CHAP. III. Of the four Elements, their qualities, and mutuall mixtions.
THere are four Elements, and originall grounds of all cor∣poreall things, Fire, Earth, VVater, Aire, of which all elementated inseriour bodies are compounded; not by way of heaping them up together, but by transmutation, and union; and when they are destroyed, they are resolved into Elements. For there is none of the sensible Elements that is pure, but they are more or less mixed, and apt to be changed one into the other: Even as Earth becoming dirty, and being dissolved, becomes Water, and the same being made thick and hard, be∣come Earth again; but being evaporated through heat, passeth into Aire, and that being kindled, passeth into Fire, and this being extinguished, returns back again into Aire, but being cooled again after its burning, becomes Earth, or Stone, or Sulphur, and this is manifested by Lightening: Plato also was of that opinion, that Earth was wholly changeable, and that the rest of the Elements are changed, as into this, so into one ano∣ther successively. But it is the opinion of the subtiller sort of Philosophers, that Earth is not changed, but relented and mix∣ed with other Elements, which do dissolve it, and that it re∣turns back into it self again. Now every one of the Elements hath two specificall qualities, the former whereof it retains as proper to it self, in the other, as a mean, it agrees with that which comes next after it. For Fire is hot and dry, the Earth dry and cold, the VVater cold and moist, the Aire moist and hot. And so after this manner the Elements, according to two contrary qualities, are contrary one to the other, as Fire to VVater, and Earth to Aire. Moreover, the Elements are upon another account opposite one to the other: For some are heavy, as Earth and VVater, and others are light, as Aire and Fire. VVherefore the Stoicks called the former passives, but the latter actives. And yet once again Plato distinguisheth them after another manner, and assigns to every one of them Page 7 three qualities, viz. to the Fire brightness, thinness, and mo∣tion, but to the Earth darkness, thickness and quietness. And according to these qualities the Elements of Fire and Earth are contrary. But the other Elements borrow their qualities from these, so that the Aire receives two qualities of the Fire, thin∣ness and motion; and one of the Earth, viz. darkness. In like manner Water receives two qualities of the Earth, dark∣ness and thickness, and one of Fire, viz. motion. But Fire is twice more thin then Aire, thrice more moveable, and four times more bright: and the Aire is twice more bright, thrice more thin, and four times more moveable then Water. Where∣fore Water is twice more bright then Earth, thrice more thin, and four times more moveable. As therefore the Fire is to the Aire, so Aire to the Water, and Water to the Earth; and a∣gain, as the Earth is to the VVater, so the VVater to the Aire, and the Aire to the Fire. And this is the root and foundation of all bodies, natures, vertues, and wonderfull works; and he which shall know these qualities of the Elements, and their mixtions, shall easily bring to pass such things that are won∣derfull, and astonishing, and shall be perfect in Magick.