The safe religion, or, Three disputations for the reformed catholike religion against popery proving that popery is against the Holy Scriptures, the unity of the catholike church, the consent of the antient doctors, the plainest reason, and common judgment of sense it self
Baxter, Richard, 1615-1691.
Page  381

APPENDIX. A Translation of Bishop Downames Catalogue of Popish Errors. lib. 3. de Antichristo cap. 7.

To satisfie the earnest desires of some of the un∣learned, who would fain know wherein the Papists differ from us, that they may be the better furnished against them, and may the better understand those that under other Titles carry about their doctrines.

BEcause I find many ig∣norant persons both un∣acquainted with the Errors of the Papists,* and yet very desirous to know them, I have adventured to translate a larger Catalogue of them, gathered by Bishop George Downame in his Book written to prove the Pope Antichrist lib. 3. cap. 7. pag. 189. &c. though it cannot be expected that in such brief expressi∣ons, the true point of the Page  382 difference, should in all lie plain, before them that are unacquainted with the con∣troversies, yet because I was resolved not to give you any such Catalogue of my own gathering, and knew not where to find one so large as to the number of errors, and brief as to the ex∣pressions, I give you this as I find it.

Page  383

Bishop G.D. Chap. 7. A Catalogue of the Errors of the Church of Rome.

THe Errors of the Papists are either about the Principles of Divinity or the parts of it. The principles of Theology are the Holy Scriptures: Here the Papists have many errors.

1. They deny the Holy Scripture which is of Divine inspiration to be the onely Rule, and Foundation a of Faith.

2. They take certain Apocryphal Books into the Canon of the old Testament, which neither the Jewish Synagogue (to which the Oracles of God were committed) nor yet the purer Christian Church did receive.

Page  384*3. They make two parts of Gods word, that is, the Scriptures, and (their own) Traditions.

4. They contend that the Customes and unwritten Opinions of the Church of Rome, are most certain Apostolical Traditions.

5. These Traditions, or (as they call them) un∣written veritys, they make equal with the Holy Scri∣ture, and receive and reverence them with equal pious affection and reverence.

6. They number the Popes Decretal Epistles with the holy Scriptures.*

*7. They say its heresie for any to say, that it is not al∣together in the Power of the Church or Pope to appoint Aticles of faith.

*8. They prefer the faith and judgement of the Church of Rome, which they say is the internal Scripture writ∣ten by the hand of God in heart of the Church, b∣fore the Holy Scripture.

*9. That the Scripture in which God himself speaketh is not the voice of a Judge, but the matter of strife.

Page  38510.* They accuse the Scri∣pture (which is the light to our feet, and giveth under∣standing to children) of too much obscurity.

11.* They condemn it also of imperfection and insuffi∣ciency.

12. They say that even in matters of faith, and the worship of God, we cannot argue Negatively from Scripture (as thus: It is not in the Scripture: there∣fore it is not necessary or lawful)

13. That the Scripture is not sufficient for the re∣futing of all heresies (as if there were any heresie but what is against Scripture.)

14. That heresie is not so much to be defined by the Scripture authority as by the Churches determi∣nation.

15.* That the authority of the Catholike Church (that is, the Romane) is greater en of the Scriptures: nd the Popes authority greater then the Church.

16.* That the Church is anci∣enter than the Scripture (that is, then the word of God which is now written because Page  386 it is ancienter then the wri∣ting of it. As if it were not the same word of God, which was first delivered by voice, That is now then in writ∣ing.

*17. That the Scripture dependeth on the Catholike Church (that is the Romane) and not the Church on the Scripture.

*18. Also that the sence of the Scripture is to be sought from the See of Rome, and that the Scripture is not the word of God, but as it is expounded according to the sence of the Church of Rome.

19. They make seven Principles of the Christian doctrine, which are all grounded in the authority of the See and Pope of Rome.

*20. They take the vulg Translation only for authen¦tical preferring it before the originals (though it is so manifestly corrupt that the Copies▪ lately published by the Popes themselves, Page  387Sixtus the fifth and Clement the eighth do in many places differ.

21.* That either the holy Scriptures ought not to be Translated into vulgar tongues; or if it be, yet it must neither be publikely read in a known tongue, nor permitted to be privately read by the common people.

§ 2. Of the Belief.

The Parts of Theology are

  • 1. Of faith, or things to be believed.
  • 2. Of Charity, or things to be done.

Matters of faith are

  • 1. Of God & his works.
  • 2. Of the Church.

The works of God are specially

  • 1. Of Creation and Govern∣ment of the world.
  • 2. Of Redemption of man∣kind.

1.* ABout the Creation the Papists erre in Page  388 saying that concupiscence was then natural to man (though John saith that it is not of God, 1 Jo. 2.16. and themselves sometime confess it to be evil and contrary to nature.

*2. In the denying that o∣riginal righteousness was na∣tural to man before the fall (created after Gods Image in Righteousness and holiness.

*3. In affirming that mor∣tality was natural to man be∣fore the fall (which yet is not from God the author of nature.)

*4. In placing Paradise where the waters of the flood did not reach it (which yet covered all the earth, and were fifteen cubits higher then the highest mou¦taines.)

5. Forsooth they would have that Paradise (or Eden) yet untouched, that it may be a pleasant ha∣bitatian to Hench and Elias, yet living in mortal bodies (where they place them as behind the stage, that they may be ready to act their parts in the fable o Antichrist)

Page  389To the Article of creation is annexed the Article of providence.

1. In this the Papists erre,* in making mans actions not to depend on Gods Provi∣dence, but on mans Free∣will, which they make the absolute Lord of its own actions.

2.* And that they are not determined of God (accor∣ding to whose determinate Council things come to pass Act. 2.30. & 4.28.) but that God rather (who work∣eth all according to the Council of his will) doth follow the determination of the will of man.

3. And that he foreknows them from eternity on∣ly in mans will.

4.* Also in that they inter∣pret the action of God as judge, punishing sin with sin, hardening men, giving them over to their lusts, and to the temptations of Satan, to be naked permission (as if the judge or Magistrate might not deliver a male∣factor to the hangman, as executioner of his judge∣ment to be punished; but Page  388〈1 page duplicate〉Page  389〈1 page duplicate〉Page  390 should not onely permit him to be punished, that is, not hinder it.

§ 3. Of Redemption.

IN the Doctrine of Redemption and Salvation we must consider.

1. Whence we are redeemed, to wit from sin, and a state of obstinacy

2. By whom, to wit, by Christ, who is the author and foundation of our Salvation.

3. By what means the benefit of Redemption and Salvation is applyed to us: where, of the Covenant of God, the Ministry of the Word and Sacraments.

4. The effects of Gods Grace in Christ, or the degrees of Salvation, which are fruits of the Merits of Christ applyed to us.

In all these the Papists do filthily erre; for as to sin (which intercedeth between the works of Creati∣on and Redemption, as a medium) they teach.

1. That the blessed Virgin was free from all sin o∣riginal and actual, as being conceived without Origi∣nal sin, and having lived without actual sin.

2.* Under the name of the flesh which lusteth against the Spirit, and is to be mor∣tified among other things, they mean the body of man.

Page  3913. That all sin is not a transgression of the Law (John defineth it, 1. Jo. 3.4. Gal. 3.10.) nor all trans∣gression of the Law is sin.

4.* That there is no sin but what is voluntary (which is not onely false of concupi∣scence, habitual and actual which goes before the wills consent, but of other sins al∣so which are done of igno∣rance or infirmity, for though the actions are vo∣luntary by which they are committed, yet the sin is not.)

Sin is original or actual: The Papists marvailously xtenuate original sin, and amplifie and set forth the strength of nature.

5.* For some of them would have original sin to be only the guilt of Adams transgression: most will have it to be onely the want of O∣riginal righteousness: And so that the state of man after Adams fall, and in pure naturals, doth differ Page  392 onely as a stript man, and a naked man.

6. Others would have it to be a very small sin, and less then any venial sin; and therefore needeth no repentance; nor is punished with pain of sense, but onely with pain of loss.

7. Others deny original sin to be properly sin, or that any thing is found in infants that properly hath the nature of sin.

*8. That we are not by na∣ture dead in sin but sick: nor do they acknowledge in us an impotency to spiritual good, but a difficulty: nor that Free∣will to spiritual good is whol∣ly taken from us, but hind∣red and tyed.

*9. That men are naturally inclined to love God above all.

*10. They attribute to man a will that is the Ruler and Lord of it self: such as be∣longeth to no creature: Yea Page  393 they say that the will of man is as free from Necessity as the Will of God.

11.* They deny the will of the unregenerate to be a servant.

12.* They deny also that all the works of the unregerate are sins: or that the unrege∣nerate sin when they do the works that are commanded.

13.* They say that before all grace a man hath freewill not onely to works natural and moral, but also to works of piety, and supernatu∣ral.

14.* That there is in mans free will, not onely a possi∣bility or passive power, but Page  394 also an active power to spiri∣tural works.

*15. That the unregenerate can prepare and dispose themselves to justification.

*16. That a wicked man by doing his best may congru∣ously merit the grace of justification.

*17. God necessarily gi∣veth grace to him that doth his best.

*18. That the efficacy of preventing grace dependeth on the freedome of the will.

*19. That every transgres∣gression of the Law (which yet pronounceth every man Page  395 accursed that continueth not in all things commanded in the Law to do them) deserveth not death: But that there are many sins of themselves, and of their own nature venial, and deserving pardon.

20.* That charity is not violated by venial sins, and that they are not aginst Gods precepts, but besides them.

21.* That the blood of Christ is not necessary to wash them away, but that they may be done away by Holy Water, knocking the brest, Episcopal benediction, and other ridiculous means.

22.* That sin is called mor∣tal because it brings death upon the soul, that is, de∣priveth it of Gods grace.

23. And they teach that by every mortal sin, grace is lost and charity expectorated.

24. That this mortal sin is any that shall obtain the wills consent, though the act be not per∣formed.

25. That the sins of the regenerate are in the same sence mortal, even those committed of ignorance and infimity.

26.* And that it is such a mortal sin to neglect or not Page  306 observe any Ecclesiastical law, or tradition of the Ro∣mane Church.

*27. That the sin against the Holy Ghost is not unpar∣donable.

28. Nor that its impossible for him that commits that sin to be renewed by Repentance.

§ 4. Of Christ.

IN Christ are considerable, 1. His Person, 2. His Office. About his Person he erreth who thinks not rightly of his Godhead, or of his Manhood.

1. About Christs Godhead those Papists erre that deny Christ to be 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 God of himself, for thats as much as to deny him to be Jehovah.

About the Humane Nature, both Soul and Body they erre.

*2. For they deny that the soul of Christ did increase in wisdom and grace (which Luke expresly affirmeth) Luk. 2.52.

3. Or that he was ignorant of the day and hour of the last judgement (which yet himself confesseth, Mat. 13.32.)

4. They seem to give him a phantastick body that neither consisteth of dimensions, nor occupieth a place, which when he was born did not open the Page  397 wombe of his mother, and when he rose did pene∣trate the stone of the sepulchre, and when he insti∣tuted his Supper, lay hid under the Species of Bread and Wine.

5. Yea that they may stablish that monstrous opinion of Transubstantiation, they feign him to have a body that can neither be seen, nor felt, nor circumscribed, that is in innumerable places at once: which is not made of the substance of the blessed Virgin, but of bread (as wine of that water, Joh. 2.9.) and which sustaineth the accidents of bread (as their subject) For they can devise no other subject after the tran∣substantiation of the bread: Whence it follows, that they are no more accidents of bread but of Christs body.

6.* And as to Christs Office, they teach that Christ is Mediator onely according to his humane nature.

7. They deny Christ to be the onely Mediator of in∣tercession but joyn with him Angels and Saints.

8. They teach that we must pray to Saints to in∣tercede for us.

9. That we are heard by the Saints suffrages and Merits.

10.* They deny Christ to be the onely Prophet, whose voice onely must be heard, spiritual King, and Priest of the New Testament.

Page  398But they make the Pope also the chief Prophet and Pastor, King and Monarch, and Priest. Whence it follows that the Pope is not onely opposied to Christ as his adversary, but as his Rival.

*11. And they make other sacrificing Priests also of the New Testament, having an external visible Priesthood, and that according to the or∣der of Melchizedeck: whose office it is to sacrifice Christ again and offer him to his Fa∣ther.

12. That the (unchangeable) Priesthood of Christ the eternal Priest, is made eternal by the succession of such Priests.

13. That an Eternal Priesthood requireth an E∣ternal Sacrifice, but is not Eternal, unless it be of∣ten sacrificed.

14. That this Eternal sacrifice can be nothing else but the sacrifice of the mass.

*15. That Christ (who is God over all blessed for e∣ver) did merit for himself,

*16. That Christs merits are not the onely meritori∣ous cause of salvation; But Page  399 they hope to be saved by their own and other mens merits.

§ 5. Of the outward means.

LEt us now come to the external means, to wit, Gods Covenant, and the administration of the Covenant in the Ministry of the word and Sacra∣ments. The Covenant is twofold, 1. Of works, or the Law. 2. Of Grace, or the Gospel.

1.* These two the Papists do almost confound: for they plainly make the Gospel a Covenant of works, and call it the new Law, which prescribes a more perfect o∣bedience then the Law it self, for the obtaining of Justifi∣cation and Salvation.

2. That faith is stirred up, and so sins forgiven by the preaching of the word, they say is a fiction of the Hereticks of our Times.

3.* That the Sacraments are not seals of the pro∣mises or Covenant of God, Page  400 nor instituted to confirm the promise.

*4. That Circumcision was a seal of the Righteousness of faith onely to Abraham.

*5. That Sacraments of the new Law do confer grace that makes us acceptable, or justifying Grace, ex opere o∣perato, i. e. upon that very account, because the exter∣nal Sacrament is administred, if they put not the Bar of mortal sin.

6. That grace is contained in the Sacraments as in a vessel, nay that the Sacraments are Physical instru∣mental causes of Grace, and that they do work ho∣liness by a power put into them by God, as the heat of the fire is the cause of the burning of the wood.

*7. That there is necessari∣ly required the intention of the Administrator to the truth of the Sacrament, at least of doing what the Church does.

*8. That there are seven Sacraments of the new Co∣venant instituted by that, nei∣ther fewer nor more.

Page  4019.* That in the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Order there is imprinted in the Soul by God a Cha∣racter or certain spiritual and indeleble sign or marke, so that they cannot be reite∣rated: In the other Sacra∣ments there is onely an orna∣ment or dress imprinted in¦stead of a Character or mark.

10.* That the observation of the Ceremonies which they use in the Administrati∣on of Sacraments (though invented by themselves) through will-worship is mritorious and part of Di∣vine worship.

§ 6. Of Baptism.

1.* THat all Infants before are possessed by the Divel.

2.* They grant a power to women (even such as are un∣baptized themselves) to bap∣tize.)

3.* That Baptism is not on∣ly necessary, by necessity of Page  402 precept (which we confess) but also to be simply necessa∣ry to salvation by necessity of means: for none can be saved without Baptism.

*4. That the efficacy of Baptism does not extend it self to the future, but one∣ly to that which is past.

5. That the laver of Regeneration is not profitable to those that fall after Baptism.

*6. That there is in Bap∣tism a silent and implicite oath of obedience to the Pope.

*7. That no sin remaines or is l••t in the Baptized: for sin is wholly taken away by Baptisme, not onely so that it is not imputed, but o as that has no being

*8. That Baptisme also does confer grace to the Baptized exopere operato by the work done, by which he is truely and formally justified.

*9. That the Baptism of John was not the same Sacra∣ment, nor had it the same force and efficacy with the Baptisme which is instituted by Christ; as if Christ were Page  403ot the Author of Jonh's Baptisme.

10.* That after the Bap∣tism of John they must needs receive the Baptisme of Christ.

11.* That the Bells are to be Baptized by the Bishops or Suffragans with a solemn Rite.

12. They use and urge some unprofitable and super∣itious Ceremonies as if they were necessary both before Baptism and after. For,

1. The Baptized are signed with the sign of the Cross on the forehead, on the brest, on the eyes, on the ears, on the nose, and on the mouth; that all the senses of the body may be guarded with this sign; for by vertue of this signe, are the Sacraments compleated, and the Divels stratagems frustrated.

2. They give them hallowed Salt to eat, that be∣ing seasoned with wisdom, they might be free from the stink of sin; and may not putrifie again.

3. They play the Conjurers about little children, as if they were such as were pulled out of the hands of the Divel, and they blow the wicked spirit out by their breath, That one spirit may be driven out with nother.

4. They touch their nostrils and ears with spitle, saying, Ephata, be opened.

5. They anoint them with consecrated oile in the breast, that they may be fortified against the adver∣sary, and he may not be able to perswade them unto unclean and hurtful things: They anoint them also Page  404 between the shoulders, that they may receive strength to bear the Lords burden.

After Baptism, they anoint the top of the head of him who is newly Baptized with Crisme or Oyle. After this sacred Unction they cover his head with a holy veil, that he may know himself to enjoy a King∣ly and Priestly Diademe. They give him a lighted Taper, that he may be taught thereby to fulfill that Evangelical command, So let your light shine, &c.

§ 7. Of Confirmation.

1. THE Sacrament of Confirmation is more wor∣thy then the Sacrament of Baptism, for as it is done by greater Priests (viz. Bishops) which can∣not be done by less, so also it is to be had and held with greater veneration and reverence.

2. That Confirmation does excel Baptism in re∣gard of its effecting grace to well doing.

3. That the Sacrament of Confirmation does confer Grace making us acceptable, ex opere operato, and indeed more then Baptism does

4. In which the fulness of the Holy Ghost is con∣serred, viz. ex opere operato.

5. The matter of this Sacrament is Chrisme, o¦unction, which they call the Chrisme of Salva∣tion

6. That by this holy Chrisme made of Oyle and Balsom, and smeered on the forehead in form of a Cross, the sevenfold Spirit of Grace is given.

7. For that the holy Spirit is given to us by Oyle▪ as it was given to the Apostles in the form of fire.

Page  4058. That he will never be a Christian, that is not by Episcopal Confirmation Chrismated.

9 Instead of Imposition of hands, the Bishop gives him that is confirmed a boxe on the eare, to confirm him forsooth, and to drive away the Divel.

§ 8. Of the Eucharist.

1. IN the Sacrament of the Eucharist they teach and urge the corporal presence of the flesh of Christ. As if that Sacrament were instituted to nourish bodies and not souls.

2. And that the body and blood of Christ is made re∣ally present in the Sacrament by Transubstantiation, or conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the very body of Christ, and of the whole substance of the wine into his very blood.

3. That this Transubstantiation is made by reciting the Sacramental words, Hoc est corpus meum, This is my body. And therefore they call these operative words.

4. That these words are to be muttered with a low murmuring: as if Christ had spoken them Ma∣gically to inchant the Bread, and not to instruct his Disciples.

5. Thus they expound them, This (i. e. under these figures) is my body, and yet they urge the lit∣teral sence, or 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.

6. That the body of Christ is made of the Bread in the Eucharist as Wine was made of water.

Page  4067. And yet that the Priests when they make the Body of Christ of the Bread, do not produce it (as some will have it) but do change the substance of the Bread into the very pre existing body.

8. That after the words of consecration, the meer accidents, and indeed all the accidents of the bread and wine do remain.

9. That not so much as the first matter doth re∣main after the change of the bread.

10. That the substance of the bread is consumed and ceaseth to be and yet is not anihilated.

11. That the substance of the bread ceasing, the substance of the body of Christ succeeds, and is con∣tained under the accidents of the bread.

12. That those accidents are not in any subject, nor do they subsist of themselves, but are up∣held by God after a supernatural manner.

13. That they are in somewhat else, but do not in∣here in it.

14. That the body of Christ does remain in the host, as long as the accidents of bread remain un∣corrupted.

15. That as long as the body of Christ is in the host, It is accompanied with Angels.

16. That in the corruption of the species, there is matter substituted by God, in that very instant in which those species cease to be, and in which some∣thing else is Generated.

17. That the subject of these Accidents is quanti∣ty, which also it self is an accident, and which they feign to subsist without a quantum that hath di∣mensions.

18. That the Elements of the Sacrament of the Eucharist do not nourish if taken in a great quantity, Page  407 without a Divine Miracle. And therefore neither do they nourish the mice that take a small quantity without a miracle.

19. But as they take away the substance of the Bread and Wine, and so with that the substance of the Sacrament: so they rob the Body of Christ of almost all the essential properties of a true body by this fiction of Transubstantiation.

20. And as they feign the Accidents of bread in the Sacrament without the substance of it; so they must needs feign the substance of Christs body with∣out the Accidents of it.

21. Many do teach the presence of Christs body, affirming that one and same body of Christ undi∣vided does exist upon innummerable Altars, and eve∣ry where whole.

22. That the body of Christ being in many places at once, and yet not in the space between, is not discontinued or divided from it self in respect of its proper substance or quantity, but only is divided from it self in respect of place.

23. That one and the same body of Christ be∣ing in heaven and on earth, yea in innumerable places on earth at once is indeed visible and palpable in hea∣ven, but on earth invisible, and beyond all our sen∣es: There it is limited and circumscribed; here tis unlimited, there it has its Dimensions, here tis free from all dimensions.

24. Moreover they teach an Oral and Capernaiti∣cal Manducation of the flesh of Christ, for they say the body of Christ in the Eucharist is really and sen∣sually touched, broken, and eaten.

5. Yea that wicked men receiving the Sa∣crament of the Altar, do chew the body of Page  408 Christ, and break it with their Teeth.

26. And upon the same account, is the very body of Christ devoured by Mice and Doggs, if they chance to eat the host.

27. By reason of this Mystery of Transubstanti∣ation, they call the Sacrament or consecrated host, their Lord and God.

28. That the Mass Priest when he makes the Sacra∣ment, or (as they themselves speak) the Body of Christ, he is the Maker of his Maker.

29. The Priest does adore the consecrated Host, and does offer it to others by lifting it up to be ado∣red.

30. And for the same end they keep it and carry it in solemn Procession, that it may be publikely a∣dored.

31. That the Eucharist when it is carryed to the sick is to be adored by all those that meet it, those that do adore it are to have indulgences, those that don't adore it are to be counted Hereticks, and are to be persecuted with fire and sword.

32. By this Bread-worship they commit great idolatry, whilst that they adore a peice of Bread, with the worship of Latria, which is onely due to God.

33. In honor of this Breaden-God they celebrate the feast of the body of Christ.

34. Although they confess Christ did administer this venerable Sacrament with both Elements of Bread and Wine, and though they acknowledge this Sacrament was received of the faithful in the Primi∣tive Church with both Elements: Yet they deter∣mine that it is to be communicated to the Laity in one kind or Element onely, and forbid the Priests Page  409 giving it to the people in both kinds, upon pain of ex∣communication.

35. They teach that whole Christ is in either of the Elements, and that the whole Nature of the Sacrament is to be found in one of them, neither is any more profit reaped from communion in both kinds then in one.

36. Nay that he gets more who communicates in one, in obedience to the Church, then he that communicates in both without that huge fruit of o∣bedience.

37. But this taking away of the Cup from the peo∣ple may seem a small matter; for it is done but once every year, at which time the Sacrament is given to the people: For in all the rest of the Masses which are continual and daily, they deprive both the people and the Clergy that do not consecrate it of both kinds. For in private Masses it is held forth to be seen by the people and Clergy, and to be adored, not to be received but onely by the Priest that makes it.

38.* They urge a mixture of Water with the Wine in the Cup as most necessary.

39. And they assert that the Body of the Lord cannot be rightly taken, but of those that fast.

40. They have converted the Sacrament of the Eucharist by which God communicates Christ to us, into a real Sacrifice in which they do offer up Christ to God.

41. Also the Table into an Altar and the admini∣strator of the Sacrament into a Priest after the order of Melchizedek.

Page  41042. They say this new Sacrificing is required, that Christs Body may begin to be an obla∣tion.

43. That Christ in the last Supper did offer his body and blood in both kinds of Bread and Wine, to God the Father as an oblation.

44. That Christ did once offer up himself for us upon the Cross, in the Mass often by the hands of the Priests.

45. That tis one and the same sacrifice which is done in the Mass, and which is offered on the Cross, one∣ly they differ in the manner of oblation being with∣out blood.

46. Every Mass Priest offering Christ to God the Father, prayes God to accept that Sacrifice, and to command that it may be carried by the hands of an Angel unto the high Altar of God.

47. And therefore they make the Priest Mediator between God and Christ.

48. The Priest in offering that Sacrifice to God for thers, is a Mediator between God and the men for whom he celebrates the Mass.

49. That Christ, when he said in the Supper, Do this, commanded the Apostles and their Successors, that they should Sacrifice him and offer him up to God the Father.

50. That by the same words Christ did appoint his Apostles to be Priests.

51. That one never to be repeated offering of Christ, by which he hath consecrated those that are sanctified for ever, They do offer thousands al∣most infinite times.

Page  41152. Neither do they do it onely at divers times and in divers places, but in the same Temple they celebrate divers Masses at divers Altars.

53. They also celebrate Masses (••e they offer Christ himself to God) for the honor of the Saints, to obtain their intercession with God.

54. That the sacrifice of the Mass, which they con∣fess is without Blood, is truely propitiatory for the living and for the dead.

55. That the same sacrifice is impetratory not on∣ly of Spiritual but Temporal blessings: hence they are wont to celebrate Mass, i. e. offer Christ to God, or the obtaining of health, for defence, for a pros∣perous journey, for victory in war, and all other such Temporal benefits; yea for Horses and Hoggs, &c.

56. By the Mass, which being hired they are wont to celebrate for others: They say, they can ap∣ply to them the vertue of Christs death to take away their sins, and to obtain all manner of bene∣fits.

57. By Masses are souls delivered out of Purga∣tory.

58. To conclude, They have most filthily pollu∣ted the Sacrament of the Eucharist with a multitude of foolish Ceremonies, which were too long to re∣hearse; And yet in the observation of them they place the worship of God, and merit, and urge them as most necessary, and not to be omitted without mortal sin.

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Page  412

§ 9. Of their Sacrament of Penance.

*1. THat Repentance [Pe∣nance] is a Sacrament properly so called.

*2. That Repentance in the New Testament is ano∣ther thing from that which was in the old, and al that in the new Testame•• which is after Baptisme is a∣nother thing from that which s before: For that Repentance which is in the Old Testament, or before Baptism, is not a Sacra∣ment. That saying of Lu∣ther is heresie, A new Life is the best Penance.

*3. They say contrition is an Act of the Will, done by the power of Freewill, or a sorrow voluntarily assum∣ed.

*4. That contrition does deserve forgiveness of sins.

Page  4135.* That its necessary to justification that sins all and every one (as far as may be) be confessed to the Priest as to a judge.

6. That this confession is meritorious of remissi∣on of the fault, the lessening of the punishment, the opening of Paradise, and of confidence of salva∣vation.

7. Without Sacramental (which they call Auri∣cular) Confession or the vow of it, sins cannot be forgiven.

8. That sin which was declared under the Seal of Confession is by no meanes to be disclosed (though it were the Crime of Treason or Rebel∣lion.

9.* By the doctrine of sa∣tisfaction, they do sacrilegi∣ously, and blasphemously derogate from the satisfacti∣on of Christ.

10. They teach indeed the satisfaction of Christ to be full for all, both in respect of the fault and al∣so the punishment; but by way of sufficiency; not by way of efficiency; but satisfaction by way of suffi∣ciency onely deserves not the name of satisfaction.

11.* They say the fault be∣ing remitted, there remains Page  414 a debt of punishment to be paid, for which satisfaction must be made.

12. That satisfaction is required for the compen∣sation of the wrong done to God, and the satisfying of divine justice.

13. That a justified man may truely and properly make satisfation, not onely to the Church, but even to God himself, namely for the guilt of punish∣ment; which remains to be expiated after the fault is remitted.

14. That it is unbecoming Divine Clemency to re∣mit sin without our own satisfaction.

Three wayes we are said to satisfie the Lord.

*15. First, By patiently bearing the scourges and pu∣nishments laid on us by God.

16 Secondly, By voluntary undertaking laborious works.

17. Thirdly, By undergoing the punishment im∣posed by the discretion of the Priest.

*18. That all the afflictions of the faithful are to be ac∣counted for true and proper punishments of sin.

Page  41519. That the calamities, which are laid upon the just after conversion, are to be born in some sence to compensate their offence.

20.* That it is not suffici∣ent that we repent except we also satisfie God by painful and satisfactory works.

21. Amongst those painful works, they reckon their Whippings of themselves, and Pilgrimages unto the places of the Saints, &c.

22.* Prayer they reckon amongst penal works.

23. Fasting also and Almes deeds they teach to be satisfactory works.

24.* That one man may sa∣tisfie for another, but less suffering is required of him that satisfies for another.

25. That the satisfactory and penal works of the Saints may be communicated and applyed to o∣thers.

26.* That the vertue of Christs blood is applyed to us by the Priests absolution.

27. That by vertue of the Pr••sts absolution, eternal punishment is turned into temporal, which also the Priest imposes according to his discretion.

Page  41628. That the words of absolution are not onely a sign but also a cause of remission of sin, or that they do effect justification: for by the Priests absoluti∣on is sin driven away removed ex oper operato as a cloud by the wind.

29. That a man cannot be reconciled to God without a Sacramental absolution.

30. That Sacerdotal absolution hath that force of justifying; because many desiring reconciliation and believing in Christ are damned, onely because they died before they could be absolved by a Priest: or (as they otherwise express their meaning) do perish for that onely they could not have a reconciling Priest.

31. To Papal absolution we refer the Jubilees and their sale of indulgences.

32. Also in the year of Jubilee (which they have reduced from the hundredth t the fiftyeth, and thence to the twenty fifth) they promise full re∣mssion of all sins to those that visit the Temples of Peter and Paul, and the Lateran Church.

33. They assert that there is a treasure of over∣flowing satisfactions in the Church not onely of Christ, but also of the Saints which the Pope by in∣dulgences can apply both to the living and dead, by which they are delivered from the guilt of punish∣ment before God.

34. That souls are freed from Purgatory by in∣dulgences.

35. They confess there is no need to adde the satis∣faction of the Saints to the satisfaction of Christ (which they cannot deny to be infinite and alwayes overflowing) yet they (to whom gain s godliness) think meet to add them.

Page  41736. Neither do they bestow indulgences for a few dayes or years, but for many thousands of years: from whence it is manifest they do but make a jest of the Article of the day of judgement which according to their own opinion will put an end to Purgatory, and all temporal punishments.

37. To conclude in all their Sacramental penance they make no mention of faith at all, and of Christ scarce any.

38. For Repentance (Penance) which they will have to be a plank after shipwrack they say consists (on the penitents part) in contrition; auricular con∣fession, and satisfaction; on the Priests part in Sacra∣mental absolution, as the act of a Judge, whose words are, I do absolve thee from all thy sins in the name of the Father Son and Holy Ghost.

39. That that is a pious prayer which some are wont to use in Monasteries after absolution given for sin: let the merit of the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the blessed Virgin Mary, and of all Saints, the Merit of Order, and the burthen of Re∣ligion, the humility of Confession, the contrition of heart, the good works which thou hast done, and wilt do for the love of our Lord Jesus Christ, be∣stead thee for remission of sin, and increase of me∣rit and grace, and for the reward of Eternal Life. Amen.

Page  418

§ 10. Of extream Ʋnction.

1. THat the extream Unction is truely and pro∣perly a Sacrament of the New Testament, and indeed an ordinary one.

2. That this Sacrament doth confer grace, mak∣ing us acceptable ex opere operato: doth restore health to the sick, and blot out sins if any re∣maine.

3. That by this Unction (which they apply to the eyes, to the ears, to the mouth, to the loynes, and to the hands) God doth grant to the sick whatsoever is wanting by that fault of the sences.

4. That by this Sacrament a man may some∣times be saved, who should otherwise plainly be damned.

1. That Ordination is truely and properly a Sa∣crament of the new Law, conferring to the Or∣dained Grace making him acceptable ex opere ope∣rato.

2. There are seven, or rather eight Sacraments of Order, all which are truely, or properly called Sacra∣ments, viz. The Order of Porters, of Readers, of Exorsists, of Servitors of Sub-Deacons, of Deacons and Presbyters, and Bishops.

3. In every one of is given to the Ordained, the seven fold Grace of the Spirit, yea Grace making them acceptable, and that ex opere operato.

4. That anointing is required in Ordination.

Page  419

Of Marriage.

1. That Matrimony, though it were instituted in Paradise, is truely and properly a Sacrament of the new Law.

2. And therefore does confer grace upon the married, making them acceptable, ex opere ope∣rato.

3. That the Church has power to constitute im∣pediments that shall hinder marriage.

4. That the Church has power to dispense with the degrees of Consanguinity forbidden of God, and to make more degrees which shall not onely hinder marriage, but break it.

5. That marriage confirmed, not consummated, is also dissolved, in respect of the Bond, by the en∣trance of one of the parties into a vow without the consent of the other.

6. That the solemn Vow of Chastity, and holy Orders, are an impediment both hindring marriage to be made, and breaking it being made.

7. Also difference of Religion does not onely hinder marriage to be made, but also break it being made.

8. That marriage contracted between Infidels, when either is converted to the faith, is broken, viz. because that marriage was not a Sacrament.

9. That the Church of Rome did rightly prohibit marriage of old to the seventh, but afterwards to the fourth degree of Consanguinity, according to the Canonical rule of reckoning (but the fourth de∣gree of Canonical reckoning is the seventh and eighth in the Civil Law.)

Page  42010. The Spiritual kindred (which ariseth forsooth from Baptism and Confirmation) may hinder mar∣riage to be made, and break it being made.

§ 11. Of the Effects of Grace.

NOw follow the Effects of Grace or the de∣grees of Salvation, such are vocation, justifica∣tion, &c.

*1. Where first the Papists do egregiously erre in ex∣pounding the word [grace] for when the holy Spirit, speaking of these effects of Divine grace, saith we are justifie by grace, and saved by grace, &c. By grace they understand not the free fav∣our of God in Christ, but the gift of grace inherent in us: as if the Scripture did not say we are called, justified, and saved by the same grace we are elected and redeemed by.

2. And then when they divide the grace of God into eternal grace, which they call the everlasting love of God: and temporary such as the benefit of vocation and justification are: again they divide this temporary grace into grace freely given, and grace making acceptable, both which they will have to be a quality inherent in us, as if either all grace which they call temporary, did inhere in us, or that which doth inhere in us were not all freely given.

Page  4213.* Grace making us ac∣ceptable they will not have to be the grace of God, by which he loves us and makes s acceptable to him, accord∣ing to that, Wherein he hath made us accepted in the belov∣ed: but to be grace by way of habit remaining in us, by which we love God, therefore they call charity a grace making us acceptable, as if by reason of its force and merit men were saved of God.

4.* Moreover when they divide grace into sufficient and efficacious grace they say ufficient grace is given to all and every man even without the Church, by which they have a power to will, and they can if they will, believe, and by believing be saved.

5. If any want sufficient grace to avoid sin, they o not truely sin, neither are they guilty of sin before God.

6 That in the first act of conversion,* the will is not passive.

Page  422*7. That it is in the power of mans free will to resist o yeild to efficacious grace.

§ 12. Of Justification.

BUt now the doctrine of Justification they utterly overthrow.

*1. For first they con∣found▪ justification which is an act of God without us, as Redemption, Recon∣ciliation, Adoption, with Sanctification and Inherent Righteousness: and so confound not onely the Gospel with the Law, but quite take away Justifica∣tion it self, the chief benefit we have by Christ in this life.

*2. They teach men to lay the cause of justification and the merit of salvation in themselves.

*3. They will have remis∣sion of sin to be a blotting of them out, by which not only Page  423 the guilt but also the irregu∣larity it self is abolished.

4. As in warming,* the cold is expelled by the coming of the heat: so in justification sin is abolished by the infusi∣on of righteousness.

5. Neither will they understand justification in the Scripture, as a Law-term to be opposed to condem∣nation, and Sanctification to pollution.

6.* The Scripture teaches sanctification to be an action of God: they make the se∣cond justification, as they call it, not Gods action but their own.

7.* Whereas the Scripture eacheth that we are justified by the grace of God intima∣ting the inward moving cause of justification, which is the free favor of God in Christ: the Papists under∣stand grace, or rather graces inherent in us: which yet in the Question of justification (wherein the holy Page  424 Ghost opposes works to grace) are not more oppos∣ed to works then their first justification is to the se∣cond.

*8. When the Scripture teacheth that we are justifi∣ed by the righteousness of God, and the blood of God i. e. of Christ who is God (for by his obedience and blood, we are justified, and he is our righteousness) I say by a righteousness which is not revealed in the Law, and therefore not inherent, but which is revealed in the Gospel without the Law. They understand a righteousness infused by God and inherent in us.

*9. When the Scripture teaches that we are made the righteousness of God in Christ, as he is made sin for us, and so that the obedi∣ence of Christ is communica∣ted to us for justification, as the disobedience of Adam for condemnation namely by imputation; But they say we are justified not by the imputation of the righteous∣ness of Christ, but partly by the infusion of habitual righteousness, viz. in the first justification, partly by our own performance of actual righteousness or good works in the second justification.

Page  42510.* For they contend for a double justification; the first which consists in the in∣fused habit of charity, the other in meritorious works.

When as the Scripture teacheth that we are justified by faith without works i. e. not-by inherent righteous∣ness,* but by the righteous∣ness of Christ apprehended y faith, and therefore that we are not justified by faith as it is a part of inherent righ∣teousness, for so with other graces it sanctifies us) nor by any other faith, then that which apprehends the righte∣ousness of Christ, or by any other grace (because there is no other beside faith that apprehends Christs righteousness) and therefore by faith alone.

11.* The Papists on the contrary teach faith to justifie as it is a part of inherent righteousness.

12.* And not so much to justifie, as to dispose us for justification, by obtain∣ing Page  426 remission, and deserving justification.

13. For, say they, faith and Repentance do justi∣fie as dispositions, and meritorious causes ex con∣gruo.

*14. But that charity is properly the justifying grace.

*15. And the form of justi∣fying faith.

*16. And yet that true justi∣fying faith may be separated from charity.

17. And therefore that a man having true faith may be damned.

*18. Neither do they ac∣knowledge any special faith which apprehends the righ∣teousness of Christ, but they say that is sufficient, which consists in a general consent, without all affiance (yea even without knowledge) which they call implicite faith.

*19 For they say faith is better defined by ignorance then knowledge.

Page  42720.* Neither can they in∣dure by any means that we say faith only justifies.

21.* When as the Scrip∣ture plainly excludes works as causes from the act of justification, though it re∣quire them in the subject or person justified, as ne∣cessary fruits of justifying faith, by which believers are justified that is declared to be just; but they assert that we are not justified before God by faith onely but also by works as the causes of justifica∣tion.

22. And in this matter they make James plainly to contradict Paul.

23. And they invert the disputation of Paul, as if the Question he disputes were, whether faith justi∣fies without works, but whether works justifie with∣out faith.

24. That men are justified by the observation of Gods, and the Churches commands.

25. That men deserve remission of mortal sins by repentance, Almes deeds, forgiving injuries, conver∣ting an offending Brother, and other duties of piety and charity by which we do not deny but our belief of the pardon of sin is confirmed.

26. And that venial sins are purged away by the repetition of the Lords prayer, by striking the brest, by sprinkling of Holy Water, and the Bishops blessing &c.

27. That a wicked man may deserve justifying grace, ex congruo, and that this merit of con∣gruity Page  428 is when the sinner doth his utmost.

*28. They deny justifica∣on be to proper to the Elect.

*29. That no man in this life ought certainly to deter∣mine that he is of the number of the elect.

*30. That every one must doubt of the remission of their sins.

31. No man can be certain of his justification with∣out a special revelation.

32. That no man in this world ought to seek an infallible certainty of his salvation or justification.

33. That doubting of the pardon of sin is not an infirmity but a vertue.

*34. For any one certain∣ly to believe that his sins are forgiven him through Christ, is abominable presumption.

*35. That faith which the Apostle calls the substance, & evidence, and full assurance, they will have to be doubtful and uncertain.

Page  42936. Also hope, which yet the Apostle commends as an Anchor sure and stedfast, and that maketh not him, that hopes, ashamed.

§ 13. Of Sanctification and good Works.

1.* THat concupiscence in the regenerate is no sin.

2.* That the regenerate or baptized may perfectly fulfill the Law.

3.* That the works of the righteous are simply and ab∣solutely righteous.

4. That sins are expiated by good works accord∣ing to the proverb, forsooth, he that steals much and gives a little, shall escape.

5.* That good Works do concur by way of efficiency to salvation, or are necessa∣ry not onely for their pre∣sence, but for their efficiency.

6. And that good works are not onely such as are commanded by God: but such as are voluntarily undertaken by men with a good intention.

7.* That the good works of the righteous not onely justi∣fie, Page  430 but also by way of con∣dignity deserve eternal life, both for the Covenants sake and also the works them∣selves.

*8. And that that is merit of condignity by which a man indued with grace and the holy Spirit after he hath deserved the habit of love by former merit doth by his good works and their condignity deserve eternal life.

9. To the merit of condignity there is required an equality of proportion in the merit to the re∣ward.

10. To the good works of the righteous eternal happiness is as well due as eternal sufferings to the sins of the wicked.

11. That in every Christian work, proceeding from grace the merit of Christs blood is applyed.

12. That Christ by his death merited that our works might be satisfactory for sins, and meritorious of eternal life, or thus, Christ merited that by our own merits we might attain salvation.

13. That every act of charity, or every good work proceeding from Charity, doth absolutely deserve eternal life.

14. That good works are meritorious of three things, viz. of remitting the punishment, of increase of grace, and of eternal Life.

15. That a righteous man may deserve for himself an increase of righteousness by way of condignity.

Page  43116. Neither do they think they must trust to their own, but to other mens merits also.

17. That one believer may merit grace for ano∣ther by way of congruity.

1. That a justified and sanctified man may fall from the grace of God both totally and finally, and perish for ever.

2. That the grace of justification received, is lost by every mortal sin.

3. The grace of justification being lost by sin, yet faith is not lost.

4. That faith is lost by every act of unbe∣liefe.

14. Of good works particularly, of fasting.

1. OF Fasting I have spoken already, that the Papists place Fasting in the choice of meats.

2. That their fasts are hypocritical.

3. And superstitious.

4. That fasting even as it is observed by them (which indeed is the meer mockery of a true fast) is a work satisfactory for sin, and meritorious of eternal life, they impiously and blasphemously teach.

5. Their prayers they pour out not onely to God but to Angels and Saints.

6. That we may lawfully and meritoriously be∣seech and pray the Saints both to intercede for us with God, and to give assistance to us.

Page  4327. They teach men to confess their sins to the Saints that are dead.

8. That God reveals our prayers to the Saints which we put up to them, and yet that we must go to them as Mediators betwixt God and us.

9. They call upon God represented under some figure or shape.

10. They mutter their prayers before images say∣ing, sometimes the Lords prayer before a picture of the Virgin Mary, or of some other Saint, and Ave Maries before a crucifix.

11 They pray not onely in the name of Christ, but also they believe they shall be heard for the pray∣ers and intercession of the Saints.

12. Neither do they pray for the living onely, but also for the dead.

13. That a general intention of worshipping God is sufficient when they pray, though they neither un∣derstand nor mark what they say.

14. They teach their Disciples to pray in an un∣known tongue, and so without faith, without un∣derstanding, without feeling like Parrots.

15. They teach them to number their prayers up∣on certain Beads, and to pay God, as it were a task of numbred prayers.

16. In which also they teach them mightily to tau∣tologize, and to hope they shall be heard for their much speaking.

17. They not onely reckon the Salutation of the blessed Virgin, and the Apostles Creed amongst their prayers, but also teach them to say a hundred and fifty Ave Maries, and after every ten Ave Maries, one Pater Noster, and after fifty, one Creed.

Page  43318. And that prayer (even such as they are wont to bable before pictures in an unknown tongue, ei∣ther for the dead or to the dead, without faith, wit∣out understanding, without feeling) is a satisfacto∣ry work for sin, and meritorious of eternal Life.

19. Also Almes-deeds to be meritorious and satis∣factory.

§ 15. Of Glorification.

1. AS to the state of Believers after this life, they teach, that Heaven was shut, till Christs passion.

2. That the thief converted on the Cross, was the first of all believers that entred into the heavenly Paradice.

3. They make three receptacles of Souls after death, besides heaven and the place of the damned, viz. limbus patrum, limbus infantum, and Purga∣tory, to which they also adde a certain kind of flour∣ishing, light, sweet, and pleasant Meadow, in which they place certain souls who suffer nothing, but re∣maine there for a while, because they are not yet fit for the beatifical vision.

4. That the souls of the faithful before Christs re∣surrection were in a subterraneous pit, which they call limbus Patrum.

5. That the fathers dead before Christs ascension were not happy.

6.* All little ones dying before Baptism, they thrust into limbus infantum, to be Page  434 punished with eternal pun∣ishment of loss, not of sence.

7. The faithful which depart, either with venial sins upon them, or with the guilt of punishment (the sin being before remitted) they cast into Purgatory, to be burnt there with corporeal fire, till they be fully purged.

8. That the suffrages of the Church such as the ••¦crifice of the Mass and prayer, penal and satisfacto∣ry works, as Almes-Deeds, Fasting, Pilgrimages, and the like, do profit the dead in Purgatory: and e∣specially indulgences by which the satisfactory works of others are applyed to them.

9. For the Ppe can communicate the prayers and good works of believers to them; whence it follows, as Albertus said, the condition of the rich in this case is better then the poor, because he hath where∣withal to get suffrages for him.

10. That the Saints in Heaven do not onely pray for the living on earth in particular, but also for the dead in Purgatory.

11. That the Saints are our mediators and advo∣cates with God, understanding our prayers and necessities, and therefore to be called upon to pray for us.

12. That the Saints after death do obtain whatso∣ever they desire of God, because they deserved it in this life.

13. That their merits do profit us for salva∣tion.

14. That the Saints are helpers and coworkers of our salvation.

15. That the faithful living, are ruled and go∣verned Page  435 by the Spirits of blessed men.

16.* That the Saints are to be Canonized by the Pope, and being Canonized to be worshiped.

17. Therefore we must fly to the Saints in our misery.

§ 16. Of the Church.

1.* THat the holy Catho∣like Church that we believe, is visible.

2. And alwayes is visible.

3.* That it depends not on Gods election, nor on true faith and Charity, that one belongs to this Church. But even wicked and reprobate men are members of the Ca∣tholike Church.

4.* That the Catholike Church is no other than the Roman, or that which the Roman Pope is over.

5. That the Catholike Church, and the Pope of Rome are the same terms.

Page  4366. Neither are there any Catholicks, but those of the Romish Church.

7. That he is a Catholike who believes all that the Roman Church delivers, whether it be written in the Bible or not.

8. That there is no salvation out of the Roman Church.

9. That the notes of universality, antiquity, unity, and succession in the Apostles doctrine do agree unto it.

10. That the sincere preaching of the Gospel, and lawful administration of the Sacraments, are not a certain note of the Church.

11. To acknowledge the Roman Pope, and to be under him as the Vicar of Christ, the onely Pastor, the head of the whole Church, is a note of the true Church.

12. That the particular Roman Church is the Mo∣ther, Mistris, and Lady of all Churches: yea the Mother of Faith.

13. That the Roman Church did obtain the pri∣macy from our Lord and Saviour himself.

14. That the Roman Church hath power of judg∣ing all, neither is it lawful for any to judge her judg∣ment.

15. That the Roman Church hath authority to deliver doctrines of faith, without or beside the Scri∣ptures.

16. That the Roman Church cannot erre in faith, much less fail.

17. That the Roman Church cannot erre, in inter∣preting Scripture.

Page  437

§. 17. Of the Roman Church
  • The Head, viz.
  • The Pope.
  • The Members.

1.* THat the Roman Pope is the head, founda∣tion, husband, Monarch of the whole universal Church, the universal Bishop, or the Bishop of the whole world.

2. That the Roman Pope is the rock upon whom the Church is built.

3. The names which are given to Christ in the Scriptures, from whence it appears he is above the Church, all of them are given to the Pope. Ʋnto this Antichristian throne he ascends by a gradation of most impudent lies, such as these.

4. That the universal Church cannot consist, un∣less there be one in it, as a visible head with chief power.

5. Therefore the external regiment of the univer∣sal Church is Monarchical.

6. That the Monarchy of the Church was insti∣tuted in Peter.

7. That Peter in proper speech, was Bishop of Rome, and remained Bishop there untill death.

8. That the Pope succeded Peter in the Ecclesia∣stical Monarchy.

Page  4389. Neither do they give the Monarchy of Ecclesi∣astical power, but of temporal also to the Pope.

10 Neither do they make the Pope Christs General Vicar on earth, but Gods also.

11. They give a certain omnipotency to him.

12. They give him power of deposing Kings and Emperors, and absolving their subjects from the oath of fidelity.

13. Moreover, without shame they defend, that the Pope teaching from his chair cannot erre.

14. That his words when he teacheth from his chair, are in a sort the word of God.

15. That the Pope cannot erre, even in those things which belong to good manners, or in the commands of morality, as well as in matters of Faith.

16. We must piously believe, that as the Pope can∣not erre as Pope: so as a private person he cannot be a heretick.

*17. That the chief autho∣rity of interpreting Scrip∣ture is in him.

18. That the Pope is the chief judge in controver∣sies of Religion.

19. We must appeal from all Churches to him.

20. They give him authority to dispense with hu∣mane and Divine Laws.

21. They give him power of absolving men not onely from sin, but from punishments, censures, laws, vows, and oaths.

22. Also of delivering men from Prgatory.

Page  43923. Of Canonizing Saints, and giving them ho∣nors, that they may be prayed to in the Publike Pray∣ers of the Church, that Churches and Altars may be built for their honor, that Masses and Canonical hours be offered publikely for their honor, and feast-dayes be clebrated, That their Pictures be drawn with a certain splendor, that their Reliques be put in∣to precious boxes, and publikely honored.

24. We must believe that the Pope (who sometime puts Murderers, Traitors, King-killers, and other Capital offenders into the Calendar of Saints and Martyrs) never errs in the Canonizing of Saints.

§ 18. The Members of the Church are considered, either as
  • Congregated in Councils, or Severally.

1. THe office of convocating General Councils, properly belongs to the Pope.

2, That in no case a true and perfect Council can be called, without the Popes authority, no not if it be necessary for the Church, and yet the Pope will not, or cannot call one, nor if the Pope be a heretick. And therefore that a Council held without the Popes Authority is an unlawful meeting or Conventicle, not a Council.

3. That 'tis the proper office of the Pope, that by himself or his Legates, he be president of the uni∣versal Council, and as the supreme judge do mode∣rate all.

Page  4404. That the decree of a General Council made without the consent of the Pope, or his Legate, is un∣lawful.

*5. That the Power of con∣firming or rejecting General Councils is in the Pope of Rome, neither are the Councils authentical, unless they be confirmed by the Pope.

6. That the distinction of lawful and unlawful Councils does depend upon his onely will.

7. That the sentence of a General Council in a matter of faith is the last judgement of the Church, from which it cannot appeal: yet that we may appeal from a General Council to the Pope.

8. That the Pope can neither be judged nor pun∣ished by a Council or by any mortals.

9. That the Pope cannot submit himself to the co∣active judgement of Councils.

10. That the Pope is absolutely over the universal Church, and above a General Council, so that he can acknowledge no judgement above him.

11. We must believe with Catholike faith, that General Councils confirmed by the Pope cannot erre neither in faith nor manners.

12. That particular Councils approved by the Pope cannot erre.

13. That the power of the Pope and Council to∣gether, is not greater then the Popes alone. Tur∣recrem. l. 3. c. 41.

Page  441

§ 19. Of the Members by themselves.

1.* THat to make a mem∣ber of the Catholike Church, there is not requir∣ed grace, or any internal vir∣tue, but a profession of faith is sufficient.

The Members of the Church considered severally, are,

  • The Clergy.
  • The Laity.

2. That Clergy men are not held under civil Laws, by any coactive, but onely directive bond.

3. That Clergy men breaking the Civil Law, can∣not yet be punished by any civil Judge, nor be brought before the Tribunal of Secular Magi∣strates.

4. That the goods of the Clergy, both Ecclesi∣astical and Secular, are free from the Tribute and Taxe of Secular Princes.

5. That men are to be prepared for receiving Or∣ders, by the first shaving.

6. By how much the higher degree of Order any one is in, by so much the larger shaving is he to be crowned with.

7. That single life is alwayes joyned to holy Orders, by Divine right.

  • Page  442The Popish Clergy a•• either
    • Seculars and those either
    • Regulars
      • Of the lowest Order.
      • Of the higher Order▪ which they call Priests and are both
        • The less as Presbyters.
        • The great∣er as Bi∣shops.

8. That the Clergy men of the highest Order are Priests, properly so called, which they say are in∣stituted to offer an external and real sacrifice.

9. The choice of Bishops does belong to the Pope by Divine right.

*That all the Bishops re∣ceive jurisdiction from the Pope.

11. The Romane Church hath Cardinals for sides∣men to the Pope, upon whom the universal Church is turned as upon hinges.

12. These are to be joyned with the Pope in the Government of the universal Church.

13. That those, whether they be Bishops or Pres∣byters, or Deacons are not only to be preferred be∣fore other Bishops, Archbishops, Primates, Patriarchs, but to be equalled even with Kings.

§ 20. Of Councils and Monastical vows.

1. THey teach that there are Evangelical Councils distinct from commands, which no man is bound to perform, but they who profess perfection, and would deserve more and greater things than eter∣nal life.

2. That the study of perfection is not of command but Councils.

Page  4433. Such Councils are those, of not seeking re∣venge, of loving our adversaries, of not swear∣ing, &c.

4. Not to obey a Council is no fin.

5.* That some perfection is necessary to salvation, and that consists in the full obser∣vation of the commands.

6. That some other perfection is greater and is necessary, not simply for salvation, but for a more excellent degree of glory: and that consists in the observation of Councils.

7. By obedience to Councils, men do superero∣gate.

8. That vowed Virginity and single life, are most acceptable worship to God.

9. Yea, and the greatest satisfaction for sin, and merit of eternal life.

10. A Monastick life is a state of Perfection.

11. All that's done by vow, is a worship of God.

12. Monastical vows do satisfie for sin, and de∣serve eternal life.

13. Our entrance into Religion, is a second Bap∣tism, or in stead of a new Baptism, by which satis∣faction is made for all former sins.

14. That perfection is to be placed in true Mona∣stick vows, as the vow of voluntary poverty, the vow of perpetual chastity, the vow of Monastical o∣bedience.

15. That voluntary poverty is rightly vowed to God.

16. That its lawful; Lawful? yea a meritorious work, a work of perfection and supererogation in Monks to live on begging.

Page  44417. It is lawful, yea meritorious, for the younger men to vow single life for ever.

18. The vow of single life, is to he kept by them who have the gift of continency.

19. There is none, but may alwayes contain, if he will.

20. That 'tis lawful for children to enter into a vow, against their parents consent.

21. They allow of great variety of vows, which have various rules of life, invented by men, beside the holy Scripture. And as if there were greater perfection in those rules, then in the doctrine of the Gospel, and a more compendious way to perfecti∣on and salvation: they teach, by the observation of them, eternal life and a more excellent degree of glory is obtained.

22. They give the obedience which is due onely to God, unto the men that live after the Rules of the Franciscan, Domincan order, &c.

23. That the Apostles were the first Christian Monks.

24 To them who are buried in the Cowls of the Monkes, especially of the Franciscans they promise remission of sin in some part.

*25. That Princes are not the supream Governors of their subjects on earth, in all causes spiritual and temporal.

26. They make Princes subject to the people as well as to the Pope.

Page  445

§. 21. Of the Law.

Of Charity, or things to be done, the sum of which are in the Decalogue.

1. THat regenerate and baptized persons may perfectly fulfill the Law, so far as they are bound to fulfill it in this life.

2.* The fulfilling of the Law in this life, is not onely possible but easie.

3. That every degree of Grace is sufficient to ful∣fill the commandments and expel all sins.

4.* That we are not bound in this life to love God with all our hearts.

5. And all our souls, and all our strength: Nei∣ther are we bound, not to have evil concupiscence.

6. That venial sins, as they call them, do not hinder that perfect obedience which is required in this life.

7. That the regenerate can do more then the Law requires.

8. They teach their Disciples to worship God un∣der a humane shape or figure.

9. That Angels are to be worshiped and called upon.

Page  44610. Also Saints that are dead, are to be wor∣shiped and called upon.

11. That a more than ordinary worship is due to the blessed Virgin: such as they teach Christs huma∣nity wa to be worshiped with; but to the rest of the Saints, ordinary worship.

12. That the members of the Blessed Virgin are to be adored, for so they touch them [I worship and Bless thy feet, with which thou didst tread down the Old Serpents head: I worship and bless thy comely eyes, &c.]

23. That according to the five letters of her name Maria, she is the Mediatrix of God and men, the Auxiliatrix or helper of God and men, the repairer of the weak, the illuminater of the blind; the Ad∣vocate for all sin.

14. They name her the Queen of heaven, our La∣dy and Goddess; the Lady of Angels, the fountain of all graces. Orat. Steph. Patracen. in Concil. Later. Sess. 10.666.6. f.

15. For her honor and worship they have compo∣sed, Duties, Letanies, Rosaries, and a Psaltery all full of Idolatry.

16. In the Psaltery of Mary, whatsoever almost David had spoken of God and Christ, they blasphe∣mously give to her; as for example,

O Lady in thee have I put my trust, deliver my soul from mine enemies. In Psal. 7. And I will praise thee, O Lady with my whole heart, Psal. 9. I put my trust in thee O Lady, Ps. 10. Save me O Lady, Psal. 11. Keep me O Lady, because I have hoped in thee, Psal. 15. The heavens declare thy Glory, O Virgin Mary! Psal. 19. To thee O Lady have I lifted up my soul, Psal. 25. Have mercy on me, O Lady, who Page  447 art the mother of mercies, and according to the bowels of thy mercy cleanse me from all my sins, Ps. 51. And pour out thy Grace upon me. O Lady, Save me by thy name, and free me from all my misdeeds, Psal. 54. Deliver me from mine enemies, O Queen of the world! Psal. 59. Praise waiteth for our Lady in Sion, Psal. 65. Make a joyful noise unto our Lady all ye lands, Psal. 66. Let Mary arise and let all her enemies be scattered, Psal. 68. In thee O Lady, do I put my trust, let me never be put to confusion, Deli∣ver me in thy mercy, Psal. 71. Make a joyful noise un∣to our Lady all ye lands, serve her with gladness, Psal. 100. And so in the rest, all which they say are to be spoken out of a pious affection to the Blessed Virgin.

17. They prefer the Saints to the rule of the world, and the Government of the Church, as if they were the worlds Presidents, and the Churches Rectors. Yea they set them in the same place, as the Heathens of old did their titular Gods and preservers: and as∣sign unto them several Provinces, Offices, and Juris∣dictions (because it would be a vast burden for every one to look to all.) For, every Region, e∣very Parish, every Fraternity of Artificers have their titular Gods and Patrons. So P. Jovius calls them, Histor. li. 24. in the end. And there came forth late∣ly a Commentary of Philip the 39. Bishop of the Church at Eistreet, of the itular Gods of that Church, StRichard▪ StWumbald, StWalpurg. And we may as truely affirm of the Papists what Gregory de valentia saies of the Heathens; For that very thing sayes he, we may apprehend them to be idolaters, be∣cause they distribute their several Provinces of offices to several creatures, as to Gods, &c.

There are certain Saints for the cure of every dis∣ease Page  448 almost, and for curing of evils: as Sebastian and Rochus for the plague: Apollonia for the tooth-ache: Antony for the Wildfire or Gangrene: Ottilia for sore eyes: Quirinus for Fistula's, Sigismond and Pe∣tronella for a Feaver, Apollinaris for the Privities (as Priapus of old) Liberius for the Stone, and also Benedict. Wolfangus cures Convulsions, Romanus the possessed, Valentinus the Epilepticks (as Hercules of old) Anastatius such as are mad.

The work of delivering Captives is committed to Leonard, of assisting in war to George (as of old to Mars.) Nicholas, and Christopher are Patrons to Seamen: the three Kings, viz. of Cullen to Travel∣ers: Margaret to women in childbirth (as Juno Lu∣cina of old.) Gregory and Katharine to Students (as Appollo and Minerva of old.) To Merchants Erasmus, to Painters Lucas, to Smiths Eulogius, to Shoo-mak∣ers Crispin, to Taylers Gutman, to Potters Goacus, to Weavers Severinus, to Carpenters Joseph, to horse∣men George, to Hunters Eustachius, to Whores Afra and Madlin (as Venus and Flora of old.)

They appoint Austin for Divines, Juo for Lawyers, Cosman and Damian for Phisicians (as of old Aescu∣lapius)

John keeps men from Poison, Laurentius and Flo∣rianus from fire and burning (as Vesta of old.) Ser∣vatius from diseases, Job from the Scab, Barbaca from dangers, Paul and John from Tempests, Chri∣stopher from suddain death, Hubert from the biting of a mad dog.

Erasmus and Anne (as Juno of old) make men rich. Protasius and Gervasius discover thieves, Vin∣centius and Hierom restore things lost, Felicitas gives Boyes in child-bearing.

Page  449They set Ʋrbane over the Vines (as Bacchus of old) StLupus over Corn (as Ceres of old) Gallus over the Geese, Wendiline over Sheep, Pelagius over Oxen, Eulegius over Horses, Anthony over the Swine; Medardus has the care of Wine, Ludovicus Minorisa of Ale, &c.

They worship fourteen whom they call Assistants or Helpers, George, Basil, Erasmus, Pantaleon, Vitus, Christopher, Dionysius, Cyriacus, Achacius, Eusta∣chius, Aegidius, Margaret, Barbary, and Katharine.

18. The Reliques also of the Saints they worship and reverence, of which I will relate twelve errors and abuses of the Papists, as they are noted by Chemnitius.

1. That the bodies, ashes, or bones of the Saints are to be taken out of their graves, and placed in some high place, as upon the high Altar, or some other conspicuous place, and to be dressed with gold and silver, and silk, &c.

2. That those Reliques ought to be carried in pub∣like processions and prayers, and to be shewed and offered for Christian people to see, and touch, and kiss.

3. That such Reliques are to be approved by the Pope; and that approbation is to be by canonizing them.

4. That tis a singular and meritorious worship of God, if the people to obtain help by it, shall touch, kiss, or walk before with an adoring mind and gesture, or shall do reverence to these Reliques, by candles, silke coverings, garlands or other the like ornaments.

5. That the grace and power of God (which they say is in them or present by them) is to be sought for in these Reliques: and that they are made partakers Page  450 of it, who do touch them or behold them.

6. That 'tis an acceptable sacrifice to God, to offer up precious gifts to these Reliques.

7. Many indulgences for sin, are promised to such as touch and kiss them, &c.

8. That our prayer is the better, worthyer, and more acceptable to God, if it be done by or before the Saints Reliques, by whose merits we may obtain help: And therefore in our necessities we must make Vows, and take Pilgrimages unto those places, where the Reliques of Saints are held to be, that we may call upon them for their help.

9. That it adds much to the holiness of the Sacra∣ment of the Eucharist, if the Saints Reliques are set inclosed upon the Altar, nay that the Altar is conse∣crated by their touching it.

10 That the Saints Reliques may be lawfully laid over one, or carried about ones neck in devotion and faith to God, and the Saints whose Reliques they are:

11. Oaths among the Papists are taken by touch∣ing the Saints Reliques that so the obligation of the oath may be divided betwixt God and the Saints.

12. All places among the Papists are full of uncertain, counterfeit, and false Reliques, to which without difference the same veneration and honor is given.

19. They make them Pictures to worship them.

20. They dispute, that Images of God are not forbidden.

21. That Images are properly and per se to be worshiped.

23. That Images are to be worshiped with the same worship, as is due to the Person, or Exemplar.

Page  45124. They defend Pilgrimages to holy places, and Reliques and Saints Pictures: and they promise large indulgences to Pilgrims.

25. That the Cross of Christ is to be worshiped with the worship Latria.

26. That they are in some sort sanctified who touch the Reliques or the Cross.

27. That some holiness accrues to things that are signed with the Cross

28 That the Sacrament of the Altar▪ or the host consecrated, is to be worshiped with Latria

29. They adore the Pope as a kind of Deity.

30. The greatest part of the Popish Religion is meer superstition, and wil-worship: yea meer hy∣po••isie▪ or a form of godliness, resting in external works and observations.

31. They worship God after the commandments of men.

32. they defend the ceremonies invented by them∣selves or taken from Jews or Heathens to be a part of worship pleasing to God.

33. And to be observed, as the Law of God.

34 That their observation deserves remission of sin.

35 That no ceremonies appointed by the Church can be omitted without mortal sin, nor without scandal.*

36. That things consecrated by themselves, as holy Water, Agnus Dei's, &c. have spiritual effects, to drive away divels, to blot out sins, &c.

37. They conjure salt (yea and herbs) and conse∣crate it, that it may be healthful to the mind and bo∣dy of those that take it.

Page  45238. They Baptize and consecrate the Bels, making them Godfathers, to fright away divels, and drive a∣way Tempests.

39. That their ringing does profit the dead.

40. The Chrism being consecrated the Bishop and Presbyters salute it, in these words, God save St. Chrisma Ave S. Chrisma.

41. They give it a power to confer upon the a∣nointed health to the body, and holiness to the soul, and so the Holy Ghost himself

42. That every Church solemnely consecrated, is indued with a divine vertue.

43. The many abuses of fasting and prayer I tou∣ched before.

44. They teach men to swear by the creatures.

45. They deny oaths to be fit for the perfect.

46. Vows made to the Saints they defend.

47. That the Pope can absolve from the bond of vows and oaths.

48. They consecrate feast dayes to the worship of Saints.

49. And some they consecrate to patronize their own errors as the feast of Conception, the feast of Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, the feast of Christs body, and of Peters chair, and of all souls, &c.

50. That feast dayes are in truth more holy then others.

51. They exempt the Clergy from the secular yoke, i.e. they exempt Ecclesiasticks, both persons and goods, from the obedience of Temporal Lords, and from their jurisdiction in personals and reals, in civil things and criminal; and therefore that the civil judge cannot punish Clergy-men.

52. That the Clergy is not bound to pay tribute to Princes.

Page  45353. That the Rebellion of a Clergy-man against the King, is not Treason.

54. That the Pope can forbid subjects to keep the oath of fidelity, to Christian Kings, if they be such as acknowledge not the Roman sea.

55. That the Pope can absolve subjects from the oath of fidelity.

56. That the Pope has power to depose Princes.

57. That the subjects of such Princes are bound to obey such a sentence, if it be published.

58. That if grave and learned men (such as the Jesuites especially are) shall judge any Prince to be a Tyrant, it is lawful for their subjects to overthrow them, and if they want power to poison them.

59 That the subjects of the most Christian Kings, whom they call Lutherans and Sacramentarians, are free from all bonds, and that they may lawfully de∣stroy their Kings.

60. That 'tis not lawful for Christians to tolerate a King that is an Infidel or a heretick indeavoring to draw men to his Sect, but they are bound to depose him.

61. That the ancient Christians did not depose such because they wanted power.

62. That the Pope may give the Kingdoms and Principalities, and Lordships of all those whom he judges hereticks unto his Roman Catholikes, or may adjudge them to those that can lay hold of them.

63. That 'tis not onely lawful, but meritorious to kill Princes that are excommunicated by the Pope.

64. They suffer Stews, and stoutly defend their toleration.

65. They forbid the Clergy to mary.

66. That Priest does better, say they, that keeps Page  454 a Concubine, then he that marries a wife.

67. That marriage after the vow of Chastity, is worse then Adultery.

68. That single life (even as it is vowed and practi∣sed in the Roman Church) is a worship most accept∣able to God, and satisfactory for sin, and merito∣rious of eternal life.

69. That the Pope with a whorish intention, makes gain (as Leno did) by the prostitution of Whores.

70. That all faults are sold at a certain price, in the Popes Taxe.

71. An officious lye they allow of.

72. They approve and teach the Mistery of equi∣vocation.

*73. The act of counter∣feiting and dissembling with great men, they commend, as good and profitable.

74. They say Faith is not to be kept with Here∣ticks.

75. That the desires of the will going before as∣sent, are not sins.

76. Neither is concupiscence a sin in the Bap∣tized.

77. That in concupiscence there is onely the evil of punishment not of sin.

78. By that command, thou shalt not covet, it is not forbidden, that we have no evil de∣sires.

I have recited a huge Catalogue of errors, to which I doubt not but many more may be heaped up: As those (which we are refuting in this book) Page  455 about Antichrist: By all which it appears, that the opposition of the Pope to Christs truth, is not a particular opposition, as in some hereticks but uni∣versal, such as we may look for from Antichrist, Thus far Bishop G. Downame.

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