The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences
Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.

Terms of Herbalists used about Trees and Fruit.

5. THere is no part of a tree, or Fruit, but it hath its peculiar name, which I shall endeavour to set down under these heads; in the Root, in the Stock, in the Leaves, in the Fruit, and in the Excre∣ments.

First, in the Root there is
  • The Main-holder, which is that part of the root next the tree.
  • The sprays, or divided Roots from the Main.
  • The Tuber, the knotted or bunched part of a root.
  • The Suckers, are such as shoot from the Sprays, or Arms of the root, called also Shooters.
  • The Fibres are the small threds, or strings that co•• from the suckers; by which the tree is nourished.
Secondly, from the Body, or stock there is
  • The Stem, or Trunk, is the body of the tree to the branches.
  • The Stock, next to the root.
  • Thh Bark, which hath several Denominations accor∣ding to its being; as rough, smooth, scaly, hairy, mossy.
  • The woody, or outward bark.
  • The rind, or inward bark.
  • The Sap or Bait, is the out-side of the Wood after the bark is taken off with the rind; and by sap we under∣stand the moisture in the tree.
  • The Heart, the middle of all the Tree inward.
  • The Wood, or Timberr, is between the Sap and Heart.
  • The top, the height part of the body.
  • The self-Bore, the growing up of the bark at a bro∣ken bough.
  • The Ioynt or shoot▪ is the knot or joynt from whence a years growth proceeds.
  • The Knots or Knobs, are woody substances that grow out of the sides of any trees.
  • The Thorns, or pricks, are sharp points growing from the branches of some trees, which are straight in some, and crooked in others.
  • The Writhing, is the turning of branches.
  • The Arms of the tree, are the main boughs next the top.
  • The Branches, are smaller boughs that come from the Arms.
  • The sprigs, or twigs, are such as are from the bran∣ches.
  • A slip, is any part of a branch, sliped from the main.
  • The Water shoots, or suckers, are twigs that grow from the roots of trees.
  • The shoots, are such twigs as grow from trees.
  • The sprays, are smaller twigs as grow from them.
  • The Cyons, Siens or Siers, are underlings, or small twigs of a years growth with a joints, which being cut off, is grafted in another stock.
  • The Quill, is the Cane, or space between two such joints.
  • The Pit or Hole, whereat the branches sprout out.
  • The Pith, a soft spungy substance, in the middle of some trees.
Thirdly, in the Leaves there is
  • The Lozenge leaf, of these see cap. 6. numb. 1, 2. &c.
  • The round leaf, of these see cap. 6. numb. 1, 2. &c.
  • The round pointed leaf, of these see cap. 6. numb. 1, 2. &c.
  • The smooth leaf, of these see cap. 6. numb. 1, 2. &c.
  • The rough leaf, of these see cap. 6. numb. 1, 2. &c.
  • The hairy leaf, of these see cap. 6. numb. 1, 2. &c.
  • The hoary leaf, of these see cap. 6. numb. 1, 2. &c.
  • The dented, nicked, or sniped leaf, cut in edges.
  • The waved, or unevenly cut leaf.
  • The crumpled leaf, such as stand bending, and foul∣ding in the edges, and will not lie even.
  • Page  85The foot-stalk, is so much of the stalk, as is from the leaf, to the sprig or branch it is fixed too.
  • The Ears, or fines, are such leaves as grow on the foot-stalk, either naturally small; or through extrava∣gancy, and above natures use.
  • The winged leaf, is such as have 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, &c. leaves on the side of a stalk, and as many set over against them, without any foot-stalk, or else very short ones, with an odd leaf at the end.
  • The Rib, is the chief vein, from the stalk to the end of the leaf; the Master-vein.
  • The middle rib, which hath leaves fixed to either side of it.
  • The nerves, are such veins as run from the rib, to the sides of the leaf.
  • The purvein,
  • The vervain,
  • The Brime, or edge of the leaf.
  • The eyes or buds, that which is at the foot of the foot-stalk where it joyns to the sprig, or branch.
  • The claspers, are tender threads, or hearby strings, by which running and climing branches hold up themselves, by winding about what they find in their way.
  • The tendrel, is the same to claspers.
Fourthly, in the Fruit there is
  • The Catkine, which is the hairy bloom of the Willow, or Chestnut, before the flower, and may be generally used for the first knot, or coming forth of any bud.
  • The bud, the cup, or blossom, &c. See in flower terms.
  • The pod, or berry; is the first knitting of fruit, when the Flower is fallen off.
  • The rind, peeling, or skin of any Fruit, is that as doth cover the out-side, whether it be soft or shell fruit.
  • The urchin rind, is the cover of the Chestnut.
  • The pulp, or pap, of an Apple.
  • The Cork, or Coar, is the skinny thing that keeps in the seed of any fruit.
  • The Cell, is the hollow places, in pods, husks, or coars, in which the seeds are; one fruit having in it several cells, or places in which the seeds are.
  • The Pippins, are the seeds of Apples, Pears, &c.
  • The husk, is a general term, for the thing as covers a∣ny kind of fruit, provided it be either rough, barky, or woody, skinny, or bladder like.
  • The Hulk, hull, or pill, is used for any covering of fruit, that is thin skinned, or easily cut.
  • The Orme, is the same to husk.
  • The Shell, is any woody substance, as covers either seeds, or kernels outwardly, as Nuts.
  • The Stones of fruit, are such shels as are covers for seeds or kernels; within eatable fruit, as Dates, Cherries, Apricocks, Plumbs, &c.
  • The kernel, of shell-fruit, as Nuts, Walnuts, and Almonds.
  • The furrow, is the chones, and clifts, or hollowings, in the corners, or rinds of any fruit.
  • The Ridges, are the swellings of the sides of the fruit.
  • The umbil; is the navel, or daulk in any fruit, just against the stalk; it is also taken for the crown, top, or head of an apple, where the blossom is.
  • The Gristle of the Walnut, is that as lieth between the two halves of the kernel, within the shell.
Fifthly, in the Excrements of Trees and Fruit there is
  • Agarick, an Excrement or hard Mushroom, grow∣ing out of the sides of old Trees.
  • Lungwort, a kind of Moss, with broad tough leaves, diversly folded, crumpled, and gashed in on the edges, and spotted on the upper side.
  • Mushrooms, growing on branches or bodies of Trees, and are of a skinny, soft, spungy substance.
  • Iews Ears, an Excrement from old Alder Trees.
  • Touchwood, a kind of hard, dry, spungy Mush∣room.
  • Moss, as hairy Moss, fennel like Moss, hollow head Moss, broad horned Moss, and knobbed or kneed Moss.
  • Gums, as Araback, a liquid substance from Cherry and Plum Trees. Gum Hedrea, from the Ivy Tree. Gum Tragacanth, from the Goats Thorn. Gum Opopanax, from Panax, the All-heal of Hercules. Gum Sandarack, from the Prickly Cedar. Gum Armoniack, from Gum Lacke, from Ants, as Honey from Bees.
  • Myrrh, a kind of Gum from a tree in Arabia.
  • Camphire, the Gum of Cafar, a tree in Arabia.
  • Mastick, a Gum taken from the mastick, or lentisle tree.
  • Bdellium, like myrrh, not so bitter, & easily to be broken; of a quicker scent.
  • Cambugia, whither Gum, or Juice dried, is not certain.
  • Rosin, a liquid substance from the Firr tree, which after hardens.
  • White Rosin, gathered by Carthage in America.
  • Pitch, from the Pitch tree.
  • Turpentine, from the Turpentine tree.
  • Tar, a compounded Rosin, or Rosin made mollia∣ble.
  • Birdlime, made of the green Bark of the Holly tree.
  • Balsam, or Balm, from the Balsam tree.

And to conclude this Treatise, take the terms used about Trees and Wood when they cease to have life in them; for we say the Tree or Branch is

  • Starved, when it wanted Soil to nourish, or is cut off from the main body.
  • Blasted, or Withered, when Winds have destroy∣ed it.
  • Rotten, Decayed, or Dead, when Age hath ru∣ined it.
  • Cropped, when all its Boughs are cut off.
  • Pruned, when some extravagant Branches are taken away; called also Lopped.
  • A Log is a Stock without Boughs.
  • A Pole, a Tree without Branches or Leaves.
  • A Stake, top of Trees or ends of Boughs.
  • A Stick, a shoot of a tree grown to some substance, then cut from the tree.
  • A Winding or Writhing, a Stick bent and wreath∣en about.
  • A Pile, is many pieces of Wood for Fire, laid toge∣ther, or a piece of Timber to drive into the earth, to lay a Foundation, or build upon.
  • Page  [unnumbered]A Faggot, is many Sticks bound together for Fire, 〈◊〉.
  • A Brush, cutting of small Wood or Branches, and ound in a Bundle for Firing, we call such Kids.
  • A Billet is a piece of Cleft Wood for to Burn.
  • A Nethering, is a twig or stick bent about Stakes and Poles, by which fences and hedges are made secure.
  • A Stump, or Stoe, is that part of the tree in the ground, remaining after the Tree is cut down.
  • A Sliven, Shivered, or Cloven Tree, when it is rent and torn by Winds and Lightnings.