The rise, growth, and danger of Socinianisme together with a plaine discovery of a desperate designe of corrupting the Protestant religion, whereby it appeares that the religion which hath been so violently contended for (by the Archbishop of Canterbury and his adherents) is not the true pure Protestant religion, but an hotchpotch of Arminianisme, Socinianisme and popery : it is likewise made evident, that the atheists, Anabaptists, and sectaries so much complained of, have been raised or encouraged by the doctrines and practises of the Arminian, Socinian and popish party
Cheynell, Francis, 1608-1665.

CHAP. V. Shewes that the famous Atheists (Anabaptists and Sectaries) so much complained of, have been raised, or encouraged by the doctrines and practises of the Arminian, Socinian, and Popish party.

THere hath been a great complaint of late that men are turned Atheists, and surely not without cause, but let us sadly inquire into the reason. The Socinians doe deny Christ to be God to the glory of God the Father, as they use to say, and I beleeve God the Father hath taken it so unkindly at their hands, that he hath given them over to that cursed Atheisme which reignes in the heart of every man by na∣ture, Page  48 and is much strengthened by the profane wits of this latter age. I remember a story of reverend Amphilochius who had been an importunate suter to Theodosius the Em∣perour, that the Arians might not vent their blasphemies so freely against the Son of God, because he was as God, equall to his Father; but he could not obtaine his request; at last the good old man pitched upon this course, he comes to the palace of Theodosius the great, and salutes the Empe∣rour with all due acknowledgements and accustomed reve∣rence, but as for Arcadius the son of Theodosius, who was created Co-emperour with his Father, Amphilochius passed him by without any respect or reverence at all, & at last very familiarly stroakes the young Emperour upon the head, as if it had been some ordinary boy, and cryed, God save thee good child; At which the Emperour was extreamly enraged, and commanded them to turne Amphilochius out of doores: but this reverend man replyed, I beseech your Majesty to con∣sider that if you are so much incensed against them who doe not honour your Son as they honour your self, what wil God the Father think of them who deny equall honour to Iesus Christ his Son, who is equall to his Father in nature and power? The Emperour who was wavering before, was much confirmed in his faith, by this seasonable Admonition, and presently forbad the Arians to dispute any more against the Godhead of Christ. You may read the story at large in Sozo∣men's Ecclesiasticall History. Now can we imagine that God the Father should take it lesse unkindly at the hands of the Socinians and all who admire their acute blasphemies, that they deny Jesus Christ to be God? and what punishment is fitter for such blasphemers, then that, Rom. 1. Professing them∣selves wise, they should become fooles, and denying the Godhead of Christ, and the holy Ghost, they should be given over, not only to de∣ny the power of godlinesse, but to deny that there is any God at all, because they did not like to retaine the knowledge of God?

1. The Scriptures doe clearly shew that God the Father is no more God then Jesus Christ; But (say the Socinians) Jesus Christ is not God. Who sees not what conclusion will follow? ergo, if they said true, there would be no God at all.

Page  49 2. The Socinians doe not worship the same God with the Protestants; for we worship the Trinity in unity, that is, all the three Persons as one God, they say it is repugnant to com∣mon sense, to hold that the three Persons are one and the same God, and therefore they may when they please leave it to common sense to determine whether there be any God at all.

3. The Socinians proceed in a destructive way; now destroy all Religion, and Atheisme will be embraced in stead of Religion. Mr. Chillingworth hath cleared that point sufficiently, that Popery leads men to flat *Atheisme: and it is plaine and evident that if Papists must beleeve neither more or lesse then the Pope thinkes fit, the Pope may lead them all into Atheisme when he pleases. And how plea∣sing Atheisme hath been to some Popes, I need not stand to declare, the Papists themselves have spoke plaine enough. The Papists have ex∣tolled the Pope above all that is called God, and therefore the dullest Papist that can but see that the Pope is not God, will be ready to question whether there be any God at all. If the Pope have more Authority then God, then the conclusion will be easie: but according to the Romanists the Pope hath more Authority then God, for the Church is above the Scripture, the Pope above the Church, he is the head of it: Let Papists though our enemies, frame the conclusion, They who maintaine the Popes infallibility, and yet cannot but see how he takes upon him to correct Gods own Institutions, will conclude that it is possible for God to be deceived, and then I am sure he is no God: and whether the Pope be God, let the Papists judge.

What practises there have been by the Popish party for the promoting of the Socinian heresies, I could shew at large * if it were not too manifest to be proved. Faustus Socinus writ a most pestilent book de SS. Scriptura Authoritate, and this book he did privatly send about in writing to his friends; Do∣minicus Lopez a Jesuite it seemes was a great friend of his, Page  50 and the book comming to his hand he thought fit to publish it for the common good. I need say nothing of Petavius his notes in Epiphan. Haeres. 69. Cardinall Perron his reply to King James, lib. 3. his book of the Eucharist. lib. 2. cap. 7. Mr. Fi∣sher,* or Mr. Floyd. How easily the Racovian and Romane Antichrists would be reconciled, at least so far as to joyn a∣gainst the Calvinists, is evident to any understanding man. And Mr. Webberly in the Appendix or sixth Book of his Translation, shews that the two great Articles which offend the Romanists and Racovians are, 1. The totall exclusion of all kinde of good workes from justifying a man before God: and 2. The totall negation of mans Freewill in doing good. They are enemies to the grace of God, in justifying sinners freely by faith alone in Christ, and to the powerfull and ef∣ctuall grace of God in converting and sanctifying our souls.

This is the grand quarrell, the Socinians deny Christ to be God, that so they may deny that the bloud of Christ did fully satisfy for our sins: these errours strike directly at the Covenant of Grace, which is the foundation of all our com∣fort, and if once we undermine the foundation, and re∣ject the principles of Christianity, it is then an easie matter to be an Atheist: for if the Protestant religion be deserted, there is nothing in any other religion to keep a man back from being an Atheist; for Popery, to speak strictly, is Anti∣christianisme,* and I have said enough of Socinianisme; Iudaisme, and Turcisme, are too neer of kin to Socinianisme: let any man that doubts of this truth, read Doctour Calo∣vius his Decas Dissertationum, Vedelius de Deo Synagogae, and he may receive satisfaction without reading others. And for the Arminian Atheisme, I referre you to Vedelius his book, de Arcanis Arminian. Anabaptists are justly com∣plained of, but from whence did they suck their poyson (I mean the Anabaptists of the last edition, (the men so much complained of) but from the Arminians, Socinians and Pa∣pists? from the Arminians they received their doctrine about the Fall and Free-will of man; are they not pure Armini∣nians in that great point of Predestination? they oppose the Page  51 Reformed Churches in their doctrine about originall sin, the Socinians have taught them to deny that Infants are concei∣ved and born in sin, and this is the true reason why they deny Baptisme to infants, though I know they urge many * other reasons to colour the businesse: no man need to won∣der that Baptisme of Infants is neglected by all those who deny originall sinne, Pelagius of old, about the yeare 420. said that it was a vaine thing to imagine, that the sinnes of infants were washed away by Baptisme, because they have no sin at all, and therefore Heaven was set open to them. The Anabaptists in the conference at Franckendale, maintai∣ned that Infants were born without originall sinne, nay without the least spot of sinne, and therefore there was no need of their being washed in the Laver of Regeneration. The Socinians tell us that Originall sinne is a meere fable, a fancy. They that can goe no farther then English, may read a book of Free-will, Predestination, the first transgression; subscribed in the Epistle or Preface after this manner, Your brethren the Anabaptists falsly so called.

But I beleeve the reason why the Anabaptists are complained of at this time, is because they are disobedi∣ent to Magistrates; for it is commonly said that they have lately taken up Armes in rebellion against the King. I must confesse I have wondred often when I have heard of this dayly complaint, because I know that an Anabaptist doth not think it lawfull to be a Cutler, he thinks no sword ought to be made, because he conceives it unlawfull to use a sword. It is well known that the Anabaptists goe to Sea without a∣ny Ordnance in their ships, that they travaile without any sword by their side: But if there be any fighting Anabaptist in these days, I suppose the English Socinians have taught the English Anabaptists to deny those principles in practise, which they maintain in dispute. Who are so active in all Counsells of warre at Oxford, as men that are shrewdly suspected for Socinianisme? If they deny this truth, their letters which are dayly intercepted will testify to their faces that they are not true to their own principles. Yet I commend the Chaplaines for their Designe, they would fain seise upon mens goods Page  52 without force or violence, and therefore they tell the people that they ought not now under the Gospell to fight for the de∣fence of their goods; and if they could perswade the people to be Anabaptists in this point, then these Reverend Troopers and meek men of warre, might seise upon all the peoples goods, without force of Armes, and so be as true to their Racovian principles, as the Racovians themselves, they might robbe without weapons, a whole parish might be plundered by one Sermon as well as by two troopes, if the people were but throughly instructed in (or as we say, beaten to) this Conscientious slavery. All the spoile of a whole towne would lye no heavier upon the conscience of one of these Chaplaines, then a reare egge upon his stomack, for they are not ashamed to affirme that God hath not given his people any earthly goods or possessions under the Gospell, and therefore plundering is not robbing, they doe but take that from men which God never gave them Mr. Web∣berly in the third chapter of his Treatise, tells us that God hath not given his people any earthly possessions now under the new Testament, they must not regard earth but look after heaven; this is they say the Court-Divinity; but sure the Rationall Lords that have such vast possessions should not be much taken with these raptures; if they be, it were good for the Lords to turne Chaplaines or step into a Cloy∣ster, and let their own Chaplaines be Lords in their roome. How the Court-Chaplaines will maintain this Doctrine, and not be as Anti-Monarchicall as the very Anabaptists, I professe I know not, they might have done well to have excepted the Crown-lands; They were wont to preach at the Court, that the Subjects have nothing of their own, but by this doctrine they will leave the King no∣thing of his owne; sure they mean to have all to them∣selves. They must say that our King lives under the new Testament, they will grant him to be a Christian, and there∣fore he must not regard earthly possessions, &c. The King may perceive by this, what good friends he hath at Court. Nor doe they stick to question the Authority as well as the possessions or Revenues of Kings. The Anabaptists as Page  53 disobedient to a Parliament as to a King; any per∣son or Court which hath power to fine or impri∣son, * is by them denyed to be a godly per∣son or a Christian court. It was one of the Seditious lawes enacted by that lawlesse faction at Munster, Magistratibus ac Principibus nullus subjiciatur. The Socinians and Arminians think themselves as lawlesse. The *Arminians say that they can willingly beare with one that conceives it un∣lawfull for a Magistrate to punish any Delinquent with capitall punishment, though he doe not em∣brace this opinion out of tendernesse of conscience, but only because he hath been trained up in it from his youth. You see the Arminians give faire quar∣ter to the Papists and Socinians; if any man hath been nursed up in this opinion they will beare with him though his conscience be not tender. They excuse Socinus in the same Chapter, and say that many honest men were of this opinion before Socinus was born. The Arminians and Socinians make a King of clouts, and put a wooden or painted sword into his hand to affright children, for they say that he must not draw bloud, no not in a legall way, for capitall offences. The *Arminians foresaw this consequence, and are content to let it passe, they will not alter the confession of their faith to avoid this inconvenience. In the confession of our faith say they we use none but this generall expressi∣on, the power of the sword, and forbeare to mention any * capitall punishment, because say they we doe not require all that embrace our confession to maintain that Magistrates have power to inflict capitall punishments: whereby it ap∣pears that they doe plainly equivocate even in the con∣fession of their faith, or rather the declaration of their opini∣on. Non fidei nostrae confessionem, sed sententiae declarationem exhibemus, they use generall and slippery termes and teach all their Sectaries (the Socinians and Anabaptists need no teach∣ing) how to slip their necks out of so wide and loose a collar. Reverend Iunius shewes that the Arminians teach their Sec∣taries to blot the name of any Prince or Magistrate out of Page  54 the number of Christians and make him an Infidell, if he punish the greatest offenders with death in a legall way. Doe any Reformed Divines maintain this seditious tenent which will certainly ruine any State where it is generally received? Did Melanchthon, Bucer, Calvin, Beza, Bullinger, ever preach such doctrine? nay did they not constantly oppose the Anabaptists in this very point? Nay was not the faction of Anabaptists raised by the Devil and fomented by Rome, on purpose to hinder the Reformation begun by those worthy Reformers? read that great Counsellour Conradus Heresba∣chius his Epistle to Erasmus, and there you will see the De∣vill * raised them up in opposition to the Reformers. I know one of late preached valiantly against blessed Luther, and said that Luthers book de libertate Christiana gave the first occasion to the giddy Anabaptists to be so extra vagant; Lambertus Hortensius indeed hath a touch upon it, but he addes withall, that though Thomas Muntzer was well read in that book of Luther, yet being an illiterate man he did not well understand, or else did wrest that book to his pur∣pose; now if the book was not well understood, and worse interpreted, sure the Interpreter was in fault, for if he had no learning he might have had some ingenuity, or at least humility, and left the book to more learned Readers, or candid expositours. Thomas Muntzerus Saxo erat homo ut accepi illiteratus, sed ut apparebat, in hoc libello egregie exerci∣taus, & scripti interpres parum Candidus, We must di∣stinguish betweene the first tumults of Anabaptisticall men, and Deliberate Anabaptisme. The first tumults were raised above an hundred yeares since, by illiterate drea∣mers, such as Nicholas Storke, Thomas Muncer, Phifer Rin∣gus and the rest; yet Muncer at that time laid a faire foun∣dation * for Servetus, Socinus and the rest to build upon; for he denyed the satisfaction of Christ; and what Doctrine is Fundamentall if the satisfaction of Christ be not? the So∣cinians make it their grand designe to perswade men that Jesus Christ hath not truly and properly satisfied for our sinnes. The Heresy of the Anabaptists was not backed with any strength of Argument, nor methodically digested till Ser∣vetusPage  55 and Socinus set to work, I must then look upon Ser∣vetus and *Socinus as the maine pillars of Deliberate and Refined Anabaptisme. Luther must be excused, for he was not guilty at all, it was an occasion snatched and not given, snatched by Muncer, not given by Luther, when the Anabaptists ur∣ged Luthers authority; for Luther did utterly disavow any such sense, as they put upon his book, nay he abhorred their Designe and oppo∣sed their faction even at their very first rise. When Muncer was stepped aside to Melhusium, Luther wrote against him to the Senate and de∣sired them to beware of the woolf in a Sheeps. skin; this was very early, in the yeare 1524. and upon the Lords day as Bullinger assures me. In the yeare 1525. and the sixth of Novemb. the Ana∣baptists* were so confident of their own strength, that they challenged any Reformed Minister to dispute with them; but when they were ready to dispute, one of the Anabaptists cryed out, Sion Sion, rejoyce O Hierusalem, they were presently in such a tumult that they were forced to re∣move to another place; yet the Senate, Zuinglius and other learned men were so patient as to ar∣gue with them three dayes together, and when the Anabaptists saw themselves confuted by the evident demonstrations which Zuinglius pro∣duced out of the word of God, one of them had a designe beyond all the rest, he said Zuing∣lius was a learned man and could prove any thing, but saith he, O Zuinglius I adjure thee by the living God to speak thy conscience, and tell the truth. I will quoth Zuinglius, thou art a seditious clowne, since milder answers will not serve the turn, I speak plain and home. Upon the 15. day of November, 1525. the Senate made a decree a∣gainst the Anabaptists, and declared that Zuinglius had con∣vinced them, clearely confuted the Anabaptists, and there∣fore they would proceed severely against all Anabaptists.Page  56 Now about this time Servetus the great Grand-father of Faustus Socinus, as hath been shewen, began to perk up, for Servetus was put to death in the yeare 1553. because he had been a blasphemer for thirty yeares together; so it seemes he began to vent his blasphemies as soone as Thomas Muncer himselfe, about the yeare 1523. Theodorus*Strackius (being to set forth the History of the Anabap∣tists) slides on a sudden into a long story of Servetus that monster of Men, and enemy of God, nay (as he saith) of the whole true Godhead in the sacred Trinity; this Ser∣vetus that he might shew his good inclination towards the fanaticall sects of these times (saith Strackius) hath endeavoured to make the Baptisme of Infants not neg∣lected only, but abominated; I dare not mention his other blasphemies, at which I think the very Devills tremble. There are so many severall sects, both of Soci∣nians and Anabaptists, who have runne away with their mouths full of Anabaptisticall and Socinian blasphemies, that we must let them all passe for Sectaries of Servetus* and Socinus, though some of them are farre more dangerous then others. The Anabaptists maintaine some opinions which are as welcome to the Papists and Iesuited party in England, as other parts are to the Socinians; the Anabap∣tists did dreame at first of an unwritten Word, and a very subtile one too, such as the Pope and Jesuites dreame of, and such visions and Revelations as the Priests boast of. The Designe of the Anabaptists pleased the Papists well, because they endeavoured to root out Protestant Princes and Ministers, the Papists knew full well that no Church or State could stand without Magistrates and Ministers. There is one Iohannes Angelius who commends Servetus and saith he spake nothing but what David George and such like Saints have delivered; this Jesuited Politician you see hath praises to spare for Servetus, one of the most abominable horrible Anabaptists of all others, as reve∣rend Bullinger observes lib. 2. contra Anabaptistas. cap. 12. because there are 12. or 13. sects of Anabaptists in his account, and Servetus was one of the worst sort; but he saith Da∣vidPage  57George went farre beyond even Servetus him∣selfe. The truth is, these two were guilty of sub∣limed*Anabaptisme, deadly Socinianisme, though David George differed from Socius in a point or two. Now what good friends the Iesuites are to the Socinians hath been already shewen, what Patrons the Ar∣minians are of Anabaptisme the Professours of Ley∣den declare. This being premitted, let us sadly en∣quire whether our late writers doe encline to the Anabaptists and Socinians in the great point about the Authority of Princes and Magistrates; For I know it is commonly said that though the first Re∣formers did oppose the Anabaptists in this point, yet the men that seeme to be most zealous for a Reformation in these unhappy dayes, are arrant Anabaptists in this point.

We live in an angry time, and men will speake passionately when they are provoked, and vexed, I * will not therefore take upon me to justify the angry expressions of the most judicious writer, much lesse can I ever mention those bastard-Pam∣phlets without indignation, which spring from a Licentious and prostituted Presse. Let us single out some that have lately studied this weighty con∣troversy, and it may be it will appear that they who are said to write against the King have setled & established his lawfull Authority upon surer * grounds and better principles then those very men who pretend to write for the King. Every man is now accounted an Anabaptist if he doe not maintain Monarchy to be Iure Divino; heare then what Dr. Ferne saith. We confesse that neither Monarchy, nor Aristocracy, or any other forme is Iure Divino. Nay he saith that that Power or sufficiency of Authority to govern which is the ordinance of God, is to be found not only in Mo∣narchy, but in Aristocracy, Sect. 3. Moreover if we consider the qualification of this governing power, and the manner ofex∣ecuting it even according to Monarchicall government. Dr. Page  58Ferne grants that it is the Invention of man, and hath not so much as Gods Permissive approbation till that qualification or Forme is orderly agreed upon by Men; in the selfe same Sec. Be pleased now to hear Mr. Burroughes: However Prin∣ces may be exasperated against Puritanicall Preachers (sai M. Burroughes) yet they are as much beholding to them as to any people in their kingdomes for bringing people out of conscience to obey Authority; You see here * the people are pressed to obey the lawfull Authority * of the King out of Conscience by such as are coun∣ted Puritanicall Preachers. In the answer to the ob∣servations printed at Oxford by his Majesties com∣mand, I find that Monarchy is not much younger then man himselfe—that Regall Power sprang first from Paternall, a Regall power belonged to the Pater∣familias, pag. 3. as if he meant onely to conclude the subjection of the Kings children and family: the Patriarchs were Patres Patriae without a Metaphor, they begat their own Subjects. But how came di∣vers families to be subjected to one King or com∣mon Father? why, reason (saith he) did direct the peo∣ple to choose one common Father. p. 6. Monarchy then is grounded upon the peoples Reason, and yet quite * thorowout his book he talkes as if the people had no Reason, for he tells them that there may be reaso∣nable motives why a people should consent to slavery, as the Turkes and French peasants have done: he teaches them how to perish with a great deale of discretion, or else how to be safe by the benefit of slavery. p. 10, 11. The Observatour saith that Regall dignity was erected to pre∣serve the Commonalty; It was so, saith the Answerer, p. 8. and when Routs became Societies they placed an head over them to whom they paid the Tribute of Reverence for the benefit of Protection: What if the people be not, protected must they pay no tribute? God send his Majesty better Pro∣tectours then this Champion. Dr. Fern discourses just as wise∣ly when he propounds Davids rewarding of false Ziba as a pattern to our King, he would perswade the King to trust Pa∣pistsPage  59 as false as Ziba to seise upon the estates of his good Subjects; and bestow their estates upon arrant Ziba's, men that abuse his Majesty and seek their own ends, & when the innocency of the Subject and treachery of these Ziba's, Pa∣pists or Pickthankes is discovered, yet the King must not re∣verse his sentence pronounced in favour of the Papists though to the ruine of good Subjects and their posterity, all this Divinity is closely involved by this conscientious Doctour, in the 7. Section. How farre the Divines of this time differ from the doctrine of Papists is clearly shewen by Mr. *Burroughes, Mr. Bridge, and therefore it is strange the Papists should be counted the better Subjects. Mr. Burroughes doth acknowledge the Kings Supremacy, The King (saith he) is Supreme but not Absolute, because his Authority is limited both by the Law of God and of the Land. For we may and ought (saith Doctour Ferne) to deny obedience to such commands of the Prince as are unlawfull by the Law of God, yea by the established lawes of the Land; for in these we have his will and consent given upon goood advice, and to obey him against the lawes, were to obey him against himselfe, his suddain will against his deliberate will, Sect. 1. For in∣stance, it is the Kings deliberate wil that this Parliament shall not be dissolved, or any forces levyed without consent of both houses of Parliament, as appeares by two severall Acts made this Parliament. If then any take up armes either without consent of Parliament, or on purpose to dissolve this present Parliament, they doe certainly take up armes against the King himselfe, (as Dr. Ferne says) because against the deliberate will of the King. If any Commissions then should be issued out in the Kings name to any persons to encourage them to take up Armes without the consent of the Parliament, or a∣gainst the Parliament, such Commissions must be interpreted to proceed from the Kings suddaine will, which is not to be obeyed, saith Dr. Ferne, against the Kings Deliberate Will. They are not the Kings friends who advise him to send forth any Illegallcommands.

Page  60 There is another answer to Dr. Ferne intitled a * fuller answer, in which there is much Law and Lo∣gick (viz that in a Mixt Monarchy there is a Co∣ordinate Supremacy, and Coordinata invicem supplent) and a great many things which the common people understand not. This Respondent saith (as Dr. Fern doth) that Monarchy is not Gods ordinance, but then he tells the people their duty in plaine English, namely, that it is Gods ordinance that men should submit without Resistance, to that kind of govern∣ment which they have by consent established, and therefore they must submit to this Coordinate Su∣premacy, though it be the Ordinance of man for the Lords sake, as Saint Peter saith. pag. 17. Here is Sub∣mission out of Conscience for the Lords sake, to all Legall Supremacy; what can be desired more, un∣lesse they would make the King an Absolute Mo∣narch? (and so give him an absolute Supremacy) which the King himselfe doth utterly disclaime in his answer to the 19. Propositions.

The zealous Divines of this very time doe ab∣horre the seditious practises and opinions of all A∣nabaptists, who because the Church had not Chri∣stian Kings at first, cry out with open mouth a that the Church cannot be safe if there be any King or Magistrate in the Church; nay they adde that if a King turn Christian he must cease to be a King, be∣cause Christianity it selfe is repugnant to Magistra∣cy, and no b Magistrate ought to look after any thing that concernes Religion. They maintain that Christians ought not to have any Judiciall tryalls before Magistrates, that no Christians ought to punish offen∣dors with death or imprisonment, but with Excommuni∣cation only. They would not have Heretikes punished by the Magistrate, c but every man should be left to his liberty to beleeve what he thinks fit, just as the Arminians and Socinians dreame. I would Kings and Princes did seriously consider that the dArminians have taught Heretikes to rebell a∣gainst Page  61 any Prince or Magistrate who goes about to inflict punishment upon them in a legall way; for, say they, if the Magistrate goes about to punish an Heretike because he thinks the Heretike in an errour, the Heretikes may all joyne together and rise up in armes against the Magistrate because they conceive the Magistrate to be in an errour; for the Heretikes have as much power to kill the Magistrate, as the Magistrate hath to execute such seditious Heretikes, Par omnium in omnes jus est, is not that pure Anabaptisme in the highest? Nay they adde * farther, that though the Heretikes be seditious, Reipub. Tur∣bones, if they be Apostates, if they turne Iewes and blaspheme Christ, yet they would not have them punished by the Ma∣gistrates: these Arminian, Socinian, Anabaptisticall errours are justly abhorred by the Divines of this very time. There is at this very day a great talke of Tubbe-Preachers; if there be any such, the Arminians and Socinians must defend them as long as they keep in private, but if they preach false do∣ctrine * publikely, then indeed the Arminians would have them grievously punished, the Magistrate may if it be need∣full (say they) make a whippe of Cords and drive them out * of the Temple, as our Saviour did the Hucksters: Thus they abuse our Saviour and the Magistrate both in a breath, they will not allow the Magistrate to doe any more. They doe not think it necessary that Ministers should expect a Mission in the first constituting of a Church, for then there can be no order, for order is not yet begun, nor must Ministers ex∣pect a Mission when a Church is to be reformed, for then they say all order is quite fallen to the ground, and therefore the Word may be lawfully preached by them that are not sent, so the Arminians (Exam. Cens. cap. 21. pag. 228.) state the point. You see if there be any Tubbe-preachers, now our Church is but Reforming, they doe punctually observe the Arminians grave instructions. The Arminians allow a liberty of Prophecying, if any man shall perswade himselfe that he hath received some spirituall interpretations of the Word by the inspiration, suggestion, assistance of the holy Ghost, and any Magistrate shall imprison this man, because the in∣terpretation is contrary to the Spirit of the Reformed Di∣vines, Page  62 the Magistrate doth imprison the spirit and quench the spirit, and the Church of Rome may as well emprison any Protestant because he brings an interpretation contrary to the Spirit of their Church, which is as the Papists con∣ceive infallibly guided by the Spirit. Here'snothing but Qui sibi persuadet, a strong perswasion required to beare out this Enthysiast, though he seemes to the Reformed Divines to preach nothing but his own brain-sick fancies, nay phren∣sies, Sed hoc ipsum est Spiritum extinguere, authoritatem sibi arrogare, Spiritum qui cum Spiritu nostro (by our Spirit they meane the Spirit which enlightens the Reformed Divines) non convenit, pro insanâ & corrupta mente, libidine contendendi, adeo{que} mali spiritus suggestione, censendi, eo{que} nomine vi armata eum opprimendi—Colloca teipsum coram tribunali Pontificio, Re∣formationem dogmatum, & Articulorum variorum urgentem & orantem ne spiritum tuum quem divinum esse credis extin∣guat; quid respondebis si tibi reponat verba tua, an spiritus est quod cui{que} insana & corrupta mens, contendendi libido, adeo{que}*malus spiritus suggerit? Exam. Cens. cap. 24. pag. 276. Unlesse we have that infallible Spirit which the Apostles had to discern spirits, the Arminians tell us we must allow men li∣berty to prophesy contrary to the Spirit of the Reformed Doctours, or else our censure of these Enthysiasts will bee doubtfull, uncertain. Finally (for I am weary of this sub∣ject) they will admit Anabaptists to be true and lawfull Pastours of Christ. cap. 23. Exam. Cens. de Baptismo. pag. 248. in fine. Sure this is liberty enough, the Socinians need not desire more, the Arminians and Socinians then must patronize these Tubbe-preachers.

In the next place there is a complaint of Brownists, to which complaint I shall answer briefly, and yet fully.

First, they are to be blamed who gave the first occasion * of this Rent: I know between 40. and 50. yeares agoe, there were some followers of Browne, but in the latter end of King James his reigne, the number of Brownists properly so called was much decreased, and it was a rare thing to meet with a Brownist; but when Bishop Land began to sit at stern, (and so he did a while even in Arch-Bishop AbbotPage  63 his time) then the number of Brownists began to encrease; the reason was, because ceremonies began to be urged upon the conscience with so much earnestnesse as if they had been necessary to salvation: and about 6. or 7. yeares since when * the Arch-Bishop was in his ruffe, and his Priests began to sur∣rogate it, preaching for doctrines the commandements of men, and consequently worshipping God in vaine, Math. 15. 9. men of tender consciences (and those no weake ones neither) began to feare, that they should transgresse the Commande∣ments of God, by observing Traditions, Math. 15. 3. and conceived it vain, to joyne with them in worship, who wor∣shipped God in vain.

Many were prevailed with by this reason, but there were some of a moderate temper, who if they might have the li∣berty of their conscience, and not be forced to the use of any Ceremonies, would, and did, communicate even in Parish-Churches: But the Archbishop of Canterbury began to lay on greater burdens; Crucifixes must be set up at the East-end, that was too plain; next, the Communion-Table, to colour the Design, or, at least, to add varnish to it, must be advanced into an Altar, & men must by a Tacit consent, (as we were in∣formed at the Visitation of Merton College) expressesome out∣ward reverence, by bowing towards the East, the Altar, the Crucifixe, choose which you please, all if you will; but in no case must we be commanded to bow, & yet we must be censu∣red as disobedient, if we refuse to bow. This was interpreted by Rationall men an asking of our consent to bring in Popery: It was now high time to make Protestations that we would nei∣ther bow to East, nor Hoast, nor Altar, for if we held our peace we knew not what might come by Tacite consent. We were sure that our actions would speak aloud, and how tacite soever our consent was, it would be known to God & our conscience. I will not take this faire Hint to tunne into a long story of what censures were passed upon my self or others, for our Protestation against this superstitious Innovation, but sure I am that by degrees there were so many Innovations both in point of Doctrine, and externall worship, that the Papists themselves thought those of greatest worth, learning and Au∣thority Page  64 in England, knew not well what Religion to be of, or where to fasten. The Jesuite who wrote the directions to N. N. which Mr. Chillingworth endeavours to answer, * began to triumph in our complyances with Rome. Heark what he saith.

Protestantisme waxeth weary of it selfe, the Professours of it, they especially of greatest worth, learning and Authority, love temper and Moderation, and are at this time more unresolved where to fasten, then at the infancy of their Church. Their Churches begin to look with a new face, their walls to speak a new language, their Doctrines to be altered in many things, &c.
Mr. Chillingworth is so vaine as to call this painting of Churches the Beauty of Holinesse, Sect. 22. But to proceed, If the guides of the Church would not endure so much as a Nominall Inconformity with Rome, if they and their Adherents looked so like, and preached so like them, that the Papists themselves took them for Romane Catho∣liques; no marvaile if the poore people cryed out that Eng∣land was turned Babylon, and began to separate; for that is * very observable which Judicious Hooker delivers in his Ec∣clesiasticall Politie. The people (saith he) are not accustomed to trouble their wits with nice and subtile differences in the exer∣cises*of Religion—and (saith he) in actions of this kinde, (hee speakes of adoration of the Crosse, it may well be applyed to adoration towards the East, hoast, altar, Crucifixe) we are more to respect what the greatest part of men is commonly prone to conceive, then what some few mens wits may devise in constru∣ction of their owne particular meanings. They then are to be blamed who invented a few cogging distinctions to jug∣gle with God and their conscience, and thought to salve up all with some curious subtilties which the people un∣derstood not. If they that should be lights of the Church gave no better light then an Ignis fatuns, which doth se∣duce them into bogges and ditches, if they puzzeld the peo∣ple and gave them good cause to doubt whether it was safe to communicate or no, must the people communicate when they are perplexed with such doubts that they can∣not communicate in faith? He that doubts is damned if he eat, Rom. 14. 23. The poore people could not be resolved, and Page  65 durst not be damned; sure the Archbishop was rather Schis∣maticall,* in imposing such burthens upon tender Communi∣cants, then the people in separating from externall Commu∣nion. Let Mr. Chillingworth be Judge, sure he is no Brownist;
Neither is it alwayes of necessity Schismaticall to separate from the externall Communion of a Church, though wanting nothing necessary. For if this Church supposed to want nothing necessary, require me to professe against my conscience, that I beleeve some error, though never so small and innocent, which I doe not be∣leeve, and will not allow me her Communion, but upon this condition;
In this case the Church for requiring this Condition is Schismaticall, and not I for sparating from the Church.

Secondly, all Separatists are not Brownists; it is evident from this very place of Mr. Chillingworth; for a man may have just cause to separate from the externalla Communion of a Church, though he think that there are all things neces∣sary to salvation in that Church. But no Brownist doth con∣ceive that there are all things necessary to salvation in any of our Parish Churches. They deny that there is any true Church or Ministers of God to bee found in any Parish of England; or that all the Parishes taken collectively can make one Church of God; they say our Congregations and Ministers are limbs of bAntichrist, Babylonians, Idolaters; this Doctrine I have ever preached against, (I preached a∣gainst it even at Westminster, where they say there are so many Brownists) and resolve to preach against it still.

3. There are some reverend and learned Ministers in this Kingdome, who are commonly called the Independent Mini∣sters, and these are all put downe for Brownists, if not Ana∣baptists, in the Oxford Catalogue, though the Ar∣minians* have no reason to censure any that goe from a Congregation that is lesse pure, to one that is more pure. I will therefore briefely shew that these Ministers are neither Anabaptists nor Brownists. They will not say the Magistrate is an Head of the Church, but they say that Every Christian Magi∣strate is an Head in the Church, which no Anabaptist will say. They say that the Prelates doe not hold from the Head,Page  66as all Officers of the Church should doe, Ephes. 4. 15, 16. and yet they acknowledge that it is possible for a Prelate, and the Diocese under him to hold the Head, as the phrase is, Colos. 2. 19. and this no Anabaptist or Brownist will acknow∣ledge. They will communicate even in a Parish-assembly, where the Minister and people generally desire and labour by all lawfull meanes to procure a Reformation. They protest a∣gainst Brownisme, as a * bitter error, and full of cruelty; what can be desired more, to cleare them from being Brow∣nists or Anabaptists? I heard the same man preach since with much fervency and earnestnesse of spirit against the Brow∣nists for this their error, and among other inconveniencies which arise therefrom, hee mentioned this, that upon the same ground and reason for which they chiefely make the Churches in England no true Churches, nor the Ministers thereof, true Ministers, they must make all those in Scotland, France, and other Reformed Churches, (whom yet they seeme to acknowledge) to be no true Churches; and so no true Churches to have beene in Europe since the Reformati∣on but themselves, which were a horrid opinion to enter in∣to a mans heart.

4. Brownists doe not, that ever I could learne, differ from Protestants, concerning Civill government, and ther∣fore * I doe not know why men should cry out, that Brownists are greater enemies to the State then Pa∣pists themselves: We have not yet forgot the Pow∣der-treason, and we doe still groane under the Irish Rebellion.

5. If the Brownists be as bad as the Donatists of old, if they conceive that there is no true Church but in parte Brownistarum, as they conceived there was none but in parte Donati: if they should deny the Catholique Church (which they do not) and refuse to Communicate with any of the Reformed Churches, or with any Independent Congregation, because they will not communicate with any who are ready to embrace communion with any Parish Church, let their errour, schisme, pride, uncharitablenesse, Page  67 cruelty, and bitternesse be aggravated to the highest, yet the Papists have no reason to complaine of them; for Papists de∣ny the Catholike Church as directly as the Brownists can be thought to doe, they confine it to their owne party; the Soci∣nians and Arminians may hold their peace for shame, for they both tell us, that it is possible that Christ may have no Church at all, neither in this part nor that, hee may bee an Head without a Body, an Husband without a Spouse, a King without Subjects, as hath beene shewen above, pag. 49. The Socinians say that there is not as yet any triumphant Church above, nor is it necessary there should bee any militant Church here below. It was no errour in the Donatists that * they held it possible that the Church might bee contracted from a larger extent to a lesser, (as Mr. Chillingworth ob∣serves) but their error was that they held it done de Facto, when they had no just ground or reason to doe so; chap. 3. p. 162. But the Author of the Tract concerning Schisme doth quite outleape Mr. Chillingworth. It is (saith he) a thing indifferent, the Church may be in any number more or lesse, it may be in any place, Countrey or Nation, it may be in all, and for ought I know it may be in none, pag. 7. Sure the Brownist is more mo∣derate, he saith there must be a Church.

6. But the great quarrell with the Brownist is, that hee would have the Common-prayer Booke taken away; To which I answer in a word, that they are not all Brownists who de∣sire to have that Law abrogated, by which the Common-prayer Booke is established; Mr. Chillingworth desires that there might be this triall made betweene us and the Papists, That there might be some Forme of Worshipping God propounded which is wholly taken out of the Scripture; and herein saith he to the Papists, if we refuse to joyne with you, then, and not till then, may you justly say we have utterly and absolutely abandoned your Communion. Answer to the Preface. Sect. 23. May not some that are not Brownists say the same to us, we keepe our distance from you, meerely because your Forme of worshipping God is not taken wholly out of Scrip∣ture, though for the present then wee joyne not with you, yet doe not say (till that be done) that wee doe utterly and Page  68 absolutely abandon your Communion. The Author of the Tract of Schisme would have such a Forme of service, as Donatists, Arians, Papists, all that call themselves Christians, might joyne in; p 9, 10. You see he dislikes the Common∣prayer Booke, and sure dislikes the best part of it, the Creeds, he is farre worse then a Brownist. Be pleased to observe that Liturgies were first composed to expell Socinianisme, and * now this Author would have a Liturgie composed to let in Arianisme, or at least to humour the Arians, and sooth them up in their Heresie, as if the Articles of our Creed were but private fancies, and it concerned us more to please Here∣ticks, then preserve our Creed. But there is a learned man of a more moderate opinion, and sounder judgement then either of the former, though they bee both very learned men, it is Dr. Featley, be pleased to heare him speake. There is nothing (saith he) in the Protestant Liturgie or Service which the Romanists do, or by their owne Rules can except at; The Con∣fession, forme of Absolution, Prayers, Hymnes, Collects, &c. are either such as the Papists themselves use, or at least such as they dislike not; in his Annotations on Vertumnus Romanus, p. 16, 17. Now this is the very reason the Papists bragge so much, and why some that are not Brownists take offence at our Li∣turgy. And this learned Doctor tels us, that all who love the truth in sincerity, should with bended knees humbly desire that his Majesty, and the high Court of Parliament, would make some more certaine distinctive signe betweene Papists and Protestants, then monthly comming to Church, and taking the oathes of Allegiance and Supremacy. Now how this present Li∣turgy which the Papists like so well, can make any such di∣stinction, let the prudent judge. I intend not to run out in∣to the large question, about the necessity or Antiquity of Li∣turgies; but let men that are so violent in this point consider;

1. How corrupt those Liturgies are which are voted for ancient. 2. How much Bishop Hall is forced to grant, when this question was agitated betweene him and the Smectym∣nans. 3. To passe by what is said about the lawfulnesse of a Set-forme, let them consider what Arguments are produced against the Imposition of a Set-forme. 4. If it were gran∣ted Page  69 that a Set-forme may be imposed, yet those many cart∣loads of Arguments which are produced against this Set∣forme are considerable. 5. It is confessed, that a Minister should be able to pray as well as preach, and should give and even devote himselfe to prayer, he should meditate and stu∣dy how to pray. 6. It is granted on all sides that wee ought to pray according to the occasion, and how we should fore∣see all the wants and straits of a Church, and compose a Set-forme for them before-hand, it concernes them to de∣clare. When K. Iames was to advise Prince Henry how to pray, hee did not thinke it sufficient to leave him to the Church-Liturgy, or to any prayers composed by man; the onely Rule of Prayer, saith he, is the Lords Prayer: he ad∣vised him to study the Psalmes of David, because they be∣ing composed by a King, hee might collect prayers out of them most sutable to his wants, and so he should be enabled to pray according to the occasion; he disswaded him from following the common ignorant sort, that prayes nothing but out of bookes, for that would breed an uncouth coldnesse in him towards God: hee bids him take heed that hee be not over-homely in his expressions, for that would breed a con∣tempt of God: nay he counsels him farther, to pray as his heart moves him, pro re natâ, Reade his 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, pag 151. 152. Let these things be well weighed and considered, and then our fierce men will not terme every man a Brownist, who desires to have that Law abrogated by which this Com∣mon Prayer booke is established and enjoyned. I need not adde what the Arminians and Socinians think of Liturgies, onely observe, that though the Arminians beyond Sea were prevailed with to write something for the Archbishops, Bi∣shops, Archdeacons, &c. in England yet they write but faint∣ly, Exam. Censurae. cap. 21. and they could not be prevailed with to write a word in defence of our Liturgy, they will not admit, no not of the most received Creeds; there is (they * say) too much majesty in them, they call the Preface to Atha∣nasius his Creed, Whosoever will be saved must hold, &c. a proud Preface, for this is (say they) to give divine Authority to hu∣mane Formes, and into the assembly of such bold men let not ourPage  70soule ever enter: you see what they think of humane Formes. Exam. Censurae Praef. pag. 6. 7. and lastly, the Brownists had beene in the right if the Archbishop of Canterbury could have compassed his Designe, for his project was to root out all that would not comply, which if he had effected, he had made good the Brownists opinion for them, for then there would have beene no true Church of God in England in∣deed; not a true governing Church, for his government would have beene tyranicall, not a true practising Church, the practises of his Grace and his adherents are sufficiently knowne: nor a true teaching Church, as shall evidently be demonstrated in the next Chapter.