Claudius Ælianus, his various history
Aelian, Claudius., Stanley, Thomas, 1625-1678.
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AELIAN's Various History.

The Third BOOK.

CHAP. I. Thessalian Tempe described.

LET us now describe and paint out in discourse the Thessalian Tempe: for it is acknowled∣ged that speech, where the fa∣culty is free, can represent whatsoever it pleaseth as fully to the life, as men that are excellent in handy-work. It is a place situated betwixt Olympus and Ossa. These are Mountains of extraordi∣nary height, and disjoyned as it were by providence. They include a Plain whose length extends to forty▪ *Stadia; its breadth in some places is a Plethrum, in others somewhat more. Through the middle runs Page  64 the River Peneus, into which other Rive•…s flow, and by communicating their waters make Peneus great. It affords various pla∣ces of delight of all kinds, not wrought by the hand of man, but spontaneous works of Nature, which contributed much to the beauty and glory of the place from its first beginning. For Ivy full of down a∣bounds and flourisheth there, which like generous Vines creepeth up the high trees, and groweth with them. There is also plenty of Smallage, which climbing up the Hill shadoweth the Rock, so that it lies hid under it, nothing being seen but the green Herb, which yields a pleasant entertainment to the eye. In this Plain there are divers Groves and large Cupbords, which in the Summer afford grateful shelter to Travel∣lers and refreshment. It is full of little Brooks and Springs of water, cool and pleasant to the tast. These waters, they say, benefit such as wash in them, and con∣duce much to health. Birds are dispersed about every-where, especially the Musical, which yield extraordinary pleasure to the ear, and by continual warbling invite and delight the very passenger. On each side of the River are those pleasantnesses which I mentioned before, and places fit for re∣pose Page  65 and diversion. Through the middle of the Tempe runneth the River Peneus gently and smoothly like oil. This is much shaded by the thick branches of the adjoy∣ning Trees, which for the greatest part of the day keep off the Sun's beams, and af∣ford to those that sail a cool passage. All the neighbouring people meet with one another there, and offer sacrifice, converse▪ and feast. Whence there being many that sacrifice and perform Divine rites conti∣nually, it happeneth that such as travel thi∣ther either on foot or by water perceive very sweet odours. This unintermitted worship of the Gods makes the place sa∣cred. Here the Thessalians say that Apollo Pythius, having slain Pytho with his arrows at that time possessed of Delphi when the Goddess Earth held the Oracles, was by Jupiter's command purified; and that then the son of Jupiter and Latona crowned with this Tempian Laurel, and bearing a branch thereof in his hand, came to Delphi and took possession of the Oracle. There is also an Altar in that place where he was crowned, and took away the branch. Whereupon even to this time the Delphians every ninth year send youths of Noble birth with an Architheorus, who is one of their own. Page  66 These coming to Tempe sacrifice magnifi∣cently, and having made Garlands of that Laurel which the God then so loved as to Crown himself with it, depart. They pass that way which is called Pythias, and goeth through Thessaly, Pelagonia, Oeta, and the Countries of the Aenians, Melians, Dori∣ans, and Hesperian Locrians. They carry these youths thither with no less respect and reverence, then those who with sacred presents from the Hyperboreans pay homag•… to the same God. Likewise at the Pythia•… Games the Victors are presented with •… Crown of the same Laurel. Thus muc•… concerning the Thessalian Tempe.

CHAP. II. Of Anaxagoras bearing the death of hi•… Children with courage.

When one coming to Anaxagoras th•…Clazomenian (as he was discoursing wit•… his friends) told him that his two onely Sons were dead; He nothing troubled o•… disordered at the news, answered,

I knew that they were born mortal.

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CHAP. III. Of Xenophon bearing the death of his Son unmovedly.

A Messenger from Mantinea told Xeno∣phon (as he was sacrificing) that his son Grillus was slain. He taking onely his Gar∣land off, continued to sacrifice. But when the Messenger added that he died victori∣ously, he took again the Garland to put it on his head. This is generally known.

CHAP. IV. That Dio was not troubled at the loss of his Son.

As Dio, son of Hipparinus, a Disciple of Plato, was treating about publick affairs, his Son was killed with a fall from the house top into the Court. Dio was nothing trou∣bled at it, but proceeded in what he was about before.

CHAP. V. Antigonus seeing his Son dead, was no∣thing troubled.

They say that Antigonus the second, when his Son was brought home slain in Page  68 battel, did behold him without changing colour, or shedding a tear: but having commended him for dying as a stout Soul∣dier, gave order that he should be buried.

CHAP. VI. Of the Magnanimity of Crates.

Crates the Theban is known to have been a magnanimous person, as well by other things, as by his despising what the Vulgar admire, as also his Wealth and Country▪ That he gave the Thebans his estate is gene∣rally known. But this other action perhaps is less notorious. He quitted Thebes newly restored, saying,

I have no need of a City which Alexander or some other may sub∣vert.

CHAP. VII. Of the Calumny of the Vulgar.

Demochares Nephew to Demosthenes, to shew that he nothing valued the disprai∣ses of the Vulgar, seeing certain Detractors together sitting in a Physician's Shop, and wholly bent upon calumniating others,

What doe you say (said he) you Dysmeni∣dae?
discovering their disposition by that compellation.

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CHAP. VIII.•…hat Phrynichus was chosen General for a certain Poem.

The Athenians made Phrynichus Gene∣•…l, not out of favour, nor for Nobleness of •…irth, or for being rich; for which men •…e commonly esteemed at Athens, and pre∣•…rred above others: But he having in a cer∣•…in Tragedy composed Verses sutable to •…med Dancers, did win so much upon the •…heatre, and please the Spectators, that •…ey immediately chose him General; be∣•…ving that he would behave himself ex∣•…llently and advantageously in Martial af∣•…irs, who had in a Play composed Verses •…d Songs so proper for armed men.

CHAP. IX. Of Love.

Who is able to fight with a Lover, that not a Lover himself, and when the busi∣•…ss is to be decided by the Sword? For •… who loves not, alwaies shunneth and de∣•…neth a Lover, as being himself prophane •…d uninitiated with the God: he dares as •…uch as the courage of his soul and strength Page  70 of his body will bear; yet fears the other as one transported with divine fury; ani∣mated not by Mars onely, which is com∣mon to both, but likewise by Love, For they who are excited with other of the Gods, whereof one (as Homer saith) rageth equal with Mars; they, I say, which are possessed onely with one, fight with as much courage as one God inspireth: But the ser∣vants of Love being inflamed with Mars and Love, serving both Deities, have accor∣ding to the opinion of the Cretans a double share of Courage. But none therefore fin•… fault if a Souldier who fights onely by in∣stigation of one God, refuse to encounte•… with him who is assisted both by Man and Love.

CHAP. X. Of Lacedemonian Friendship.

Of the Lacedemonian Ephori I could re∣late many excellent things said and done at present I shall onely tell you this: If a∣mongst them any man preferred in Friend∣ship a rich man before another that 〈◊〉 poor and vertuous, they fined him, punish∣ing his avarice with loss of money. If an•… other that were a vertuous person profe•…Page  71 particular friendship to none, they fined him also, because being vertuous he would not make choice of a friend: whereas he might render him he loved like himself, and perhaps divers; for affection of friends con∣duceth much to the advancement of vertue in those whom they love, if they be tem∣perate and vertuous. There was also this Law among the Lacedemonians; If any young man transgressed, they pardoned him, imputing it to want of years and ex∣perience; yet punished his friend, as conscious and overseer of his actions.

CHAP. XI. Of the Soul.

The Peripateticks assert that the Soul in the day-time is inslaved and involved in the body, so that she cannot behold Truth; but in the night, being freed from this ser∣vitude, and gathered together, as it were, in a round about the parts that are in the breast, she is more Prophetick, whence proceed Dreams.

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CHAP. XII. Of Friendship amongst the Lacedemo∣nians.

Friendship among the Spartans was truly innocent: if any thing unlawful happened, both persons must either forsake their Country or their lives.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Drunkenness of the Tapyrians.

The Nation of the Tapyrians is so ad∣dicted to Wine, that they live in Wine, and bestow the greatest part of their life and conversation upon it. Neither do they abuse it by drinking onely, but by anointing themselves therewith, as others do with Oil.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Drunkenness of the Byzantines.

The Byzantines (as is reported) live in Taverns, quitting their own houses, and letting them to strangers. Nor leave they their houses onely to them, but their wives also. Thus they by one act are guilty of two Crimes, Drunkenness and Prostitu∣tion. Page  73 Moreover, flowing in Wine and Drunkenness, they delight to hear the Pipe, and make Piping their chiefest busi∣ness. But they cannot endure to hear the least sound of a Trumpet; whence it is ma∣nifest that the Byzantines are wholly averse from Arms and Warre. Wherefore Leoni∣des their General, in a strict siege, seeing that when the Enemy was assaulting the Walls they left the Works, and went to their usual entertainments, commanded that Taverns should be set up for them upon the Walls. This Damon relates of them, which Menander seems to confirm, saying, Byzan∣tium makes the Merchants Drunkards; they drank all night long.

CHAP. XV. Of the Drunkenness of the Argives, Corinthians, Thracians and Illyrians.

The Argives also and Corinthians have been reproched in Comedies for being in∣temperately addicted to Wine. Of the Thra∣cians it is at this time reported for certain, that they are great Drinkers. Neither are the Illyrians at present free from this vice. To which they adde another dishonesty, in∣asmuch as at a Feast they permit the Guests Page  74 to drink to their Wives, every one as he pleaseth, though nothing related to them.

CHAP. XVI. A comparison betwixt the two Generals, Demetrius and Timotheus.

Which of these two was the better Ge∣neral, Demetrius Poliorcetes, or Timotheus the Athenian? I will tell you the nature of both, and then you may judge which de∣serves to be preferred. Demetrius by force and avarice, and oppressing many, and com∣mitting injustice, took Cities, battering their Walls with Engines, and undermining them: But Timotheus by discourse, persua∣ding them it was most to their advantage to obey the Athenians.

CHAP. XVII. That Philosophy is not inconsistent with Political Government, and that some Philosophers have governed Common∣wealths.

Some Philosophers have governed States, though studying onely the good of their own minds they lived privately. Of those who managed publick affairs were Zaleu∣cus,Page  75 who reformed the State of the Locri∣ans, Charondas that of Catana, and of Rhe∣gium when he was banished Catana. Archy∣tas much benefited the Tarentines, Solon the Athenians; Bias and Thales greatly profited Ionia, Chilon the Lacedemonians, Pittacus the Mitylenaeans, Cleobulus the Rhodians, and Anaximander brought a Colony from Miletus to Apollonia. Xeno∣phon also was an excellent Souldier, and proved the best General when he went up along with Cyrus, at what time Cyrus and many others with him was slain. Necessity then requiring a person that might bring the Greeks off and conduct them safe home, he was the man. Plato son of Aristo brought Dio back to Sicily, whom he counselled and taught how to subvert the Tyranny o•…Dionysius. But Socrates would not meddle with the Athenian State, because the De∣mocracy of the Athenians did at that time more resemble a Tyrannical and Monar∣chick Government. Neither would he joyn in sentencing the ten Commanders to death, nor partake of the injustices committed by the thirty Tyrants. But when occasion cal∣led him forth, he was a Souldier. He fought at Delium, and at Amphipolis and Potidea. Aristotle, when his Country was not decli∣ning, Page  76 but quite dejected, raised her up again. Demetrius Phalereus governed the Athe∣nian Commonwealth with much honour, until envy, customary with the Athenians, threw him out. In Egypt also, living with Ptolemee, he was chief in making Laws. And who will deny that Pericles son of Xan∣thippus was a Philosopher? or Epaminon∣das son of Polymnis, and Phocion son of Pho∣cus, and Aristides son of Lysimachus, and Ephialtes son of Sophonidas; and long after these Carneades and Critolaus? For they were sent by the Athenians Embassadours to Rome, and procured a Peace; so much did they prevail with the Senate, that they said,

The Athenians have sent Embas∣sadours, that not persuade, but compel us to doe what they please.
I must instance also the skill of Perseus in Politicks, for he taught Antigonus: and of Aristotle, who instructed Alexander Son of Philip from his youth in Philosophy: And Lysis Disciple of Pythagoras taught Epaminondas. There∣fore if any shall say Philosophers are unpra∣ctical, he speaks inconsiderately and igno∣rantly, though, for my own part, I should much more willingly embrace the contem∣plative quiet life.

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CHAP. XVIII. Of the Discourse betwixt Midas the Phrygian, and Silenus; and the incre∣dible relations of Midas.

Theopompus relates a discourse between Midas the Phrygian and Silenus. This Si∣lenus was son of a Nymph, inferiour by nature to the Gods onely, superiour to Men and Death. Amongst many other things, Silenus told Midas that Europe, Asia and Africk were Islands surrounded by the Ocean: That there was but one Continent onely, which was beyond this world, and that as to magnitude it was infinite: That in it were bred, besides other very great Creatures, Men twice as big as those here, and they lived double our age: That many great Cities are there, and peculiar manners of life; and that they have Laws wholly different from those amongst us: That there are two Cities farre greater then the rest, nothing like to each other; one named Machimus, Warlike, the other Euse∣bes, Pious: That the Pious people live in peace, abounding in wealth, & reap the fruits of the Earth without Ploughs or Oxen, ha∣ving no need of tillage or sowing. They Page  78 live, as he said, free from sickness, and die laughing, and with great pleasure: They are so exactly Just, that the Gods many times vouchsafe to converse with them▪ The Inhabitants of the City Machimus are very Warlike, continually armed and fighting: They subdue their Neighbours, and this one City predominates over many. The Inhabitants are not fewer then two hundred Myriads: they die sometimes of sickness, but this happens very rarely, for most commonly they are kill'd in the Wars by Stones or Wood, for they are invulne∣rable by Steel. They have vast plenty of Gold and Silver, insomuch that Gold is of less value with them then Iron with us. He said that they once designed a Voiage to these our Islands, and sailed upon the O∣cean, being in number a thousand Myri∣ads of men, till they came to the Hyperbo∣reans; but understanding that they were the happiest men amongst us, they con∣temned us as persons that led a mean in∣glorious life, and therefore thought it not worth their going farther. He added what is yet more wonderful, that there are men living amongst them called Meropes, who inhabit many great Cities; and that at the farthest end of their Countrey there is a Page  79 place named Anostus, (from whence there is no return) which resembles a Gulf; it is neither very light nor very dark, the air being dusky intermingled with a kinde of Red: That there are two Rivers in this place, one of Pleasure, the other of Grief; and that along each River grow Trees of the bigness of a Plane-tree. Those which grow up by the River of Grief bear fruit 〈◊〉 this nature; If any one eat of them, he shall spend all the rest of his life in tears and grief, and so die. The other Trees which grow by the River of Pleasure produce fruit of a contrary nature; for who tasts thereof shall be eased from all his former desires: If he loved any thing, he shall quite forget it; and in a short time shall become younger, and live over again his former years: he shall cast off old age, and return to the prime of his strength, becoming first a young man, then a child, lastly, an infant, and so die. This, if any man think the Chian worthy credit, he may believe. To me he appears an egregious Romancer as well in this as other things.

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CHAP. XIX. Of the dissension betwixt Aristotle and Plato.

The first dissension betwixt Aristotle and Plato is said to be thus occasioned; Plato did not approve of his life and habit, for Aristotle wore rich garments and shoes, and cut his hair after a manner not used by Plato▪ He also wore many Rings for or∣nament; he had a deriding kind of look, and was peremptory in discourse: all which mis-became a Philosopher. Plato seeing this rejected him, and preferred before him Xenocrates, Speusippus, Amyclas, and o∣thers; to whom he shewed respect, and ad∣mitted them to his conversation. On a time, Xenocrates being gone into his Coun∣try, Aristotle came to Plato, accompanied with a great many of his Disciples, of whom was Mnason the Phocian, and the like: Speusippus was then sick and unable to be with Plato: Plato was fourscore years old, and through age his memory much im∣paired. Aristotle assaulting and circumvent∣ing him by propounding arrogantly some questions, and arguing with him, discove∣red himself injurious and ingrateful. Here∣upon Page  81Plato retiring from his outward Walk, walked privately with his friends. After three months Xenocrates returned from his Journey, and found Aristotle walking where he had left Plato, and seeing that he and his Disciples went not from the walk to Plato, but directly to the City, he asked one of the Walk where Plato was, doubting that he was sick. He answered, He is not sick, but Aristotle troubling him hath made him quit the Walk, and now he teacheth Philosophy privately in his own Garden. Xenocrates hearing this went presently to Plato, whom he found discoursing with such as were pre∣sent, who were young men of eminent quality, and some of the Noblest. When he had ended his discourse, he saluted Xe∣nocrates kindly, according to his usual man∣ner, and Xenocrates did the like to him. When the company was dismist, Xenocra∣tes, without speaking a word to Plato, or acquainting him with it, got his friends to∣gether, and sharply reproved Speusippus for having yielded the Walk to Aristotle. Then to his utmost he opposed the Stagirite, and so farre proceeded the contention, that at last Aristotle was thrown out, and Plato restored to his former place.

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CHAP. XX. Of Lysander, and some Gifts presented to him.

To Lysander the Spartan going to Ionia, some of his acquaintance there sent, amongst many other presents, an Oxe and a Cake▪ He looking upon the Cake, asked what Dainty it was. To which he that brought it answered,

It was made of Honey, Cheese, and some other things.
Give this then, said Lysander, to the*Hilots; for it is not meat for a free person.
Bu•… the Oxe he commanded to be sacrificed, killed, and drest according to the fashion of his Country, and did eat of it with de∣light.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Magnanimity of Themistocles.

On a time Themistocles, yet a boy, re∣turning from School, his Master bade him, meeting Pisistratus the Tyrant, to go a littl•… out of the way. Whereto he generously an∣swered,

Is not here way enough for him▪
So much did somthing ingenious and gene∣rous appear in Themistocles at those years.

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CHAP. XXII. Of the Piety of Aeneas, and compassion of the Greeks to the Trojans.

When Troy was taken, the Grecians (as it becomes Greeks) commiserating the con∣dition of the Captives, made Proclamation by a Herald, that every free Citizen might carry away with him any one thing he plea∣sed. Hereupon Aeneas, neglecting all other things, carried out his houshold Gods. The Grecians pleased with the piety of the man, gave him leave to take something else. He then took up his Father of a very great age upon his shoulders, and bore him away. They not a little astonished hereat, gave him back all that was his; confessing that to such men as were pious towards the Gods, and honoured their Parents, even those who were by nature their Enemies become merciful.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Alexander.

Great were the actions of Alexander at Granicus and Issus, and the fight at Arbe∣la, and Darius subdued, and the PersiansPage  84 subjected to the Macedonians; all Asia con∣quered, and the Indies reduced under his power. Great were those things which he did at Tyr•…, and among the Oxydracae, and many others. Why should we endeavour to comprehend within the narrow expres∣sion of words the unlimited courage of this person in Warre? Or if any detractor will rather impute these things to the Fortune which attended on him, so let it be. But he was doubtless excellent in that he was never worsted by Fortune, nor at any time deserted by her. Other things there are not commendable in him. That on the fifth day of the Month he drank excessively at Eu∣maeus his house, on the sixth day he slept after his debauch, and recovered so well as to rise and give order to his Captains for the Expedition of the next day, saying that they should set forth very early. On the seventh he feasted with Perdiccas, and again drank freely. On the eighth he slept. On the fifteenth day of the same Month he made another debauch, and the next day slept. On the four and twentieth he supp'd with Bagoas. (The house of Bagoas was from the Palace ten Stadia) The day following he slept. One of these two therefore must needs have been; Either that AlexanderPage  85 did prejudice himself exceedingly by im∣ploying so many daies of the Month in drinking, or that they who write these things have belied him. We may likewise imagine that they who relate other things of the same kinde concerning him, wrong him also, of whom is Eumenes the Cardian.

CHAP. XXIV. How much Xenophon was delighted with Bravery.

Xenophon amongst other things took great delight to have rich A•…ms. For he said that if he should overcome the Enemy, the best ornaments would suit with him: If he died in fight, he should be laid out decently in a rich suit of Arms: this be∣ing the proper winding-sheet for a man of courage, and which best adorns him. They say therefore of this son of Gryllus, that his Shield was Argolick, his Breast-plate Attick, his Helmet wrought in Boeotia, his Horse Epidaurian. I must needs say he was a Person delighted in Bravery, and merited it.

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CHAP. XXV. Of •…eonides, and three hundred more, who gave themselves up to death volun∣tarily for the preservation of Greece.

Leonides the Lacedemonian, and three hundred more with him, voluntarily under∣went the death at Pylae which was prophe∣sied of them: and fighting stoutly and gallantly for Greece, obtained a glorious end, leaving a deathless renown and eter∣nal fame behind them.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Pindarus the Tyrant.

Pindarus, Son of Melas, Grandson o•…Alyattes the Lydian by his daughter, being Tyrant of the Ephesians, was severe in pu∣nishments & inexorable, but othe•…wise cour∣teous and wise. He took great care that his Country might not be brought into servi∣tude by the Barbarians, of which this is a testimony. When Croesus his Uncle by the Mother's side invaded Ionia, he sent an Em∣bassador to Pindarus, requiring the Ephesians to be subjected to him: to which Pindarus not yielding, Croesus besieged the City. Page  87 But one of the Towers being undermined, (which was afterwards called the Traitour) and destruction appearing before their eyes, Pindarus advised the Ephesians to fasten Ropes from the Gates and Walls to the Pil∣•…ars of the Temple of Diana, by that means making the whole City an Anatheme to her, thereby to preserve it secure. Farther he advised them to goe forth and make suit to the Lydian. Upon the Ephesians de∣claring the case and their suit, it is said that Croesus laughed, and was pleased with the Stratagem, granting the Ephesians liberty, on condition that Pindarus should be ba∣nished the City: which he opposed not, but taking along such friends as would goe with him, left his Son and the greatest part of his estate in the City, committing them both to the care of Pasicles one of his friends. He departed to Peloponnesus, pre∣ferring Banishment before Regal power, that his Country might not be subjected to the Lydians.

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CHAP. XXVII. Of Plato's Poverty, and how he betook himself to Philosophy.

This also I have heard, but whether it be true or not I know not: They say that Plato son of Aristo was driven by Poverty to betake himself to the Warres; but in∣tercepted by Socrates, while he was buying his Arms, and instructed in that which con∣cerns mankind, he through his persuasion addicted himself to Philosophy.

CHAP. XXVIII. How Socrates reformed the Pride of Alcibiades.

Socrates perceiving Alcibiades to be ex∣ceeding proud of his riches and lands, he shewed him a Map of the World, and bid him find Attica therein; which done, he desired that he would shew him his own lands. He answered,

They were not there▪ Do you boast, replies Socrates, of that which you see is no (considerable) part of the Earth?

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CHAP. XXIX. Of the Poverty and Pride of Diogenes.

Diogenes the Sinopean used to say of himself, that he fulfilled and suffered the imprecations mentioned in the Tragedy, being a Vagabond, destitute of a house, de∣prived of his Country, a Begger, ill clothed, having his livelihood onely from day to day: And yet he was more pleased with this condition, then Alexander with the command of the whole World, when ha∣ving conquered the Indians he returned to Babylon.

CHAP. XXX. Of certain persons extremely Modest.

Amoebeas the Lutenist was extremely continent, insomuch that having a very beautiful Wife, he never lay with her. So likewise Diogenes the Tragedian Player. Clitomachus, one that had been Victour in all exercises, was extraordinary modest. At Feasts, if there were any loose discourse, im∣mediately he arose and departed.

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CHAP. XXXI. Of the diligence of Nicias in his Art.

Nicias the Picture-drawer was so in∣tent upon Painting, that he many times for∣got to eat, his thoughts being wholly ta∣ken up with his employment.

CHAP. XXXII. Of Alexander and Hercules, learning to play on the Lute.

Alexander son of Philip, whilest yet a boy, not of Mans estate, learnt to play on the Lute. His Master bidding him strike such a string as suted with the Tune, and the Air required;

And what imports it, said he, if I strike this?
pointing to ano∣ther. He answered,
It imports nothing to him that shall be a King, but to him that would be a Lutenist it doth.
Doubt∣less he feared, that if he behaved himself not discreetly he might suffer as Linus; for Linus taught Hercules (yet a Boy) to play on the Lute, who touching the Instrument unmusically, Linus rebuked him; whereat Hercules incensed struck Linus with the Lute and killed him.

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CHAP. XXXIII. Of Satyrus a Player on the Flute.

Satyrus a Player on the Flute heard ma∣ny times Aristo the Philosopher, and being much taken with his discourse, said,

Into the fire my glittering Bow
Why do I not as useless throw?<

So mean did he esteem his own Art in com∣parison of Philosophy.

CHAP. XXXIV. A Law common to the Romans and Lacedemonians.

The Lacedemonians and Romans had a Law, That no man might eat of whatsoever things, or as much as he pleased. They re∣duced the Citizens to Temperance, besides other waies, principally by diet.

CHAP. XXXV. That it was not permitted to laugh in the Academy.

There is a general report amongst the Athenians, which saith, That it was not per∣mitted Page  92 to laugh in the Academy: for they endeavoured to preserve that place free from contumely and levity.

CHAP. XXXVI. Why Aristotle left Athens.

When Aristotle left Athens, fearing to be attainted, to one that asked him What kinde of City is Athens? he answered,

Very beautiful; but in it Pears upon Pears and Figs on Figs do grow:
meaning Sycophants. And to one who asked him why he left Athens, he answered,
Because he would not the Athenians should sin twice against Philosophy;
re∣flecting on the death of Socrates, and his own danger.

CHAP. XXXVII. A Law of the Ceans concerning Old men.

It is a custome of the Ceans, That all such amongst them as are very Old, as if they invited one another to a Feast or some so∣lemn sacrifice, should meet together, and be∣ing crowned drink Hemlock; because they are no longer fit to doe their Country ser∣vice, their Minds now doting by reason of Age.

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CHAP. XXXVIII. Some things first found out at Athens.

They say that at Athens were first found out the Olive and Fig-trees; which the Earth also first brought forth. Also that the Athenians invented Judiciary Pleas, and first instituted coporal Exercises, and un∣cloathed and anointed themselves. And Erichthonius first harnessed Horses toge∣ther.

CHAP. XXXIX. What things some of old did eat.

The Arcadians fed on Acorns, the Ar∣gives on Pears, the Athenians on Figs, the Tyrinthians on wild Figs, the Indians on Canes, the Carmans on Dates, the Mae∣otians and Sauromatians on Millet, the Persians on Turpentine and Cardamum.

CHAP. XL. Of Satyrs, Tityri, and Silenes.

The Satyrs companions of Bacchus in dancing are by some named Tityri; which name they had from Teretisms (wanton Dances) in which Satyrs delight: Satyrs,Page  94 from the wideness of their mouths; Si∣lenes, from Sillos, which is a scoff with an unpleasing jest. The Silenes were cloathed in coats with sleeves, hairy on both sides; which Robe signified the planting of Vines by Bacchus, and the downy thickness of the leaves.

CHAP. XLI. Many Surnames of Bacchus.

The Ancients called to bring forth fruit plentifully*Phluin, whence they named Bacchus Phleon, as also Protryges, and Sta∣phylites, and Omphacites, with divers other names.

CHAP. XLII. Of •…ertain Women that fell Mad.

Elege and Celaene were Daughters of Proetus. The Queen of Cyprus work'd them to prostitute themselves; insomuch as in some parts of Peloponnesus they ran up and down, as it is said, naked and raging. They roved also mad into other parts of Greece, transported with this distemper. It is like∣wise reported that the Wives of the Lace∣demonians were transported with Baccha∣nalianPage  95 fury; as also those of the Chians: And that those of the Boeotians were trans∣ported with divine frenzies, the very Tra∣gedy manifests. They say that onely the Minyades, Leucippe, Aristippe and Alcithoe declined the Dance of Bacchus: the cause whereof was, that they desired to have Hus∣bands, and therefore would not be Maena∣des to the God; whereat he was incensed. And when they were working at their Looms, and very busie in weaving, on a sudden branches of Ivy and of Vines twi∣ned about their Looms, and Dragons made nests in their Baskets, and from the roof distilled drops of Milk and Wine. But when by all this they could not be persuaded to serve the Deity, then fury possessed them, & they committed a foul crime out of Cithae∣ron, no less then that in Cithaeron: for the Minyades, seised with frenzy, tore in pieces a young Infant of Leucippe's, thinking it a Kid; then went to the rest of the Miny∣ades, who persecuted them for this mischief, when they were turned into Birds. One was changed into a Crow, the other into a Bat, and the third into an Owl.

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CHAP. XLIII. Of a Lutenist murdered by the Syba∣rites.

At Sybaris a Lutenist singing at a Fe∣stival which they celebrated in honour of Juno, and the Sybarites falling together by the ears about him, and taking up wea∣pons to assault one another, the Lutenist afraid fled with his long Robe to the Altar of Juno: But they spared him not even there. A little while after bloud was see•… to spout up in the Temple of Juno, as if it had been from a Spring. The Sybarites sent to Delphi: Pythia said,

Goe from my Tripods, for thy hands pro∣phane
Distilling bloud my sacred pavements stain:
From me expect no answer, who didst slay
The Muses Son; Thou for his death must pay.
None that transgresseth, vengeance can decline,
Not though descended from Jove's mighty Line.
He & his children, & their children must
Expect due vengeance for that act unjust.
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CHAP. XLIV. Of one who might have assisted his Com∣panion, but would not: And of another that did assist, but unfortunately.

Three young men of the same City be∣ing sent to Delphi to consult the Oracle, •…ell among Thieves: One of them ran away and escaped; the second having killed all the Thieves but one, missed the last, and •…an his sword through his companion. To him that ran away Pythia gave this Oracle;

Thou sufferedst thy companion to be slain:
I will not answer thee, goe from my Fane.

To the other demanding an answer Pythia gave this;

Thou slew'st thy friend by chance in his defence:
Clearer then ever is thy Innocence.

CHAP. XLV. An Oracle given to Philip.

They say that Philip received an Oracle •…n Boeotia at the Trophonian Cave, That he should take heed of a Chariot. Fearing therefore because of the Oracle, it is repor∣ted Page  98 he would never goe in a Chariot. Th•… success is related two waies. Some sa•… that the Sword of Pausanias wherewith 〈◊〉 killed Philip had a Chariot carved in Ivor•… upon the Hilt: Others, that he was slain 〈◊〉 he went round the Thebaean Lake name•…Harma, a Chariot. The first report is mor•… generally received, the other is less frequen•…

CHAP. XLVI. A Law of the Stagirites.

This was a Law of the Stagirites, trul•… becoming the Greeks; What you laid no•… down, take not away.

CHAP. XLVII. Of Timotheus and some others, who•… their Vertues availed nothing.

The Athenians first magnified Tim•…∣theus; but afterwards when he was thoug•… to have offended, neither did his own me∣rits avail him in the least, nor those of h•… Ancestours. Themistocles was nothing be∣nefited either by the Sea-fight at Salam•… or his Embassy to Sparta: I mean that Em•… bassy by which he gave the Athenian means to build up their Walls again. Fo•…Page  99•…e was banished, not onely from Athens,•…ut quite out of Greece. Pausanias the La∣•…edemonian was nothing helped by his Vi∣•…tory at Plataeae; for when affairs were new∣•…odelled at Byzantium, and they were •…ck of the Persian Disease, he lost that fa∣•…our which he formerly had. Phocion was •…ot saved by the general title of Phocion •…e Good, nor by his age of seventy five •…ears, in which time he never injured any •…thenian in the least; for the Athenians•…agining that he would have betrayed the •…yroeum to Antipater, condemned him to •…eath.

The End.