THE LIFE & DEATH OF POMPEY THE GREAT.
STrabo, the Father of Pompey was much hated by the People of Rome,* who feared his greatnesse obtain∣ed by Armes (for he was a Noble Captain) and to shew their distast, when he was slaine by a Thun∣derbolt, as his Body was carrying to buriall, the People seized upon it, and did great despite unto it: But on the contrary, never any other Roman, besides Pompey, had the love of the People so soone, nor that continued constante•, both in prosperity, and ad∣versity, than it did to him: And that which procured their love, and good liking, was his temperance in life, Page 2 aptnesse to Armes, Eloquence of speech, Faithfullnesse of his word,* and Courtesy in his behaviour. He gave without disdain, and received with great Honour: Be∣ing but a child, he had a certain grace in his look, that wan mens good wills before he spake. His coun∣tenance was amiable mixed with gravity; and when he come to mans estate, there apppeared in his gesture, and behaviour, a grave, and Princly Majesty. His haire stood a little upright, and the sweet cast, and motion of his eyes made him very gracefull. He was sober, and temperate in his Diet, contenting himself with com∣mon meates; and when once in his sicknesse, his Physici∣an advised him to eate a Thrush, and none could be got∣ten, a Friend told him, that Lucullus (a certain great man) kept them all the year, where he should be sure not to fail; he replyed, What then? If Lucullus were not,*should not Pompey live? and therewith∣all, letting his Physicians counsell alone, he bad them dresse him such meat as was easy to be had.
Pompey being a young man, and in the Field with his Father, who was in Armes against Cinna, there lay with him in his Tent a Companion of his, called Lucius Terentius, who being corrupted with money, promised Cinna to slay Pompey, and other of his Confederates had promised to set their Generals Tent on fire. This con∣spiracy was discovered to Pompey as he sat at supper, which nothing amazed him, but he drank freely, and was merrier with Terentus than ordinary:* But when it was bed-time, he stole out of his own Tent, and went into his Fathers. In the night Terentius went into Pom∣pey's Tent, and with his Sword gave many a thrust into the Matteres•e: Presently also the whole Camp was in an uprore, and the Souldiers, out of hatred to their Ge∣nerall, would needs in all hast have gone, and submit∣ted to the Enemy: and Strabo du•st not go out of his Tent to speak to them, but Pompey ran amongst these Mutineers, and with teares in his eyes besought them 〈…〉 their Generall▪ He went also and threw Page 3 himself flat on the Ground athwart the Gate of the Camp, and told them that they should march over him if they had such a desire to be gone: whereupon, the Souldiers being ashamed of their treachery, returned to their lodgings.
Presently after his Fathers death,*Pompey being his heir, he was accused for robbing the common Treasury, and in particular for taking certain toiles, and cords of Hunters nets: He confessed the having of them, and that his Father gave him them when the Ci∣ty of Asculum was taken; but that he had since lost them, when Cinna came to Rome with his Army, at which time the unruly Souldiers, breaking into his House, plundred him of all that he had. This matter had ma∣ny dayes of hearing before it was determined, in which time Pompey shewed so much courage, and Prudence in managing of it, that he wan such credit, and favour by it, that Antistius, who at that time was Praetor, and Judge of the cause, fell into such a liking of him, that secretly he offered him his Daughter in marriage, and Pompey liked so well of the match, that the parties were privately made sure each to other:* And not long after, through the care, and paines of Antisti∣us, when the Judges came to passe Sentence, Pompey was cleered.
This businesse being over, Pompey married Antisti•: af∣ter which going into Cinna's Camp,* he was wrongfully ac∣cused of some misdemeanours; whereupon, being afraid of the Tyrant, he secretly stole away▪ and when he could not be found in Cinna's Camp▪ there went a ru∣mour abroad that Cinna had murthered him, which so irritated some, who of a long time had hated Cinna▪ that upon this occasion, they rose up against him: But he thinking to save himself by flight, was pursued by a Captain with a drawn Sword; Cinna seeing him, fell down on his knees to him, and profered him his Signet Ring, which was of great price to spare his life: Tush (said the Cap•ain) I come not to seal any Covenant, but to be re∣venged Page 6 upon a Villaine, and cruel Tyrant, and withall ran him through and slew him.*
Cinna being thus dispatched, Carbo took upon him the Government, a more cruel Tyrant than the former: And after him,*Syll• succeeded; and at this time the Romans, being grievously oppressed by one Tyrant after an other, thought themselves happy in the change of Governours. For their City was brought into such mise∣ry, as hoping no more to see Rome recover her lost liberty, they desired yet a more tollerable bon∣dage.
In Sylla's time Pompey was at a place in Italy called Pi∣cenum,* in the Marches of Ancona, where he had certain Lands, but much more the love and favour of the Citi∣zens for his Fathers sake. He seeing that the most No∣ble men of Rome forsook their Houses, and estates to re∣pair to the camp of Sylla, as unto a place of safety, he also resolved to go thither, yet not in a base manner, like a Fugitive, but purposed to raise an Army, and to go in an Honourable manner as one that could doe Sylla good service. So he made tryall of the good will of the Picentines, who readily joyned with him, and where∣as there was amongst them one Vindius, who opposed Pompey, saying, That a Boy that came from School but the other day, must now in hast be a Captain, the rest of the Ci∣tizens were so incensed against him, that they ran upon him and slew him.
Thus Pompey being but twenty three years old, not tar∣rying for Commission from any man, took upon him∣self Authority, and causing a Tribunall to be set up in the mid'st of the market place of Auximum, a great, and Populous City, he commanded the two Brethren, called the Ventidians (the chiefest men of the City, but his enemies) presently to avoid the City: Then began he to leavy men to constitute Captaines, Leiutenants, Sergeants, and such other Officers as appertain to an Army. And from thence he went to the other neigh∣bouring Cities, where he did the like, so that in a short Page 5 space he had gotten three compleat Legions together, as also Amunition, Carts, and all other necessaries,* for them.
In this sort did Pompey advance towards Sylla; not in hast,* as a man that was afraid to be met with by the way, but by small Journeyes, lodging still where he might have the best advantage against an enemy, causing the Cities wheresoever he came to declare against Carbo, and for Sylla. Yet three Captains who adhered to Carbo, Carinna, Caelius, and Brutus, did in three severall places compasse him in on every side, thinking to have de∣stroyed him. Pompey was nothing amazed hereat, but marshalling his Army, he first set upon Brutus, having placed his Horsemen (amongst whom himself was in Person) before the Battel of his Footmen,* and when the men at Armes of his enemy (who were Gauls) came to charge upon him, he singled out the chiefest amongst them, and ran him through with his Spear, and slew him. The other Gauls seeing their Champion slaine,* turned their backs, and in their flight, over ran their own Footmen; so that at last they all fled for their lives.
Then the Cities round about, being terrified with this overthrow, came in and yeilded themselves to Pompey: Afterwards Scipio also the Consul, coming against Pom∣pey to fight him, when the Battels were ready to joyn, before they threw their Darts, Scipio's Souldiers saluted Pompey, and went over to his side, whereupon Scipio was faign to fly. And lastly Carbo himself sending di∣verse Troops of Horse against him by the River Arsis, Pompey charged them so furiously, and drave them into such a place of disadvantage, that being neither able to fight nor fly, they delivered up themselves with their Horses, Armes, and all to his mercy.
Sylla all this while heard nothing of these overthrows which Pompey had given to his enemies, but understand∣ing his danger, being environed with so many Armes, Page 6 fearing lest he should miscarry, he made hast, and march∣ed to his relief.
Pompey being informed of Sylla's approach, command∣ed his Captaines to Arme themselves and to set their Army in good array, that their Generall Sylla might see how bravely they were appointed. For he expected that Sylla would do him great honour,* as indeed he did, e∣ven beyond his expectation: For when Sylla saw him afar off, coming towards him, and his Army marshalled in such good order of Battell, and his men so bravely ad∣vancing themselves, being elated with their late Victo∣ries, he alighted from his Horse; and when Pompey came to do his duty to him, and called him Emperour, or So∣veraigne Prince, Sylla resaluted him with the same Ti∣tle, which made all that were present to wonder that he would give so honourable a name to so young a man as Pompey was,* who as yet was not made a Sanator: Con∣sidering also that Sylla himself did now contend for that Title, and Dignity with Marius, and Scipio. The in∣tertainment also that Sylla gave him afterwards, was every way answerable to the first kindnesse that he shewed him. For when Pompey at any time came to him, he would rise up, and put off his Cap to him, which he did not to any other Noble man that was about him: Yet was not Pompey puffed up with all this, nor the prou∣der for it.
Shortly after Sylla would have sent Pompey into Gaul (now France) because that Metellus, the Roman Ge∣nerall there, was thought to have done no exploit worthy of so great an Army as he had with him: But Pompey answered, that there was no reason to displace an ancient Captain that was of greater fame, and experi∣ence then himself,*Yet (said he) if Metellus himself be con∣tented, and will desire it of me, I will willingly go, and help him to end this War. Metellus being informed here∣of, wrote for him to come.
Pompey then entering Gaul, did of himself wonder∣full explots, and so revived the courage, and valour Page 7 of old Metellus, that the War prospered exceedingly in their hands:* But these were but Pompey's first beginn∣ings, and were wholly obscured by the luster of those ma∣ny Wars, and great Battels which he fought after∣wards.
When Sylla had over come all Italy, and was pro∣claimed Dictator, he rewarded all the great Captains, and Leiutenants that had taken his part, and advanced them to honourable places, and Dignities in the Com∣monwealth, freely granting whatsoever they requested of him; But for Pompey, highly esteeming him for his Valour, and thinking that he would be a great support to him in all his Wars, he sought by some meanes to ally him to himself, Metella, his Wife being also of the same opinion,* they both perswaded him to put away his Wife Antistia, and to marry Aemilia, who was Daughter to Metella by a former Husband, though she was married to an other, and now with child by him. These marriages were wicked, and Tyrannicall,* fitter for Sylla's time, than agreeable to Pompey's nature, and condition. And truly it was a shamefull thing for Pompey to forsake his Wife Antistia, who for his sak?, a little before had lost her Father, that was murthered in the very Senate House upon suspition that he took part with Sylla for his Son Pompey's sake: and to take Aemilia from her lawfull Husband, by whom she was great with child, and to whom she had been married not long before: which also caused the Mother of Antistia to lay violent hands upon her self, seeing her Daughter to receive such open and notorious wrong. But God who hates such In∣justice, and cruelty, followed Pompey with this Judge∣ment, that his Wife Aemilia died miserably presently af∣ter in childbirth in his House.
About this time newes was brought to Sylla, that Per∣penna was gotten into Sicilie, and had brought all that Island into subjection to him, where he might safely in∣tertain all Sylla's enemies: That Carbo also kept the Seas thereabouts with a certaine number of 〈…〉Page 8 was gone into Africk, to whom resorted many other Noblemen who were escaped from the proscripti∣ons and outlaries of Sylla.
Against all these was Pompey sent by his Father in Law with a great Army,* who no sooner was arrived in Si∣cily but Perpe•na fled, and left the Island to him. Then did Pompey deale friendly and favourably with all the Ci∣ties which before had endured great troubles and misery, and set them again at liberty, the Mamertines only ex∣cepted, who dwelt in Messina: they despising his juri∣diction and Government,* pleaded the ancient priviled∣ges of the Romanes which had been formerly granted un∣to them. But Pompey answered them angerly, What do you pr•ting to us of your Law that have our Swords by our sides?* He dealt also too cruelly with Carbo in his misery; for he might have killed him in hot blood when he first fell into his hands with lesse blame: But Pompey, when he was taken, caused him to be brought before him, though he had been thrice Consul, and to be publickly examined, sitting himself in his Tribunall, and condemn∣ed him to die in the presence of them all, to the great distast, and offence of all that were present: Yet he bad them take him away to execution, which was done accordingly.
Pompey dealt as cruelly also with Quintus Valerius, a man of rare parts, and excellent Learning, who being brought to Pompey, he took him aside, and walked a few turns with him, and when he had learned what he could of him, he commanded his Guard to take him a∣way and dispatch him. Pompey indeed was compelled to make away all Sylla's enemies that fell into his hands: But for the rest, all that he could suffer secertly to steale away, he willingly connived at it, and would not take notice of it, yea, himself did help many to save them∣selves by flight.
Pompey had determined to have taken sharp revenge of the City of the Himerians, who had stoutly taken the 〈…〉 one of the Governours of the Page 9 City, craving audience of Pompey, told him boldly, that he should doe great injustice if he should pardon him, who was the only offender, and destroy them who were not guilty. Pompey then asking him who he was that durst take upon himself the offence of them all? Sthenis answered, That it was himself who had perswaded his Friends, and compelled his enemies to do what was done: Pompey being much pleased to hear the frank speech, and boldnesse of the man, he forgave both him, and all the Citizens.
After this Pompey being informed that his Souldiers did kill divers in the high-wayes,* he caused all their Swords to be sealed up, and whose s•al soever was bro∣ken, he punished them soundly for it.
Pompey being busy about these matters in Sicily, he re∣ceived instructions, and a Commission from Sylla, and the Senate at Rome, to depart thence immediately into Africk, with all his power to make War against Domi∣tius, who had a very great Army. Pompey according∣ly speedily prepared to take the Seas, leaving Memmiu•▪ his Sisters Husband, to Govern Sicily,* and so imbarking in sixscore Gallies and eight hundred other Ships, where∣in he transported his Victuals, Ammunition, Money, En∣gines for Battery, and all other his Warlike provision, he hoised Saile, and landed one part of his Army at V•i•a, and the other at Carthage, and presently after his land∣ing, there came to him seven thousand Souldiers from his enemies to take his part, besides seven whole Legions that he brought with him.
Against him came Domitius with his Army in Battell array; but before him there was a Quagmire,* that ran with a very swift streame, very hard to get over; Besides, it had rained exceedingly all that morning, so that Do∣mitius judging it impossible then to fight, bad his men to trusse up and be gone. Pompey on the other side, spying this advantage, caused his men to advance, and coming upon the enemy, who was now out of order, had a cheap Victory over them, wherein he slew about seven∣teen Page 10 thousand of them, whereupon he was by his Soul∣diers saluted with the name Impera•or, or Emperour, but he told them he would not accept of that honourable Title, so long as he saw his enemies Camp yet standing, whereupon they ran presently and assaulted it, and took it by force, and slew Domitius therein.
After this overthrow, all the Cities in that Country, came and submitted to Pompey, and those that refused were taken by force. They took also King J•rbas, who had sided with Domitius, and gave his Kingdom to Hiempsal▪ •ut Pompey being desirous further to imploy his Army, he went many dayes •ourny into the maine Land, con∣quering all wheresoever he came, making the power of the Romans dreadfull to those Barbarous Nations, who be∣fore made small acount of them. He caused also the Wild Beasts of Africk to feel his force, bestowing some dayes in hunting of Lyons, and Elephants: And in fourty dayes he conquered his enemies, subdued Africk, and set∣led the affaires of the Kings, and Kingdoms of that part of the Country, being then but twenty four years old.
Pompey being returned to Vtica, he received Letters from Sylla, willing him to discharge his Army, and to retain on∣ly one Legion with himself till the comming of another Captain that was to succeed him in the Government of that Country.* This grieved him not a little, though he made no shew of it at all: But the Souldiers were much offended at it, and when Pompy prayed them to depart, they gave out broad speeches against Sylla, and told him directly that they were resolved not to leave him what∣soever became of them, and that they would not leave him to trust to a Tyrant. Pompey, seeing that he could not prevaile with them,* rose out of his seat, and went into his Tent weeping: But the Souldiers followed him, and brought him again to his Chaire of State, intreating him to remaine there, and command them, and he desired them to obey Sylla, and to leave their mutinies. In fine, he seeing they were resolved to presse him, swore that he Page 11 would kill himself rather then they should compel him, yet scarce did they leave him thus.
Hereupon it was reported to Sylla that Pompey was re∣belled against him; which when he heard, he said to his Friends, Well, I see then that it is my destiny in my old age to fight with children. This he said, because of Marius the yonger, who had done him much mischief, and had great∣ly endangered him. But afterwards, understanding the truth,* and hearing that all generally in Rome would go to meet Pompey, and receive him with all the honour they could, he resolved to go beyond them all in shew of good will: wherefore going out of his House to meet him, he embraced him with great affection, and wel∣comed him home, calling him M•g•us that is Great, and commanded all that were present to give him that Name also.*
After this Pompey required the honour of a Triumph, which Sylla opposed, affirming that this honour should be granted to none but to such as had been Consuls, or at least Praetors: He told him also, that if he should stand for it he would oppose him. Pompey was not discouraged herewith, but boldly told him, That all men did honour, not the setting, but the rising Sun. Sylla heard not well what he said, and therefore enquired, and when it was told him, he wondred at the Confidence of so young a man, and cryed out twice, Let him then Triumph on Gods Name. Yet many were offended at it,* but Pompey to anger them more, would be brought in his Triumphant Chariot drawn by four Elephants, many of which Beasts he had taken from the Kings, and Princes whom he had subdued: Howbeit the Citie Gates being too narrow for them, he was faign to leave his Elephants, and to be drawn in with Horses.
Now his Souldiers that had not all they looked for, nor that was promised to them, sought to hinder his Tri∣umph, which being reported to him, he said, T•a• he would rather lose all his preparations, than be forced to flatter them: He might have been made a Senator if he had sought af∣ter Page 12 it, but in that he did not, being so young, it pleased the People exceedingly, especially when after his Tri∣umph they saw him still amongst the Roman Knights:* On the other side Sylla was much vexed to see him come so fast forward, and so soon to rise to so great credit: yet being ashamed to hinder him, he suppressed it, till Pompey, contrary to his mind, brought in Lepidus to be Consul, through the good will of the People that fur∣thered his desire▪* Hereupon Sylla seeing Pompey return∣ing crosse the Market place after the election, with a great train of followers, he said to him, O young man! I see thou art glad of this Victory, and so thou hast cause: for questionlesse its a brave thing that through the favour of the People thou hast brought in Lepidus (the vilest person of all other) to be Consul, before Catulus the honestest man in the City: But let me advise thee to look well to thy self, for thou hast advanced one that will be a dangerous enemy to thee.
Sylla also discovered his ill will to Pompey, in that when he made his Will, he gave Legacies to every one of his Friends, and left Pompey wholly out: yet did Pompey take it well enough, and whereas Lipidus, with some others,* after Sylla's Death, would have kept his Body from being buried in the field of M•rs, and from Fu∣nerall solemnities, Pompey prevailed to bury him ho∣nourably.
Shortly after Sylla's Death▪ his Prophesy to Pompey con∣cerning Lepidus proved true; For Lepidus openly usurping the power which Sylla had, raised an Army of those of Marius his faction, whom Sylla had hitherto suppressed, which put Pompey upon his best skill, and experience; For which end he presently took part with the Nobility,* and the honester part of the People, by whom he was im∣ployed to raise an Army against Lepidus, who had al∣ready the greatest part of Italy, and by the help of Brutus, kept Gaul on this side the Mountaines: the rest, Pompey easily subjected to himself, only he was somewhat long i• besieging Brutus in Modena. During Page 13 which time, Lepidus brought his Army to the Gates of Rome, demanding his second Consulship, which much affrighted the People: But they were soon comforted by a Letter which Pompey sent, wherein he informed them that he had ended his Wars without bloodshed. For Brutus had yeilded himself to Pompey who had slaine him.
Shortly after, Lepidus was driven out of Italy into Sar∣dinia, where he fell sick, and died. At this time Serto∣rius was in Spain, who kept the Romans in great aw•, being a valiant Captain▪ and one to whom all the Fu•gitives resorted. He had already overthrown many in∣feriour Captaines, and was now grapling with Metellus Pius, who in his youth had been a Noble Souldier, but now being old, and too wary, he neglected many op∣portunities, which Sertorius, by his dexterity took out of his hands.
Hereupon Pompey keeping his Army together, endea∣voured, by the help of his Friends, to be sent into Spain, as an assistant to Metellus: and at last, by the endea∣vour of Lucius Philippicus, he obtained the Government of that Country.
When Pompey was arrived in Spain, Sertorius gave out bitter j•ers against him, saying, That he would use no other weapons against that young Boy but Rods: and that,*if he were not affraid of the old woman, meaning Metellus, much less was he afraid of him. Yet for all these brags, he stood better upon his guard, and went stronger to fight than he did before, being afraid of Pompey. In this War the successe was very various, yet nothing grieved Pompey more than Sertorius his winning the City La•ron.* Yet shortly after in a set Battel, near the City of Valentia, he slew Herennius, and Perpena, both gallant Souldiers, and Leiutenants to Sertorius, with ten thousand of their men. This Victory so encouraged Pompey, that he hast∣ed to fight with Sertorius himself before Metullus came to him, that he might have the sole Glory of the Conquest. So they both met by the River of Sueron in the evening▪ Page 14 both fearing the comming of Metellus, the one that he might fight alone, the other that he miget fight with one alone. But when it came to triall, the Victory fell out doubtfull, for either of their wings had the upper hand: Sertorius wan great honour in this Battell, bear∣ing all before him wheresoever he went: and Pompey en∣countering a great man at Armes, cut off one of his hands, yet he escaped by turning up his Horse with very rich caparisons amongst Pompey's followers, and whilest they were contending about the Horse, he es∣caped.
The next morning very early, both the Generals brought their Armies again into the Field, to confirme the Victory, which either of them supposed that he had gotten: But Metellus, comming to Pompey at that present, Sertorius retreated, and dispersed his Army. Pompey go∣ing to meet Metellus▪ when they came near, he com∣manded his Sergeants, and Officers to put down their bundles of Rods, and Axes which they carried before him, to honour Metellus the more, being a better man than himself: But Metellus would not suffer it, but in every thing made Pompey his equall, only when they Camped together, Metellus gave the watch word to all the Army.
Sertorius with a running Army, cut them short of Vi∣ctuals, spoiling the Country, and keeping the Sea-side, so that they were foced to divide themselves and to goe into other places for provision. Pompey in the mean time having spent most of his estate in this War, sent to Rome for money to pay his Souldiers, threatening that if they would send him no money, he would return with his Army into Italy. Lucullus being now Consul, though he was Pompey's enemy, yet procured the money for him, that himself might the better prevaile to be sent against King Methridates: for he feared that if Pompey returned into Italy, he would procure to have that imployment.
In the mean time Sertorius died, and Perpenna, who was▪ the chiefest man about him, supplied his room. But Page 15 though he had the same Army, the same meanes, and the same power, yet had he not the same wit, and skill to use it. Pompey therefore marching directly against him, quickly discovered his insufficiency, and •aid a bait for him, sending ten Troops to prey in the fields, command∣ing them to disperse themselves abroad, which accor∣dingly they did, and Perpenna, took the opportunity, and charged upon them, and had them in chase, but Pompey tarrying for them at a Foord, was ready with his Army in good order, gave them battell,* and obtained the vi∣ctory, and thus ended all the War: For most of the Ca∣ptaines were slaine, and Perpenna himself taken Prison∣er, whom he presently put to Death. Perpenna shewed to Pompey Letters from the greatest Noblemen of Rome, who were desirous of change of Government, willing him to return into Italy. But Pompey fearing that they might occasion great commotions in Rome,* put Perpenna presently to Death, and burned all the writings, not so much as reading any one of them.
Pompey after this,* remained in Spain till he had pacified all tumults, and then went with his Army back into Italy, and arrived just when the War of the Bondmen and Eencers, led by Spartacus, was in the greatest fury. Upon Pompey's comming, Crassus being sent Generall against them, made haste to give them battell, wherein he over∣came them and slew twelve thousand and three hundred of these fugitive slaves. Yet Fortune intending to give Pompey some part of the honour,* five thousand of these Bondmen, who escaped from the battell, fell into his hands, whom he overcame, and wrote to the Senate at Rome, that Perpenna had overcome the Fencers in battell, and that he had plucked up this War by the roots. The Romans receiving these Letters, were very glad of the newes for the love which they bore to him. Yet for all the great honour and love they did bear to him, they su∣spected, and were afraid of him, because he did not dis∣band his Army, fearing that he would follow Sylla's steps, and rule over them by force: Hereupon as many Page 16 went forth to meet him out of fear, as out of good will▪ But when he told them, that he would disband his Army so soon as he had Tryumphed, then his ill-willers could blame him for nothing, but that he inclined more to the People than to the Nobles; and because he desired to re∣store the Tribuneship to the People, which Sylla had pu• down.
Indeed the common People at Rome never longed for any thing more than they did to see the Office of the Tri∣bunes set up again:* and Pompey was very glad that he had such an oppo•tunity, thereby to ingratiate himself with them, and to requi•e the love which they had shewed to him. This was the second Tryumph, and the first Con∣sulship which the Senate decreed to Pompey, which made him neither the greater, nor the better man. Yet was it such an Honour, as Crassus (the richest, greatest, and elo∣quentest man in Rome) durst not demand before he had requested Pompey's good will therein: And truely Pompey was very glad of the request, having of a long time sought an opportunity whereby to gratifie him, and therefore he made earnest suit to the People for him, assu∣ring them that he would as much thank them for making Crassus his fellow-Consul, and Colleague, as he would for making himself Consul.
Yet when Pompey had obtained his request, and they were both created Consuls, they were in all things con∣trary one to the other, and never agreed in any one thing whilest they ruled together: Crassus had the more authority with the Senate, and Pompey with the People: for he restored to them the Office of Tribunes, and passed by Edict, that the Knights of Rome should have power a∣gain to Judg in Causes both Civil and Criminall. This wonderfully pleased the people, when himself came in Person to the Censors, and pray'd that he might be dispen∣sed with for going to the Wars.
At this time Gellius and Lentulus were the Censors, who being honourably set in their Tribunal seats, taking a view of all the Romane Knights that mustered before Page 17 them, they marvelled when they saw Pompey comming, with all the Ensignes of a Consul borne before him, and himself (as other Knights did) leading his Horse by the bridle: and when he came neer, he commanded the Ser∣geants that carried the Axes before him, to make room for him to pass by the Barrs with his Horse,* where the Censors sate. This made the People to flock about him, wondring and rejoycing with great silence: the Censors themselves also were marvellous glad to see him so obe∣dient to the Law, and did him great reverence. Then did the elder of the Censors examine him thus; Pompey the Great, I pray thee tell me, if thou didst serve so long in the war as the Law doth appoint? Pompey answered aloud, Yes verily have I done, & that under no Captain but my self. The Peo∣ple hearing this, shouted aloud for joy, and the Censors themselves came down from their seats, and accompani∣ed Pompey to his House, to please the great multitude that followed him, clapping their hands for joy.
At the end of their Consulship, grudges growing high∣er between Crassus, and Pompey, there was one Gaius Aure∣lius, a Knight, who till then had never spoken in the pub∣lick Assembly: He getting up into the Pulpit for Ora∣tions, told the People openly, that that night Jupiter had appeared to him, and commanded him to tell both the Consuls from him, that they should not leave their Of∣fice before they were reconciled together: Yet for all this Pompey stirred not: But Crassus took him by the hand, and spake thus before the People; My Lords! I think it no disho∣nour to me to give place to Pompey, sith you your selves have thought him worthy to be called the Great, before he had any haire on his face, and to whom you granted the honour of two Tryumphs before he came to be a Senator. Having thus spoken, they were reconciled together, and so gave up their Office.
Crassus after this, retired to his former manner of life, and Pompey, as much as he could, avoided pleading mens causes in publick, and by degrees withdrew himself from frequenting the Market-place, and came seldom abroad, Page 18 but when he did, he had alwayes a great traine following him.* It was a rare thing to see him to be familiar with any one, or to come abroad but with a great company of attendants.
The power of the Pirats upon the Seas began in Ci•i∣eia,* of which at first there was no great account made, till they grew bold and venturous in King Methridates Wars, being hired to serve him: and when the Romans engaged in Civill Wars at home, they neglected look∣ing after them, which made them more audacious. For they did not only rob and spoil all Marchants by Sea, but plundred Islands, and Cities upon the Sea-coast, in∣somuch as men of great Nobility, and Wealth joyned with them, and they set up store-houses in divers places, and had Beacons to give warning by fire all along the Sea-coasts, which were well watched: they had also great Fleets of Ships well furnished, with excellent Gal∣liots, skilfull Pilots, and Marriners: their Ships were swift of Sail, and Pinnaces for discovery. All the Sea-coast over there was Musick, singing, and rioting amongst them: Prizes were daily brought in, Persons of quallity taken prisoners, and put to great ransome. Their Ships were a Thousand in number, and they had taken four hundred Towns. They had Spoiled and destroyed many Temples that had never been pro•ained before. They had many strange Sacrifizes and Ceremonies of Religion amongst them, and be∣sides all other insolences and injuries which they did the Romans by Sea, they often went on Land, and plun∣dred and destroyed their Country Houses; and once they took two Roman Praetors in their purple Robes, with their Sergeants and Officers, and carried them quite away. At another time they surprised the Daugh∣ter of Antonius (a man that had the honour of a Try∣umph) as as she was walking in the Fields, and put her to a great Ransome. And further to dispite the Romans, when they had taken any of them, and they told them that they were Citizens of Rome, they would cloath Page 19 them like Romans, and putting out the Shipladder they would bid them be gone to Rome, and if they refused they would throw them overboard, and drown them.
These Pirats had all the Mediterranean Seas at their command, that a Marchant durst scarce look out, or traffique any whether. This moved the Romans (•ear∣ing a famine by their means) to send Pompey to recover the Dominion of the Seas from them. The first man that moved that Pompey might not only be made Admi∣rall at Sea,* but have absolute power to command all Persons whatsoever without giving any account of his doings, was Gabinius, Pompey's Friend: which was done accordingly, and absolute authority was given unto him, not only of the Seas, but for the space of four hundered Furlongs from the Sea, within which compasse were many great Nations, and mighty Kings. It gave him power also to choose out of the Senate fifteen Leiutenants,* and to give to every of them severall Pro∣vinces in charge, and also to take money out of the Trea¦sury to defray the charges of a Fleet of two hundred Saile, with full power besides to leavy what men of War he thought good, and as many Galliots, and Mar∣riners as he pleased.
This Law was confirmed by the People. Yet the Nobility, and chiefe Senators thought that this autho∣rity did exceed, not only all envy, but that it gave them apparent cause of fear to give such unlimited pow∣er to a single Person: whereupon they were all against it but Caesar, who promoted it, not so much to favour Pompey, as to ingratiate himself with the People. But the Noblemen fell out with Pompey, and one of the Con∣suls was very hot with him, told him that he sought to follow Romulus his steps, but peradventure he would come short of that end he made: This so provoked the People that they had thought to have killed him: But Catulus, a worthy man, spake also against this Edict, yet spake much in the praise of Pompey, and in conclusi∣on, Page 20 avised the People not to adventure a man of so great account in such dangerous Wars; For (said he) if you chance to lose him, whom have ye then to put in his place? The People cried out, Your selfe. After this, seeing how the People were bent, he spake no more.
Next after him Rosoius would have preswaded them to have sent an other with Pompey as his Colleague, but the People made such an outcry against him, that a Crow flying over the Market place fell to the Ground.* Upon the day when the Decree was to be fully passed, Pompey went forth of the City, and when he understood that it was confirmed, he returned the same night pri∣vately, to avoid the envy they would have borne him if the People should have flocked in multitudes to have waited on him home.
The next morning he came abroad, and Sacrificed to the Gods, and audience being given him in a publick meeting, he so handled the matter that they much in∣larged his power, almost doubling the preparations, which were at first Decreed to him. For it was ordained that he should have five hundred Ships, one hundred and twenty thousand Footmen, and five thousand Horsemen. He chose also twenty four Senators, all of them having been Generals of Armies, and two Generall Treasurers. Whilest these things were preparing, the price of Victuals fell, which rejoyced the People much, and they said openly, that the very Name of Pompey had almost end∣ed the War already.
Pompey divided all the Sea into thirteen Divisions, and in each of them he appointed a certain number of Ships, and a Leiutenant over each of them:* and by thus di∣spersing his Navy all abroad, he brought all the Pirates Ships that were in a Fleet within his danger, and when he had taken them, he brought them all into an Har∣bour. But such of them as could escape, fled into Cili∣cia, as the surest place of retreat: These Pompey would needs follow in his own person with sixty of his best Page 21 Ships: Yet went he not till he had scowred the Tus∣•an Seas▪ with the coast of Libia, Sardinia, Sicily, and Corsica, o• all those Thieves that had wont to keep there∣abouts, and this he did within the space of fourty Dayes, taking infinite paines, both himself and his Lieu∣tenants.
Pis•, one of the Consuls, did all he could to hinder Pompey's preparations, and supplies of Oare men, out of envy to his prosperity. Pompey being informed of it, sent his Ships to Brundusium,* himself in the meane time passing through Tuscany came to Rome; where so soon as his comming was known, the People ran out to meet him, as if he had been a long time absent; and that which made them more joyfull was, that now Victuals came in freely out of all parts, the Seas being cleared from Pirates. Pompey could have had Piso put out of his Con∣sulship, but would not. So having setled all things in quiet according to his desire, he hasted to his Navy at Brundus••m, and hoising Sale, passed to Athens, where he landed and Sacrificed to the Gods,* and so returned to his Ships. At his going out of the City there were two writings in his Praise affixed to the Gate. That within was this,
That on the outside of the Gate was this,
Now Pompey having taken many of these Pirates, up∣on their submission spared their lives, which so encoura∣ged the rest, that flying from his Captains, and Leiute∣nants,* they came and delivered up themselves with their Wives and children into his hands. Pompey pardoned all that thus came to him, and by that meanes came to have knowledge of the rest, whom he pursued, and in the end took. The most and richest of them had con∣veied Page 22 their Wives, children and goods into strong Castles and Townes upon Mount Taurus, and they that were fit for service, imbarked, and lay before a City of Corasesium, where they tarried for Pompey, and gave him Battel by Sea, and after endured a Siege by land: Yet after a while, they besought him to receive them to mercy, yeilding themselves, their Towns, and Islands, which they had strongly fortified, into his hands. Thus was this War ended, and all the Pirates, with∣in lesse than three moneths space, driven out of the Seas.
Pompey won also a great number of Ships, and ninety Gallies armed with Copper Spurres. As for those whom he had taken▪ (who were in number about twenty thousand lusty men and good Souldiers) he would not put them to Death, but planted them in inland Coun∣tries in certain small Townes of the Cilicians, that were scarce inhabited, who were very glad of them and gave them Lands to maintain them: and whereas the City of the S•lians had not long before been destroied by Ty∣granes, King of Armenia, he replenished it again by placing many of them there. He bestowed others of them in the City of Dyma in the Country of Achaia, which lacked Inhabitants, and had great store of good Land belonging to it, though many of his enemies great∣ly blamed him for it.
Before Pompey was chosen Generall against the Pirates, young Metellus was sent Praetor into Creet, who finding it to be a den of these Thieves, he took many of them, and put them to Death: the rest that escaped, being straight∣ly besieged by him, sent unto Pompey, craving pardon, and desiring him to receive them to mercy: Pompey ac∣cordingly pardoned them, and wrote to Metellus, re∣quiring him to give over that War, commanding the Cities also that they should not obey Metellus. He sent also Lucius Octavius, one of his Leiutenants, who en∣tered into the Towns besieged by Metellus, and fought against him in the behalfe of the Pirates. This act of Page 23Pompey procured him much ill will, for that he fought for the common enemies of the world,* who had neither God nor Law, and that only to deprive a Roman Praetor of his Triumph, who had done such good service against them. Yet Metellus lest not off his Wars for Pompey's Letters, but having taken the Pirates, he put them to Death.
When the newes came to Rome that the piratick War was ended, and that Pompey had no more to doe, but •o go from City to City to visit them, one Manlius a Tribune of the People, brought in another Law,* that Pompe•, taking the Army from Lucullus, and all the Provinces under his Government, with all Bythinia, which G•abrio kept, should go and War upon Tygranes▪ and Methridates, and yet reserve in his hands all his juris∣diction, and Army by Sea in as royall a manner as he had it before, which was to make him an absolute Monarch over all the Roman Empire. The Senate stuck not so much at the injury offered to Lucullus, depriving him of the honour of his doings, and giving it to another, but that which most grived them was, to see Pompey's power established into a plain Tyranny: Hereupon they encouraged one another to oppose it to the uttermost: yet when the day came for the passing of this Law, they all drew back for fear of angring the People, and none durst oppose it: Only Catulus inveied against it a long time together: But say what he could, the Decree passed by the voices of the Tribes. And thus was P•mpey in his absence, made Lord of all that which Sylla, with much effusion of bloud had attained to with great dif∣ficulty.
When Pompey by Letters from Rome was informed what Law the People had past in his behalfe, he seemed to be much grieved that such great Offices, and charges should be laid upon him one in the neck of another, and clapping his hand on his thigh he said, O Gods! shall I never see an end of these troubles?*Had it not beeen bet∣ter for me to have been a meane man, and unknowne, than thus Page 24 continually to be ingaged in War? What! shall I never see the time, that breaking the neck of spite, and envy against me, I may yet once in my life live quietly at home▪ in my Country with my Wife and Children. His Friends that were about him were much displeased with this his deep dissimulation, knowing that his ambitious desire to rule, made him mad at heart to be thus imployed, the rather because ••nds contention between him and Lucullus, which his deeds forth with discovered.
Hereupon he sent forth his Precepts into all quarters, requiring all Souldiers immediatly to repaire to him,* and caused all the Kings, and Princes within his juris∣diction to attend him, and so, going through all the Countries, he changed all that Lucullus had before esta∣blished. He also released the penalties that were imposed upon them, and took from them, all the favours that Lucullus had granted them.
Lucullus finding himself so hardly dealt with, Friends on both sides mediated a meeting betwixt them, that they might talk together, and accordingly they met in Galatia, having their Sergeants, and Officers with Rods wreathed about with Lawrell carried before them, which shewed that Pompey came to take Lucullus's ho∣nour from him. Indeed Lucullus had been Consul be∣fore Pompey, and was the older man, yet Pompey exceed∣ed him in Dignity, having Triumphed twice. At their first meeting they discoursed very courteously, each commending the others deeds, and each rejoicing at the others good successe: but at parting they fell to hot words; Pompey upbrading Lucullus's covetousnesse, and Lucul∣lus Pompey's ambition, so that their Friends had much ado to part them.
Lucullus when he was gone, divided the Lands in Ga∣latia which he had conquered,* and bestowed other gifts upon them. Pompey on the other side, Camping hard by him, commanded the People every where not to obey him: He took his Souldiers also from him, leaving him only sixteen hundred, choosing out such Page 25 as he thought would do him small service. He ble∣mished his Glory also, telling every one that Lucullus had fought only with the shadow and pomp of those two Kings, and that he had left him to fight with all their force, and power. Lucullus on the other side said, that Pompey went only to fight with such as himself had sub∣dued, and that he sought the honour of Triumph over Armenia, and Pontus, as he had formerly practiced to Triumph for overcoming a few Slaves and fugi∣tives.
Lucullus being now gone, Pompey sent strong Garri∣sons into all the Sea coast from Phoenicia to the Bosphorus, and then marched towards Methridates, who had in his Camp thirty thousand Footmen▪ and two thousand Horsemen, yet durst he not fight, but encamped upon an high Mountain till he was forced to leave it for lack of Water.* He was no sooner gone but Pompey seized upon the place, and setting his Souldiers to dig, he found Water enough for all his Army. Then he en∣camped round about Methridates besieging him in his owne Camp: Methridates endured it foutty five dayes, and then slaying all the sick and impotent in his Camp, with the choise of his Army he escaped by night.
Another time Pompey found him by the River Eu∣phrates, and lodged hard by him: Methridates prepared, suspecting that Pompey would that night storm his Camp; but Pompey thought it not sa•e to fight in the dark, and therefore resolved rather to encompasse him that he might not fly, and to fight him in the morning: but Pompey's old Captains would needs fight presently, which Pompey at last consented to, and the Romanes r•n upon them with great cries, which so affrighted their enemies, that they presently turned their backs and fled, so that the Romans slew ten thousand of them, and took their Camp. Methridates himself with eight hundred Horse∣men, made a lane through the Romans and so escaped: Yet as soon as they were passed, his men dispersed, some Page 26 one way, some an other; that himself was le•t but with three Persons only, whereof Hyp•icr•te•, a manlike woman was one, who never left him, but alwayes looked to his Horse, being armed after the Persian manner, till he came to a strong Castle called Inora, where was store of Gold, and Silver, and the Kings chiefest Treasure. Here Methridates divided all his richest Apparell a∣mongst his Friends, and to each of them a mortall poi∣son to carry about them, whereby they might prevent falling into their enemies hands alive.
Pompey built a City in the place where he gained this Victory betwixt the Rivers of Euphrates, and Araxes, situate in Armenia the Lesse,* which he called Nicopolis. This City he gave by the consent of his Souldiers, to such of them as were old, lame, sick, wounded, or dis∣banded: to whom many of the Neighbours afterwards repairing, the Nicopolitans lived after the manner of the Cappad•cians.
From hence Methridates had intended to have gone in∣to Armenia, but King Tigranes prohibited it, and promised an hundred Tallents to him that could kill him:* Passing therefore by the head of Euphrates, he fled through the Country of C•lchide: In the mean time Pom∣pey invaded Armenia, being sollicited thereto by Ti∣granes the younger, who rebelled against his Father, and met Pompey at the River of Araxes, which falleth into the Caspian Sea. Then did Pompey and he march for∣ward, taking in such Towns as yeilded unto them. Ti∣granes, who had been much weakned by Lucullus, un∣derstanding that Pompey was of a mild and gentle nature, he put his Souldiers into Garrisons, and himself with his Friends, and Kinsmen went to meet Pompey. When he came neer his Camp, being on Horsebak, there came two Sergeants to him commanding him to alight, which he did accordingly, and put off his sword and gave it them, and when he came before Pompey he shamfully fell upon the ground,* and imbraced his knees; but Pompey took him by the hand, raised him up, and made him sit Page 27 down by him on the one side, and his Son on the other, saying to them both, As for your former losses you may thank Lucullus for them, who hath taken from you Syria, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Galatia, and Sophena, but for what you have left till my comming, you shall enjoy it, paying to the Romans six thousand Tallents, for the wrong you have done them: Provided also that your Son shall have Sophena for his part.
Tigranes accepted of the Conditions, whereupon the Romans saluted him King, and he gave great summes of money amongst the Army: But his Son was much dis∣contented, and when Pompey sent for him to come to Suppe with him, he refused, wherefore Pompey impri∣soned him, and kept him to be led in his Triumph at Rome.
Shortly after Phraates, King of Parthia, sent Ambassa∣dors to desire this young Prince who was his Son in Law, and to tell Pompey that Euphrates must be the ut∣termost bounds of his Conquest. Pompey answered, that Tygranes had more right to his Son than Phraates, & as for limiting his borders, he would do it with justice. So leaving Afranius to keep Armenia, he passed by other Nations that inhabited about the Mountaine of Caucasus, having Methridates in chase. Two of the chiefest of these Nations were the Iberians, and the Albani•ns, neere to the Caspian Sea. These, upon his request, suffered him to Passe through their Countries. But Winter hasting on apace, these Barberous People raised an Army of fourty thousand fighting men, and passed over the River of Cyrnus. Pompey could have hindered their passage, but yet let them come over, and then fought with them,* and overcame them, and slew multitudes of them in the Field, whereupon they submitted, and made peace with him.
Then Pompey went against the Iberians, who took part with Methridates.* They were more and better Soul∣diers than the Albanians: they were never subject to the Medes, and Persians, nor to Alexander the Great. Page 28 These Pompey overcame also in a bloudy fight, and slew nine thousand of them, and took ten th••sand Prison∣ers. From thence he went into the Country of C•lchide, where Servilius met him by the River of Phasis, with his Fleet with which he kept the Pontick Sea: He found it a hard work to pursue Methridates any further, who had hid himself amongst a People that bordred upon the Lake of Maeot•s. He heard also that the Albanians had rebelled, wherefore he went back to be revenged on them, passing over the River of Cyrnus again, yet with much difficulty, because the Barbarous People had made a defence on the further side, by felling, and laying many Trees across all along the Banck of the Ri∣ver: and when he was got over, he was to travel through a dry Country a great way before he came to any Water, whereupon he caused ten thousand Goats skins to be fil∣led with water, and so marched over it. At the River Abas he met with his enemies, who had now an Army of one hundred and twenty thousand Foot men, and ten thousand Horsemen, but Armed only in Beasts skins. Their Generall was Cosis, the Kings Brother. In the Battel this Cosis flew upon Pompey, and throwing a Dart at him, wounded him in the flanck; but Pompey ran him through with a L•nce, and slew him. Some say that some Amazons assisted this People against Pompey.*
After this Battel Pompey going back to invade the Country of Hyrcania, as far as the Caspian Sea, was forced to retreat by reason of an infinite number of dead∣ly Serpents that he met withall,* wherefore he went back into Armenia the les•e, to which place he had many rich presents sent him from the Kings of the Elymians, and the Medes, to whom he returned courteous answers. Yet he sent Afranius with part of his Army, against the King of Parthia, who had much harrased and plundred the Country of Tygranes, and he drave him out.
At this time the Concubines of Methridates were brought to him,* but he would not touch any one of them, Page 29 but sent them all home again to their Parents, and Friends, being most of them the Daughters of Princes, and other Noble Captains, Only Stratonice whom Methridates loved above all the rest, with whom he had left the custody of his Castle where lay all his Treasures of Gold and Silver, was but a Singers Daughter. She deliver∣ed the Castle into Pompey's hands, and besides,* offered him rich and goodly presents, all which he refused, save∣ing such as might serve to adorne the Temples of the Gods, and that might beautifie his Triumph, leaving the rest to Stratonice to dispose of as she pleased. The King also of the Iberians sent him a Bedstead, Table, and Chaire, all of pure Gold, praying him to accept it as a token of his love, he delivered them into the Treasurers hands to be accountable for them to the State.
From hence Pompey went to the City of Amisus, where he did such things as he had before condemned in Lucul∣lus, taking upon him to establish Laws, to give gifts, and to distribute such honours, as Victorius Generals used to doe when they had ended all their Wars. And this he did to gratifie twelve Barbarous Kings, and Princes, and Captains that came to him thither. Writing also to the King of Parthia, he gave him not that Title which others used to do, who stiled him King of Kings. He had also a wonderfull desire to winne Syria,* and to passe through Arabia even to the Red Sea, that he might enlarge his Victories every way, even to the Great Oce∣an. As he did when he conquered Lybia, and in Spain had enlarged the Roman Empire to the Atlantick Sea; and in pursuit of the Albanians he went almost to the Hyrcani•n Sea.
As he passed on towards the Red Sea, he commanded his Souldiers, with a sufficient number of Ships to to wait for the Marchants that sailed to Bosphorus, and to seize upon the Victuals, and other M•rchandize that they carried thither: and so passing on with the greatest part of his Army, he came to the place where he found Page 30 the Bodies of the Romans that were slaine by Methrida•es under their Captain Trierius,* which he caused to be honourably bu•ied, which thing Lucullus had neglected to do, which made his Souldiers hate him.
Pompey having now by Afranius conquered the Alba∣nians dwelling about Mount Amanus, he marched into Syria, and conquered it, making it a Roman Province: He conquered also all Judaea,* where he took King Aristo∣bulus: He built certaine Cities there, and delivered others from bondage, sharply punishing the Tyrants in them. He also spent much of his time there, in deciding con∣troversies, and in pacefying the contentions w•ich fell out betwixt free Cities, Princes, and Kings. And tru∣ly if Pompey's •ame, and renowne was great, so was his Vertue, Justice, and Liberality, which covered many faults which his familier Friends about him did com∣mit. For he was of such a gentle nature, that he could neither keep them from offending, nor punish them when they had offended.
Whilst Pompey was in Judaea, being angry with Ari∣stobulus,* he marched against him, Hyrcanus (the Bro∣ther of Aristobulus, who contended with him for the Kingdom) provoking him thereunto. Pompey under∣standing that Aristobulus was fled into Alexandrion, a strong and stately •astle, seated upon a high Hill, he sent and summoned him to come unto him, and Aristo∣bu•us being advised not to make War against the Romans, he came to Pompey: and after he had debated his Title to the Kingdom, with his Brother Hyrcanus, by Pom∣pey's permission he retired into the Castle again This he d•d two or three times, alwayes flattering Pompey out of hope to prevail in hi• suit. Yet Pompey required that he should deliver up his Castles into his hands▪ which he was •aine to do, though he was much discontent•d at it, and therefore he went to Jerusalem with a purpose to pre∣pare for War.
Pompey not thinking it fit to give him any time for preparation, followed him immediately, and first en∣camped Page 31 at Jericho, where were most excellent Dates,* and Balsome, the most precious of all other Ointments, and from thence he marched towards Jerusalem. Aristo∣bulus repenting what he had done, came and met him, promising him money, and that he would yeild up, both himself and the City in a peacable way. Pom∣pey pardoned him, and sent Gabinius with a party of Souldiers to receive the money: Yet were they faigne to return without it: for Aristobulus's Souldiers would not stand to what he had promised. Pompey being much provoked hereby commited Aristobulus into custody,* and presently marched against Jerusalem.
The Citizens being at this time divided amongst them∣selves, they that stood for Hyrcanus were willing to open the Gates to Pompey: But the faction of Aristobulus refused, and prepared for War, because Pompey kept their King Prisoner: and accordingly they seized upon the Tem∣ple, and cut down the Bridge which led into the City. Hyrcanus and his Friends, let in the Army, and deliver∣ed over to them, both the City, and the Kings Pallace, the custody of both which, Pompey committed to Pis•, who fortified the Houses and buildings that were neere the Temple, first offering to the Besieged conditions of of Peace, and when they refused, he prepared to give a Generall assault, being assisted by Hyrcanus with all things needfull.
On the North side of the City Pompey encamped, which was the easiest to be assaulted: yet were there high Towers, and a deep ditch made with hands,* besides a deep valley which begirt the Temple, and towards the City, the place was very steep when the Bridge was taken away. To overcome these difficulties, the Romans rais∣ed Mounts, cuting downe Trees round about, and fil∣ling up the Trench with materials which the Souldiers brought. This work proved very difficult, consider∣ing the vast depth of the Trench, and the resistance of the Jewes, made from above. But when Pompey obser∣ved that the Jewes rested every seventh Day (for though Page 32 they would defend themselves from an assailing enemy, yet they held it unlawfull on that day to hinder any work that the enemy did) he chose those Dayes espe∣cially wherein to carry on his work: So that in time the Trench was filled, and the Tower fitted upon the Moun•, and the Engins planted which shot huge stones wherewith they battered the Temple, yet was it long before those strong and stately Towers yeilded to the as∣saults of the besiegers.
The Romans being much tired, Pompey wondred at the obstinacy of the Jewes, especially considering that all this while they never intermitted their daily Sacrifices, which the Priests every morning and evening •ffered upon the Altar, not omitting the same in their greatest extremities. In the third moneth of the Siege, the greatest Tower, being shaken by the battering Rams, at last fell, and brake down a great peice of the Wall, at which breach many of the Romans rushed into the Temple. These running up and down, while some of the Jewes sought to hide themselves▪ and others made small resistance,* slew them all. Many of the Priests, though they saw the enemies rushing in with their drawn Swords, yet being nothing at all dismaied, continued their Sacrifices and were slaine at the very Altar, prefering the duty which they owed to their Re∣ligion before their own lives.
All places were full of slaughters▪ some of the Jewes were slaine by the Romans, others by their owne Coun∣trymen that were of the contrary faction. Many threw themselves down headlong from the Rocks: others setting their Houses on fire,* burnt themselves, not en∣during to behold those things that were done by the ene∣my. Here •ell twelve Thousand of the Jew••, where∣as of the Romans there were but few slaine, though ma∣ny wounded. Amongst the Captives that were taken, was Absol•n, the Uncle and Father in Law of Aristobulus, the Son of John Hyrcanus.
Upon the same day and in the same moneth was the Page 33 Temple taken by Pompey, as it had been taken by Ne∣buchadnezzar five hundred and fourty three years before:* and it fell out also to be on their Sabbath, about the twenty eight day of our December. Pompey, entered in∣to the Temple, and many others with him, and there beheld those things which were not lawfull to be seen by any, but the High Priests only. And whereas there were in the Temple, the Table and Candlesticks with the Lamps, all vessels for Sacrifice, and the Censers all of pure Gold, and a huge heape of Spices, and in the Treasuries of sacred money above two thousand Ta∣lents, yet Pompey medled not with any of these, but the next day he commanded them which had the charge of the Temple, to purifie, and cleanse it, and to offer their solemn Sacrifizes unto God.
Pompey then restored the High Priesthood to Hyrca∣nus, both because he had shewed himself so forward all the time of the Siege,* as also for that he hindred the Jewes that were in all the Country, from joyning with Aristo∣bulus: and together with the Priesthood he gave him the Principality also, only forbiding him to wear a Crown. Then did he put to death those that were the chiefest cause of the War, and made the Jewes Tributa∣ries to the Romans, and the Cities which they had for∣merly conquered in Caelosyria, he took from them, com∣manding them to obey their own Governours: and the whole Nation of the Jewes, formerly advanced through prosperity, he contracted within their ancient bounds.
The King of the Arabians that dwelt at the Castle of Petra, that never before made any account of the Ro∣mans, was now greatly afraid, and wrote to Pompey that he was at his devotion to doe what he commanded. Pompey to try him, brought his Army before his Castle of Petra, and lodged them for that day, and fell to riding▪ and mannaging his Horse up and down the Camp: 〈◊〉 the meane time Posts came riding from the Realme of Pontus with Letters of good newes, as appeared by their Page 34 Javlins wreathed about with Lawrel: the Souldiers seeing that, flocked about the place to hear the newes, bur Pompey would make an end of his riding before he would read the Letters, whereupon many cryed to him to a light, which he did: But then he wanted a high place to stand upon, and the Souldiers were so impatient to hear the newes that they would not stay to make one, they heaped saddles one upon an other, and Pompey get∣ing up upon them, told them, that Methridates was dead, having killed himself because his Son Pharnaces rebelled against him,* and had wan all which his Fa∣ther possessed, writing to him that he kept if for him∣self and the Romans. Upon this newes all the Camp re∣joyced wonderfully, and Sacrifized to the Gods with great mirth.
Pompey finding this troublesome War to be so easily ended, presently left Arabia, and by speedy marches he came to the City of Amisus. There he met with great Presents which were sent him from Pharnaces, and ma∣ny dead Bodies of the Kings kindred, and the Body of Methridates himself, who was known by certaine scars in his face.*Pompey would by no meanes see him, but to avoid envy he sent him away to the City of Sinope. He much wondred at his rich Apparrell, and Weapons: The Scabbard of his Sword cost four hundred Talents: His Hatt also was of wonderous workmanship. Pompey having here ordered all things according to his mind, he went homewards with great pomp, and Glory. Coming to Mytylene, he eased the City of all Taxes for Theophanes his sake, and was present at certaine Playes, the subjects whereof were the great acts of Pompey He so liked the Theater where these Playes were made, that he drew a moddle of it to make a statlier than it in Rome. As he passed by the City of Rhodes, he heard the Rhetoricians dispute,* and gave each of them a Talent. The like he did at Athens unto the Philoso∣phers there, and towards the beautifying of the City he gave them fifty Talents.
Page 35At his return into Italy he expected to have been re∣ceived very honourably, and longed to see his Wife,* and Children, thinking also that they longed as much to see him: But God so ordered it, that in his own House he met with occasion of sorrow: For his Wife Mu∣tia in his absence had played the Harlot. Yet whilst he was a far off, he made no account of the reports which were made to him of her: But when he drew neere to to Italy, he was more attentive to them,* whereupon he sent her word he would own he no more for his Wife. There were also rumors spread abroad in Rome which much troubled him; it being given out that he would bring his Army strait to Rome, and make himself abso∣lute Lord of the Empire. Crassus hereupon, to give more credit to the report, and to procure the greater en∣vy against Pompey, conveied himself, Family, and Goods out of Rome.
But when Pompey came to Italy, calling his Souldiers together,* he made an Oration to them as the time and occasion required, and then commanded them to dis∣band, and every one to returne to his own home, and to follow his businesse till the time of his Triumph. As he passed, such was the love of the People to him,* that multituds of them accompanied him to Rome whether he would or no, and that with a greater power than he brought with him into Italy, so that if he had been dis∣posed to have made Innovation, he needed not the as∣sistance of his Army therein.
At this time there was a Law that no man should en∣ter into Rome before his Triumph, wherefore Pompey sent to the Senate, requesting them to defer the choise of Con∣suls for a few dayes, that he might further Piso, who sued for the Consulship that year: But through Catoes meanes they denyed his request. Pompey marvelling to hear of his boldnesse and free speech, was very desirous to make him his Friend. So Cato having two Neeces, he desired to marry one himself, and to have the other for his Son;* but Cato flatly denied him, though his Wife, and Sister Page 36 were angry that he refused to make alliance with Pompey the Great.
After this, Pompey being desirous to prefer Afranius to be Consul, he caused money to be given to the Tribes of the People which being reported abroad, made every man speak evil of him, as having put the Consulship to sale for money, whereas himself had Purchased it by his Noble and valiant deeds.
The time for his Triumph being come, the stateli∣nesse, and magnificence was such, that though he had two dayes to shew it,* yet lacked he time to produce all. For there were many things prepared for the shew which were not seen, and would have set forth another Tri∣umph. First the Tables were carried wherein were written the names of the Nations for which he Tri∣umphed: as the Kingdomes of Pontus, Armenia, Cap∣padocia, Paphlagmia, Medi•, Colchis, Iberia, Albania, Syria, Cilicia, and Mesapotomia: As also the People that dwell in Phoenicia, Palestina, Judaea, and Arabia: And all the Pyrates that he had overcome by Sea, and Land. In all these Countries he had taken a thousand Castles, and neer nine hundred Townes, and Cities. Of Pyrates Ships eight hundred. Moreover he had replenished with Inhabitants thirty nine desolate Towns. These Tables also declared, that the Revenue of Rome, before these his Conquests, arose but to five thousand Myriads, but now he had improved them to eight thousand, and five hundred Myriads. Besides, he now brought into the Treasury to the value of twenty thousand Talents in Silver, Gold, Plate, and Jewels, besides what had been distributed already amongst the Souldier•, of which he that had least, had fifteen hundred Drachma's for his share.
The Prisoners that were led in this Triumph, were the Son of Tygranes, King of Armenia, with his Wife, and Daughter: The Wife of King Tygranes himself, cal∣led Zozime: Aristobulus King of Judaea. The Sister of M•thridates, with her five Sons: And some Ladies Page 37 of Scythia. The Hostages of the Iberians and Albanians, as also the Kings of the Commagenians: Besides a great number of Marks of Triumph which himself and his Leiutenants had won in severall Battels. But the greatest honour that ever he wan, and which no other of the Consuls ever attained to, was, that his three Triumphs were of the three Parts of the World, to wit, his first of A•rick: His second of Europe: And his third of Asia; and all this before he was fourty years old. But from this time forward Pompey began to decline, till (with his Life) he had lost all his Honour.
Lucullus at his returne out of Asia, was well received by the Senate, and much more after Pompey was come to Rome. For the Senate encouraged him to deal in affairs of State, being of himself slow, and much given to his ease and pleasure, because of his great Riches. So when Pompey was come, he began to speak against him, and through Catoes assistance, gat all things con∣firmed which he had done in Asia, and which had been undone by Pompey. Pompey, having such an afront put upon him by the Senate, had recourse to the Tribunes of the People, the viles• of whom was Clodius, who clo∣sed with him, and had Pompey ever at his el•ow▪ ready to second what motion soever he had to make to the People: He also desired Pompey to forsake Cicero, his ancient Friend, but Clodius his utter enemy. By this meanes Cicero was brought into danger, and when he required Pompey's assistance,* he shut the doore against him, and went out at a back-doore; whereupon Cicero was forced to forsake Rome▪
At this time Julius Caesar returning from his Prae∣torship out of Spain,* laid such a plot a• quickly brought himself into favou•, but tended to the ruine of Pom∣pey. He was now to sue for his first Consulship, and considering the enmity between Pompey and Crassus, he considered that if he joyne• with one, he made the o∣ther his enemy, he therefore mad• them Fr•ends, which indeed undid the Commonwealth. For by this means Page 38Caesar was chosen Consul, who strait fell to flattering of the People,* and made Lawes for their advantage, di∣stributing to them Lands, which embased the Majesty of the cheife Majestrate, and made a Consulship no bet∣ter then the Tribunship of the People. Bibulus, his fel∣low Consul, opposed him what he could, and Cato also, till Caesar brought Pompey into the Pulpit for Orations, where he asked him whether he consented to the Decree which he had set forth? Pompey answered That he did: and that he would defend it with the Sword. This gat him much ill will.
Not many dayes after, Pompey married Julia the Daughter of Caesar,* formerly betrothed to Servilius Cae∣pio: and to pacifie Caepio, Pompey gave him his own Daughter in marriage, whom yet he had promised to Faustus, the Son of Sylla. Caesar also married Calphur∣nia, the Daughter of Piso. Afterwards Pompey filling Rome with Souldiers, carried all by force. For as Bibulus came to the Market place accompanied with Cato and Lu∣cullus, they were basely abused, and many were wound∣ed, and when they were driven away, they passed the Act for dividing of the Lands as they pleased. The Peo∣ple being encouraged hereby, never stuck at any matter that Pompey and Caesar would have done. And by this means all Pompey's former Acts were confirmed, though Lucullus opposed what he could. Caesar also was ap∣pointed to the Government of both Gauls with four whole Legions.
Then were chosen Consuls, Piso, Father in Law to Caesar, and Gabinius, Pompey's great flatterer. Pompey now so doted on his young Wife,* that he suffered himself wholly to be ruled by her, and leaving all publick af∣fairs, he went with her to Country Houses, and places of pleasure, which encouraged Clodius, a Tribune of the People to despise him, and to enter into seditious at∣tempts. For when he had driven Cicero out of Rom•, and sent away C•to to make War in Cyprus, and Caesar was occupied in Gaul, finding that the People were at his Page 39 beck, because he flattered them, he then attempted to 〈◊〉 things that Pompey had established. Amongst others he took young Tigranes out of Prison, and car∣ried him up and down with him, and continually picked quarrels against Pompey's Friends. Pompey comming abroad one day to hear how a matter of his was handled, this •lodiu• having gotten a company of desperate Ruffians about him▪ gat up into a high place, and asked aloud, Who is the most licentious Captain in all the City? They answered, Pompey.* And Who (said he) is he that scratcheth his head with one finger? They again an∣swered, Pompey, claping their hands with great scorne. This went to Pompey's heart, who never used to be thus abused, and he was yet more vexed, when he saw th•t the Senate was well pleased with this his disgrace, because he had forsaken, and betrayed Cicero. Upon this a great uprore was made in the Market place, and many were hurt, whereupon Pompey would come no more abroad whilst Clodius was Tribune, but advised with his Friends how he might ingratiare himself with the Senate: they advised him to put away his Wife Julia, to renounce Caesars Friendship, and to stick a∣gain to the Senate. Some of these things he disliked, yet was content to call home Cicero, who was Clodius his mortall enemy, and in great favour with the Se∣nate▪
Hereupon Pompey brought Cicero's Brother into the Market place to move the matter to the People, with ma∣ny men about him, and they fell to blowes,* so that ma∣ny were slaine, yet he overcome Clodius, and Cicero was called home by the Decree of the People, who also brought Pompey into favour with the Senate, and caused a Law to be made whereby to enable Pompey to bring Corn to Rome: and thus by Cecero's meanes Pompey had once again power given him both by Sea and Land over all the Roman Teritories. For all the Havens, Marts, and Fairs, and all Storehouses, and Marchandizes, yea, and Tillage came into his hand.
Page 40For this Clodius acused him, saying, that the Senate▪ had made this Law, not because of a dea••h of Victuals, but that they made a dearth that so the Law might passe for restoring Pompey's power, which was almost come to nothing. Pompey having now full Authority •o cause Corn to be brought to Rome,* he sent his Friends, and Lieu•enants abroad, and himself went into 〈◊〉; and when he was ready to returne again, there arose such a storme, that the Mariners feared to weigh their An∣chors;* but he commanded them to doe it, saying, Its necessary that the People should have Corn, but its not necessa∣ry that I should live. Thus by his prudence and courage he filled all the Markets with Corn, and the Seas with Ships, and so great plenty of Provision was brought in, as fully furnished, not only Rome, but all Italy.
About this time Caesars great conquests in Gaul wan him much credit. But whilst they thought him to be War∣ring afar off,* he appeared in the middest of the People at Rome, and much apposed Pompey in the weightiest matters of the Commonwealth. For he had the power of an Army which he hardened with paines, and con∣tinuall exercise, not only to fight against the Barbarous People, but to make himself invincible, and dread∣full to the world. Moreover, by that infinite quantity of Gold, and Silver, and other Treasures that he gat from the enemy, he purchased many Friends to himself, sending great Presents to Rome, to the Aediles, Praetors, Consuls, and their Wives; therefore when he was come back over the Alps,* and Wintered in the City of Luca, multitudes of the People, yea, two hundred of the Se∣nate themselves, amongst whom were Crassus, and Pompey, went out of Rome unto him. All these Caesar returned back again, some with store of money, others with good Words: But with Pompey and Crassus he agreed, that they two should sue to be Consuls, and that him∣self would send them good store of voices upon the day of Election: and that if they were chosen they should get a Decree of the People, that they should have some new Page 41 Provinces, and Armies assigned to them, and with all, that they should procure his Government to continue for five years longer. This Plot being discovered, and spread abroad, gave great distast to honest men, and many who had intended to sue for the Consulship, gave it over. Only Lucius Domitius, being encouraged by Cato, stood for it. For (••id he) Thou doest not contend for the Consulship, but to defend the liberty of thy Country against two Tyrants. Pompey fearing Catoes faction, thought it not safe to let Domitius come into the Market place: He sent therefore armed men against him, who slew the Torch bearer that came before him, and made all the rest to fly, amongst whom Cato was the last man that re∣tired, who, whilst he defended Dimitius, was wounded in the elbow.
Thus Pompey and Crassus came to be Consuls, wherein they carried themselves very dishonestly. For the Peo∣ple being about to choose Cato, Praetor,*Pompey perceiving of it, brake up the Assembly, falsly alleadging that he had certain ill signes, and afterwards, corrupting the the Tribes with money, they chose Antias, and Vatini∣as, Praetors, and then by Trebonius, a Tribune of the Peo∣ple, they published an Edict that Caesar should hold his Government five years longer:* Unto Crassus they ap∣pointed the Province of Syria, and to make War against the Parthians. Unto Pompey they allotted Africk and both the Spaines, with four whole Legions, of the which, at Caesars request, he sent him two, to assist him in his Wars in Gaul.
Crassus, at the going out of his Consulship, departed into Syria, and Pompey remained in Rome to dedicate the Thea∣ter which he had built,* where he caused many goodly Playes to be made, and caused Wild Beasts to be baited, & hunted, amongst which, five hundred Lions were killed: but the most terrible fight of all, was amongst his Ele∣phants. This he did to gratifie the People, though to his very great cost, and he procured much love to himself thereby. But he gat more envy from others by commiting Page 42 the Government of his provinces, and Legions, unto his Leiutenants, whilst himself with his wife took their pleasure up and down Italy.
At an Election of the Aediles, on a sudden there was a great hurlyburly, Swords were drawn and many were slaine about Pompey, so that he was faigne to send home his Garments that were •prinkled with their bloud, and to fetch others. His young Wife that was great with child, seeing his clothes bloudy, was so frighted that she fell into a swound, that they had much ado to recover her. At an other time, being with child a∣gain, she fell in labour, and dyed in childbirth: and as Pompey was carrying her into the Country to bury her neer unto the City of Alba at his Country House,* the People took her corpse, and carrying it into the Field of Mars, buried it their: and this they did more for Caesar, than for Pompey's sake.
This alliance between Pompey and Caesar being thus broken,* which rather covered than bridled their ambiti∣on to Rule, there arose a new stirre in Rome, and every mans mouth was full of seditious words: About which time •ew•s came that Crassus was overcome and slaine in Parthia, who was the only barre to hinder these two from Civil War: for they both feared him, and there∣fore kept themselves quiet. Yet they thought the Empire of Rome was too little for them. Pompey think∣ing that Caesar would not disband his Army, sought to strengthen himself against him by procuring Offices in the City: and when he could not procure them, the People being bribed by Caesar, he left the City without a Magistrate, so that there were none to Command, or whom the People might obey. Hereupon a rumour was spread that a Dictator must be chosen, and that Pom∣pey must be the man: This Cato opposed with all his power: But when Pompey's Friends excused him, saying, that he neither sought, nor would accept of it, then Cato highly commended him, and pray'd him to see good or∣der kept in the Commonwealth, which accordingly he undertook▪
Page 43Then were Domitius and Massala chosen Consuls, but after awhile one of them died, whereupon many were earnestly bent to have a Dictator, and Cato fearing great disorders, was willing that Pompey should have some Office to keep him from that which was more Tyrani∣call. Bibulus a cheif man in the Senate, and Pompey's enemy, was the first man that moved that Pompey might be chosen Consul alone: For (said he) by this meanes the Commonwealth shall be rid of present▪ trouble, or it shall be in bondage to an honest man. It was ex∣pected that Cato would have opposed this motion; but rising up, he told them, that he would not first have made this motion, but seeing it was propounded by an other, he thought it meet, and reasonable to be fol∣lowed. For (said he) Its better to have an Officer to com∣mand, whatsoever he be, than to have none at all, and that there was none so fit to command▪ in so troublesome a time as Pompey.
All the Senate consented hereto, and ordained that Pompey only should be Consul, and that if he saw it need∣full to have the assistance of an other,* he •ight •ame whom he saw good, yet not till two months wer• past, Pompey being thus made Consul alone, he carried it ve∣ry friendly unto Cato, and thanked him for the honour he had done him, intreating his assistance in the executi∣on of his Office. Cato replyed that he had no reason to thank him; for what he had done, he had not done it for his sake, but out of his respect to the publick good: and that if he asked his counsel in any thing, he would give it him privately, if not, that he would openly speak that which he thought best.
Pompey then married Cornelia,* the Daughter of Me∣tellus Scipio▪ the la•e Wife of young Publius Crassus, slaine with his Father in Parthia. This Lady was of ex∣cellent beauty, and gifts, well learned, skilfull in Musick, Geometry, and Philosophy▪ she was modest, and so∣ber, free from brawling, or follish curiosity. Her Father was Noble both by Birth, and deportment. Page 44 Yet many disliked Pompey's marrying so 〈…〉 and giving himself to Feasting and 〈…〉 he should have looked to his Consulship in so troubl•some a time.
Pompey proceeded sharply against those that by Bribe∣ry, and indirect meanes came to their Offices. He made Lawes,* and Ordinances for the administration of justice, and himself dealt uprightly in all things, and took order that Judgement should be administered with silence, safety, and gravity. But when his Father in Law was accused, he sent for three hundred and sixty Judges home to his House, praying them to help him, which the accuser of Scipio understanding, let fall his suit. Plancus also being accused, Pompey (contrary to the Law) spake in his commendation; where∣upon Cato,* who was one of the Judges, stopped his ears, saying, that he would not hear an offender praised, being contrary to the Law: Plancus was con∣demned by all the Judges to the great shame of Pompey. Yet otherwise he set all things in good order, and chose his Father Scipio for his fellow Consul for the five last moneths. Then he caused the Government of his Provinces to be assigned to him for four years more, with commission to take out of the Treasury a Thousand Talents yearly, for ro defray the charges of his Wars.
Caesars Friends seeing this, moved that some conside∣ration might be had of him also, who made great Wars for the Commonwealth, and by his good service had deserved either to be chosen Consul again, or else that they should prolong his charge, and Government, that no other successor might reap the fruit of his labours; Much stir arose about this matter: But Pompey said, that he had received Letters from Caesar, by which he re∣quested a successour, and to be discharged of this War: adding, that he thought it fit they should grant him the priviledge to demand the second Consulship though he was absent. This Cato stoutly withstood, saying, Page 45 that leaving his Army he must returne home as a pri∣vat•〈…〉 and in his own Person crave recompence of his Country. Pompey replying nothing hereto, made many think he bore no great good will to Caesar; the ra∣ther because he had sent to him for the two Legions which he had lent him under colour of his War against the Parthians. Though Caesar smelt his design,* yet he sent his Souldiers, and rewarded them libe∣rally.
About this time Pompey fell dangerously sick at Na∣ples, whereof he yet recovered again,* and the Neapolitans sacrifized to the Gods, for his recovery; the like also did their Neighbours round about, and it ran so gene∣rally through Italy,* that there was no City or Town wherein they did not make open Feasting, and rejoyced for many dayes together. The infinite number of peo∣ple also which went to meet him out of all places was such, that there was not roome enough for them all, but the highwayes, Cities, Townes, and Ports were full of People, Feasting and sacrifizing to the Gods for his recovery. Diverse also went to meet him that were Crowned with Garlands, casting Nosegays, and Flowers upon him. Yet some thought that this was the cause of the Civil Wars that ensued. For hereupon he grew so proud to see himself thus honoured,* that forgetting his former Government, he began to dispise Caesar, thinking that he could easily overcome him when he pleased. Besides, Appius that brought him his two Le∣gions from Caesar out of Gaul, reproached much his do∣ings there, and gave out many foul words against Caesar. For he said that Pompey knew not his own strength, who might overcome Caesar with his own Legions, for that when they saw Pompey, they would forsake Caesar and turne to him.
These flattering speeches made Pompey so secure, that he laughed them to scorne who were afraid of War; and such as said that if Caesar came to Rome, they knew not how his power could be resisted, he smilingly bad Page 46 them take no thought, for if he did but 〈…〉 ground, he could fill Italy with Armies 〈…〉 and Foot out of all places.* In the 〈…〉 in∣creased his Army, and drew neer to Italy,〈…〉 some of his Souldiers daily to Rome to be present at the e∣lection of Magistrates, and many of those that were in Office he wan with money: amongst whom was Paul••▪ one of the Consuls, whom he drew to his side by giving him fifteen hundred Talents. The like he did to Curio▪ a Tribune of the People by paying his vast debts, and he gained thereby Mark Anthony, who was engaged for a great part of Curio's debt. A Captain alse sent from C•∣sar, being at the Senate door, and understanding that they would not prolong Caesars Government as he de∣sired, claping his hand on his Sword, he said, Well! this shall give it him.*
Curio tequested in the behalfe of Caesar, that they would either cause Pompey to disband his Army, or else licence Caesar to have his Army as well as he. For (said he) being private men they will either agree between them∣selves, or both being of like strength, neither will seek any alteration for fear of the other. But Marcellus the Con∣sul, opposed this hotly, calling Caesar Thiefe, and say∣ing that he would proclaime him an open enemy to Rome if he did not disperse his Army. Yet Curio, Anthony, and Piso procured that the Senate should decide the mat∣ter, saying, All they that would have Caesar disband his Army, and Pompey to keep his, let them go to the one side of the House, and such as would have them both to disband, let them stand on the other: by this meanes it was carried a∣gainst Pompey. Curio much rejoyced at the Victory, and going into the Market place, he was there re∣ceived by his faction with shouts of joy, and clap∣ping of hands, and nosegays of Flowers thrown upon him.
Pompey was not present to see the good will of the Se∣nators to him; but Marcellus stood up and said, that he he would not stand trifling, and hearing Orations, when Page 47 he knew that ten Legions were already passed over the Alps, intending to come in Armes against them, and that he would send a man that should defend their Coun∣try well enough. And so going through the Market place unto Pompey, being followed by all the Senators, he said openly: Pompey, I commnad thee to help thy Coun∣try with that Army thou hast already,*and also to leavy more to aid thee. Lentulus also used the same speech to him, who was chosen for the year follow∣ing.
When Pompey went to leavy Souldiers in Rome, some would not obey him, and others went very unwilling∣ly, the most part of them crying out Peace, Peace. Anthony also, against the Senators minds, read a Let∣ter to the People sent from Caesar,* wherein he seemed to make reasonable requests to draw the affections of the Common People to him. For he moved that both Pompey and he should resigne their Governments, and dismisse their Armies, referring themselves wholly to the Judgments of the People, and to deliver up unto them an account of their doings. Cicero, who was late∣ly returned from Cilicia, endeavoured to bring them to an agreement, propounding that Caesar that should leave the Government of Gaul, and his Army, reserving only two Legions, and the Government of Illyria, attending his second Consulship.
Pompey liked not this motion, and so all treaty of Peace was cut off. In the mean time newes came to Rome that Caesar had won Ariminum, a large and strong City in Italy,* and that he came directly to Rome with a great power: But the truth was he came but with three thousand Horse, and five thousand Foot and would not stay for the rest of hi• Army that was not yet come over the Alps, but hasted rather to surprise his enemies on the sudden, who were all in a hurlyburly, not expect∣ing him so soon, than to stay till they were fully ready to fight with him. When he came to the River of Ru∣bicon (which was the utmost bound of the Province which Page 48 he had the charge of in Italy) he made an Alt, pon∣dring with himself the great enterprize he took in hand: At last he cryed out to them that were by, Jacta est alea, let the Die be cast.* Or let us put all to the hazard, and so passed on with his Army.
Newes hereof comming to Rome, never was there such a consternation and fear seen amongst them. For all the Senate ran immediatly to Pompey, together with all the rest of the City Magistrates, and Tullus asked him, what power he had in readinesse to resist Caesar? He answered (but something faulteringly) that he had his two Legions that came from Caesar, and with those that he had levied in hast, he thought he should make up thirty thousand fighting men. Then Tullus cryed out, Ah! thou hast mocked us Pompey; and thereupon ordered Ambassadors to be sent to Caesar.*Phaonius also, a bold man, said, Stamp now with thy foot upon the ground, Pompey, and make those Armies come which thou hast promised. Pom∣pey patiently bore this mock. Then Cato thought good that they should make Pompey Leiutenant Generall of Rome, with full and absolute Power to command all, saying, They that knew how to doe the greatest mischief, know best how to remedy the same. And so immediate∣ly he departed to his Government in Sicily. Also all the other Senators went to the Provinces whereunto they were appointed.
Thus all Italy being in Armes, no man knew what was best to be done: For such as were out of Rome came flying thither out of all parts, and such as were in Rome, fled out as fast, where all things were in disorder. They which were willing to obey were very few,* and they who by disobedience did hurt, were too many, neither •would they suffer Pompey to order things as he would, because every one followed his own fancy, yea, in one day they were in diverse minds. All this while Pompey could hear no certainty of his enemies, the re∣ports being so various; and when he saw the tumult, and confussion so great at Rome that there was no pos∣sibility Page 49 of pacifying it,* he comanded all the Senators to follow him, declaring all such as staid behind to be Caesars Friends. The two Consuls fled also without Sa∣crifizing to the Gods, as their manner was when they went to make War: And Pompey in his greatest danger and trouble had great cause to think himself happy, be∣cause he had every mans good will▪
Shortly after Pompey was gone out of the City, Caesar came into it,* who spake very friendly to all whom he found there, labouring to quiet their fears: Only he threatned Metellus, one of the Tribunes, because he would not suffer him to take any of the Treasure of the Commonwealth, saying, That it was not so hard a thing for him to kill him as to speak it. Thus having put by Metel∣lus, and taken what he pleased out of the Treasury, he prepared to follow Pompey, intending to drive him out of Italy before his Army should come to him, out of Spain.
Pompey in the meane time took Brundusium, and having gotten some Ships together, he caused the two Consuls presently to embark,* with thirty Companies of Footmen, which he sent before to Dyrrachium. He sent also his Father in Law Scipio, and his Son Cneius Pompeyus into Syria to provide him Ships. Then did he fortify Brundusium, and guarded the Walls with Soul∣diers, commanding the Citizens not to stir out of their Houses. He cast up Trenches also within the City at the end of all the streets, saving those two which led to the Haven, and filled those Trenches with sharp-pointed stakes, and when at leasure he had imbarked all the rest of his Souldiers, he by a signe, cal∣led off those which guarded the Walls, and hav∣ing received them into his Ships,* he hoisted Sailes and departed.
Caesar finding the Walls of Brundusium unguarded, pre∣sently suspected that Pompey was fled, and rushing in∣to the City, he had certainly falne into the pits,* but that the Brundusians gave him warning of them, whereupon Page 50 he fetched a compasse about to go to the Haven, and com∣ing thither, he found all the Ships under saile save two, wherein were a few Souldiers. Some judged this de∣parture of Pompeys the best Stratagem of War that ever he used: But Caesar marvelled that being in so strong a City, and expecting his Army out of Spain, and be∣ing Master of the Seas besides, he would so easily for∣sake Italy. Thus Caesar within threescore dayes became Lord of all Italy without bloudshed. He was very de∣sirous speedily to have followed Pompey, but having no Ships ready, he was forced to stay. Then did he hasten into Spain to joyn Pompey's Army with his own.
Pompey in the mean space had gotten a marvellous great power together both by Sea,* and Land. By Sea he had five hundred good Ships of War, besides multi∣tudes of Galliots, Foists, and Pinnaces. By Land he had all the flower of the Horsemen of Rome, and of all Italy to the number of seven thousand, Valiant men, and of great Houses: But his Footmen were raw and untrained Soul∣diers, whom Pompey continually exercised at the City of Beraea, taking as much paines therein as if he had been in his youth. It was great encouragement to others to see Pompey, being fifty eight years old, fighting on foot compleatly Armed,* and then speedily to mount on Horseback, and in his full Career to draw, and put up his Sword, to cast his Dart with as much agility and strength, and point blank, that few young men could do the like.
To Pompey there came diverse Kings, Princes, and Lords of great Countries: and of Roman Captains, who had born Office, to the number of a whole Senate. Amongst these,* there came also Labienus, who formerly had been Caesars great Friend, and an assistant to him in his Wars in Gaul. There came also to him Brutus, a very Valiant man, who had never before spoken unto Pompey, because he thought him guilty of his Fathers Murther, but now he willingly joyned with him as a defender of Page 51 the Roman Liberties. Cicero himself also, who had written, and given counsel for Peace, thought it a shame not to be amongst the number of those who would hazard their lives in the defence of their Country. There came also Didius Sextus, though he was an old man, and lame of one of his legs, whom when Pompey saw comming (though others laughed him to scorn, yet) he rose up and went to meet him, judging it a signe of much love when such old men chose rather to ac∣company him in danger, than to remaine at home in safety.
The chief of Pompey's Army, sitting in Counsel, de∣creed that no Citizen of Rome should be put to death, but such as •ell in Battel: That no City subject to the Em∣pire of Rome should be sackt, which made Pompey's part liked the better: And most judged those, enemies both to the Gods, and men, that did not wish him the Victo∣ry. Caesar also shewed himself very courteous,* and mercifull; for having taken all Pompey's Army in Spain, he set all the Captaines at liberty, and only reserved the Souldiers to himself: Then comming over the Alps a∣gain, he passed through all Italy, and came to Brun∣dusium in the Winter time, and from thence, passing o∣ver the Sea he came to the City of Oricum: and having Vibius, one of Pompey's familiar Friends: with him, whom he had taken Prisoner, he sent him to Pompey again to desire that they might meet, and both of them disband their Armies within three dayes, and being reconciled, and having given their Faith each to other, to returne into Italy like good Friends together. But Pompey durst not trust to these fair words, judging them but snares to entrap him. He therefore suddenly removed to the Sea coast, and took all the places of strength neer to the Sea side, safe∣ly to lodge his Camp in, and all the Ports, Harbours, and Creeks, fit for Ships to lie in, so that whatsoever Wind blew, it served his turne to bring him either men, Victuals, or money.
Caesar, on the other hand was so distressed both by Sea Page 52 and Land,* that he was driven to hasten to a Battell, and to assail Pompey even in his own strength, to force him to fight with him, and for the most part he alwayes had the better in most skirmishes, saving one, wherein he was in danger to have lost all his Army. For Pompey had valiantly repulsed all his men,* and made them fly, and had slaine two thousand of them in the field, but he durst not enter pell mell with them into their Camp when they fled: which made Caesar say to his Friends, That his enemy had won the Victory that day if •e had known how to overcome. This Victory did so encourage Pompeys men, that they would needs hazard a Battel. But Pompey, though he wrote to many of his Friends and Confederates as if he had already beaten Caesar, yet was he not willing to adventure all upon a Battell, thinking it better, by protracting time and cutting his enemy short of Victuals, to overcome him.
For this end Pompey preswaded his men to be quiet, and not to stirre: But when Caesar, after this last bicker∣ing, being scanted of Victuals, raised his Camp, and departed to go into Thessaly, through the Country of the Atham•neans, then he could no longer bridle their cou∣rage, who cried out, Caesar is fled, let us follow him: And others said, let us returne home into Italy. And some sent their Friends,* and servants to Rome to hire them Houses neere the Market place, intending at their return, to sue for Offices. Some in a jollity would needs saile to Lesbos, where Pompey had left his Wife Cornelia, to carry her the good newes that the War was ended.
Pompey calling a Councell, Affricanus thought it best to go into Italy, and to win that, as being the chiefest mark they shot at in this War: For whosoever had that, was sure of all Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Spain, and Gaul: He said also, that it was a dishonour to Pompey (who should be very tender of his credit) to suffer their Country to be in such bondage, and subjection to slaves, and base flatterers of a Tyrant when as it offered it self as Page 53 it were, into their hands. But Pompey thought it dis∣honourable for him to fly from Caesar, and to make him follow him, since he now had him in chase, nor lawfull before the Gods now to forsake his Father in Law Scipio, and many others, who had been Consuls, and who were dispersed up and down Greece, and Thessaly, who by this meanes would certainly fall into Caesars hands, together with their Riches, and Armies. He said also, that they had care enough for the City of Rome by drawing their Armies farthest from it, so as they remaining safe and quiet at home, not feeling the miseries of War, might joyfully welcome him home that remained Conque∣rour.
With this determination he followed Caesar, not in∣tending to give him Battel, but to besiege him and so to cut him short of Victuals: But whilst he pursued him faire and softly, his men cryed out of him, that he in∣tended not to War against Caesar, but against his own Country, that he might still keep the authority in his hand. Phaonius also mocked him, and went crying up and downe, My Masters, I give you notice that you are like to eat no Tusculan Figs this year. With these and many others such lewde speeches,* they compelled Pom∣pey to submit to their rash and giddy desires, contrary to his more Prudent purpose, and determination, which yet a Generall over so many Nations, and Armies, should not have done. These little considered that he with whom he was to fight, was Caesar, who had taken a thousand Townes, and Cities by assault, had subdued above three hundred severall Nations,* had won infinite Battels of the Germans and Gauls, and was never over∣come: Had also taken a Million of men Prisoners, and had slaine as many in diverse Battels. Yet Pompeys men still vexing him with their importunity, when they were come into the Fields of Pharsalia, caused him to call a Counsel. There Labienus the Generall of the Horsemen, swore before them all, that he would not rerurne from the Battell till he had driven his enemies Page 54 out of the Field: and the like Oath did all the rest of the Commanders take.
The night before the fatall Battel there were heard sudden and fearfull noises in Pompeys Camp, which a∣waked all the Souldiers. At the changing of the fourth Watch,* there was seen a great light over Caesars Camp, like unto a burning Torch which came and fell in Pom∣peys Camp. In the morning Caesar intending to raise his Camp, and to remove to the City of 〈◊〉, whilst his Souldiers were busy in sending away their Bag, and Baggage, some brought Caesar word that they saw much Armour, and many weapons carryed too and fro in their Enemies Camp, and heard a great noise and bustling, as of men that were preparing to fight. His Scouts also brought him word that Pompeys Van was al∣ready set in Battel array. Caesar much rejoyced when he heard this, saying, Now the day is come that we shall no longer fight with hunger, and want, but with men, and thereupon gave order that they should presently put out the red coat of Armes upon his Tent, which was the signe used amongst the Romans when they were to fight. The Souldiers when they saw that, left their Tents, Carriages and all, and with great Shouts of joy, ran to arme them∣selves, and so without noise or tumult they were by their Captaines put into Battel array.
Pompey himself led the right wing of his Battel against Anthony. The middle Battel he gave to Scipio his Father in Law which was right against Domitius Calvinus:* His left Wing was led by Lucius Domitius Aenobarbus, which was guarded by the men at Armes; for all the Horsemen were placed there, to distresse Caesar if possibly they could, and to overthrow the tenth Legion, which con∣tained the valiantest Souldiers that Caesar had; and a∣mongst whom himself alwayes used to fight in Person. Caesar seeing the left Wing of his enemies so strong with the guard of Horsemen, brought six Companys of Foot for a reserve, and placed them behind the tenth Legion, commanding them to stand close, that they might not Page 55 be discovered by the enemy: and commanded them when the Horsemen should charge upon them, that they should not throw their darts strait forward but up∣ward at their faces: For (said he) These brave Fel∣lows and fine Dancers, will not endure to have their faces marred.
Pompey being an Horseback rode up and down to ob∣serve how both Armies were marshalled, and perceiving that his enemies stood still in their ranks, expecting the signall of Battel, and that his own Battel waved up and down disorderly, as men unskillfull in the Wars, he feared that they would fly before they were charg∣ed. Therefore he commanded his Van to stand sleadi∣ly in their ranks, and to defend themselves in a close fight when they enemy should assault them. But Caesar disliked this devise: for thereby (said he) the force of their blowes was lessened, and by with-holding them from giving the charge, that courage was taken away which the assailant carrieth with him when he comes on with fury, it made them also more faintheart∣ed in receiving the enemies charge. In Caesars Army there were about twenty two thousand fighting men, and in Pompeys above twice so many.
When the signal of Battel was given on either side, and the Trumpets sounded an Alarme, every man be∣gan to look to himself: But a few of the chiefest of the Romans, and some Grecians that were amongst them, that yet were not entred into the Battell, perceiving the imminent danger, began to bethink themselves to what a sad passe the ambition, and contention between these two great Persons had brought the State of Rome un∣to, where were kinsmen against kinsmen, and Brethren against Brethren imbrewing their hands each in o∣thers bloud. Whereas, if they could have been contented quietly to Govern what they had conquered, the Romane Empire was big enough for them both. Or if that could not have quenched their insatiable desires and thirst after Glory, they had occasion enough offered them Page 56 against the Germans, and Parthians: Or else they might have proceeded to Conquer Scythia, and India,. For what Scythian Horsemen, or Parthian Arrows, or In∣dian Riches, could have withstood the power of seventy thousand Roman Souldiers, especially being led by two such Captaines as were Pompey and Caesar, whose Names were famous through the World.
Now when the Fields of Pharsalia, were covered 〈◊〉 with Horse and men in Armes, after the Signall was given, the first man of Caesars Army that advanced forward to give the charge, was Caius Crassinius, a Captain of one hundred twenty and five men: and this he did to make good his promise to Caesar, who having asked him that morning what he thought of the event of the Battel? he said, Oh Caesar! Thine is the Victory, and this day thou shalt commend me either alive or dead. There∣upon he brake out of his rank (many others also fol∣lowing him) and ran into the midst of his enemies,* making a g•eat slaughter; but as he still pressed for∣ward, one ran him through the neck and slew him.
Pompey did not make his left wing to advance over suddenly, but staid to see what his Horsemen would do, who had already divided themselves, intending to compasse in Caesar, and to force his Horsemen (who were fewer in number) to give back upon his squadron of Foot men, and thereby to disorder them. But on the other side, Caesars Horsemen gave back a little, and the six Companies of Footmen that he had placed secret∣ly behind them (being three thousand in number) ran suddenly to charge the enemy in the flank and com∣ming neer to Pompeys Horsemen, they threw their Darts (as Caesar had appointed them) full in their faces. The young Gentlemen, being raw Souldiers, and little ex∣pecting such a manner of fight, had not the hearts to de∣fend themselves, nor could abide to be hurt in their fa∣ces, but turning their heads, and clapping their hands on their faces, they fled shamfully. They being thus Page 57 routed, Caesars men made no account to follow them▪ but went presently and charged his Infantry, and espe∣cally where they had no guard of Horsemen, by which meanes they might be the easiler compassed about. Thus they being charged by these in the Flank and in the Van also by the tenth Legion, finding themselves (contrary to their expectation) compassed about by their enemies, whereas they thought to have environed them, they could no longer make resistance, but were put to the rout also.
When Pompey saw the dust flying up in the aire, and thereby conjectured the flight o• his Horsemen,* he was like a man amazed, and at 〈◊〉 end, forgeting that he was Pompey the Great,〈…〉 retiring into his Camp, he sat silent for a good 〈…〉•uch time as his ene∣mies entered 〈…〉 together with his men that fled: and th•n he 〈◊〉 no more, but, What! Into our Camp? And so rising up, he pu• on a gown fit for his sad condition and secretly stole ou• of the Camp: His other Legions also fled, and Caesars men made a huge slaughter of the Tent keepers, and of their servants that guarded the Camp: there were slaine about six thousand. But at the taking of the Camp Caesars Souldiers plainly saw the madnesse and folly of Pompey's men: For their Pa∣villions and Tents were full of Nosegayes, and Gar∣lands of Mirtle, and their •ouches covered with Flow∣ers, their Tables full of Bowls of Wine, as men pre∣pared to sacrifize for joy, rather than to arme themselves to fight
When Pomp•y was gone a lit•le way from his Camp,* he forsook his Horse, having very few with him, and per∣ceiving that none pursued him▪ he walked fair and softly on foot, having his head full of thoughts. For he, for thirty four years together used alwayes to be Victorious, and therefore now it was stran•e to him to fly:* He now saw how in one hours space, he had lost all that Glory and Riches▪ which he had purchased by so many great Victo∣ries. He, that not long before was followed and obeyed by Page 58 so many thousand men of War, by so many Nations, and Horsemen; by such a great Fleet upon the Sea, was now falne into a low and poor estate, with so small a traine, that his very enemies, who sought him knew him not.
When he had thus passed the City of Larissa, he came into the Valley of Tempe, where being a thirst he fell down on his belly, and drank of the River, then rising up, he went, and came to the Sea side, and lay all night in a Fishers Cottage. The next morning by break a day he went into a li•tle Boat upon the River, having some freemen with him, and as for his slaves he dismissed them, and bad them go boldly unto Caesar, and not to be afraid. Thus rowing up and down the shore side in this little Boat, he espied a great Ship in the Sea lying at Anchor, which was ready to saile away: The Master of the Ship was one Peticius, a Roman, who, though he was not acquinted with Pompey, yet he knew him well by sight. Some of the Marriners told Peti•ius that they saw a little Boat comming towards them, wherein were some men that held up their hands, and made signes to them: Peticius looking, knew Pompey, and commanded his Marriners to let down the Boat, where∣with giving Pompey his hand, he received him into the Ship, and those that were with him, and then hoised Sail. With Pompey their were both the Lentuli, and Faomius. Presently after they espied King Dejotarus comming in a Boat towards them, and making signes to be taken in, which accordingly they did. At Supper time▪ the Master made ready such meat as he had a∣board. And Faonius seeing Pompey for want of attendants, washing himself, he ran to him, and annointed him, and ever a•ter waited upon him, doing such Offices as ser∣vants do to their masters,* washing his feet, a•d preparing his food for him.
Pompey then passing by the City of Amphipolis, sailed to the Isle of L•sbos to fetch his Wife Cornelia, and his Son, who were at Mitilene, and having there cast An∣chor Page 59 in the Rode,* he sent a servant into the City to his Wife, whose Message did not answer her expectation. For she had still been put in hope by Letters, of her Husbands good successe, and that the War was well ended: The messenger finding her thus confident, thought not fit to salute her, but rather by his tears discovered the great misfortune of Pompey; and at last told her, that she must dispatch quickly if she would see her Husband, with one Ship onely, and that not his own, but borrowed: The young Lady hearing this, fell down in a sown'd before him, but after she was come to her self, remembring that it was now no time to weep and lament, she went speedily through the City to the Sea side. There Pompey meeting her, took her in his Armes and em∣braced her: But she sinking under him, fell down, and at last said: Out alas?*Wo worth my hard For∣tune, not thine, good Husband, who now see thee with one poor Ship, who before thou marriedst me the Vnfortu∣nate Cornelia, was wont to saile in these Seas attended with five hundred. Alas! Why art thou come to see mee, and didst not rathar leave me to my accursed destiny, see∣ing my self am the cause of all this thy evil? Alas! How happy had I been if I had died before I heard of the death of my first Husband Publius Cras•us, slaine in the Parthian War? And how wise had I been, if (according to my determination) I then had slaine my self, whereas I yet live to bring this misfortune upon Pompey the Great? To this Pompey answered: Peradventure (my Cornelia) thou hast known a better fortune which hath also deceived thee, because shee hath continued longer with me than her manner is. But since we are borne men, we must pa∣tiently beare these troubles, and once more try what she will doe. For it is not impossible for us again to change this adver∣sity f•r prosperity, no more than it was to fall from our late pro∣sperity into this Calamity.
When Cornelia heard him say so, she sent into the City for her houshould stuff; and Famely: The Me∣tyleniansPage 60 also came to salute Pompey, praying him to come and refresh himself in their City: But Pompey refused, and advised them to obey the Con∣querour; for (said he) Caesar is of a just, and Cur∣teous nature. Then Pompey turning to Cratippus the Philosopher,* who came, amongst the Citizens to vi∣sit him, made his complaint to him, and reasoned a little with him about Divine Providence. Then taking his Wife and Friends he hoised saile and departed, staying no where but to take in fresh provision and water.
The first City that he touched at, was Atallia in the Country of Pamphylia. Thither came to him some Gallies out of Cilicia, and many of his Friends and Souldiers, insomuch as he had now sixty Se∣nators in his Company. Then understanding that his Army by Sea was yet whole, and that Cato had gathered together a great number of his Soul∣diers after the overthrow, whom he had transpor∣ted with him into Africk, he complained to his Friends for that they had compelled him to fight by Land, and not suffered him to make use of his Fleet, wherein he was the stronger, and that he kept not his Army neere to the Sea, that in case he mis∣carried at Land, he might presently have repaired to his Fleet at Sea, and thereby have resisted his e∣nemy.
Thus Pompey being driven to atempt somewhat ac∣cording to his small ability, to some Cities he sent Am∣bassadors, to others he went himself to gather money, wherewith he armed and manned some Ships. But fear∣ing the sudden approach of his enemie, before he could be in readiness to resist him, he bethought himself to what place he might retire for his better safety, and re∣solved that there was never a Province of the Romans that was able to secure him, and for other strange Nati∣ons, he thought none safer for him to retire into than Parthia, which was able to aid and help him. Some Page 61 advised him to go into Africk unto King Juba. But Theophanes the Lesbian said, that it was great •olly to de∣cline Egypt that was but three days sail from thence, and where Ptolemey was, who was lately come to mans estate, and was infinitely bound to Pompey for the late favours which he shewed to his Father, and not put himself into the hands of the Parthians, the most unfaithfull Na∣tion in the world. He thought it also an ill part for him to carry his young Wife of the Noble Family of Scipio. amongst such barbarous People, who care not how base∣ly they abuse any strangers.* This Speech altered Pompey's mind, and made him resolve to flie into Egypt: and so with his wife Cornelia, he departed from Cyprus in a Gal∣ley of Seleucia. The rest of his Train, imbarked also, some in Galleys, others in Merchants Ships, and so pas∣sed the Sea without danger.
When Pompey heard that King Ptol•my was in the City of Pelusium with his Army, warring against his Sister,* he steared that way, and sent a messenger before to the King, to certifie him of his arrivall; and to entreat him to give him entertainment: King Ptolomey was at this time but a young man, and under him, the whole Realm was governed by one Photinus. He therefore assembled a Councell of the chiefest,* and wisest of his Court, and when they were met, Photinus in the Kings name commanded every man to declare his Judgment about the reception of Pompey whether they should inter∣tain him or not; and truly it was a sad thing that Photi∣nus an Eunuch, and Theodotus of Chio, who was the Kings Schoolmaster for Rhetorick▪ and Achillas an Egyptian, should consult amongst themselves what they should do with Pompey the Great.
All this while Pompey rode at Anchour near to the shore, expecting the resolution of this Councell, a∣mongst whom their opinions were various, some were for, others against his reception; But Theodotus the Rhetorician, to shew his eloquence, perswaded them that neither the one, nor the other was to be done. For Page 62 (said he) if we receive him, we shall make Cesar our 〈◊〉▪ and Pompey our Lord:*If we receive him no•, Pompey will blame us, and Cesar also for not keeping him▪ Our safest way therefore is to kill him: for thereby we shall win the good will of the one, and not fear the displeasure of the other▪ Ad∣ding that Mortui non mordent, A dead man bites not. This they all resolved upon, and accordingly gave A∣chillas Commission to do it.
This being concluded, Achillas took with him Septi∣mius (who had sometimes served under Pompey) and Salvius a Centurion, and two or three other Souldiers, and so made towards Pompey's Galley, about whom there were at this time the chiefest of his Traine to see what would be the issue of this matter. But when they saw what intertainment he was like to have, and that they came not in that Princely manner, an∣swerable to the hopes that Theophanes had put them in, seeing so few men comming towards him in a Fisher∣boat, they began to mistrust the sequell, and advised Pompey to turne back, and to launch again into the sea, whilst he was yet out of the reach of their Darts. In the meane time the Fisher boat drew near, and Sep•inius rose up and saluted Pompey in the Roman Tongue by the name of Im∣perator, or Emperour. Achillas also spake to him in Greek, wishing him to come into his Boat, the shore being full of mudde, and sand banks, so that his Galley could no carry him to the shore.
At this time they saw afarre off diverse of the Kings Gallies which were arming with all speed pos∣sible, and all the shore was full of Souldiers, so that though Pompey and his Friends would have altered their minds, yet they could not tell how to escape, and if they had discovered their mistrust of them, they had given the mutherers a cloak for their cruel∣ty.*Pompey therefore taking his leave of his Wife Cornelia, who lamented his Death before his end, he commanded two of his Centurions to go down before Page 63 him into the Boat, and took with him onely Phi∣lip, one of his Slaves enfranchised, with another Slave called Scynes. When Achilles reaching out his hand to receive Pompey into his boat, he turn∣ed him to his Wife, and Son, and repeated these verses of Sophcoles:
These were the last words which he spake to them. The Land being far off, when he saw never a man in the boat speak friendly to him, he said unto Septimius, Me thinks, my Friend, I should know thee, for thou hast served under me heretofore: the other nod∣ded with his head, but gave him no answer. Pompey observing these things, took a little Book into his hand, wherein he had written an Oration that he ment to make to King Ptolomy, and began to read it. As they approached to the shore, Cornelia, with her Friends about her, stood up in great fear, to see what would become of Pompey, and she hoped well when she saw many of the Kings People on the shore, com∣ming towards Pompey, as it were to receive, and ho∣nour him at his landing. But even as Pompey took Phi∣lip by the hand to rise more easily, Septimius came behind him, and thrust him through with his Sword: Salvius, and Achillas also made at him with their Swords. Pompey did no more but took up his gown, with which he covered his face, and took the wounds in a manly manner, only sighing a little.* Thus ended he his Life the very next day after his Birth, being fifty nine years old,
They which rode at Anchor in their Ships, when they saw him thus murthered, gave such a fearfull cry that it was heard to the shore: And weighing their An∣chors with speed, they hoised Sail and departed, hav∣ing a lusty gale of Wind to help them. The Aegyp∣tiansPage 64 had thought to pursue them, but when they, saw they were past their reach, they let them go. Then striking off Pompeys Head they threw his Body overboard, where it was a miserable spectacle to all that desired to behold it. Philip, his infranche∣sed Bondman, stirred not from it till the Aegyptians had glutted themselves with looking upon it. Then having washed it with Salt water, and wrapped it up in an old shirt of his own, he sought about the sands, and at last found a piece of an old Fisher-boat, scarse enough to burne all the Body: and as he was gather∣ing the pieces of this Boat together, there came to him an old Roman, who in his youth had served under Pom∣pey, saying, O Friend, what art thou that preparest the Funerals of Pompey the Great? Philip answered, that he was a Bondman of his infranchised. Well (said he) thou shalt not have all this honour alone, Pray thee let me accompany thee in this devout deed, that I may not altogether repent me that I have dwelt so long in a strange Country, where I have endured much misery; but to re∣compence me, let me have this good happe to touch Pom∣peys Body, and to help to bury this most famous Captain of the Romans.
The next day Lucius Lentulus, not knowing what had happened, comming out of Cyprus, sailed by the shore side, and perceiving a Funeral fire, and Philip standing by it, he asked him whose Funerall it was? But straight fetching a great sigh, alas (said he) per∣haps it is Pompeys the Great. Then he landed a little, and was presently slaine. This was the deplorable end of Pompey the Great.
Caesar not long after came into Aegypt, where there were great Wars, at which time Pompeys Head was presented to him, but he turned aside and would not see it, abhorring him that brought it as a de∣testable murtherer.* Then looking on his Signet Ring where on was engraven a Lion holding a Sword, he burst out a weeping. Achillas and Photinus he put to Page 65 death. King Potolomy bing over thrown in Battell by the River Nilus, vanished away and was never after heard of. Theodotus escaped Caesars hands, and won∣dred up and down Aegypt in great misery, dispised of every man. And afterwards Marcus Brutus (who slew Caesar) when he conquered Asia, met with this Theodotus by chance, and puting him to all the torments he could possibly devise, he at last slew him. The ashes of Pompeys Body were afterwards brought to his Wife Cornelia,* who buried them in a Town of hers near the City of Alba.