Natural and political observations mentioned in a following index, and made upon the bills of mortality by John Graunt ... ; with reference to the government, religion, trade, growth, ayre, diseases, and the several changes of the said city.
Graunt, John, 1620-1674., Petty, William, Sir, 1623-1687.
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CHAP. IX. Of the growth of the City.

1. IN the year 1593 there died in the ninety seven Parishes within the walls, and the sixteen with∣out the walls (besides 421 of the Plague) 3508. And the next year 3478, besides 29 of the Plague: in both years 6986. Twenty years after, there died in the same ninety seven, and sixteen Parishes, 12110, viz. Anno 1614, 5873; and Anno 1615, 6237: so as the said Parishes are increased, in the said time, from seven to twelve, or very near thereabouts.

2. Moreover, the Burials within the like space of he next twenty years, viz. Anno 1634, and 1635, vere 15625, viz. as about twenty four to thirty one: he which last of the three numbers, 15625, is much more then double to the first 6986, viz. the said Pa∣rishes have in fourty years increased from twenty three to fifty two.

3. Where is to be noted, That although we were necessitated to compound the said ninety seven with the sixteen Parishes, yet the sixteen Parishes have increased faster then the ninety seven. For, in the year 1620, there died within the walls 2726, and in 1660 there died but 3098 (both years being clear of the Plague) so as in this fourty years the said ninety seven Parishes have increased but from nine to ten, or thereabouts, because the housing of the Page  54 said ninety seven Parishes could be no otherwise in∣creased, then by turning great Houses into Tene∣ments, and building upon a few Gardens.

4. In the year 1604, there died in the ninety se∣ven Parishes 1518, and of the Plague 280. And in the year 1660, 3098, and none of the Plague, so as in fifty six years the said Parishes have doubled: Where note, that forasmuch as the said year 1604 was the very next year after the great Plague, 1603 (when the City was not yet re-peopled) we shall rather make the comparison between 2014, which died Anno 1605, and 3431 Anno 1659, choosing rather from hence to assert, that the said ninety seven, and sixteen Parishes encreased from twenty to thirty four, or from ten to seventeen in fifty four years, then from one to two in fifty six, as in the last afore∣going Paragraph is set down.

5. Anno 1605, there died in the sixteen out-Pa∣rishes 2974, and Anno 1659, 6988, so as in the fifty four years, the said Parishes have encreased from three to seven.

6. Anno 1605 there died in the eight out-parishes, 960, Anno 1659, there died in the same scope of Ground, although called now ten Parishes (the Savoy, and Covent-Garden being added) 4301, so as the said Parishes have encreased within the said fifty four years, more then from one to four.

7. Moreover, there was Buried in all, Anno 1605, 5948, and Anno 1659 14720, viz. about two to five.

8. Having set down the proportions, wherein we find the said three great Divisions of the whole Pyle, call'd London, to have encreased; we come next to shew Page  55 what particular Parishes have had the most remark∣able share in these Augmentations, viz. of the ninty seven Parishes within the Walls the Increase is not very discernable, but where great houses formerly belonging to Noblemen before they built others neer White-hall, have been turned into Tenements, upon which Accompt Alhallows on the wall is encreas∣ed, by the conversion of the Marquess of Winchesters house, lately the Spanish Ambassadors, into a New street, the like of Alderman Freeman, and La Motte neer the Exchange, the like of the Earl of Arundells in Loathbury, the like of the Bishop of London's Palace, the Dean of Paul's, and the Lord River's house, now in hand, as also of the Dukes-Place, and others here∣tofore.

9. Of the sixteen Parishes next without the Walls, Saint Gile's Criplegate hath been most inlarged, next to that, Saint Olave's Southwark, then Saint Andrews Holborn, then White-Chappel, the difference in the rest not being considerable.

10. Of the out Parishes now called ten, formerly nine, and before that eight, Saint Gile's, and Saint Martins in the fields, are most encreased, notwith¦standing Saint Pauls Covent-Garden was taken out of them both.

11. The general observation which arises from hence is, That the City of London gradually removes Westward, and did not the Royal Exchange, and Lon∣don-Bridg stay the Trade, it would remove much faster, for Leaden-Hall-street, Bishops-gate, and part of Fan-church-street, have lost their ancient Trade, Grace-Church-street indeed keeping it self yet entire, by Page  56 reason of its conjunction with, and relation to London-Bridg.

12. Again, Canning-street, and Watlin-street have lost their Trade of Woollen-Drapery to Paul's Church-Yard, Ludgate-hill, and Fleet-street; the Mercery is gone from out of Lombard-street, and Cheapside, into Pater-Noster-Row, and Fleet-street.

13. The reasons whereof are, that the King's Court (in old times frequently kept in the City) is now always at Westminster. Secondly, the use of Coaches, whereunto the narrow streets of the old City are un∣fit, hath caused the building of those broader streets in Covent-Garden, &c.

14. Thirdly, where the Consumption of Commodity is, viz. among the Gentry, the vendors of the same must seat themselves.

15. Fourthly, the cramming up of the voyd spaces, and gardens within the Walls, with houses, to the pre∣judice of Light, and Air, have made men Build new ones, where they less fear those inconveniencies.

16. Conformity in Building to other civil Nati∣ons hath disposed us to let our old Wooden dark houses fall to decay, and to build new ones, whereby to answer all the ends above-mentioned.

17. Where note, that when Lud-gate was the onely Western Gate of the City, little Building was Westward thereof. But when Holborn began to encrease New-gate was made. But now both these Gates are not sufficient for the Communication between the Walled City, and its enlarged Western Suburbs, as dayly appears by the intolerable stops and embares∣ses of Coaches near both these Gates, especially Lud-gate.