Emperour, they called it Iulius.
|Galen. Augusti||1||S. Peter in Avincula. Lammas day.|
|4. non.||2||S. Stephen Martyr. Moses.|
|3. non.||3||Invent. S. Stephen.|
|Prid. non. Aug.||4||S. Justin and Aristarchus.|
|Nonas Aug.||5||S. Oswald.|
|8. idus.||6||Transfiguration of Christ. Sextus.|
|7. idus.||7||The Feast of Jesus. S. Victrice.|
|6. idus||8||S. Ciriac and Socius.|
|5. idus||9||S. Roman Martyr.|
|4. idus||10||S. Laurence Martyr.|
|3. idus||11||S. Tyburtius Martyr.|
|Pridie idus||12||S. Clare Virgin.|
|19. cal. Sep.||14||S. Eusebius.|
|18. calend.||15||Assumption of our Lady.|
|17. calend.||16||S. Roche.|
|16. calend.||17||Octaves of S. Laurence.|
|15. calend.||18||Agapite Martyr.|
|14. calend.||19||S. Magnus.|
|13. calend.||20||S. Lewes. S. Bernard Abbot.|
|12. calend.||21||S. Barnard. S. Augustin Bishop.|
|11. calend.||22||Octaves Assumption of our Lady.|
|10. calend.||23||S. Timothy.|
|9. calend.||24||S. Bartholomew the Apostle.|
|8. calend.||25||S. Lewis King.|
|7. calend.||26||S. Ireneus and Severine Martyrs.|
|6. calend.||27||S. Ruffe Martyr.|
|5. calend.||28||S. Augustine.|
|4. calend.||29||Beheading of S. John Baptist.|
|3. calend.||30||S. Felix Presbiter and Audact.|
|Prid. cal. Sept.||31||S. Cuthburge Virgin.|
Bad and Evil days in this Month are the 19.20.
The Iews call this the 6 Month, and name it Elul, Neh. 6.15. the Romans of old called it Sextilis, but af∣terwards in favour of Augustus Caesar, the second Heathen Emperour, it was named Augustus.
|Calend. Sept.||1||St. Egidius.|
|4. nonas||2||S. Anthony and Veronica.|
|3. nonas||3||S. Gregory. Serapia.|
|Prid. non. Sept.||4||Transl. S. Cuthbert & S. Theodosia.|
|Nonas Sept.||5||S. Bertine. Zacharias. Martine.|
|8. idus||6||S. Eugenius and Magnus.|
|7. idus||7||S. Gorgan.|
|6. idus||8||Nativity of our Lady.|
|5. idus||9||S. Silvious and Gorgon.|
|4. idus||10||S. Prothy and Jacinet. Hilarius.|
|3. idus||11||S. Martian and Felix.|
|Pridie idus||12||S. Maurily and Guidon.|
|Idus Sept.||13||S. Amancio.|
|18. cal. Oct.||14||Exaltation of the Holy Cross.|
|17. calend.||15||Octaves of our Lady Mary. Nicode∣mus.|
|16. calend.||16||S. Edith and Euphemia.|
|15. calend.||17||S. Lambart.|
|14. calend.||18||S. Victor and Fereoldus.|
|13. calend.||19||S. Januarius Martyr.|
|12. calend.||20||S. Eustatius and Faustas.|
|11. calend.||21||S. Matthew the Apostle.|
|10. calend.||22||S. Maurice.|
|9. calend.||23||S. Teole Virgin. Esdras.|
|8. calend.||24||S. Androche Martyr. Samuel.|
|7. calend.||25||S. Firminus Martyr and Cleophas.|
|6. calend.||26||S. Cyprian and Justine.|
|5. calend.||27||S. Cosmin and Damian.|
|4. calend.||28||S. Erenpere or Exupera.|
|3. calend.||29||S. Michael the Archangel.|
|Pridie cal. Oct||30||S. Jerome, or Hierom.|
Bad and Evil days in this Month are the 3, 6, 7, 21. but Erra Pater the Jew saith only the 6, 7, are cross.
This the Jews call the 7 Month, or the Month Etha∣nim, and also Tisri, 1 Kings 8.2. Levit. 23.34. New Wine being then, Deut. 16.13. The Romans call it Sep∣tember, from septem seven, being the seventh from March, and Imber Rain.
|•alen. Octob.||1||S. Remigius Bishop.|
|6. nonas||2||S. Leodegar.|
|5. nonas||3||S. Candidus Martyr, and Maximian,|
|4. nonas||4||S. Francis Confessor.|
|3. nonas||5||S. Apolinarius. Constane.|
|prid. non. Octo.||6||S. Faith.|
|Nonas Octob.||7||S. Marcus and Marcell. Sergius.|
|8. Idus||8||S. Pelagus.|
|7. idus||9||S. Dionice or Dionisius, or Denice.|
|6. idus||10||S. Gedeon and Victor.|
|5. idus.||11||S. Nicasius. Burchard.|
|4. idus.||12||S. Wilfride Virgin.|
|3. idus.||13||Translation of S. Edward.|
|Pridie idus||14||S. Calix.|
|Idus||15||S. Wolfran and Hedwig.|
|17. Cal. Nov.||16||S. Mich. in the Mount. Gallus. Wolfr.|
|16. calend.||17||Translation of S. Etheld. Florentius.|
|15. calend.||18||St. Luke the Evangelist.|
|14. calend.||19||S. Prideswide Virgin. Ptolomy.|
|13. calend.||20||S. Austrebert Virgin.|
|12. calend.||21||11 Martyrs Virgins. Ursula.|
|11. calend.||22||S. Mary Salome. Cordula.|
|10. calend.||23||S. Maglory. Beverius. Sever. Boethius.|
|9. calend.||24||S. Crispin and Crispiana. Salome.|
|8. calend.||25||Translation of S. John.|
|7. calend.||26||S. Ursula and Amandus.|
|6. calend.||27||S. Florence, a Fast day.|
|5. calend.||28||S. Simon and Jude the Apostles.|
|4. calend.||29||S. Narcissus Bishop.|
|3. calend.||30||S. Germane Bishop, and Theonestus.|
|Pridie Nov.||31||S. Quintine and Wolfgang▪ a Fast day.|
Bad and Evil days in this Month are the 3, 7, 22.25, but the Jew saith there is only the 6. an evil day.
The Jews call this the 8 Month, and give it the name of Bul, and also by Marheshuan, 1 King. 6.38. The Romans call it October, as being the eighth Month from March, and eighth from the delivery out of Egypt, Exod. 12.2.
|calend. Nov.||1||All Saints Day.|
|4. nonas||2||All Souls Day.|
|3. nonas||3||Winifride Virgin. Theophilus.|
|prid. non. Nov.||4||S. Amantius. Pierius.|
|nonas Nov.||5||S Lete Priest, and S. Richard.|
|8. idus||6||St. Leonard.|
|7. idus||7||S. Wilfrid Archbishop. Florentius.|
|6. idus||8||S. Claudius. Quatuor Corona.|
|5. idus||9||S. Theodore Martyr.|
|4. idus||10||S. Martin Bishop of K. Erast•s.|
|3. idus||11||S. Martyn Bishop in Winter.|
|prid. idus||12||S. Paternie.|
|Idus Novemb.||13||S. Brice.|
|18. cal. Decem.||14||Translation of S. Erkin. Frederick|
|17 calend.||15||S. Machute and Leopoldus.|
|16. calend.||16||S. Edmund Archbishop.|
|15. calend.||17||S. Avianus. S. Gregory Thaumaturgus|
|14. calend.||18||Oct. S. Martin. Gelasius. Martlemasse.|
|13. calend.||19||S. Elizabeth.|
|12. calend.||20||S. Edmund King. Agapite.|
|11. calend.||21||Presentation of Lady Mary.|
|10. calend.||22||S. Cicely Virgin.|
|9. calend.||23||S. Clement Pope and Martyr.|
|8. calend.||24||S. Chrisogonus Martyr.|
|7. calend.||25||S. Katherine Virgin.|
|6. calend.||26||S. Lyne and Conrade.|
|5. calend.||27||S. Agricola.|
|4. calend.||28||S. Ruffus and Thomas.|
|3. calend.||29||S. Saturn▪ a Fast.|
|prid. cal. Dec.||30||S. Andrew the Apostle.|
Bad and Evil Days in this Month are the 5, 15, 19. others say only the 5, 19.
This Month by the Iews, is called Kisleu, or the 9 Month, as Zech. 7.1. from Kesil, it bringeth Tempests.
The Romans call it November, from Novem, Nine; it being the ninth Month from March, which is reckoned to be the first Month or beginning of the Year, and the ninth from Egypts Bondage, Exod. 13.4.
|calen. Decemb.||1||S. Loy and Eligius.|
|4. nonas||2||S. Liban and Candidus. Longius.|
|3. nonas||3||Deposition of S. Osmond. Cassianus.|
|prid. non. Dec.||4||S. Barbara Virgin.|
|nonas Dec.||5||S. Saba Abbot, or Sabine.|
|8. idus||6||S. Nicholas Bishop.|
|7. idus||7||Octaves of S. Andrew. S. Ambrose Bp.|
|6. idus||8||Conception of our Lady.|
|5. idus||9||S. Cyprian Abbot. Joachim.|
|4. idus||10||S. Galalia Virgin, or Euralia.|
|3. idus||11||S. Damassin. Zintippa.|
|prid. idus||12||S. Paul Bishop in Winter. Epimachius.|
|idus Dec.||13||Lucie Virgin. Shortest day.|
|19. cal. Jan.||14||S. Othlie Virgin. Valerian. Nichasius.|
|18. calend.||15||S. Valery Bishop.|
|17. calend.||16||S. O. Sapientia.|
|16. calend.||17||S. Lazarus Bishop.|
|15. calend.||18||S. Gracian Bishop. S. Christopher.|
|14. calend.||19||S. Venium, or Venesius.|
|13. calend.||20||S. Julian, a Fasting day. Ignatius.|
|12. calend.||21||S. Thomas the Apostle.|
|11. calend.||22||30 Martyrs.|
|10. calend.||23||S. Victor Virgin.|
|9. calend.||24||S. Claudy, a Fast day.|
|8. calend.||25||Nativity Jesus Christ. Christmas day.|
|7. calend.||26||St. Stephen the Protho-Martyr.|
|6. calend.||27||S. John the Evangelist.|
|5. calend.||28||Innocents day.|
|4. calend.||29||S. Thomas of Canterbury.|
|3. calend.||30||Translation S. James. S. David King.|
|prid. cal. Jan.||31||S. Silvester Bishop.|
The Vigil of any of these foresaid Feast days, is the evening before the said day.
Bad and Evil days in this Month are the 6, 7, 9, 22. but the Jew saith the 6, 7, 11. others say the 15, 16.
The Jews call this Month Tebeth or Tobath, the 10 Month, as it is in Esther 2.16.
The Romans call it December, as being the 10 Month from March.
Halcyon days, Dies Halcyonii, days of rest and quiet∣ness, free from Storms and Tempests.
Climacterical Years, are the remarkable degrees, or great Steps, whereby Mans Life ascends or mounts to its appointed Period; and are some certain years which are usually attended with some great Mutation or For∣tune, as the 7 year of a Mans Age, the 21 year, which is 3 times 7; the 49 year, which is 7 times 7; the 63 year, which is 9 times 7; and the 81 year, which is 9 times 9; which two last are called the grand Climacte∣rical years; in which many famous Men havee been ob∣served to Die.
In these Western parts of the World, are two ac∣counts of the Years and Days, the first is the Iulian account, so called from Iulius Caesar, who 40 years be∣fore the Birth of Christ observed then the falseness of the Account then in use, ordained the year to consist of 365 days and six hours, which six hours in four years made a day civil, which every 4 year was added to the end of February, which made that year to consist of 366 days, and was called the Bissextile or Leap Year, because the sixth of the Calends of March was twice writ∣ten, which was called the Intercalation. This Account was and is still accepted by the Old English and us at this time; yet Pope Gregory by the advice and direction of Antonius Lilius, and other excellent Mathematicians in the year of Christ, 1582. corrected the Calendar, making the year to consist of 365 days, 5 hours 49 minutes, 12 seconds; and that the Vernal Equinox, which then was on March the 11, might be reduced to March 21, as it was at the time of the first Nicene Council; he commanded 10 days in October to be left out, viz. from the 4 to the 14, so as the 4 day of the Month was ac∣counted the 14: Hence it comes to pass, that the new Foreign Lillian or Gregorian Account, is both in Festivals and all other Month days accounted 10 days before the old English or Iulian Account.
A way to find what day of the Month every first Sabbath day is, by two Verses, knowing the Dominical Letter.
Now, I would know what day of the Month the first Sabbath day is in October 1687. Dominical Letter B.
First I count what Month it is in the Year, and find it the 10; then I run over my Verses till I come to the 10 Word which is And, which begins with A, and is the Letter for the first day of that 10 Month.
Then count all the Dominical Letters as they ly in Order, beginning with A, till you come to the Domi∣nical Letter of the year, which is B. viz. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, and as many as it is to the said Dominical Letter, so ma∣ny days in that Month is the first Sabbath day, viz. the second of October.
Again, I would know what day the first Sabbath day is in August 1688. the Dominicals AG. being a Leap-Year.
First note in every Bissextile or Leap year hath a dou∣ble Dominical Letter, the first for Ianuary, and to Fe∣bruary the 25 only; the second for the remaining part of the year: All other years there is but one single Letter.
Therefore in the Leap Year for these two Months take the first Dominical; and for February by the Ver∣ses you find that the first Letter ascribed to that Month begins with d; so count through all the Dominical Letters till you come successively to A; and that is the day of the Month for the first Sunday in February, viz. d, e, f, g, a, which is the fifth day.
Again, I would know what day of the Month the first Sabbath in August 1688. it being a Leap Year, and the Dominical Letters AG.
First, I count what Month it is in the year, and find it the 8; then I repeat my Verses till I come to the 8 word, which is Christopher or Christ; so C being the first Letter for Christopher, is the first Letter for the first day of the 8 Month August.
Then I count all the Dominical Letters in order, be∣ginning with c, viz. c, d, e, f, g, till you come to the Dominical Letter for the year; and as many as it is to the said G, so many days in that Month is the first Sabbath, viz. the 5 day. So having the first Sunday in the Month, it is easie to know all the days of the Month after, reckoning from Sabbath to Sabbath.
The Noble Art and Science of Geometry or Mea∣suring the Earth, is described by a Man or Woman in loose Garments (or as the Painter pleaseth) with Compasses in their hands, measuring the Terrestial Globe, with other sorts of Joyners, Masons and Carpen∣ters Instruments of Working lying on the Ground, or laid on Tables, with Books and such like things; shew∣ing thereby, that without Geometry no work can be brought to perfection, or have its due form and propor∣tion; all Arts and Manual Occupations wholly depend∣ing upon it: Nevertheless, in this place I shall pass over all other Arts and Sciences which are and may be com∣prehended under this term Geometry, and only say so much in it, with the terms, as is usefull about the mea∣suring of Land.
Terms or Names given to several par∣cels of Land according to their large∣ness, Alphabetically.
Acre, is a certain quantity of Land 40 Perches long, and 4 broad, or to that quantity, be the length or breadth more or less; and others write that 160 Perches square, makes but an Acre.
Butt, is half the quantity of a Loon.
Bovatt of Land, is as much as 15 Acres, in some places 20 Acres.
Barony in Land, is 20 Knights Fees, each Fee con∣taining 680 Acres of Land.
Barly Corn, is the length of 4 Poppy seeds, and 3 Corns make an Inch or a Thumbs breadth.
Carucate of land, or Carve of Land, is a Plow Land, and contains as much Land as may be Tilled and Laboured in a Year and a Day with one Plough; it is also called a Hyde of Land.
Cubit, is the length of the Arm from the Finger end to the Elbow; of some termed a Cube, or Ell, being counted in exact measure half a Yard, or two Spans.
Ell, is three foot nine inches in length, or a yard and a quarter.
Earth, the whole massy Globe is said to be 21600 miles in compass; but the thickness of it is no more than 6873 miles.
Farundell, or Fardingdale, or a Farthendell of Land; it is the fourth part of an Acree.
Furlong, is a quantity of ground, containing 20 Lugs or Poles in length, and every Pole 16 foot and an half; eight of which Furlongs makes a Mile.
Fathom, is 5 foot, or as much as a Man can reach by extending both his Arms; some say 7 foot; the Sea men say 2 yards.
Foot, is 12 Inches in measure; three foot makes a yard.
Fall of Land, is six Ells long and six broad is a su∣perficial Fall of measured land; otherwise a Fall is a line∣al or line measure of 6 Ells long.
Page 137Furrow, is as much as the Plow turneth up at a time, which may be broader or narrower as the Plow man pleaseth.
Fingers breadth contains 2 Barley corns long, or 4 broad laid side to side.
Headland, see Selion; it is the end of the Buts which the Plow in Plowing turneth upon.
Hide of Land, it containeth an 100 Acres of Land, some places make 160 Acres go for a Hide.
Hand Breadth, two make a Span in a true propor∣tioned Man; otherwise 3 inches is taken for the lesser Hands breadth. See Span.
Inch, is the breadth of 3 Barley Corns measured from end to end; 144 square inches makes a square foot, 12 inches make a foot in length.
Knights Fee in Land, anciently contained 8 Caru∣cates, or 680 Acres of Land; of some 800 Acres.
Land, or Lond, or Launde, in some places called a Loone, it is as much as two large Buts.
League, is Sea measure, and is 3 Mile in length.
Lugg, the same to Pole.
Mile in England is 8 Furlongs, every Furlong 40 Perches, every Perch 16 foot and a half, which is more than the Italian Mile by 56 Paces; but our ordinary Miles exceed both the Italian and true English Mile.
Nail of a Yard, is 2 inches and a quarter, which is the 16 part of a yard.
Ox-gang of Land, or an Ox-gate, is 13 acres; of some it consists of 15 Acres; see Bovate.
Pearch, or Perch of Land, is 16 foot and a half long; some say 8, others 7 yards makes a Perch, and 49 a Perch square.
Pole, is the same to Perch, some say 40 makes but a furlong.
Pick of Land, is a parcel of Land that runs into a corner, containing half a Land.
Pace, is five foot, so that 100 Paces makes an Itali∣an mile; but our English Pace is but 3 foot; see Step.
Plowland, is deemed to be the same in quantity as a Knights Fee; or as much as a Plough can Plow up in a Year, viz. 120 Acres.
Quarter of a Yard, is the 4 part of a yard, or 9 Inches in length.
Rood, is the 4 part of an Acre; a Rood in length is taken to be 8 yards; but a Rood of Land is as afore∣said 10 Fall in length, and 4 in breadth.
Rod, see Perch, it is a Staff or Pole of Wood to measure Land withal, of 16 foot and a half long; but a Geometrick Rod or Gad, is but 10 foot, and in some places but 9 foot.
Raipe, is the same to Fall, or Rod.
Ree-an, is the distance between two Butts.
Selion of Land, is no certain quantity, it sometimes contains an Acre, sometimes half, sometimes more or less, it is taken for a ridge of Land lying between two Furrows.
Span, is as much as can be measured from the end of the Thumb to the end of the middle or little Finger extended, and is in a true proportioned Man taken to be a quarter of a Yard; yet in Geometrick measure 3 hands breadth or 9 inches is reckoned for a Span: This is termed the greater Hands breadth.
Step, or the lesser Pace, which is two foot and an half; termed also a Pace.
Stride, or the greater Pace, which is 2 Steps or 5 Foot; from these the Romans counted their Mile, that is Mille Passus, a Thousand Paces, but our English Mile is 56 Paces more.
Uirge, or Uirgate of Land is 20 Acres, in some places 24 Acres, and in some 30 Acres.
Wareland, it is as much Land as containeth three Lands.
Yardland is the same to Virgate, and containeth 24 or 30 Acres.
Yard, is a Staff to measure by, which is three foot in length.
Geometrical Terms for their Plots, Fi∣gures, with their particular Compo∣sitions or Lines.
The Doctrine of Projects, is the knowledg of making a Figure.
Difinition, is a brief explanation of the Names and Terms.
A Proposition, is a Sentence propounded or set sorth to be proved by reasoning and demonstrations.
Axioms, are Sentences so true that they cannot ma∣nifestly be contradicted.
The Impetus, is a natural and movable falling Line, a perpendicular or straight down Line: as let the Impetus be given, the meaning is, that the same be given so much as is required to throw the Project from its first point, to the highest Perpendicular point.
Petitions, are clear and intelligable demands.
A Semicircle, is a half round.
A Tangent, is a three cornered Figure, one side be∣ing circular, made by Lines touching or crossing one a∣nother in a Figure.
A Parabola, is the bending Line of the Tangent.
Lemma, is an Argument or Reason by which such a thing is proofed.
Uertex, a Turning Circle, a Vertical Round, see Azimuth; by it is ment principally the point in Heaven just over our Heads, perpendicular to the place where any one liveth. This point the Ara•ians call Zenith.
Amplitude, the largness of a Project, or Figure.
Machine, or form of a Figure made by Engine, or Instrument, or any other Frame or Tool.
Semi-Diameter, the half of the middle of a Cir∣cle, or half the Diameter.
Problem, is a Proposition or Sentence proposed, with a question annexed: in the Mathematicks it is opposite to Theorm, and signifie such a proposition as is referred to practise, or doing something.
Sines, or Sine; is the widness between two crook∣ed Lines; hence Geometricians call the Halves of a Chords or Right Lines which shuts up the Cavity of an Arch, Sines.
Sublimities, the heights or highness of things.
Page 138Degrees, a Degree in Astronomy and Geography is sixty English Miles: though some hold that one Degree in Heaven, is sixty nine Miles on Earth.
Minutes, is the sixtith part of a Degree, and each Mi∣nute divided into sixty more, are called Seconds, and so to thirds, fourths, fifths, &c.
Superficies, is the plain of a Figure, all the Circum∣ference or Square, with the Diameter, or Diagonal Lines in them: It hath length and breadth without depth. The Surface of a Figure.
Peripheria, a Circumference, or a Winding or going about.
Area of a Circle, is four times as much as the Circle: for multiply the Circle by four, and that is the Area, or Ground-Plot, or Compass of it: or as others describe it, a Triangle rectangle from the Circumference and Radius is the Area of a Circle; or from the whole Diameter and Semicircle, is the said Area.
Area of a Semicircle, is the plain of the Circle, or is from the Radius the fourth part of the Circle: a Quan∣drant.
Area Sectoris, is from the Radius and half of the base: it contains the half and the fourth part of the other half of a Circle: Note that as near as fourteen is to ele∣ven, so the square of a Diameter is to the Area of a Cir∣cle. Q•a ratum 14 est 196. quo per 11 Multiplicato fit 2156. quo Diviso per 14 quotus est Area •irculi.
Geometrical Conclusions, are such works as are brought to pass through that Art: Propositions of Geometry.
Theormes, or Theoremes; are the Proofs and Demonstrations of all Geometrical Works, or approved Truths in Geometry: a principal or undoubted rule in any Science or Art, it respects contemplation more then pra∣ctice.
Scale, is taken to be parts divided in an Instrument, by which we measure a plate Form, according to the fixing of it for Degrees, Miles, Feet, or Inches.
Fractions, is the breaking or bursting of Figures or Measures into parts, or small fragments.
Radix, the Root, or square Root, or bottom of a thing.
Tabula, Table, places in which Figures are made.
Columes, or rows downwards of Figures: or things divided into parts.
Geometrical Terms used in Surveying and Measuring of Lands.
Geometry, is to search out the Magnitude of things, and to give the true estimate of its Measure in height, breadth, and depth.
Geodesia, or measuring of Land.
Mathematicks, is an Art that contains Arithme∣tick for Number, Geometry for Measure, and Sta∣ticks for Weight.
Survey, is that by which a Graphical description of a place is set forth.
Graphick, Graphical; is the Art of Portrature, or 〈…〉 be mad•▪ to set down the
Geography, (Geographer) is the description (or such a Person) as Writs the description of the Earth.
Feudigrapher, is a Surveyor of Farmes and Free∣hold Lands.
Symboligraphie, is the Clerkship or Penning of a Survey.
Speculator, is the Persons measuring: the diligent practizer of Survey.
Apomecometrie, is an Art teaching how to measure things at a distance, viz. how far they are off from him.
Chorography, called also Topography; It is a part of Geography, which describe only particular Provin∣ces and Kingdoms.
Mathematical Operations, is a part of Survey by which the demensions of Grounds Plots, are perform∣ed.
Mechanical Operations, is the Manual acting or projecting of the Work of Survey: the handy labour of drawing and measuring of Ground.
Operation, is the setting forth a Plot of Ground.
Estimation, the value of Lands by the Year or o∣therwise, the rate of possessions.
Material part, the chief or principal part of a place Surveyed.
Legal part of Survey, it prescribes the Methodical and Juridicial confines to the whole course of Survey, as the Clerkship, or Penning of the Surveyed Lands and Tenements.
Method, Methodical, the rule, way, or manner by which the Survey is performed.
Confines, are the Limits, or Bounds of places.
Iuridicial, the right, true, and uncontradictory draught of a place, or a true Survey of a place with its Bounds.
Particularize, to set forth every part of the place Surveyed.
Rectifie, is to correct or mend a thing done a∣miss.
Graphical Description, is to Write, set down, de∣lineat, or give the portrature of Place, Town, or Farm: the Writing of a Survey.
Essential part, is the Matter and Form coincident to Possessions.
Species, the Form, Figure or shape of the Earth, that is to be Surveyed or Measured: the kinds of Earth.
Uulgar Soil, is common Earth, as Clay, Mould, Moore, Gravel, Sand.
Commixt Soil, is Creachie, Chalkie, Slayie, Sandy Earthe,
Liquable, is Juicy, concrete or soft Earth, as Salt, Alume, Bitumen, Vi•rial, Salt Armonick, Sal-Gem, Sal-Niter, and Indian Salt Roch.
Moliable, the same to Liquable.
Unmoliable, Earth not to be melted, Earth indura∣ted into Stone, or Mettles.
Situation, the seat of a place either to its Goodness, or Badness.
Crust, is the upper Soil, or Soal of the Earth.
Habitude of the Earth, is the temperature of the same in respect of Heat, Cold, Moisture, or Dr•ness: whe∣ther it be Light, Loose, Fat, Oylie, Sliperie, Barren, Fer∣tile, Waterie, or Soal-bound.
Page 139Base of the Earth, is the Bowels of the Earth, whe∣ther it be Quarries, or Mines.
Pervestigate, is to seek out, or diligently to observe a thing.
Content, is the compass and greatness of a thing, and what it contains in measure.
Crassitude, the bulk or thickness of a thing.
Cubical Bodies, all solid things of Timber, or Stone, or Globes.
Flat Superficies, things of length and breadth, but no thickness, to be measured: Flat Measure.
Product of the Earth, what the Earth brings fourth, as Trees, Plants, Shrubs, Grain, Grass, Herbs, Weeds, Mosse, and other Vegitables.
Cormorant, confined kept within Bounds.
Transient, a passing behind the Bounds.
Tempreture of Ayr, as Pellucide, Mild, Subtil, Clear, Sweet, Pleasant, Hot, Cold, Healthful, or contra¦rywise, Grosse, Close, Foggie, Sharp, Fenny, Vaporous, Unwholsome.
Ground Plots, are projectures and all Fundamen∣tal contrivances of things, and they are either Internal, as Vaults, Cellars, Caves, Sinks, &c. or External, as Groves, Harbours, Bowers, Mansion-Houses, Allies, Mazes, Cock-Pits, Bowling-Greens, Moats, Ponds, Drains, Dames, and Sluces: the Tricking and Delineating of Lands.
Boundage, a describing of Plots of Ground accor∣ding to its Limits and Metes.
Metes, see Boundage.
Confrontage, is an abuting, heading, or facing such and such a place.
Collaterage, is Siding, Furrowing, Hedging, Gird∣ing, Bordering, Lying, Bounding, Extending between such places.
Compound Boundage, signifies a Side-haying, as Bounded, Limitted, Compassed, Included, Termina∣ted.
Remote Boundage, when the Plot is intercepted, or cut off by reason of the interposition of some Meere, Rile, Lane, &c.
Coastage, is the desciphering of the Plot as it lies East, West, &c.
Plot, see Ground-Plots.
Neighbourage, is the shewing how the Plot is ac∣commodated with Wood, Water, Fewel, Fish, Fowl, Mannours, Lordships, Meadows, Pastures, &c.
Confinage, is the competent distant of Citties, Towns, Ports, Havens, Seas, Forrests, Wasts, Moores, Quarries, Mines, &c.
Proportion, it consists in the general Model, and par∣ticular Modulets of the Plot.
Mensuration, is the Lineal extention of the Plot, the Measure of the Ground in length, breadth and circumfe∣rence, &c.
Wadding, keeping in a right Line.
Calculation, the giving of an account or summe of a thing required.
Projection, the jutting or going out of a thing.
Delineation, the pourtraying or drawing of the Plot.
Magnitude, the greatness of a thing.
A Point, the Prick of a Pin or Pen.
A Line, a straight Line, or a crooked Line, a mixt o• composed Line, a Circular Line, a Spiral Line, a Livel Line.
A Double Line, Parallel Lines, Oblique Lines, Perpendicular Lines.
An Angle, a straight or right Angle; an acute or sharp Angle; which is lesser then a right Angle: an Ob∣tuse or blunt Angle, which is greater then a right An∣gle.
A Line Finite, is a Line bounded, that must keep to its length, and not exceed it.
A Line Infinite, is a Line that hath no precise length.
Traced, or Tricked; is a Line drawn with Pen or Pencil.
Occult, or White Line; is a Line drawn out by points or pricks, called also the pointed Line, or Line with pricks.
An Horizontal Line, is that which is of an equal poize, and falls neither to one side of the Figure, or other.
A Diagonal Line, is that as passeth through a Fi∣gure, and findeth the two Angles.
A Diameter Line, is that as passeth or traverseth any circular Figure by the Center, and ends at the cir∣cumference.
A Cord, Chord, or Subtendant Line; is a streight Line which joyns to an Arch or Bow by its ends. It di∣vides a circle into unequal parts.
A Tangent Line, is that as toucheth the side of any Figure, and doth not in any part divide it.
A Line Secant, is that which traverseth, crosseth or divideth any Figure.
Azimuth, or Aziminths; great Circles meeting in the Zenith, or Vertical point, passing through all the Degrees of the Horizon Line.
A Circle, a round or circumference.
A Semi-Circle, an half round.
A Quandrant, a quarter of a round.
The Center, is the point in the middle of a round.
The Radius of a Circle, is the distance from the Center to the circumference, or out side of the circle. The Axis.
The Diameter, the breadth of the Circle from side to side through the Center: It is the third part of the circle, as near as 3 times 7 is to 22.
The Sector, is either a single or double Line, or such as are made square within a circle either over or under, or besides the Center.
An Oval, an Eclipse, or Egg Oval.
A Concentrical Figure, an excentrical Figure or Circle, or Oval.
A Triangle, an acute, or right triangled, a Triangle obtuse Angled.
A Quaterangle, a square or right four square, an ob∣long Page 140 square, a Parallelogram, a Rombus or Los∣seng Square.
The Diagonal Line, is the Line that goes from cor∣ner to corner of any square or cornered Figure, whether it run traverse, oblique, or perpendicular.
Geometrical Solid Bodies.
An Orbe, a Globe or Sphear, the Convex, the Concave.
A Cylinder, a Turbe, a Cone or Conick.
A Cube, a Piramid, or Tetrahedron, a Penta∣gonal Piramide, an Hexahedron, an Octahedron,: Balls of six or eight Triangles.
Icosahedron, and Polyhedron: are Balls or rounds of twenty Triangles, and many trigons upon them.
But of these Geometrical Lines, Figures and Solid Bo∣dies: I have given the same to view in chap. 9. after num. 69. where you may see the Terms explained.
It is one of the seven Liberal Sciences, and is that by which a multitude of Unities is drawn up into a certain Number: Arithmetick diligently setteth, and seeketh out the reason of Numbers. And is described by a Man in loose Vestments according to the old mode, with Ta∣bles full of numeral Figures, with Pen or Pencil in hand Books about them, &c.
The Iews and Hebrews used their Alphabet Letters to express their numbers, which they divide into three Classes whereof every one contains 9 Letters, the first are the Scales or Marks of simple Numbers, as
The second hath the Marks or Numbers of Tens, as
And the third hath the other 4 Letters, with the 5 final Letters, or such as end words, which are longer and deep∣er then ordinary, which are marks of Hundreds, as
Now every one of them if they be Marked with Great Characters signifies so many Thousands, as ג 3000. ב 2000. א 1000. &c. Yet there are some which do not use those final or ending Letters, but instead of them Write the Letters which stand for 100. and 400. for the Number Five Hundred, 200. with 400. for Six Hundred, 300. with 400. for Seven Hundred, 400. and 400. for Eight Hundred, and 100.400. and 400. for Nine Hundred, & the great Aleph for 1000. as aforesaid.
The Grecians Numeral Notes or Marks were no other then the Letters of their Alphabet: as,
And this is the first Order of Numbers amongst the Greeks. Secondly, the Greeks divide the whole Alphabet into three Classes, after the imitation of the Hebrews. Now because their Alphabet wants by rule three Letters, it is necessary to add to them three figures, and to inter∣lace them with the Letters by which they explain the sixt, the ninetieth, and the nine hundred, as is manifest in the following Classes.
Now if to any of these Letters there be subscribed the stroak of an Acute-tone, or a Comma at the foot, then it signifies so many thousands as the Letter stands for: as in these. A, 1000. 1, 10000. P, 100000. And so in others.
But in after ages they from the example of the Latins used only Six Letters to signifie their numbers, by which any Sum in Arithmetick may be expressed. as Ι for 1. Π for 5. Δ for 10. Η for 100. Χ for 1000. Where note that Δ. Η. Χ. Μ. in the middle of the Letter Π signi∣fies five times more then that Numeral Letter stands for, as 50.500.5000.50000. As for Example, Χ ΗΠ Η ΔΠ Δ Π II which is 1667.
The Romans made use of seven Letters of their Alpha∣bet which were, I. V. X. L. C. D. M. by which they expressed any Number as I have more fully shewed in chap. 10. after numb. 1.
The Arabians ingeniously found out ten Characters, Ciphers by which the most numerous things that are, even the sands of the Sea may be expressed, which were these, 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.9.0. every one of these Figures are termed signifying Figures, and hath his one value, as one, two, three, &c. being singly and found alone, or in the first place of any summe.
In the second place it signifieth its one value ten times as 70 seven times ten, which is seventy.
In the third place it signifieth a Hundred times its one value as 700. seven times a Hundred, which is seven hundred.
In the fourth place it signifieth its own value a thou∣sand times, as 7000, seven times a thousand, which is seven thousand.
In the fifth place, it signifieth its own value ten thou∣sand times, as 60000 is six times ten thousand, which in Arithmetick is sixty thousand.
In the sixth place it signifieth its own value a hundred thousand times, as 500000 which is five times a hundred thousand, that is five hundred thousand.
In the seventh place it signifies its own value a thou∣sand thousand times, or a Million; as, 4000000, which is four thousand thousand, or four millions.
In the eight place it signifieth its own value ten thou∣sand thousand, or ten millions of times, as 30000000 is three times ten thousand thousand, or ten times three millions, which is thirty millions, or thirty thousand thousand.
Page 141In the ninth place it signifieth its own value a hun∣dred thousand thousand, or a hundred millions of times, as 900000000 is nine times a hundred millions, which is in account nine hundred millions.
In the tenth place it signifieth its own value a thousand thousand thousand of times, or a thousand millions of millions of times, as 3000000000, is three times a thou∣sand millions, that is three thousand millions of mil∣lions.
And so every place towards the left hand exceeds the former ten times; which for the more ready way to un∣derstand, and summ up any number, here followeth a brief rehearsal of the order and denomination of the pla∣ces of Figures, which is sufficient for Numeration.
So that to reckon up this number, it doth consist of Four Thousand Three Hundred Twenty One Millions, Eighteen Thousand, Three Hundred Forty Five.
Bnt Country People and Farmers, reckon or count their numbers more simply: by Pairs, half Scores or Tens, Dozens or Twelves, and Scores or Twenty's.
At length a way was found out to cast up any summe by Counters, which was by four even Lines running Pa∣rallel on the lower Line, were Counters laid for Unites, or any summe not exceeding Ten: on the second Line or next to the lowest was Counters laid for Tens; the third Line Counters for Hundreds; and the highest Line for Thousands: as for Example,
Where Note, that every Counter set between the Lines signifies Five more then the Line of Number it stands over, and Five times short of that Number of that Line it is under.
So that to summe up this Number it is just Three Thousand, Eight Hundred, Ninty Eight.
Terms used in Arithmetick.
Arithmetick, is the Art of Numeration, the way of Numbering.
An Unite, it is properly no Number, but the original or beginning of Number.
Numerations, is that part of Arithmetick whereby one way rightly Value, Express, and Write any Number or summe propounded.
The Characters of Numbers, are these 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 by which any Number may be expressed.
A Number, is a multitude of Unites put together.
An Even Number, is such a Number as can be di∣vided into two equal parts, as 22.214.171.124.
An Odd Number, is such as cannot be diivided e∣qually, as 126.96.36.199.
A Fraction in a Number, is when 1. ½ a Number is broken, as one and an half.
A Place of a Figure, is the Seat or Room, that a Figure stands in: so many Figures as are in a summe, so many places hath the whole Value thereof.
A Dyget Number, is all manner of Numbers un∣der 10.
An Article Number, is any kind of Number which beginneth with a Cypher thus, 10.20.30.40.50.100. and all such like, these are ever divided just by Tens.
A Mixt or Compound Number, is a Number consisting of diverse Digets, or Articles and Digets joyned together, as 188.8.131.52.22.108.1007.
A Cipher, is no certain Number, but by adding it to any Figure it signifies Ten times, a Hundred times, a Thousand times the value of the Figure, as 10, 100.1000. This is a Cipher, 0.
A Figure, is a certain Character expressing a cer∣tain Number, which are Nine in the whole: as 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.9.
Addition, is as much as to bring together one, two, three, or more Summs into one intire Number, or Sum.
Substraction, sheweth how to abate, or take a less Summe out of a greater, and what there doth remain. Now in Substraction there are three Numbers: as,
- The Number for Substraction, is the Number which hath a part taken from it.
- The Number Substracted, is the Number taken out.
- The Number Remaining, is that as is left of the greater Summ, the lesser being taken out.
Multiplication, is a Rule to shew the Number or Summ of several Figures joyned together▪ having ano∣ther Number so many times over added to it, as to know how much 7 times 96. or 123 times 648. or such Num∣bers, doth amount unto.
The Multiplicands, is the Number to be Multipli∣ed.
The Multiplier or Multiplicator, is the Number by which the Summ is Multiplied: which is usually the lesser Number.
The Product, is the Summ which cometh of the Mul∣tiplication of the one by the other.
Division or Partition, is a Rule to seek and find out how many times one Number doth contain ano∣ther.
T••Dividende, is the Number to be divided, and tha•〈◊〉 needs be the greater Number.
Page 142The Divisor, is the lesser Number to divide the greater.
The Quotien, is the Number sought for in the Divi∣sion, and is the summ contained so many times the Divi∣sor, as it self is in value.
The Remain, is the summ remaining of the Quoti∣en, which is ever less then the Number of the Divisor.
Progression, in Arithmetick, is a brief and speedy Rule to add or summ up together diverse Figures or Numbers, every one surmounting the other by equal dif∣ferences: as 18.104.22.168.5.6. or 22.214.171.124. or else by threes as 3.6 9.12. &c. and so of other Numbers.
The Proof of Addition, or of Substraction, or of Multiplication, or of Division; is to know by Rule or Method whether those Summs were well made, and truly cast up.
Progression Geometrical, is when the second Summ or Number contains the first in any proportion, either two, three, or four times: and so also the third Number contains the second, and the fourth the third, and the fift the fourth, &c. as 2.4.8 16.32. where the proportion is double: likewise, 126.96.36.199 243. where the proportion is trible: likewise, 188.8.131.52.512. where the proportion is quadruple.
Excess in Quantity, is when the following Figure or Number exceeds its former only double, which is Pro∣gression Arithmetical.
Excess in Proportion of Number, is when the fol∣lowing Number exceeds its former, either double, trible, or fourtimes as much, which is Progression Geometrical.
The Rule of three, or the Golden Rule, and after others, the Rule of Proportions of Numbers: It requireth three Numbers in its operation, and serveth to find out unto the third Number, the fourth Number to it proportioned, in such sort as the second is proportioned to the first.
The Stile of the Rule of three, is the down of the three Numbers in a certain Order thus,
The Denominator of a Number, is the Number named by which there is a Multiplication to be made, it is set under the Line of Fraction.
The Numirator, is the second Num∣by which a first is to be Numbred. And in the Line of Fraction is to be set above the Line thus — ½ ⅓ ¼ that is, one part in two, one in three, one in four.
Fractions, are broken Numbers, as one divided into 10.100.1000. parts.
Reduction, is to bring together, or to put in semblance two, three, or many Numbers dissembling. But more properly, it teaches one to bring great Summs or Deno∣minations into small, and small into great.
Fractions of Fractions, are bro∣ken Numbers of broken Numbers, as two thirds of three fourths of four fifths, or termed, broken Numbers of the parts of broken Numbers thus marked or figured. ⅔ of ¾ of ⅘
Reductions of whole Numbers and Broken to∣gether into a Fraction, it is to reduce whole Numbers into broken Numbers, and broken into whole.
Abbreviation, of one great Number into a lesser bro∣ken, is as much as to set down or write a broken Number by Figures of less signification and not to diminish the va∣lue thereof: as 54/81 being abreviated make ⅔
Addition in broken Numbers, or Fractions; is the gathering them up into one entire Number or Summ. And so there is Addition of broken Numbers of broken.
Substraction of broken Numbers, is to take out a broken Number out or from a broken: as ⅔ out or from ¾ the remainder is 1/12
Multiplication in broken Numbers, is a Rule whereby to multiply the Numerator of the one Fraction by the Numerator of another Fraction, and then to di∣vide, or abbreviate it.
Division in broken Numbers, is a Rule to know how many times ⅔ contained in ¾ which is 1. ⅓
Duplication, or Triplication, or Quadruplica∣tion of broken Numbers, are the doubling, trebling, or making any Fraction four times as much as it is.
Proof of broken Numbers, is the Rule to find out its true casting up.
The Rule of three in Fractions, as the Rule of three is in whole Numbers, so this is in broken.
The Rule of Practice, it is also termed the Brieve Rules or the small Multiplication, because the pro∣duct is alway less in quantity then the number which is to be Multiplied; and is no other then to convert lesser and particulars Summs into greater, as three shillings the piece of any thing, what shall 684 pieces cost after the same Rate. It is also in uneven parts, as Penny farthing; or Penny three farthings, &c.
The Rule of three Compound, to this Rule there belongs 4 and 5 Numbers, as if 100 Crowns in 12 Mounths gain 15 Pounds, what will 60 Crowns gain in 8 Months.
The Double Rule, or Double Rule of three, or the Rule of three at two times; it is a Rule of pro∣portion which hath its Denomination from its double working: because under this Rule is comprehended di∣verse Rules of pural proportion.
The Rule of Fellowship, is to find out what pro∣portion of gain each party shall have according to their stocks laid together, as if one laid 500 Pound, another 250. the third 380. and they have gained 126 Pounds, how much each Man shall have according to his Money laid in.
The Rule of Fellowship with time, is to find the true gain of one, two, or three stocks of Money laid in at several times one after the other.
The Rule of Company between Merchants and their Factors.
Page 143The Rule of Barter, is to shew the value of Goods upon Exchange, that each receive his due propor∣tion.
The Rule of Alligation, is so named, for that it teacheth to alligate or bind together divers parcels of sundry prices, and to know how much you must take of every parcel according to the numbers of the question. It is commonly divided into two parts, Alligation Me∣dial, and Alligation Alternate.
The Rule of Falshood, or false positions, not so named because it doth teach any deceit; but that by feigned numbers taken at all adventures, it teacheth to find out the true number that is demanded.
The Rule of Equation, is for the equality of pay∣ment according to time, and teacheth to reduce the times of several particular payments to one time for the pay∣ment of the whole summ.
The Rule of Rebate and discount, the use is ei∣ther in damage of Goods, or payment of Moneys before the time it is due.
The Rule of Exchange, which teacheth to pay one sort of Money in one place or Countrey, and re∣ceive in another the like value or sum, with conside∣ration of either Loss or Gain.
The Rule of Loss or Gain, teacheth what is lost or gained in the buying or selling of a Commodity, as to know what is gained or lost per Cent, per Pound, per Ell, per Yard, &c.
The Rule of Interest, or Interest upon Inte∣rest, it teacheth a brief and compendious way of work∣ing all manner of Questions upon Interest, or for Interest of Interest, being the sum hath been unpaid for several years.
A Philosopher, is a lover of Wisdom, Philosophy searcheth out the causes of things, what, whence, why and how every thing is.
A Metaphysitian, is a searcher of, and imployeth and busieth himself to find out and abstract Idea's of all things in the Universe; a Diver into supernatural cau∣ses and effects.
Metaphysicks, a Science which lifteth it self above the changeable nature of things. School Divinity is the highest part of it.
A Naturall-Philosopher, or a Naturallist, is such an one as busieth himself about natural bodies, and forms concreate with the things thereof.
A Moralist, is a Writer of the Manners and Beha∣viours of Men.
A Philologer, a lover of Learning and Eloquence, that studieth the reason of Speech, and definition of Words.
A Magitian, is the Naturallist highest pitch of un∣derstanding natural things in their effects, and he is such a person that hath skill of producing effects by a secret application of Actives to Passives. But the Monsters of this Art are Sorcerers, which perform things more by Spells and Inchantments, than sound Learning; such are Hags and Witches that deal with the mere delu∣sions of the Devil.
A Mathematitian, one that by the Mathematick Art openeth the way to Philosophy; for he diligently searcheth out the reason of Numbers in Arithmetick, and of Measures in Geometry, and of Weights in Sta∣ticks.
A Statick, is a weigher or tryer of solid things, and then their worth by weighing the heaviness of them by the force of Scales or Ballances and Weights.
Zeusippur, this Philosopher was Painted with a crook∣ed Neck in a loose Coat, and a Mantle carelesly cast about him, as in old times all such were invested.
Aratus had his Neck bending, or bowed downwards.
Zeno is drawn with a wrinkled Forehead.
Diogenes with an hairy rough Beard, a loose Coat to his Feet, a Staff in one hand, and a Candle and Lan∣thorn in the other, with a Cloth copped head cover on his head. Some also do describe him sitting in a square hole made in the side of a great Tub or Barrell, or walk∣ing with a Candle and Lanthorn; As he did through the Citty of Atheans at noonday to find an honest man.
Democritus with his lipps open, as laughing: called the laughing Philosopher, who always laughed at the Athenians to se their eager pursuit after Riches, and to se the Chang of Fortune, and Follyes of Men.
Heraclitus with his eyes shut and weeping, wringing of his hands. He was the crying Philosopher, always weeping to se mens Follyes, and the miserys of the world.
Hippocrites an excellent Phisitian of Co•s, Scholar to Democrites, whom Artaxerxes promised great Honors, if he would come and live with him in the Persian Court.
Socrates a Morall Philosopher; He in the Iudg∣ment of Apollo, was the wisest man on earth: His enimyes accused him of contempt towards their gods, for which he was condemned to dye.
Aristotle is drawn with a stretched out Arme, he was a famous Philosopher Alexanders master; He was banish∣ed because he held not a right oppinion about the gods. He was the chief of the Sect of the Peripateticks.
Xenocrates a Phil•sopher, but of so dull a Capacity, That Plato his master said, Aristotle had need of a Bridle but Xenocrates of a Spur.
Chrysippus a Stoicall Philosopher, born at Tarsus, an acute Logician, had his hand open, pointing with his Fingers of the other hand to the open hand Fingers.
Euclid, a famous Geometrician, had his hand open, and his Fingers put asunder, to shew the space of mea∣sures.
Pythagoras is drawn with his Wheel in one hand, and a Quadrant in the other, with a Mantle cast careless∣ly over his Vestment or Coat.
Empedocles, who writ the nature of things, and that they were all composed of Love and Discord; that after Death he might be Feared and Honoured, he stole Page 144 away from his Company by Night, and cast himself in∣to the Burning Mountain Aetna.
Lucretius, a Naturallist, he writ six Books in La∣tin, his Wife giving him a Philtrum, or Love Cup to make him Love her, causing him to go Stark Mad, and so he Killed himself.
Agelastus, Grandfather of Croesus, he never laugh∣ed but once in all his life, and that was when he saw an Ass eat Thistles; upon which occasion he said Similes hahent labra L•ctucas, like Lips like Lettice.
Antisthenes a Philosopher, who hearing of Socrates sold all that he had, and gave it to the Poor, and went every day six Miles to hear Socrate•; he was Dio∣genes Ma•ter, and chief of the Cynick Sect.
Apollonius Tyaneus, a Pythagorian Philosopher, he was a great Magitian; some Heathens in malice of Christianity, affirm that his Miracles were as great as Christ and his Apostles.
Apuleius, a Philosopher born at Madaura, from whence he was called Mad•urensis, he writ the Meta∣morphosis of the Golden Ass; he was accused for Magick, whereupon he writ his Apology.
Archytas, a Noble P•i•osopher, Master of Plato, whom he delivered from the Tyrant of Sicily; he was Captain of the Invinci•le Army.
Aristippus, an Auditor of Socrates; he was a Philo∣sopher pleasing to all persons; he would use the pleasures he had, and despise those he had no•: When he was to Travel to increase his Knowledg, he bid his Servants cast away their Money that they might Travel the bet∣ter.
Athenodorus, an Atheni•n Philosopher, who taught Augustus this Lesson, that he should neither say or do any thing, but take respect while he may read over the Al•phabet, that so he should not say or do any thing in rash•ness and Anger.
Thales Milesius, a Philosopher that first found out the cause of the Eclipses of the Sun and Moon.
Solon, one of the 7 wise men of Greece, and a Law∣giver to the Athenians, tould rich Croes•s, that Tellus a poore man, was more happy then he, being a good man and dyed well, and in a good age: For tell one be dead he cannot be said to be happy, as Croesus found after∣ward true by wofull experience.
Byas, a Philosopher, one of the seaven Wise men of Greece.
Hermogenes, a Philosopher at Tarsus, when he was 18 yeares of age was a famous Scholar, afterwards alwayes went worse and worse: Of whom it was said, Hermogenes inter Pu•ros Se•ex: Inter Senes Puer.
Hippias, a Philosopher singular in all Trades, Arts and Sciences; That he needed not the help of any man to supply his wants, so that the Buskins he wore were of his own makeing.
Homer, a great Philosopher and a very learned Poet He writt of the Warrs and Destruction of Troy.
Phocion a famous Athenian, honest and poore, and yet contemned Riches, when some perswaded him to provide for his Children, else they would come to need; answered. If they be like me, that which served me will serve them; if unlike, I will not seek to nourish their Luxury by providing Superfluity.
Pitticus, a Philosopher, and one of the 7 Sages of Grece, he challenged Phryno the Athenian Captain (in the Wars against them) to a single Combat; carried a Net privily, and so caught him and overcame him.
Seneca, a Stoick Philosopher, born at Corduba in Spain, he was both Consul and Senator of Rome; he writ Philosophy with so Divine a Quill, that some Fathers esteemed him as a good Christian. Nero caused him to drink Poison, and after his Veins to be opened, and he to be put into a hot Bath.
Stilpo, a Philosopher of Megara, who when his Wise and Children and Countrey were all Burnt, being asked by D•metrius what loss he had sustained, answer∣ed that he had lost nothing, for he accounted that only his own, which none could take from him, namely his Vertues.
Zenobia a Philosopher of Cyrus, the Father of the Stoicks, he compared Logick to a close hand, and Ora∣tory to the same hand opened; he taught that Men ha∣ving two Ears should hear much, and but one Mouth should say little, Anno Mundi 3698.
LX. He beareth Azure, a Limner (or a Picture Drawer, or a Painter working at his Easill, set on a Stool, with his Pallet on his left hand, all Or, Clothed and Capped, Argent. By the name of Pain∣ter-Stainer.
Painting is an Art so much imitating Nature, that by proportional Lines with answerable Colours; it re∣presents to the Life the form of all Corporeal things; it is called in Latine Pictura, and in English Painting and Limning.
It consists in a sevenfold practice, as in Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing and Colouring; but principally the whole Art lyeth in these three things, wiz. Design, Propor∣tion and Colour; all which are expressed in three sorts of Painting, as Landskip, History and Life.
Instruments for Drawing, Limning, and Painting.
Charcoals, are Sallow Wood, or Withy Burnt and split into the form of Pencils, and sharpned to a point.
Feathers of a Ducks Wing, or such like, which is to wipe off a superfluous score made in a draught by the Charcoal.
Black and red Lead Pencills, which are to draw over your design the second time more exactly.
Pens, made of Ravens Quills, which are to finish and shadow your draught.
Rulers, to draw streight, or Perpendicular Lines, Triangles, Squares and Poligons.
Compasses or Brass, with Steel points, by which is measured the proportion of all things; as also to make Circles, Ovals, and Arches withal.
Coloured Paper or Parchment to draw upon.
Pastils, are rouls of Plaster or Clay, made of di∣vers Page 145 colours, to draw withal on coloured Paper or Parch∣ment.
Patterns or good Copies to draw by, without which it is impossible a young Artist should attain to any per∣fection in Drawing.
Gums, which are generally four, as Gum Arabick, Gum Lake, Gum Hedra, Gum Armonick, and Al∣lome.
Colours of all sorts, the principal are these seven, White, Black, Red, Green, Yellow, Blew, Brown, out of which are made, mixed or compounded all sorts of colours.
Liquid Gold, and Silver, Leaf Gold and Sil∣ver, Gold Armoniack.
Grinding Stone and Muller, to Grind the colours upon, either in Water, with Gums, or in Oil; and a Lantern Horn or Knife to take them off.
Pencils of all sorts, big and little, and called by se∣veral names, as Duck Quill pointed and Fitched, Goose Quill pointed and Fitched, Swan Quill pointed and Fit∣ched, Jewelling Pencills and Bristle Pencils, &c.
Brushes or Tools, are larger than Pencils, and are made of Bristles bound about Sticks, and in Nicks of Sticks, Ueining Tools.
Tables and Cloths, to Limn and Paint upon.
Size, is Glew made weak with Water.
Shells, Cups, Bladders, or Tins to put the Colours in after they are ground, according as they are to be used either in Water or Oil.
An Easel, it is a frame of Wood made after the form of a Ladder, broader at the bottom than the top, with a Stay behind it; on this Frame Painters set their Cloth or Table while it is in working.
A Pallet, is a thin Board, on which Colours are laid for working, to temper them▪
Streining Frame, is a Frame of Wood, to which with Nails is fastned the primed Cloth which is to be Painted upon.
Primed Cloth, is the Cloth to be Painted upon, which is first run over with any colour, which is called the Primeing.
Stay or Mol Stick, of some called a Rest; is a light yet strong Stick about a Yard long; it is to rest the Arm upon when working.
Stainshall, of some called a Smuch Box; it is a Tin with a bottom and three sides, in which Oil Pen∣cils are put with their points in Oil to keep them from drying.
A Cleanser, is a Tin or Pot with a smooth edge, having Oil in it to make clean Pencils, that have worked colours in Oil.
Crucible of Earth or Iron to Burn colours in.
Oyls, as Nut Oil, Linseed Oil, Oil of Turpentine, Spike Oil, Varnish.
Terms of Art used by all sorts of Paint∣ers, Limners, Washers and House Stainers.
Arches, or Arch Work.
Angles, cornered Figures.
Artist, a Workman in his Calling or Trade.
Arteries, representations of Veins and such things in Naked Bodies.
Anatomy, or Anatomical Figure, draughts or Pictures of the Skelletons or Bones of Creatures, either Men or Beasts.
Aspect, of or belonging to the Face.
Antique, or Antick Work, is a Work for delight sake, being a general or irregular composition of all manner of compartments of Men, Beasts, Birds, Flowers, Fruit, and such like, without either Rule or Reason.
Active Prospective, is the right drawing of Prospe∣ctive, by its Horizontal and Ichnographical and Geome∣trical Lines, without which the Active part of Prospe∣ctive, must of necessity fail in its true proportion of things.
Altitude, the height of any proportioned thing.
Almagrum, or Almagrium, a kind of red Earth for Painting.
Arsenicum, Ortment, a gold yellow.
Auripigmentum, the same.
Ash colour, a composition of much White and a lit∣tle black.
Azure, a pure bright Sky colour.
Aquaduces, representatians of Waters running in Ri∣vers, or in falls from higher places.
Broken Radiation, a kind of By-light.
Base, the bottom or ground work of any thing.
Blew Black, Black made of Charcoal.
Brown red, a red Earth.
Bize, Blew Bize, a delicate Blew.
Bo•e Armoniack, a red much like a Brick Stone, much used by Gilders.
Backside Work, is a kind of Painting and Gilding upon Glass on one side, to be seen and looked upon on the other.
Black Chaulk, a good transparent shadowing Black.
Colour, or Colouring, is any sort of Colour or Work done with Colours, see Paint.
Circle, a round thing.
Coppy, is the drawing of one Picture or the like from another.
Cones, a thing that goes Spirall, as Spire Steeples.
Cylenders, things that are round and of an equal size at its length, as Pillars, Columns.
Contraction, is the drawing of a thing into a less compass.
Crions, either White or Red Chalk cut into long pieces, and made sharp at the end to draw withall.
Circumference, the rounding or compassing of a thing.
Countenance of a Face.
Circular shadow, a shadow that turns round.
Contemplation of the Object, is the considering and well advising with ones self, how to do, or perform the working of such a piece, as is shewed.
Catoptrick, Catoptrica, it is a second kind of Prospective, and proceeds from a reflected light, as reflection of the Sun Beams, or Looking Glass, where the resemblance alters not from the Original.
Ceruse, a pure white ground, white Lead refined.
Page 146Center, the middle of any circumference or round figure.
Cherry Stone Black, are the Stones Burnt.
Charcoal, Burnt Wood of Willow, or other soft Wood, which is used to draw withal.
Cutlen Earth, a kind of dark brown Earth, Ful∣lers Earth burnt.
Crimson colour, it is compounded of Lake and a little White.
Cataracts, falls of Water from high and steep pla∣ces.
Catagraphy, is the Art of Painting.
Catagrapha, is a drawing of Pictures, so as that they are to be looked upon but one way, if turned they represent other forms.
Colour Man, he that sells Colours, or worketh Co∣lours.
Cleanse, is the making clean either of old Paintings, or the making clean of the Muller, Grinding Stone and Pallet from their colours; or of the Pencils which have Colours in them.
Curved, is a thing drawn crooked or awry, and not according to its due station or proportion.
Cambugium, a kind of Gum of a pure yellow co∣lour.
Ca•k, or Orchall, a Blew colour for Limning.
Carmaine, a rich Red, far exceeding the Scarlet or Vermilion; it is a colour only for glafing.
Drawing, is that whereby in lines we represent the shape and form of any corporal substance.
Draught, is the thing so drawn in rude lines.
Drapery, is the imitating of cloathing, and Artifi∣cial setting off the outward coverings, habit and orna∣ments of the Body.
Drawing after the Life, is to draw the similitude of a thing from the thing it self▪ a Hand from an Hand, a Face from a Face, a Horse from an Horse, a Flower from a Flower.
Depict, Depicted, Drawn, Painted.
Distance, is the space of place between the painted work and the station of the Beholder. It is also taken and used in the working of Landskips, for to observe a due distance of things, and a universal measure in re∣presenting Nature.
Doesling, it is a certain besmearing of a draught with white or red Chalk sharp pointed, here and there, to set it off.
Dark, deep shadow, are shadows for inward parts of things, which are much from the Lights refle∣ction.
Distances in a proportion, is the just length and breadth of one thing from another, as one Member from the other, without which it cannot be an exact draught.
Double shadow, is when one Hatching or Stroke in a piece of Work crosses another. This is called also a Double Ha•ch.
Delin•ate, is to describe a thing in lines according to its apparent or visible proportion.
Direct Radiation, is the streight Light which pas∣seth between the eye and the object looked at.
Diapering, is a tracing or running over a work (when it is finished) with Damask Branches, and such like; it is the counterfeiting of Cloth of Gold, Silver, Damask, with either Branches, Flowers, or other antick devices, in what fashion is most pleasing; it is termed also Damasking.
Dioptrica, it is a kind of Prospective, which is seen by a broken radiation, or Sun Beams; the Dioptick or broken sight is rightly seen in a Tub of Water where the surface is cut.
Diagonal Lines, or lines of distance, are such as are drawn from the point of distance to any other point higher or lower than the Horizon line.
Dead colour, is the first colouring of a piece of Painting.
Degrees of colouring, is colouring according to the various forms and complexions, as Infants and young Children to be painted of a soft and delicate com∣plexion. Virgins and fair Women, as curious, having their Muscles and Veins more perfect. Naked Bodies are to be Painted strong, lively and exact, shewing each Muscle, Nerve and Vein, fixing each Artery in its due place, giving each Limb its proper form and shadow. And old and aged Bodies are to be set forth with emi∣nent, exact, and curious shadows, and all the marks of Antiquity or Age to be very apparent and formidable.
Design, is the depicting of a thing according to Fancy.
Designing Lines, are the first Stroaks which are made for the drawing of any piece of work, whether Life, History, or Fancy.
Dragons Blood, Sanguis Draconis, is a perfect deep Blood red, and is a good Water Shadow for Ver∣milion and Red Lead.
Distemper work, it is a working the colours with Gum Water or Size, as Oyl colours are wrought. This is called also working in Great.
English Iude or Indicoe, a deep Blew.
Exercise or Practice.
Eq•idistant, of an even distance.
Ed•fice or Building
Extention, the stretching out of a thing, Extend, make larger.
Experience, is the knowledge of a thing by often doing it. Practice brings Experience.
Emblem or Empress work, is drawing Faces from the Life, which is the most hard and difficult of all other works in this Art, and the most to be commended of all other works.
Foldage, is the folding of Garments in their natu∣ral and proper folds; or any thing that turns or crisps it self.
Folds, are the turnings and lapping over of any piece of Cloth in Vests or Garments; of which there are two sorts, the outward folds are them that lye outward and most in sight and to the light; the inward folds are such as have folds lying over them, and are most from the Light.
Figure, is any proportion of Man or Beast, either drawn or modelized. Also by Figures is understood the Geometrical Figures, called Angles, Triangles, Poli∣gons, &c.
Fallings, either in loose Garments, as the folds fall off one from another; or in feathers, which in the falls bend themselves.
Page 147Flat, is in Painting and Shadowing, and the term is used when the thing painted comes not round off, or ri∣seth not by its shadow, but lieth flat down, as if it were of no body or substance.
Faint shadows, are such shadows as are scarce seen or discern'd.
Features, are the comely shapes and proportions of a Face.
Face, is the known and chief part for Grace in any reasonable Creature, it is often used in the Art of Paint∣ing, thereby to express its manner and form, as a full Face, when every part is seen at one and the same in∣stant of time.
Three quarter Face, when one side and a part of the other side of the Face is only seen.
Half Face, when only the Nose and one side of the Face is seen.
Oblique Face, is when a part of the Face is not seen by reason of some motion, as looking back, up•wards or downwards, side ways.
Flory Blew, a colour used by Limners and Wash∣ers of Maps.
Finish, is the compleating or ending of a piece of Work.
Foreshortning, is the drawing of things as they ap∣pear to the eye, not to the full proportion of each part, but to shorten it according as it is obfuscated or hidden by other parts.
Fore-right side, is that side (in a piece of Prospe∣ctive work) in which the Artist stood when he drew it from the Place it self; the front of the Work.
Finitor, or Horizon.
Fancy, is a Work done according to a Mans own Mind or Pleasure, or as his own Genius leads him un∣to.
Fiction or Fantacy, is the making of such Creatures as never were or shall be, upon probable conjecture. Forced Figures to express a Novelty, as Centaurs, Sa∣tyrs, Griffins, &c.
Frescoe, or Wall Painting; some call it seiling.
Festoons of Flowers or Fruit, are such things tyed or hung together in a long row, and so turned about Pil∣lars, or set on the tops of seiled Work for Ornament.
Flowerages and Fruitages, are Flowers and Fruit hung and compact together, and proceeding out of an husk or bottom of a Cup Flower.
Fading Colours, such as will not continue long in their Beauty, but turn to another colour.
Fat or clammy, is when colours are old ground, and not fit for working.
Fat Oyl, is Linseed Oil grown thick, or made thick and clammy through Boiling.
Grotescoe, or Antique Work.
Gold Cise, is a colour made for to lay Gold up∣on.
Ground Plot, is the draught or design of a thing to be worked.
Geometrical Figures, are Lines, Angles, Circum∣ferences, Ovals, &c.
Grind, is to make the colours fine on a Grinding Stone.
Green Bize, a green Colour used by Painters.
Green Uerditer, a Welmish or Willow green.
Green Earth, a kind of green Clayie Earth used for a Colour.
Grey, a compound Colour made of much White, and little Black mixt.
Glazed, is to make a thing shine by Varnishing it. Gloss the same.
Ground or ground Colour, is the first Colour, called Primer.
Herbage, see Flowerage, Leaves and Herbs com∣pacted together and hung along.
House Painter, such as only Paint Houses and Plastered Walls.
Hatches are stroakes of a Pen or Pencill, in imita∣tion of a shadow, and they are threefold, as single Hat∣ches, which is only one stroak; double Hatches, which is cross Hatches, for a deeper shadow, and a treble Hatch, which is three stroaks one crossing another, and is for a dark Hatch.
Hard shadow, is when a shadow is deep, or comes not smoothly off, but ends with an edge. Harsh sha∣dows.
Horizon, is used several ways, as a fair Horizon, when the Heavens are Painted with a large sight, and shewed with cloudy and clear Air; or else it is taken for the Line in Prospective and Landskip work, equal to the height of the Eye, to which all other parts of the Work both above and under it do tend.
Homogene, is to have a work continued through∣out with one and the same kind, not of various mat∣ters, as in Diapering and Damasking.
Harts Horn Black, is the Horn burnt in a Luted Crucible.
History, is the Painting of Stories taken from Histories.
Heightening, is to touch up a deep colour with a lighter, to lighten any colour with White.
Herald Painter, is such as Paints Coats of Arms on Escochions, Shields, Tables, Penons, Standarts, and such like.
Imitation, is to make one thing by and like to ano∣ther.
Idea, a figure or form of a thing conceived in the Imagination.
Ichnography, Ichnographick, is the description of the plain, base, or bottom of any piece of Work or Building.
Ichnograpeick Geometry, is that as gives the sight of the bottom or base of any Work or Fabrick; as a Circle is the base of a Column, and a Square of a Pede∣stall.
Ivory Black, it is burnt in a Crucible close stop∣ped.
Indian Lake, a pure Blood colour.
Indian Red, a kind of red Earth with Sparks of Sil∣ver in it.
Invention, the finding out of a thing, the first de∣vice of it, or the bringing out of that which was not before.
Indicoe, an hard, deep, or Black Blew.
Inde Baudias, a kind of Indico or Blew colour.
Limning, Painting in Water colours with Gum or Size.
Limner, a Painter in Water colours, whether by Life, or otherwise.
Page 148Lines, are long scores or stroaks made with Chalk or the like, having length only without breadth or thickness.
Lineaments, are the several parts of the Body.
Landskip, is that kind of Painting as represents the Heavens and the Earth, Trees, Houses, Waters, &c. 1. in their distance. 2. in their mutual position. 3. in visible Aspect.
Light side, is that side of a thing where the Light takes it, and enlightens it by striking a lustre upon it, more there than elsewhere.
Lamp Black, it is the •oot of Wood Burnt.
Lake, it is a Blood red colour.
Litmose or Stone Blew, it is a dark filthy Blew.
Life, or Painting from the Life, or thing it self which we imitate.
Lines of distance, Diagonal Lines.
Lay in colours, is the Painting with a Pencill or Brush.
Modell, is a Figure of a thing in kind, being made to do the like by it, and that either in big or little.
Master strokes, are the out or principal lines of any thing to be drawn, or that is drawn.
Measure, the bigness of a thing.
Mastick, or Masticote, a fair yellow finer than fine Sand.
Murrey, a compound colour of Lake and Smalt.
Napery, the working of Linnen in Painting accor∣ding to the foldings thereof.
Ovals, are long rounds.
Originals are pieces made from the Life, having no other pattern to work them by; what are worked from them are Coppies from the Originals.
Out-schetches, are the out-lines of any draught, or piece drawn.
Oblique Face, a Face that looks any other way than streight forward, as upwards, downwards, sideways.
Obfuscated, is when one Part or Member is hid by another.
Opticks, is a Prospective term, and signifieth a di∣rect or streight Beam of Light, which pass between the Eye and the Object.
Object, is the thing on which we fix the Eye, or that Figure, Body, or Edifice intended to be expressed in its proportion.
Orthography, Orthographick, is the sight of the foreright side of any plain or superficies, which lies equi∣distant to a right line; so that Perspective Orthogra∣phy is the delineation of the apparent right plain, or plat of Building drawn out in that Figure and Order as the whole Work is, the Pillars behind the fore right side or front declining even to the Visual point.
Obliquely, crookedly, awry, sidelong.
Orchal or Cork, a Blew colour.
Ocar de Luce, an Earth of a bright Hair or Mouse colour, which is a good shadow for Gold or Yellow.
Operation, a working with the hands. Work∣manship.
Ortment, a pure yellow, having glittering of Gold in it, called Auripigmentum.
Out-lines, see Master strokes.
Polygraphy or Polygraphice, is the Art of imita∣ting Nature with proportional lines, and answerable co∣lours to the Life.
Painter, one that follows the Art of Painting, of which there are several sorts according to the Figures or things imitated, as the Painter by Life, History Painter, Landskip Painter, Prospective Painter, the Limner or Water colour Painter; Herauld or Arms Painter▪ Seiler or House Painter; Glass Painter; Backside-work Painter; Washer of Maps and Prints; Engraver that works on Copper Plates; the Etcher; and the Drawer for Needle Work and Em∣brauthery; all which may be famous in their way, and yet Ignorant and unskilful in one anothers Art of Paint∣ing, or Drawing.
Perpendicular lines, down right lines.
Practice, is the use of doing of things, exercise in Drawing.
Paterns, Copies to draw by.
Polished, made smooth and shining.
Perspi•ous, that as is most visible and easie to be seen.
Pounce, is to prick holes in a Paper of any form, and then to dust the same with Lime or Charcoal (ac∣cording to the ground colour, on which the Pricked Pa∣per is to leave the impression of the thing Pricked) and being laid thereon and the Dust rubbed on the holes, leaves the Figure on the Paper or Cloth under it.
Proportion, is the giving each Figure drawn, its due shapes, not one exceeding another, but agreeing in mag∣nitude, similitude and parts, lest it seem crooked and deformed.
Proportion at Distance, is to augment or lessen every thing to their distance from the Eye, making them accordingly.
Perspective, is the Art of well seeing, and is that by which we behold, contemplate, contract and draw the likeness of all Magnitudes and great Bodies, just in the same form and manner as they appear to the Eye; as the inside of Churches, Rooms, long Streets, and great Fabricks▪
Prospect, or Perspect, is to see a Country round about, and at a great distance from us, a looking a∣bout.
Pinke, a kind of yellowish green, a colour used by Painters.
Purple, a compound colour of Red and Blew, Lake and Smalt.
Peeling, is the cracking and fretting of Colours in a Picture.
Primer, is the ground colour on which the Paint∣ing is wrought, a Primed Cloth is a Cloth made ready and fit to work on.
Painter Stainer, it is the general term given to him that any way dealeth in Colours, either in Selling, or working with them.
Paint seller, a seller of all sorts of Colours.
Pourtraiting, or Drawing.
Pursling, Hatching with a Pencill, as Herald Painters finish up their Work. Finishing.
Prepare your Colours, is to grind them, and make them ready and fit to be used.
Rude Draught, the first drawing or touching out Page 149 of a Figure, when there is a design to draw it: see Out Schetches..
Rectifie, mend what is amiss, help the place in Paint∣ing where there is an error, or fault: make it more perfect.
Reflection, is a returning of the light from one Figure to another.
Reflected Radiations, is when the beams or light, fall on any polished Body: and from thence conveyeth a shape in light to its opposite.
Radiation, is a beam of light conveying the likeness of a thing to the Eye or sight: and the knowledge thereof to the minde and understanding.
Return of the Fore-sight, this is a term in perspe∣ctive, and is that side which declines from or maketh an Angle with the right Line or Horizon, from the sight of the Eye.
Rayes, Sun light; see Uisual.
Resemble, Resemblence, is the likeness of one thing to another.
Red lead, Lead burnt and made red by fire, and so becomes a colour.
Red Ocar, yellow Ocar burnt in a close Crucible or Iron Pot well luted.
Rosset, a So•t and fadeing colour which will not con∣tinue long, it is a rich Carnation, or Peach colour.
Ruines, Dicayed Houses, Monasteries, Towers, and Castles; Ruinous Places.
Squares, are Geometrical Figures with four cor∣ners.
Scale, is the square crossings of a Picture, with a Chalke, thereby to draw the like by the help of another Scale made on the cloath, paper, or tablet to be drawn upon. It helps the young Artist to draw a Figure bigger or lesser then the Pattern, and yet have in all parts its due form and proportion.
Schetches, are touches on a Paper with the point of a Charcoal in drawing out of any Figure, and so by little and little running over the whole Work. Some call these Touches, Out Schetches.
Scatch, Scotcht, the same: the out stroakes of a Figure or Draught.
Shadow, it is that as makes a Figure to rise, seem round, of which there are several ways of shaddowing, as faint, flat, deep, harsh and dark Shadows.
Shadow Lines, is to shadow by Lines, which are single Hatching, double Hatching, and treble Hatch∣ing.
Skew, a term in Herald-Painting, which is with a Wing, or Hares foot brush away all the loose edges of Silver and Gold that remains of the working of them. Strike off the loose Gold or Silver. Brush off.
Superficies in Painting terms, is a complication of Lines; that is, a length and breadth but without thick∣ness.
Solid, is a complication of superficies; that is, length and breadth, having depth or thickness.
Scenography, Schenographick; It is the de∣cription of a plaine, or other Figure that declines from the apparent or foreright plain: that is of that plain or part which makes Angles with the said foreright plain.
Scenographick Uision, is that as shews the side or a Body, or Edifice which declines from or makes an Angle with the right Line, appearing, rising obliquely to the same side.
Spodium, a kind of white Paint, or Soote rising from the fining or trying of brass.
Spanish white, is chalke and Allome burned toge¦ther.
Sinaper Lake, is a kind of deep blood colour, or purple.
Sap green, is the joyce of the Buckthorn Ber∣ries.
Saffron, is a yellow for washing of Maps.
Smalt, some call it blew Starch; because much used by Landresses in their Starch to make it blew.
Spanish brown, or deep blood red.
Scarlet colour, the purest and best of reds.
Steeped colours, such as require no grinding, but only put into Water, Vinager, or Gum.
Slickned, polished, or glazed.
Skin, Skinning of colours; is the skin that groweth on Oyle colours, if they be not quickly wrought up.
Sweetning, is the working one colour into another with a soft Pencil: that they will look as one colour, though they be diverse.
Sweet Shadow, is so finely worked into another colour that it seems to be no shadow.
Seileing, is House Painting, where Plaister Wall are made to look like Wainscate, or outlandish Tim∣ber.
Section, or Glass; is a plain of transparent or per∣lucid Matter, raised upright upon the plain of a base set before you, parallel to a straight Line: through which passeth the convex Centers of both Eyes.
Spruce Occar, a reddish yellow or sand colour Clay or Earth much used in House Painting, some call it English Occar.
Second colouring, is the Painting of a Face after the dead, or first colouring of it.
Triangle, is a Figure with three corners.
Trick, is the drawing of any Figure or Coat of Armes with Pen and Inke for a Pattern to Engrave by.
Treble shadow, see Hatch.
Terra Uert, a green Earth used in Painting.
Turn-sole, died Raggs, which refuse in Waters make it a pure Violet colour.
Tawny, a compound colour of red and much yel∣low.
Tempering of colours, is mixing of them one with another: or tempering them on the Pallet with a Knife to make them fit to Work, or such colours as need no grinding, are said to be tempered on the said Pallet with Oyle.
Turmarick, a transparent Water yellow.
Uisual Point, is a Point in the Horizontal Line, wherein all the Beams of the Eyes unite: the center or the Horizon Line.
Uisual Rays, are those Lines which proceed from the Visual Point, to any point higher or lower then the plain of the Horizon.
Uermilion, a pure Scarlet colour, it i• both Natural and Artificial; having the resemblance of Silver Ore, be∣fore it be Ground.
Uerditer, a soft and pure blew.
Uerdigrease, a Sea Water green.
Page 150Umber, an hair colour or brown Clayie Earth.
Uenice Berries, boiled in Water make a transpa∣rent yellow.
Ultramarine, the richest and purest of all blews.
Washing, or Wash with colours; is Painting of Maps, Prints▪ and Papers with thin transparent colours: Some terms it colouring.
Wash colours, are all transparent colours, so that Writing and Printed Figures are seen through them.
Washer of Mapps, is the Painter of Mapps and the like.
Working in great with Water colours; see Distemper Work.
Graving or Engraving.
It is an Art which teacheth how to transferr any thing designed upon Copper, Brass, or Wood, by the help of sharp pointed and cutting Instruments. Now it is possi∣ble that a Man may be a good Painter, and yet not be able to draw well with the Pen; but it is impossi- to be a good Graver or to Hatch well except he can draw well with the Pen, and have a curious and exact carriage of the Hand.
Gravers Instruments, and their Terms used in the Art of Engraving.
Gravers of all sorts, some call them Graving Tooles: some for hard Work, some for sweet work, some for smaller work, and some for greater work; some long, others short; some straight, others crooked; some formed square, others Loseng.
An Oyle Stone, to sharpen his Gave•s on; and Oyle Olive.
A Sand Bagg, or round Cushion filled with Sand to Engrave upon: on which the Plate is turned at plea∣sure.
A Burnisher, is a smooth Iron which is used to rub out scratches and specks, or other things in the Plate.
A Peece of Box or hard Wood, to strike the point of the Graver into after it is sharpned, to take off all the roughness about the point, which was caused by whet∣ting it on the Oyle stone.
Plates of Copper, Silver, Brass, and Pewter: but especially the two first, which must be exactly polish∣ed.
Pumice stone, and Charcoale.
Drawing Point, a Steele with a sharp point like a Needle to draw the Work designed on the Plate: a Nee∣dle fixed in a Stick.
Grinding Stone, to grind the Hammer stroaks out of the Copper-Plates.
Fine smooth Hoan, to rub the Plate smooth.
Smooth Charchoal, without Knots.
Planish the Plate, is to beat it on a smooth Anvile with a broad and smooth faced Hammer, to cause it to ile straight and flat upon a Table.
Annale, the Copper is to put it in the Fire several times at the beating of it out to keep it from cracks and flaws.
Polish the Plate, is to rub it smooth and bright that one face may be seen in it.
Hammer stroaks, are Marks which the Hammer leaves in the Plate at the plenishing of it: Dints or Marks of the Hammer.
Flaws in the Plate, ate Scales rising up in the Plate, fire flaws.
Scratches, are slips of the Graver from the designed work, some term them slips of the Gravers.
Hatches, are stroaks or lines made with the Graver in the work designed, of which there are three sorts: the strong or largest Hatches, made by a square pointed Graver, the fine and delicate Hatches, made by a Losenge pointed Graver; and the faint and smallest Hatches, with a middle size or sharp pointed Graver.
Whet the Graver, is to sharpen it on the Oyle Stone, or to sharpen either the sides or points of the Gra∣ver, flat or sloping.
Soft or Hard, and without Pinholes; the Oyle Stone is not to be too hard or too soft, but between both, and free from holes.
Deep or Gross Graved stroaks, are black Lines.
Fine and Faint stroaks, are small Lines in Graving.
Burnish or make the Plate bright, clear, and shine∣ing.
Tough Graver, is one of a good temper, neither too hard, and so brittle: nor too soft, and so never keep a Point.
Clear or Clean your Graver, is to strike it into a piece of hard Wood, to take off all the roughness out of the point which was caused through whetting.
Scrape your stroaks, that is a•ter you have done the Hatching, with the sharp edge of the burnisher, or back of the Graver: run over the Plate to take off the roughness of the stroaks.
Traced or Drawn, is the first draught on the Plate with the drawing Point, or Needle.
Carved or Graven on Wood, is Figures cut on Wood for Printing, it is termed cutting of Wood Prints.
Coppy, is the thing designed to be Engraven on the Plate.
Large stroaks, lines made by a square Graver: see Hatches.
Dilicate or Lively stroaks, such as are made by Loseng point Graver.
Hold your Graver, is to keep your Hand and Arm stedfast, and hold the Graver fast in turning the Plate to make crooked and winding stroaks.
Guide your Graver, is to carry it rightly and even, that it makes no scratches with the Graver, called Slipps.
Hard Tempred, when the point of the Graver oft breaks, it shews it to be too hard tempered.
Blunt, is when the Graver becomes dull, and looseth its Edge, and yet breaks not, shews it to be nought and nothing worth.
It is an Imitation of Graving, but