An assertion of the government of the Church of Scotland in the points of ruling-elders and of the authority of presbyteries and synods with a postscript in answer to a treatise lately published against presbyteriall government.
Gillespie, George, 1613-1648.
Page  40

CHAP. VI. Argument 4. from 1 Cor. 12.28.

OUR fourth Argument is drawn from 1 Cor. 12.28. where we finde againe an enumeration of sundry offices in the Church (though not so perfect as that Rom. 12.) and amongst others, Helps, that is, Deacons, and Governments, that is, Ruling Elers. Where wee cannot enough admire how the Authors of the new English trans∣lation were bold to turne it thus, Helps in Governments, so to make one of two, and to elude our Argument. The originall hath them cleerely distinguished, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. And I finde some late editions of the Eng∣lish translation to have it as it is in the Greek, Helps, Governments. How this change hath been made in the English Bibles, I know not. Chrysostome expounding, this place doth not take Helps and Governements to be all one, as Bilson hath boldly,* but falsly averred. Nay Chrysostome maketh the meaning of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to be ut pauperes suscipiamus: and the meaning of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, he expounded to be praeesse ac curam gerere & res administrare spirituales. The former belongs to Deacons,Page  41 the later to ruling Elders. Two answers are made to this place.

First,* D. Field answereth, that both here and Rom. 12.8. we reason à genere ad speciem affirmativè; because the Apostle mentioneth Governours whom he requireth to rule with diligence, therefore they were such Elders as we plead for.*Whitgift saith, the word Go∣vernours, 1. Cor. 12.28. and Rulers, Rom. 12.8. is generall, and may either signifie Christi∣an Magistrates, or Ecclesiasticall, as Archbi∣shops, Bishops, or whatsoever other by lawfull authority are appointed in the Church.

We reply,* first, if the Apostle had mentio∣ned Rulers or Governours alone, then might we have indeed guessed, that hee meant a ge∣nerall kinde onely, and no particular Species: But since he hath enumerate so many Species, as Apostles, Prophets, Teachers, gifts of mi∣racles, gifts of tongues, &c. Surely they did ei∣ther most ignorantly, or most maliciously erre who tell us, that the Apostle putteth a Genus in the midst of so many Species. Secondly, the Apostle speaketh onely of Ecclesiasticall Officers, God hath set some in the Church, &c. What meant Whitgift to extend his words to the civill Magistrate. T. C. answered him, that hee could not distinguish betwixt the Church and Common-wealh, and so betwixt Page  42 the Church Officers, and the Officers of the Common-wealth. He replied, that he could not put any such difference betwixt them, that the one may not be comprehended under the Apostles word, as well as the other. For I utterly renounce, saith he, that distinction inven∣ted by Papists, and maintained by you, which is, that Christian Magistrates governe not in the respect they be Christians but in the respect they be men; and that they governe Christians, not in that they bee Christians, but in that they bee men: which is to give no more authority to the Christian Magistrate in the Church of Christ, then to the great Turke. Let our opposites here goe by the eares among themselves: for M. Io. Wemys holdeth,* that all Kings have a∣like jurisdiction in the Church, Infidels as wel as Christian Kings. We hold that Christian Magistrates governe their subjects, neither as Christians, nor as men, but as Magistrates; and they governe Christian subjects as Chri∣stian Magistrates. In like manner, Christians are governed by Magistrates, neither as they are Christians, nor as they are men, but as they are subjects, and they are governed by Chri∣stian Magistrates, as they are Christian sub∣jects. And we all maintaine, that a Christian Magistrate hath great authority over Christi∣an subjects, in things pertaining to the conser∣vation Page  43 and purgation of religion, which the great Turke, nor no Infidell Magistrate hath, or can have, except hee become Christian. But what doe I digressing after the imperti∣nencies of a roving disputer? for what of all this? Let Christian Magistrates governe as you will, will any man say that his office is Ecclesiasticall, or to be reckoned among A∣postles, Prophets Teachers? &c. Wherefore

Let us proceed to the other answer, which is made by Saravia:* Hee saith, that though the Apostle, 1 Cor. 12.28. reckon out diffe∣rent gifts, wee need not for that understand different persons, nor make different orders and offices in the Church, of the gifts of mi∣racles, healing, tongues, and prophecies, which might bee, and were in one man. Whereupon he resolveth the Text thus: that first, Paul setteth downe three distinct or∣ders, Apostles, Prophets, and Teachers; then he reckoneth forth these common gifts of the holy Ghost (and the gift of governing amongst the rest) which were common to all the three.* The Apostle saith not Governours, but Governments, saith Sutcliffe, to shew that he meaneth of faculties not of persons. So saith Bilson in like manner.

For confutation of all this, it is to be re∣membred: First, that the gifts spoken of by Page  44 the Apostle, are given of God for the com∣mon good and edification of the Church, And God hath set some in the Church, &c. Se∣condly, these gifts the Apostle considereth not, abstract••è à subjectis; but as they are in men indued with them, as is plaine; for hee had before reckoned forth the gifts them∣selves, vers. 8.9.10. and if here he did no more but reckon them over againe, this were actum agere. He is now upon the use and ex∣ercise of these gifts by the office-bearers of the Church, vers. 27.29. And though the Apostle, vers. 28. speaketh concretively on∣ly of these three, Apostles, Prophets, and Teachers, yet the rest must bee understood in the same manner, per metoxymiam adjuncti; as when wee speake of Magistracy and Mini∣stery, for Magistrates and Ministers▪ yea, the Apostle, vers. 29.30. so expoundeth himself where hee speaketh concretivè of the same things whereof hee seemed before to speake abstractivè. Hee speaketh of them as they are in different subjects, which is most evident both by his protasis wherein hee did againe presse the same simile of the severall offices, not of the same but of severall mem∣bers of the body; and likewise by the words immediately subjoyned, Are all Apostles, are all Prophets? are all Teachers? He would have stood here and said no more, if he had meant to distinguish these three orders only as Sa∣raviaPage  45 expoundeth him. But now to make it plainely appeare that hee spoke of the other gifts also, as they are in different persons, hee addeth, are all workers of miracles? have all the gifts of healing? doe all speake with tongues? doe all interprete? where wee may supply, are all for helps? are all for governe∣ments? But can it bee for nought that the Apostle ommitteth these two, when he doth over againe enumerate all the rest? vers. 29.30. It is as if he had said, there are some who have none of those speciall, and (for the most part) extraordinary gifts. All are not Apostles, all are not Prophets, &c. for some have but common and ordinary gifts, to bee Deacons or Elders for government.

There is a great controversie betwixt the Iesuits and the Doctors of Sarbon, about the meaning of this place which we have now expounded.* The Jesuits in their Spongia, writen against the censure of the University of Paris, contend, that by Helps the Apo∣stle meaneth, the regular Chanoins, who help the Bishops and the Priests in preaching, ministering the Sacraments, and hearing confessions. By governments they say hee meaneth secular Priests, whom they call pa∣rochi. And because hee putteth helps before governments, they inferre that Regular Cha∣noins are of an higher degree in the Hie∣rarchy Page  46 of the Church, then Secular Priests. This they maintaine (good men) for the cre∣dit of their owne Polypragmaticke order, and not for the credit of other regular Cha∣noins, you may be sure. The Doctors of Sorbon in their Vindicia Censura, written by Aurelius,* considered that they could not maintaine the meaning of the Apostle to bee onely of different gifts (which no doubt they had answered, if they had thought it to carry any probability) therefore they acknowledge that under these gifts are contained also the degrees of the Hierarchy. And that the A∣postles words doe partly belong to the com∣mon gifts of the Spirit, as powers and inter∣pretation of tongues, partly to the Hierarchy: of this later sort,* they make helps and govern∣ments. And by the helps they seeme to un∣derstand Archdeacons and Curates.

But now to conclude this Argument also, thus it is: They who have the gift and office of governing the Church, and are different from them, who have other gifts and offices in the Church, can be no other then the ru∣ling Elders, which we plead for.

But these 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 spoken of, 1 Cor. 12.28. are such. Ergo.