Natural and political observations mentioned in a following index, and made upon the bills of mortality by John Graunt ... ; with reference to the government, religion, trade, growth, ayre, diseases, and the several changes of the said city.
Graunt, John, 1620-1674., Petty, William, Sir, 1623-1687.

CHAP. VII. Of the difference between Burials, and Christnings.

1. THe next Observation is, That in the said Bills there are far more Burials, then Christnings. This is plain, depending onely upon Arithmetical computation; for, in 40 years, from the year 1603, to the year 1644, exclusivè of both years, there have been set down (as happening within the same ground, space, or Parishes) although differently numbered, and divided, 363935 Burials, and but 330747 Christ∣nings within the 97, 16, and 10 out-Parishes, those of Westminster, Lambeth, Newington, Redriff, Stepney, Hackney, and Islington, not being included.

2. From this single Observation it will follow, That London hath decreased in its People, the con∣trary whereof we see by its daily increase of Buildings upon new Foundations, and by the turning of great Palacious Houses into small Tenements. It is there∣fore certain, that London is supplied with People from Page  42 out of the Countrey, whereby not onely to repair the overplus difference of Burials above-mentioned, but likewise to increase its Inhabitants according to the said increase of housing.

3. This supplying of London seems to be the reason, why Winchester, Lincoln, and several other Cities have decreased in their Buildings, and consequently in their Inhabitants. The same may be suspected of many Towns in Cornwal, and other places, which probably, when they were first allowed to send Burgesses to the Parliament, were more populous then now, and bore another proportion to London then now; for several of those Burroughs send two Burgesses, whereas London it self sends but four, although it bears the fifteenth part of the charge of the whole Nation in all Publick Taxes, and Levies.

4. But, if we consider what I have upon exact en∣quiry found true, viz. That in the Countrie, within ninetie years, there have been 6339 Christnings, and but 5280 Burials, the increase of London will be salved without inferring the decrease of the People in the Countrie; and withall, in case all England have but fourteen times more People then London, it will ap∣pear, how the said increase of the Country may in∣crease the People, both of London, and it self; for if there be in the 97, 16, 10, and 7 Parishes, usually com∣prehended within our Bills, but 460000 souls as here∣after we shall shew, then there are in all England, and Wales, 6440000 Persons, out of which substract 460000, for those in, and about London, there remains 5980000 in the Countrie, the which increasing about 1/7 part in 40 years, as we shall hereafter prove, doth Page  43 happen in the Countrie, the whole increase of the Countrie will be about 854000 in the said time, out of which number, if but about 250000 be sent up to London in the said 40 years, viz. about 6000 per An∣num, the said Missions will make good the alterations, which we finde to have been in, and about London, be∣tween the years 1603 and 1644 above-mentioned. But that 250000 will do the same, I prove thus, viz. in the 8 years, from 1603 to 1612, the Burials in all the Parishes, and of all Diseases, the Plague included, were at a Medium 9750 per Annum. And between 1635 and 1644 were 18000, the difference whereof is 8250, which is the Total of the increase of the Burials in 40 years, that is about 206 per Annum. Now, to make the Burials increase 206 per Annum, there must be added to the City thirty times as many (ac∣cording to the proportion of 3 dying out of 41 Fa∣milies) viz. 6180 Advenae, the which number multipli∣ed again by the 40 years, makes the Product 247200, which is less then the 250000 above propounded; so as there remains above 600000 of increase in the Countrie within the said 40 years, either to render it more populous, or send forth into other Colonies, or Wars. But that England hath fourteen times more People, is not improbable, for the Reasons following.

1. London is observed to bear about the fifteenth proportion of the whole Tax.

2. There is in England, and Wales, about 39000 square Miles of Land, and we have computed that in one of the greatest Parishes in Hampshire, being also a Market-Town, and containing twelve square Miles, there are 220 souls in every square Mile, out Page  44 of which I abate ¼ for the overplus of People more in that Parish, then in other wilde Counties. So as the ¾ parts of the said 220, multiplied by the Total of square Miles, produces 6400000 souls in all London included.

3. There are about 100000 Parishes in England, and Wales, the which, although they should not con∣tain the ⅓ part of the Land, nor the ¼ of the People of that Country-Parish, which we have examined, yet may be supposed to contain about 600 People, one with another, according to which Accompt there will be six Millions of People in the Nation. I might add, that there are in England, and Wales, about five and twenty Millions of Acres at 16 ½ Foot to the Perch; and if there be six Millions of People, then there is about four Acres for every head, which how well it agrees to the Rules of Plantation, I leave un∣to others, not onely as a means to examine my Asser∣tion, but as an hint to their enquiry concerning the fundamental Trade, which is Husbandrie, and Plan∣tation.

4. Upon the whole matter we may therefore con∣clude, That the People of the whole Nation do in∣crease, and consequently the decrease of Winchester, Lincoln, and other like places, must be attributed to other Reasons, then that of refurnishing London onely.

5. We come to shew, why although in the Coun∣try the Christnings exceed the Burials, yet in London they do not. The general Reason of this must be, that in London the proportion of those subject to die unto those capable of breeding is greater then Page  45 in the Countrey; That is, let there be an hun∣dred Persons in London, and as many in the Coun∣try; we say, that if there be 60 of them Breeders in London, there are more then 60 in the Country, or else we must say, that London is more unhealthfull, or that it enclines men and women more to Barrenness, then the Country, which by comparing the Burials, and Christnings of Hackney, Newington, and the other Country-Parishes, with the most Smoaky, and Stink∣ing parts of the City, is scarce discernable in any con∣siderable degree.

6. Now that the Breeders in London are proportio∣nally fewer then those in the Country arises from these reasons, viz.

1. All that have business to the Court of the King, or to the Courts of Justice, and all Country-men coming up to bring Provisions to the City, or to buy Foreign Commodities, Manufactures, and Rarities, do for the most part leave their Wives in the Country.

2. Persons coming to live in London out of curiosi∣ty, and pleasure, as also such as would retire, and live privately, do the same, if they have any.

3. Such, as come up to be cured of Diseases, do scarce use their Wives pro tempore.

4. That many Apprentices of London, who are bound seven, or nine years from Marriage, do often stay longer voluntarily.

5. That many Sea-men of London leave their Wives behind them, who are more subject to die in the ab∣sence of their Husbands, then to breed either with∣out men, or with the use of many promiscuously.

6. As for unhealthiness it may well be supposed, Page  46 that although seasoned Bodies may, and do live near as long in London, as elsewhere, yet new-comers, and Children do not, for the Smoaks, Stinks, and close Air are less healthfull then that of the Country; otherwise why do sickly Persons remove into the Country Air? And why are there more old men in Countries then in London, per rata? And although the difference in Hackney, and Newington, above∣mentioned, be not very notorious, yet the reason may be their vicinity to London, and that the Inhabi∣tants are most such, whose bodies have first been im∣paired with the London Air, before they withdraw thither.

7. As to the causes of Barrenness in London, I say, that although there should be none extraordinary in the Native Air of the place, yet the intemperance in feeding, and especially the Adulteries and Forni∣cations, supposed more frequent in London then else∣where, do certainly hinder breeding. For a Woman, admitting 10 Men, is so far from having ten times as many Children, that she hath none at all.

8. Add to this, that the minds of men in London are more thoughtfull and full of business then in the Country, where their work is corporal Labour, and Exercizes. All which promote Breedings, whereas Anxieties of the minde hinder it.