The Treaty of Peace, and Neutrality for Italy, between his most Christian Majesty and his Royal Highness the Duke of Savoy. Concluded and Signed at Turin, Aug. 29. 1696. and Delivered at the Hague to the most Illustrious Allies, Aug. 15, 1697.
THE most Christian King having all along during this War maintained a sincere desire Page 18 of procuring the Quiet of Italy, and it having plea∣sed Almighty God to inspire his Royal Highness with the same thoughts, his Majesty has given his full Power, Commission and Command, to the Sieur René de Troullay, Count de Tessè, Knight of the Orders of the King, Lieutenant General of his Armies, Colonel General of the Dragoons of France, Governor of Ipres, Lieutenant Gene∣ral for the King in the Provinces of Maine and Perche, and at present Commanding for the King in the Countries and Places on the Frontiers of Piedmont. His Royal Highness having likewise on his part given his Power and Commands to the Sieur Charles Victor, Marquiss de Saint Thomas, Mi∣nister of State, and his said Royal Highnesses Prin∣cipal Secretary of State; the said Plenipotentia∣ries having reciprocally Exchanged the Original of their Commissions, by virtue of which they Treat, have agreed on these following Articles.
That there shall be from henceforth and for ever, a firm and a sincere Peace between the King and his Kingdom, and his Royal Highness the Duke of Savoy, and his Dominions, as if the said Peace had been never interrupted; and the King resuming the same Sentiments of Bounty he hath heretofore had for his Royal Highness, which he desires his Roval Highness to be perswaded of; his Royal Highness doth by this present Treaty entirely re∣nounce all Engagements, and all Treaties made with the Emperor, with the Kings and Princes comprehended under the Name of the League or Confederacy; and doth undertake to employ all his Endeavours, and to do all that he can, in order to obtain of those Sovereign Powers, at least of Page 19 the Emperor and King of Spain, a Neutrality for Italy, until the general Peace shall be Concluded; and to signifie their Consents by a particular Trea∣ty, which shall be made to that purpose; or for want of such a Treaty by Declarations, which the said Emperor and the King of Spain shall make to the Pope, and to the Republick of Venice; and which shall be at the same time followed by the Retreat and withdrawing of all the Forces which the Allies have at present in Italy, as it shall be hereafter more particularly specified: And in case the abovementioned Princes do not Consent to such a Neutrality in Italy, at his Royal Highnesses Instance, to the Emperor and to the King of Spain; his Royal Highness doth engage to enter into an Offensive and Defensive League with the King, until a General Peace be Concluded, acting joyntly with his Majesty's and his own proper For∣ces, as becomes good and sincere Allies for the Common Interest, and to make War against the State of Milan, and against all those who shall op∣pose this present Treaty's taking effect. And as an evident Demonstration of a Return of the King's Amity towards his Royal Highness, his Ma∣jesty does willingly Consent, and doth Promise, That the City and Cittadel of Pignerol, the Fort of St. Bridgit, the Perouse, with other Forts depend∣ing on the same, shall be Demolished as to the For∣tifications only, at the King's Charges; and after the aforesaid Fortifications are Demolished, they shall all be Restored to his Royal Highness, as well as all the Territories and Dominions compri∣sed under the name of the Government of Pig∣nerol, and which did belong to the House of Sa∣voy, before the Cession or Surrender, that Victor Amadeus, the first Duke of that Name, made Page 20 unto Lewis the XIIIth. The which City, dismant∣tled Cittadel, and Demolished Forts and Territo∣ries, shall be likewise Surrendred to his Royal High∣ness, to be held in Soveraignty, and to be by him enjoyed fully and perpetually, by him and his Suc∣cessors from henceforth, as things to him of Right belonging. By vertue of which present Surren∣der, his Royal Highness doth Engage and Pro∣mise, as well for himself, his Heirs and Successors, or others by any ways Claiming, neither to Re∣build, nor cause to be Rebuilt the aforesaid Forti∣fications; nor to cause any new ones to be Built upon, and in the space and limits of the said Ter∣ritories, Funds and Rocks, neither in any place whatsoever, so surrendred by this present Treaty; according to which, his Royal Highness, or the Inhabitants of the said Town of Pignerol, shall be allowed to inclose it with a bare Wall only, not Terrassed, and without Fortifications. That not∣withstanding these mentioned, his Royal High∣ness shall be free to Build any strong Places or For∣tifications in this said Territory now delivered up, as he thinks fit, without the King's taking any ex∣ception at it. That moreover, the King shall re∣store to his Royal Highness, the Countries, Ca∣stles and Places of Montmelian, Nice, Villefranche, Suze and all other the Conquer'd Places, without Exception, entire, and undemolish'd or damag'd, and with the same quantity of Ammunitions of War, Provisions, Stores, Canon and Artillery, and such Places to be left furnished, as they were when they fell into his Majesty's Hands; and so that the Buildings, Fortifications, Inlargements and Improvements, made by his Majesty, shall not be touched, but left as they are: After the said Pla∣ces are restored, it shall be lawful for his Royal Page 21 Highness to repair and enlarge the Fortifications as things belonging to himself, that the King may not therefore molest him, or be displeased there∣at. Provided nevertheless, That the King shall carry off from Pignerol, all the Artillery, Ammu∣nition of War and Provisions, Arms, and all mo∣vable Effects belonging to him, of what Nature soever they be. That as for the Revenues and In∣coms of Pignerol and of its Dependencies, the King does yield them up to his Royal Highness in the same manner as the King injoys them at pre∣sent; and the Leases or Settlements which the King has made of any of the said Lands, shall stand good, according to the Form of the respe∣ctive Contracts, Tenures or Acquisitions: That the said restitution of these Countries and Places belonging to his Royal Highness, as also the deli∣very of Pignerol with its Dependencies above men∣tioned, shall be made after the signing of this pre∣sent Treaty; the Foreign Troops being first quite retired out of Italy; and after that the Germans, the Troops of Bavaria, the Brandenbourg Prote∣stants in the English Pay, and other Auxiliary Troops are actually arrived in Germany; and that the Spaniards and others which are paid by his Ca∣tholick Majesty, are returned into the Territories of Milan; so that the Execution of any of these Articles, nor the Restitution of any of those Pla¦ces, shall not take Effect till after the said Troops are all of them, and entirely retired, in such man∣ner as has been now exprest: Which, notwithstand∣ing, is to be so understood, as that the Evacuati∣on of the said Foreign Troops out of Italy, shall be deemed to be fully compleated, although the Spaniards should take out, as possibly they may, some Men out of those Foreign Regiments, to fill Page 22 up those that are in their own Pay; or that some of those Foreign Troops should List themselves, and enter on the Territories of the Republick of Venice, it shall be taken as if they were arrived in Germany, as soon as they are upon the Venetians Ground, and are delivered over to the Service of that Commonwealth: And after the Ratification of the pesent Treaty, Labourers shall be immedi∣ately set at work to sink Mines, and to do all other things that are necessary for the demolishing of the said City, Citadel and Forts of Pignerol. But in case his Royal Highness should think fit to keep this Treaty as yet secret, beyond the time limited for the said Ratification, it is agreed upon, that to avoid the Noise which the working of such Mines might create, that they shall be begun but at such time after the Ratification as his Royal Highness shall think fit: The said demolishing Work shall continue and go forward in such a manner, as that in Two or Three Months after the Evacuation of the said Troops above mentioned, all shall be delivered up into his Royal Highness's Hands; whereupon it shall be allowed to send a Commissa∣ry to assist upon the Place, until the Execution of the said Work. His Majesty is also willing, for his Royal Highness's greater Satisfaction, to send him, when he shall require it, Two Dukes and Peers of France, to remain as Hostages in his Roy∣al Highness's Hands, who shall treat them accor∣ding to the Dignity of their Rank.
His Majesty shall make no Treaty of Peace, or Truce with the Emperor, or the King of Spain, without comprehending his Royal Highness, in sui∣table and effectual Terms; and the present Trea∣ty, as well as those Querasque, Munster, the PireneesPage 23 and Nimeguen, shall be included in the General Peace, not only as to the Four Hundred Ninety Four Thousand Crowns of Gold (which are par∣ticularly mentioned in that of Munster, in Dis∣charge of his Royal Highness, and for which the King continues to be still a Guarrantee to the Duke of Mantua) but also as to all other Matters con∣tained in the said Treaties, not contrary to the present Treaty, which are to be irrevoca∣ble, and to remain in full Force and Validity, not∣withstanding the present Delivery of Pignerol and its Dependencies: And as for other Interests, Claims, or Pretensions which concern the House of Savoy, his Royal Highness reserves to himself a Power of Treating about them by way of Protestations, of Memorials, or by Envoys, so that this Treaty may in no ways be prejudicial to the said Prote∣stations.
That a Marriage between the Duke of Burgundy, and the Princess, His Royal Highness's Daughter, shall be treated on out of Hand, to be consum∣mated when they are of Age, and the Contract be∣tween them to be made so soon as this Present Treaty takes effect; after Publication whereof, the Princess shall be put into the King's Hands. That in the said Marriage-Contract, which shall be considered as an essential part of this Treaty, and wherein the Princess shall make the usual Re∣nunciations, with a Promise to pretend to nothing of his Royal Highness's Estate or Succession, fur∣ther than the following Portion: His said Royal Highness shall give as a Portion to the Princess his Daughter Two Hundred Thousand Crowns of Gold; toward the Payment of which, his Royal Highness shall give a Discharge for One Hundred Page 24 Thousand Crowns of Gold, which remained due (by France to the House of Savoy) as part of the Dutchess-Royal's Portion, together with the accru∣ing Interest of that said Sum, which was also pro∣mised to be paid: And the Remainder, (viz. One Hundred Thousand more, which the Duke of Sa∣voy should pay to France, to make up the Portion aforesaid) the King doth Remit, in Consideration of the present Treaty; his Royal Highness enga∣ging moreover, to give to the Princess, his Daugh∣ter, at the Celebration of the Marriage, that, which in the Language of Piedmont, is called Fardle; and in French, the Bundle, or Marriage Present, for Cloaths; and in the Contract of Marriage, the Dowry shall be agreed upon, which the King will give according to the Custom of France.
That his Royal Highness, renouncing from this present time, truly, and effectually, and sincerely, (as he hath done in the fore-mentioned Articles) all the Ingagements which he might have had with the Enemies, doth likewise hope, that his Majesty will answer thereunto, with all the Sentiments which his Royal Highness craves and wishes for; and that having the Honour to be so nearly related to the King, and of entring into a new and glo∣rious Alliance with him, his Majesty doth Grant and Promise, to his Royal Highness, as he doth demand, his powerful Protection, as formerly, in all its Extent; and as his Royal Highness is desirous to maintain a perfect Neutrality with the Kings, Prin∣ces, and Sovereign Powers, who are at present his Allies, his Majesty doth promise, not to put a∣ny manner of Restraint on the Inclinations which his Royal Highness hath, of continuing and using towards them, all the external Measures of Decen∣cy Page 25 and Freedom, that are becoming a Sovereign Prince, who hath Embassadors and Envoys at the Courts of those Princes, and receives and enter∣tains, at his own Court, Envoys and Embassadors from them; and that the King shall in no ways take ill his so doing: comprehending under that Word Princes, the Emperor, Kings, and Sove∣reign Powers of Europe.
His Majesty doth ingage and declare that the ordinary and extraordinary Embassadors of Sa∣voy shall receive at the Court of France, all the Honours without Exception, and with all the Cir∣cumstances and Ceremonies that are paid to the Embassadors of Crowned Heads, that is to say, they shall be received as Embassadors from Kings; and that his Majesty's ordinary, as well as extraor∣dinary Embassadors in all the Courts of Europe, without Exception, and even the King's Embassa∣dors at Rome and Vienna shall likewise treat and use the said ordinary and extraordinary Embassadors and Envoys from Savoy, as they do those from Kings and Crowned Heads. But in regard that this Addition of Honour, as to the Treatment of the Embassadors from Savoy, has been never hi∣therto settled nor raised to that Degree that his Majesty doth now allow it, His Royal Highness is sensible and doth acknowledge, that it is in Consi∣deration of this Treaty, or Contract of Marriage of the Duke of Burgundy with the Princess his his Daughter; and his Majesty doth promise that this Augmentation of Honour shall take Place from the Day that the aforesaid Treaty of Marriage is Signed.
That the Trade between France and Italy shall be renewed and maintained in the same manner as it was settled before this War, from the time of Charles Emanuel II. his Royal Highness's Father; and the same shall be observed, and practised in all Points, and in all Places between the Kingdom and the several parts of his Majesty's Dominions, and those of his Royal Highness's, which was used and practised in all things in the Lifetime of the said Charles Emanuel II. on the Roads of Suza in Savoy, and Pont Beauvoisin, and Villefranche, every one paying the Duties and Customs on both Sides, the French Ships shall continue to pay the ancient Duties at Villefranche, as it was wont to be paid in the time of the said Charles Emmanuel; about which there shall be no Contest or Opposition made, any more than used to be done in those Days. The Couriers and ordinary Posts of France shall pass, as formerly, through his Royal Highness's Estates and Countries, and according to the Regulations there, they shall pay the Duties for the Merchandizes wherewith they shall be charged.
His Royal Highness shall cause an Edict to be pub∣lished by which he shall upon the Penalty of severe corporal Punishments, forbid the Inhabitants of the Vallies of Lucern, called Vaudois, to have any Com∣munication, in Matters of Religion, with the King's Subjects; and his Royal Highness shall ingage, not to suffer at any time from the Date of this Treaty, any of his Majesty's Subjects to make any Settle∣ment in the Protestant Vallies, under Colour of Religion, of Marriage, or for any other Pretence of Settlement, Conveniency, taking Possession of Inheritances, or any other Pretence whatsoever, Page 27 and that no Protestant Minister shall come from thence into any of his Majesty's Dominions, with∣out incurring the severest of Corporal Punishments. That however, his Majesty shall take no Cognisance of his Royal Highness's Usage towards the Vaudois, in regard of their Religion; yet his Royal Highness shall be bound not to suffer the Exercise of the Reformed Religion in the City of Pignerol, nor in the Territories that are restored to his Royal Highness, in like manner as his Majesty neither doth, nor will allow the exercise of it in his Kingdom.
That there shall be on both sides a perpetual Act of Oblivion and Indemnity of all that has been done since the beginning of this War, in what Place soever the Acts of Hostility have been com∣mitted; That in this Act of Grace, all those shall be comprehended who have served his Majesty in what Station soever, although they were his Roy∣al Highness's Subjects; so that no Prosecution shall be made against them, neither shall they be mo∣lested, either in their Persons or Estates, by Re∣prisals, Executions, or Judicial Processes, or up∣on any pretext whatsoever; and the King's Sub∣jects that have served his Royal Highness shall be used in the like manner.
That Ecclesiastical Benefices in such parts of his Royal Highness's Country as hath been conquered by the King, having been filled up by his Majesty from time to time, as the same became vacant, during the time that his Majesty possessed the said Coun∣tries; it is agreed, that the said Collation to Benefices shall be valid, and the Persons who have been promo∣ted by the King, and invested by Authority of the Page 28 Pope's Bulls, shall remain in full Possession thereof. But as to Promotions to the Livings belonging to the Military Order of St. Maurice, or to Places of Judicature or Magistracy, his Royal Highness shall have Liberty to alter the Nominations made by the King; and all Grants made by his Royal Highness of Offices in the Law, become vacant by the Person's leaving them during the War, shall remain good and valid.
As for Contributions that were imposed on the Lands of his Royal Highness's Dominions, altho' they are lawfully imposed, and are become due, and that they amount to considerable Sums, his Majesty does, out of his Liberality, fully discharge his Royal Highness of them, so that from the Day of this Treaty's Ratification, the King will not pre∣tend to, nor require any of the said Contributions, leaving his Royal Highness in full Possession of his Revenues throughout his Dominions, as well as in Savoy, Nice, about Pignerol, and Suza; his Royal Highness on the other side, not demanding any Contributions of the King.
As to the Pretensions of the Dutchess of Nemours on his Royal Highness, his Majesty leaves those Controversies to be determined among themselves by due Course of Law, without concerning him∣self further therein.
That it shall be Lawful for his Royal Highness to send Intendants and Commissaries into Savoy, the County of Nice, the Marquisate of Susa and Barcellonet, into Pignerol and its Dependencies; in order to Regulate his Interests, Rights and Reve∣nues, Page 29 and to settle his Customs and Excises upon Salt and other things. And the said Deputed Per∣sons shall be admitted and authorised in their Offi∣ces, immediately after the Ratification of this pre∣sent Treaty; after which the said Duties shall be∣long to his Royal Highness, without Exception or Contradiction.
That if the Neutrality for Italy be accepted, or that a General Peace be Concluded, as in such Ca∣ses a great many Troops would become altogether useless and Chargeable to his Royal Highness; and that besides the excessive Charges requisite for the maintaining of them, they commonly become an occasion of creating a mis-understanding among Princes, when more Troops are kept on foot then are necessary in a State, either for its own Conservation, or for the maintaining of the Dig∣nity of a Sovereign Prince; his Royal Highness doth therefore oblige himself, not to keep in times of Neutrality, any more than Six thousand Foot on this side the Alps, and One thousand five hun∣dred on the other side of the Mountains, for the Garrisons of Savoy, and of the County of Nice; and One thousand five hundred Horse or Dra∣goons; and this Obligation is to continue only till the General Peace be Concluded.
We the above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries have Agreed upon, and Signed these present Articles; and we do promise and engage to procure them to be ratified and confirmed by his Majesty, and by his Royal Highness; promising likewise, that they shall be kept secret till the end of September next; and if at that time new Articles are made, to the same Page 30 sense and purpose, then these shall be suppressed.
Dated at Turinthe 29th of August, 1696.
Rhene de Froullay, and Saint Thomas,