Natural and political observations mentioned in a following index, and made upon the bills of mortality by John Graunt ... ; with reference to the government, religion, trade, growth, ayre, diseases, and the several changes of the said city.
Graunt, John, 1620-1674., Petty, William, Sir, 1623-1687.
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An INDEX of the Positions, Obser∣vations, and Questions contained in this Discourse.

1. THe Occasion of keeping the Accompt of Burials arose first from the Plague, Anno 1592, page 4

2. Seven Alterations, and Augmentations of the pub∣lished Bills, between the years 1592, and 1662, pag. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

3. Reasons, why the Accompts of Burials, and Christnings should be kept universally, and now called for, and per∣used by the Magistrate, p. 12

4. A true Accompt of the Plague cannot be kept, without the Accompt of other Diseases, p. 13

5. The ignorance of the Searchers no impediment to the keeping of sufficient, and usefull Accompts, p. 14

6. That about one third of all that were ever quick die un∣der five years old, and about thirty six per Centum under six, p. 15

7. That two parts of nine die of Acute, and seventy of two hundred twenty nine of Chronical Diseases, and four of two hundred twenty nine of outward Griefs, p. 16

8. A Table of the Proportions dying of the most notorious, and formidable Diseases, or Casualties, p. 17

9. That seven per Centum die of Age, p. 18

10. That some Diseases, and Casualties keep a constant proportion, whereas some other are very irregular, p. 18

11. That not above one in four thousand are Starved, p. 19

Page  [unnumbered]12. That it were better to maintain all Beggars at the publick charge, though earning nothing, then to let them beg about the Streets; and that employing them without discretion, may do more harm, then good, pag. 20, 21

13. That not one in two thousand are Murthered in Lon∣don, with the Reasons thereof, p. 21

14. That not one in fifteen hundred dies Lunatick, p. 22

15. That few of those, who die of the French-Pox, are set down, but coloured under the Consumption, &c. pag. 23, 24

16. That the Rickets is a new disease, both as to name, and thing; that from fourteen dying thereof, Anno 1634, it hath gradually encreased to above five hundred Anno 1660, p. 24, 25, 26

17 That there is another new Disease appearing; as A Stopping of the Stomach, which hath encreased in twenty years, from six, to near three hundred, p. 26

18. That the Rising of the Lights (supposed in most Cases to be the Fits of the Mother) have also en∣creased in thirty years, from fourty four, to two hun∣dred fourty nine, p. 27

19. That both the Stopping of the Stomach, and Rising of the Lights, are probably Reliques of, or depend∣ing upon the Rickets, p. 28

20. That the Stone decreases, and is wearing away, p. 28

21. The Gowt stands at a stay, p. 29

22. The Scurvie encreases, p. 29

23. The Deaths by reason of Agues are to those caused by Fevers, as one to fourty, p. 29.

24. Abortives, and Stilborn, to those that are Christ∣ned are as one to twenty, p. 29

25. That since the differences, in Religion the Christnings Page  [unnumbered] have been neglected half in half, p. 29

26. That not one Woman in an hundred dies in Child-bed, nor one of two hundred in her Labour, p. 30

27. Three reasons why the Registring of Children hath been neglected, p. 31

28. There was a confusion in the Accompts of Chrysoms, Infants, and Convulsions; but rectified in this Di∣scourse, p. 32

29. There hath been in London within this Age four times of great Mortality, viz. Anno 1592, 1603, 1625, and 1636, whereof that of 1603 was the great∣est, p. 33, 34

30 Annis 1603, and 1625, about a fifth part of the whole died, and eight times more then were born, p. 34

31. That a fourth part more die of the Plague then are set down, p. 35

32. The Plague Anno 1603 lasted eight years, that in 1636 twelve years, but that in 1625 continued but one single year, p. 36

33. That Alterations in the Air do incomparably more operate as to the Plague, then the Contagion of con∣verse, p. 36

34. That Purples, small-Pox, and other malignant Di∣seases fore-run the Plague p. 36

35. A disposition in the Air towards the Plague doth also dispose women to Abortions, p. 37

36. That as about ⅕. part of the whole people died in the great Plague-years, so two other fifth parts fled, pag. 37, 38, which shews the large relation, and interest, which the Londoners have in the Country. ibid.

37. That (be the Plague great, or small) the City is fully re-peopled within two years, p. 38

38. The years, 1618, 20, 23, 24, 32, 33, 34, 1649, 52, Page  [unnumbered] 54, 56, 58, and 61, were sickly years, p. 40

39. The more sickly the year is, the less fertile of Births, p. 40

40. That Plagues always come in with King's Reigns is most false, p. 40

42. The Autumn, or the Fall is the most unhealthfull sea∣son, p. 41

41. That in London there have been twelve Burials for eleven Christnings, p. 41

43. That in the Country there have been, contrary-wise, sixty three Christnings for fifty two Burials, p. 42

44. A supposition, that the people in, and about London, are a fifteenth part of the people of all England, and Wales, p. 42

45. That there are about six Millions, and an half of people in England, and Wales, p. 42

46. That the people in the Country double by Procreation but in two hundred and eighty years, and in London in about seventy, as hereafter will be shewn; the reason whereof is, that many of the breeders leave the Coun∣try, and that the breeders of London come from all parts of the Country, such persons breeding in the Coun∣try almost onely, as were born there, but in London multitudes of others, p. 42

47. That about 6000 per Annum come up to London out of the Country, p. 43

48. That in London about three die yearly out of eleven Families, p. 43

49. There are about twenty five Millions of acres of Land in England, and Wales, p. 45

50. Why the proportion of breeders in London to the rest of the people is less then in the Country, p. 45

51. That in London are more impediments of breeding,Page  [unnumbered] then in the Country, p. 46

52. That there are fourteen Males for thirteen Females in London, and in the Country but fifteen Males for fourteen Females, p. 47

53. Polygamy useless to the multiplication of Man-kinde, without Castrations, p. 48

54. Why Sheep, and Oxen out-breed Foxes, and other Vermin-Animals, p. 48

55. There being fourteen Males to thirteen Females, and Males being prolifique fourty years, and Females but twenty five, it follows, that in effect there be 560 Males to 325 Females, p. 49

56. The said inequality is reduced by the latter marriage of the Males, and their imployment in Wars, Sea-voi∣age, and Colonies, p. 49

57. Physicians have two Women Patients to one Man, and yet more Men die then Women, p 49

58. The great emission of Males into the Wars out of London Anno 1642 was instantly supplyed, p. 50

59. Castration is not used onely to meliorate the flesh of Eatable Animals, but to promote their increase also, p. 51

60. The true ratio formalis of the evil of Adulteries, and Fornications, p. 51

61. Where Polygamy is allowed, Wives can be no other then Servants, p. 52

62. That ninety seven, and sixteen Parishes of London are in twenty years encreased from seven to twelve, and in fourty years from twenty three to fifty two, p. 53

63. The sixteen Parishes have encreased farther then the ninety seven, the one having encreased but from nine to ten in the said fourty years, p. 53

Page  [unnumbered]64. The ten Out-Parishes have in fifty four years encreased from one to four, p. 54

65. The ninety seven, sixteen, and ten Parishes have in fifty four years encreased from two to five. p. 54

66. What great Houses within the Walls have been turned into Tenements, p. 55

67. Cripplegate-Parish hath most encreased, &c. p. 55

68. The City removes Westwards, with the reasons there∣of, p. 55

69. Why Ludgate is become too narrow a throat for the City, p. 56

70. That there be some Parishes in London two hundred times as big as others, p. 56, 57

71. The natural bigness, and Figure of a Church for the Reformed Religion, p. 57, 58

62. The City of London, and Suburbs, being equally divi∣ded, would make 100 Parishes, about the largeness of Christ-church, Blackfriers, or Colmanstreet, p. 58

73. There are about 24000 Teeming women in the nine∣ty seven, sixteen, and ten Parishes in, and about Lon∣don, p. 60

74. That about three die yearly out of eleven Families con∣taining each eight persons, p. 60

75. There are about 12000 Families within the walls of London, p. 61

76. The housing of the sixteen and ten Suburb-Parishes is thrice as big as that of the ninety seven Parishes within the walls, p. 61

77. The number of souls in the ninety seven, sixteen, and two out-Parishes is about 384000 p. 61

78. Whereof 199000 are Males, and 185000 Females p. 61

79. A Table shewing of 100 quick conceptions how many Page  [unnumbered] die within six years, how many the next Decad, and so for every Decad till 76, p. 62

80. Tables, whereby may be collected how many there be in London of every Age assigned, p. 62

81. That there be in the 97, 16, and ten Parishes near 70000 Fighting Men, that is, Men between the Ages of 16, and 56, p. 62

82. That Westminster, Lambeth, Islington, Hackney, Redriff, Stepney, Newington, contain as many people as the 97 Parishes within the Walls, and are conse∣quently ⅕. of the whole Pile, p. 62

83. So that in, and about London are about 81000 Fight∣ing Men, and 460000 in all, p. 63

84. Adam and Eve in 5610 years might have, by the or∣dinary proportion of Procreation, begotten more peo∣ple, then are now probably upon the face of the earth, p. 63

85. Wherefore the World cannot be older then the Scriptures represent it, p. 63

86. That every Wedding one with another produces four Children, p. 64

87. That in several places the proportion between the Males and Females differ, p. 64

88. That in ninety years there were just as many Males as Females Buried within a certain great Parish in the Country, p. 64

89. That a Parish, consisting of about 2700 Inhabitants, had in 90 years but 1059 more Christnings, then Burials, p. 64

90. There come yearly to dwell at London about 6000 strangers out of the Country, which swells the Burials a∣bout 200 per Annum, p. 65

91. In the Country there have been five Christnings for four Burials, ibid

Page  [unnumbered]92. A Confirmation, that the most healthfull years are also the most fruitfull, p. 65

93. The proportion between the greatest, & least mortalities in the Country are greater then the same in the City, p. 67

94. The Country Air more capable of good, and bad im∣pressions, then that of the City, p. 68

95. The differences also of Births are greater in the Coun∣try, then at London, p. 69

96. In the Country but about one of fifty dies yearly, but at London one of thirty, over and above the Plague, p. 69

97. London not so healthfull now as heretofore, p. 70

98. It is doubted whether encrease of people, or the burn∣ing of Sea-coal were the cause, or both, p. 70

99. The Art of making of Gold would be neither benefit to the World, or the Artist, p. 72

100. The Elements of true Policy are to understand through∣ly the Lands, and hands of any Country, p. 72

101. Ʋpon what considerations the intrinsick value of Lands doth depend, p. 73

102. And in what the Accidental, p. 73

103. Some of the few benefits of having a true Accompt of the people, p. 73

104. That but a small part of the whole people are imployed upon necessary affairs, p. 74

105. That a true Accompt of people is necessary for the Government, and Trade of them, and for their peace, and plenty, p. 74

106. Whether this Accompt ought to be confined to the Chief Governours, p. 74