An essay on the state of England in relation to its trade, its poor, and its taxes, for carrying on the present war against France by John Cary, merchant in Bristoll.
Cary, John, d. 1720?
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THE PREFACE TO THE READER.

THE following Treatise was the Imploy∣ment of some leisure Hours which I thought could not be better spent, than in di∣gesting so copious a Subject as Trade is, I am sure could be no way more advantageously im∣ployed to the Nation's Interest, than by proposing Methods for its Improvement; I have herein considered the State of England in respect to its Trade, its Poor, and its Taxes for car∣rying on the present War: The first I have divided into the Inland and Outland Trade; the Inland into three parts, viz. Buying and Selling, Husbandry, and Manufactures; Under the former Head I have comprehended all those Imployments whereby Men get by one another, without making any Addition to the Wealth of the Nation in general: Husban∣dry I have divided into Pasture and Tillage,Page  [unnumbered] and have been the longer thereon to shew from how small Foundations the Primums or Prin∣ciples of all our Trade are derived; which indeed is wonderful, when we consider that the Lands of England according to the Act of Four Shillings in the Pound cannot come to above Eight Millions Five Hundred Thousand Pounds sterling per annum, that whole Tax with Personal Estates amounting to Nineteen Hundred and Seventy Thousand Pounds, whereof I compute about Two Hundred and Seventy Thousand Pounds to be raised on Per∣sonal Estates, so the Remainer is Seventeen Hundred thousand Pounds, which being the fifth part of the whole (if that Tax were equally and justly laid) the Computation is rightly made; but suppose they are worth Thirteen Millions per annum, 'tis a very small Summ if com∣pared with the vast Expences of this Nation, which, with the Charges of carrying on the War, maintaining the Civil List, and the Profits laid up by particular Men, cannot be less than One Hundred Millions per annum, the rest is raised by Manufactures, Trade, and Labour; the first of which (though the third in my Division) is the most profitable part of our Inland Trade, being That where∣by our Product is advanced in its value, and made fit both for our own use, and also for Foreign Markets; from whence are again Im∣ported Page  [unnumbered] hither sundry other Materials, the Foun∣dations of Manufactures different in their Na∣tures from our own; these I have handled under several Heads, and likewise shew'd by what Me∣thods they may be improved, and so have closed the Inland Trade: Before I enter'd on the Out∣land, I have consider'd Navigation as the Me∣dium between both, and given my Thoughts how some Evils that attend and discourage it may be removed; I have then proceeded to our Foreign Traffick, or the Trade we drive with other Nations, which I have spo∣ken to under several Heads, viz. East-In∣dies, West-Indies and Africa, Maderas, Ireland, Scotland, Canaries, Spain, Por∣tugal, Turky, Italy, Holland, Ham∣burgh, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and France, and have endeavour'd to shew how we get or lose by each, and by what Methods they may be improved, and made more advantageous to this Kingdom.

As to the second part of this Discourse, the Poor, I have shewed how this Habit of Lazi∣ness and Begging first crept in amongst us, how it may be prevented from spreading far∣ther, how Imployments may be provided for those who are willing to work, and a force put on those that are able, and how the Impotent Poor may be maintained, and those whose La∣bour will not support their Charge assisted.

Page  [unnumbered] In the last place, I have proposed general Rules for raising of Taxes to carry on the present War, and better Husbanding the Mo∣ney when raised, wherein I have rather aimed to shew that these things may be done, than published Methods for doing them, which (be∣cause they would swell this Discourse above it designed Brevity) are omitted here, as being more proper to be laid before a Committee of Parliament.