A treatise of original sin ... proving that it is, by pregnant texts of Scripture vindicated from false glosses
Burgess, Anthony, d. 1664.
Page  191


That the Soul is neither by Eduction or Tradu∣ction, but by Introduction or immediate Infu∣sion, proved by Texts of Scripture.


BUt whatsoever learned men have thought therein, we may say, That it is against Scripture and true reason, that the soul is ei∣ther by Eduction or Traduction, but by Introduction, or imme∣diate Infusion, and that by God himself: And I shall instance in some Texts of Scripture, to which, though they give excepti∣ons, yet (I suppose the Truth stands immoveable, neither do you think this work needless, for it's worth the while, if there were no other use, but to informe you against a dangerous sect, that are called Mortalists, who hold the soul is nothing but the temperament of the body, and that it is mortal, to which abominable opinion the Socinians also do strongly incline.

The first Text to prove the Creation of the soul, shall be from Eccl. 12. 7. Then shall dust returne to the earth as it was, and the spirit shall returne to God who gave it. This seemeth to be very clear, for he speaketh of every man that dieth, he considers the two essential parts of man, his body, which he calleth dust, be∣cause it was made of dust, and then his soul, which he cals a spirit, because of its simple and incorporeal nature, again, which strengthens the Argument, he com∣pareth these two in their contrary or divers originals, The body returneth to the earth, the Spirit unto God that gave it.

Though we would think this might satisfie, yet Austin of old, and those that are Traducians, they say,

God indeed giveth the soul by propagation, as well as by Creation; God giveth two wayes, by Creation, or by Propagation, as saith Austin. God is said, 1 Cor. 15. 38. to give every several grain its body, yet it is by seminal propagation, and God is often in the Scripture said, to give us our eyes, and our ears, and our bodies, yet they are by natural generation; or if this will not serve, then they say, This is true onely of Adam, not his posterity, because Adam's body was only made of the dust, not ours; and God did breath a soul into him at first.

But every one may see these are weak exceptions, as for the later, it's plain, he doth not speak of Adam, but every man that dieth; For having advised the young man to improve his youth for God, he tels him, old-age is coming, and then death, then shall he return, How can this be applied to Adam, who had re∣turned to the earth many hundreds of years before that was spoken? And where∣as it is said, That only Adam's body was made of dust. The answer is easie, That though our bodies be of flesh and bone immediately, yet the remote principle is Page  192 dust, and therefore Abraham, though his body was not made as Adams, yet he said, 〈◊〉was but dust and ashes. Thus this Text stands firm for the immediate Creation of the soul. Though (let me by the way give you rightly to under∣stand that later clause) The spirit returneth to him that gave it; The meaning is not, as if the soul of every man was saved, but that it goeth into the hands of God, as a Judge to dispose of it, according to what hath been done in the flesh; As for the next exception, that will be answered in the following Argument; on∣ly in the general this may be said, That if God gave the soul onely mediate∣ly by propagation, then the body might be said to return to him, as well as the soul.


WE will proceed to a second, and that is from Zech. 12. 1. The Lord which stretcheth forth the Heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him. Here we see the Lords power described by a three-fold effect, the making of the Heavens, the laying of the earths foun∣dation, and making the spirit of man; Now it is plain, that the two former were by Gods immediate Creation, therefore the later must be: So that the Context doth evidently shew, That Gods making of the soul of a man within him, is no lesse wonderfull then the making Heaven and earth. This Text was also of old agitated by Austin in this controversie, and to answer it, he runneth to his old refuge of forming a thing immediately, and by natural propagation: God is not to be ex∣cluded (saith he) from having a special hand in giving being to the soul, yet it doth not follow, that therefore it must be by creation out of nothing. To this purpose they bring that of Job, Chap. 10. 10, 11. where Job attributeth the ma∣king and forming of his body to God, Hast thou not poured me out like milk, &c? Thou hast cloathed me with skin and flesh. So Psal. 139. 13, 14, 15. where Da∣vid acknowledgeth the wonderfull wisdom and power of God, in making his body, Then hast curiously wrought me; As the curious needle-woman doth some choice piece; now we cannot from hence prove, that therefore the body is of God by immediate Creation.

But this cannot weaken the Text, for we told you, That the Argument is not meerly from that expressing of forming the spirit of man within him, but from the upper two Attributes. Besides the Scripture tels us plainly of what materi∣als the body is formed of, whereas they who hold the propagation of the soul, are extreamly streightned and difficultated to say, what the soul is made of; They say, it is not ex animâ, but ab animâ. not of the soul, but from the soul of the Parent, but then are divided amongst themselves when they go to explicate, how the soul hath its being if not from Creation. Some say, it hath its being by a cor∣poral seminal manner, but then it must be a body, which Austin would constantly deny, for he dissents from Tertullian in that, though both held the natural Tradu∣ction of the soul, Austin I mean only suppositively, but Tertullian positively, yet he professeth his dissent from Tertullian, who made it a body. This therefore being thought absurd, others they tell us of an incorporeal and immaterial seed from the soul of the Parents, which causeth the soul of the child. To this purpose Tertullian in his book de animâ, distinguisheth of semen animale, which cometh from the soul, and semen corporeum, which cometh from the body. But this may easily be judged as absurd as the former: If therefore the Scripture, when it speaketh of the forming of mans spirit within him, had discovered the materials of which it is formed, as well as when it speaketh of the forming of the body, there would have been some pretence for the Argument. But calling it a spirit, and as you see in the Text, comparing the forming of it with the making of the Heavens and the Earth, this makes the creati∣on Page  193 of the soul more than probable. Tarnavius the Lutheran would likewise avoid this place (Comment. in loc.) by saying the Hebrew word Jahac doth most commonly signifie, not an immediate creation out of nothing, for so the Hebrew word Barah doth for the most, but a mediate out of some prejacent mat∣ter, yet indisposed; but this Rule being not universal, it hath no strength in it. Besides, the Hebrew word is in the Present tense, who formeth, so that it cannot relate to the making of Adam's soul at first. Indeed the fore-named Tarnavius doth from the participle Benani draw an Argument against us, saying, It doth not alwayes signifie actum secundum, but habitum and potentiam, and so maketh the sense to be God, who hath this power immediately to create the soul, if he will; but all will confess this to be forced; That is more considerable, when he saith, As God in stretching out the Heavens, and laying the foundation of the earth, is not thereby declared to create new Heavens, and a new earth every day; so neither is it necessary that he should create souls daily, but conserve the order appointed, as he doth, about the Heavens. The Answer is easie, there∣fore do the words relate to the Creation at first with the conservation of them, because new Heavens and new earths are not every day made; but both they and we do acknowledge new souls are every day produced, as often as a man is born, and God at first making Adam's soul by breathing into it, the same order is still to be conserved.

This Text thus cleared, we may adde as proofs also of the like kind, Isa. 42. 5. Though Austin thought by spirit there, might be meant the sanctifying Spirit of God; But that hath no probability. Psal. 33. 15. the Psalmist saith, God hath fashioned the hearts of men alike, or wholly throughout; By which is meant the soul of a man in all its thoughts and workings, because the soul puts forth its vital actions in the heart. That also is remarkable, which yet I find not mentioned by any in this Controversie, Jer. 38. 16. where Zedekiah maketh an oath to Jere∣miah, that he will not kill him, after this manner, Thus saith the Lord, who made us this soul, not this body, but this soul, (he putteth that into the oath,) inti∣mating what an heavy sinne it would be to kill a man that is innocent, seeing he hath his soul from God. I shall mention but one Text more, and that is in the New Testament, which seemeth clearly to demonstrate the creation of the soul, Heb. 12 9. We have had fathers of our flesh that corrected us, &c. Shall we not much rather be in subjection to the Father of Spirits? I think this Text may put us out of all doubt, God is opposed as a Father to our natural parents; God is called a Father of Spirits, natural parents father of our flesh: Now if our souls did come from our parents, they might be called fathers of our spirits, as well as of our flesh: The Apostles Argument would have no force, if the Creation of the soul by God alone, and the generation of the flesh only by natural parents be not asserted: Thus Numb. 16. 20. as also Chap. 27. 16. God is there styled, The God of the spirit of all flesh, in a peculiar manner. It may be wondered, that though Austin busied himself so much in finding out of this Truth, diligently at∣tending to the Scripture, yet he never mentioned this place. Certainly, this Text might have removed his doubt, and made him wholly positive in affirming the creation of the soul.

That which I find later Writers reply to it, is, That God is called the Fa∣ther of Spirits in respect of Regeneration, because he sanctifieth and maketh holy.

But the opposition to our fathers of the flesh, evidently confuteth this; and withall they can never shew, that God is called a Father of Spirits, or a God of Spirits, but in respect of Creation, not Regeneration. It is true, the word spi∣rit may sometimes be used for a man as regenerate, as flesh is for a man wholly corrupt; but they can never shew that the word spirits in the plural number is taken for men regenerate.

Page  194Vse. Of Exhortation, To quicken up your attention to this Truth, do not think this is unprofitable and uselesse, that this Question is like those of which Paul complaineth, some doted, foolish and endlesse; No, it is very profitable, for in knowing the original of thy soul, how it cometh even from God himself, may it not shame thee to make thy self like a beast, as if thou hadst no better soul then they have? Prophanenesse and sottish ignorance do greatly oppose the na∣ture of thy soul. Why do men say in effect, Let us eat and drink, for to mor∣row we shall die, but as if they and beasts were all alike? And why is it that you see so many have no understanding, but that they are like the horse and the mule? Why doth the Scripture compare wicked men to so many kind of beasts, but because they live, as if God had put no rational soul into them? That though in the making of their bodies they differ from beasts, yet in their souls they do greatly agree.


THus you see we are examining, Whether that Doctrine of the Propagation of souls from parents, be a sure foundation to build upon, in clearing the conveyance of original sinne to Adam's posterity; And we have evidently pro∣ved, That the soul hath its immediate creation from God; So that to runne to the Sanctuary of the Souls Traduction, would be to implore a dangerous errour to assist the Truth; As God needeth not a lie, so neither doth his Truth any error. And indeed, Although I shall not call the Doctrine of the Creation of the soul, an article of faith, because so many learned men have hesitated therein; So that it would be an high breach of charity to commaculate such with the note of heresie, yet we may with Hierom call it, Ecclesiasticum dogma, a Doctrine that the most Orthodox have alwayes received; So that the contrary opinion seemeth to be absurd, as Whitaker well saith. Although Vorstius would make this dispute to be meerly philosophical, in his Antibellarm.

Having therefore laid down those Texts, which are a sure pillar of this Truth, we shall adde some further reasons, and then make use of this point, which is very fruitfull.


Arguments from Scripture to prove the Souls Creation.

THe first Reason, which may appear in the defence of the Souls immediate Creation from God, is, From the historical Narration, which Moses makes of the beginning and original of Adam's soul: For as God when he was to cre∣ate man, did it in a more transcendent and glorious way, then when he made beasts, or the other creatures; For then he said, Let there be light, and, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creatures, that have life, Gen. 1. 20. And so, Let the earth bring forth the living creatures, the beasts after their kind; But when he comes to make man, then the expression is altered, Let us make man in our Image; and Gen. 2. 7. where we have the manner of the execution of this counsel, it is said, He formed the body of Adam out of the dust of the earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; No such thing was done to other creatures: So that you see Adam's soul was from God immediately, though his body was from the earth; This breathing of life into Adam, was infusing of the rational soul. Some Ancients thought, that it was the bestowing of the holy Ghost upon Adam, and that he had his rational soul before; They compare it with Christs breathing on his Disciples, whereby was communicated the Page  195 holy Ghost. Now it is plain, they had their rational souls before.

This is vain, because by the breathing of this life, it's said, Adam became a living soul, so that he was but a dead lump of earth (as it were) before; And indeed this Text is so clear, that I know none of the Adversaries to the souls im∣mediate Creation do deny it: Now then, If the soul of Adam was by creation, Is it not probable that all other souls were in the like manner? What a great dispro∣portion would there be between Adam and us, if his soul was by creation, and ours by generation? Some have questioned, Whether it would not make a speci∣fical difference between Adam and us? But that is not to be affirmed; For Christ as man was of the same species with other men, though his Conception and Nati∣vity were miraculous: But the Argument from the Creation of Adam's soul, to the Creation of ours, though it be not cogent, yet it maketh it more then pro∣bable, because God at first did appoint that order, which afterwards was to con∣tinue; So he appointed the animate creatures, to multiply in their way, making their bodies and forms to be educed out of the power of the matter, (as Philoso∣phers expresse it, though very obscurely,) but he did not do so with Adam's soul; Can we think that our souls are lesse glorious and precious before God (I mean as meet creatures) then Adam's was? It is true, There was a necessity that A∣dam's body should be otherwise made then ours, because he was the first Parent, and so he could not be bygeneration; Thus the other living creatures they had their bodies at first out of the earth, or out of the water, not by generation, as after∣wards; Thus for the body there was a necessity, but then for the soul there was none at all; Why might not Adam's soul have been with his body out of the pre∣jacent matter, as well as it was with other living creatures? But because the soul of man is of an higher nature coming from God alone: This Argument will appear in further strength, if you consider that Eve, though she was made in such an extraordinary manner out of Adam, yet she had not her soul from him, but her body only; For when he awakened, see what he saith, This is bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh; He doth not say, This is soul of my soul, and yet as Austin in this matter, though doubting, doth well argue,

That if Eve had had her soul from Adam, Quid charius potuit dicere (saith he) This would have been a more indeared and affectionate expression, to have called her soul of his soul, then flesh of his flesh.
It is true, some say, it is a synecdochical speech,
By flesh (they say) is meant whole Eve, her whole person soul and body;
but that is easier said than proved; No doubt if it had been so, Adam would have expressed it, as being a manifestation of greater unity, then what was in the body only: If you say, But why is it not said then, that God created Eve's soul, as well as Adam's? If God had so immediately breathed a soul into her, would not the Scripture have mentioned it? No, that is not necessary, it's enough, that we read what God did to Adam about his soul; and the Scripture saith, Genes. 1. 27. God created man in his Image male and female created he them. Thus you see they were both, as in respect of Gods Image made alike: So Chap. 5. 2. Male and female created he them, and called their name Adam; And thus much for the first Reason.

The second is more cogent, and that is taken from the soul of Christ, If Christ had his soul by creation, then we had ours also; The consequence is clear, because Christ is said to be like us in all things, sinne onely excepted; Hence it is, that he also would have assumed our humane Nature in an ordinary way of generation, but that it could not be without sinne; If then Christ became like us in all things, where∣in sin was not necessarily adherent, then if he had his soul by immediate Creation we had ours also.

This Argument doth divide the Adversaries to the Creation of the soul; For some say,

Christ had not his soul by immediate Creation, no more then we, but from his mother:
But the most wary will not say so: Austin in this controver∣sie Page  196 doth alwaies except Christs soul, and indeed there is this Argument which may nforce us to it, taken from the comparison that the Apostle maketh between Levi and Christ, affirming Levi did pay tythes in Abraham's loynes, but not Christ, Heb. 7. 9. Now if Christ was every way in Abraham's loynes, as Levi was, then must Christ have paid tythes in Abraham, as well as Levi, and so the Apostles Argument would be without any force.

But it may be (and indeed it is urged by Austin and others,)

This will prove Levi's soul to have been in Abraham, else Levi could not have been said to have paid tythes in him, but as because Christs soul was not in Abraham originally, therefore he did not pay tith, so neither might Levi

To this therefore the solid Answer is, That the reason why Christ did not pay tythes in Abraham, in the Apostles sence, was not because his soul was im∣mediately from God, for so also was Levi's, but because Christ was of Abraham only, Quoad corpulentam substantiam, not seminatam rationem, his fleshly substance was from Abraham, but not by natural propagation; he was from Abraham only materialiter not effectivè, whereas Levi was both waies, and hence he cometh short of Christ.

Thirdly,*If so be that the soul of the parents did beget or multiply the souls of children, then this would hold also in Angels; for the multiplication of another must needs be acknowledged a perfection, where the subject is capable of it; Certainly, generation of another is not in it self an imperfection. for then in the blessed Trinity, the Sonne could not be begotten of the Father, but generation as in creatures denoteth imperfection. If then souls may come from souls, why not Angels from Angels? but this is acknowleged by all, That no Angel can produce another, but that there are as many and no more or less then was at first Creation. As for that example of the soul producing another, as we see one candle light another, that is nothing to this purpose; for therefore doth the candle inlighten another, because there is prepared and fitted matter to receive this light; so that its from prejacent materials the light is produced; but how can this be applied to the soul which is wholly spiritual, what preexistent matter that can be made of?

Fourthly,*If so be the soul be not by immediate Creation, then it must be mate∣rial, corporal, and mortal: for although this consequence is denied, yet the evi∣dence of natural reason will commend this. Its traduced (saith Tertullian) and is a body, yet is immortal: It is by propagation (say the Lutheran Divines) and yet is not a body but a spirit, and immortal: But above all, those abomina∣ble Mortalists, they make it to be only the crusis of the body, of which opinion Galen also is said to be, and so they make it mortal: We see then, that its neces∣sary to have a sound judgement about the original of the soul, for the Mortalists have fallen into that deep pit of heresy, because they erred in this first. It is with men, as they say of Fishes, they begin to putrify in the head first, and so com∣monly men fall into loose opinions, and then into loose practises: But this rule must be acknowledged, That whatsoever depends upon matter in being, doth also depend upon it in existency: It's Aquinas his rule, (as you heard,) Quicquid de∣pendet à materiâ in fieri, depend quoad esse et existere; That is the reason, why the souls of all beasts are mortal, because they depend upon the matter in being, They cannot be produced but dependently on that, and therefore their souls cannot subsist without their bodies; As it is plain, the souls of men do after death, till the resurrection; So that this Doctrine is injurious, and derogatory to our spiritual and immortal souls.

Fifthly,* If souls were not by immediate Creation, but by natural propagation from the parents, then either from the mother alone or from the father alone, or from both together.

This Argument Lactantius of old (as Cerda in Tertull. alledgeth him) formed Page  197 to himself, and answers; it's neither of those waies but from God. Not from the Father alone, because David doth bewail his mothers co operation hereunto, Psal 51, Iniquity did my Mother conceive me. Not the Mother alone, because the Father is made the chief cause of conveighing this original sinne by the A∣postle, he layeth it upon Adam, more then Eve, though Eve is not excluded; Not from both together, for then the soul must be partible and divisible, part from the Father and part from the Mother, and so it cannot be a simple sub∣stance. Under this Argument Meisuer doth labour, and confesseth, it is inex∣plicable how the soul should come from the parents, though he assaieth to give some satisfaction.

Lastly,*There is something even of nature implanted in us, to believe our soules come from God; who hath not almost some impression upon his conscience, to think, that he had not his soul from his parents? even nature doth almost teach us in this thing; Hence the wisest Heathens have concluded of it as Plato, and also Aristotle, who confuteth the several false opinions of Philosophers about the soul, (for it was a doubt as Tertullian (lib de animâ) expresseth it) whe∣ther Aristotle was parasior sua implera, aut aliena inantre) and affirmes it 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to come from without, and that it is a divine thing: Thus it was with some Heathens, though destitute of the Light of Gods Word, yet in some∣things they did fall upon the truth, (as saith Tertullian) The Pilot in a tempestu∣ous black night puts into a good haven, sometimes prospero errore, and a man in a dark place gropeth and finds the way out sometimes, caecâ quâdam felicitate: Thus did some Heathens in some things.


IF you aske, What Arguments have they, who hold the traduction of the Soul?

I answer, There is none out of Scripture, that is worth the answering: The two things they urge, are,

First, If the soul be not propagated, then man doth not beget a man, as a beast doth a beast, and he is more imperfect, then other creatures: but this is to be an∣swered hereafter. The other is, Because original sinne cannot else be maintained; but this is to be answered in the Explication, how we come to pertake of it, Let us proceed to the Uses.

Vse 1. Doth God create the soul? then he must know all the thoughts, all the inward workings and motions of thy soul; As he that maketh a Clock, or a Watch, knoweth all the motions of it; Therefore take heed of soul-sinnes, of spirit-sinnes: What, though men know not your unclean thoughts, your proud thoughts, your malicious thoughts, yet God who made thy soul doth; and therefore this should make us attend to Gods eie upon us.

Vse 2. Did God make and create the soul? then he also can regenerate it, and make it new again, he made it as a Creator, and he only in the way of regeneration can make it again. This may comfort the godly that mourn and pray, Oh they would have more heavenly holy souls: They would not have such vain thoughts, such sinnefull motions: Remember, God made thy heart and he can spiritualize it.

3. Doth God create the souls? then here we see that it's our duty to give our souls to him in the first place, John 4. God is a Spirit, and will be worshipped in spirit; This hath been alwaies a complaint, men have drawed nigh to God bodily, but their hearts have been farre from him; God made thy soul more then thy body, and therefore let that be in every duty.

Page  198 Lastly, If Parents do not make our souls, then here we see, Children must obey Parents, but in the Lord: Should thy Parents command thee to doe any sinfull action, to break the Sabbath, you must not obey, you may say, My father and mother they help me but to my body, God doth give me my soul, and therefore they are but parents of your bodies, not of your conscience and souls.


The Authors Apologie for his handling this great Question.

THe false wayes which some have wandered in, to maintain the Propagation of Original Corruption to all mankind, being detected, our work is now to explicate that Doctrine, which seemeth most consonant to solid Reason and Scripture.

But before we essay that, we are to informe you of one sort of learned Authors, who, because of the difficulty attending this Point, Whether we hold the Traduction or Creation of the soul, have thought it the most wife and sober way to acknowledge the Propagation of original Sinne; But as for the manner How, there to have a modest suspense of our judgement, to professe a learned ignorance herein to believe That it is, though How it is so, we know not. And Tertullian, concerning the original of the soul (Lib. de Animâ) hath this known saying, Praestat per Deum nescire, quae ipse non revelaverit, quàm per hominem scire, quae ipse praesumpserit. In this way of suspense Austin continued as long as he lived, thinking that this might be one of those Truths, we shall not know, till we come into the Academy of Heaven; and to this modest silence, we have one place of Scripture, which might much incline us, Eccles. 11. 5. As thou knowest not the way of the Spirit, nor how the bones doe grow in the womb, &c. This Text should teach us not to 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to venture too farre, but to observe the light of the Scripture, as they did the Pillar and Cloud in the wildernesse to stand still, where that stands still; And indeed the Disputes about the Modes of things, is very intricate. The known saying is Motum, sometimes Modum nescimus, the manner of Gods working in conversion, The man∣ner of Christs presence in the Sacrament, what endlesse controversies hath it begotten? And therefore it was the King of Navarr's counsel to the Divines, when the Lutherans and Calvinists were upon pacification about the Sacrament, that they should not De modo ultra modum disputare. Now although this be good counsel, yet when heretical and erroneous opinions have invaded the Modus, then it is our duty to maintain not onely the truth of a thing, but the manner of it also; What is a greater mystery then the Sonne of God, having his being from the Father? He that will touch this mystery with meer natural reason, doth as if the Smith should handle his live-coals with his hands and not the Tongs, saith Chrysostome, yet because of the Socinians, who say,

He is onely a made God in time, and hath his Deity by donation;
We are forced not to be content one∣ly to believe, that he is the Sonne of God, but also how, viz. By eternal Generation; So in the great Controversie with the Arminians about the conversion of man. It is not enough to say, we are converted by grace, but are necessitated also to expresse the manner How, not by a moral sua∣sion, or per modum sapientiae onely, but by invincible efficacy and power al∣so. Thus the manner of Christs presence, in the Sacrament was necessarily Page  199 to be determined against the Lutherans. Thus it is in our point in hand, we might well enough sit down with this Truth, That original sinne is com∣municated to every sonne of Adam, and enquire no further, as the primi∣tive Church did till Austin's time, in a great measure; But when Heretiques will deny the true Doctrine, because the manner is difficult to expresse; or when men will deny the Creation of the soul, then it's our duty in a sober manner to search into the way, how we partake of it: Neither doth the fore mentioned Text contradict this; For, though we know not how the bones grow in the womb exactly and punctually, yet we know in the ge∣neral, that they do by virtue of generation; So although we know not par∣ticularly how the soul cometh to have its being in the body, yet in the ge∣neral, that it is by Creation, we have had Scripture light fully to convince us therein.

This then premised, Let us proceed to clear the Doctrine of the Propagation of original sinne, and that by several Propositions, which will be as so many steps and degrees to the main Truth.


Propositions to clear the Doctrine of the Propagation of Original Sinne by the Souls Creation.

FIrst, We lay this for a foundation, That God doth create the soul of eve∣ry man a spiritual substance. This Proposition must be the foundation-stone to build upon. That God doth create the soul immediately, you have heard several Texts attesting thereunto. So that Bellarmine was too dissi∣dent, when moved, (it seemed) by Austin, doth wave all Texts of Scripture for the creation of the soul, and so proceedeth to other Arguments. Perie∣rius on 2 Chap. of Genes. vers. 7. giveth a better censure of Austin: for having produced some Texts for the Creation of the soul, he saith, Conatur Augustinus, sed frustra hos locos elidere. I shall adde one more fit for that purpose also. The Text is 1 Pet. 4. 19. Wherefore let them that suffer, ac∣cording to the will of God, commit the keeping of their souls unto God, as to a faithfull Creator. Here the afflicted children of God are required, as Christ did, to commend their souls to God, and the reason is, Because he is a faithfull Creator of them; So that Gods Creation of them is here made an engagement to God to keep them, they being now sanctified and made holy.

Our souls then are created: In the next place, I say, they are created Substances: This is to obviate those that make the soul onely an accident, or the crasis and temperament of the humours; Galen (as Cerda on Ter∣tull. de animâ alledgeth him) in his second Book of prediction by the pul∣ses, hath this passage,

Hitherto I have doubted, what should be the sub∣stance of the soul, but by age and experience being made wiser, I dare be bold to affirm it is no other thing, then the temperament;
He was not made wiser, but more absurd and foolish in this thing. Yea, there is one Dicaearchus much spoken of, that said,
The soul was nothing, it was but an opinion;
And the Mortalists they directly joyn with Galen's opi∣nion. Who would think, that when we have the Scripture speaking so plain∣ly about the soul, that it is a spirit, that it removeth when the body is kil∣led, that any should be delivered up to such licentious and abominable Do∣ctrines?

Page  200 Again, I adde, God createth it a spiritual substance. This opposeth the Sadduces, who denied any spirits. It is plaine by Scripture, that they are substances and spiritual ones, because they subsist without the body. Ter∣tullian, though he doth so acutely perstringe the Philosophers about the soul, yet some of them were more sound then he,

Men (saith he) have thought about the soul, either as Platonis honor, Zenonis vigor, Aristotelis tenor, Epicuri stupor, Heracliti maestor, Empedoclis furor persuaserint.
It is true, some of these thought the souls to be bodies, and so doth Tertullian, and happily he might have been excused by taking body largely, for that which is not nihil, in which sense he attributeth a body to God, but that he saith the soul is not only a body, but effigiated and shaped also, yea that the souls differ in sex, which is very irrational; We may then conclude this with a saying of Numertus, That if any souls are corporeal, it is of those, who say, souls are corporeal.

A second Proposition is, That though God doth create immediately the souls of all men spiritual substances, yet they are not compleat and perfect substan∣ces, as Angles are, but the essential parts of men. Upon this Proposition de∣pends much weight of this Truth about the communicating of original sinne, for we are apt to think God createth our souls like Angels, perfect and ha∣ving subsistency of themselves, whereas they are created as parts of a man, neither do they come from God any otherwise, If God should create a soul to subsist of it self, and not to be united to the body to constitute a man, that soul would not be polluted. But because every soul is created as an essential part of man, and so hath its being: Hence it is, That it cometh into the world part of Adam, and so obnoxious to that curse, which he had deserved; whatsoever then in its first being is part of man, that is partaker of A∣dam's sinne and curse; But the soul in its first instant of being is part of man, therefore no wonder if it became polluted and cursed. The example of that miraculous Resurrection of Lazarus and others may something clear this, they were fully dead, their souls and bodies union dissolved, yet be∣cause their souls were not made perfect and pure without sinne, and tran∣slated into Heaven, but by the power of God detained here on earth, that the glory of Christ might be exalted, he doth unite this soul, though with pollution to the body: Now Gods uniting of the sinfull soul to the body, did not make him the cause of any sinne therein, Because he united it as part of that man, who yet was not wholly purged from sinne. Now the reason why the soul is created, not as a perfect substance in it self, is, Because it's the forme of man, not an assisting forme, and therefore is not in the body, as when an Angel did assume bodies, or as a man in his house, or as a Musician useth an Instrument, but a form informing, whereby it is made an intrinsecal essential part of a man: The truth of this will give much light to our point in hand, the soul is created by God, The informing forme of a man, and so hath no other consideration, but as an essential part of him; and therefore seeing the man is in Adam, whose soul this is, that is thereby exposed to all the sinne of Adam; Hence it is that there is some difference between the creation of Angles, and the Chaos at first, which were made absolutely of nothing, and of the soul; For the soul, though it be created of nothing, yet because a form hath an essential respect to its matter; for which cause Contarenus (as Zanchy saith) affirmed,

The soul had a middle way of being between Creation and Generation;
and therefore is that distincti∣on of some learned men, that though the soul be not ex materiâ, yet it is in ma∣teriâ, God did not create it, but in the body, though not of the body, and thus farre it may be said to be of man, as that he is the cause, though not of the being of the soul, yet of the being of it n this body.

Page  201 The third Proposition, The soul being thus created an essential part of a man, and the form informing of him: Hence it is, That we must not conceive the soul to be first created, as it were, of it self subsisting, and then infused into the body, but when the materials are sufficiently prepared then as the Schoolmen expresse it well, Infundendo creatur, and creando infudi∣tur, it's infused by the creating of it, and created by infusing; So that the soul is made in the body organized, not without it; so the Scripture, Zech. 12. 1. Who formeth the spirit of man with him, and because of the souls un∣on to the body when thus disposed; Hence it is that man may truly and univocally be said to beget a man, though his soul be created; for seeing man who is the compositum, is the Terminus generationis; Hence it is that man begets man, as well as a beast, though the soul of a beast be from the matter, as we see in Christ, the Virgin Mary is truly said to be the mo∣ther of Christ, though she was not the mother of his Divine Nature, nor of his soul. Thus man doth properly beget another man, though the soul be by Creation (as the matter also according to Philosophy is ingenerable) because the soul is united to the body, prepared and disposed for it by man; from which union resulteth the whole person or compositum, consisting of soul and body: So that although man be not the cause of his childs souls being, yet that it hath a being in this body, and thereby such a person produced, he is the cause of it, and by this, if well understood, you may see original sinne communicated to every one, though the soul be created, In that way which the humane nature is communicated to every one: So that if we tru∣ly know how a man is made a man from his parents, we may also know how sin is thereby also communicated.

The fourth Proposition is, Although God doth daily create new souls, yet his Decree and Purpose to do so was from all eternity; And therefore in this respect we may say all men consisting of souls and bodies were present to God in Adam in respect of Gods Decree, and also his Covenant with A∣dam, so that although there be a new Creation, yet there is no new institu∣tion or ordination on Gods part; Whereas therefore it's thought hard, that because Adam was so many thousand years ago, the soul created now should partake of his sinne. The Answer is, That in respect of Gods Decree and Covenant we were all present to God in Adam; There is no man hath his being De Novo, but unto God he was present from eternity; so that though the things in time have a succession of being, yet to God all are present in eternity: Not that we can say they were actually sinners, or actually ju∣stified, but in respect of Gods purpose all were present, and this will help much to facilitate this difficulty, we are as present to God in respect of his Decree, and knowledge, as if we had been then actually in Adam, in which sense it's said, Omnes fuerunt ille unus homo, and Act. 15. 18. Known to God are all his works from the beginning.

The fifth Proposition. Hence it is that the just and wise God is not to al∣ter, and change that course of nature, because man hath sinned. It is vain to say, Why will God unite this soul to the body, when thereby both shall be polluted? For though man hath by his sinne deserved that this should be, yet God is not therefore to cease of the continuing and multiplying of man∣kind, God doth keep to the fixed course of nature, notwithstanding mans sinne; And therefore we see that even to those, who are begot in fornica∣tion and whoredome, yet even to such in that unlawfull act, God giveth souls, because he will not interrupt the course of nature.

The sixth Proposition. Adam by his first transgression did deserve that all who should be of him, should be deprived of the Image of God, and the priva∣tion Page  202 of that doth necessarily inferre the presence of all sinne in a subject sus∣ceptible: As take away light from the air, and it must be dark; so that this Proposition answereth the whole difficulty: Adam deserved by his transgres∣sion, that all his posterity should become dead in sinne; and as he had thus deserved it, so God had ordained it, and appointed it; The soul then of every one being made part of that man who is thus cursed in Adam, it be∣comes deprived of the Image of God, and so full of sinne; So that although God create the soul naturally good, yet because part of man condemned by his sentence, he denieth it that original righteousnesse it once had; God doth not infuse any evil into the soul, nor is the Author of any sinne therein, but as a just Judge denieth that righteousnesse, which otherwise the soul might have had: So that you must not look for an efficient cause of original sinne in the soul, but a deficient, and a meritorious cause: So that the Summe is this, If you ask, How cometh the soul defiled, if created of God? I answer, The Meritorious cause is Adam's disobedience, by his transgression he demerited this for all that should come of him. And if you say, Who putteth the sinne in? I answer, There is no efficient cause that putteth it in: It is enough that God doth justly refuse to give or continue his Image. And this being denied the soul, because a subject either of holinesse or sinne, when wanting one must necessarily fall into the other: Thus it is with the souls being polluted, as it is with night, there is no efficient cause of the night, only the withdraw∣ing of the Sunne necessarily maketh it: So God doth nothing positively to make the soul sinfull, but according to his just appointment at first denieth that righteousnesse, which Adam wilfully put away from himself and his po∣sterity: So that we may as easily conceive of every childs souls pollution by sinne, as of Adam and Eve themselves. God made them righteous, but upon their transgression they became unclean and sinfull: How was this? God in justice denied the continuance of this holinesse to them any longer, so that they became sinfull, not because God infused evil, but denied him that righ∣teousnesse to them. This may fully satisfie the sober and modest minded man.

Therefore the last Proposition is, That we cannot say, the soul being pure in it self cometh into the body, and so is insected; As if some wine should be put in a poisoned vessel, for the soul and the body do mutually infect one another, not physically by contact, but morally; For the soul being desti∣tute of the Image of God in all its operations, is sinfull, and so all the bo∣dily actions are polluted: And then again, the body that having lost the properties it had before the fall, is a clod and a burden to the soul: Thus they doe mutually help to damne one another, the soul polluteth the body, and the body that again polluteth the soul; And thus those two which at first God put together in so near an union to make man happy, are now so defiled, that both from soul and from body, the matter of his damnati∣on doth arise. It is true, we may say inchoatively, Sinne it in the body be∣fore enlivened by the soul, in which sense David bewailed his being concei∣ved in sinne, but explicitely and formally it cannot be, and therefore we are not to conceive sinne in the body before the soul be united, or in the soul before the body be joyned to it, but as soon as they both became man, then they are under the just curse of God, and the soul being blind, and the body same, they both fall into that eternal pit of damnation, if the grace of God deliver not.

I may in time shew how many wayes the soul defileth the body, and the body againe infecteth the soul (viz.) in a moral sense, and therefore let this suffice for the present; Onely from what hath been said, let us turn our Page  203 Disputation into Deploration, Let the head busied to argue, be now as much ex∣ercised to weep; Jeremiah wished his head was a fountain of tears for the slain of his people, and that was but a temporal death, and that of one Nation only, How much more may we desir so for the spiritual death, and that of all in the world? Say unto all Heretical Teachers, Get ye behind me Satans, you hinder and trou∣ble me in my humiliation: Is not the Infant new born swadled and bound up hand and feet, and so lieth crying? A sad representation, that so God might bind every one, and send him crying to Hell: Thus original sinne opened Hell, kindled the fire of Hell, there was no Hell till this was com∣mitted: Oh grievous necessity and unhappy condition we are all born in! Antequam peccemus peccato constringimur, antequam delinquimus delicto tene∣mur. This, even this seriously considered, should make us have no rest, till we be put into the second Adam, in whom we have Justification and Sal∣vation.