The Life and Death OF OLIVER CROMWEL THE Late Usurper, &c.
FATE, when it decreed and or∣dained the unhappy birth of this Famoso, by he most secret and hidden malice brought him into the World, without any terrible remark of his portentuous Life, neither Comets, nor Earthquakes nor such like Violences of nature, ushering or ac∣companying Him, to the declaring and pointing out, that the Scourge of the English Empire and Nation was now born; as she did by indiscern∣ible methods train him up to the possession of the Throne, and as secretly and cunningly after all his bloody and most nefarious actions shift him Page 2out of it, and with a blast of her spent Fury, turned him into his wish'd for Grave.
Nor did she midwife him into this light, which he so horribly polluted by any unusual preternatu∣ral or monstrous way, not with seeth, or Heels forward, or long hair, nor with any marks up∣on his Flesh, as it is storied of Julius Casar, our Richard the Third, and others; nor were the•e any presagious dreams, or fearful divinations of his Mother when she was impregnate with him, as is mentioned of several, who have proved like him to be the destruction and common Enemies of Mankind.
None of all these signs revealed or discovered the abstruse, and most reserved deep and myste∣rious Fortune of this person, The subtleties, Arts, and Policies of his destiny, potently and irresisti∣bly conspiring with his as close Treasons and dis∣sembled Treacheries, to the ruin and overthrow of this Church and State, singly and insensibly accom∣plished by the mean and unobserved Hand of this bold and perjurious politique.
All therefore that to this purpose is noted of him, is this, that he was born the last year of that wonderful Century of 1500. to begin the next with his fital Marvails, just before the union of the Two Kingdoms of England and Scotland, by King James; as if it were congenial to Crowns, as to the other lesser accessions of Felicity in pri∣vate persons, to have at the same instant a tem∣perament and alloy to their lustre and greatnesse; Page 3that as fortunes right hand presented a Scepter, so her left hand was ready with a Scourge to wreak her •nvy upon the glory and grandeur of that re∣nowned succession to, and accruement, of domi∣nion.
Every thing hath its good and evil Angel, to attend or haunt it, and that grand and happy re∣volution was to be afflicted and prosecuted by this Fury to an almost dissolution of its well compo∣sed, united, and established Frame.
He was born and descended of a very ancient knightly Family of his name in the County of Huntingdon, where for many ages they have had a very large and plentiful patrimony, it will suf∣fice therefore to deduce him from no further ori∣ginals then Sir Henry Cromwell, his Grandfather, a Gentleman highly honoured and beloved both in Court, and Country, who had issue Sir Oliver his eldest Son, Henry, Robert, Richard, and Sir Philip the youngest, (whose Son upon Sus∣picion of poysoning his Master a Lawyer, was accused thereupon and convicted, and hanged some 35. years agoe.) This our Oliver Cromwell was Son of Mr. Robert Cromwell the third Son of Sir Henry, a Gentleman who went no lesse •n esteem and reputation then any of his Ancest∣ors, for his personal worth, which did seem in∣herent in that Family, till his unfortunate pro∣duction of this his Son and Heir, whom he had by his Wife Elizabeth Steward, the Neice of Sir Robert Steward, a Gentleman of a compe∣tent Page 4Fortune in that County, but of such a ma∣ligne effect on the Course of this his Nephews life, as hereafter shall be declared, that if all the Lands he gave him, (as some were Fenny Ground) had been irrecoverably lost and delu∣ged, by any accident or disaster whatsoever, it might have past for a most propitious providen∣tial prevention of that dire mischief and miseries that Estate occasioned.
He was born April the 25. in St. Johns Parish in the Town of Huntingdon, and was christned in that Church the 29. of the same Month Anno Domini 1599. where Sir Oliver Crom∣well his Uncle gave him his name, being received into the bosome of the Church by her Rites and Ceremonies, both which he afterwards rent and tore, and ungraciously and impiously annulled and renounced.
From his Infancy to his Childhood he was of a crosse and peevish disposition, which being hu∣moured by the fondnesse of his Mother, made that rough and intractable temper more robust and outragious in his juvenile years, and adult and Masterless at mans estate.
No sooner therefore had he obtained the u• of his Tongue, but his Father careful of his Edu∣cation, sent him to School to learn the Elements of Language and principalls of Religion, both which he studied with the same indifference, and inside and fallacious endevour, as afterwards ap∣peared by his never speaking what he thought, nor Page 5believing what he heard or was instructed in; so that his main policy was a radical and original hy∣pocrisie, which growing up with him, could not but be at last after so many years of Experience most exquisitely perfected.
From this A. B. C. Discipline and the slight∣ed Governance of a Mistris, his Father removed him to the Tuition of Dr. Beard Schoolmaster of the Free-School in that Tovvn, vvhere his Book began to persecute him, and Learning to commence his great and irreconciliable Enemy; for his Master honestly and severely observing that and other his Faults (vvhich like vveeds, sprung out of his rank and uncultivable nature) did by Correction hope to better his manners; and vvith a diligent Hand and carefull Eye to hinder the thick grovvth of those vices vvhich vvere so predominant and visible in him; yet though herein he trespassed upon that respect and lenity due and usual to Children of his Birth and quality; he prevailed nothing against his ob∣stinate and perverse inclination. The Learning and Civility he had, coming upon him like fits of Enthusiasme, now a hard Student for a week or two, and then a Truant or Otioso for twice as many months; Nunquam sibi constans, of no settled constancy; the very tenour and mode of his future life till his grand attainment.
Among the rest of those ill qualities which fructuated in him at this age, He was very no∣torious for robbing of Orchards; a puerile crime Page 6and an ordinary trespasse, but grown so scanda∣lous and injurious by the frequent spoyls and dam∣age of Trees, breaking of Hedges and Inclosures committed by this Apple Dragon, that many solemn Complaints were made both to his Father and Master for redresse thereof; which missed not their satisfaction and expiation out of his hide, on which so much pains were lost, that, that very offence ripened in him afterwards to the throwing down all boundaries of Law or Con∣science, and the stealing and tasting the forbidden fruit• of Soveraignty, by which as the Serpent told him, He should be like unto a God.
From this, he passed unto another more manly their, the robbing of Dove-houses, stealing the young Pidgeons, and eating and merchandizing of them, and that so publiquely, that he became dreadfully suspect to all the adjacent Countrey; and this was an unhappy allusory Omen of his af∣ter Actions, when he Robb'd the King his So∣veraign of his Innocence and Vertues, and pro∣stituted them to the People and Soul •ery, and made the World about him afraid of his Vil∣lanies.
'Twas at this time of his Adolescency, that he dreamed, or a Familiar rather instincted him and put it into his Head, that he should be King of England; for it cannot be conceived, that now there should be any such near resemblance of truth in Dreams and Divinations (besides the Con∣sidence, with which he •epeated it, and the dif∣ficulty Page 7to make him forget the Arrogant Conceit and opinionated pride he had of himself doth seem to evince, it was some impulse of a Spirit) since they have ceased long agoe. How∣ever the Thought or Vision came, most certain it is, that his Father was exceedingly troubled at it; and having angerly rebuked him for the Va∣nity, and Idlenesse, and Impudence thereof; and seeing him yet persist in the presumption thereof, caused Dr. Beard to whip him for them, which was done to no more purpose than the rest of his Chastisements, his Scholar growing insolent and uncorrigible from those results and svvasions with∣in him, to which all other dictates and Instructi∣ons were uselesse, and as a dead letter.
Now to confirm this Royal Humour the more in his ambitious and vainglorious brain, it hap∣pened (as it was then generally the Custome in all great Free-Schools) that a Play called The five Senses, was to be Acted by the Scholars of this School, and Oliver Cromwell, as a Confident Youth, was. named to Act the part of Tactus the sense of Feeling; in the personation of which as he came out of the Tyring roome upon the Stage, his Head encircled with a Chaplet of Lawrel, he stumbled at a Crown, purposely laid there, which stooping down he took up, and Crovvned himself therevvithall, adding beyond his Cue, some Majestical mighty vvords; and vvith this passage also the Event of his Life held good analogie and proportion, vvhen he chan∣ged Page 8the Lavvrel of his Victories (in the late unnatural War) to all the Povver, Authority, and Splendor that can be imagined vvithin the Compasse of a Crovvn.
Nevertheless the Relation of a Father, and one so stern and strict an Examiner of him, (he being in his ovvn nature of a difficult disposition, and great spirit, and one that would have due di∣stances observed towards him from all persons, which begat him reverence from the Countrey∣people) kept him in some awe and subjection, till his translation to Cambridge, where he was placed in Sydney Colledge, more to satisfie his Fathers curiosity and desire, than out of any hopes of Completing him in his Studies, which never reached any good knowledge of the Latine Tongue.
During his short residence here, where he was more Famous for his Exercises in the Feilds than in the Schools, (in which he never had the honour of, because no worth and merit to, a degree) being one of the chief Match-makers and Players at Foot-ball, Cudgels, or any other boystrous sport or game; His Father Mr. Robert Cromwell died, leaving him to the scope of his own inordinate and irregular will, swayed by the bent of very violent and strong passions.
There is little to be said more of his Father, that is requisite to his Sons Story, further than this, that whereas 'tis reported Oliver kept a Brew-House, that is a mistake; for, the Brew∣house Page 9was kept in his Fathers time, and managed by his Mother and his Fathers Servants, without any concernment of either of these therein, the Accompts being alwayes given to the Mistris, who after her Husbands death did continue in the same Employment and Calling of a Brewer, and thought it no disparagement to sustain the E∣state and port of a younger Brother as Mr. Robert Cromwell was, by those lawful means; however, not so reputable as other gains and Trades are accounted.
It was not long after his Death, er'e Oliver weary of the Muses, and that strict course of Life, (though he gave latitude enough to it in his wilde salleys and flyings out) abandoned the University and returned Home, faluted with the Name of young Mr. Cromwell, now in the room and place of his Father, which how he became, his un∣controlled debaucheries did publiquely declare, for Drinking, Wenching, and the like outrages of licentious youth, none so insam'd as this young Tarquin, who would not be contraried in his Lusts, in the very strain and to the excesse of that Regal Ravisher.
These pranks made his Mother advise with her self and his friends what she should do with him, and to remove the Scandal which had been cast upon the Family by his means, and therefore it was concluded to send him to one of the Inns of Court, under pretence of his studying the Laws, where among the masse of people in Page 10London, and frequency of Vices of all sorts, His might passe in the throng without that parti∣cular reflection upon his relation, and at worst the infamy should stick only on himself.
Lincolns-Inne was the place pitch'd upon, and thither Mr. Cromwell in a sutable Garb to his for∣tunes was sent, where but for a very little while he continued, for the nature of the place and the Studies there were so far regretful be∣yond all his tedious Apprentiship to the more fa∣cile Academick Sciences, (by reason Laws were the bar and obstacle of his impetuous resolutions and the quite contrary to his loose and libertine spirit, that he had a kind of antipathy to his Company and Converse there; and so spent his time in an inward spight, which for that space superseded the enormous extravagancy of his former vitiousnesse. His Vices having a certain kind of intermission, succession, or transmigra∣tion, like a complete revolution of wickednesse into one another. So that few of his Feats were practised here, and it is some kind of good luck for that honourable Society that he hath lest so small and so innocent a Memorial of his Member∣ship therein.
His next traverse was back again into the country to his Mother, and there he fell to his old trade, and frequented his old haunts, consumed his money in tipling, and then ran on score per force; in his drink he used to be so quarrelsome as (few unlesse as mad as himself) durst keep him Page 11company; his chief weapon in which he delighted and at which he fought several times with •ink•∣ers, Pedlars, and the like, (who most an end go armed therewith) was a Quarterstaff; in which he was so skilful, that seldome did any over∣match him. A boysterous discipline and Rudi∣ment of his martial skill and valour, which with so much fiercenesse he manifested afterward in the ensuing War.
These and the like strange, wild, and dishonest actions, made him every where a shame or a terrour, insomuch that the Ale-wives of Hunting∣don and other places, when they saw him a coming would use to cry out to one another, Here comes young Cromwell, shut up your Dores, for he made it no Punctilio to invite his Roysters to a Barrell of Drink, and give it them at the charge of his Host, and in satisfaction thereof either beat him, or break his Windows, if he offered any shew, or gave any look or Sign of refusal or discon∣tent.
His Lustful wantonnesses were not lesse pre∣dominant than the other unruly appetites of his mind, that there might no vice be wanting to make his Life a Systeme of iniquity; the publique, open and more ingenuous vilenesses of his Youth, becoming the several dangerous and druell Villa∣nies of his Old Age, it being now his rude custome, to seise upon all Women he met in his way on the road, and perforce ravish a kiss, by some lewder satisfaction from them; and if any Page 12resistance were made by their Company, then to vindicate and allay this violence and heat of his blood, with the letting out of theirs, whose de∣fence of their Friends Honour, and Chastity, innocently ingaged them. And the same riots was he guilty of against any who would not give him the way; so that he was a Rebell in Man∣ners, long before he was a Belial in Policy.
I am loth to be too large in such particulars, which may render me suspect of belying him, out of prejudice or revenge; but I have heard it con∣firmed so often from knowing persons, and the stories made use of by his party who did thereby magnify his Conversion, making him thus dear and precious unto God, that I was obliged to mention them, partly as due to this Memoir of him, which pretends to an exact Biography, as well in the minute and small beginnings, as in the grand and most important Events of his Life; and partly to set him as a remarque against all Satanical delusions of Instantaneous Sanctity, with which yet at this very day the World is bewitched though they have seen in him the Tragical, even Diabolical effects of his Religious Austerity.
Onely one thing I may not omit: by these lewd actions he had so aliened the affections of his Uncle and Godfather Sir Oliver Cromwell, that he could not endure the sight of him, having in his own presence in the great Hall of his House, where he magnificently treated King James at his assumption to the Crown of England, in a Page 13Christmas time, (which was alwayes highly ob∣served by him by Feasting, and keeping open∣house) played this unhandsome and unseemly trick or frolick; with the Relation of which the Reader will be pleased to indulge me, be∣cause I have seen it raccounted by a Worthy and Learned hand.
It was Sir Oliver's Custome in that Festival, to entertain in his House a Master of Mis-rule or the Revels, to make mirth for the Guests, and to direct the Dances and the Musick, and generally all manner of sport and Gambols; this fellow, Mr. Cromwell having besmeared his own Clothes and hands with Surreverence, ac∣costs in the midst of a frisking Dance, and so grimed him upon every turne, that such a stink was raised, that the Spectators could hardly en∣dure the Room, whereupon the said Master of Mis-rule perceiving the matter, caused him to be laid hold on, and by his Command to be thrown into a Pond adjoyning to the House, and there to be sous'd over head and ears, and rinced of that filth and pollution sticking to him, which was accordingly executed, Sir Oliver suf∣fering his Nephew to undergo the punishment of his unmanerly folly.
By this time and by these wayes, Oliver had run himself out of that little Patrimony he had, and brought his Mother to the same near ruine, when taking a sad prospect from the brink of this destruction, of his present desperate condi∣tion, Page 14a giddy inspiration seised him, and all of a sudden so seemed to change and invert him, that he now became the wonder, who just be∣fore was the hissing and scorn of all people. And that this Conversion might seem true and real, he manifested it with the Publican first in the Temple, the Church, which he devoutly and constantly frequented, affecting the Companies and Discourses of Orthodox Divines, no way given to that Schisme of Non-Conformity, into which Oliver soon after fell, not out of Seducti∣on and Ignorance, but Sedition, and Malice, and Treasonable design.
But this appearance of such a Reformation in him (as he no doubt forecast it) did effectually conduce to his present purpose; for these Reve∣rend Divines, glad of the return of this Pro∣digal, made it their businesse to have him wel∣comed and received with the Fatned Calf, to remove the prejudices that lie upon the narrow∣nesse of Christianity; and therefore severally and joyntly they deal with Sir John Steward his Uncle (for Sir Oliver would by no means hear of him, as being assured and confirmed against him out of some good hints certainly of his own obser∣vation) to take him into his favour, and did at last prevail so upon h•, that he declared him his Heir, and dying soon after, left him an Estate of Four or five hundred pounds a year; which being got and obtained by so impious a practise, a kind of inverted Symony, to purchase Page 15Lands by Counterfeit Gifts and Graces, could not escape the canker of Sacriledge; but in few years mouldered away peece-meal, nothing at all remaining thereof but a thatcht House, with some Lands of Forty or fifty pounds a year, in a Town called Wells, within four miles of Wishich in the Isle of Ely.
In the Interim of this Estate, having served himself of those Venerable Divines, he fell in with some of the preciser sort; began to shew himself at Lectures, to entertain such Preachers at his House, to Countenance that Way, and be very Zealous in all meetings of such People, which then began to be frequent and numerous; and to Exercise with them by praying and the like; to estrange himself from those his benefactors, and at last to appear a publique dissenter from the Dis∣cipline of the Church of England. He had Matched a little before upon the account of this Estate in reversion, with a Kinswoman of Mr. Hambdens, and Mr. Goodwins of Buckingham∣shire, by Name Elizabeth, Daughter of one Sir ... Bowcher, whom he trained up and made the waiting Woman of his Providences, and Lady-rampant of his successeful greatnesse, which she personated afterwards as Imperiously as himself; so did the Incu•us of his bed make her partaker too, in the pleasures of the Throne. Those Men eminent for Puritanisme together with their Preachers, set him up as the prime man of his County, for Religion, Integrity, and true Godlinesse.Page 16
But his Estate still decaying, he betook him∣self at last to a Farme, being parcell of the Roy∣alty of St. Ives, where he intended to Husband it, and try what could be done by endevour, since nothing succeeded (as yet) by Design, and accor∣dingly took Servants, and bought him all Uten∣sils and Materials as Ploughs, Carts, &c. and the better to prosper his own and his mens Labour, every Morning before they stirred out, the Fa∣mily was called together to Prayers, at which exercise very often, they continued so long, that it was Nine of the Clock in the morning before they began their work; which aukward begin∣ning of their Labour sorted with a very sorry Issue; for the effects of those prayers was, that the Hinds and Plowmen seeing this zeal of their Master, which dispensed with the profitable and most Commodious part of the Day for their la∣bour, thought they might borrow the other part, of it for their pleasure, and therefore they com∣monly went to the Plough with a pack of Cards in their pockets, and having turned up two or three Furrows, set themselves down to game till dinner time; when they returned to the second part of their Devotion, and measured out a good part of the afternoon with dinner and a repetiti∣on of some Market Lecture that had been preach∣ed the day before; and that little work that was done, was done so negligently and by halves, that scarce half a Crop ever reared it self upon his Grounds, so that he was (after five years Page 17time) glad to abandon it and get a friend of his to be the Tenant for the remainder of his time.
During his continuance here, he was grown (that is, he pretended to be) so just, and of so scrupulous a Conscience, that having some years before won thirty pounds of one Mr. Calton at play, meeting him accidentally, he desired him to come home with him and to receive his money, telling him, that he had got it of him by indi∣rect and unlawful means, and that it would be a sin in him to detain it any longer; and did really pay the Gentleman the said thirty pound back again.
Now was he therefore thinking of transporting himself and his Family into New England, a re∣ceptacle of the Puritan who flocked thither a∣main, for liberty of Conscience: But he in∣deed, for that his purse and credit were so exhau∣sted that he could no longer stay here, which re∣solution he had taken up before the Estate of his Uncle fell to him, and was put aside it, by the amplitude of that Fortune to maintain him here: with this Estate of his Uncle Stewards, being again set up in the World, and assisted with his borrowed stock of Sanctity, He was look'd upon as a rising person, the Voyage for New England, (the desperate Counsel of his necessity) abandoned, and the port and state of his Family resumed to such a conspicuous Grandeur, that rendred him a Candidate for the ensuing Parliament, and supplied him before with the Ability of disbursing Page 18500 l. upon account of Irish Adventures towards the setling a plantation in Ʋlster, in that King∣dome. Yet was this the very last remains of that accessional Inheritance, He being forced to borrow money in Town here very precariously and by the mediation of friends, though for no greater sums then Ten pounds, (nay formerly ten shillings were acceptable) at several times which he received with this inducing Expression, That though sometime he had made no con∣science of repaying any money, yet he would punctually now keep his word, which indeed he did justly observe; and this an eminent Citizen his Friend and School-fellow hath often declared. The last summe he borrowed being very anxiously besought and intreated, as rising to a 100 l. which upon his growing Greatnesse was pleasured him, and most abusefully imployed in hyring Wagons for the Earl of Essex's Army, then advancing against the King. To this constant and insuperable indigency and ebbe of Fortune was he kept and decreed, to the brink of our Troubles, that his ruines and private misery might the more industriously force him to the reparation of them; by the publique calamities, and then carry him to the mixt Affluence and Excesses of wealth and state Usurpation.
Nor did he omit any other duty or civility, or Office of love to any, especially to those of the Houshold, as they then termed the people of the Separation; insomuch that he had s•tued him∣self Page 19into the affections of a great many well∣meaning people, whose suffrages he obtained a∣gainst his use for them in the long Parliament.
He was a great stickler likewise against ship∣money, in which danger his great friend and pa∣tron Mr. Hambden was so far embarqued: nor was he better affected to the Scotch War, then grow∣ing on, as he to his hazard discovered himself to some Chief Commanders of the English Army, who in their march against the Scots, quartered at his House; which Discourses drawing sus∣picion upon him made him the more popular in those parts who were generally infected with Pu∣ritanisme.
About the same time one Mr. Bernards com∣ing to be Recorder of the Town of Hunting∣don, some difference about precedency of place happened between them, Oliver's Spirit being too high to yeild to any person in that town, where his Family had continued of the best rank some years together, and therefore to avoid the Ces∣sion of his Honour to another, he withdrew him∣self thence just before the summoning of the Long Parliament, and took a dwelling in Cam∣bridge; where upon the Election of Burgesses, by the procurement and means of Mr. Hambden, he was chose Burgesse for that place, and so re∣turned.
Having now attained his desire and aims which was to help to blow up those Coals of dissen∣tion and rage, which had kindled in the breast of Page 20his malecontent party so long, and now were like to have free vent to the setting the kingdoms into a Conflagration; like a right incendiary, where he found any grievance complained of, he would make himself a party concerned in it; Enquire into the number and strength of the Faction that managed the Complaint, proffer his and his friends assistance, encourage them to clamour against the male-administration, and generally set a foot those mischeivous petitions, which were brought thick and threefold to the Parliament, till his Faction had so exasperated the King against them, that there seemed no possibility of recon∣ciling them, making even all the Kings most earnest endevours for an accommodation, argu∣ments of refusing it. And though at first he was none of the principal of the Cabal, being taken in and tutor'd by Mr. Pym and Hambden. (as find∣ing him of a bold and undertaking Spirit of what mischief soever was propounded to him) yet was he notably and highly instrumental and subser∣vient to the Conspiracy, and at last arose to such a knowledge and capacity of the mystery, that he scornd their puny rudiments, when with a deeper Athiesme he set up for himself.
The determinate time was now come for which the cabal of the Puritan had so long la∣boured, and that none of those things which had been so direfully Prophesied of their Schisme (if it ever should attain any power or preva∣lency) might want, or rather not exceed belief; Page 21The whole Kingdome of a suddain, as if some Magical Charme had transform'd the State and shape of it, seemed rather a Scene or bos∣cage of Wild and brutall Creatures, than a Governed or civil Community. But because this particular hath been so largely treated off and is yet fresh in memory and will hardly ever be forgotten, it will not be much material to urge it further, unlesse to the maintainance of this Maxime; That the Uproars and Rebellions of Subjects upon what pretence soever, do al∣wayes end in the greatest Tyrannies and turn to their most unsufferable and ignominious miseries, and that their Darling Demagogues, whom with applauses and Arms they have shouldred up, and have reared and exalted above the reach of the Law, make it no nicety afterwards to trample upon the Necks of their raisers; and to swim in their Blood which itching swell'd their ambiti∣on to the Throne.
Nor did the Volge know when, or could their Boutefeus tell where to cease, what Issue would happen of these their troubles; Rash and blind Fu∣ries that made way to the unobserved advance∣ment of this private Male-content, who like Marius from his lurking holes in the Fens of Minturna after the defeat of his fortunes, crept into the Supreme Power, and died his pur∣ple with a more indelible tincture of Noble and Plebeyan blood.
The Jealousies and Fears and the like piques Page 22and quarrelling pretences of the Parliament pro∣ving hopelesse of reconcilement or accommoda∣tion by the artifices of a Faction, wherein Mr. Pyns, Hambden; and other Puny's with Crom∣wel, mainly bu•ed themselves: and the just Judge∣ment of God giving up up, our Peace, Prospe∣rity and Plenty to the Calamity of a most un∣natural War, the long desired occasion and ex∣pectation of those who had lodg'd their private hopes in the Common Ruine, did most glad∣somely salute the Designs of Oliver, who ha∣ving spent the utmost farthing of his Estate, and secured from an Imprisonment by his priviledge as a Member, was one of the first of those ad∣venturous Knights that mounted the Good Cause behind them, and so took the Feild, which now Ploughed with Swords and Spears, and watered with Blood, answered its long denyed increase, and from a lucklesse Pesant made him a fortunate Pedant Prince.
For Enyo no •ooner sounded her Trumpets under the Earl of Essex's Banners then entitled Generallissimo for th• King and Parliament, but Gromwell offered him his Service, and was there∣upon honoured with a Commission of Captain of Horse, which to raise, he returned to his own County of Huntingdon, where among the Zea∣lots he was never had in greater Estimation. He was likewise named a Commissioner in the Ordinance for the Militia for that and the neighbouring Shires then entering into an Asso∣ciation Page 23against the King, the Ground worke and eminent endevour of this great Conspirator, in pursuance of that rebellious Project of his party at Westminster; following herein the practice of all Ringleaders, who do first collect rabbles, and engage and assure places of retreat and fastnesse to all Events, though herein he practiced the more difficult and unprecedented combination of a people, for Wealth, and Sobriety, and Civi∣lity, and judgement (for a great part most con∣trary to his Designs) little to be suspected of taking part with him. But it so luckily evened to him, that by his lopping off, as it were, this Limb of the Kingdome, and depriving the King thereby of any assistance thence, and of the conve∣nience of the ports of those Eastern Counties for any forraign supplies, one Canton of the King∣dome was as planet struck in point of Allegiance, and not only a Member, — Mancum & inutile dextre Pers. but of a very sinister consequence to the Royal Cause, the Gangreen thereof spreading and dif∣fusing it self through the whole Masse of the Nation, by feeding the Humourous rage of the War through the whole distemper thereof, till it finally consumed all; this being the abundant Magazine of Men and Horses for the Parliament Service.
This therefore was Cromwell's first Province or Superintendency, wherein he exercised the ori∣ginal Office of a Major General, when as yet Page 24he sounded no more then a Captain, being the chief Committee-man of the Association, making himself most notably eminent by his activity and zealous industry in promoting the good Cause, and levying and listing of Forces, and Disciplining them, the skill whereof he had presently learned, from an exact observation of some veterane com∣manders, viz. Coll. Dolbier, whom he had by great sums of advance money, and as extraordinary pay allured to his side.
The grosse of those Troops he raised here and sent from this Seminary to the Camp and School of Action, were such, whose dull Spirits were to be beaten into the knowledge of Arms, and like the Turks Asapi were on purpose sent thither to blunt the weapons of the Kings generous Ca∣valry, on purpose to beget in them a relash and contemptuous neglect, of so base and despicable an enemy; that such their regardlesse confidence might conclude their ruine. He himself was all the while continued by especial Order of Parliament in this Employment like an Indepen∣dent Commander to have an Eye upon any At∣tempts that might be made thereabouts, and as a purer and preciser reserve to the mix'd multitude, that then from the equal motives of pay and zea∣lotry rusht into the War.
And therefore Oliver, understanding how miserably the Cavalry freshmen of his party were worsted at every Encounter, and well know∣ing the nature of the quarrell; (which was pre∣tended Page 25for Religion) resolved and advised, that there were no men so likely to oppose the con∣quering Gallantry of those Gentlemen on the Kings side, then such who were or should be engaged upon account of Conscience and Zeal which would Spirit them with the same magnani∣mous Fortitude, and make them also to endure the difficulties and hardships of the War, with a more pertinacious Constancy, as having bodies better able, and minds more finely sublimed upon that score pro aris & focis then the mix'd and most rascally Herd of loose and vicious peo∣ple.
Against the dangerous evil of this Association, the King directed his Commission of Array, which was first put in execution in Hartfordshire, by Sir Henry Conisby High Sheriff of that Coun∣ty, who proclaimed it at St. Albans, and inten∣ded to raise the County to the Kings Assistance, but by the vigilance of Oliver Cromwell, the Design was prevented; for by that time the Members at Westminster had notice of Sir Henry's Loyal endevour, Cromwell with a party of horse had surprized and seized that party almost in the very instant of their appearance, and sent Sir Henry and some other prime Gentlemen enga∣ged with him, Prisoners to London, to the great satisfaction and liking of the Parliament Gran∣dees, who were at first agast at an attempt made for the King so neer their own Dores: and there∣upon this their Commander was ordered the Page 26Thanks of the House, and from thence forward look'd upon as an eminent person, and a Cham∣pion of the Cause, which now jeoparded it in the field, whence the towardly settlement of these parts, with-held Cromwell in this Province, which like a peice of the former Heptarchy he himself ruled and governed absolutely and pro imperio.
His next peice of Service was of the like na∣ture, and of the same evil Consequence to the King. For divers Gentlemen of the County of Suffolk (another of the associated Counties) resenting this Curb upon their Allegiance, and the sawcy Edicts and Commands of the Commit∣tees, which were made up of the meanest of the Gentry, and Burgesses of the Towns, designed together to free themselves and their Country from the yoake of these new Lords, the chief of these Gentlemen were Sir John Pe•tus, Sir Edw. Barker, &c. who having in order to their Con∣juncture, rendezvouzed at Lowerstofe in that County, were by the preventing diligence of Cromwell, seized and secured, and thereby such a Break-neck given to any future Royal underta∣kings in those parts (the rendition of Lyn Regis which then held for the King, soon after follow∣ing this defeat and disappointment) that through∣out the whole course of the War there happened not any the least Commotion in favour of His Majesties Arms, either by supply, assistance, or diversion.Page 27
Things being thus quieted thereabouts and dis∣posed to the Interest of the Juncto, there re∣mained after the military part, a Scholastical la∣bour for this Parliamentary Hercules, the zealons cleansing of the University of Cambridge, the Parent of this Viper, who just before his in∣fectious production into the main Army, (whi∣ther he was now designed) did miserably exente∣rate her, leaving her a sad and doleful Skeleton, deprived of so many learned and religious per∣sons, whose only charge was, that they adhered to the Dictates of their Conscience, and the Obligations of those Oaths, which just Authori∣ty had enjoyned, against the novel and illegal Commands and Covenants, forcibly imposed and obtruded on them. In this destructive work, his module and method of Ambition, Cromwell was mainly and chiefly active, as also against the Orthodox and Protestant Ministry, and their Churches, defacing all the Ornaments and Beau∣ty thereof, leaving them the ruinous Spectacle of his Reformation.
And from this Employment now finished he was Commissioned Lieutenant General to the Earl of Manchester, who had the separate com∣mand in a distinct Supremacy of these associated Counties, and was designed to march Northwards with those Forces and joyn with the Scots newly entred England, and the Lord Fairfax, against the Marquiss of Newcastle, who was General for the King in those parts, and yet ballanced the Page 28Fortune of War against that potent Scotch Inva∣sion; but upon the conjuncture and addition of the Earl of Manchester's fresh and well disciplined and armed forces, the said Marquiss was con∣strained to quit the field, and distribute his Ar∣my into the Garrisons, he himself shutting up the best part of it in the City of York, which the Confederates presently besieged, and made se∣veral venturous attempts, wherein Cromwell was none of the backwardest, though always re∣pulsed with losse and considerable slaughter.
The importance of this place, and juncture of time, which either won or lost the North to the King (who had newly had great successe in the West by the defeating of the Earl of Essex at Lestithiel in Cornwall) caused him to send away Prince Rupert as Generalissimo, with a very po∣tent Army to raise that Siege, and fight the Ene∣my if he found occasion. The Prince accordingly advanced, and upon his approach the Confede∣rates drew off from their Leagure, affording the Garrison liberty to joyn with their friends, when it was resolved by the Prince, without any delay to give Battel; though the Marquiss knowing what hazzard the Kings Interest, and his own, and all the Loyal parties Estates would thereby be put to, did very much diswade the suddennesse of the Encounter, which notwithstanding ensued on the Evening of the same day July 2. On Marston-Moor within Three miles of York, and lasted till Night.Page 29
It will be tedious and beside our purpose to re∣late the whole order and manner of the Battell, further then this, that the Scots and my Lord Fairfaxes Forces were totally routed and per•ued some miles out of the field, and the day given for lost, when Cromwell with his associated Horse most of them Curassiers in the left wing, seeing this discomfiture, fell on with great resolution and courage, and worsted the Prince and his re∣serves, and with the same fury fell upon the Mar∣quisses foot, whose Regiment of White-Coats, and therefore called his Lambs, yet stood and could not be broken, till the field being almost cleared, the Parliaments Infantry came up, and then both horse and foot charged and broke them; Cromwell here made a very great Slaughter and Carnage, especially in the rout and pursuit, pur∣posely to make his name terrible, this being his first and grand appearance, gaining here the Title of Ironsides, from the impenetrable strength of his Troops, which could by no means be broken or divided.
The successe of this day made him indeed high∣ly famous, and his Lawrells most verdant and flourishing, the Victory being principally ascri∣bed to his courage and conduct. His Cuncta∣tion and temperate delay were highly magnified; and then his Resolution in the desperation of the Event extolled the firmnesse and constant e∣quality of his mind, when intrepidly and fixedly he beheld the overthrow of the grosse of their Page 30Army, and thereby animated his Troops to the more vigorous recovery of the day, now that the adverse fury was spent in the chase of their Fel∣lows the Scots, whom Cromwell ever afterwards though in Covenant with them, most disdainfully despised, but not only for this reason.
The Credit of this Atchievement was industri∣ously cryed up at Westminster, and all the Gran∣dezza's of Scriptural Ovation fitted and accom∣modated thereto; He himself with the same con∣quering Troops, as yet in the same quality under the Earl of Manchester, was remanded from the North to oppose the King, then returning victo∣rious out of the West; and because the Earl of Essex had hither to been unfortunate, therefore this lucky Cheiftain was added as his better Star, at the second Battel of Newberry, within font Months after Marston Moor; and here again the Fates favoured him, though not with a complete Victory, yet on that side where he fought with a part of one, and so much as endangered the per∣son of the King, if the noble and stout Earl of Cleveland had not hazardously interposed, and bore off the pursuit.
This indifference of Fortune begot very great differences among the Parliament Commanders, one Taxing the other of Neglect, Treachery, or Cowardize, and by what means it could come to passe that nothing was yet effected against the King, whom in the beginning of the War they had thought to have swallowed up presently? Not Page 31were the divisions lesse at home then in the camp, •or now the younger Brother of the Rebellion, the Independant Faction began to appear; a pre∣ciser and severer sort of Zealots, who thought Essex and his Army not righteous enough, nor fit instruments, in whose hands the work of Refor∣mation should ever be blessed to an attainment, and that therefore it was fit the Army should be purged of such Officers, or the Cause would never prosper. To the same purpose Oliver was tam∣pering with his Myrmidons, frequently bewail∣ing the want of Faith and Grace in the heart of the Soldiery, which alone retarded the desired Conclusion, that the great men of the Army minded themselves more then God or his people, and that purposely they protracted the war, not sparing to insimulate his own General the Earl of Manchester of the same prevarications, aggra∣vating the affront he received before Dennington-Castle, and some other later miscarriages, which coming to the Ear of the said Earl, who rightly guessed the ambitious Drifts of his Lieut. General. He caused a Charge and impeachment to be drawn up against him for some misdemeanors in the Army, as stirring up of Mutiny, &c. and deli∣vered it to the Lords, to whose Bar Cromwell was summoned, but he refused their Jurisdiction, pleading his priviledge as a member of the House of Commons, who alone had Cognizance of him: and to be even with the Earl recriminated him in the same manner to the House of Com∣mons, Page 32but both these accusations stuck upon the file without any prosecution on either side, either party as yet afraid of the other, and distrustful of their plots, not having yet attained the ab∣solute power from the King, which was the only subject of the Quarrel. So soon did these twins of the Usurpation struggle in the wombe of their Ambition, and though Presbytery was midwifed first, yet Independency carryed away the Blessing or rather the Curse of their prosperous Vio∣lence.
For the Independents had insinuated such plau∣sible Expedients for the redresse of this evil Management of the Army, and by their au∣sterer Piety (which Oliver most devoutly per∣sonated, being frequent in praying and preach∣ing in his Quarters) had conciliated such an esteem of their Counsels, which were absolute Intrigues to the contrary Faction, that a Re∣solution was taken to module the Army, and appoint a new General; and in this Consulta∣tion great part of the Winter 1644. was taken up, the rest was spent in a seeming tendency to Peace, by a Treaty held at Uxbridge, which Affair concerned Cromwell no further then thus, that it showed how eminent and great a man he was taken to be, being named in the Parliaments Demands and Propositions, for one of the standing Commissioners, to vvhose trust and ex∣ercise the Militia of the Kingdome (upon A∣greement) should be committed.Page 33
While these and the like Articles were in vain debating, the prosecution of the War was ef∣fectually intended, and the new module so far advanced, that an Ordinance passed the two Houses, wherein it was forbidden any Member of either House to have any Command in the Ar∣my or Garrisons, and the time limited to forty dayes from the publishing the said Ordinance. By this fair and impartial dealing (as they cal∣led it) the Earls of Essex, Manchester, Stam∣ford, and Denbigh; Sir William Waller, Sir Phi∣lip Stapleton, and others were lay'd aside, only Lieutenant Generall Cromwell, was respited for a while longer, because of his present use∣fulnesse in that unsettled Condition of the At∣my, and because he had been of an unexampled successe and Conduct: In the place of Essex, Sir Thomas Fairfax was made Generall, and he Issued out Commissions to such whom the Inde∣pendents favoured, most of the supreme Offi∣cers being discarded, and entitled the Refor∣madoes, and left a begging their pay, and their In∣feriour ones substituted in their places. Among the rest of these New blades, Ireton was raised to be Commissary General of the Horse, Crom∣well's second, who had newly married 〈◊〉 of his Daughters, and was as neer in brain to him as in blood.
This continuance of Cromwell in his Command after all the other Members of Parliament were laid aside at last upon the marching of the Army in Page 34the beginning of the Year 1645. styled him Lieutenant General; a little before which he had doctrinated his Regiment in the new mode of Addresses to the Parliament, and to the Ge∣neral, setting forth their acquiescences and glad∣nesse in this frame and module of the Army, and that they were ready to lay down their lives in prosecution of the good Cause so far advan∣ced: and this Arche-type was soon after follow∣ed by every Regiment and Garrison, whereunto none but the Creatures and Confidents of In∣dependency were now admitted.
For from the first Head-quarters of this Army, Cromwell (having newly come out of the West, and tendred his Service to the General if the Parliament should think fit, but intimating his sorrow that he seated he should not have the Honour to wait upon him (when at the very in∣stant came down another dispensation) was sent with a flying party of Horse (by his party'• prevalency in the House for forty dayes longer) to intercept a Convoy of Horse which was the Queens Regiment, the Earl of Northampton's• and Collonel Palmer's, with some other Troops, coming to Oxford to bring off the King with his Train of Artillery, who made such haste, that at Islip Bridge he surprized and routed them, took four hundred Horse and two hundred Pri∣soners with the Queens Standard, and continu∣ing his good speed having got intelligence of 〈◊〉 Party of three hundred and fifty Foot under Page 35Sir William Vaughan, who were marching to∣wards Radcot-Bridge, he pursued them and took the said Sir William, Lieutenant Collonel Litle∣ton, and two hundred more prisoners, and im∣mediately lummoned Blechingdon-House not far distant from the place, whither some Ladies were newly come to give a visit to Coll. Winde∣bank's (the Governour's) Bride, who being af∣frighted with the suddennesse of the danger, never left importuning the unfortunate Gentle∣man till he rendred the Garrison, though Crom∣well for want of Foot, could never have forced him out, making use of this Stratagem by rai∣sing a Cry of, Fall on Foot, fall on; for this surrender, upon his coming to Oxford, by Sen∣tence of a Council of War he was shot to death, leaving his Widdow to blast with her sighs and tears, Cromwell's Lawrels, who with this envious Triumph returned to his General. And this first happy Exploit done by him in the beginning of the Expedition, was taken and published for a good Omen of his future Service, and there∣fore the Prudence of the Parliament was much commended in continuing him in Command, who was so hopeful and Instrument of carrying on the remaining work through so many difficulties, which had so long, and yet seemed so insuper∣ably to impede it. Thus did his Faction and Partisans prepare and sublime him to his succeed∣ing Enterprises and Designes after the expirati∣on of the War.Page 36
To enhance this reputation and to secure his Continuance in the Army, he next resolved upon a gallanter, and more hazardous Attempt, the reducing of Farringdon house, which had been an impregnable and most advantagious Garrison for the King, the Governour, was Sir George Lisle, a person of an invincible Spirit, and eminent throughout the War; to the better effect of this Design, he borrowed 600 foot of M. G. Brown, from Abingdon, and with them fell presently to storming, but was notably repulsed, losing 50. men, without any successe at all, and before he could get off was attaqued by a party of General Gorings Horse, commanded by himself then newly come out of the West from Taunton Seige, who being as vigilant and valourous a Com∣mander as himself, gave Cromwell the first brush he received in the War, taking three Colours and Major Bethel prisoner, and so returned to his former Leaguer at Taunton.
In the mean while, General Fairfax by Or∣der of the Committee of both Kingdoms of England and Scotland, who ordered the Conduct of the War, was advancing into the West for the relief of the said Town of Taunton, and because the King was yet at Oxford preparing to take the Feild, Cromwell was left behind in the same parts, where now he quartered with Ma∣jor General Brown to attend the Kings motion, and to impede his Conjunctures with the Princes Rupert and Maurice, then comming with•Page 37Compleat Body of Horse out of Worcestershire, but His Majesty had equipped so gallant an Ar∣my, that Cromwell durst not venture to fight him or retard his march any whither, so that Fairfax was presently recalled and ordered to sit down before Oxford, to reduce the King to the care of that place, and upon advantages to fight him: when News came that the King having joyned with the Princes, and relieved Chestor besieged by Sir William Brereton, was now re∣turning and bending his March towards the Asso∣ciate Counties, the heart and unrouch'd strength of the Parliament Cause, and therefore Cromwell was immediately dispatch'd into the Isle of Ely, with three Troops, to secure that against any In∣vasion, it being as the Bulwark or Fortresse of the rest. But the King diverting from that course, came and sate down before Leicester, and after summons stormed and took it, which put the Par∣liament into such a fright, that they commanded Fairfax to rise from Oxford, and presently find out the King and fight him, who was now (as he himself writ to the Queen) in a better and more successeful condition then any time since the War. This Order Fairfax (having never sent in a summons to the City, as forejudging he should rise without it disgracefully) readily obeyed but withall requested them that they would forth∣with dispatch away Cromwell from the Isle of Ely, to command the Horse, extolling his Experience and Sucoeffe in that Service.Page 38
Accordingly Cromwell reinforced and recruted with some Troops of the Association, returned to the Army then marching to Northampton, where the General was informed that the King lay about Daventry, quartering his Foot and Carria∣ges upon Borough hill, as if he intended to fight upon that ground if they should advance, but he stayed only till the 1200 Horse which he had sent to carry the Cattle he had taken out of Leicester and Northamptonshire, for the supply of Oxford, were returned, intending thence according to advice of his Councel of War to march to the re∣lief of Pomfret Castle in the North, and to re∣duce those parts lost to him ever since Marst• Moor, and so to draw on Fairfax after him, and fight him at advantage, which he could not do in these Counties, that were every were Garrisoned by the Parliament forces.
But this Resolution, the quicker Consultation and Opinion of Cromwell soon disappointed, for by his advice (now that their Army could expect no other Additions but Coll. Rossiter, who was then also in a Days march of them, for Sir John Gell was joyned already) Ireton was presently dispatcht with a Brigade of Horse to observe the posture of the Kings Army, and if they we• upon their March Northwards, to skirmish then in the Rear, and keep them in Action till the whole body could come up and engage; June the 13. Fairfax came to Gilsborough, within 5 miles of Borongh hill, whence the Cavaliers, the 120•Page 39Horse being returned, were marching northwards: and the next night to the wonder and amazement of the King, Ireton gave an Alarum to His Own quarters at Naseby, whence about a 11. of the Clock the King dislodged and hast•ed to Harbo∣rough, where Prince Rupert and the Van of the Army was quartered; here a Council of War was presently convened, and by the Kings fatal Opi∣nion concluded, that because there was danger of bringing off the real of his Army, the Enemy pressing so near and hard upon them, that there∣fore they should desist from their March further Northwards, and immediately turn back upon the Enemy and give him Battel, relying chiefly upon the valour of the Infantry, now flusht and encouraged with the Plunder and spoil of Lei∣cester.
This was put in execution (though the major voyces were for staying till General Goring with his forces were come up) and the Kings will o∣beyed. For very early in the Morning the Scouts brought word that the King was making all hast to the Engagement, being falsly informed that Fair∣fax in fear was retreating to Northampton, where∣as he had now disposed of Naseby-field, & awaited Him, having Cromwell with Whalley on his right wing, and Ireton on his left, the one opposed to my Lord Langdale, and the Northern Horse, and the other to Prince Rupert, General of the Cavalry, the King himself being Generalissimo. To come to the Event, Prince Rupert totally Page 40routed Ireton, who being engaged and driven upon the Kings rightmost foot, was there woun∣ded in the Thigh with a Halbert and taken Pri∣soner, and the Field on that hand cleared; which Fairfax and Cromwell observing, having not yet stirred from their ground, Fairfax with a short Speech encouraged the Troops to the Charge; which was seconded with some devout ejaculations from Cromwell, who clapping Spurs to his Horse fell in with Langdale's Brigade, and quite char∣ged through three bodies and utterly broke them, nor did he stop till with fine force he had likewise beat that Wing from their ground, without possi∣bility of rallying or recovering it again. In this Action, a Commander of the Kings knowing Gromwell, advanced smartly from the Head of his Troops to exchange a Bullet singly with him and was with the like galant•y encountred by him, both sides forbearing to come in, till their Pisto• being discharged, the Cavalier with a slanting Back-blow of a broad Sword, having cut the Ri∣bond that tyed his Murrion, and with a draw threw it off his head, and now ready to repeat his stroke, his party came in and rescued him, and one of them alighting threw up his Headpiece into his Saddle, which Oliver hastily catching, as be∣ing affrighted with the chance, clapt it the wrong way on his head, and so fought with it the rest of the day, which proved most highly fortunate 〈◊〉 his side, (though the King most magnanimou• and expertly managed the sight, exposing himself Page 41to the eminentest perils of the Feild) & raised him beyond the Arts and reach of Envy or his Enemies of the Presbyterian party, who had so long been heaving at him to out him off all Military employment, which concluding so per∣tinently and peremptorily for him in this grand Event, did charm the hatred and prejudice against him, into fear and dread what this arrogance of his fortune would finally aspire to.
This Battell wholly overthrew the King, who was never after able to make head against the Parliament Forces, but peece-meal lost his Ar∣mies, Castles, and Towns; Fairfax taking in the remoter Western Garrisons, while Cromwell was employed nearer to London, being sure to have one eye on the Counsells of the Parliament, as well as the other intent against the King. Among the rest of those places taken by him, as Winchester, the Devizes and Langford-house; Basing-house, that had defeated so many Seiges and ruined so many Leagures, was not able to withstand the Fortune of this Victor, but humbled it self to dust and ruine at his first and terrible approch.
The war now almost expired, he began to ru∣minate on his former Dreams, and to adjust those strange revolutions and unexpected alterations of the times and the Government, to his former Fancy, in which he had so much affiance anew, that he became resolutely confirmed, that all those things were brought about meerly to fulfill Page 42that Oracle of his Imagination, That he should be King. And therefore he thought it a just reve∣rence to his Fate to neglect no advantages, occa∣sions and means which might conduce to the accomplishment of its mysterie, and conciliate it's constant affection and favour to him. One thing primarily requisite was the assistance and Counsell of some confident Privado, and to this purpose he had before pitch'd upon Coll. Ireton, a man of a most profound and deep dissimulation and of a most clean conveyance of any mischei∣vous design, one very well learned, but who had converted it (as Toads do the best nutriment unto the most exquisite poyson) to barbarous and most Horrid Artifices of impiety and Treason; this man Cromwell made sure to him first by marriage as abovesaid, and now by a more mutuall endear∣ment, the partnership of the Soveraignty, which they agreed to seize; and from henceforth they never ceased plotting and conspiring, now collo∣guing with this party, then with that, and foment∣ing divisions still betwixt all, till with these many strange patches of Policy, Cromwell made himself a Protectoral Robe, with which he was not many years after solemnly vested.
In the mean time the King in Oxford fear∣ing a Seige, and having no better shelter in Eng∣land to secure himself, after he had in vain woed the Parliament from this his Court to a Treaty and agreement; designed an escape out of their hands, and to that purpose (Collonel RainsboroughPage 43and othe• Forces at a distance lying about all the passes of the City) by Coll. Ashburnhams means, procured a passe from the Generall for the said Coll. Ashburnham and his two servants, to Travel from Oxford upon some pretence of private businesse of the Collonel, and by vertue, thereof in a Disguise of a Servant passed their Guards, and after many traverses delivered himself into the Scotch hands then beseiging Newark. Herein Cromwell most cunningly and deceitfully first practiced the Kings ruine, for whereas upon the rendition of that City if the King had been taken in it, a sudden end had been put to the Troubles by some composure, which would have marred Cromwell's plots, not to be acted but by a Stratocracy and an Army; by this means of suffering the King to escape, which might easily have been prevented, the war was no nearer a conclusion then at the beginning, if the Scots as was hoped howsoever would have proved honest, and kept their Allegiance & Faith due to such ex∣traordinary confidence and trust reposed in them. 〈◊〉. Now to carry on their Treason the more irresistibly and indiscoverably, upon a plausible pretence of lessening the charge of the Kingdom, they concluded to put their Partisans in the Par∣liament (who gaped for the spoil of the Kingdom and would be content with that) to motion a disbanding of some Regiments of the Army, which being a just and necessary work was assented to by many Patriots who understood not the drift of Page 44the Conspiracy and accordingly Major Generall Massey and Coll. Cook and their Brigades were ordered to disband, amounting to Two Thousand five hundred Horse, which journey work was put upon Generall Fairfax, who at the D• performed it giving them six Weeks pay for many Months arrears, divers of the disbanded 〈◊〉 from very remote Countries, and had passes 〈◊〉 for Mesopotamia, some for Egypt, and Eth••pi•.
M. G. Massey was he whom they aimed at in this Dismission, as too much an Essexian, and of juster and honester principles then their designs would allow, of a very great interest in the Army also, & very well esteemed and beloved by them, as being of a clear spirit and as valorous as the best of them, and would dare to oppose any rebellious practice whatsoever against the Authority of their Masters. Besides this Cromwell had a further reach to the future on the Parliament likewise, first to make hereby a division and beget and stir some ill humour in the Army, as if that were the leading case, next to make those Officers that should con∣tinue, when they should perceive at whose beck they must stand or fall, more fixedly dependant on him, and then to instill unto them his own Traiterous designs and purposes; and so having the Army entire at his devotion effect and bring to passe his Royal projections. Massey submitted but carried the revenges of this affront and Cab•l with him to the Parliament House.Page 45
Cromwell upon this Accident was at Westmin∣ster, and perceived by the tosse and perplexity the Parliament was in about the King's Person, that it was a brave thing to be a Monarch, and therefore concluded it very necessary to other his Elements and Points of Policy to get Possession if he could, of His Majesty, and thereupon his party, the Independent's F•ction, being so instructed fall violently upon the Scots, and would have run it up to little lesse then Trea∣son for the Scots to detain the Kings 〈◊〉 this pur∣pose divers Resolutions and Messages passed, but it appearing in the Conclusion that the Scots drove at a Bargain, Cromwell and his Faction must rea∣dily agreed to strike it, and so the King was de∣livered to the English Commissioners at New-Castle.
Yet that nothing might slip or passed which any way promoted his ambitious purposes, he made use of this agreement of the 200000 l to be paid the Scots, by his Agents to mutiny the Army under General Poyntz, another Presbyterian Com∣mander then at York, upon their Guard against the said Scots, as if the Parliament had no care or respect for them, but that Forraigners should be paid with their money; and then afterwards upon the ceasing that Tumult and military Sedi∣tion, to get Poyntz dismissed, as too remisse and negligent in his Command. And not long after died the Earl of Essex, one whom Oliver more feared then any or all the Presbyterian Officers to∣gether, Page 46Death officiously removing this great im∣pediment also; so that by this time there was not an Officer left in the Army that did not acknowledge Cromwell's Sultanship; the General himself being lulled and bewitched with the Syren Charms of his zealous insinuations.
The Presbyterian Party in the Parliament began now to be sensible, whither these devices tended, and therefore to Counterplot this Caball of Crom∣wells, they resolved upon a new disbanding of some (the Scots having friendly departed home) and transporting of other Regiments for the ser∣vice of Ireland, for that the necessity of that Kingdome did require the Translation of the wa• thither; This the Independents presently percei∣ved, and gave Cromwell timely notice of, who knowing himself to be principally aimed at, cau∣sed it by some of his Familiars to be spread about the Souldiery, that the Parliament by the major Vote of some corrupt Members, had voted the disbanding of the Army to cheat them of their Arrears, and then to send them in a necessitous condition into Ireland, to be there knock'd 〈◊〉 the Head by the Rebells. This presently put the Common Soldiers into such a rage, who always judge by the first appearance, that they •lew out into most opprobrious and reviling Language a∣gainst the Parliament but fury being no present remedy to this evil, Ireton an• his instructed Pu∣pills prescribe a Module never heard of or practi∣sed in War before, of a Military Common-Council, Page 47who should assemble 2 commission Offi∣cers, and two private Soldiers out of every Regi∣ment, to consult for the good of the Army, to draw up their grievances and present them to the Ge∣neral, and he to the Parliament, these to be called by the name of Adjutators.
Having thus made sure of the Army, he thought it time now to make sure of the King, whom the Parliaments Commissioners had brought to his Captivity at Holmby-house, and therefore Ireton and he having sometime before acquainted them∣selves with the King in this his restraint, and vow∣ed and protested their readinesse to serve him, to the ensnaring the Kings belief, while they con∣doled the hard usage and unreasonable carriage of the Parliament towards him, especially in point of Liberty of Conscience, and the Worship of God (His Majesties Chaplains having been ob∣stinately refused him) they judged it no difficult thing to get his person into their Custody and deceive his good nature, with the same semblances of it in themselves, only the manner was not pre∣sently resolved by them. For without the Generals consent and command it could not be done in his name, nor might it avowedly be done by the Councill of War, for it would be a peremptory and hazardous enterprise, and engage the whole Kingdome about their Ears, but at last it was concluded betwixt them that this surprizal of the King should be fathered on the Council of Adju∣tators, as the sense and Act of the Army. Thus in Page 48all these pushes and puzzels of accidents did they extricate themselves by that Mungrill consistory a meer Chim••• or Brainsick Idaea of a convention which was conversant only about shadowes and umbrages of things, while Cromwell ran away with the substance.
This way being agreed upon, one Cornet Joyce a busie pragmaticall person, whom Cromwell his Familiar had tutoured in the Method of boldnesse and Rebellion, was privately conferred with about it, and after some familiar compellations hugged into the Conspiracy, and immediately dispatch'd away with a party of 1000 Horse on the 4. of June, to Holmby, where he arrived late at Night, but being very importunate to speak with the King, was by his order admitted, to whom he declared his •••and, and being demanded by whose Authority, whither by the Generall or Councell of War, no other answer could be drawn from him, but that it was from the Army, adding that if the King should refuse to go along with him he must carry him away per force.
The King neverthelesse deliberated the whole night, and consulted with the Parliaments Com∣missioners, what was most adviseable for him to do, though the sway of his judgement in 〈◊〉 him to the Army Custody (from a just 〈◊〉 of the sullennesse and Rebellious obstinacy of the Parliament) who had by Joyce offered him (as the last and chief Artifide of Cromwell to all 〈◊〉 of ranks and persons) the liberty of Conscience with other specious and dutiful pretences.Page 49
From Holmby therefore next morning the King was carried to Childersly, then the head quarters of the Army, though the King desired to go to Newmarket his own house, as perswading himself in some greater degree of Royalty, then in the Parliaments Tuition; but this was at first denyed and a complementary amends made him by the Generall, and more particularly by Cromwell, that His Majesty could no where be safer or more regally honoured then in their quarters, which were the only Sanctuary of his person.
This daring presumption of seizing the King, gave light to the World what this Oliver would at last appear, though no certain Conclusions could be made, what the mischief did presently signify: It was sufficient to Cromwell's design to amuse the World, and let them guesse at the danger he had readily prepared beyond any sudden remedy. And therefore he now personates the Kings Interest, professeth himself exceeding sorry to have mista∣ken the quarrell; intimates and insinuates to the King, that there were a corrupt party (meaning the Presbyterians) in Parliament, who alone withstood his Resolution, and that He and all the power and friends he could make, were resolved to assert his Rights, and vindicate them from those unreasonable injuries of the Juncto, as he spared not frequently to own the same Ho∣nesty to the Kings friends, then admitted to attend Him; particularly He declared to Collonel John Cromwell (a Commander in the States Service in Page 50Holland) then in England, That he thought the King of England was the most injured Prince in the World, and clapping his hand to his Sword in some passion said, Cousin This shall right him: to the very great Contentment of that Loyal Subject, whom we shall have further occasion in this Discourse, and from this Passage to mention.
In the mean while the King is at his earnest de∣sire, which Cromwell seemed most officiously to study, conveighed to Newmarket House, and thither his friends and Chaplains without any re∣striction admitted, and such a sudden change made in the condition of the King as to his Liberty and Honour, that most of his party were dazeled with the shews of it, and could not foresee the Treason that was hid under those fair Umbrages: Nor could the King himself (so cunningly Cromwell carried it) give any true judgement of this his Surprizal, more then that the Examples and rules of all Policy generally resolved him, That the Person of a Prince in whosoever hands it remain∣eth, addeth Strength and Authority to that Par∣ty.
The King being thus in Olivers hands, as he had declared (upon Joyces telling him, that he had the King in Custody) that he had the Parliament then in his Pocket; so his next Main Work was to perform his word; and to this intent he never ceased exasperating the King against the Presbyte∣rian Members in Parliament, thereby indisposing the King to any accommodation with them, though Page 51the Terms or Propositions sent his Majesty were so unreasonable that they needed no disswasion to his Assent: but this Ambodexter so invisibly ma∣naged both the injustice of the Juncto, and the indignation and resentment of the King, that he was look'd upon no otherwise then as a partial Spectator and Wellwisher to the Kings Fortunes.
Nay so far had he proceeded in this Dissimula∣tion and Treachery (the more detestable, by how much the simple confidence of so innocent a Prince was abused and deceived) that he stuck not sundry times voluntarily and of his own ac∣cord to assure the King, that if the Parliament fai∣led in their duty, and did not speedily restore him, and settle the Kingdome, the Army should do it without them, and that to that very purpose the newly constituted Council or Court of Adjuta∣tors were now proceeding, and that speedily his Majesty should see the effect of his Faithfulness and Allegiance, while he the more indiscernably sought, and most nefariously practised his Ru∣ine.
The Presbyterians in Parliament, were hastily alarum'd at these Transactions of Cromwell; and therefore (the Army having assumed to themselves by decree of this their Court of Adjutators, a right of Petitioning as English Freemen, as being no mercenary Souldiers) resolved as was partly hinted before, to divide the Army and send part of it to Ireland, and forthwith to Cashiere Crom∣well and his Chief Partizans, and to run parallell Page 52with his designs, to send propositions to the King, at the same time as the Army had hammered out some proposals of more equall and of fairer pre∣tences then theirs, that the King acknowledged the just•• dealing of the Army, with which satis∣faction of the King Cromwell seemed very much delighted, assuring His Majesty that more then that now proposed (which yet plainly asserted the Regall and Monarchall right) should in time be brought about, and that he might be confident in him as his most Dutifull and Faithful Subject.
Thus practiced he with the King by Delusion and Treachery, but against the Parliament he proceeded in a more forcible way, for his party therein had tryed all wayes to overreach the Pres∣byterian with finesse and Artifice, but found them so vigilant and sensible of their proceedings and being also far the Major part of the House, that no issue was to be expected from debates and disputes with them, for a Declaration was now published, forbidding the Souldiers to Petition the Parliament, as being under their pay and com∣mand, and for disobedience hereunto Sir Philip Stapleton and Mr. Hollis had drawn their Swords upon one Major Tuleday, and committed ano∣ther, one Nicholas T•w to Newgate in the month of May, and a private resolution had been taken to secure Cromwell then in Town, and not suffer him to return to the Army now full of Rebellious mutiny against them, which might have put an end to this grand conspiracy, and the mischiefs ensuing Page 53but Oliver having sudden intimation of the design got secretly and hastily out of Town, and upon a Flea-bitten nag without stop or stay arrived at the Rendezvouz at Triploe Heath, June the 5. his Horse all in a foam, and there was welcomed with the Shouts of the whole Army, to whom he de∣clared the actions and designs of the Parliament.
And here was made that pernicious and destru∣ctive engagement of perpetuating the Army till their desires, that is till Cromwell's devices should be attained, and this for his better security he caused to be confirmed at another more generall Rendezvouz, June. the 14. at New-market, where he himself was the first man alighting from his Horse at the head of his Regiment and lying upon his Belly that subscribed it, which was in severall Parchment Rolls universally Followed. I must not omit one further remarque, on this occa∣sion one Edward, afterwards better known by the name of Collonel Sexby, and one Lazingby, both of the Councill of Adjutators, were ordered by the said Councill to attend the Lieut. General Cromwell, then quartering near Colchester in Essex, with a draught of the engagement, every word whereof was privily dictated by himself & Ireton, yet at the receipt hereof Cromwell very angerly rising up in his bed, demanded how they durst presume to give him any Papers, they replyed it was the sence of the Army, and that they were commanded to deliver it; Be you well assured of that saith he in the same rage, and presently there∣upon Page 54read it, & instantly changing his Countenance to a mild and devout aspect, said, It is a most just thing, God prosper it, I will stand by the Army with it to the utmost of my life and Fortunes, and so after many familiar Caresses dismissed them, it being his constant custome afterwards during this Intrigue, to take the meanest Souldier by the hand, clap him on the Shoulder, or box him lightly on the Ear, thereby to ingratiate himself into their affections, and it accordingly succeeded, in this bold attempt and enterprise upon the Parliament.
For immediately hereupon an Impeachment is drawn up and presented to, and approved by, this Councill of Adjutators against 11. Members of the House of Commons, the chief of the Pres∣byterian party, viz. Sir William Waller, Collonel Massey, Sir John Clotworthy, Mr. De••ill Hollis, Collonel Long, Mr. Anthony Nichols, Sir Philip Stapleton, Mr. Glyn, &c. — the main of which charge was that they had been the obstructers and prejudicers of several Petiti∣ons to the Parliament for redresse of publique greivances, retarded the settlement of the King∣dome, and had shared the Revenue thereof among themselves, and last of all had under∣hand complyed with the King—Imputa∣tions of all sorts to make some thing stick, and to catch one parties or others belief of their criminal Suggestions.
This was accordingly with impudence enough presented to the House of Commons, though they Page 55had expressely declared against this unparallel'd violence, and straightways the Army advanceth nearer to London, resolving not to desist their march till they were superseded the House, which affront was most abjectly suffered by the Parliament, and the said Members after some frivolous debates, suspended sitting till they had cleared themselves: and now Cromwell having thus awed the Parlia∣ment and abused the King, was come to a fair prospect of his aspired greatnesse, making good that praesagious saying of his upon the seizing of the King by Joyce: there remained now nothing to hinder the facilitating of the residue of his Plot but the City of London, and we shall see him cajole and Baffle them worse and more insolently then the Parliament.
But before we mention that we must return to the King now traversing the Countrey with the Army, and shewed to the people in great State, and received and welcomed every where by them with all demonstrations of joyfull Allegiance, and in like manner yet Complemented by Cromwell: Thus he progressed from New-market to Royston, thence by S. Albans to Hatfeild, to Windsor, (being carried towards London almost in the same Road in which he was driven thence) to Caversham, back again to Maiden-head, to Latimer, Stoke, Oat∣lands, Sion-House, almost in view and hearing of those Tumults which forced him away; while in the interim, Oliver having made a Pique against the Citizens and revenged one Tumult by another Page 54〈1 page duplicate〉Page 55〈1 page duplicate〉Page 54〈1 page duplicate〉Page 55〈1 page duplicate〉Page 56had made the City Submit and receive the Domi∣neering Army in Triumph through their Streets, with Lawrel and other Ensigns of victory in their hats. With the Army returned those Fugitive Members, that left the Parliament upon the same Tumults, being invited by Cromwell to his San∣ctuary of Redcoats, while the remaining members had voted the Kings present coming to London to treat personally with his two Houses, all which votes being Tumultuously obtained (by instinct of some of Cromwell's own sending to encrease the violence) were afterwards vacated after a long struggling in the Parliament as contrary to Priviledge; and the secluded Members, who had resumed their seats, deserted London and went some over Sea, others with passes to their own homes in the Country, resigning their ill employ∣ed power to Cromwell, and his Faction in the Parliament, who abused it ten times more. In Justification of this insolence they published a De∣claration wherein they said, that the Parliament had declared that it is no resistance of Magistracy to side with just principles, and the Law of Nature and Nations, being the same Law upon which they had assisted them, & that the soldiers may lawfully hold the hands of the Generall who will turn his Cannon upon the Army on purpose to destroy them; The Seamen the hands of the Pilot who willfully runs the Ship upon a Rock, as their Brethren the Scotch-men had also argued.
The said Declaration still-directing them to the Page 57equitable sense of all Laws and constitutions; as di∣spensing with the very letter of the same, and being supreme to it, when the safety and preservation of all is concerned, and assured them; That all Authority is fundamentally seated in the Office, anâ but mini∣sterially in the persons.
But before this great successe, the dubious Expectation thereof, had caused Cromwell to stag∣ger now and then at his first resolutions, (which it prosperous would at all times help themselves and there ultimately he was fixed whatever con∣ditions and promises cross accidents should extort from him) and therefore he was dealing with the King in way of recompence and reward for his Service in his restitution, that he should be made Earl of Essex, and a Knight of the Garter, his eldest Son to be of the Bedchamber to the Prince, his Son in Law Ireton to be either Lord Deputy or at least Feild Marshall Generall of Ireland, and it was reported by Henry Cromwell, that then Commanded the Generalls Lifeguard, that the King had put himself upon his Father and Brother Ireton, to make his terms for him and restore him to his Crown: which grant of the Kings, caused and produced those proposals beforementioned to be contrived, but now in the very nick of this Juncture set forth and published, called the Pro∣posals for the setling a just and lawfull peace where in the three first and last particulars the Authority was left as entire in the King as before the rest were some Caprichio's of Bienniall Page 58Parliaments and the like Figaries, whose imper∣tinences discredited the important veracity of the other. But this feud betwixt the Presbyterians and Cromwell, ending so fortunately for him, there being nothing at present to withstand his first and grand intendment, he began to waive his respects to the King and cast off those disguises wherewith he had made himself acceptable to the Kings adhaerents, and laid aside the King and them.
The King therefore gently reminds Cromwell of his promises, repeats to him his Protestations and urgeth the Proposals aforesaid (and not only so but in confidence of the fair meaning of the Army declines a speedier accommodation with the Parliament) but Cromwell begins to turn a deaf ear, to deny many things what he had said and promised, to retract from others, pretending the difference of times and circumstances, that they cannot be performed, telling the King more∣over that He did mistake and not rightly under∣stand his meaning, and in short that though he would keep his word with His Majesty, that now it was not in his power, for that the Adjutators were grown to such an ungoverned and insolent licentiousnesse. that untill the Discipline of the Army could be recovered, it were in vain to expect any such things as he when he promised re∣ally intended.
The King was at this time at Hampton-Court, perplext on the one hand with the obstinacy of Page 59the Parliament, in their Propositions, being more rigid since the last garbling by the Army; and on the other with the dangerous Positions of the Ad∣jutators and the Levelling party both in Camp and City, in which last John Lilburn was Chief of the Faction, who decryed Monarchy and all former forms of Government, having something (which Ireton spread by the by as it were among the Souldiery) in projection, on purpose to stave off all manner and means of settlement. This at last came to a Systeme or Consistency and was styled an Agreement of the people, and was now the onely darling of the Army and the Sectaries: being a mixture or miscellany of Politique No∣tions no way practicable among English-men, being a deformation or destruction of all things, but an establishment of nothing a meer temporary expedient, and shift of design; (except always their Arrears, Indemnity and the Period to the Par∣liament) and this shape Cromwell assumes also confessing and acknowledging the excellence, acquity and goodnesse of the same the only fault in it was the unseasonablenesse, for as yet it was not his time and his cue to appear so publiquely against the King; and this his Character of it was drest out and enlarged with such taking Saint-like Language, as the Phanatick rabble might best be surprized, and not suspect any of his own vene∣mous designs to be lurking under the leaf of His holy and sacred pretences. Withall when his Plot against the King vvas ripe for Execution, he caused Page 60a Fast to be published in the Army, (a certain forerunner of mischief with him) where he was as usually observed to howl and cry and bedew his Cheeks with the Tears of Hypocrisie, cruelty, and deceit; and after this mock-duty performed, he and the rest of the Officers pretended to con∣fesse their iniquity and abomination, in declining the Cause of the people, and tampering with the King, and then in the presence of the All-seeing God, acknowledge the way of an Agreement of the People to be the way to peace and freedom.
The King was in the mean while, by the falla∣cious advice of Whalley, and the practises of Cromwell, (who had caused frequent rumours to be whispered, of some Assassinate intended by the Levellers against his person) frighted from Hampton-Court, which place was found to be too near to London for fear of a rescue, in a dark and tempestuous night, in November 1647. and forced to cast himself into the disloyal hands of Coll. Hamond, Governour of the Isle of Wight, and Brother to the most Learned and Reverend Dr. Hamond, which consideration Cromwell forelaid, would invite the King in his distresse to betake himself thither, where we shall leave him in a most disconsolate Imprisonment; the Votes of Non Addresses being not long after procured by Cromwell's Menaces to the Parliament, when upon the Debate of them he declared in such like words. That it was now expected by the good peo∣ple of the Nation, and the Army, that the Page 61Parliament would come to some Resolution and Set∣tlement, as the Price of all the Blood and Trea∣sure that had been expended in the War, and that they would not now leave them to the expectation of any good from a Man whose heart God had hard∣ned, but if they did, they should be forced to-look for their preservation some other way. At the end of this Speech he laid his hand upon his Sword by his side, as was the more observed, because for∣merly in the same place it could not keep him from trembling, when Sir Philip Stapleton a man of spirit and metal baffled him; but Sir Philip and his seconds were now out of Dores. Next to him spoke Ireton in the very same sense (being newly chosen a recruit for the Parliament, by their illegal writ of Election) extolling and magnifying the valour, civility, and duty of the Army, concluding with the same threats, that if the Parliament would not settle the Kingdome without the King, then they of necessity must and would.
So that after some Opposition, the said votes passed against any further Addresse to be made to the King, and now Oliver thought himself cock∣sure, and therefore the King, Parliament, and City being in his power, he had no rub left to his Ambition, but those Imps and Spirits of his own raising and conjuring up, the Adjutators and Levellers of the Army, who having conn'd their Lesson of the Agreement with the people, were became most artful and skilful Governours, alrea∣dy, Page 62boasting in the Country, (many of which silly people they had induced to their side, upon the accompt of laying all in common, and in a wild Parity) that the Parliament sate only during their pleasure, and till a new Representative then a forming, should take upon them the Government; nor did they more dutifully respect and behave themselves to their Officers, whom they coun∣ted as peices of the Prerogative Military & there∣fore decried all Courts and Counsells of them, which began to separate and act by themselves, without the mixture of their Adjutators.
This exorbitancy and heigth of the Soldiery, was altogether as destructive to Cromwell, now he had done his work with them for this time, as any of the other 3 Interests, but desperate diseases must have desperate Cures, for immediately the Headquar∣ters being then at Ware Coll. Eyer a Leveller was seised and imprisoned, and one Arnold a private Soldier shot to death for promoting the former solemn Engagement, and Agreement of the People, and after that He cashiered all such who favoured the same; and to fan and cull out the rest he proceeded to disband 20 out of a Troop, by which the most of that party were to∣tally excluded; the like was done in London by the Imprisonment of Mr. Prince, and others of the same Faction.
Having for the present still'd that commotion in the Army, the danger of a second war seemed a fresh to threaten the Juncto and Cromwell, by Page 63reason of their injurious Votes of Non-Addresse and therefore to prevent so potent and formida∣ble a Conjunction of all Interests and Parties against him, He now by his Party and Emissaries, proposeth an accommodation between the Pres∣byterians and Independents, and a way and means whereby they may be so united; at the motion of this in the House of Commons, a Gentleman re∣plyed, That if there were any such persons, who had any private Interest different from the publique and under the distinction of parties had prejudiced the Kingdome, he was not fit to be a Member of that House; Neverthelesse it was insisted on that the House would declare and ratifie their Votes of nulling and making void the Votes that passed in the absence of the Speakers that fled into the Ar∣my in 1647. and their Engagement of adhering to the Army, which were tacitly confessed to be then unduly procured; so fearful and doubtful was he again of the issue of those new Troubles he foresee would fall out, and therefore would shel∣ter himself and justifie his Actions by the Autho∣rity he had so often bafled.
The same Artifices he used likewise to the City offering them now upon the like condition of uni∣ting Interests, the freedome of their Lord Maior and Aldermen, viz. Sir John Gayr, Alderman Langham, Alderman Adams, and others, and the setting up again their Posts and Chains, but when they (having already treated and engaged with the Scots, then in preparation for a March into Eng∣land,Page 64refused to give ear to any propositions or terms, resenting the base affronts He and the Ar∣my had put upon them, He, questioned his Ar∣gent Glover, who gave him Commission to make any such Overtures, and in great rage turned him out of his Service.
The danger still increasing, he suffered the Lords as namely the Earls of Suffolk, Lincoln, Lord Maynard, Willoughby, &c. whom he had im∣peached of High Treason after his March into London, to be freed from their Imprisonment in the Tower, and with them the Maior and Alder∣men aforesaid; and as a further satisfaction and submission to the Authority of the Parliament, A Declaration of the Army is published, wherein they bewail their former miscarriages and misdemeanors towards the Parliament, their medling with the ci∣vil power, and that force and violence they had of∣fered to the two Houses, and in Conclusion promise faithfully and dutifully to acquiesce in their Resolu∣tions and Wisdom. With this Hocus Pocus deluding the Presbyterian party into a kind of stupid neu∣trality or rather worse, while yet they would by no means comply with the King, untill Polyphe∣mus Courtesie appeared in this Cromwellian Craft.
The Scots under Duke Hamilton, having en∣tred England, and divers Insurrections happen∣ing in England and Wales, according as was ex∣pected, Cromwell was ordered by the Parliament to attend the first of them, which was the WelchPage 65and Northern Armies (though the Scots delayed their March so long till all was neer lost in Eng∣land) and after a short Siege upon the Defeat at St. Pagons, which was atcheived in his absence, took in Tenby-Castle; Pembroke Castle held out a while longer; thence he marched for Lancashire, having joyned with Major General Lambert, who attended the motion of the Scotch Army, and at Preston, his forces amounting to few more then 9000 Men, whereas the Scots were not lesse then 20000, gave Duke Hamilton Battle, and after a very short Dispute, wherein the English forces under Sir Marmaduke Langdale made him the greatest Opposition, totally routed the Scotch Army, taking all their Artillery, Bag and Bag∣gage and some 9000 prisoners, with the Duke himself in the pursuit Southwards, while he fol∣lowed the Main of the flying Army Northwards, with a resolution of putting a final end to that bu∣sinesse, and to rid himself of the Fears which from thence had hitherto perplexed him. Upon this his hasty advance, Major General Monro who commanded the reserve of 6000 Men to the for∣mer Army, and was marching after them, im∣mediately returned to Berwick, and so back into Scotland. Berwick upon Cromwells approach rendred it self upon terms, and hindred not his advance to Edinburgh, where by the Committee of Estates he was very sumptuously welcomed.
Monro as yet and the Earl of Lanerick with him stood to their Arms upon the Hamilton account Page 66in the West of Scotland, and the Marquess Arguile with another party stood for the purer Kirk, which since the Dukes march had recovered its Magistracy and Superiority, and with Cromwell's accessionall Troops could give Law to the King∣dome: but because Cromwell was loth to venture a new War there, so far distant from his main de∣sign which the Army successes at home had now matured, and his presence only wanting to accomplish it, he so ordered the matter that a Treaty was procured, by which all parties were to lay down their Arms (a greater assurance to him then if the Kirk had been absolute victor) the Hamiltonians to have indempnity, but none of them to be admitted or elected for the next Par∣liament or Assembly Generall, so that he so absolutely manacled that Nation, that they had no other use of their hands then to hold them up to Heaven at the dolefull murther of their natural Prince, whom by their primitive rebellion they had brought to the Block.
Things thus settled in Scotland, he departed thence, having been most highly and magnificently treated by the Grandees of that Kingdome before and at his departure, and complemented by the Kirk as their deliverer, which he regested in as good Scriptural Language, laying his hand on his breast and demurely looking on their Scotch screw∣ed faces, and laughing to himself what Ideots he had made of those Polititians at their own san∣ctified Weapons.Page 67
In his way homeward he visited the Seige of Pomfret, and was by the Commander in Chief against that place importuned, to see it reduced (it being beleived that his fortune or experience Mastered all things) as he was afterwards at Scarborough, which being upon the point of Sur∣render, he dispenced, for the Honour thereof, to stay at the last place and have it delivered into his hands; and so posted for the head Quarters of the Army then at St. Albans, having subdued all the opposition made this Summer 1648, where he vvas welcomed with the highest gratulations of his late atchievement, especially by the Offi∣cers, for as yet the Souldiers knew not what to think of him as to their nevv Agreement of the People, vvhich vvas novv began again and favou∣red already by Ireton so much, as that he had it un∣der consideration, and promised to return it vvith some additions and amendments of his ovvn.
And that proved that accursed Remonstrance of the Army, in vvhich all the former freaks of policy were inserted to make up the number, but the burthen thereof was the Treasonable Contri∣vance of the Kings Death, and the altering the Government; for first they remonstrated to the Parliament, That all persons of whatsoever qua∣lity or condition, not excepting the King, that had been guilty of the blood spilt in the late War, should be brought to justice and condigne punish∣ment; Next, That a day should be set for the summoning the Prince and the Duke of York, to Page 68appear and clear themselves of such things as should be laid to their charge, and if they did not, then to be declared incapable of succeed∣ing in the Government. Many such there were of the like Batch, but all of them concluded with a most favourable Aspect to the Royal party, whose fines and compositions they pretended to have mitigated, and many more Good Morrows, on purpose to amuse even them too, as they had deceived and outwitted the Presbyterian. This pestilent paper Cromwell got delivered to the House of Commons by a select number of Officers, just as they had almost conclu∣ded with the King by a Treaty in the Isle of Wight, to the amazement and fright of all good Christi∣ans and Subjects.
And here Cromwell terminated and centred all the crooked lines of his most Impious ambition, resolving to stand or fall by this Conclusion, and therefore immediately, (the Army being then ad∣vanced to London to prosecute this Remonstrance) as he had dispatched Collonel Ewer to take the King out of the Custody of Hammond, and car∣ry him over to Hurst-Castle, a most unhealthful place, so did be upon notice that the Parliament had voted the Kings Concession a ground for a peace and settlement of the Kingdome, com∣mand Coll. Pride, a fellow who had not wit e∣nough to consider his businesse, to seize upon the avennues and passages to the Parliament House, and exclude above a 140 Members, whose names Page 53were given him in a Roll, which unheard of and unparallell'd Violation was back'd and sccured by Force of Horse and Foot quartering up and down the City and Suburbs, another lawlesse and forcible Intrusion upon their Charter.
The House being thus purged as they called it, & others besides those that were forcibly secluded, absenting themselves for fear of being engaged and overpowered in those wicked Councells which this Action portended, the remaining Juncto of his culling, a great part whereof were Army Offi∣cers not amounting in all to 60. passed an Ordi∣nance for Tryal of the King, the manner where∣of by a High Court of Justice of his and Iretons own forming and Conception, was fully agreed upon, and the King brought from the said Hurst Castle, by Winchester, Farnham, and Windsor to St James's in order thereunto.
But of this lamentable Tragedy so much hath already been said, that I will not add this super∣numerary load to him here, though it were his principal guilt, and to which all his other perpe∣trations were but as subservient. I will only in∣stance two particulars, relating to this sad and fa∣tal businesse, which discover the Abysse of this mans Villany.
There was mention made before of Coll. John Cromwell; This Gentleman upon the news the States of Holland had received of this proceed∣ing against the King, at the instance of Our So∣veraign, then Prince of Wales residing at the Page 68〈1 page duplicate〉Page 53〈1 page duplicate〉Page 70Hague) to them, to mediate and interpose in the businesse, was pitcht upon by them as the only fit person, because of his relation to Crom∣well, (who was look'd upon there as the only Au∣thor and Contriver of this mischief) to be em∣ployed in a Message to him, with Credential Let∣ters from the said States, whereunto was added a Blank, with the Kings Signet, and another of the Princes, both confirmed by the States, for Cromwell to write his own conditions in, if he would now preserve the life of the King.
The Collonel putting some confidence in what Oliver formerly had told him, willingly under∣took the Errand, and forthwith repaired to London, (just before the Kings Martyrdome) and found him out at his house, but so recluse and lockt up in his Chamber, with an order that none should know he was within, that he could not be admit∣ted till he had told his name. After mutual Salu∣tations the Collonel desired a word or two in pri∣vate, which being granted, he began roundly to tell him, of the flagitiousnesse of the Fact, now almost ready to be committed, and how de∣restable it sounded abroad, adding that of all men living he never should have imagined that he would have had a hand in it, having protested so much for the King in his hearing. Whereupon Cromwell fell to his old shifts, telling him it was not he but the Army, that 'tis true once he did say such words, but times were altered, and Provi∣dence seemed to dispose things otherwise; that he Page 71had prayed and fasted for the King but no return that way was yet made to him; whereupon the Collonel stepping back clapt the Dore to (to the agasting of Cromwell who suspected an assassinate) and coming close to him, Cousin said he it is no time to dally with words in this matter, look you here sayes he (pulling out the abovesaid Papers out of his Pocket) 'tis in your own power not only to make yourself, but your Pasterity, Family and Relations happy and honourable for ever, otherwise as they have changed their name before, from Williams to Cromwell, so now they must be forced to change it again, for this Fact will bring such an ignominy upon the whole generation of them, that no time will be able wipe away.
Cromwell here paused, and seemed to ponder with himself, and after a little space said, Cousin, I desire you will give me till night to consider of it, and do you go to your Inn, but go not to bed till you hear from me, I will conferre and consider further about the businesse. The Collonel did so and about one of the Clock (within an evening or two of the murther) a Messenger came to him and told him he might go to Bed and expect no other answer to carry to the Prince, for the Councill of Officers had been seeking God as he also had done the same, and it was resolved by them all that the King must dye.
The other is of the same peice with the former (not to mention his threatning of Collonel Downs into an acquiescence with other the Regicides, Page 70〈1 page duplicate〉Page 71〈1 page duplicate〉Page 56upon the adjournment of the High Court of Ju∣stice at the Kings request into the Painted Cham∣ber; nor his like usage of Collonel Ingoldshy, and holding his hand while he signed that horrid Sen∣tence, and many other particulars of the same Crime) and perfectly discovers how much an Ath•ist or mocker of God he was in his pretended piety and Devotion.
The very same day appointed for this Murther Cromwell and the Officers assembled together, to consider of some means if possible (with security still to the Nation) of saving the Kings life, and many tediousexpedients were offered by some not so bloody as the rest, & a speedy Remonstrance to the Parliament proposed, and in the mean while the King should be Respited. Cromwell likewise seemed very forward, expressing how glad he should be if such a thing might be effected, for he was not ignorant, he said, what calumny that action would draw upon the Army and themselves in particular, though they did nothing therein but in obedience to the Parliament. But before we (said he) proceed in so weighty a matter, let us seek God to know his mind in it; hereto they agreed, and Oliver began a long-winded prayer and continued in it till a Messenger whom he had appointed for that purpose, came rapping at the dore and hastily told them that they need not trouble themselves about the King for the work was done, which being unexpected to many of them, did at present astonish them while Cromwel holding up his hands, Page 57declared to them, that it was not the pleasure of God he should live, and therefore he feared they had done ill to tempt Him against his wil or words to that effect.
When the Kings body was removed and Cof∣fined, Cromwell to satisfie himself of the full and certain consummation of all his practices against his sacred life would needs see him himself, and upon his return thence was heard to say, That if he had not been a King, he might have lived longer.
Other passages there were which concern this dolefull subject, both preceding and succeed∣ing it, as namely Olivers Conferences with Hugh Peters at Ware, his feigned letters out of the North to applaud this Fact, and extolling the Ju∣stice and Courage of the Army, by whose means it was, that the great Cedar of the Forrest was fal∣len, without any noise, and now the time was comming when we should rejoyce under our own Vines and Fig-trees—whence this Criminal had his leaves, and we Blood instead of Wine, but of this more then enough.
With much craft and cunning did he now hide his daring ambition, for though it was thought as feasible for him now to have seized the Crown as afterwards, considering that his Usurpation was to be maintained by Arms, yet he well knowing what a Faction there was in the Army of the Le∣velling principle, ventured not to put his o•acular Title to a present Tryal but awayt more promi∣sing opportunities.Page 74
In the mean while to quarrell these Levellers, and confine the Democratical Regiment or a Free state (so was it now called) to a narrow compasse, and to assume the greatest part of the Government to himself especially the executive power thereof, according as Ireton had projected the module soon after New-market Heath engagement; a Councill of State like the 30 Tyrants of Athens was established, which consisted principally of his Creatures and this was but a forerunner of his single Tyranny, like rayes by a burning Glasse contracted into one Beam; The word being now given out amongst the Officers of the Army; That this Nation must have one prime Magistrate or Ruler over them, and that the Gen•rll hath power to make a Law to bind all the Commons of England.
These tendencies to Slavery first of all enraged the Levellers, who having promised to themselves a good share of the spoil of the Kingdome, found they were meerly deluded, and that all the en∣gagements and agreements were but so many Rattles by which the Army was drawn on to act Cromwell's designs, who had on purpose con∣trived that Councill of Adjutators, to engage the masse of the Souldiery in the danger of his Trea∣sonable conspiracy, that knowing themselves in the same predicament with him, they must resolve to stand by him, like a wily Fox who being pursued, will herd himself among Sheep and so avoid the dogs; but all those hazards and necessities Page 75being pass'd, the Council of Adjutators was abo∣lish'd, the Officers now abhominating to suffer the Soldiers to sit Cheek by Jole with them any longer, the Expedition for Ireland absolutely concluded on, without satisfaction of Atrears, the Engagement slighted, and the right of Pe∣titioning, which the Army claimed as Freemen, de∣nyed by their Officers, who put them upon im∣peaching the 11. Members for that very reason; And because a neer total Defection of the Army followed upon this soon after, the Engine which Cromwell had used to subvert the Government, being likely to prove his own Ruine,
To his Excellency Thomas Lord Fairfax, and his Councel of Officers.
May it please your Excellency, and you• Councell of Officers.
We have lately made out humble Address unto the peoples Representators in P•r∣liament, concerning some relief to our selves and the Commonwealth, by way of Petition, the mean∣nest and lowest degree of an Englishmans Freedome that we know of, and yet the same (to our asto∣nlshment) hath much distasted and imbittered di∣vers of our Superiour Officers (in this Councel con∣vening) against us, as we perceive, and that e∣ven unto death.
We therefore being willing to avoid all occasion of offence and division, and to clear our selves of all imputations thereof, that in Justice and Reason may be convinced against us, desire, that you would be pleased to consider, that we are English Soldiers, engaged for the Freedoms of England; and not outlandish Mercenaries, to butcher the people for pay, and serve the pernicious ends of ambition and will in any person under Heaven. That we do not imagine our selves absolved from the solemn En∣gagement Page 61at Newmarket Heath, but to be still obliged before God and the whole world to persue the just ends of the same; and you may remember the many promises and Declarations to the people upon that account, which like the bloud of Abel cryes for justice upon the persitious infringers and per∣vere•rs thereof in this Army. You may farther remember that it hath been a principle by you asser∣ted and avowed, that our being Soldiers hath not deprived as of our Right as Commoners; and to Petition the people in Parliament, we do account in the member of our Birthrights; and you may re∣member that in the time of the domination of the 11. Members, you complained against their then radevour to suppresse the liberty of the Soldiers to petition, as an insufferable infringement of the right of the Army and people; and we hope you did not then condemn it in them, to justifie it in your selves: when the power was theirs, it was then con∣demned; but now it is yours, how comes it to be justified? In the point of Petitioning, we expect∣al your Encouragement, and not to have man•cles and fetters laid upon it: it is not the bure name or shadow thereof will satissie us, while we are gulled of the essence of it. It is a perfect freedom which we desire, not therein to be subjected under the Gra∣dual Negative voices of a Captain, a Collonel, your Excellency, or your Countel; to passe the test from one Negative voice to another for its ap∣provement, we account as the most vexations La∣byrinth of thraldome that in this point can be devi∣sed, Page 78worse then all oppositions and infringements of the 11 Members; we had rather that in plain terms you would deny us our right of petitioning, and pro∣nounce and proclaim us absolute Slaves and Vassalls to our Officers then secretly to rob us of the right it self. God hath in some measure opened our eyes, that we can see and perceive; and we desire plain dealing, and not to be met half way with smooth expedients, and Mediums facing both ways, with specious and fair pretences, to overtake our sudden apprehensions, and unawares steal upon us, and so be defeated, as too often we have been, to the we and misery of the people, and of us. but The burnt child dreads the fire.
Further we desire you to consider, That the strength, the honour and being of the Officer, yea and of this Councel (under God) doth consist in the arm of the Soldier. Is it not the Soldier that endureth the heat and burthen of the day, and per∣formeth that work whereof the Officer beareth the glory and name? For what is it, the Officer can do without the Soldier? If nothing, why are they ashamed to deny us our right to petition?
We have long waited in silence, even while we perceived any hopes of any real redresse from them. But now finding the Military power in an absolute usurpution of the Civil Jurisdiction, in the place of the Magistrate executing that Authority, by which the sword of war is incroached into the self same hands under one Military head, which we disclaim and abhor, as not having any hand or as∣sent Page 79therein at all. And we find a strange and un∣expected constitution of a Councel of State, Such as neither we or our forefathers were ever acquain∣ted with, intrusted with little lesse then an unlimi∣ted power, and with the whole force both of Sea and Land, in which is combined the most pernici∣ous interests of all Tyrannies. And which hath already swallowed up half our Parliament, and we sear to be an expedient to cut off our Parliaments, for ever, for if this Councel of State survive the Parliament, how shall we obtain a new Represen∣tative, if the Parliament sit but till a new one be ready to take their places, farewel Parliaments, farewel Freedoms.
Further, we find the just and legal way of trial by twelve men of the Neighborhood in criminal ca∣ses, •ttexly subverted in this new constitution of an High Court, a Precedent for ought we know to frame all the Courts of England by, and to which our selves may be as well subjected as our enemies. And considering not one oppression is removed, not one vexation in the Law •bated, nor one punctilio of freedome restored, or any fair hopes at all appear∣ing, but oppression heaped upon the back of oppres∣sion, double cruelty upon cruelty, we therefore from those many considerations, betook our selves as En∣glishmen to make our Addresse unto the Parlia∣ment, as the proper refuge and authority of the people for our and their Addresse, in which by birth we challenge a right, as also by the price and pur∣chase of our hazard and blood; and our Civil Page 64Rights we cannot yeild up, we shall first rather yeild up our lives.
And thus after the weak measure of our under∣standings, we judge we have given a rational and full accompt of the occasion and reason of our Pe∣titioning, and we hope satisfactory to your Excel∣lency and this Councell, humbly praying that you will make a charitable and fair construction there∣of.
And we further desire, that you will take spe∣cial notice of the serious Apprehensions of a part of the People in behalf of the Common-wealth, pre∣sented to the House by Lient. Col. John Lilburn, and divers other Citizens of London, and the Bo∣rough of Southwark Feb. 26. now published in Print. To the which with due thank fulnesse to those our faithful friends the promoters and presenters thereof, we do freely and cheerfully concur, to stand or fall in the just prosecution thereof, as the most absolute Mod•m to our peace and freedoms that hath been produced, and we hope it will produce an happy effect upon this Coun∣cel, to prevent the otherwise innvaidable dissolution and division that will ensue upon us all, which to pre∣vent shall be the faithful endeavours of (Sir)
Your Excellencies most humble Servants and Soldiers,
- Robert Ward.
- Simon Grant.
- Thomas Warson.
- George Jelles.
- William Sawyet.
These Petitioners being seized, were tryed at a Councill of War, but for fear of too much exaspe∣rating the Army were only sentenced in this man∣ner, Coll. Baxter being then President, who de∣livered judgement in these words,
Gentlemen; for so I think I may without offence call you, for as yet you are Souldiers; but truly you are not long to continue so: For you are guilty of high crimes, as your Letter here by you owned doth manifest, being Scandalous to the Parliament, Councel of State, High Court of Justice, and tend∣ing to breed mutinie in the Army; for which you have in an high measure deserved death; but through the great mercy of the Court that is wa∣ved, and truly they have waved the Sentence again and again, and now they are come as low as possibly they can: and it being late, I shall declare unto you your several Sentences which are as followeth.
You shall ride with your faces towards the Horse-tails, before the heads of your several Regiments, with your faults written upon your breasts, & your Swords be broken over your heads, and so be cashiered the Army, as not worthy to ride therein; and a Proclamation to be made, that none shall receive you into any Troop, Com∣pany, or Garison. And this I would have you look upon as a great mercy of the Court.
Which sentence was accordingly executed up∣on them, in the Great Palace-yard at Westminster, March 6. to the exasperation of the Army.Page 82
Soon after, all the Army quartering near London, rendevouzed at Ware, where severall Regiments among whom was Cromwell's of Horse, in pursu∣ance of the same Petition and to be known to themselves, wore white in their Hats; Oliver had intimation of it, and therefore he appointed two Regiments of Horse from further quarters who were ignorant of this Combination to appear there likewise. Being all drawn up in Battalia Cromwell with an angry and down look rides round, and of a sudden Commands one of those two Regiments to encompasse a Regiment of Foot, which being done he commanded four men by their names out of the body, and committed them with his own hands to the Marshal, and im∣mediately called a Councill of War, (while the rest of their partakers slunk their White Colours into their Pockets and trembled at this boldnesse of Cromwell) and tryed and condemned them, but by the favour of the Court they were to cast Lots for their Lives, two only to dye, by which means the two Guilty persons and whom Crom∣well chiefly aimed at, and lusty Fellows also, escap∣ed, but the two other sneaking ignorant Fellowes were presently shot to death, upon a green bank by the other two, in the face of the Army.
But yet could not this humour be purged out of the Army, though another Leveller bled for it, one Lockyer a Trooper, who for promoting the same engagement and agreement was shot to death at St. Paul's Church-yard, and was attended Page 83to his grave like a Generall Officer, a thousand people of the Lilburnian Faction following his Herse all of them wearing Black and Sea-green Ribbons; Colours that denoted a Storm was coming, the whole Army being now generally leavened with the same principle & furiously en∣raged at this Butchery of their fellow Souldiers being avowedly egged on by the said Lilburn, and secretly encouraged by the Royal party, who promised them their assistance in case they should need it.
And it was seen when too late by the Souldiery (the Instruments of that Tyranny) that they had borrowed their Libertinism at a dear rate, the price of their Lives; like Cratanders they should rule for a while but then become Victimes to their short ridiculous Usurpation, while the Revenges of their Rebellion followed their endeavours after those shadowes of their own casting.
The first formidable eruption of it was at Salis∣bury, where Col. Scroops Regiment of Horse laid aside their Officers, and with their Colours march∣ed thence, in order to a conjunction with Harri∣sons, Iretons, and Skippons Regiments, who had confederated (by means of those Adjutators) in the same design: which affair admitting no delay, Fairfax and Cromwell with his own Regiment advanced to them, to Bagshot, and so to Alton, where they had notice that they were marched to Abington, whither (after a tedious march of 40 miles in one day) the General came; and Crom∣wellPage 68fell presently to work with his old arts of Treachery, for Harrisons Regiment was hasting to the Conjunction.
His first finesse in order to their reducing, was the offer of a Treaty, wherein satisfaction might be mutually given, and that done, that neither party should come within 10. miles of one ano∣ther; whereupon the Levellers marched to Bor∣ford, and being opposed at a Pass called Newbridge over the River, to avoid any quarrel, and hoping the Souldiery there would no doubt joyn with them upon the Treaty, passed a mile lower, and arriving at the Town, relied so much upon the Generals and Cromwell's engagements, that most of them had put their Horses to grasse, leaving a Corps de guard of some 60. men, the whole party making in all 900. consisting of 12. entire Troops, reputed the best in the Army, and whose defeat would have cost many mens lives, if the Army would have stood against them. But to save that dissiculty, while those secure Troops were rest∣ing themselves, and their Horses put in the adjoyn∣ing Meadows, about 12. a clock at night Coll. Reynolds fell into their quarters, having notice from some Traytors within of their posture, and presently mastered the guard, not dreaming of such a Camisado, and seized most of the other, then∣tipling or asleep. Here were taken near 900. Horse, and 400. Prisoners, whereof three only were Executed, one Thomson and two more, who died very resolutely, Cornet Den expressing his Page 85grief and sorrow, was reprieved at the instant of Execution, which their fellows beheld from the Leads of the Church, and were saluted with a Message of Decimation; but that Cromwell might ingratiate with the Army; for his sake, and at his instance they were all pardoned, and sent home to their own houses. The great Chieftain of them being pursued as he was marching towards this party, took into Wellingborough-wood, where cou∣ragiously defending himself, he was killed by Car∣bine shot, refusing to take quarter at such perfi∣dious peoples hands. This Hurly burly being over, and ended like a flash, the General came to Oxford, where he was highly treated, and he and Oliver made Doctors of the Civil Law.
This proved the utter Suppression of that party, & rendred the Army entirly at his command, without any farther dispute of their Leading, so that they presently submitted to the Lot, which Regiments should be sent to Ireland (then almost redu∣ced to the Kings obedience by the M. of Ormond) which thus decreed it, viz. 11. Regiments, One of Dragoons under Col. Abbot. Of Horse, Ire∣tons, Scroops, Hortons, and Lamberts. Of Foot, Eures, Cooks, Hewsons, and Deans. And three new ones, viz. Cromwells, Venables, and Phayrs.
Cromwell was ordained Commander in Chief, and tituladoed with the Style of Lord Governour of Ireland; while Fairfax was lest here to attend the Parliament, and passe away his time in the Dotages of his Successe, giving him the Honour of Page 68〈1 page duplicate〉Page 85〈1 page duplicate〉Page 86subduing that Realm, and preparing it to his Usur∣tion.
He with a very potent Army was now landed at Dublin. Whereupon a strong Garrison of 2500 Foot and 300 horse, resolved men under the charge of Sir Arthur Aston, was put into Drogheda, the nearest Garrison to the late defeat of the Ms of Ormond which Cromwell having refreshed his Army a while at Dublin came to besiege. The Town was stormed resolutely thrice, and as well defended-Sir Arthur Aston being so confident that he advis∣ed the Lord Lieutenant not to precipitate any thing, for he should hold them play a while; but in the third assault Collonel Wall being un•ortu• nately killed his dismaid Sould•ers listened to th• offer of quarter before they had need of it, and admitted them upon those terms. Cromwell having notice that the Flower of the Irish Army was in his hands, gave order to put all in Arms to the Sword, where were killed Sir Arthur Aste•, Sir Edmund Varney, Collonel Warren, Coll. Dun, Finglass•, Tempest, &c. with 3000 Souldiers the best in that Kingdome.
He comes next before Wexford, which having resused to accept of a Garrison, now the Enemy was under their walls was contented to admit of 500 Men under the command of Sir Edmund But∣ler, and the Lord Lieutenant came also in sighth• the Town, before whose face Stafford the Gover∣nour of the Castle bas•ly betrayed it to Cromwell, together with the Town, who there are acheroro•fly Page 87murthered 2000 more. Rosse was the next place whither a Garrison was sent under the command of Luke Taaf, with order (the Town not being tenable) to render upon Conditions, which accordingly a breach being made, they did, and marched away with their Arms. His next attempt was upon Duncannon, but the noble Wogan and the English Cavaliers gave him a foyle; hence he re∣treated to Rosse••ere he made a floating bridge, that to having a passage to the other side he might com•ell Ormond either to divide his Army to ob∣serve his motions, or otherwise to get a passage into Munster, where he held intelligence with several places that would then Revolt; and ac∣cordingly for all my Lord Taaff was sent thither before hand to secure them, yet Youghall, Corke, and all the English Towns of Munster openly Revolted, and many of my Lord Inchiqueens men allured by Money and Commands in Cromwell's Army, ran over to the Enemy; and his Excel∣lency the L. Lieutenant having lost the opportu∣nity of Fighting Cromwell by his dislodging from Duncannon by night, vvhen the Irish vvere chea•∣full and earnest to engage, vvas never after in a condition fit to venture a battel. He therefore passes over his Bridge and so into the County of Kilkenny facing his Enemy and moving up and dovvn after him, vvhile his Lieut. G. Jon•s with parties took in the Castles, and Carrick vvas vvretchedly betrayed to him by Martin that com∣manded there; vvhence 〈◊〉 passes his Army Page 88into Munster and takes severall Castles by the ap∣pearance onely of his Horse, onely at Kilteran he received a repulse, but Ballisannon was sold to him; Kilkenny was taken next, aster a stout de∣fence made, the Towns-men complying contrary to the Souldiers knowledge who were driven into the Castle and there conditioned. The next enter∣prize he went in hand with was to take Clonmell, kept by Major Generall Hugh Neake, who behav∣ed himself so well, that the Enemy having lost 2500 Men before it had gone away without it, had it not bin that the Gari•on wanted Powder, so that they got over the River to Waterford in the night, leaving the Townsmen to make conditions for themselves, which the Enemy not knowing the Souldiers were gone, readily granted; Soon after Collonel Roch received a brush from my Lord Broghill in the County of Cork, vvhere the Bishop of Rosse being taken vvas hanged.
I have thus briefly discoursed of the War in Ireland, that I might hasten to the grand event and from the Camp after another expedition con∣duct him to the Palace, the main consequence of his Life, vvhich rendred all his other actions so notable and conspicuous.
The Irish War thus in a manner ended, and the Scotch War ready to Commence, the Committee of Estates there, having concluded vvith the King at Breda, and he upon his Voyage to that Kingdom, whe•e all correspondence with the English was by Proclamation forbidden, and all manner of Pro∣vision Page 89stopt from carrying into England, though the Juncto at Westmi•ster had used all Artifices to keep the Scots from closing with Him, (who were so far disposed thereto, that they had barbarously mur•hered the Great Marquiss of Montross, a Hero far surpassing Oliver in Conduct, and who was untimely and unfortunately taken away from the rescue of his Country) Cromwell (like a Fury) was ready at hand to take revenge of that Fact. For having been seeretly called for over from Ireland, to amuse all Parties (both the Irish who trembled at his presence, and made no con∣siderable resistance against him and his Fortune; and the General himself at home, who expected not such his sudden •valship to his Command, which gave him no time for mature consideration of the design; the Scots, who though Alarumed by frequent rumours of an English Invasion, yet were not so forward in their Levies, as having as∣surance of Fairfax's dissatisfaction) he was now wasted over into England, preventing the Let∣ters he had sent to the States to know their express pleasure for his departing that Kingdome.
On the beginning of June he returned by the way of Bristoll from Ireland to London, and was welcomed by Fairfax the General, many Mem∣bers of Parliament and Council of State at Hounsle-heath, and more fully complemented at his Lodgings, and in Parliament by the Thanks of the House, and the like significant Address of the Lord Mayor, &c. of London, being look'd Page 90upon as the only Person, to the Eccsipse and di∣minution of the Generals Honour, which we shall presently see him paramount in the same supreme Command.
The World that considered the carriage of this Politique towards his Prince, and with what im∣petuous violence, and short lived ex-tempore Counsels He had bereaved him of his Life, had wondred that hither to he had suffered the Com∣mand of the Army to rest in 〈◊〉's hand, and had not practised some quicker expedient to re∣move him; that having finished the work of 〈◊〉 Generation (as they canted it with Essex) he did not give him a Fig for his labour; but Cromwell who courted his Minion of Providence, and de∣voted himself to her care and 〈◊〉 of his De∣sions, would not rashly precipitate his Ambition without her Augury, but await the Assistance and Concurrence of some promising Revolution, which those many Military cross rencounters of that tur∣bulent New State did certainly bode. And the Scotch was, now evening, the lucky minute was come, and his Brazen Head told him TIME 〈◊〉 for from hence he dated His Empire and Sultan∣ship, and the Aere Olivarie, choosing to derive his Succession to the Supreme Power, rather from the unperplex'd Tradition of the sword, then from an upstart bold Title to, and a forcible wresting of the Scepter. And yet such Helps and Hints he way-laid to his Throne, that it was tumoured soon after abroad, that he was descended of the BritishPage 91Princes, and near allyed to Henry the Seventh, the glory of that race. But to proceed,
This Command of course was devolved upon my Lord Fairfax, and he desired to accept it, but he being inscrupled by some of the Presbyterian Ministers (who were highly incensed at this War) as it was cunningly foreseen by Oliver and his Party, who never endevoured his satisfaction) and pretending a reluctancy from the Obligations of the National Covenant to engage against their Brethren, totally declined it, transferring the long expected Military Supremacy, by a Vote of the Parliament to Cromwell, who very zealously accepted the Charge, and with all readiness pre∣pared for the expedition; which made the second Trophy or Garland, of those strangely and won∣derfully prosperous Free-States of England.
On the 12. of June it had been resolved that the Army should advance Northward, but it was the middle of July before they Arrived there, for on the 21, of that Month Cromwell quartered at Berwick, from whence he sent a Letter and Declaration to the Committee of Estates, fraught with hypocritical canting expressions, which the said Committee supprest, returning answer, that they would reply to it by Messengers of their own; and lest any of their people should be deluded by the like fair words, they made it Treason for any person to correspond with the English, and fell a oliving all their Cattle and Provision in the parts next adjacent to them, beyond Edenborough.Page 92
Cromwell's Army was now reckoned 16000 effective, with which he came first to Mording∣ton his Headquarters July the 25. thence to Ha∣dington, within 12. miles of Edinburgh, on the Hills whereabouts the Scots had encamped themselves, declining to engage till all their ad∣ditional Forces were come out of the High-lands. On the 25. of July the English advanced, and attempted one of the said Hills where a small par∣ty of the Scots were, and beat them presently off, when a Party of Scotch Horse fell in the Rear with such fury and vigour, that they wholly dis∣ordered it, and with Reserves and Fresh bodies seconded and pursued this advantage, which being perceived by Major General Lambert and Coll. Whaley, who had the Rear-guard, they couragi∣ously repulsed them to their. Trenches, in which Action Lambert had his Horse shot under him, was run through the Arm with a Lance, and was taken Prisoner, but was rescued by one Lieute∣nant Empson. This past, and the Army wet and weary in their way to Musclebarough; betwixt 3 and 4 in the morning, another Party of some 1500 Horse, the flower of the Army, being veterane Blades, under the Command of Coll. Montgomery and Straughan•; fell with great fury, and more exact valour upon: them betwixt sleeping and waking, and brought a terrible fright and dismay upon the whole Army, Charging almost clear through upon the Sands, but return∣ing with their Prisoners, were set upon by fresh Page 93Troops under Coll. Okey, in good order, and forced to double their speed home to their Camp, having lost an hundred men (to the same number in the former attempt) and some of their Offi∣cers slain and wounded, but came off otherwise with honour enough, giving the Invaders little hopes of so easie a Victory and Conquest, as the Fates had decreed to them, and their invincible Fortune.
Several jealousies, animosities and discontents were now raigning among the Scots, more su∣premely then the Kings Authority; the Kings friends wholly discountenanced and laid by, even Presbyterians themselves no way understanding one another; some willing to give the King his Rights without more Stipulation and Engage∣ments, others of them thinking they I could not sufficiently debase his Authority, and that it should wholly depend on the Kirk; and to that purpose severable ever end Postulata were put to him, be∣yond the Tenour of the Treaty at Breda; and in fine that party prevailed so, as that the Army then on foot, vvas in effect but very little for the Kings Interest and Service, but vvas vvholly at the disposal of the rigid Covenanters. This was not unknown to Cromwell, who thereupon never ceased Scribling and Divulging of the English Armies good intention to the People of Scotland; With whom they have no quarrel, but against a Malignant powerful Faction, who had brought in the King to the disturbance of the publique Natio∣nal-peace Page 94and Friendship betwixt the two People, and that he was willing by Conference to give and receive satisfaction therein, otherwise to decide the Justice of that Cause by Battle. To which when no Answer would be returned, he advanced on the 10. of August (having recruited his Army by those Provisions that were plentifully brought by Sea, the Fleet Sailing an even pace with him and observing the same signals) on the West-side of Edinborough up to the Line of the Scotch Ar∣my playing his Cannon, which were likevvise ansvvered, and Encamped on Pentland-hills a little above Edinborough-castle; intending to March for Queens-ferry, but the Passes vvere so difficult, and other Considerations intervened, that he proceeded no further. Next morning came a Letter to Him with a Declaration from the Estates and Kirk by found of Trumpet, Declaring that the quartel being novv stated, and the King ready to consent to their demands, they vvere resolved to put it to the Issue and that the World may see vvhat that vvas like to prove, it vvill be vvorthy the memory of Those Transacti∣ons, to particularize them in this short abstract.
Cromwell being thus fat advanced unto Scot∣land, beyond the most advised Fears of the Par∣liament of Scotland (who had newly welcomed the King at St. Johnstons) and their Army yet unprepared to sight him, they thought fit to en∣tertain his Time and divert his Hast with a Decla∣ration, wherein most abominably they disowned Page 95the King, without such and such Satisfactions, to the tenor of the most rigid and undutiful condi∣tions, that the worst of Rebells could have put upon a Prince, which being once confirmed and assented to by him, they would be ready to give Battel as the quarrell should then be stated, and upon which they might expect a blessing. But this wile advantaged not the Kirk, but only served as a Directory to Oliver, where he should level his Treasonable projects.
To this Cromwell takes very good occasion to reply, and help our their sophistry with some more of his own• and to let the Scots see of how near affinity the Kirk and the Congregational way were in this respect to the King, he permitted, nay, caused their Declaration to be publiquely read to his Army; putting the Scotch-Remon∣strants upon these Dilemma's; That their professed disowning of Malignants, and receiving and assisting their Head and Chief, in whom all their hope lies, cannot consist in common sence or pradence, reciting (as evidence thereof) the late Popish af∣fairs in Ireland, and Prince Ruperts roving at Sea) That suppose He (the King) should give security of his turning, it must be some other way then by a few and feigned formal submissions, for it is his necessity and his old Complices that connsel him to that Complyance: Nor is it possible for the Scots (in the way that they are now in) to be able to secure themselves or England; and concludes, that upon this quarrel, if they be ready to fight, Page 96his Army attends there for that purpose; and there∣fore the Scots cannot complain for want of an op∣portunity.
These pestilent and alike dangerous Papers, (which in effect seemed rather an agreement then cause of quarrell between the Antagonists) were warily considered by some, even of Kirk-men who loved the King, as of sudden and desperate consequence to his Majesties Person and Govern∣ment, so highly vilified and disre-garded; so that a Declaration (to the liking of the Kark) was extorted from him, that there might no cause of pretence remain, either for their obstinate car∣riage towards him, or ready compliance with the Enemy.
Hereupon the English Army advanced again, and though several Bodies of Scotch Horse appear∣ed, yet they presently withdrew upon their ap∣proach; which that it might not be altogether frustrate, Cromwell in sight of them caused a Gar∣rison (called Red-house, within a mile and a half of Edinburgh) to be Stormed, wherein were taken 60. Foot, and the House made tenable and manned by the English; while the Scats (being necessitated for Provisions, and to joyn with some other Forces from Fife and the West) had mar∣ched two miles beyond Edinburgh, having a great Hill on the one side, and the City and a River on the other, so that it was very hazardous to engage them, being drawn up in Battalia, the great Cuns playing on both sides. In which posture Page 97and attendance the Scots and English stood, and neither changed ground, till Provisions growing scarce, Cromwell retreated to Pentland-hills (Lam∣bert having had some discourse and conference with Straughan, &c. about the former equity of their cause, de lana caprina) and thence with some difficulty (by reason of bad weather) to Musleborough, for Provant, and thence a few days after to Dunbar, with intention by shipping or any other way to get into England, being now closely followed by the Scotch Army in their rear; who rightly guessing the English to be weakned with long Marches and want of Victual, made cock-sure of a total Victory, which snatching at before it was ripe for them, fearing nothing more then that they would escape them, they saw them∣selves miserably frustrated, and their despairing Enemy, a most insulting Conqueror.
On Sunday at night, the first of September, the English (making at most not above 12000. men) came to Dunbar, whither the Scots (keeping close at their Heels) came also, and drew up their whole Army, consisting of between 20. and 24. thousand men, upon a high Hill within a mile of the Town, to the great amazement at first of the English; but dispair adding resolution to their courage, they presently drew out in Battalia in the Corn-field near adjoyning, and so stood all night, being incamped upon a Neck of Land, whose Breadth was not a Mile and a half from Sea to Sea; so that they were by Land quite coop∣ed Page 98up. In considence therefore of an assured Victory, David Lashley who Commanded this Kirk Army in chief, began to advance as early as the Sun next morning, and drew down the Hill, fixing at the foot thereof, and about 4. a clock in the afternoon brought down his Train, there be∣ing a great Ditch betwixt both the Armies. That night the English (by Command) placed them∣selves close to the Ditch, and placed their Field∣pieces likewise in every Regiment, that they might be in a readiness in case the Enemy should attempt any thing upon them, who were vainly expecting terms of a rendition; boasting that they had them in a worse pound then the King had the Earl of Essex at Lestithiell in Cornwall.
The Ministers having their voice in the Coun∣cil of War held by this Kirk Army, most ear∣nestly urged the Engagement and fight (against those that were of opinion to let the English es∣cape, and not venture the fortune of War, upon an Enemy made desperate of which there were 〈◊〉 many sad examples) saying that God had delivered Agag, meaning Cromwell, into their power, and if they let him go, would require him at their hands.
On Tuesday morning at four of the Clock, a Brigade of the English Army drew down to pos∣sess themselves of a pass upon the Road, between Edenburgh and Berwick, which being had, they might with the more ease and advantage, make their way home, and in order thereto pass over so Page 99the Enemy, to fall upon them. This Brigade consisted of three Regiments of Horse, of Major General Lamberts, Commissary General Whal∣leys, and Collonel Lilburns, and two of Foot. This gave the Scots a great Alarum, and a fore dispute happened about the pass, which lasted a∣bove an hour, the great Guns playing in the mean time against both the bodies. At length that stout Brigade gained and possessed the pass, much gal∣lantry and bravery being shewed on both sides. This pass lay at Copperspeth in the English way homewards, to impede which, they had drawn off their best Horse upon the right Wing to re∣ceive the English, weose Word was the Lord of Hosts, theirs The Covenant.
The Enemy charged hereupon with their Lan∣ciers, so that that the Horse gave way a little, but immediately rallied, and the foot advancing to second them, the Scots were charged so home, that they put them presently to the rout, it being about six a Clock in the morning, the left Wing of Horse without striking one stroke, following the same way; The Foot seeing this rout and flight of the Horse, and not able in any order by reason there∣of to engage, were all of a sudden so confused and confounded, that without any resistance or offer of Engagement, they threvv dovvn their Arms, and fled, giving the English the full pursuit of them above eight miles beyond Had∣dington; the number of the slain vvere 40000. 9000 Prisoners, many vvhereof vvere despe∣rately Page 100wounded, and 10000 Arms, all their Am∣munition, Bag and Bagage, Prisoners of Note were, Sir James L•sdale, Lieutenant General of the Army, the Lord Libberton, imployed by the States to the King lately, and died of his wounds presently after the fight at Dunbar, Ad∣jutant General •ickerton, Scout-master Campbel, Sir William Douglass, Lord Cranston, and Colo∣nel Gurden; 12 Lieutenant Colonels, 6 Majors, 42 Captains, 75 Lieutenants, 17 Cornets, 2 Quarter-masters, 110 Ensigns, Foot and Horse Colours 200. 27 Guns, some Brass, Iron and Leather, with the loss of not above 300. English, and one Major Rookisty who died after of his wounds: there was likewise taken the Purse to the great Seal of Scotland, which was presently sent up to London, and the Colours with those taken before at Preston, ordered forthwith to be h• up in Westminster-Hall; The full Contents of all which, was signified in a Letter from the Gene∣ral in his usual strain of devout zeal, tending ve∣ry much to strengthen the Independent against the Presbyterian at home, and the advancement of a Common-wealth to the imitation of the rest of the World; the latter part thereof for the severe• Aspect it had towards the Ministry in favour of Anabaptists, with which the Army swarmed, I have here inserted.—
The glory of this field though it were by his own party ascribed to his valour, yet it laid a great blemish on his conduct, and indeed the res∣cue of his honour is principally to be referred to Colonel Monck, whose company he had obliged in this expedition, (being very understanding in the choice, and as subtile in the shaking off his Friends and Familiars.) He had newly had a Re∣giment conferred on him, made up of recruits and Page 102other imperfect companies, and did now at the Generals request draw and design the fight, and embattle the Army, and seconded that delibe∣rate speculation with forwardest of action, for which indeed most of the Officers were very praise worthy: After the fight Cromwell used some catching courtesies to the wounded Soldiers, and the feebler sort of Prisoners, but the poor High∣landers and such like, paid dear for that partial kindness shewed their Countrymen, as many as with difficulty lived being sold for slaves.
On the 14. of September, General Cromwel marched out of Edenburgh with 7. days provision, for the Scots had not left any manner of subsistance betwixt that and Sterling, and on the 15. reached beyond Linlithgow, but through bad weather was constrained to retreat th•ther that night for shelter, the 16. to Falki•k within a Mile of Sterling, from whence fresh Letters of the old strain were sent into that City, but the Trumpeter was not suffer∣ed to enter, whereupon order was given for a storm, but upon better thoughts of the danger, forborn, so that on the 19. of September they returned to Linlithgow (whither came General Dean to him from Shipboard, being newly arri∣ved at Leith, in the Speaker Frigot) and forti∣fied the Town, being the road way betwixt Eden∣burgh and Sterling, and a sufficient Garrison was left to maintain it, and so on the 22. the English returned to Edenburgh, where Coll. Whally had offered the Ministers fled to the Castle, leave 〈◊〉Page 103come out and preach in their several Parishes, but they refused: Another Cajole to the Kirk.
Cromwell encamping and traversing hereabouts with his Army, but not being able to effect any thing against the main Army of the Kings that lay on Sterling-side, resolved to be doing with a Pat∣ty that then lay in the West of Scotland, under the Command of the Colonels Ker and Straughan, with whom Cromwell had maintained an open in∣tercourse, and had proffered them a Cessation; driving at this, to take them off and subdivide the Nation in several parties, and the effect of his Papers, taxing the Scots with the admission of the King upon the old Malignant score, did ope∣rate as he projected; for thereupon out-comes a Declaration or Remonstrance from these Western fellows, full of saucy and treasonable language, which accordingly was voted both by the Com∣missioners of the Kirk, and the Committee of Estates to be scandalous and seditious, Sir James Stuart, and Sir John Cheisly, and one Mr. Le∣viston (who seemed to countenance it) were strictly watched, and Straughan taken and made Prisoner in Dunbarton, and after in Cathnes-castle, whence he escaped and came over to the English at Edenburgh: but 'twas more the sacred hunger of Gold then zeal for Religion, made him first betray his King and his Country after, and we shall see all Cromwell's Proselytes of that Nation, both Dundasse, Warrest•n; and Giffan, to love no∣thing so much as the Mammon of Presbytery.Page 104
Straughan thus removed, Major General Lambert was sent to prevail with Ker, either by blows or words, the latter being thought as feisi∣ble as the former, and accordingly on the last of November, having difficultly found, and passed a Ford over Hambleton-river, Car got notice of it, and resolutely fell into the Major Generals quarters at a Town of that name; but the Horse being in a readiness to receive him he lost a 100. men, had his right hand almost cut off, and was taken Prisoner, and the rest of his party being 5. Regiments of Horse, 2. whereof were the Earl of Cassells, and Lord Kirconbrights, pursued as far as Ayre, where Commissary General Whalley was now left to command in chief in those Western parts. Cromwell had marched with his Army this way as far as Glasgow in October, but understanding or dreading the enemy would come and relieve Edinburgh-Castle, with Provisions and another Governour (being in Treaty with the present for a summe of money) he forthwith retired; having there took and garrisoned two Houses, while Coll. Whalley took in Dalkeith, and another nest of Mosse-Tropers, yet his com∣ing thither hindred Major General Montgomery from marching into those parts, to reduce K• likewise to his obedience to the King.
Edinburgh-castle had been besieged some Months and upwards, with little loss on either side, save that the great Guns from the Castle did some Mischief in Edinburgh-streets, and one Page 105Captain Hamilton was shot in the head with a Musquet, as he was viewing the Castle, and the Morter-peices made semblance of great terrour and annoyance to the besieged; a Mine was like∣wise carried on some 60. foot, the Stone being cut all the way; but then they could proceed no further, being come to the Rock whereon the Castle stands: Nevertheless the Derbyshire Mi∣ners (being 12. in number) did what they could to proceed, the Enemy throwing Pitch and Flax and other combustible stuff into the Works. At last the personated Hostility came to a period, and Dundasse old Levens Son in Law, pretending want of Water, came to a Parley, and having premised a colourable request of 10. days time, to send to the Committee of Estates, by whom he said he was intrusted, which he knew was to be denied; and after several missives betwixt Crom∣well and him, concluded the rendition of that most important place to the Kings Service, in these Articles agreed on, betwixt Major Aberne∣thy Dundasses man, and Captain Henderson on one side, and Col. Monk L. Col. White on the other (it was always before called the Maiden, it may henceforth be called the Prostitute-castle) the Articles were as follow,
There were found in it five French Cannon, nine Dutch half Cannon, two Culverings, two demy Culverings, two Minions, two Falcons, 28. Brass Drakes, called Monkeys, two Petards, betwixt seven and eight thousand Arms, neer 80. Barrels of Powder, and a like store of Cannon shot: Col. Fenwick, was presently upon the surrender, made Governour of this and Leith; Sir Arthur Haslerigge, and Mr. Scot were pre∣sent at the rendition thereof, and then departed, their work being done; which that it may the better appear for a peice of the vilest treachery any Scot ever committed (though Cromwel as∣cribes it in his Letter to the Speaker, to the alone Wisdome of God beyond all humane power and accomplishment) take this account from the lo∣vers themselves of this Treason at Edenburgh, The greatest want they had was of Beer, but as for Oatmeal, Butter, Fresh Water, and Salt Meat, they bad enough, the Master Gunner told me, that Page 107when our Guns were a drawing to the Batteries, he had so placed his Pieces, that our's could not possi∣bly have been planted without great loss, but when he prepared to give fire, he was forbidden by the Governour upon pain of 'Death. His man Aber∣nethy went often out of the Castle, upon pretence of geiting intelligence (but it was to hold it with Cromwel) sure it is, that Dundass and he and some others were a little wiser, and went not over the water as they had made conditions, some of those that did being Imprisoned (the Court and Camp being sadly affected with this loss) The Provost of Edenburgh, Sir James Stuart is in Town, but keeps private, lest the Wives in the Street should abuse him as they did Straughan, and Ker at their coming hither, the Lord Warreston, who came as he pre∣tended for the Records, is not yet returned, but stays in Town, for he cares not to go back, He and the rest of that Remonstrant Tribe are summoned to come to Parliament, Col. Dundass, Straughan, and Captain Giffan, with Abernethy, Swinton, and Andrews, were else to be Excommunicated and de∣clared Traytors, which was done Jan. 14. Mr. James Guthry, and the Earl of Lothian, and Gen. Holborn were generally suspicted, with Sir John Chiefly, who are every day expected in our quarters, Rutherford and Gillespy are likewise dis∣senters from the present manage of Affairs. Ker saith, his wound on his right hand is Gods justice against him, for lifting it up against us in such a cause as he maintained. And so I will conclude Page 108all those treasonable practices, and fomented di∣visions of that Nation against their common in∣terest by this Master of all Treacherous Arts.
Cromwell was again very earnest and intent upon making or finding a way by Sterling, and therefore on the 8. of February he marched thi∣ther again, having been informed of some Fords thereabouts where he might pass his Army, or at least impede their raising of new Forces, and way∣lay their marching into England. which was gi∣ven out as the grand design, a Force being left on that side the water, sufficient to sustain any im∣pression of the English; and to that expedition Duke Hamilton, Duke of Buckingham, Lord Cleaveland, Wentworth, Wilmot, and Collonel Massey, who had a noble and full Regiment and was to be Major General, with Titus, and Col. Graves were designed. Cromwel as was said, to this purpose, in very tempestuous weather reach∣ed his intended passes, but found the approaches to them so boggy and unpassable, that in the same stress of weather, his Army half spoiled with cold, and other discommodities, he was forced to retire again as he had done twice before (having only alarumed the Scots, and put them into a sudden posture of defence) to Glasgow, and to await the time of his boats Arrival and a happier season of the year.
This was the first •eat of Rebellion in that Kingdome, and very fit for his Head Quarters, an University also; which remembers me Page 109that Cromwell a little while before was chosen Chancellor of Oxford, and honoured here with the publique Seal thereof, on purpose to stave off the rapinous, sacrilegious hands of the Parlia∣ment, who were a hammering upon an Act for the sale of Colledge-Lands, to carry on their Wars; and Cromwell did (as was was well pro∣jected) undertake their preservation, and did ex∣press some angry resentment at the Parliament for this Barbarity, laying his hand as usual upon his Sword; There was this remarkable herein, that the Delegates of the University declared not their main design till they had given him his Oath as Chancellor, which was thought of little security, but only that the solemnity of it might the better mind him to whom he had given it. Hence after some debates, and publique disputes with the Mi∣nisters, viz. Gillespy, Rutherford, &c. of Glas∣cow aforesaid, concerning the lawfulnesse of his Invasion, which he performed as he said, in much weakness of (both Argument and) body, seeing there was no drawing the Scot out that way to fight, which way they intended for an undistur∣bed march, marched back to Edenburgh by the beginning of May (and in his way burned the Lady Kilsithes house, for holding intelligence with the King) having notice of the Arrival of his Boats at Leith, for the transportation of his Ar∣my into Fife, which was the last remedy; the failure of victuals in the Scotch Camp, which therefore they should be forced to abandon and march, proving a meer delusion.Page 110
Cromwell being at Edinburgh, having notice how the King lay encamped at Sterling, Leshlys Foot quartering on the Southside, and Middletons on the North-side of the Park encompassed with a Stone-wall; and that abundance of Pro∣vision was brought in daily, supposing they would march; drew al his remaining forces out of the west with as much care and conduct as could be, and encamped likewise in the Fields by Edinburgh in a readinesse for them, whither to march or fight: But in the mean time he was taken very ill of his Ague, so that Doctor Wright and Doctor Bates eminent Physicians, were sent down to attend his cure, & many blith & anxious discourses were made concerning his Death, as either party wished, for he was brought very low; but being recovered to some degree of health by these Gentlemen, it was presently sounded like a Proclamation: and I have therefore thought fit to transcribe a peice of the Letter, that the world may see what queer Hypocrites his attendants, like himself and his times were, by the pious nonsense and most blas∣phemous flattery of this Apocrypha Epistle. If I knew the Secretary or Inditer, I would record him for his Pen,—
This Occasion of his Sicknesse, minds me of one passage of his Life, wherein was a Ray or Specimen of his Humanity. He had a Servant a Frenchman, one Dury, that attended him in his Chamber, whom of all his Retainers he best loved, and would hardly brook his absence out of his Sight, whether for that he could more freely communicate his Privacies to a forraigner, who was altogether unconcerned in them, and there∣fore of greater secresie and confidence; or for his diligence and care of his person, set off with his national fondnesses & insinuations. This fellow dying not long after, Cromwell did passionately grieve thereat, and for the memory of this his dear Servant, made ample provisions by a Pen∣sion for his relations, which continued during his Usurpation. At last with much ado by the helps of Physick, and the especial constant attendance of those Doctors sent him, and charged with his preservation by the Parliament; Cromwell fully revived to theirs (afterwards) aswell as the Kingdoms sorrow.
The English Army in Scotland was now in mo∣tion for grass, and marched upon their old design of Sterling to Newbridge, so to Lithgow, from whose Castle Battlements, they might espy the Tents of the Scotch Army encamped in Torwood 4 Miles of this side Sterling (whither his creature Warreston was now summoned by the Commissio∣ners of the Assembly peremptorily by the third of Page 112July) having cast up a regular and well fortified line with Bulworks mounted with Guns, and hav∣ing a River behind them, which they might passe at pleasure; in this posture they awaited the Eng∣lish, who coming up and facing them the third of July, in the night following the Scots drew up their Cannon, and planted them on the brow of the Hill, and next morning saluted Cromwell with 50. great Guns, but with little Execution, which made him quickly draw out of shot, and give over his once begun resolution of attaquing them at so much disadvantage. The English therefore, march∣ed back again, Major Generall Lambert being sent from Glascow a week after to view the passes, which he reported by reason of the boggy approa∣ches there, to be very hazardous. Upon their de∣parture from Lithgow to Glasco, the Scots remov∣ed from Torwood, and encamped at Kilsith a place environed with insuperable defences, having a bog on one hand, and craggy mountains on the other, but the English Army (having eaten up all at Glasgow and those parts, and trod down the Corn standing, that the Scots might find no suste∣nance that way, if they should march) appearing and marching with great noise, on the other side, they imagining the English meant to clap in be∣tween them and Sterling, hastened back again to their old line at Torwood, July 13. whither Crom∣wel followed, and to provoke them to an Engage∣ment, stormed Calendar House in their view, and put all the Defendants except the Governour to Page 113the Sword, and then seeing there was no possibi∣lity of fighting with them, but that they were re∣solved to keep them in play, till Winters scarcity of horse-meat should make them give over and depart the Kingdom, he encamped himself, await∣ing the successe of his design by Boat into Fife.
While Cromwell thus attended the Scots at Tor∣wood, within a mile and a half of them at Fal∣kirk, at length the long expected sucesse of a transportation into Fife manifested it self: for Col. Overton with 1400. foot of his own, and Col. Daniels Regiment, with four Troops of Horse of Coll. Lydcots, having with the losse of a few men gained a place called North Ferry on the other side the Frith, on the 17. of July, had as the time served intrenched themselves, and before the Scotch Army then beyond Sterling could reach them with a sufficient force to drive them out, Major General Lambert was passed over to them, it being an Arm of the Sea, and had defeated Sir John Brown with 4000. men; The successe and great consequence of which, and the said trans∣portation, I wil briefly sum up in Cromwells Letter.
In pursuance of the providence of God, and that blessing lately given to your Forces in Fife, and finding that the Enemy being Masters of the Passe at Sterling, could not be gotten out there without hindering his Provisions at Saint John∣stons, we by general advise thought fit to attempt Saint Johnstons, knowing that that would ne∣cessitate Him to quit His Passe; wherefore Page 114leaving with Major General Harrison about 3000. Horse and Dragoons besides those which are with Coll. Rich, Coll. Saunders, and Coll. Barton upon the Borders, we marched to Saint Johnstons, and lying one day before it, we had it Surrendred to us; during which time we had some intelligence of the Enemies marching Southward, though with some contradictions as if it had not been so; but doubting it might be true, leaving a Garrison in Saint Johnstons, and sending Lieutenant Generall Monk with 5, or 6000. to Sterling to reduce that place, and by it to put your affairs into a good posture in Scotland: We marched with all possible ex∣pedition back again, and have passed our Foot and many of our Horse over the Frith this day, resolving to make what speed we can up to the Enemy; who in this desperation and fear, and out of inevitable necessity is run to try what he can do this way. I do apprehend that if he goes for England, being some few dayes march before us, it will trouble some mens thoughts, and may occasion some inconveniences, of which I hope we are as deeply sensible, and have, and I trust shall be as diligent to prevent as any; and in∣deed this is our comfort, that in simplicity of heart as to God, we have done to the best of our judgements, knowing that if some issue were not put to this businesse, it would occasion another Winters War to the ruin of your Souldiery, for whom the Winter-dissiculties of this Country, Page 115are too hard, and be under the endlesse expence of the Treasure of England in prosecuting this War.
It may be supposed we might have kept the Enemy from this, by interposing between him and England, which truely I believe we might, but how to remove Him out of this place with∣out doing what vve have done, unlesse we had had a commanding Army on both sides of the River of Frith, is not clear to us, or hovv to an∣svver the inconveniences aforementioned vve understand not; vve pray therefore, that seeing there is a possibility for the Enemy to put you to some trouble, you vvould vvith the same cou∣rage (grounded upon a confidence in God) wherein you have been supported to the great things in which God hath used you heretofore, improve the best you can such Forces as you have in readinesse, or may on the sudden be got toge∣ther to give the Enemy some check, until we shall be able to reach up to him, which we trust in the Lord we shall do our utmost endevour in; and indeed we have this comfortable experiment from the Lord, that this Enemy is heart-smitten by God, and when ever the Lord shall bring us up to them, we believe the Lord will make the desperateness of this Councel of theirs to appear, and the folly of it also; when England was much more unsteady then now, and when a much more considerable Army of theirs unfoiled, invaded you & we had but weak force to make resistance at Preston, upon deliberate advice, we chose-ra∣ther Page 116to put our selves between their Army and Scotland, and how God succeeded that is not well to be forgotten.
This is not out of choice on our part, but by some kind of necessity, and it is to be hoped will have the like issue, together with a hopeful end of your work, in which it's good to wait upon the Lord, upon the earnest of former experien∣ces, and hope of his presence, which only is the life of your Cause. Major General Harri∣son, with the Horse and Dragoons under him, and Colonel Rich; and the rest in those parts, shall attend the motion of the Enemy, and en∣devour the keeping of them together, as also to impede his March, and will be ready to be in conjunction with what Forces shall get together for this service, to whom Orders have been spee∣ded to that purpose, as this enclosed to Major General Harrison will shew. Major General Lambert this day marched with a very considera∣ble Body of Horse up towards the Enemies Reer; With the rest of the Horse and nine Regiments of Foot (most of them of your old Foot and Horse) I am hasting up, and shall by the Lords help use the utmost diligence: I hope I have left a commanding force under Lieutenant General Monk in Scotland. This account I thought my duty to speed to you, and rest.
Leith 4. August 1651.
Your most humble Servant O. Cromwell.
This shews what sudden troubled apprehension He had of this well designed March of the Kings, and made him repent his obstinacy of Honour in reducing St. Johnstons, by which the King got 3 days March of him; but however he excused this to the Parliament (who were almost in despair, and terribly affrighted at the News of it) yet they did highly taxe him for his negligence, and spoke ill words of him, which came to his ears, and for which he soon after cried quits with them.
The King departed from Sterling the last of Ju∣ly, and came into England by the way of Carlisle, and upon his first footing there was Proclaimed rightful Kin' of Great Brittain, and did thereupon publish his Declaration, wherein He offered His free Grace and Pardon (to be confirmed by an Act thereafter) to all His Subjects of England, of what ever nature or crime their offences were, excepting Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Cook, the more immediate Murtherers of His Father; and therewith prosecuted His March, being proclaim∣ed in the same manner through all the Towns he passed.
On the 22, of August, the Van of the Kings Army entred Worcester, some resistance being at∣tempted to be made by some new raised Forces under one Colonel James, and by the influence of Baron Wilde, but the Townsmen saved them the labour of driving them out, and most joyfully welcomed these weary Guests, and such too as in 1645. had been extremely oppressive and in∣tolerably Page 118burdensome, at the Siege of Hereford but their gladnesse at the Kings presence, and hope of his Restitution, obliterated all other considerations and remembrances whatsoever. The Mayor and his Brethren at the Kings Intrad• did Him the customary but most chearful obeysan∣ces tendring Him the Keys and the Mace upon their Knees, and bidding Him and His Forces welcome to this his Majesties Ancient and Loyal City, where the same day with great solemnity He was anew Proclaimed, and the tired Soldiers most abundantly provided for, being in all Scotch and English some 13000. who had marched 300. miles outright in three weeks.
In the mean time the Parliament had amassed a numerous Militia in all the Counties of England and glad were the Members that the King stayed for them, for nothing was more dreaded then his continued march to London, which place would have soon ridded their fears, upon an approach of the Kings Army but 30. miles further from Worcester, but to prevent that, as Essex did be∣fore at the beginning of the War (whose first ef∣forts took this way) Cromwell by long Marches through Newcastle, Rippou, Ferrybrygs, Don∣caster, Mansfield, and Coventry, had interpo∣sed himself, and joyned with his Army at Keyn∣ton, where a General Council of all his Officers was held, and a speedy advance to Worcester re∣solved on, Lieutenant General Fleetwood being dispatch'd to bring up his Forces, then on their Page 119way at Banbury, the gross of all the Forces a∣mounting to above 50000. effective, Militia and all.
By this time Cromwell had surrounded the City of Worcester with his spreading Host, in as neer a compass as the Rivers and Passes would suffer him, the Kings Army as yet lying out of the Town a mile in the fields. The first pass ende∣voured to be taken, was Ʋpton-Bridge on Fleet∣woods side, which Major General Lambert at∣tempted with 500. Horse and Dragoons, who un∣espied crept upon their Bellies on a peice of Tim∣ber they had laid over the River, which the sur∣prizing Assailants after a brisk dispute wrested from Colonel Massey. The Scots l•wing thus abandoned the place, it was presently possest by a strong Party of Horse and Foot, in order to the present advance of the rest of the Army.
The Scots now drawn closer to Worcester made many Salleys, breaking down 2. or 3. Bridges o∣ver the River Team, and shewing a well ordered and governed courage; but September the third, that ominous day, he drew out from his own Post (and having given the signal to the whole Army to fall on) began the Fight in this manner.
Cromwell himself in person (about 3. a Clock with hss Life Guard, and Colonel Hackers Re∣giment of Horse, with part of his own Regi∣ment, and Colonel Ingoldsby's, and Fairfax's entire) passed over his Bridge of Boats upon the Severn, and marched towards the City, after him, Page 120Lieut. Gen. Fleetwood, who had been most part of that day marching of 5. miles from Upton to Powick-bridge, which the Kings Army had broken down, passed with Colonel Goff's and Major General Dean's Regiments, and joyntly advanced, the Kings Forces encountring them at the Hedges, and disputing every field with them, in such or∣der and with such gallantry, that these already o∣ver (lest they should not be wholly discouraged with the hotnesse of the service) were relieved by reserves, and they by others, no considerable progress yet made, the Highlanders proving ex∣cellent Firemen, and coming to the But-end at every foot, till weary, and their Ammunition spent, the King being then upon the place Com∣manded them in some hast into the City, and hastned himself to the other side where Colonel Hayns Regiment, with Cobbets stood about Pow∣ick bridge, and were entertained with no less Manhood and Slaughter, and though Colonel Mathews was the reserve to the other two Regi∣ments, yet did the Scotch Foot fairly drive them from their ground, till their little Army being every way engaged, and no seconds or supplies to be expected, after some wheelings in a careless regard of the Enemy, as if they feared not to make which way they pleased, they drew likewise into the Town as did that Brigade which opposed the Regiments of the Lord Gray Colonel Blague, Gibbons, and Marsh.Page 121
But they stayed not long here, for as if their pent spirits had broke out with greater fury, they sallied out in great bodies upon the Generals side, who had now brought the Militia Forces into play, the Veterans wisely detrecting to engage first upon the Storm which was then intended, but there was yet field matter enough to do. In the Head of one of those squadrons, the King him∣self charged with that gallantry which would have become our Admiration in other men, and show∣ed he had not forgot the Discipline of War in which he had been brought up from his youth; In one of those Charges he made, Duke Hamilton a better Soldier and nobler gallanter person then his Brother, received a shot on his thigh, whereof presently after he dyed. The loss that was sustain∣ed by the Enemy, fell principally upon the Essex Foot, and those of Cheshire and Snrrey, who returned in thin Troops and Companies to their Counties; but fresh and entire Brigades and Regi∣ments, in Reserves, namely Desborough's Re∣giment of Horse, Cromwell's of Horse, Major General Lambert's of Horse, WWhaley's, Har∣rison's, and Tomlinson's Brigades, with other Foot re-inforcing them; the Scots by the over∣powering multitude were driven into the Town, Leshley with 2000. Horse (upon what account not known) not stirring out of the Town to re∣lieve them, when the Enemy entred pell mell with them, and gained the Fort Royal about 7. a Clock at night, at which time the King left the Page 122Town it being dusk, and accompanied vvith some 60. Horse of the cheifest and most confident of his Retinue, though many more pressed to bear him Company) departed out of St. Martins∣gate, and it was reported that Cobbet very narrow∣ly Mist of him, as the King left his lodging, whether he first hastned.
The Enemies Foot was now got into the Town, and according to their Order fell a plundering the Town in a most barbarous manner, as if Turks were again a Sacking of Constantinople, and gi∣ving no quarter to any they found in the Streets: through this their greedinesse of spoil, they kept the Horse out lest they should have shared the bet∣ter part, and to that purpose kept the Gates fast a• they were, and so favoured (as God would have it) the Kings escape, some Scots who had got into one of the Churches held out till next morning, when they obtained quarter for Life, by which time there was not an Inhabitant in Worcest∣er friend or fo• left worth a farthing; but the Loyal Inhabitants lost little by the bargain, being supplied with fresh wares to their desires from London, without any scruple of credit or paiment and their Debts forborn till such time as God should enable them, which the Gentry and Inha∣bitants round about them endevoured to bring to passe, by their more then ordinary resort to that Market, for all necessaries and upon all occasions. The Mayor (being Knighted by the King) and Aldermen vvere committed to Prison, and the Page 123Wife of one Guyes (vvho for betraying the de∣signs of the King in that Garrison vvas hanged) vvas revvarded vvith 200. l. per annum, and 200 l. dovvn.
There were slain in Field, and in Town (in the last the most) and in pursuit some 3000. and some 8000. taken prisoners in several places, most of the English escaping by their Shiboleth, the principal were Duke Hamilton, who presently dyed of his wounds, and at Newport the Earl of Lauderdale, Earl of Rothes, Earl of Carnworth, Earl of Kelly, Earl of Derby, Earl of Cleveland, the now Earl of Shrewsbury, Sir John Packing∣ton, Lord Spyne, Sir Ralph Clare, Sir Charles Cunningham, Colonel Graves, Mr. Richard Fanshaw Secretary to the King, 6 Col. of Horse, 13. of Foot, 9 Lieutenant Colonels of Horse, 8. Lieutenant Colonels of Foot, 6. Majors of Horse, 13. Majors of Foot, 37. Captains of Horse, 72 Captains of Foot, 55. Quarter-masters, 89. Lieutenants; there were taken also some Gene∣ral Officers, with 76. Cornets of Horse, 99. Ensigns of Foot, 90. Quartermasters, 80. of the Kings Servants, with the Kings Standard which he had set up when he summoned the Country, the Kings Coach and Horses, and Collar of SS, but that which was Ten times more worth then all, the Kings person, they had no power to touch.
On the 12. of Sept. Cromwell came to Lon∣don, and was met about Acton with the Speaker and the Members, and the Lord Mayor and the Page 124Recorder Steel, who in a set Speech congratulated his great successes, and like a false Prophet, by a mistaken Prolepsis, applied these words of the Psalmist,—To bind their Kings in Chains, and their Nobles in fetters of Iron, in an arrogant Ex∣altation of his Atcheivements. Next day the common Prisoners, (being driven like a herd of Swine) were brought through Westminster into Tuthill-fields, (a sadder spectacle was never seen, except the •serable place of their defeat) and there sold to several Merchants, and sent to the Bar• the Colours taken vvere likevvise hanged up in Westminster-hall, vvith those taken before at Preston and Dunbar.
He had now passed and surmounted all the dissi∣culties and troubles that the Interest of the Crown hither to had threatned, and nothing was wanting to the Completion of his aims, but the Kings per∣son, most miraculously preserved and rescued to the perpetuall disquiet and vexation of this Would∣be-Monarch. But because that sacred story ought not to be blasphemed with the impiety of his, I will not intermingle any of those blessed Provi∣dences of His Escape, with the direful designments of Cromwell's unobstructed passage to the Throne.
For having superated all outward appearances of danger to his ultimate design, there remained nothing but a wretched and hated Juncto of Men with whom he was next to grapple; things so slight∣ed by him and their Authority so scorned after this discomfiture of the King, that he never vouch∣sased Page 125them a good look. Nay publickly exprest his resentments of their saucy expostulations of his conduct, about the Kings march for England, which was mentioned before.
And therefore at his first comming into the House, (where he was entertained by the Speaker with the second part of Steel's Panegyrick) a mo∣tion was started for a new Representative, and all the Codlings and Embryons of Tripl• and New∣market-Heaths Engagements afresh re•med, and those Army expedients for which •o many Level∣lers had suffered) now again revived, acknowledged and applauded for the only conducing means to the long expected settlement.
The main whereof was the proposal of a new Representative to be equally chosen to succeed the present Parliament. A most abhominated and deprecated evil by the Members, who having done so much mischief and incurred so much detestation for practising his and their mutuall designs upon the best Government and the most incomparable Prince in the world, were almost at their Wits end with madnesse at his, and invention of their, (contra) devices.
While these things were debating amongst them and every day produced some fresh altercation and quarrell about dissolving this and choosing a new Representative, which the Souldiers not only from their former principle as English Freemen but now as the Generalls Janizaries, and in obedience to his dictates and commands; with the pretensory Page 126advice of his Council of Officers unanimously and readily urged, (for he had brought the Army to his bow and disciplined them to a most exact ignorant devotion and obedience to his service during the Scotch War, where the distance of the Common∣wealth-men could not reach:) his second self his son in Law Ireton died in Ireland, just as he was comming to the fruition of those grand projecti∣ons they had both conspired. He had employed his Vice-government after Cromwell's departure in reducing places held for the King there being no Feild service ever after.
He survived not the totall Conquest of Ireland, to which he was by compact and Olivers Bull de∣creed, but saw a very fair prospect thereof in the rendition of Limbrick and the expected delivery of Galloway: and since this concerned Cromwell and the Agreement between them (which is most certain though none of those secret compacts are discoverable) I will give the Reader his Chara∣cter and this short account of his decease here.
Limrick being taken, Ireton marched to joyn with Sir Charles Coot to attempt somthing further, and together took in Clare Castle, but the weather not proving so seasonable, and the Souldiers tired out with duty at the Siege of Limrick, they parted into Winter Quarters, Ireton back again to Lim∣rick, in the way whither he fell sick on the 15. of November, and after purging and bleeding and other means used, died of the Plague in that City on the 27. of the same month, the Commissioners Page 127for the Parliament there substituting to his com∣mand in the Army (while the Parliament or Ge∣neral (for Cromwel was lately so made of Ireland) should otherwise appoint) Edmund Ludlow the Lieutenant General of the Army in that Kingdom. On the 17. of December his Carcasse was landed at Bristol, and pompously dismist to London, where it was for a time in state at Summerset-House, all hung with black, and a Scutcheon over the gate with this Motto, Dulce est pro patris mori, how sutable, that Countryman best told who Eng∣lished it in these words, it is good for his Country that he is dead: on Feb. 6. following he was in∣terred in H. 7. Chappel (being carried out with a pompous Funerall at which Cromwell was chief Mourner, and the Members of the Juncto atten∣dants in Black with a great deal of State,) but hath since found a fitter repository for his accursed dust. It was beleived by the Army who did credit their own conjectures and others impostures for want of literature that he was a perfect Common∣wealths-man, and would have withstood his Fa∣ther in Law in his ambitious intrusions upon the Parliament, and this because he was the Drawer or Promoter of all the Levelling Fundamentals, but he prevented their juster judgement by appea∣ring to a greater and most exact Tribunal, and pe∣rished with rottennesse in the maturity of his design.
Page 128He was absolutely the best prayer-maker and preacher in the Army for which he might thank his Education at Oxford, though Oliver came but lit∣tle behind him, being very frequent and instant, now especially, in such devotions out of all season and reason, but it was all one to the Souldiers who had nothing else to doe but to Prey and to Pray. The other qualities and conditions of Ireton were so congenial with Olivers, that in the prosecution of his story I shall but tell the same things, the evil Spirit after his decease being doubled upon him by a mischeivous Metempsychosis, a transmi∣gration of soul, which assimilated their ashes in the same grave at Tyburne.
The Fortune of this Grand atcheivment at Worcester subjugated all the Dominions of the Eng∣lish Soveraignty entirely under the power of the free States, the Isles of Scilly, Man, Barbadoes, and Christophors submitting and acknowledging their Jurisdiction, all which were reckoned by Cromwell but the Trophees due to his valour and the reward of his labour; and therefore all things thus flattering his conceits of Majesty, He was angry with himself for permitting those delayes to his eager Ambition, now complemented, smooth∣ed and tyred by many fine and pretty Evasions of the Members, who wanted not most just pretences to detain the Government from his handling; but of this presently.Page 129
There was another thing in his eye which trou∣bled him most of all and respited and superseded his design up on the Rump, which was the Illustrious Duke of Gloucester then a Prisoner at Carisbrook-Castle the prison of His Father and the Custody of himself; so long therefore as that Prince should continue here, he could not expect that a single person could be opposed to his right, without ma∣nifest danger from all parties, who to be revenged of their injuries would rather comply with the Royal Family then suffer his bold Usurpation. Therefore to quit himself of that fear, he procured by his Party in the Parliament (who were resolved to dispose of him here in some ordinary profession to make Majesty more contemptible in the sight of Men) that for the lessening the charge of the Common-wealth, the said Duke should be tran∣sported into some place beyond Sea, with a pro∣mised Exhibition of some scorned Pension.
The noble Duke being accordingly removed to the great content and joy of his Relations, who dreaded his Murther, and the satisfaction of Crom∣well who was Gorged with his Royal Fathers, another danger returned from beyond Sea in ex∣change of that exported: for the Dutch gave ma∣nifest Symptomes of a Rupture with this new Commonwealth whose insolent depredations at sea had molested and greatly damnified their Trade, and braved them to a revenge, upon a pique taken from their rejecting their offers of a Treaty and Amity and suffering their Ambassadours St JohnPage 130and Strickland to be affronted at the Hague while the affairs of the King in Scotland, were yet in suspense.
It was therefore a hazardous Enterprise to be fighting with two Common-wealths together, and to which his confidence and Resolution could not raise him, without a surer interest in the people, who were to undergoe his Tyranny. This now reprieved the Members from his Decree of Dis∣solution, while they had tryed the fortune of war with the Dutch, and had put things into such a posture and certainty, that no home alteration could discompose or disorder it. The Treasures for the support of the War, being now a filling, a Naval force rigging and Equipping, and the Honour and glory of the Nation engaged and con∣cerned. Thus far he cast his Eyes to sorraign Transactions: To return;
At home the Parliament had a greater mischief breeding against them then they feared from the most dangerous of their forraign Enemies. A dangerous imposture of ambition, whose quabbing beating payns gave them no rest, nor could all their skill tell how to asswage or cure it. It swelled every day more and more in continual addresses, desires, petitions, declarations, till it came to be ripe, and then burst out to the destruction of this political body. This was the reiterated and incul∣cated story of the Parliaments providing for future equal representatives and putting a period to this, then which nothing could be more distasteful, and Page 131of greater antipathy to the present members, which yet they did most artfully conceal, and dis∣semble in a hundred complying Votes and resolves even to the ascertaining of the longest day, No∣vember 5. 1654. for their sitting, but that was two years too long for Cromwel, whose fingers itched to be managing a Scepter. In order to this delay, the Committee that first sat and hatcht upon this bill were removed from the nest, and the addle eggs put under the chil incumbency of other wild foul, and they to proceed therein with all expe∣dition, a thing so unlikely, that Sultan Cromwel, who expected a Grand Cairo brood, resolved not to be baffled much longer, or await the leisure of his mercenary Servants, as after a Fast and hu∣miliation of him and his Council of Officers, and the Communication of the grounds thereof to the whole Army in England and Ireland (which was a lamentation for the tedious continuance of self∣interested persons in the Authority, and other Re∣ligious melancholy about Charity, the want whereof was greatly bemoaned) we shall fully discover.
Every other day almost more Fasts, or some such religious Exercise was managed by Cromwel and Harrison, who mainly promoted the same Proposals for a new Representative, in order to the personal Raign of Christ, and that therefore it was high time the Government was placed in the Hands of his Saints, for all the glorious Pro∣phesies thereof were now ready to be fulfilled, Page 132and this was cryed up as the Doctrine of the Times.
Cromwell seemed to be of the same judgement and of that Millenary Principle, designing (as he said) nothing in those Mutations of Government which were agitating, but in tendency to that great Revolution, so that he had absolutely fool∣ed Harrison into a confidence of his good Inten∣tions, and that he aimed not at his own greatnesse• and thereupon all the party Harrison could make which was Feaks, Rogers, and Sympsons, Congregations, were impatient to have the Parlia∣ment outed, and their fine module to takeplace, wherein Righteousnesse and Holynesse should be exalted in the Kingdoms of the World. And now the Turk and the Pope were horribly threatned, and Oliver lookt upon as the great Instrument that should confound Antichrist.
But though most of the Officers were thus be∣witch'd and besotted, yet a great many of them had just and strong suspicions what his dissolution of the Parliament would end in, and therefore secret consultations were held how to oppose these practises upon the Parliament, in whose Autho∣rity conserved and secured, they were so wise as to see themselves safe and defended from the Af∣ter claps of the Rebellion; Among the rest, se∣veral Officers of Note came voluntarily out of Ireland (as some out of Scotland) who had by their general Fasts perceived the Drist of their General, to withstand Him, and publiquely pro∣test Page 133against the conduct of this business, as direct∣ly tending to the overthrow and undoing all, for which so much blood had been spilt, and giving up the most glorious Cause in the World, to its Nols own vanquish'd Enemies Argument.
Major General Lambert nevertheless did con∣cur with him in every particular, the whole de∣sign being secretly imparted to him, and he pro∣m•sed as a reward for his Assistance, the succession to the Supreme power. This intimacy of Lam∣bert was of a long standing ever since Preston∣fight, and was cemented the faster by that com∣placency Oliver took in his Wife; A Woman of good birth and good parts, and of pleasing at∣tractions both for mind and body. The Voyce of the people was, that she was more familiar with Him then the Honour of her Sex would al∣low, and that she had some extraordinary kind∣nesses for him which she had not for her husband, and that being the Medium or Reciprocation of Intelligence between them, she did communi∣cate all her husbands designs, and conceal some of the others, though she needed not to have been so squeemish, or reserved for one, whose Depths were never fathomed nor discovered to any one mortall, Ireton excepted. Of those that oppo∣sed him in the Design; Col. Venables, Scout∣master-General Downing, and Major Streeter, were the most eminent, who to that purpose as abovesaid, came out of Ireland; but Colonel Venables was soon wrought upon, and Mr. Down∣ingPage 134offering to speak against it in the Council of Officers, and getting upon a Table for better Au∣dience, was bid to come down by Cromwell, ask∣ing him what he did there: only Coll. Streater persisted in his Resolution of giving reasons against it, and being flamm'd with Harrison with Christs personal Raign, and that he was assured the Lord General sought not himself, but that King Jesus might take the Scepter; He presently replied; That Christ must come before Christmas, or else he would come too late. For this opportune opposi∣tion, and 10. Queries then published by him in the Army, he was committed to the Gate-house, and look'd upon by Cromwell as his Mortal Ene∣my.
The next Scene of this applauded Comedy was laid at the Cock-pit by White-hall, where Crom∣wel concealing the number of the Beast in his A∣pocalypse, declared to his Council of Officers, That if they should trust the People in an Election of a New Parliament according to the old Consti∣tution, it would be a tempting of God, and that his confidence was, that God did intend to save and de∣liver this Nation by few; as he had done in former times, and that five or six men, and some few more, setting themselves to the Work, might do more in one day, then the Parliament had or would do in a hundred, as far as he could p•rceive; and that such unbyassed men, were like to be the only Instruments of the peoples Happinesse.
These things had been offered to be debated Page 135with a Committee, and a Treaty agreed, where∣in so many Officers, and so many Members should meet, and argue the business, which signified on∣ly the crafty Cunctation of the Parliament (who made Asses of the Sword-men) St. Johns being one of those Referrees, with other resty Sages of the Anarchy. By this means 4. or 5. Months were spent upon the Definition of an equal Re∣presentative. But Cromwell growing teasty, some began to make particular excuses, others to pro∣mise a new Representative to his mind, and some to side with the Equity of his Proposals, as most consistent, well advised, and prudential means, to the Peace of the Nation; such a ridi∣culous collusion, that I cannot but anticipate the Event of this Conspiracy with this Truth.
Upon his return from the Dissolution of the Parliament back again to the Council of Officers, He acquainted them of his Exploit, and then told them, That now they must go hand in hand with him, and justifie what was done to the haz∣zard of all their Lives and Fortunes, as having ad∣vised and concurred in it. Adding, That when he went into the House, he intended not to do it; but the Spirit was so upon him, that He was o∣ver-ruled by it, and did not therefore consult with Flesh and Blood at all, nor did He preme∣ditate the doing thereof, though he plainly saw the Parliament designed to spin an everlasting Thred, And because there are few good Acts of his Life let the Reader score him up One for the 23. of April 1653.Page 134〈1 page duplicate〉Page 135〈1 page duplicate〉Page 136
Oliver himself attended by Major General Lambert, Harrison, and some 8. more Officers having after several conferences with their Com∣mittees (who showed him the danger of calling a new Representative as the case then stood with the Common-wealth, for that no qualifications could sufficiently secure the interest thereof, and that the only way was to recruit the House which could judge of such Elections by their own Au∣thority) received no satisfaction, entred the House (some Members being made privy to his design before, especially Sir Gilbert Pickering who had held consultation the night before with him, and was up armed in his Chamber till the very time) and after a Speech therein showing the reasons and necessity of that Dissolution, did declare it to be so, and required them to depart; saying in some passion to some of them who be∣gan to ask the reason of this, thou art a Whore∣master, thou a Drunkard, thou a Cheater of the publique; and presently M.G. Harrison perempto∣rily bid the Speaker to leave the Chair; which be refusing to do without the Order of the House, and till he was pulled out, Harrison desired him to lend him his hand, and gently heaved him out; Cromwell also commanded that Bauble (as he cal∣led the Mace) to be taken away, and to be car∣ried no more in State before him, and so having turned them out of Dores, lockt them up and clapt Guards before them, and about all the A∣venues of the Palace, to keep these spirits out from professing it again.Page 137
The News of this Luciferian fall, was quickly spred throughout the City, and from thence into the Kingdome, being related and received with all imaginable gladnesse, while the Members slunk away, muttering to themselves the affront they had received, and laying their heads toge∣ther how to retrive themselves, for loath they were to suffer this Violence, or acknowledge their Dissolution, which they would by no means hear of. But what ever they fancied to the con∣trary, raving at this boldnesse and audaciousnesse of their servant, as they styled Cromwell, he minded it not, but went on in his work.
The Government (such as it was) was now lod∣ged in the Council of Officers of his own making and preferring, and the first thing done by them after this new module, was the Emitting of a Declaration from Him and His Officers, shewing the grounds and reasons of this Dissolution of the Parliament, with an account of their intentions as to the present and future government of the Nation: which that it may appear by how slender a thread the Sword of this lawless Commander hung over the Heads of those Parliament Tyrants, is very requisite to be inserted, it holding forth the present Intrigues of Cromwell's designs, and method of ambition.
Our intention is not to give an accompt at this time, of the grounds, which first moved us to take up Arms, and engage our lives and all that was Page 138dear unto us, in this cause; nor to mind in this Declaration the various Dispensations through which Divine Providence hath led us, or the wit∣ness the Lord hath born, and the many signal testi∣monies of acceptance which he hath given, to the sincere endevours of his unworthy Servants, whilst they were contesting with the many and great diffi∣culties, as well in the Wars, as other transactions in the three Nations; being necessitated, for the defence of the same Cause they first asserted, to have recourse unto extraordinary actions; the same be∣ing evident by former Declarations published on that behalf.
After it had pleased God not only to reduce Ire∣land, and give in Scotland, but so marvellously to appear for his People at Worcester, that these Na∣tions were reduced to a great degree of Peace, and England to perfect quiet, and thereby the Parlia∣ment had opportunity to give the people the harvest of all their labour, blood, and treasure, and to set∣tle a due liberty both in reference to civil and spiri∣tual things, whereunto they were obliged by their duty, their ingagements, as also the great and wonderful things which God had wrought for them; it was matter of much grief to the good and well affected of the Land, to observe the little progresse which was made therein, who thereupon applied to the Army expecting redress by their means, notwithstanding which, the Army being unwilling to meddle with the Civil Authority in matters so properly appertaining to it, it was agre∣ed, Page 139that his Excellency and Officers of the Army, which were Members of Parliament, should be desired to move the Parliament, to proceed vigo∣rously in performing what was amiss in Govern∣ment, and to the setling of the Commonwealth up∣on a foundation of justice and righteousnesse; which having done, we hoped that the Parliament would seasonably have answered our expectations: But find∣ing (to our grief) delays therein, we renewed our de∣sires in an humble Petition to them, which was pre∣sented in August last, and although they at that time signifying their good acceptance thereof, retur∣ned us thanks, and referred the particulars thereof to a Committee of the House, yet no considerable effect was produced, nor any such progress made, might imply their real intentions to accomplish what was Petitioned for; but on the contrary there more and more appeared amongst them, an aversion to the things themselves, with much bitterness and opposition to the people of God, and his Spirit acting in them, which grew so prevalent that those persons of Honour and Integrity amongst them, who had eminently appeared for God and the publique good, both before and throughout this War. were rendred of no further use in Parliament, then by meeting with a corrupt party to give them countenance to carry on their ends, and for effecting the desire they had of perpetuating themselves in the supreme Go∣vernment. For which purpose the said party long opposed, and frequently declared themselves against having a new Representative; and when they saw Page 140themselves necessitated to take that Bill into consi∣deration, they resolved to make use of it to recruit the House with persons of the same spirit and tem∣per, thereby to perpetuate their own sitting, which intention divers of the activest amongst them did manifest, labouring to perswade others to a consent therein: And the better to effect this, divers Pe∣titions preparing from several Counties for the con∣tinuance of this Parliament, were encouraged, if not set on foot by many of them.
For obviating these evils, the Officers of the Army obtained several meetings with some of the Parliament, to consider what sitting means and re∣medy might be applied to prevent the same: least that this Cause which the Lord hath so greatly bles∣sed, and bore witness to, should languish under their hands, and by degrees, be wholly lost, and the Lives, Liberties, and comforts of his People deliver∣ed into their Enemies hands.
All which being sadly and seriously considered by the honest People of this Nation, as well as by the Army, and wisdome and direction being sought from the Lord, it seemed to be a duty incumbent upon us, who had seen so much of the power and presence of God going along with us, to consider of some more effectual means to secure the Cause, which the good People of this Commonwealth had been so long engaged in, and to establish Righteousnesse and Peace in these Nations.
And after much debate it was judged necessary, and agreed upon, that the Supream Authority Page 141should be by the Parliament devolved upon known persons, men fearing God and of approved Integri∣ty, and the government of the Commonwealth com∣mitted unto them for a time, as the most hopeful way to encourage and countenance all Gods People, re∣form the Law, and administer Justice impartially; hoping thereby the people might forget Monarchy, and understanding their true interest in the Election of successive Parliaments, may have the Govern∣ment setled upon a true Basis, without hazard to this glorious Cause, or necessitating to keep up Armies for the defence of the same.
And being still resolved to use all means possible to avoid extraordinary courses, we prevailed with about twenty Members of Parliament, to give us a Conference, with whom we freely and plainly de∣bated the necessity and justness of our Proposals on that behalf; and did evidence that those, and not the Act under their consideration, would most pro∣bably bring forth something answerable to that Work, the foundation whereof God himself hath laid, and is now carrying on in the World.
The which notwithstanding found no acceptance, but in stead thereof, it was offered, that the way was to continue still this present Parliament, as be∣ing that from which we might reasonably expect all good things. And this being vehemently in∣sisted upon, did much confirm us in our apprehen∣sions; That not any love to a Representative, but the making use thereof, to recruit, and so to per∣petuate themselves, was their aim.Page 142
They being plainly dealt with about this; and told, That neither the Nation, the honest Interest, nor we our selves, would be deluded by such dealings, They did agree to meet again the next day in the Afternoon for mutual satisfaction, it being consen∣ted to by the Members present, that Endevours should be used, that nothing in the mean time should be done in Parliament, that might exclude or frustrate the Proposals before-mentioned.
Notwithstanding this, the next morning the Parliament did make more hast then usual, in car∣rying on their said Act, being helped on therein by some of the persons engaged to us the night before, none of them which were then present endevouring to oppose the same; and being ready to put the main Question for consummating the said Act, whereby our aforesaid Proposals would have been rendred void, and the way of bringing them into a fair and full Debate of Parliament obstructed;
For preventing whereof, and all the sad and e∣vil consequences, which must upon the grounds afore∣said have ensued, and whereby at one blow the In∣terest of all honest men, and of this glorious Cause, had been endangered to be laid in the dust, and these Nations imbroyled in new Troubles, at a Time when our Enemies abroad are watching all advan∣tages against us, and some of them actually inga∣ged in War with us; we have been necessitated, though with much reluctancy, to put an end to this Parliament; which yet we have done, (we hope) out of an honest heart, preferring this Cause above Page 143our names, lives, families, or interests, how dear soever; with clear intentions, and real purposes of heart, to call to the Government persons of ap∣proved fidelity and honesty: believing, That as none wise will expect to gather Grapes of Thorns, so good men will hope, that if persons so qualified, be chosen, the fruits of a just and righteous Reformation, so long prayed and wished for, will (by the blessing of God) be in due time obtained, to the refreshing of all those good hearts, who have been panting after these things.
Much more might have been said, if it had been our desire to justifie our selves, by aspersing others, and raking into the Mis-government of Affairs; but we shall conclude with this, That as we have been led by necessity and Providence, to act as we have done, even beyond and above our own thoughts and desires, so we shall and do, in that of this great work which is behind, put our selves wholly upon the Lord for a blessing; professing we look not to stand one day without his support, much less to bring to pass one of the things mentioned, and desired, without his assistance: And therefore do solemnly desire and expect, That all men, as they would not provoke the Lord to their own destruction, would wait for such issue as he should bring forth, and to fol∣low their businesse with peaceable spirits; wherein we promise them protection by his assistance.
And for those who profess their fear and love to the Name of God; that seeing, in a great mea∣sure for their sakes, and for righteousnesse sake, we Page 144have taken our lives in our hands, to do these things, they would be instant with the Lord, day and night on our behalfs, that we may obtain grace from him. And seeing we have made so often mention of his Name, that we may not do the least dishonour thereunto: which indeed would be our confusion, and a stain to the whole profession of godliness.
We beseech them also to live in all humility, meekness, righteousness, and love one towards ano∣ther, and towards all men; that so they may put to silence the ignorance of the foolish, who falsly accuse them; and to know, that the late great and glorious dispensations, wherein the Lord hath so wonderfully appeared in bringing forth these things, by the travel and blood of his Children, ought so to oblige them, so to walk in the Wisdome and love of Christ, as may cause others to honour their holy Profession, because they see Christ to be in them of a Truth.
We do further purpose before it be long, more par∣ticularly to shew the Grounds of our Proceedings, and the Reasons of this late great Action and Change, which in this We have but hinted at.
And we do lastly declare, That all Judges, Sheriffs, Justices of Peace, Mayors, Bailiffs, Committees, and all other Civil Officers, and Publique Ministers, whatsoever, within the Common-wealth, or any parts thereof, do proceed in their respective Places and Offices, and all persons whatsoever, are to give Obedience to Page 145them as fully as when the Parliament was sit∣ting.
Signed in the Name, and by the Appointment of his Excel∣lency the Lord General, and his Councel of Officers. William Malyn, Secret.
Whitehallthe 22. of April, 1663.
To ingratiate now vvith the Presbyterian vvho yet kept up their form of Church Worship and were the most of one publique persvvasion, all disturbances in Churches were prohibited the Phanatick licenciousnesse of the Army, vvhich svvarmed with Anabaptists, Quakers, and Ran∣ters, and vvere novv mad to be seizing all the remaining Revenue of Church Lands, in Glebe, Tythe, or Impropriations. And to this purpose Addresses vvere eagerly carried on, such hopes being underhand given them, to strengthen the hands of this Dictator in carrying on the vvork of Sion.
He vvas also complemented by the French Ambassadour Bourdeaux, vvho had made appli∣cations to the Parliament, but vvas doubtfull of effecting his Errand vvith those highest and Migh∣tiest States vvho vvere grovvn formidable not only to the Dutch, but to his Master, who willingly Page 146courted them to prevent their closing vvith his Rebells of Bourdeaux, onely Oliver as vve have seen valued them no more then Scoundrels or Rake Shames, nor vvould give ear to any more Enemies of Monarchy.
Being thus by force possest of the Supreme povver, after he had held it some fevv dayes, to shew the absur'd and ridiculous State Capri∣chio's of the Councel of Officers vvho as yet ma∣naged the Civil Authority, he transmitted it to a new Councel of State, made up of the supremest of them, and some former Juncto men, vvho by Proclamation commanded all Officers to execute their Trusts, as formerly, and required the same obedience; to commute with which they abated the Tax from 120000. to 90000. per mensem. It was now remarqued that many great Fires ushered in this Incendiaries Usurpation.
This Council of State did next give birth to that Monster of the little Parliament, which like an abortive Cub was cast by Cromwell, and fon•ly and vainly lick•d by Harrison, both which had most different ends on this Convention, in the one a Temporal, in the other a Spiritual Pride and Covetousness, (though not altogether purifi∣ed from the Deceits of the World) worked in this mysterious knack of a new and unheard of Le∣gislative Authority, who by the Name of men of Integrity and Fidelity to the Cause of God, were by a bare summons from Oliver called to the Settlement of the State, that was, to be Stirrups Page 147or Foot-steps to the Throne whereon Cromwell should tread, they being abject and mean people, being such as were named by the Officers, that is, by Cromwell's Agents to this Councill, and of most destructive Principles to all Community and Society, either as Men or Christians. It is obser∣vable, that Cromwell who utterly rejected the Rump-expedient to his instances of a new Re∣presentative of filling up the House, by foisting in Elections of their own to which (their Authori∣ty standing) they could unquestionably awe the Country, made not nice of it for himself.
According to their Summons, on the 4. of July, the Members of approved fidelity, &c. met at the Council Chamber in Whitchal, to whom Crom∣well in a zealous speech much to the purpose of his Declaration, and the occasion of the present Meeting, stuft with various citations of Scrip∣ture, (I am loath to nauseate the Reader with any more of his Harangues at large) to his, (but far from the) purpose, devolved the supreme Trust, which they translated into more common English, adjourning themselves after a short con∣sultation to Westminster, and giving themselves the Title and Authority of the Parliament of England, voting Mr. Francis Rouse for their Speaker, but with a Collateral Vote that he should continue in the Chair no longer then for a Month; They were persons for the most part of such mean and ignote extractions, that so far were they from being taken notice of by their Shires, each of Page 148whom but two or three represented, that they were scarce known in the very Towns they were born, or afterwards inhabited, till the Excise, then Committees for Sequestration, and the War in the respective Counties, made them infamously known, The rest were of his Par∣tisans in the Parliament and High Court of Ju∣stice.
On the 12. of Decemb. (as it had been dire∣cted by the Counsel of State) the Parliament be∣ing Sate, some of the Members stood up one after another, and made a motion for a Dissolution thereof, for that it would not be for the good of the Nations to continue it longer; this Court Ayre almost blasted the men of Fidelity and Com∣mittee Blades, who had scarce warmed their Fin∣gers ends in the Government, and were newly settling themselves and their friends in a thriving way, as they had done in their Offices they had passed before, and thereupon they began one after another to make perorations of the Cause of God and the godly people committed to their charge, which they could not tell how to answer to him, if so easily they should give it up, and leave the Common-wealth in such a distraction, as would inevitably ensue, and Major General Harrison and Arthur Squib (the great Sequestrator of Haberdasher-hall) were very copiously zealous in defence of their Authority: But the Military or Court-party being the Major part, not think∣ing them worthy of a dispute or longer debate, the Page 149Speaker being of their side, rose and left the House and them Sitting in it, where to prayers they went, and then resolved to continue Sitting.
In the mean time Rous the Speaker (with the Mace before him and his Followers) came to White-hall, and there resigned the Instrument he gave them, by which they were constituted a Parliament, and gave him likewise to understand how they had left their Fellows: Their surrender was kindly received by Oliver, and they thanked for the pains they had taken in the service of the Common-wealth, however he and they had mis∣sed of their intentions of the good should thereby have come to the Common-wealth, which a strange spirit and perverse principle in some of the Members had solely hindered; and as to them yet Sitting in the Parliament-house, he dispatch'd away Leiutenant Colonel White a Confident of his to dislodge them, who accordingly with a Guard of Red-coats came thither, and entring the House demanded them in the Name of the Gene∣tal to depart, for that the Parliament was Dissol∣ved, who replying to the contrary, and telling him they were upon Businesse, and ought not to be thus disturbed; he asked what Business, they answered, we are seeking of God; Pugh saith he, is that all, that's to no purpose, for God hath not been within these Walls these 12. years, and so fairly compelled them out, muttering with the same wrath and sorrowfull look-backs, as those that had Sate 30. times the same term, and could almost have pleaded prescription.Page 150
Thus was the Power emptied from one Vessel to another, as the Scribes and Chaplains of the Grandees phrased it, and could find no settlement, till Oliver was called to it by his Council of Offi∣cers to supply this gap in Government: and now a Single Person with a Council is the only expedi∣ent for the safety of the People, for that there is no trust nor truth in Parliaments, as their often abberrations and failures had sufficiently decla∣red; and it was discoursed by the Abettors of this change, that 'twas not Monarchy which was quarrelled at, but the corruptions and abuses of it, in its unlimited, unbounded Prerogative, all which would be avoided, by the circumscrip∣tion of it in a Protector, by his Council and a new Instrument of Government, and the supreme power of a Triennial Parliament, in whom during their Session the Soveraign Authority should re∣side.
So they said, and so they did, for after 4 dayes time (in which Feak and his Freaking Partisans were almost run from their wits in rage and mad∣nesse) Cromwel was appointed and declared for Protector of this Infant Common-wealth (and it was a tedious interval to him) the Chancery Court at Westminster-hall being prepared for the Ceremony of the Instalment in this manner, after the usual seeking of God by the Officers of the Army.
The Protector about one of the clock in the afternoon came from White-hall to WestminsterPage 151to the Chancery Court, attended by the Lords Commissioners of the great Seal of England, Ba∣rons of the Exchequer, and Judges in their Robes; after them, the Councel of the Common vvealth, and the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Recorder of the City of London, in their Scarlet Govvns; then came the Protector attended vvith many of the cheif Officers of the Army; a Chair of State being set in the said Court of Chancery, the Pro∣tector stood on the left hand thereof uncovered, till a large vvriting in Parchment in the manner of an Oath, vvas read; there being the power with which the Protector vvas invested, and hovv the Protector is to govern the three Na∣tions, vvhich the Protector accepted of, and Subscribed in the face of the Court, and immedi∣ately hereupon sat dovvn covered in the Chair; the Lords Commissioners then delivered up the Great Seal of England to the Protector, and the Lord Mayor his Sword and Cap of Maintenance, all which the Protector returned immediatly to them again: The Court then rose, and the Pro∣tector was attended back as aforesaid, to the Ban∣quetting house in White-hall, the Lord Mayor himself uncovered carrying the Svvord before the Protector all the vvay; and coming into the Banquetting-house, an exhortation vvas made by Mr. Lockyer, after vvhich the Lord Mayor, Alder∣men, and Judges departed.Page 152
The Instrument or Module framed to be the Foundation of this present Government; was chiefly made up of these following heads,
That the Supreme Legislative Authority be and reside in a single Person, and the People in Parlia∣ment, the Execution of that power to be in the Protectour, with the advice of his Council, not to exceed Twenty and One. All Proceedings to run in the Name and Stile of the Protector, and all Ho∣nours, Offices, and Titles to be derived from him, that he may pardon all Offences but Treason and Murther. The Militia during the Parliament shall be in his and their hands, but in the Intervals only in his and his Councils. He and his Council to make War and Peace with forraign Princes. Not make new Laws or abrogate old without Consent of Parliament. A Parliament to be called within six Menths, and afterwards every third year, and if need be oftner, which the Protector shall not dis∣solve without consent in Parliament, till after 5. Months. The Parliament of English to consist of 400. to be chosen by more equal distributions, in Counties and Boroughs; of Scotch 30, and so ma∣ny of the Irish. The Summoning of the Parlia∣ment to passe under the Seal of the Commonwealth, to the Sheriffs; and if the Protector omit or deny that, then the Commissioners of the Seal, be held under pain of High Treason, to issue out such writs, and in case of failure in him, the High Sheriffs, (and some other By-blowes concerning the equality, Page 153and fairness of Elections under great penalties.) No Royalist, Irish Rebels or Papists to be capable of being Elected, and in case they be, to for feit two years Revenue, and three parts of their goods. None to be elected under the Age of 21. years, nor unless he be a man of Integrity, a lover of God, and of good conversation. None to have voyces in Electi∣on but such as were worth 200. pounds. The Electi∣ons to be forthwith transmitted to the Council of State, by the Secretary of the Commissioners, & in case of dispute to the Council of State. Sixty to make a Quorum. The Protector if need be to call Parliaments between the Intervals thereof. Bills offered to the Protector, if not assented to by him within 40. days, to passe into Laws notwithstand∣ing. The Protector with the Advice of his Coun∣cill, in case of death, or Breach of trust, to substitute new Privy Counsellors. A Competent Re∣venue to be setled for the maintenance of Ten thou∣sand Horse and 15. thousand Foot, and the Na∣vy, and not to be altered or lessened but by the Ad∣vice of the Council, & upon the disbanding of them the money to be brought to the Exchequer. No new Levies, nor Laws to be made without consent in Parliament. All forfeited Lands unsold to belong to the Protector, The Protectorate to be elective, but the Royal Family to be excluded. Oliver Crom∣well to be the present Protector. All places of trust, and Office to be in the Protectors disposal; if in In∣terval of Parliament, to be approved and confirm∣ed in Parliament. The Rest; for the purity and Page 154toleration of Religion, out of which the Papist and Protestant were to be exempted, and all Laws in fa∣vour of them to be abrogated. All Sales of Par∣liament to be confirmed. Articles of War to be made good. And lastly, the Protector and his Successor to be bound by Oath to observe these pre∣sent Articles, and to uphold the Peace and Welfare of the Nation; which Oath was in 〈◊〉 verba,
I promise in the presence of God, not to violate or inf•inge the matters and things contained in the Instrument, but to observe, and cause the same to be observed; and in all things to the best of my un∣derstanding, govern the Nations according to the Laws, Statutes, and Customes; to seek their peace, and cause Justice & Law to be equally administred.
The Feat needed no more security, as good altogether as its Authority, in this following Pro∣clamation, which was published throughout Eng∣land, Scotland, and Ireland, in these words,
Where as the late Parliament Dissolved them∣selves, and resigning their Powers and Authorities; the Government of the Common-wealth of England Scotland and Ireland, in a Lord Protector, and saccessive Triennial Parliaments is now established: And whereas Oliver Cromwell Captain General of all the Forces of this Common wealth is declared Lord Protector of the said Nations, and hath ac∣cepted thereof: We have therefore thought it ne∣cessary Page 155(as we hereby do) to make Publication of the Premises, and strictly to charge and command all and every Person or Persons, of what quality and condition soever in any of the said three Nations, to take notice hereof, and to conform and submit them∣selves to the Government so established. And all Sheriffs, Mayor, Bailiffs, &c. are required to pub∣lish this Proclamation, to the end none may have cause to pretend ignorance in this behalf.
This Miscellany of the Laws, and new pro∣jections, suted a great many humours and diffe∣rent perswasions of the Phanaticks, Independents, Anabaptists and others, being the second part of the Alchoran. And because there is occasion for it, we will discourse a little of the present State of Religion, and what opinion Cromwel best aspected. The Orthodox Protestants were wholly supprest, and yet some Reverend persons, as Dr. Ʋsher the Bishop of Armagh, and Dr. Brownrig the Bishop of Exeter received some shews of re∣spect and reverence from Him, which he more manifestly boasted in the funeral Expences of the Learned Ʋsher, and this to captate a Reputation of his Love to Scholars, and the meek, modest, and vertuous Clergy. The Presbyterian was rather tolerated then countenanced, and yet such of them as would comply with his Court greatnesse, were much in his eye and his favour; for others of them he cared not, pleasingly expressing himself how he had brought under the Pride and Arrogance of Page 156that Sect, making those that would allow no li∣berty to others, sue for it for themselves. The Independents and Anabaptists he loved and pre∣ferred by turns, and was most constant to them, as the men that would and did support his Usurpa∣tion; only he could by no means endure the Fifth Monarchy men, though by their dotages he had raised himself to this height; and therefore Feak and Rogers, were by him committed to Prison in the Castle of Windsor, where they continued a long while, and not only so, but he set Kiffin the Anabaptist whom he had taken out of design into his favour, with his party, together by the ears, with Feaks, to the raising of a Feud between them, the Ballance of his Security in the Govern∣ment. The like he did betwixt the Presbyterian & the Independent, a subdivided Schisme from the Church of England, as Feaks and Kiffins were from Independency; whom when out of his zeal to the Unity of Christian Religion, he seemed to bring together, to compose and accommodate all Differences; in the near probability of such expe∣dients, he would divide and more irreconciliably sever and alienate. And this was all his practical Devotion. But to return;
Great shooting of Guns at night, and Volleys of Acclamations, were given at the close of this mock solemnity by Cromwell's Janizaries, while the Cavaliers were more joyfully disposed at the Hopes of the Kings Affairs, but no body of any Account giving the Usurper a good word or mis∣kiditchePage 157with his greatness, save what was uttered in Fur by my Lord Mayor, and the Complices in this Fact, who tickled his ears with the Eccho of the Proclamation done with the usual Formalities, These Triumphs so disgusted Harrison (as also Col. Rich) that he withdrew himself from the Gang and turned publique Preacher or Railer against his Comrade Oliver, who was glad to be rid of such a busie and impertinent Assistant in the mo∣duling of Government: so Cromwell had now two Common-wealth-contradivided Factions a∣gainst him, the old and the new Parliaments, and therefore it nearly concerned him to make much of the Anabaptist and Sectary, which now suc∣ceeded Independency as the Religion maintained and favoured above all other, and Kiffin a great Leader and Teacher, was now in great request at the Court at White-hall, and contrarily Sir Henry Vane, jun. was look'd on askue, as also Sir Arth. Hazilrig, and Bradshaw, and Scot, and so the Fabel builders were confounded one amongst another.
The Council appointed by the Officers, or taken rather by himself, by whose advice he was to govern, were 14. at first.
- Lord Lambert.
- Lord Viscount Lisle.
- General Desbrow.
- Sir Gilbert Pickring.
- Major General Skippon.
- Sir Anth. Ashley Cooper.
- Walter Strickland Esq
- Sir Charles Wolsley.
- Col. Philip Jones.
- Francis Rous Esquire.
- Richard Major Esquire.
- John Lawrence Esquire.
- Col. Edward Montague
- Col. William Sydenham.
I should have mentioned the Dutch War in its place, which aggrandized him with the usual victo∣rious successe; but because, he was never perso∣nally engaged in the Service, but owed this Gar∣land, as he did the glory of Dunbar to the noble General Monk, and wore but a second-hand Triumphal Robe; I will not constellate Him with that Hero's Splendor and Brightness of Fame.
That which properly concerns Cromwell is ra∣ther the Dishonour of that War, the Peace that ensued the Conclusion of it; for the Stomach of that Nation had been so humbled by several great losses, their Trade so spoyled, and their Subjects so impoverish'd, that it was thought impossible for them to have equipped another Fleet, able to look out Navies in the Face; Withall there were so many Discontents and Divisions in that popu∣lar State, that they were ready to ruine them∣selves without any of our help, yet did this puny and unfledged Prince come to a Treaty and agree∣ment with them, upon most mean and inconsi∣derable Terms, when it had been no question but another rub at Sea, or beleaguering their Ports, would have brought them down to the Humble Complement of Our faithful Tributaries, which of how great advantage it might have been to the Trade, and consequently the greatnesse of this Kingdome, I take not upon me to deter∣mine.
His next Affair was a Conclusion of a League with the Queen of Sweeden, which he transacted Page 159by the Embassy of the Lord Commissioner Whit∣lock, who being commissioned at his Departure by the foolish Parliament, was invested with new Credentialls from Cromwell, whom accordingly he owned as his most serene Highness his Master.
But that which he most aspected, was the two neighbouring potent Monarchies of France and Spain, with one whereof he must of necessity quarrell, and so spend the ill blood, and convey away those humors which were so redundant in the old Soldiery, both of the Kings and Essexes Army, and if not employed in some forraign war, would create him trouble at home; this the French Car∣dinal, newly restored to the administration of that Monarchy, timely foresee, and therefore a Treaty was privately and industriously carried on here by Mounsieur Bourdeaux Neufville, to an amicable Association and League against the Spaniard. Cromwell's Covetousnesse and thirst of Gold pre∣vailing against his Interest and Ambition and thirst of Malice and Mischief against the Royal Family, which was now shaded under the French Flower de Lyzes, whereby all petsons expected an Inva∣sion from hence of that Kingdome, that if it were possible for his Treason, he might drive it out of the World.
But Mazarine's Golden expedient, & temporary Medium, of shifting the King and his Relations out of that Kingdome, by vertue of the said League, wholly swayed and inclined him to a War against Spain, which not long after was commenced: Page 160The greater invitation thereto being Three ships pretended Hamburgers, but laden with the King of Spains Peices of Eight, whether for his Ac∣count or no uncertain, that had been newly stayed and seized by the Court of Admiralty, at the pro∣secution of one Violet a Goldsmith: and notwith∣standing the Spanish Ambassador, Don Alonso de Cardenas, protested and strugled against it, were carried to the Tower, and there minted to the Sum of 400000. Sterl. This and other moneys in the Exchequer, gave the greater courage to his Ambition, and his raw and unsetled Usurpation. He had also now accepted satisfaction from the King of Portugal, and was entred into League and Friend∣ship with Him.
How many are the troubles, cares, and mise∣ries of Tyrant greatnesse. No sooner is one de∣sign, one passion gratified and accomplished, but another disquiet and danger invades or perplexes Him. No sooner had he sacrificed to his Cove∣tousnesse, but now he must offer Victims to his cruelty the next Assurance of his hated Throne. There is in the Labyrinth of Vice, as in the orderly Frame of Arts and Sciences, a Circle, a 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a Spherical Motion from one evil to a∣nother, till the last terminates at the beginning, their qualities and quantities being only altered, augmented, or diminished by Time or other cir∣cumstances.
From the deep Design of forraign Mines, He next converted his thoughts upon a Home-spun Page 161Plot. A horrible Practice of Machivilian Poli∣cy, and Art of Empire, with which even just Scepters have been polluted, and stained by some unhumane Ministers of State, upon preten∣ces of preventing danger (who stand chargeable even with the Loyal blood this Leach suckt through their Conduits) to entrap and engage innocent persons (upon Suspicion of others of the same party, who are obnoxious to the Government) in Machinations and Conspiracies of their own forming and contrivance, and by their Emissaries betray and then condemn them. This was the first bloody remarque of Cromwell's Princing, ma∣naged by his Secretary Thurloe, who drew in Col. John Gerrard and Mr. Vowell two eminent Roya∣lists, into his snare of conspiring the Death of the Protector with others, who confessed the intention, for which they were both condemned by a High Court of Justice; (Cromwell not daring to trust the Laws or a Jury, the Birthright of Englishmen, no more then did the Juncto of Regicides) and the first beheaded at Tower-Hill, and the other hanged at (haring-Crosse; the Collonel declaring, That he was so far from having hand or heart in it, or any encouragement from the King (as was falsly suggested) that he feared he should not dye right in his favour as being but suspected, of that (though so just) assassinate: it being below His Majesties Honour and Religion. Mr. Vowell referred his Cause, and his unjust Judges, and the Tyrant to Heavens Tribunal.Page 162
This was the Rozin, there wanted now the Consent of the People in Parliament, to sidle his Instrument. He resolved therefore to call one forthwith, for the Nation began to murmure at him (and some openly to refu•e obedience) and to forget the pleasing acquiescence in the change he had made, since they saw he made it only for himself. The Nine days wonder was over, and they had recovered themselves to a fresh sense of their Slavery (which might afterwards stupifie and be∣num them) before the several opposite parties of Royalists, and Common-wealth-men, could understand one another, and bandy both against Him.
Having now plotted and secured the Elections of as many Sectaries, and of his Party to the en∣suing Parliament, as his young Interest could pro∣cure him, in the Month of July, to recreate him∣self and his Familiar Thurloe, with some robust and jogging Exercise, to void the Gravel with which he was much troubled, He would needs shew his skil in driving a Coach with six great German Horses, sent him as a present by the Count of Oldenburgh, in Hide-Park, but those generous Horses no soon∣er heard the Lash of the Whip, but away they ran with Thurloe sitting trembling in it, for fear of his own Neck, over Hill and Dale, and at last threw down their unexpert Governour from the Box, into the Tra•es, and there bad likely to have trod and drawn him to peices, but Vengeance was yet again pleased to respite him and put him over to a Page 163like judicial Execution, after his immature Death, in 1660. Of this ominous chance many ingenl∣ous Songs were made, and one called the Jolt by Sir John Berkenhead, which being in Print in a History (and in the Rump Songs) though the Author mistaken, is purposely forborn.
The Elections were made one and the same day throughout England; most of the Boroughs had but one Burge•s, and the Shires some of them 6. or 7. Knights, all of them under sure qualifica∣tions, of not having been or being of the Cavalier party; there were 30. also by the Instrument E∣lected for Scotland; and as many for Ireland, all or most of whom were English Commanders; on the 3. of Sept. they met, and adjourned from the House to the Abbey, where Mr. Marshall preach∣ed, and so to the Painted-Chamber, where they had a message from the Protector to invite them to a Sermon the next day again, when Doctor Goodwin Preached; and the Protector came in great State in his Coach, Cleypole the Master of Horse, and Strickland the Captain of his Guard, barcheaded on both sides; at his entrance into the Church, Lambert carried the Sword before him, and Whitlock the Purse; the Sermon done, to the Painted-chamber again, and there in a Speech he set forth these Heads.Page 164
That some few years ago, none would have thought of such a Dore of Hope; that he knew there were yet many Humours and Interests, and that Humours were above Interest, that the con∣dition of England was like Israel in the Wil∣derne•s (of which the Sermon was) that this was a Healing day, there was neither Nobleman, nor Gentleman, nor Yeoman, before known by any cistinction, we had not any that bote Rule nor Authority, but a great Contempt of Magi∣stracy and Christ's Ordinances; that the Fifth Monarchy was highly cryed up by persons who would assume the Government, but that desired thing wanted greater manifestation then appear∣ed for such men to change the Authority by (and this directed at the late Parliament.) He desired this Honourable Assembly to remedy all these Disorders, shewed that the wars with Portugal, French and Dutch, do and did eat up the As∣sessements, that swarms of Jesuits were crept in to make divisions, which were grown so wide that nothing but his Government could remedy them; and let men say what they will, he could speak it with comfort before a greater then any of them. Then he shewed what he had done during his Government, First, his endevour of reforming the Laws, having joyned all Parties to assist in that great work; next, his filling the Benches with the ablest Lawyers; then his Regu∣lation of the Court of Chancery, & then his Dar∣ling Ordinance for approbation of Ministers Page 165(which hindred all that List from invading the Ministry) by men of both perswasions, Pres∣byterians and Independents, &c. And lastly, his being Instrumental to call a Free Patlia∣ment, which he valued and would keep it so a∣bove his Life.
Then he shewed the advantages of the Peace, with the Dutch, Dane, and Swede, and the Protestant Interest, which he would have them improve and intend chiefly; that they were now upon the edge of Canaan; that he spoke not as their Lord, but their fellow servant, and then bid them go and chuse their Speaker.
Which they did without presenting of him, his Name William Lenthal, the old Chairman; and next day fell upon the Instrument, as they had Voted, by parts as it lay, and questioned the Power; which Oliver understanding, to put them out of that course which touched his Copy-hold, after 9. days he came to the Painted Chamber, and send∣ing for them, declared and asserted four Funda∣mentals in the instrument, which they were not to meddle with or to alter.
This bogled at first 3. quarters of them, espe∣cially the Commonwealth-men, and those of the late Long Parliament, so that of four hundred and odd there appeared but two hundred, but were made up at last three hundred, for the old ones would not be baulked so, and fell afresh upon the same disputes and ran out the Articles, resolving to put the whole judgement of the House upon them, into one entire Bill, and so present it, but in truth to spin out time, and work upon the Protectors occasions for mony, which was proposed in the House, and coldly and slowly considered.
Just at their sitting down, the Protector pub∣lished several Ordinances, which being passed and bore date before; were to pass as authentique as Acts by the Instrument, one for paying the mony into the Treasury, that was raised for the propa∣gation of the Gospel in Wales, another for ma∣king Soldiers free of all Corporations, and to ex∣ercise any Trades; Another to turn out all honest men under the notion of scandalous Preachers and Ministers, Common-Prayer being their chiefest Imputation; and a fourth to survey Kings Lands, &c. and for doubling upon Deans and Chapters, which sales those many changes of power had much retarded and depretiated. The more occult Page 167cause of the publication of these Ordinances, was to let the Parliament understand that Oliver took his Instrument to be in a good case, and sufficiently warranted already.
In this Convention Lambert laboured Tooth and Nail to have the Instrument confirmed, for by that the Protectorate was left undetermined and E∣lective, threatning them that if this Parliament would not, they would call 4. or 5. Parliaments one after another till it was Enacted; (the same Art of menacing which Oliver used to the pre∣ceding Juncto) but that not prevailing (the Par∣liament dissolved) by his Interest in the Army, He procured Addresses both from Scotland and Ire∣land, as well as here, declaring their Resolution to stand by this Government in defence of the Pro∣tectors Life and Dignity against all Opposition; which in this Stratocracy was to be as good a Se∣curity as Parliamentory Assent. There were some Superiour Officers, as Lieut. Col. Majors, & Cap∣tains, who were yet for a Commonwealth, who had private Meetings, and contrived the seizing this Rebell, and deliver him to the Justice of the Parliament: but by Pride's Discovery, who was made privy to this businesse, they were prevented, and their Commissions only ta∣ken away; Cromwell not willing by severer punish∣ments to make a noise that there was such a potent Faction in the Army.
Lambert was very officious in this matter, as neither resenting the late affront put upon him by Page 168Cromwell (when he advanced Fleetwood in his 〈◊〉 to the Supreme Command in Ireland, though with a lesser Title then Lambert, who made mag∣nificent preparation for his investiture in the Lie•∣tenartship, and would suffer no Diminution of that Honour) nor senting his suture designs and cheats, as to his promised Succession to the Soveraignty here. But I must Retrospect a little having omitted some things of Concernment to persued the former discourse.
Cromwell now supplied the Benches of the Court at Westminster, with the ablest of the Law∣yers, whom he had invited to the publique ser∣vice, and Mr. Maynard, Twisden, Nudigate, Hugh Windham were made Serjeants, and Mr. Hales one of the Justices of the Common-Pleas, where St. Johns yet sate, and of the Cabinet to his Protector besides; having preferred his Man Thurloe (his Secretary at the Hague) to be his Secretary of State, the Candle or Light of that Dark-Lanthorn, which St. Johns was said to be in these mysterious times of Cromwell, in all his at∣tempts and designs of consequence and moment.
The Dutch Peace was also concluded on by the Ambassadors and the Commissioners of the said •ouncil for the Protector, between whom this private Article was agreed, that the Prince of Aurange should never be restored to the Digni∣ties, Offices, and charge his Ancestors held and enjoyed, and this was urged for the better conser∣vation Page 169of the Peace which would in his Restitu∣tion be endangered, because of his Relation to the King.
The Protector dined in great State upon an In∣vitation from the Lord Mayor, &c. at Grocers-Hall the 8. of February being Ashwednesday, a very unsuitable day for any Festival but his Enter∣tainment, who inverted all things, the streets, being railed from Temple Bar thither the Liveries in their Gowns in their gradual standings awaiting Him; he was met at the said Gate by Alderman Viner, the Lord Mayor, who delivered him the Sword there, and having received it from him back again, bore it on Horseback before him all the way; through which the same silence was kept, as if a Funeral had been en passant, and no doubt, it was that muteness which Tacitus mentioned in Tiberius, quale Magnae Irae vel magni metus est si∣lentium, no apprecations or so much as a How do ye, being given during the Cavalcade. After Dinner he was served with a Banquet, in the con∣clusion whereof he Knighted Alderman Viner, and would have done the same to the Recorder Steel, for his learned Speech of Government, calcu∣lated and measured for him, but he for good Rea∣sons avoided it; My Lord Maior was forced to carry it home, and anger his Wife with it, who had real Honour both in her Name and Nature. Oliver at his return had the second course of a Brick-bat, from the top of a House in the Strand by St. Clements, which light upon his Coach, and Page 170almost spoiled his Digestion with the daringness of the affront, search was made but in vain, the per∣son could not be found, and vengeance was not yet from Heaven to rain upon him.
He published a little after an Ordinance for the Trial and Approbation of Ministers, wherein Phi∣llp Nye, Goodwin, Hugh Peters, Mr. Manton, and others, were named Commissioners, the question these men put to the Examinants, was not of Abilities or Learning, but grace in their hearts, and that with to bold and saucy Inquisition, that some mens spirits trembled at their Interrogato∣ries, they phrasing it so, as if (as was said of the Council of Trent) they had the Holy Ghost in a Cloak Bag; or were rather Simon Magus his own Disciples; and certainly there were never such Symoniacks in the World, not a living of value, but what a Friend or the best purchaser was admitted into, to which humane learning even where a former right was, was a good and suffici∣ent Bar; no less to the ruine then scandal of the Church of England, and the Protestant Religion and Professors thereof; •everal ignorant bold Laicks being inducted into the best Spiritualities, as best consisted with Olivers Interest, which depended up∣on the Sectary, and their hideous divisions in Re∣ligion. To return;
During those Protectoral Intrigues, the King's Interest had got such footing again in England, that all, or most of the Gentlemen and Counties thereof, were engaged for it, and therefore while Page 171Lambert managed one Province, the Affairs of the Parliament, wherein Oliver would not des∣cend so low, as to be pragmatical, and Scepti∣cally busy with their Debates against His power, as wrested and usurped from the people; He was mainly intent upon the proceedings of the Royal∣lists, the particulars whereof he had betrayed to him weekly, a constant correspondence being held betwixt Him and one Manning a Retainer, and Under-Secretary to the King at Colen, his Father being killed in his Service at Alresford in the year 1644.
The price of this Treason was no lesse then 6000. l. a year, most whereof came to the King by this fellows hands, as sent over by his and his friends procurement, but on purpose by so nota∣ble a service in the Kings necessities, to s•rue him∣self into the secrets of His Majesties designs.
Hence came the Western Association and At∣tempt of the noble Penruddock in the West, to be so suddenly defeated, with the like Insurrecti∣ons in several parts of England in the year 1654. For upon certain notice of the days appointed for their rising, Cromwell to be before hand with them gave out supposed and false days, and made the like Appearances, particularly at Shrewsbury, by which means the Confederates came to perceive there was some Treachery among themselves, and did then wisely desist from the danger of taking publique Arms against Him; For a fuller accompt of all which, I must refer the Reader to the Histo∣ries Page 172of the Times lately published, though I should take notice of his cruelty against those un∣fortunate Gentlemen.
The Event of this, by which he had overreached the King in his own designs, and the Hopes of his rich successes in the West-Indies (by robbing another Prince) whether his Fleet and Army under Gene∣ral Pen and Venables was now arrived, (which al∣so I shall only mention, for the Story is trite and vulgar) made Oliver most blith and confident, and his Court of Beggars and such like mean peo∣ple, very gay and jocund; A great deal of State was now used towards him, and the French Cringe, and other ceremonious pieces of gallantry and good deportment, which were thought unchristian and favouring of Carnality, introduced in place of au∣stere and down looks, and the silent Mummery of Starch'd and Hypocritical gravity, the only be∣coming Dress (forsooth) of Piety and Religion. He had now a Guard of Halberdiers in Gray Coats welted with black Velvet; over whom Walter Strickland was Captain; and a Lord Chamberlain Sir Gilbert Pickering; Two Masters of Requests, Mr. Bacon and Mr. Sad'er; a Master of his Horse his Son Claypool•; and generally all persons of Honour both to His own person, and his Wives, who very frugally Huswifed it, and would nicely and finically tax the expensive unthriftiness (as said she) of the Other Woman who lived there be∣fore her. But I must not engage in her impertinen∣cies, though a many pretty stories might be told Page 173of this obsolete Princesse.
It will be requisite to speak something of his manner and course of Life, now raised to a very neer fruition of the Soveraignty, this being the Solstice of his Fortunes. His Custome was now to divert himself frequently at Hampton-Court, (which he had saved from Sale, with other Hou∣ses of the Kings for his own greatnesse) whether he went and came in post with his Guards behind and before, as not yet secure of his Life from the justice of some avenging hand; Here he used to hunt, and at the fall of a Deer, where he would be sure to be present, embrue his hands in the blood of it, and therewith asperse and sprinkle the Attendants: and sometimes to cokes the neigh∣bouring Rusticks, give them a Buck he had hunted, and money to drink with it; His own Diet was ve∣ry spare and not so curious, except in publique Treatments, which were constantly given every Monday in the Week, to all the Officers of the Army not below a Captain, where he dined with them, and shewed a hundred Antick Tricks, as throwing of Cushions, and putting live Coals in∣to their Pockets and Boots; A Table being like∣wise spread every day of the Week for such Offi∣cers as should casually come to Court, and this was the greatest expence, which and other char∣ges of the Government, h• levyed as yet by his and his Councils Ordinances, which were as du•ly and respectfully obeyed as Acts of Parliament.Page 172〈1 page duplicate〉Page 173〈1 page duplicate〉Page 174
With these Officers while he seemed to disport himself, taking off his Drink freely, and opening himself every way to the most free familiarity, He did meerly lye at the Catch of what should inco∣gitantly and with such unsuspected provocation fal from their Mouths, which he would be sure to re∣cord and lay up against his occasion of reducing them to the Speakers Memory, who were never like to forget the prejudice and damage they had incur∣red by such loose Discoveries of their Minds and Inclinations.
He was a great Lover of Muhck, and enter∣tained the most skilfullest in that Science, in his pay and Family; in that like wicked Saul, who when the evil Spirit was upon him, thought to lay and still him with those Harmonious charms; but generally he respected or at least pretended a Love to all ingenious and eximious persons in any Arts, whom he procured to be sent or brought to him, but the niggardliness and incompetence of his reward, shewed that this was a personated Act of Greatnesse, and that private Cromwell yet governed Prince Oliver. Among the rest of those Virtuosi, He favoured a Poet too, who very ele∣gantly sang his Marston-Moor〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, but with more misfortune then others, who made the Mu∣ses Slaves to his Triumphs, and Pegasus to draw His Chariot.
He had twenty other freaks in his head, for sometimes before he had half dined, he would give order for a Drum to beat, and call in his foot Page 175Guards, like a Kennell of Hounds, to snatch off the meat from his Table, and see them tear it in pieces; the like Joco's and Frisks he would have with other Company; even with some few of the Nobility, when he would not stick to tell them, what Company they had lately kept, when and where they had drank the Kings Health and the Royal Families, bidding them when they did it a∣gain, to do it more privately, and this with∣out any passion, and as festivous and Drol discourse.
But the sad news of the Defeat at Hispaniola, whence he had promised himself Mountains of Gold, and Roc•s of Gems, to the maintenance of his Mamalukes, and perpetuating of the Ar∣my, coming to his ears, soon after the Marquiss de Leda, Ambassador from the Spaniard, had de∣parted dissatisfied with the preparations here, and other ill news founding in his ear, that the Com∣monwealth Party were very active in the Army, and the Royallists breeding new Designs, he began to cast off the Merry Divel and act the Tyrant al∣together, and not without Cause. For;
The effects of this Parliament rupture encou∣raged two most opposite parties to conspire against the Protector, the Fifth Monarchists and Cavaliers (as we must so distinguish the Royal Party upon this difference, who) longed for their rightful Soveraign Charles the Second, the Fifth Mo∣narchy expected King Jesus, the Courtiers and those engaged by them or with them, with Crom∣well himself, desired King Oliver; and every of Page 176these manifested much impatience, but none of them could attain their Wishes, and when Oliver might afterwards he durst not, The Protector was no way ignorant of this, and therefore he resol∣ved to deal with the weakest first, which yet by underminings vvas more dangerous then the other: The Army was corrupted by that Millenary Princi∣ple, and that was to be purged, so that as Harri∣son and Rich had been laid aside, and not long af∣ter committed with Carew and Court•ey into seve∣ral remote Castles; so now General Monck had order to seize Major General Overton, and the Ma∣jors Bramston and Holms, and other Officers, and Cashier them, after Fines and good Security for their Behaviour; Overton was sent up to the Tow∣er, and his Regiment conferred on Colonel Mor∣gan; Colonel Okey's Regiment taken from him, and given to a sure Confider, and so the danger from the Army was quickly supprest: Cor∣net but now Colonel Joyce, was likewise male∣content at this change, and signified so much to Cromwell's Face, whom he upbraided with his own Service and his faithlessnesse, but escap'd any o∣ther Censure then a bidding him be gone; Crom∣well well knowing him to be one of those mad men that would say or do any thing they were bid.
Now happened occasion, or rather Cromwell made it one, for him to shew his zeal to the Pro∣testant cause, and publish himself to the World the Champion or Hector thereof; this was also one secret step and reach to the Crown, by inva∣ing Page 177the sacred Title of the Defender of the Faith, due only to the Hereditary Soveraigns of England• Herein also he aimed, as in the Proverb, to hit two Birds with one stone, not doubting but to find another Mine in the charitable minds and compas∣sion of this Nation towards the parallel suffering of the old Waldenses in •iedmont to the Irish Mas∣sacres, which were set out and drest here with the greater skill of Butchery, then the Actors could hand•omly do it there, and it was said the Copy was drawn from that Original.
Alderman Viner and Pack were made Treasu∣rers for this money, which amounted to a very large sum, and reaching the full design of the Protector, a small parcel whereof was now remit∣ted to Geneva, the French King having newly be∣fore accommodated the businesse, the Duke refu∣sing to admit Cromwell's Mediation.
There was another Artifice of the Protectors to set this businesse forward, and to countenance it, which was, Addresses from the Army here and a∣broad, offering their Service in this common cause of the Protestant Religion, no way doubting but that God in his due time would confound those E∣nemies of his people, as he had shewn his salva∣tion by themselves, in the same Controversie to that day.
A new Plot was now started, and most of the Nobility and Gentlemen of England secured, Sir Geoffrey Palmer, Lord Willoughby of Parham, Lord Lovelace, Earl of Lindsey, Lord Newport,Page 178and Sir Richard Wingfield, Lords Maynard, Petre, Lucas, and Faulkland, Sir Frederick Cornwallis, &c. and this done by Manning, whose Villany was not yet discovered, though to render a due account of him, his Treachery was before related. Coun∣ty Troops were now also established for security to his Highnesse, such Trooper 8 l. a year pay and more in case of Service, a Captain a 100 l. and Officers proportionably; and as these new Forces were raised here, so were other old ones disban∣ded in Scotland and Ireland, in which last place, the disbanded were yet to be the same kind of Mi∣litia they being setled in the Rebel forfeited Lands, their Tenure being their Service, and thus that Kingdome was re-peopled. An Agent that had come hither from Ragotzi Prince of Transilva∣nia, now departed, the Conspiracy betwixt whom and the King of Sweden, and the Swede and Crom∣wel was just ripe for execution.
The Spanish War therefore commencing, the Protector began new practices against the Cavalier party, whose interest and spirit was against his Government as high as ever: he foresaw that by the French peace, the King only shifted & changed war from one quarter to another, and was yet as neer as ever, and in a more opportune and advan∣tageous posture, for that the King of Spain and he would certainly concur against him, and so the Low Countries, his Provinces and Ports be open and at the service of our Soveraign, therefore his party was by all ways, how unjust and tyrannical Page 179soever to be crusht and supprest: it began with the, Clergy who were neither to keep School, nor cure, nor be Chaplains, except they give signal testimo∣ny of their Apostacy from the Church; it next ex∣tended to all •orts of men, the revived Act of 1652, forbidding all Cavallers or such as meant well to the peace of the Kingdom in their subicrip∣tion to the personal Treaty in 1648. by a new Pro∣clamation to that purpose, from giving voyces of Electing, or to be elected themselves upon their utmost peril: then came out a Declaration for De∣cimating such who were actually in Arms; and to shew the Reasons of such proceedings against them, Cromwel therein taking it for granted, that the whole Mass of them were engaged in the late de∣sign of Penruddocks, and observing their Maligni∣ty to the Government, by refusing to match their Relations but within themselves, and so to propa∣gate the quarrell from one Generation to another; that they supplyed their King (as they call'd him) with money, that their Clergy were as refracto∣ry as ever; and that therefore since by them the peace so endangered could not be kept, nor the cause and the well affected secured but by keeping up a standing Army by a constant pay, it was re∣quisite the charge should be born by those who cau∣sed it.
For the better dispatch of this Affair, He had erected a new Military Authority, like the Turkish Bashaws, distributed into several Provinces or Counties, with an unbounded power, EnglandPage 180being now cantoned into this Hendecharchy, viz. Kent and Surrey under Col. Kelsey; Sussex, Hant∣shire, and Berk-shire under Goff; Gloucestershire, Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwal, under Col. Desborough; Oxfordshire Buckingham, Hartford, Cambridge, Isle of Ely, Essex, Nor∣folk and Suffolk, under Lieutenant General Fleet∣wood; London, Major General Skippon; Lincoln∣shire, Nottingham, Derby, Warwick and Leicester under Whalley; Northamptoushire, Bedford, Rut∣land and Huntingdon, under villanous Butler; Worcestershire, Hereford, Shropshire and North∣wales under Col. Berry; Cheshire, Lancashire and Stafford under Col. Worsely; York shire, Durham, Cumberland, Northumberland and Westmorland, under Lord Lambert; Westminster and Middlesex, under Col. Berkstead, their Commission was to take a Roll and Account of all suspected persons of the Kings party, and such as were actually so to receive security of them, in which they were to be bound to act nothing against the Government, and to reveal all Plots that should come to their knowledge: they were to suppress all Horse-Races, Cock matches, and other Concourses of people, to secure the High Ways, to take engage∣ment from Cavaliers, for their Servants, and Chil∣dren, and those that did not so, nor give security, to commit to prison, and to rate and receive the mony rising from this Decimation. In short there was nothing which they might not do; nor which they did not, such an Arbitrary vast power they Page 181had from the Protector. To this purpose a M. Gen. Office was erected in Fleetstrees, as other Courts had, where these Recognizances were entred, and all other the like Affairs, dependencies, and con∣cerns thereof entred and Pecord d; by this means the Tyrant intended to inform himself of the value and quality of every Estate and person, to∣gether with the number of that party in every County throughout the Kingdome. Most of those Loyal persons formerly secured, were hereupon set at liberty, but by another 20. Mile Proclama∣tion driven into the Country, into the bounds of the several Major Generals, who presently took cognizance of them, and summoned them to their respective Residences, they sate sometimes without, other times with some of the old Com∣mittees, where they received accounts of Estates, which were rated to the tenth peny yearly. Some bought off that Tax and incumbrance by a present Sum, at three years purchase, which was very ac∣ceptable, for mony was the thing the Usurper wanted, others looked for a nearer Redemption, and to be constrained to that paiment: the well af∣fected and godly people voyced this to be a just and reasonable imposition, for when should they be at quiet, and enjoy themselves in the goods they had got, free from the interrupting ende∣vour of this old and restless Enemy; so that there wanted not Abetto•s and Assistants, to this most religious work of the Major Generals; who had ordered in the first place, that no Cavalier should Page 182keep or wear either Arms offensive or defensive but streightways deliver them, so that they lay a the mercy of whomsoever they met, and at the Discretion and charity of whosoever resorted to their Houses, for what they had left.
The Barbarous Cruelty and Severity of these Bashaws, to the Orthodox Clergy, while with the Hotnesse of the persecution it suffocated the true Religion, did warm and foster the viperous brood of •ects and Heresies into monstrous luxuriances; For besides the Ranter, who at this time began to infest the Church, and multiply exceedingly, and the Socinian, who denied the Divinity of Christ; one Biddle being infamous for those impious opi∣nious, as Erbury formerly a Minister for Ranting; the Quakers appeared like Locusts, and over∣spread the whole Kingdome, even to the Disquiet of Oliver himself, who could not endure to hear of their Anti-Magisterial-principles, the •chisme consisting chiefly of such as had been of the Army or Rebel Faction. The Heighth of that Phrenzy and Delusion so possessed the haughty mind of one Janies Naylor (as if Pride and Ambition were the raigning secular sins) that he fancied himself to be our Saviour, procuring such Worship to be done him, as was due only to that Blessed Divinity. This Blasphemous Impostor was severely punished by the consent of Oliver (who perceived Lans∣b•re, whose Soldier this was formerly, to stickle for him on design to cajole his party.) But not from any sense of this Impiety, and zeal to Christ or his Worship, for he had lately struck a Bargain Page 184with the Jews that deny him, but the Ministers who were to dispute with Ben Israel their Agent, dissenting from his covetous project, He only gulled them of their earnest mony.
By this mixture of subtlety with Cruelty and Rapine of all sorts, he had so establish'd himself, and his formidable greatness engaging in a forraign War with the French against the Spaniard in Flan∣ders, whither he sent Commissary General Rey∣nolds with 6000 men, who joyntly took in St. Ve∣nant & Mardike in the close of the Summer 1647 the latter being put into English hands) that the Royal party began truly to dread his mischievous power, the effects whereof were felt also in very remote parts of the World, in the Polish and Da∣nish War, by his partaking with and assisting to the King of Sweden (when he pretended a Media∣tion between them, having dispatcht Mr. Rolt of his Bedchamber, and Colonel Jephson to Carolus Gustavus, and Mr. now Sir Philip Meadows, to Frederick King of Denmark) to the diverting the German Emperour, to the care of his own Do∣minions, and by that means depriving the Spaniard of his aid, and consequently frustrating all His Majesties designs of recovering, his rights to these Kingdoms.
I must omit his Successes by Blake at Porta Fe∣rina, and Sancta Cruz, for which the English valour was famous; as also Sir Richard Stayners taking and Spoyling 7. Galleys from the West In∣dies, laden with Plate, which were substantial Page 184Tropnies, and made his power dreadful.
And therefore now he thought it time to shew his Son Richard to the World, whom to •avoid the Suspicion of designing the Soveraignty to be He∣reditary in his Family, and to amuse Lambert (who would not brook other Successor then him∣self) His Kival if not Superiour now in the af∣fection of the Army He had kept in the Country, in Hampshire where he had married the Daugh∣ter of one Major of Southampton, with a very plen∣tiful fortune, the support and maintenance of him now) among the Conve•e of the Centry Roy∣a•sts, to insinuate into their affections and good liking by some kind of Offices and Civilities he procured from •ourt, and by his own debonair and affable Dispositions; The first publi•ue Honour done him was the Chancellorship of Oxford, in which he was •emnly invested after his Father had purposely resigned it, at Whitchall, next he was •worn a Pirvy Councellor, and made a Colon I in the Army, to have an interest in all parties and parts of the body politique, and not long after, in the next Parliament, after their recesse, the first Lord of the other House, and now styled the most noble Lord Richard, and rife discourses there were of Richard the Fourth, but it proved no more then the story of Queen Dick.
His Son Harry Cromwell lately married to Sir William Russells Daughter he likewise sent in the •lity of Lord Lieutemant, to succeed his Son.
Law Fleetwood, in Ireland, only Scotland could Page 185not be taken from General Monk, and disposed in the han•s of his more consident Relations, Flect∣wood or Desborough being designed for that Go∣vernment. •s Daughters likewise were all mar∣ried, Elizabeth his Darling, before his late Greatnesle, to a private Gentleman, one Mr. Cleypo•e of Warwickshire; his Daughter Mary to the Lord Vi•count Falconbridge, the noble Fa∣mily of the Bellasis; and his younger Daughter Frances to Mr. •obert Rich, eldest on to Robert Lord Rich, and •randson to Robert Earl of War∣wick, all three whereof dyed within one year af∣ter this unfortunate and unglorious Match. So that he thought he had established his House, but the Foundation being laid in Sand tempered with Blood, the next gust and boy sterous Wind blew it like Chaffe, and seattered and dispersed it to nothing.
From this haughty confidence he was invited to call another Parliament, and to assume from thence the long awaited result of his Ambition, the Crown Imperial of England. All other things moreover did •e•m to comspire to the same purpose, except the Levelling Fifth Monarchy party, and Lambert: for the Presbyterian and o∣ther Sect•ries, vvho had their hands full of Sacrilegious and Treasonable Penny-vvorths, of Ecclesi•stical, and Crovvn and Delinquents Lands, vvere most eagerly desirous of a settle∣ment of the Government by Law, that might secure and confirm their purchases; the more in∣different Page 186Royallists preferred any Legal (no man∣ner how or what) Authority, rather then be con∣tinually tisked and oppressed by the outragious un∣limited violence of the Major Generals, whom Cromwel had on purpose set up, as he did the little or foolish Parliament, to make another Title he gaped at, more acceptable to the people.
As to the Fifth Monarchy men, he had neerly pried into that danger, and seized and took the chief of that party, among whom was Venner the Wine-Cooper, being engaged somewhat after in a Plot, in a house in Shorditch, where some Arms were taken, and and an Ensign with a Lyon cou∣chant of the Tribe of judah painted in it, having this Motto, Who shall raise him up?
And hereupon Harrison, Carew, Rich, Vice-Admiral Lawson, Courtney, Portman, Day, and the like, were imprisoned in remote places, as Col. Overton, Major Holms, and others of the same party, had been seized in Scotland, and disban∣ded by Gen. Monck, according to Cromwell's Order, and sent up Prisoners to the Tower of Lon∣don.
As to the Levellers, he had lately discovered their practices and combinations against him, and had likewise clapt up the chief of them, one Major Wildman, in order to his Tryal being ta∣ken at Marleborough, inditing and drawing De∣clarations against him; so that they were at a stand and a loss which •ay to proceed, to the unsetling and overthrow of his Tyrannical power; procu∣red Page 187by so many tricks and cheats put upon them by him; so that afterwards when they began pri∣vate Subscriptions to Petitions, and Addresses to the Parliament against the Kingship, he peremp∣torily upon their peril forbid them to intermeddle with their Consultations, and so awed and dashed them, that they never offered any more after∣wards, to hold up so much as a Finger against him. Lambert was the only impediment, and we shall see him neatly and quietly removed and discarded like the rest of his former Confidents.
This Olivarian Parliament brought together by these, means was not lesse awed in its Electi∣on by the Major Generals (they themselves and all their friends being returned for Members, while the Gentry and other Honest men being confined or under some qualification or other, could not, or dared not appear, particularly Col. Berkstead, and Kiffin the Anabaptist, by Voyces of Red∣cotes got themselves returned Knights of the Shire for Middlesex, with Sir William Roberts, and Mr. Chute (4 as the Instrument directed;) then in the Admission to the House, where a Re∣cognition of his Highness and the Government by a single person, with a Guard of Soldiers was ready placed, and unless each Member swallow∣ed the one, he might not pass the other, by which means almost 200. were at the first dash secluded, those within taking no notice of the force, but referring the excluded to the Examination of the Privy Council.Page 188
The first Work this Parliament did was their declaring the Justice of the War against Spain (the Cromwellian party personating the Interest and Ho∣nour of the Nation, that they might by that be looked upon for all this garbling, as a due Repre∣sentative, and to credit their ensuing By-blowes) and a Resolution to assist the Protector in it; And next as the grand and Liminary work to Oliver's Regality, An Act for the renouncing the Title of His Majesty, and the whole Line of King James; seconded with another for the Security of His Highness person, in which they alledged the peace and safety of the Nation was bound up.
And that this might appear most necessary and opportune, a Plot was hatched by Cromwell and Thurloe, for further quashing all Levelling and Fisth Monarchy designs against that party; A Book had likewise been lately divulged, styled, Killing no Murther, wherein it was proved, that it was most lawful, just, necessary, and Honourable to kill him, and this Printed with the Name of one Allen a disbanded Leveller, but so politely and learnedly written, that it intimated a more exact and curious hand; whose ever it was, it sca∣red Cromwell almost out of his Wits, and made him betake himself to preventionary Artifices, and fright Assassinates with his Severity against the suppositious Authors of pretended dangers.
This Scare-Crow was one Miles Syndercombe, a disband of Overton's in Scotland by General Monck, a Leveller and Fifth Monarchist, both Page 189which parties he conjoyned in this trap, as most feared by him: The wily Arts of Thurloe, who set one Cecil, and Trop of Cromwell's Life-Guard, to urge this Male-content into a Conspi∣racy of The Protector's Death; This was readily assented to, and several Engines and Instruments fixed for that purpose and places appointed, and Whitehall Chappel to be fired; all which was from time to time discovered, and Syndercombe after the last vain experiment, seized and arraigned, and after a careless defence convicted and senten∣ced for Treason, which he avoided (as the Coro∣ners Jury gave their Verdict) by poysoning him∣self in the Tower the night before his Execution, and was drawn at a Horse Tail to Tower-hill, and inhumed, and a Stake driven through him under the Scaffold.
For this Delivery of his Highnesse the Parlia∣ment voted a Thanks-giving, and attended him at the Banquetting-house in Whitehall with a gratula∣tory Oration, setting forth the Ruine that was intended in that horrible Treason to the whole Pro∣testant Religion throughout the World, with the like parasitical designed Falshoods, but to the almost spoyling the Complement, the Stairs in the ascending broke, and samed Richard Cromwel, and others, who for amends were invited to dinner there upon the Thanksgiving day; and that Courtesy requited by a more gaudy Gift.
For the next day Alderman Pack (a great Excise Commissioner, and in greater Arrears for it to Page 19030000 l. and deep in the Piedmont Account) from the advantage of this Royal Treat, sudden∣ly started a Motion like a Puppet jerkt with a wire, that in regard of the strange unsettlement and discomposure of the Nation, and the minds of men, and the ill aspect it had upon Forraign Princes, and all Trade; that therefore the Pro∣tector might be desired to assume the style of King as the most known and most agreeable Govern∣ment: and presently tooth and nail the Court party were at it; and after sundry consultations passed a Resolution in order to his being Kinged by the second part of the Instrument, called The Humble Petition and Advice of the Parliament, which being now in Debate we must leave to a further account.
The suitable political talk of the party of the Usurper, was now engaged in strained Arguments for a Monarchy in the person of this their Ring-Leader, and this Maxime was broach'd in the News-Book, That there was no everlasting prin∣ciple in Government as to any particular form; that Government is but a temporary expedient, that it is like Ʋltima tabula post Naufragium, in the hazzard of the Common-wealth the next shift may be made use of. The same was the inspired reason into the Humble Petition and Advice, which after several debates and resolutions was drawn in∣to that Consistency, the main whereef was to de∣sire the Protector to change that Title for the o∣ther of King. On the 9. of April, the Parlia∣ment Page 191having desired a Meeting with him, came to the Banquetting-house in White-hall, where Sir Thomas Widdrington in a Speech, commended the Title and Office of a King, as setled here with Christianity, approved by our Ancestors, con∣sisting with our Laws and Temper of the people, and then presented him with the module of the Humble Petition, &c. To this tender, Cromwel in a fit of Devotion, answered, That it was a weighty matter, and therefore desire a space to seek God, that the charge laid upon him was too great for him to bear without His Assistance, that the English were the best people in the World, and re∣quired therefore all tenderness and consideration of their Liberties, &c.
The next day a Committee was appointed to attend him, and receive his Answer, which being insignificant, they upon report thereof resolved to adhere to their Petition, and appointed a Com∣mittee of above half the House to attend him, to receive from him his doubts and scruples touching any of the particulars contained in the Petition, &c. and to offer reasons for his satisfacti∣on, for the maintenance of the Resolution of the House, and wherein they cannot satisfie to report. The chief of this Committee were Mr. Whitlock, Lord Chief Justice Glyn, Lord Breg∣hall, Lenthall, Lisle, Philip Jones, Fiennes, Strickland, Thurloe, Sir Richard Onslow, Sir Charles Woolfley, &c.Page 192
We have through these Labyrinths of his shif∣ted Designs, now clued him to his Lustfull and adulterous Usurpation, which the nocturnal pollu∣tions of his Dream had so long before fancied and acted in his thoughts.
This was the critical Time, and the very Junct∣ure of his accomplishment of all his projections upon the Crown, which now seemed to court his Browes by the complemental tender of a Parlia∣ment so pick'd and cull'd to his purpose. But it pleased God, to rescue the Honour and Majesty of England, from the prophanation of his Tem∣ples; by some sudden emergent dangers, and Sus∣picions he raised in his Breast, and to elude his Royal Phantasmes with Rival and Democratick apparitions; His Oracles now ceased, and a ly∣ing Spirit was in the Mouth of his Prophets, who in their preachments harped upon this Subject. Now that the Reader may know how the whole mystery and cabal of this Businesse was managed by the above mentioned Committee (who would fain have drawn Oliver under the yoak of Laws, and retrencht his exorbitant power of the Sword) and Cromwell (who feared they would fortifie his Title, and weaken his Tenure, and had notice that Lambert laboured in the Debauch of the Army) He is here presented with the sum of that abortive Regal Consultation, which like the Philosophers Stone, or rather the Apples of Sodom, vanished and perished in the Attrectation.Page 193
After many Meetings and Conferences toge∣ther at White-hall, the Commissioners being im∣powered to receive his Highnesses Scruples at his request (the whole Affair being managed with Royal State and respect to him they came to these Disputes. It was alledged by the Committee who were to offer and make play, that the Title of King had been confirmed by all Parliaments, for 1300 years, and the person, not the name, dis∣pleasing to any of them. That it was interwo∣ven with the Laws, and the very consent of this Parliament in being.
To this the Protector answered, that these were swasory not compulsive or convincing Arguments. That the Title of the Protector might be made accommodable to the Laws, by the content of the Parliament, as well as the Title of King was made so by the same; that the Title of King would be displeasing to many godly men, and Officers of the Army, who had declared against the Title and Office.
To these it was replied,
Other instances there were of the Commissi∣oners, who severally by order of the Committee delivered their Answers to Him, as namely the reason of the change of the Stile of Lord to King of Ireland in H. 8. time, for the better, and more regu∣lar Government of that Nation, and Examples of a neighbouring Protestant Kingdome of Sweden, who had crown'd their Marshal that took up Arms with them against their Soveraign, but their main Argument was drawn from the Statutes of 9 Edw. 4. & 3 H. 7. by which all persons were indemp∣nified that took up Arms for the King in being, which was one and the chief reason said Whitlock, why so many at first assisted the King against the Parsiament, and would be his Highnesses case and Security. And lastly to his Argument of displea∣sing many godly men, and that Providence seem∣ed to crosse the introduction of the Kingly Office by a seven years War to the overthrow of it: He was answered that the reduction of the Common∣wealth to Monarchy, was a greater Act then from Monarchy to the Protectorate; that in all Govern∣ments Page 195some men would be unsatisfied, and that therefore his safest way would be to rely on this Settlement by the Parliament. But after all Crom∣well's Fears surmounted his Ambition, and he told then in a long Harangue, that He could not ac∣cept the Title of King, being against his conscience.
The Protector having refused the Title of King (awaiting a more opportune time and advantage to reach to that top and heighth of his ambition, which inwardly tormented him) was now by the Parliament to be confirmed in his former dignity, and a Committee called of the Settlement was ordered to prepare an Explanatory part to the Humble Petition and Advice, in respect of the Protectors Oath, his Councils, the Members of Parliament, the other House, which was to con∣sist of 60. and od Lords of Cromwell's Election, of which in their place we shall give an Account; all which with some Acts being prepared and fi∣nished, the Protector came to the Painted-Cham∣ber, and sent for the Parliament where the Speak∣er tendred him these Acts of State, besides o∣thers relating unto Trade, &c. 1. An Act for Assessement of 60000 l. a Month, for 3. Months, from March, for the three Kingdomes. Ano∣ther money Act for 50000 l. for three years, at 35000 l. for England, 6000 l. for Scotland, and 9000 l. for Ireland. An Act for preventing mul∣tiplicity of Buildings in and about the Suburbs of London, and within 10. Miles thereof; and a whole years Revenue to be paid for every Dwelling, or House buil upon any new Foundation since 1620. Page 196(and this was the reason and soul of that Law.) An Act for punishing such as live at high rates and have no visible Estates: And lastly for the obser∣vation of the Lords Day; there was a Bill for as∣certaining and satisfying the Publique Faith, that these Patriots might seem to intend the ease of the people, but it was but once read and committed, and resumed afterwards to as much purpose very briskly by the Council of this Protector. At the Signing of there Cromwel made this short Speech.
The principal substance of the Humble Peti∣tion, &c. was this,
Which he having Signed, declared his accep∣tance in there words,
That he came thither that day, not as to a Tri∣umph, but with the most serious thoughts that ever he had in all his life, being to undertake one of the greatest burthens, that ever was laid upon the back of any humane creature; so that without the support of the Almighty, he must sink under the weight of it, to the damage and prejudice of these Nations. This being so, he must ask help of the Parliament, and of those that fear God, that by their Prayers he might receive assistance from God: for nothing else could enable him to the discharge of so great a duty and trust.
That seeing this is but an Introduction to the car∣rying on of the Government of these Nations, and there being many things which cannot be supplied, without the assistance of the Parliament, it was his duty to ask their help in them; not that he doubted: for the same Spirit that had led the Parliament to this, would easily suggest the same to them. For his part nothing would have induced him to take this unsupportable burthen to flesh and blood, but that he had seen in the Parliament a great care in doing those things, which might really answer the Page 199ends that were engaged for, and make clearly for the Liberty of the Nations, and for the Interest and preservation of all such as fear God under va∣rious forms. And if these Nations be not thank∣ful to them for their care therein, it will fall as a sin on their heads.
Yet there are some things wanting that tend to re∣formation, to the discountenancing vice, and en∣couragement of virtue; but he spake not this as in the least doubting their progress, but as one that doth heartily desire, to the end God may Crown their work, that in their own time, and with what speed they judge fit, these things may be provided for.
There remained only the Solemnity of the In∣auguration or Investiture, which being agreed up∣on by the Committee and the Protector, was by the Parliament appointed to be performed in West∣minster-hall; where at the upper end thereof, there was an Ascent raised, where a Chair and Canopy of State was set, and a Table with ano∣ther Chair for the Speaker, with Seats built Scaf∣fold-wise for the Parliament on both sides; and places below for the Aldermen of London, and the like. All which being in a readiness, the Pro∣tector came out of a Room adjoyning to the Lords House, and in this order proceeded into the Hall. First went his Gentlemen, then a Herald; next the Aldermen another Herald; the Attorney General; then the Judges (of whom Serjeant Page 200Hill was one, being made a Baron of the Ex∣chequer, June 16.) then Norroy, the Lord Commissioners of the Treasury, and the Seal car∣ried by Commissioner Fiennes, then Garter, and after him the Earl of Warwick with the Sword, born before the Protector, Bare headed, the Lord Mayor Tichborn carrying the City Sword (being the special of Coaks of the Protector) by his left hand: Being seated in his Chair, on the left Hand whereof stood the said Titchborn and the Dutch Ambassador, the French Ambassador and the Earl of Warwick on the Right; next be∣hind him stood his Sons Richard, Fleetwood, Cley∣poole; and the Privy Council; upon a lower des∣cent stood the Lord Viscount Lisle, Lords Mon∣tague and Whitlock with drawn Swords.
Then the Speaker (Sir Thomas Widdrington) in the name of the Parliament, presented to him a Robe of Purple-Velvet, a Bible, a Sword, and a Scepter, at the Delivery of these things, the Speaker made a short Comment upon them to the Protector, which he divided into four parts, as followeth.
1. The Robe of Purple, This is an Emblem of Magistracy and imports Righteousness and Just∣ice: When you have put on this Vestment, I may say you are a Gown-man. This Robe is of a mixt colour, to shew the mixture of Justice and Mercy. Indeed, a Magistrate must have two hands, Plect∣entem, Page 201& amplectentem, to cherish and to pun∣ish.
2. The Bible, it is a Book that contains the Ho∣ly Scriptures, in which you have the happinesse to be well vers'd. This Book of Life consists of two Testaments the Old and New: the first shews Christum Velatum, the second Christum Revela∣tum; Christ vailed and revealed: it is a Pook of Books, and doth contain both Precepts and Exam∣ples for good Government.
3. Here is a Scepter, not unlike a Staff; for you are to be a Staff to the weak and poor; it is of ancient use in this kind. It's said in Scripture, that The Scepter shall not depart from Judah. It was of the like use in other Kingdoms; Homer the Greek Poet calls Kings and Princes Scepter-Bearers.
4. The last thing is a Sword, not a Military but Civil Sword; it is a Sword rather of defence then offence: not to defend your self only but your people also. If I might presume to fix a Motto upon this Sword, as the valiant Lord Talbot had upon his, it should be this, Ego sum domini Pro∣tectoris, ad protegendum populum meum, I am the Protectors to protect my people.
This Speech being ended, the Speaker took the Bible and gave the Protector his Oath: afterwards Mr. Manton made a prayer, wherein he recom∣mended the Protector, Parliament, Council, the Forces by Land and Sea, Government, and peo∣ple Page 202of the three Nations, to the protection of God. Which being ended the Heralds by Trum∣pets proclaimed his Highness Protector of Eng∣land, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Domini∣ons thereunto belonging: requiring all persons to yeild him due obedience. At the end of all, the Protector with his Train carried by the Lord Sher∣rard Warwick's Nephew, ahd the Lord Robert's his eldest Son, returned in the same posture, the Earl of Warwick sitting at one end of the Coach against him, Richard his Son, and Whitlock in one, and the Lords Lisle and Mountague in the other Boot, with Swords drawn, and the Lord Claypool Master of the Horse, led the Horse of Honour in rich Caparisons to White-hall. The Members to the Parliament House, where they prorogued their sitting to the Twentieth of Janu∣ary.
He vvas novv setled and established in his first assumed Dignity, to the satisfaction of some part of the Army, only Lambert vvas gravelled with that clause in it which gave the Protector power to name his Successor. Whereby he savv himself deprived and frustrated of his Hopes, and that Contract that had passed betvveen them. Crom∣well therefore to secure himself, set the Army Re∣giment after Regiment to subscribe Addresses con∣gratulating his legal Authority, and declaring their readinesse to assert Him therein with their lives and Fortunes; being the very same Method he had used before to prevent any Designs against him Page 203in the Army, when he vvas left upon his ovvn bot∣tome by the Parliament before.
In the mean time a more potent enterprize was formed by the Kings Interest, and the appearance of the Marquiss of Ormond (as my Lord Wilmot from beyond Sea, was engaged before in Pen∣ruddock's rising in the West) about Sussex, whi∣ther some English forces for Flanders in the Kings pay and service were to have been transmitted; but by the traiterous discovery of two former e∣minent Royallists, which Cromwell by great pen∣sions had corrupted, one a Knight, the other a Minister, and one that a hand in the killing of Rainsborough, the whole Intrigue was discove∣red, the Marquiss narrowly escaping back again to the King, who was dispatching General Marsin with his Forces then in readiness.
He was no sooner rid of the danger of this, but he was puzzled with Lamberts Cabal, who had inveagled and almost debauch'd Fleetwood and Des∣borough Cromwell's nearest Relations with his but emulous pretended Democratick principles; so that Cromwell (having dissolved the Parliament at their accesse in January, when according to the new Instrument the• met in a full House, who began and were resolved to undo all again that had passed during their Seclusion, nor would own the other House of upstart Mechanick Lords, but flew so high as bringing Oliver into question for those confusions of the State) was now in as ticklish a condition as ever; therefore Lambert was gently Page 204laid aside, and his Commission taken from him, and his Regiments taken from him and disposed to better hands, and Spies and Eves-droppers dis∣persed through the Army to give him intelligence of their Affections and Inclinations.
This made him most suspiciously fearful, so that he began to dread every person or strange face he saw (which he would anxiously and intently view) for an Assassinate, that Book of Killing no Mur∣ther perpetually running in his mind; It was his constrant Custome to shift and change his lodging, to which he passed through twenty several locks, and out of which he had four or five wayes to a∣void pursuit: when he went between White-hall and Hampton-Court, by private and back ways, but never the same backward and forward, He was always in a Hurry, his Guards behind and be∣fore riding a full Gallop, and the Coach always filled, especially the Boot with armed persons, he himself being furnish'd with private Weapons; and was now of more then difficult accesse to all persons.
A Plot was again on foot, and like a Mongril design that had no issue, was made up one half by the Cavalier, & the other half by himself (who was sure not to be behind hand in such designs) for which Sir Henry Slingsby, Dr. Hewyt, and 3. other private persons lost their lives by a High Court of Justice, the Severity whereof so afflict∣ed or affected the mind of his Daughter Cleypoole, that falling sick with the pains and torments of an Page 205Ulcer, in her intestines, which stopt her terms and made her frantick, she never ceased roaring against that bloody man, her Father.
He was now again adorned with another Suc∣cesse and Triumph, by the Defeat of the Spanish Army and surrender of Dunkirk into his hands, Lockhart his Kinsman & General of the English Forces, being made Governour thereof, which I am constrained to pass without any further remark and from the height of this glory, level him with the dust of other Mortals.
This Kingdom was now almost stupified and tired out with strugling against his Government and Domination, when it pleased God to call him to an account of all that Mischief he had per∣petrated; Ushering his End with a great Whale some three Months before on the second of June, that came up as far as Greenwich, and was there killed, and more immediately by a terrible Storm of Wind, the prognostick that the great Levia∣than of men, that Tempest and overthrow of Government, was now going to his own place.
He was taken sick at Hampton-Court having not been well in mind sometime before (troubled with the last frantick words of his beloved Daugh∣ter Claypole, who threatned Judgement like ano∣ther mad Cassandra, and with the insinuations and encroachments of the Republican party into the Army, nor were must of his Relations taint free of those principles, but were winding towards them:) the disease was a bastard Tertain which Page 206appeared not at first of any danger, but after a weeks time it began to shew very desperate sym∣ptoms, wherefore he was removed to White-hall, where his Chaplains and others of that pious Fa∣mily, kept private meetings and fastings of which they were to vainly confident (as before) that they obtruded their unseasonable thanks to God for the certainty of it, and with the same unseasonable flattery and pickthank with the Protector, deluded him into the like perswasion, so that he told his Physicians, He should not dye this bout; but the Fits proving worse and worse, and causing him to talk idely, and to faint often, They in Councell concluded, he could scarce survive another Pa∣roxysme, at which the Privy Council being asto∣nish'd, they immediately repaired to him, about his settling a Successor, whom by the Petition he was to declare in his life-time; but he was then scarce himself, which they perceiving, interroga∣ted him, if he appointed not his Son Richard, whereunto he answered in the affirmative. It was thought that he had designed Fleetwood in his ulti∣mate thoughts but the distraction of the choice be∣twixt his Son and Son-in-law, had made him leave it undetermined (a private Will relating to his Fa∣mily he made at his first sickning at Hampton∣court.) Continuing in this condition, he dyed on Friday the said 3d. of September at 3. of the clock in the afternoon, though divers tumours were spread, that he was carried away in the Tempest the day before; His body being Opened and Em∣balmed Page 207his Milt was found full of corruption and filth, which was so strong and stinking, that after the Corps were Embalmed and filled with Aro∣matick odours, and wrapt in Cere-cloath, six double, in an inner sheet of Lead, and a strong Wooden-coffin, yet the filth broke through them all, and raised such a noisome stink, that they were forced to bury him out of hand; but his name and memory stinks worse.
The Corps (presently after his expiration) being buried for the aforesaid reason, a Coffin was on the 26. of September, about 10. at night, privately removed from White-hall in a Mourning Horse, attended by his Domestick Servants, to Sommerset house, where it remained in private for some dayes, till all things were in readiness for publick view; which being accomplished, his Effigies was with great state and magnificence ex∣posed openly; multitudes daily flocking to see the Sight, which appeared in this order.
The first room where the Spectators entered, was wholly hung with Black: at the upper-end whereof, was placed a Cloath and Chair of State: In like manner was the second and third, all ha∣ving Scutcheons very thick upon the Walls, and Guards of Partizans placed in each room for peo∣ple to pass through. The fourth room was com∣pleatly hung with black Velvet, the Ceiling be∣ing of the same; here lay the Effigies, with a large Canopy of Black Velvet fringed, which hung over it. The Waxen Picture lying upon it's Page 208back apparrell'd in a rich Suit of Velvet, robed in a little Robe of Purple-Velvet, laced with a rich gold Lace, furr'd with Ermins: upon the Kirtle was a large Robe of Purple-Velvet, laced and furr'd as the former, with rich strings and tas∣sels of Gold. The Kirtle was girt with a rich embroydered Belt, wherein was a Sword bravely guilt and hatched with gold, which hung by the fide of this fine thing. In the right hand was a Scepter, in the left a Globe; upon his head was placed a Purple-Velvet-Cap furr'd with Ermines, sutable to the Robes: behind the head was placed a rich Chair of Tissued gold, whereon was placed an Imperial Crown, which lay high that the peo∣ple might behold it. The Bed of State whereon he lay, was covered with a large Pall of Black Velvet, under which was a Holland Sheet, born up by six stools covered with Cloth of Gold. A∣bout the Bed was placed a compleat Suit of Arms and at the Feet of the Effigies stood his Crest. This Bed had fix'd about it an Ascent of two steps; a little from thence stood eight silver Candlesticks, abut five foot high, with white wax Tapers stand∣ing in them, of three foot long. All these things were environed with Rails and Ballasters four-square, covered with Velvet; at each corner thereof was erected an upright pillat, which bore on their tops Lions and Dragons, who held in their paws Streamers crowned. On both sides of the Bed were set up in Sockets, four great Standards of the Protectors Arms with Banners and Banrols Page 209of War, painted upon Taffaty, About the Bed stood men in mourning bare-headed; and without the Rails others to receive people in, and turn them out again.
When this Shew had been seen for many weeks together, the Scene was then altered; the Effigies being removed into another room, it was there set up, standing upon an Ascent under a Cloath of State; being vested as it was before, lying: only now his purple-Velvet-Cap was changed for a Crown. In the same manner (as formerly) were men waiting upon him bare-headed. In this man∣ner he continued until the 23. of Novemb. which day was appointed to to carry him in solemnity to Westminster-Abby.
This great Funeral was performed with very great State, in this manner following. All things being in readiness, the Waxen Picture of the Protector (with a Crown on his Head, a Sword by his Side, a Globe and Scepter in his hands) was taken down from his standing, and laid in an open Chariot, covered all over with Black Velvet, adorned with black Velvet, and with Plumes and Scutcheons, and drawn by six Horses in black Velvet. The Streets from Somerset-house to Westminster-Abby, were guarded by Soldiers in new Red-coats and Black Buttons, with their En∣signs wrapt in Cypresse: which made a Lane to keep off Spectators from crouding the Actors.
In the first place went a Marshal attended by his Deputy, and 13. more on horse-back, to clear the way; after him followed the poor men of Westminster by two and two, in Mourning Gowns and Hoods; next to them, the Servants of those Persons of quality that attended the Fune∣ral. These were followed by the Protectors late domestick Servants, with his Barge-men and Water men. Then came the Servants of the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs of London. Following them, were Gentlemen Attendants on Foraign Ambas∣sadors and Publick Ministers. After marched the poor Knights of Windsor in Gowns and Hoods: then the Clerks, Secretaries, and Officers of the Army, Admiralty, Treasury, Navy, and Exche∣quer: next, the Commissioners of the Excise, of the Army, and Committee of the Navy. Then the Commissioners for approbation of Preachers: behind these followed all the Officers, Messengers, and Clerks belonging to the Privy Council, and both Houses of Parliament. Next in order fol∣lowed his Physitians, The Head officers of the Army, the Officers and Aldermen of London. The Masters of Chancery, and his Highnesse Council at Law, The Judges of Admiralty, Judges of both Benches, and Lord Mayor of London. The Per∣sons Allied in Blood to the Protector, and the Members of the other House, The publick Mini∣sters Page 210of Forraign-Princes. The Holland Ambassa∣dor alone, having his Train held up by four Gen∣tlemen. Then the Portugal Ambassador, and the French Ambassador, in like manner. The Com∣missioners of the Great Seal. The Commissioners of the Treasury. The Members of his Privy-Council. All the Grandees in Close Mourning (but it was once advised other wayes for fear of a surprise in the Streets) the rest but in ordinary.
The whole Assembly passing along in divisions, were distinguished by Drums, Trumpets, Banners and Horses, whereof there were eleven in all, four being covered with black Cloath, and seven in Velvet. These passing in fine order, at length came the Chariot with the Effigies, on each side of which were six Banner-Rolls (twelve in all) born by several Persons; and likewise several Pieces of the Protectors Arm, carried by eight Officers of the Army, attended by the Heralds. Next went Garter principal King of Arms, attended by a Gentleman on each hand bare-headed, Next came the chief Mourner. And to conclude all, came the Horse of Honour, in very rich Trappings im∣broydered on Crimson-Velvet, and adorned with white, red, and yellow Plumes of Feathers, being led by the Master of the Horse. The Rear of this brave shew was brought up by the Protectors Cuard of Halberdiers, the Warders of the Tower, and a Troop of Horse.
The Effigies in this manner being brought to the West-Gate of the Abby-Church of Westmin∣ster,Page 196it was taken from the Chariot by ten Gen∣tlemen, who carried it to the East end of the Church, and there placed the Picture in a most magnificent Structure, built in the same form as one before had been (on the like occasion) for King James, but much more stately.
And here they lodged and Usurped a Grave (the impatient Spectators fretting at this pompous Mummery and Magnificent cheat, taking his fu∣neral triumphs for a more solemn Cozenage of the Executioner, till the due inevitable justice of Heaven found them out, after the reduction of His Sacred Majesty in peace to His Kingdomes, which would very difficultly have been so accom∣plished if this resolute destroyer had survived to that blessed time.
On the 30. day of January 1660, that day 12 years of his most nefarious parricide, his Carcasse with Bradshaws and Iretons, having been digged out of their Graves, were carried to the Red Lyon in Holborn, and from thence drawn in Sledges to Tyburn, where they hanged from Ten of the Clock in the morning till Sun-set, with their Fa∣ces towards White-hall, and were then inhumed under the Gallowes, and His Head set upon West∣minster-Hall to be the becoming Spectacle of his Treason, where on that Pinacle and Legal Ad∣vancement it is fit to leave this Ambitious wretch.