The institution, laws & ceremonies of the most noble Order of the Garter collected and digested into one body by Elias Ashmole ...
Ashmole, Elias, 1617-1692., Hollar, Wenceslaus, 1607-1677., Sherwin, William, fl. 1670-1710.


A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE Orders absolutely Military.


The Order of Knights of the Round Table. (1.)

HAving thus given some account of the Religious Orders of Knight∣hood, that is, of such whose Knights live under an Ecclesiastick Rule, and according to some Religious Profession or solemn Vows; we shall next proceed to those that are accounted purely and com∣pletely Military, among which that of the Knights of the Round Table may (for its Antiquity) challenge the first place.

And though we are not ignorant that the story of this Orders Institution (as al∣so its Founders famous Exploits beyond Sea) is lookt upon as the issue of uncertain Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

The Severall ENSIGNES of the ORDERS absolutely MILITARY, mentioned in the third Chapter
Page  [unnumbered]
Page  [unnumbered]Page  95 Tradition; yet considering, that not only the aBritish Histories, but some of our bEnglish defend it, and many as well cPoets, as dHistorians make mention thereof, we judge it may deserve room among the Military Orders.

The Founder of this most ancient Order, was eArthur King of Britain, Crown∣ed in the year of our Lord 516. at the age of f 15 years, concerning whom, though some with unbounded fancies have strained too far, in setting down his famous actions, insomuch, as that what really is true of him can hardly be known; yet all allow him to have been a stout and successful Martialist, of incredible courage and gallantry, the most famous and renowned of all the British Kings, and as gWilliam of Malmsbury judges, right worthy to have been celebrated by true story, not false Tales; seeing it was he that long upheld his de∣clining Country, and even inspired martial courage into his Country-men, having overcome the Saxons in h twelve seve∣ral pitch'd Battels.

I have by me an old Chronicle in Manuscript, Entituled Brute, or the Chronicles of England, beginning at Brute, and ending the sixth year of King Henry the Fifth, wherein it is noted, That after King iArthur had conquered divers Coun∣tries, he lived in so great renown, that many worthy Knights came from all parts to his Court, as to a Seminary of military Discipline, to give evidence of their valour, in the exercise of Arms.

This gave him occasion to select out of these, and his own Subjects, a certain number (some say k 24.) of the most valiant Knights, whom (himself being chief) he united into a Fellowship or Order; and to avoid controversie about priority of place, when they met together at meat, he caused a Round Table to be made, whereat none could be thought to sit higher or lower than another; and thence they were called, Knights of the Round Table.

At the upper end of the great Hall in Winchester Castle, I remember to have seen a large Round Table hang against the wall, called King Arthurs Round Table, and affirmed by the Inhabitants (who had taken up the report upon vulgar Tradi∣tion) to have been as ancient as that Kings time; but it carried no very great show of antiquity to a judicious eye; however it seemed to have been set up, either in the room of one more ancient, or else by some who were perswaded, there was once such an Order of Knights, which had been denominated thence. This old Monument was broken to pieces (being before half ruined through age) by the Parliaments Soldiers, in the beginning of the late unhappy War, because looked upon as a relique of Superstition (as were those little gilded Coffers with Inscriptions, that did preserve the bones of some of the *Saxon Kings and Bishops, deposited by Bishop Fox in the top of the Walls on both sides the upper part of the Quire of the Cathedral Church of that City) though guilty of nothing but the crime of reverend Antiquity.

Into this noble Society of Knights, were admitted not only lBritains, but also Strangers of other Nations, who out of a desire of glory, came over hither, to make proof of their sufficiency in the exercise of Arms with the British Knights; and the general qualifications for Election were, that they should be persons of Nobility and Dignity, renowned for Virtue and Valour, and admirably well skill'd in the knowledge and use of Arms.

The place where the Founder first Instituted this Order, saith Sir Iohn Froisard, was at *Windsor, and those other of note where he and his Knights usually assem∣bled, were mCarleon in Monmouthshire, Winchester and Camelot in Somersetshire; and the time of the year for their meeting was Whitsontide.

The Articles of their profession are set down by n Sir William Segar, which are in number twelve; and if any be desirous to read the Names of the first twenty four Knights, he shall not only have them from Monsieur Boisseau in his oPromptuaire Armorial, but of 129 more of this Order, elected in seven following Chapters; nay more then that, the formal blazon of all their Arms: but these particulars may be justly ranked with what is fabulous in King Arthurs story.

We read not of any Badge peculiarly assigned to these Knights, though *Ios. Page  96 Micheli, in allusion to their Title, takes upon him to give the Figure of a Round Table, furnished with Cloth, Bread, Salt, Knives, Bottle and Bowl, but we have not authority enough to follow him: However it gives us occasion here to ac∣quaint our Reader, that King Arthur himself is reported to bear a Shield called |Pridwen, whereon was painted the Image of the blessed Virgin; his Sword and Launce also, were not without their names, for the one it seems was called Cali∣burn, the other Irone or Rone.

It is not remembred by any, that this Order survived its Founder, but rather that it extinguished at his death; for it is related that p most of those Knights, whom he had drawn from several Countries, and advanced to a Companionship with himself, bore him company in death, and perished in that fatal Battel of Kamblan, or Cambula (now qCamelsford) in Cornwal; where though he killed Mordred his Enemy upon the place, yet, being sorely wounded, he survived him but a short time, and dyed in the year of our Lord r 542.

It may add some reputation to King Arthurs Round Table, if we here note, that the like Round Table, grew into great estimation and request, shortly after the Norman Conquest, and continued long with us; being ordinarily set up at the grand martial Exercises, called sHastiludes, Tilts, or Turneaments, permitted by King Stephen, and much encouraged by King tRichard the First (for the delight of men inclined to military actions, and increase of their skill in the management of Arms) and for the same end and purpose, as King Arthur made use of it; no less than in memorial and remembrance, that he had erected an Order of Knighthood, denominated therefrom: those times being throughly perswaded of the truth of that story.

Besides, it is recorded, that uRoger Mortimer Earl of March, held the celebra∣tion of the Round Table (consisting of an hundred Knights, and as many Ladies) with Tilting and Turneaments, at Kenelworth Castle in Warwick-shire, anno 7. E. 1. and that King Edward the Third having designed to w restore the Honor of the Round Table, held a Juste at Windsor, in the x 18. year of his Reign (but there is an old Manuscript Chronicle that hath these words, King Edward in his*nineteenth year first began his Round Table, and ordain'd the day annually to be kept there at Whitsontide) and this meeting in truth occasioned the Foundation of the most noble Order of the Garter, as shall be noted by and by.

But it was thought fit sometimes, and upon divers accounts, to forbid these kind of Assemblies, upon very great penalties; as in particular yanno 16. H. 3. at Shrewsbury, when the King went to meet Llewalyn Prince of Wales (called in the Record Prince of Aberfraw and Snowden) and afterwards at Walden, in the z 36. year of the said Kings Reign, and at many other times.

The Order of the Oak in Navarre. (2.)

The a Kingdom of Navarre being opprest by the Moors, the Inhabitants were forced to seek deliverance by Arms, to which end, though they had raised a great Army, yet were they destitute of an experienced Commander; at length, Don Garcia Ximenes, of the blood of the Gothes, who had formerly retired from the world, to a solitary and religious life, was perswaded to relinquish the same, and take upon him the Command of the Army.

As he was marching out of the City to encounter the Moors (in the year of our Lord b 722.) there appeared to him from the top of an Oak, the sign of the Holy Cross, adored by an infinite number of Angels. Proceeding on, he gave battel to the Moors, and having gained a remarkable Victory, the people elected him their King; and upon this occasion he became the first King of that Country.

Some few days after, in thankfulness to God for this great Victory, he c insti∣tuted Page  97 this Order, investing therewith even all the Nobles of his Kingdom; whom he obliged to defend the Christian Faith, and acknowledge Obedience to his Successors Kings of Navarre.

He ordained the Habit of the Order to be White, and the Ensign thereof a dplain Red Cross, set on the top of a green Oak (which gave the Title) after the same manner as it appeared to him: but time hath darkned this Order, not on∣ly in its heroick actions, but laudable Foundation, since we find no further me∣morial of it.

The Order of the Gennet in France. (3.)

To e preserve the memory of that famous Battel fought neer Tours, anno Christi 726. (or as Mennenius margins it, about the year 738.) where 385000 Sarcens and Moors, together with their General Abdiramo, fell by the conquering Sword of Charles Martel; and to reward those who had behaved themselves valiantly in that action; the said Charles instituted an Order of Knighthood, under the Title of the Gennet. The great f number of rich Gennet Furs (anciently esteemed among them the most excellent, though since the Ermine hath gained a better value) as also of the Creatures themselves alive, taken among the Spoils of that Victory; giving him occasion to bestow that name upon his new erected Order.

But g others, not improperly, impute the reason of this appellation to a kind of neat shap'd Horses; of which not unlikely, a great part of the Founders Cavalry might consist.

The Knights, saith Favin, were h sixteen, whose Collars were made of three Chains of Gold, interwoven or linked with Red Roses, at the end of which Col∣lar hung a Gennet of Gold, Black and Red; sitting on a flowry bank, all en∣amell'd with variety of Colour and Art.

And in further honor of this Institution, the Founder not only i renewed the se of Gold Rings (so peculiar of old, to the Equestrian Order among the Romans) but caused them, and all other Ornaments of this Order, to be engraven and wrought with the Effigies of a Gennet.

This is accounted by kFavin, the first Order of Knighthood among the French; which is to be understood of a distinct Order, acknowledged by a par∣ticular and peculiar Title; and continued in glory, until the institution of the Or∣der of the Star, (l some say but till the Reign of St. Lewis) after which time it was laid aside.

But though Favin be thus particular, as to the Institution of this Order, and the occasion thereof, the exact number of Knights, and especially in assigning a Collar, with the Ensign hanging at it, sutable to the mode of later times; yet some other of his m Countrymen, wanting the assurance and authority of ancient Writers to back them, are not confident enough to perswade the world, that there was ever any such.

The Order of the Crown Royal among the Frizons. (4.)

The erection of this Order is referred to Charles the Great, Son of King Pepin, in the year of Christn 802. (which more fully appears in his pragmatical Sanction, then dated at the Lateran Palace in Rome) and instituted out of a design to o honor and reward those among the Frizons, who had behaved themselves valiantly in his Armies, against the Sesnes or ancient Saxons; or as p others say, against the Lombards, in subduing that Kingdom, and to stir up and encourage others to emu∣late their virtue.

Page  98This Order was so called, q from the Ensign appointed to the same, namely an Im∣perial Crown, embroidered with Gold, which the Knights used to wear upon the breasts of their Habit: and to perpetuate this Militia, he ordained, that the Governor of that Country (whom they then called Potestat) should confer the same upon such as had followed the Armies of France, as well in Italy as Germa∣ny, for five years together at their own expence; by which means the Emperor was served at a less charge.

The Knights were invested with the Military Belt, and a box on the Ear; of which we have spoken in the r first Chapter.

The Order of the Dog and Cock in France. (5.)

The Institution of this Order of the Dog and Cock, is generally attributed to the Family of sMontmorency in France, and it is more particularly affirmed by Rober∣tus Caenalis, to have been erected by the first Christian of that Family, called Protochristianus & Archibaro, which causeth us to bring in this Order here, neer to the Age he lived in; but to say truth, as to the Institution it self, or to the time thereof, there is not any more certain, or more satisfactory account, than that anciently this Family carried a tDog (the Embleme of fidelity and sincerity) upon their Helmet for a Crest; and that uPeter Montmorency was a Knight of the Order of the Cock, which Bird was called by the Ancients the Bird of Mars.

But some make two distinct Orders of this, and after that of the Dog, they say, another Order, viz. of the wCock, was also Instituted, whose Collar had the Comb of a Cock pendent thereat, the Motto being Vigiles; howbeit after∣wards, both these Orders came to be united, and hereupon the Ensign was then, the Effigies both of a Dog and Cock joined together.

xMoraeus relates, that Burchard Montmorency, appeared at the Court of Philip the First, King of France, attended with many Knights, and all of them (like him∣self) adorned with Collars of Gold, composed of Stag-heads, whereat hung the Figure of a Dog: whence we may presume, that it had some relation to the more ancient Order, of which this was the Badge or Ensign.

The Order of the Thistle in Scotland. (6.)

Iohn Lesley Bishop of Ross, reports that a bright aCross appeared from Heaven, in fashion of that whereon St. Andrew suffered Martyrdom, to Hungus King of the Picts (but bFavin saith to the Scots, whom Achaius King of Scotland sent to his assistance) the night preceding the Battel with Athelstan King of England, (or rather of cDenmark, to whom King Alured had given the Kingdom of Northumberland) over whom Hungus prevailing, d bore the Figure of that Cross at all times after in his Ensigns and Banners: and from this time and occasion hath the like bearing thereof been religi∣ously observed by all succeeding Kings of Scotland.

Hence also it is believed (saith eMennenius) that the Equestrian Order of St. Andrew, vulgarly called of the Thistle, took beginning. To this agrees the relation which I received from Sir Charles Areskin, now Lyon, King of Arms in Scotland, through the favour of the Right Honorable the Earl of Lauderdail, who adds, that after this Victory ob∣tained, which was as he saith, anno 819. (but according to fGeorge Buchanan, Achains dyed 9 years before)

King Hungius and Achaius (Confederates against Athelstan) went Page  99 in solemn Procession bare-footed, to the Kirk of St. Andrew, to thank God and his Apostle for their Victory, promising that they and their Posterity in time coming, would ever use in their Ensigns the Cross of St. Andrew, whensoever they undertook any warlike Expedition; which custom not only remained among the Picts, but is still among the Scots to this day: And both these Kings, after their solemn Procession, presently instituted an Order, naming it the Or∣der of St. Andrew.

But gAndr. Favin reporteth the occasion to be otherwise, to wit, that Achaius King of Scotland, having made that famous League offensive and defen∣sive, with Charlemain King of France, towards all and against all other Princes (to preserve the memory of which alliance to posterity, the Scotch Lyonh assum∣ed before by King Fergus, became then enclosed with a iTresure of Flowers de Lis) he found himself thereby so strong and mighty, that he took for device the kThi∣stle and the Rue, which he composed into a lCollar of his Order, and for his Motto Pour ma defence: giving intimation thereby, that he feared not the powers of Foreign Princes, seeing he leaned on the succour and alliance of the French.

And though hence may be inferr'd, that these two Plants, were the united Sym∣bols, but of one Order of Knighthood, yet doth mMennenius divide them into two, making one, whose chief Badge was the Thistle, (whence the Knights were so stiled) and the Motto, Nemo me impune lacessit: and another vulgarly called nSertum Rutae, or the Garland of Rue, whose Collar was composed of two Branches or Sprigs thereof, or else many of its leaves: Nevertheless, that at both these Col∣lars hung one and the same Jewel, to wit, the Figure of o St. Andrew Patron of that Kingdom, bearing before him the Cross of his Martyrdom.

But there are some (saith the same pAuthor) who refer the Institution of the Order of the Thistle, to later times, (albeit the Thistleq from the Reign of Ahai∣us, had been acknowledged for the Badge and Symbol of the Kingdom of Scot∣land, in like manner as the Rose was of England, the Lilly of France, the Pome∣granate of Spain, &c.) to wit, in the Reign of rCharles the Seventh of France; when as the League of amity was renewed between those two Kingdoms, and especially for the succour and aid which France then received from Scotland, it being in a time of so extraordinary distress: and, last of all, others place the Foundation yet later, viz. in the year of our Lord s 1500.

I have done with what can be said as to the Foundation of this Order, and the time thereof; and shall now pass on to some other particulars, relating to the Or∣der it self.

The chief and principal Ensign of this Order is a Gold Collar, composed of Thistles, interlink'd with anulets of Gold, and pendant thereunto the Image of St. Andrew with his Cross, and this Epigraph, Nemo me impune lacessit: the Figure whereof may be seen in a Picture of Iames the Fifth King of Scotland, now hang∣ing in his Majesty's Gallery at Whitehall, on several great Seals of that Kingdom, on some Coyns and Medals, and lastly among the representations of the Military Ensigns, placed at the beginning of this Chapter.

The t time of this Societies meeting, was heretofore very religiously observed and celebrated, upon the Feast day of St. Andrew the Apostle annually, in the Church of the Town dedicated to his name, and in testimony of the high esteem and reverence they bore unto him as their titular Saint and Patron: During the u solemnity of the Feast, the Knights of this Order were habited in rich and costly Apparel, and wore their Parliament Robes, having fixt on their left shoulders, an w azure Rundle, on which was embroidered St. Andrews Cross, environed in Center with a Crown composed of Flowers de Lis, Or.

For the y ordinary and common Ensign, the Knights used a Green Ribbon, whereat hung a Thistle of Gold, crowned with an Imperial Crown, within a Circle of Gold, containing also the foresaid Epigraph; but for more satisfa∣ction, we have caused the Figures of these two to be here exactly represented, from the draughts of them sent me from the before-mentioned Sir Charles Are∣skin.

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As to the number of the Knights, there is nothing remembred by any Author we have seen, but herein I was supplyed by the Right Honorable the Earl of Lau∣derdale, who assured me he had met with (among his readings) from good autho∣rity, a memorial, that this Order consisted of 13 Knights, in allusion to the number of our blessed Saviour, and his twelve Apostles.

The Order of Knights of our Lady of the Star in France. (7.)

The Institution of this Order is by Andrew Favin derived from aRobert King of France, surnamed the Devout, who, to manifest his particular devotion to the blessed Virgin Mary, and in her honor, gave Being thereunto, in the b Month of August, Anno Domini 1022.

The Knights were in number c thirty, comprehending the King of France, the Chief or Soveraign; they had appointed for their Habit,dMantles of White Da∣mask; their Mantlets and Lining, were of light Carnation Damask, their Sur∣coats of the same, and on their Mantles, as also on their Surcoats, to wit, upon the left side of the breast, was embroidered a Star, wrought in pure Gold, with five rays or pointed beams.

The great Collar (e saith he) was formed of three round Chains of Gold, much like that of the Order of the Gennet, and united at little distances, with en∣amelled Roses, interchangeably White and Red, at the end whereof hung the Fi∣gure of a Star. The f Ceremonies of the Order began on the day of the Nativi∣ty of the blessed Virgin Mary, Patroness thereof, in the year before-mentioned.

In the g Reign of Philip de Valois, this Order began to be intermitted by reason of the Wars, nevertheless it was restored by King Iohn his Son, the eighth of Sep∣tember, anno 1356.

But albeit Favin hath thus formally set down the Institution of this Order, and assign'd it to King Robert, adding moreover Habit, Collar, and other specious circumstances thereunto, yet thehSancte Marthe's (his Countrymen) are not per∣swaded of the truth thereof, but ingeniously acknowledge, that there is not any thing of it mentioned by their ancient Writers, and coming to speak of the Order in particular, i they refer its first Institution (not renovation) so do kMennenius,lIos. Micheli, and others) to King Iohn Son of Philip de Valois, in the Month of October, anno 1352. in commemoration of that Star which directed the Wisemen, who came from far, to adore the Saviour of the World at his Nativity; the m Fi∣gure whereof crowned, King Iohn caused to be embroidered on the Mantle or upper Garment of the Order, as also this Motto, Monstrant Regibus Astra viam.

The Seat of this Order (thus instituted by King Iohn) and where the first Cere∣monies were kept, was in the noble and ancient House ofnSt. Owen, called de Clichy, neer St. Denys in France; and by an ancient o deed of Exchange of Lands, situate in the Earldom of Alançon, in lieu of the House of St. Owen (made by King Iohn to the Countess of Alançon, and dated at St. Cler de Gomets the 6. day of Iune 1356.) is the King called pInstitutor of the military Fraternity of the Star; which sufficiently contradicts the fair-spun relation of Favin, who bestows the honor of Foundation upon King Robert, as before hath been said. To which Page  101 we may add, that the day assigned by Favin for holding the Chapter of Election of the first Knights, to wit, the eighth of September 1356▪ and at Clichy aforesaid, was (in all probability) too neer the day of the Battel of Foicters, (that being but eleven days after) and King Iohn not only then at a great distance from Clichy, but on a * hasty March to engage the Black Prince, and consequently too little at leisure to enter upon the Formalities of such an Institution.

This Order was of no long continuance, for being much q violated and disho∣noured (during the confusion of the Civil and Foreign War) by the admission into it of mean and undeserving persons; it gave a fair occasion to King Charles the Seventh to take off the pretence of honor supposed in it, and to extinguish it.

Whereupon, in the year r 1455. he contrived the holding of a Chapter, for giving away that Ensign thereof, which himself wore, to the Chevalier du Guet, Captain of the Night-watch in Paris, after whose example the Princes and Lords left the Order, thus disgraced, to the said Captain, and never after wore it.

This Story as to the time, though not the manner, doth sFavin contradict, and renders his reasons for it: howbeit, upon what occasion soever, the Order became relinquished or dismist, certain it is, that t upon (if not some time before) the Foun∣dation of the Order of St. Michael, it grew out of request; as did that of the Gennet upon the erection of the Star.

The Order of the Lilly in Navarre. (8.)

aGarcius King of Navarre, the Sixth of that name, lying under the extremity of a languishing sickness, sent to divers places of Devotion, to the end, that Prayers might be offered up for the recovery of his health. In which season there hapned to be found in the City of Nagera, where he kept his Court, an b Image of the blessed Virgin Mary, issuing forth of a Lilly, and holding her Son between her arms, upon finding of which (if we may credit the story) he im∣mediately recovered, and (to perpetuate his devotion to the said Virgin) c in∣stituted an Order of Knighthood, in the year of our Lord 1048. which consisted of 38 Knights, drawn out of the ancientest Families in Navarre, Biscay, and old Ca∣stile, and Entituled it, the Order of Knights of St. Mary of the Lilly.

But Ios. Mich. Marquez gives foundation to this Ordere 25 years before Favin, and draws the Institution from another ground. For f whereas Don Garcias had succeeded his Father, King Zanchy the Fourth, in the Kingdom of Navarre, the Moors made War against him, and he prevailing, made a Feast in honor of the blessed Virgin Mary, at which he instituted this Order, and adorned many Knights with the Ensign thereof, beginning with his Brothers and Sons.

Of this Order (g esteemed the most illustrious of all Spain) King Garciash or∣dained himself, and after him his Successors Kings of Navarre, the Chiefs and So∣vereigns. The Knights promised at their entrance into this Order, to iexpose their lives and fortunes in defence of the Christian Faith, conservation of the Crown of Navarre, and expulsion of the Moors.

The Badge or Symbol which the Knights wore daily on their breast, was a kLil∣ly embroidered in Silver; but on solemn days, a double Chain of Gold, inter∣laced with the letter M. made after the fashion of a Saxon Capital; at the end whereof did hang a Flower de Lis of Gold, enamelled White, bearing the fore∣said Letter M. crowned upon the head of its Flower. The Habit was White, wrought all over in Needle-work, with White Lillies.

But Ios. Micheli differs in this also from Favin, for hel assigns for the Badge, two Branches of Skie-coloured Lillies, one crossing another, and in the middle of them the Figure of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin, but agrees that the Habit was White.

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The Order of the Sword in Cyprus. (9.)

mGuy of Lusignan, (and according to this Author, King of Ierusalem and Cyprus in right of his Wife Sibilla, Sister to Baldwin the Leper) shortly after his setlement in the Isle of Cyprus (which he had bought of Richard the First, King of England, for one hundred thousand Crowns of Gold) Instituted this Order in the year of our Lord 1195. in remembrance of so fortunate a Plantation of 15000 persons, whom he had brought thither.

But nMennenius, and some others, are so far from being of this opinion, as to affirm, that neither the name of the Founder, nor the time of this Order's Foun∣dation are certainly known; though it be conceived he was one of the Family of Lusignan, who gave beginning unto it.

The oCollar of the Order (called a Collar of Esses by pMennenius) was com∣posed (as Favin reports) of round Cordons of White Silk, woven into Love∣knots, interlaced with the Letters S and R. Beneath this Collar hung an Oval of Gold, wherein was figured a Sword, the Blade enamelled Silver, and the Hilt Gold; and about the Oval was engraven this Motto, Securitas Regni,qMicheli saith it was, Pro fide servanda; and *Gothofridus, Pro integritate tuendâ.

Therday appointed for holding of the solemn Ceremonies of this Order, was Ascension-day, whereon the Founder gave it (in the Church of St. Sophia the Ca∣thedral of Nicosia in Cyprus) to his Brother Amaury, Constable of Ierusalem and Cyprus, and to 300 Barons, which he had established in that his new Kingdom.

There were s eight Kings of Cyprus, of this House of Lusignan, Great Masters or Chiefs of this Order; and t when the Isle fell into the hands of the Turks, this noble Institution ceased.

The Order of the Bear in Switzerland. (10.)

The u Emperor Frederick the Second (in favour of the Abbot of St. Gall in Swaben, and several Noblemen of that Country, who had been active in his as∣sistance for gaining to him the Empire) instituted this Order, in the year of our Lordw 1213. and bestowed upon the elect Knights Collars of Gold, at the end whereof hung the Figure of a xBear, Gold, mounted on an Hillock enamelled with Black.

He ordained, y that this Honor should be conferr'd by the Abbot of St. Gall, for the time being, and that on the Anniversary of their Patron St. Gall (a Gentle∣man of Scotland, and the Apostle of Swaben) being the 16. day of October, the Knights of this Order should assemble at the Abbey; on which day, such Candi∣dates as were z designed to receive the Honor, were girded with the military Belt (the Sword being first consecrated at the Altar) and adorned with the Collar of the Order; having kept their Vigils the preceding night, according to the an∣cient and accustomed manner.

But it carried the Title of the *Order of the Bear, in memory of St. Vrsus, of the Theban Legion, who was martyr'd before the Temple of the Sun, at Soleurre in Switzerland; as also of St. Gall, from the name of the Patron of the place, where it received Institution.

This Order continued among the Switzers, till they became a Common-wealth, and then the Castles and strong holds of the Noblemen and Gentry of the Coun∣try being dismantled, the use thereof was wholly laid aside.

Page  103

The Order of the Broom Flower in France. (11.)

aSaint Lewis King of France (saith Favin) instituted this Order, to honor the Coronation of Margaret his Queen, eldest Daughter of Berengrius Count of Provence, anno Dom. 1234.

The bHabit appointed for the Knights, were Cassocks of White Damask, and Violet Chaperons; the Collar was composed of Broom Flowers, of the native co∣lours, interlaced with Flowers de Lis, hanging thereat a Cross Florence Gold, to which was added this Inscription, Exaltat humiles, the Founder accounting it the Symbol of humility.

As to the c number of the Knights, it was not made certain by the Founder, but wholly depended on the will of the Sovereign. This Orderd continued to the death of King Charles the Fifth.

Notwithstanding all that Favin thus relates, the eSaincte Marthe's are of opinion (for the reason before noted) that neither this St. Lewis, nor the before mentioned King Robert, nor King Charlemain, did ever institute any Military Order of Chevalry: And fMennenius reports, that Charles the Sixth is said to have been the Founder of the Knights of the Broom Flower: if this be true, the Order will want many years of that antiquity which Favin bestows upon it.

gPeter Bellay rather thinks this later Institution not to have been any Order of Knighthood, but a Company of young Esquires, the Sons of Noblemen, who attended King Charle's person as a Life-Guard, or as Esquires of the Body, and were oftentimes imployed to interpret the messages of Embassadors from foreign parts.

The Order of the Ship, and double Crescent in France. (12.)

hMennenius acknowledgeth, that of old, there was such an Order in France, erected in honor of the great atchievements that Nation did by Sea; but by whom it was founded, or at what time, doth not appear from him. Yet iFavin is full in both, for he affirms, that the before mentioned St. Lewis, after the Institution of the Broom Flower, erected this likewise: for animating the Nobility of France, by this new prize of honor, to accompany him in his Voyage into Africa, 1269.

The kCollar was interlaced with double Escallops of Gold, and double Crescents of Silver, interwoven and fastned together with double Gold Chains, at which the Figure of a Ship was pendent in an Oval of Gold.

ThislOrder continued in France (after the death of St. Lewis) no longer than those Knights lived, who were admitted thereinto by him: but it was retained by mCharles, Brother of the said St. Lewis, and by him setled in Sicily, where it re∣mained in request with his Successors, until the Kings of Aragon gained that Kingdom.

Knights of St. James in Holland. (13.)

nAlbertus Miraeus, from an old Dutch Register, called Register der Ridderscap, or the Register of the Order of Knighthood, informs us, That Florentius Earl of Holland and Zeland, and Lord of Friseland, in the year 1290. bestowed the En∣signs of his Order of St. Iames, in the Hall of his Palace at the Hague, upon twelve of his principal Nobility, whose names he sets down: among whom, the second in rank, is Lancelot Lord Hamilton, then Embassador from the King of Scots.

Page  104The Knights of this Order were invested with a oCollar of Gold, or military Belt of Silver and gilt; adorned with six Escallops, whereat was appended the Picture of St. Iames the Apostle.

All the pKnights Shields (whereon were painted their proper Arms) were de∣livered to Iohn Paypaert, Herald of Holland, and by him hung up in the great Hall of the Palace, at the Hague, in perpetual memory and testimony of this Insti∣tution.

Order of the Swan in Cleveland. (14.)

If ever there was an Order there, under that Title, it hath been very anci∣ent, and long since laid aside; yet qFavin says, the Princes of Cleve have born the Swan for their Order, Devise, Crest, and Supporters, to preserve the memo∣ry of the Knight of the Swan, the Romance of whose Adventures he also sets down; and further reports, that rCharles Gonzaga of Cleve, Duke of Nivers and Retelois, had it in design to re-establish this Order, peculiar to the House of Cleve.

The Knights of Jesus at Rome. (15.)

The Popes of Rome, as they are Lords Paramount of St. Peters Patrimony, are Temporal Princes; upon which account to a honor the Nobles, principally of that Territory and others, they have erected and established certain Orders of Knighthood, as well Religious as Military, but all of them Stipendaries to the Pa∣pal See: Of the former sort we have spoken before in the last Chapter, but this being esteemed a Military Order, we therefore place it here.

It was instituted by Pope bIohn the 22. at Avignon in France, anno 1320. and much augmented by Paul the Fifth. The Knights wear for the Badge of this Order, a plain Cross gules, inclosed within a Cross Patee Or, hanging at a Gold Chain.

In the Month of Ianuary 1668/9. Pope Clement the Ninth, created three of the Ambassadors from the Catholick Cantons in Switzerland, with the accustomed Ceremony; himself putting on their Gold Chains, with the Ensigns appendant, and the Captain of his Guards, girding their Swords about them.

Order of the White Eagle in Poland. (16.)

The information we have of this Order, is from sFavin also, who saith, that Ladislaùs the Fifth, King of Poland, instituted the same, to honor the marriage of his Son Casimire the Great, with Anne Daughter of Gedimir, Duke of Lithua∣nia, in the Month of February, in the year of our Lord 1325.

The Ensign hereof was a tWhite Eagle, crowned.

The Order of Knights de la Banda in Castile. (17.)

This Order of Knights called ude la Banda, was erected by Alphonsus the Eleventh, King of Leon and Castile, in the w City of Victoria, anno 1332. (but xFavin from Antonio de Guevara, saith it was in the City of Palencia, anno 1330. and ySansovin in Burgos, anno 1368.) For this King considering, that he had to do with many Enemies, could find no better way to secure himself, than by Page  105 erecting this Order, and constituting himself Master thereof, which he did a lit∣tle before his Coronation.

Shortly after (saith Mennenius) to wit, anno 1332. the Solemnity of this Order was celebrated in the z City of Burgos, where, on the Eve thereof, in the Monastery of St. Mary Royal, each of the Candidates was conducted by the King to the Altar, and having there laid down his Arms, spent the whole night in watching and Prayer.

The next day after Mass, he was invested with a a Red military Belt, or a Ribband of four fingers broad, which came across the body, over the right shoulder, and so under the left arm; And was the Ensign from whence the Knights took their denomination.

This Order was instituted chiefly to honor the Nobility, and therefore at first, none were admitted, but the b younger Sons of Noblemen (excluding elder Bro∣thers) or persons descended of the most noble Families in Spain; or else Esquires, who had served in the Court or Camp, ten years at the least: and to the end that greater honor might the more inflame them to valiant Exploits, Kings them∣selves, sometimes, vouchsafed to take the Ensign of this Order upon them.

c It was anciently of very great esteem, but (such is the vicissitude of humane Affairs) at length it grew out of use.

The Laws and Constitutions are recorded by dAnth. de Guevera (who also gives a Catalogue of the first Knights) eIos. Micheli,fSansovin,gFavin, and hSegar; to whom we refer those that are desirous to be informed of them.

The Order de la Calza in Venice. (18)

From the i example of the Knights de la Banda in Castile, and about the year 1400. was instituted a Society at Venice, bearing the Title de la Calza, in honor of the Inauguration of Duke Michele Steno.

Meeting with but a slender account hereof, among those Authors who have handled Military Orders, and some confounding it with that of St. Mark; I was at length, by the friendship of the deservedly honored Sir Charles Cotterel Knight, Master of the Ceremonies to his Majesty, furnished with better satisfaction, which he obtained for me from Signóre Pietro Moccinigo, the late Venetian Ambassador, at his Residence here in England; and from Signóre Aberti the present Resident for that State.

This Order consisted of a Society of particular Noblemen and Gentlemen, who at their voluntary choice met together, and entred into a Fellowship (a∣mong whom, some person of Eminence was elected their Chief) Nevertheless, upon the recommendation of their intention and design to the Council of Ten, who confirmed their Institution, and granted them Priviledges.

It hath appeared with so much the more reputation to the world, by having had the honor to receive into it several Princes of Italy, especially the Family of Este Dukes of Ferara, of Gonzaga then Marquesses, now Dukes of Mantua, of the Rovere, Vrbino, Mirandula, and others of the most conspicuous Families of that Country, namely, Colonna, Vrsini, Sanseverini, Visconti, and others.

They were distinguished by wearing a Stocking quartered into different co∣lours, embroidered with gold, and enriched with Jewels, which they at pleasure altered from the right to the left Leg; and in particular it is remembred, that an. 1529. the right Stocking then worn, was half the inside of Scarlet, and half the outside of Purple, and the other half gray, but the left Stocking was all green: and as were the Husbands Stockings, such were the Wives Sleeves in all par∣ticulars.

On their solemn days, they first went to Church, and at Mass, took an Oath to observe the Articles of their Order. Among other things which this Society (for the honor of the City) was obliged to, splendid and noble Entertainments were part; at which were exhibited Musick, Dancings, and Theatral Representati∣ons: Page  106 And with such magnificent and sumptuous Divertisements, have they given reception to divers foreign Princes, in particular to Henry the Third of France, when he past by Venice in his way from Poland to France.

They wore for their Habit a Crimson Senators Vest, appearing therein very splendid, and reserved for solemn days; at which times the Foreign Princes, that had been admitted into this Order, appeared clad after the same manner.

These Knights had for their Ensign a Sun on a Shield painted in their Banners, which they used also for a Seal; perhaps as a happy Omen and Presage, that the Order (being laid aside about the year 1590. for the excess it was growing into) should like the Sun from under a Cloud, rise again in after times (when better opportunity offered it self) in greater splendor than ever.

The Order of St. Mark in Venice. (19.)

In this Seigniory there is another Degree or Dignity of Knighthood, commonly called the Order of St. Mark; and because it is generally reckoned among the Orders of Knighthood, and differs from the Milites Simplices by wearing a peculiar Title, and being invested with a particular Ensign of Honor at their Creation, we have thought good rather to discourse of it here, though the Ceremony of Crea∣tion is performed after the manner of Knights Batchellors, viz. by Dubbing with a Sword, and their Title a bare mark of Honor only; being by our Learned Selden affirmed to be, lthe known Degree of Knighthood given by Supreme Princes, or such as have a like power with them.

Besides, we have been informed thence, that those Knights are not governed by any Laws or Statutes, and are without any Revenue or Indowment of Lands: That they are not under any particular obligation or tye, except what is common to them with other Subjects, namely that of Fidelity to the Prince, being in all things else left to their own liberty. To this we add, that the Honor is also bestowed on absent persons, by Letters Patent or Codicils (as is the Knightly Dignity sometimes) among some of which, that to the learned Sir Daniel Heinsius, is given us by m Mr. Selden.

It had its Title from St. Mark the Evangelist, whose n Body was translated to Ve∣nice, from Alexandria in Aegypt, in the year of our Lord o 828. in the time of Iusti∣nianus Patritius Duke of Venice, ever since which time this Saint hath been assumed and taken for the p titular Angel and Guardian of this noble City, and his Picture very anciently painted upon their Banners and Ensigns; but as to the Institution, it is not certainly determined, when, or by whom, it was first brought in use.

The Badge of Honor, wherewith these Knights are adorned, is a Gold Chain, put over their shoulders, at the instant of their Creation, whereat depends a Medal; on the one side is represented the Symbol of St. Mark, to wit, the q Figure of a Lyon, having wings, holding in his right Paw a drawn Sword, and in his left a Book, spread open, in which, this Motto, Pax tibi Marce Evangelista mens; on the other, the name of the Duke then living, beautified with a particular Impress; but in the other, he is represented on his Knee, receiving a Standard from the hands of St. Mark: and sometimes this Medal is worn on a Cross enamel'd blue.

I was further informed from the hand of the noble Signóre Pietro Moccinigo, that the Duke of Venice bestows this Honor, either privately in his Chamber, or publick∣ly in a full Colledge: Some also are made Knights by the Senate, and those of the Venetian Nobility, at least persons of very eminent Quality and Character, who have merited well of this Common-wealth, by some extraordinary piece of service, either at home or abroad, or upon whatever occasion the Senate sees fitting: and for asmuch as the Senate is a representation of the whole Common-wealth, and that the Creations of these Knights are confirmed by publick Decrees; it is taken, that the Knights of their creating are of greater Dignity, than those made by the Duke. When the Creation is in a full Colledge, whether it be by the Senate or the Duke only, the Collar and Medal is bestowed at the publick Charge; but when by the Duke privately, then upon his particular expence.

These Knights wear the Honor among other Titles of Dignity, as I have seen Page  107 it inscribed about the Effigies of Sir Daniel Heinsius, thus, DANIEL HEINSIVS D. MARCI EQVES ILLVSTR. HOLLANDIAE ORDINVM HISTORI∣CVS, POLITICVS, ET HISTORIARVM PROFESSOR BIBLIOTHE∣CARIVS ACADEMIAE ET SECRETARIVS. And among those other Titles given to that famous Mathematician and Astrologer Sir Andrew Argoll, that of his Knighthood by this Title, is also thus inserted, ANDREAS ARGOLVS D. MARCI EQVES, ET IN CELEBERRIMO LYCEO PATAVINO PRO∣FESSOR MATHEMATICVS.

The Order of Seraphins in Sweden. (20.)

In the year of our Lord a 1334. Magnus the Fourth, King of Sweden, in imi∣tation of other Christian Princes, who had established Military Orders, instituted this of the Seraphins, or Seraphick Knights, otherwise surnamed of Iesus; in me∣mory of the Siege laid to the Metropolitan City of Vpsala.

The Collar of this Order was composed of bSeraphins and Patriarchal Crosses, the former of Gold, enamelled Red, the later also of Gold, but without any en∣amel: At the end thereof hung the c Image of Christ in an Oval. dFavin saith it was this Cipher IHS composed of three Letters, and signifying the name of Iesus, and in point four Nails. But e elsewhere 'tis said to be the Figure of the blessed Virgin Mary, and to make the thing yet more uncertain, f another tells us, it was a Patriarchal Cross that hung thereat.

The Order of the Sword and Military Belt in Sweden. (21.)

We find mention made of another Order of Knights in Sweden, called of the gSword and Military Belt, whose Collar consisted of Swords and Belts conjoyn'd (the Symbols of Justice and Love) the Swords somewhat bending towards the point, and so joined point to point, round into a Circle: But by whom or when this Order was instituted, we are not yet informed.

The Order of the Knot in Naples. (22.)

When hLewis King of Hungary design'd a War against Ioane Queen of Naples, he undertook an Expedition into Italy, not so much to deprive her of her Kingdom, as to revenge the death of his Brother Andrew; whom (as 'tis reported) Queen Ioane, his Wife, had commanded to be strangled.

After many troubles and three years of War, they came to an accord, the first of April, anno 1351. and the 26. of May following (with the consent of Pope Cle∣ment the Sixth) the Queen, and Lewis Prince of Tarentum, were crowned King and Queen of that Realm; and that same day, in memory of such a happy Peace, and to take away all suspitions and enmities; the Prince instituted this Order of Knights, into which entred threescore and ten of the illustrious Lords in blood of Naples, and some other Strangers.

The Habit he appointed was White, and for the Orders chief Ensign, he gave a Knot (the Embleme of Love and Friendship) intermixt with Gold: and as the like Institutions in that Kingdom, commonly ended with the death of their Foun∣ders; so this Order expired in a short time.

Page  108

The Order of Knights of the Annunciade in Savoy. (23.)

iAme the Sixth of that name, Earl of Savoy, surnamed Conte le Verde, instituted this Order under the Title of the kCollar, in the year of our Lord l 1362. in honor of the 15 m Divine Mysteries of the Rosary.

nAndrew Favin, on a mistaken ground, calls it the Order of the Snares of Love, in regard (as he alledgeth) the Founder had received of his Lady, the favour of a Brace∣let, made of the Tresses of her hair, knit or plaited in Love-knots, and that the four Letters, afterward interlaced by the Founder, within such like Love-knots should signifie, Frappés, Entrés, Rompés, Tout.

But Francis Capre (Councellor and Secretary of State to the present Duke of Savoy) who hath given an account of the o Institution, together with the several re∣staurations of this Order, from the Records thereof (preserved in the Charter-house in Pierre Chastle, appointed at the time of the Foundation, for the Seat of the Order) p confutes this error of Favin, and with him several others, who have un∣warily swallowed down the same mistake.

qMennenius and rMiraeus take not the least notice of its denomination from the Collar, but call it the Order of the Annunciation in Savoy: But it is cleer enough from the Foundersslast Will and Testament, bearing date the 27. of February, anno 1383. and from whattCapre and Guichenon alledge, as also from the uSta∣tutes of Ame the Eighth, that at the time of the Foundation, it was called the Order of the Collar: under which name it continued, till the time of Charles the Third, surnamed le Bon, Duke of Savoy, when (and not before) it had bestow∣ed on it the Title of the Annunciation, from the Picture of the History of the blessed Virgin Mary, by him first made appendant to the Collar, in the year 1518.

The wFounder appointed the number of his Knights (reckoning himself the Chief and Sovereign for one) to be fifteen, (among whom we find x Sir Richard Musard, an English Gentleman, recorded) agreeable to the number of the before mentioned Divine Mysteries; but in the additional Statutes made by Ame the Eighth (first Duke of Savoy) anno 1434. and by Duke Emanuel Philibert, 1568. there is a permission given to augment their number, by adding five to the former fifteen, but the Soveraigns have not always been confin'd to this number.

Besides the Institution of this Order, the Founder erected and founded the y Chartreuse of Pierre Chastle in Bugey, wherein were entertained 15 Priests, and they obliged to celebrate every day 15 Masses, to the honor of the 15 Joys of the blessed Virgin, to the Souls health of him, his Predecessors, and all who had been, were, or should hereafter be Knights of this Order. So that the resem∣blance of this Institution, with the foundation of this religious house, is some argument, that the Order, as well as the House, were founded upon a religious and pious, not amorous or wanton account.

At Pierre Chastle were the Ceremonies observed, and the Chapters held by the Sovereign and Knights, z until the time that Charles Emanuel First of that name, Duke of Savoy, exchanged it, and some other places, for the Marquisate of Saluces, upon the Treaty of Peace concluded at *Lyons, 17. Ian. 1607. and then the Anniversary of the Feast, and celebrations of the Order (be∣ing fixt to the Feast-day of the Annunciation of our Lady) were translated from hence, first to the Church of St. Dominick at Montmeillar, and afterwards by his declaration, dated at Turin| 3. Dec. following, to the Hermitage of Camaldule, situate upon the Mountain of Turin, vulgarly called l' Eremo Assis, where they were performed, as formerly, at Pierre Chastle.

Thea ancient Collar (from which also the Order received its denomination) was made of Gold, about three fingers breadth, as may best be collected from Page  109 the Founders own Collar, which he b gave to the religious at Hautomb, in whose Vestry it is yet preserved. Upon this Collar are engraved these Letters F.E.R.T, represented in ancient barbarous Characters after this manner 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 and one Knot (commonly called the Knot of Savoy) at the end of each Fert, which with three other like Knots entwin'd one within another, made up the circumference depending at the Collar: nevertheless, without any Figure or Image within the Circle.

These old Characters (as hath been generally taken and supposed) were the initial Letters of this Epigraph, Fortitudo ejus Rhodum tenet, alluding to the glo∣rious actions of Conte Ame le Grand, who gallantly defended the Isle of Rhodes, against the Turks, anno 1310.

But the world hath now received more light in this particular, from the indu∣strious pains of Monsieur Guichenon;d who has very fortunately cleered this so common a mistake from all obscurity.

For the Devise of the House of Savoy, consisting in the before noted word, or four Letters, appears to be more ancient, than the time of Conte Ame le Grand, in regard that Lewis de Savoy, Baron de Vaud, who dyed anno Dom. 1301. did al∣ways wear this Devise, as appears from some of his Coyns, which this Author e in∣serts; and further, the Monument of Thomas de Savoy, the First of that name, Son of Humbert the Third, Conte de Savoy, de Piemont, & de Maurienne, who died the 20. of Ianuary, anno 1233. and lies interr'd in the Cathedral Church of Aouste, hath (on the Draught of the f Monument which Guichenon exhibits) a Dog ly∣ing at the feet of his Portraicture, which (on a Collar about his neck) bears this word Fert, without pointing also, or distinguishing of Letters; and is besides a strong proof, that this was but one word.

But yet to add more strength to this assertion, he exhibits another con∣vincing Testimony, from a g Brass Coyn of the same Earl Thomas, whereon is a bowing Escotcheon, charged with a Cross, and for the Crest, a Lyons head winged, and surmounted with a Peacocks Feather; on the one side of the Crest are these two Letters TS, being the initial and final Letters of his Christian name Thomas, and on the other side HI, the first and last Letters of the Surname Humberti, which signifies, Thomas filius Humberti: On the Reverse of this Coyn, is to be seen two Knots, of the fashion afore noted, and the word Frt in the midst.

He moreover gives us the Ectype of a h Silver Coyn, of Peter de Savoy (who for some time abode in England, in the Reign of King Henry the Third, and built that stately Structure in the Strand, called the Savoy) in which is repre∣sented the Devise Fert, in Gothick Characters.

From all which it is fully evident, that this word, as also the Knot and Cross were used for the Devise, Badge, and Arms of the House of Savoy, long before Count Ame le Grand relieved Rhodes, against the power of the Turks, or the time of the Institution of the Order; though for how long before is not certainly known; nor is the true interpretation of the word left rendred to Posterity.

We may here not unfitly add, that though Historians generally report for a truth, that Conte Ame le Grand, relinquished the Eagle, the ancient Arms of Sa∣voy, and assumed the Cross of Rhodes, to wit, Gules, a Cross Argent, in memory of the relief he gave to that City; yet doth this particular suffer much contra∣diction. For it is made clear enough by iGuichenon, that some of this Conte's Ancestors, Earls of Savoy, and other Princes of that House, did bear the said Cross for their Arms, long before that famous action at Rhodes: Nevertheless he de∣termines not when it was first so assumed by the House of Savoy, but modestly in∣terposeth his conjecture; k conceiving, that upon the return of Ame the Third, Earl of Savoy, out of the Holy Land, anno Dom. 1147. he might assume the Cross for his Arms (for in the like kind we have several instances in the Arms of Families herein England, when their Ancestors returned home from that Country) as well for the honor he bore to this Pledge of our redemption, as for a memorable Badge of that his Military Expedition. And seeing that in those times Arms were not become hereditary, the Earls of Savoy, did one while bear an Eagle,Page  110 another while the Cross, until Conte Ame le Grand established the later of these in his Family.

The ancient Collar had no lRose on the Circle of its pendant, or Image either of our blessed Lady, or St. Maurice, asm some relate: but was composed only of the afore∣said word, linked together by a single Knot, and three little Knots in the pen∣dant; until the time of Duke Charles the Third, as may be proved by the anci∣ent Collars of the Soveraigns of this Order, preserved in the Monastery at Haut∣combe in Savoy (n founded by Conte Ame the Third, anno 1125.) where most of the Soveraigns are interred, with the Figure of which Collar, Fr. Capre hath incompassed the Arms of all the Knights, from the first foundation, unto the time of Duke Charles the Third; as may be seen in his Catalogue of the Knights of this Order.

This ancient Collar is still in use, and daily worn, but now called the olittle Col∣lar of the Order, being made of Gold, or Silver and gilt, about an inch broad, and of different weight. The Knights wear it about their neck, close to the Collar of their Doublet, in which manner Ame the Tenth, Duke of Savoy, is represent∣ed, in his Picture at full length, now hanging in the Gallery at Whitehall, to which Collar (within a round formed of three Knots) hangs the Figure of the Annun∣ciation.

As Duke Charles the Third restored much of its decayed splendor to this Or∣der, so annop 1518. did he introduce another larger Collar, and called it the grea Collar, so that now the Knights use two Collars, the later being only worn upon days of Ceremony, and Festivals of the Order. This later and larger Collar weighs about 200 Crowns in Gold, and is composed of the word Fert interwo∣ven with Knots, severed with Roses, viz. 15 Roses of Gold, whereof seven are enamell'd with White, and seven with Red, and bordered with two Thorns; as also the Figure of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin, enamelled in various co∣lours, pendant at three Chainets to another Rose, coloured both White and Red.

We read not of any peculiar Habit assigned to the Knights of this Order, be∣fore the time of Duke Charles the Third, who brought into use the q great Man∣tle of Crimson Velvet, his own being fur'd with Ermins, but the rest of the Knights with Miniver, fringed and bordered with Knots, (to wit, of the fashion of those that adorn the Collar) in fine Gold: Under this Mantle is worn a Surcoat, of white Damask.

r Duke Emanuel Philibert his Son, changed afterwards the colour of the Mantle to Azure, and lined it with White Taffaty, of which Silk he also made the Surcoats.

But sCharles Emanuel altered the Mantle unto an Amaranthus or Purple Co∣lour, seeded with Roses, and Flames, in embroidery of Gold and Silver, bor∣dered throughout with the Symbols of the Order, fringed with Gold, and lined with Cloth of Silver, tissued Blue, which continues hitherto in use: Under which instead of the White Taffaty Surcoat, is now worn a White Satin suit, embroi∣dered with Silk, the Hose gathered upwards, in the fashion of Trouses.

Concerning the Statutes of this Order, the most ancient are those of tAme the Eighth (for there are none of the Founders extant) made at Chastilion the 30. of May, in the year of our Lord 1410. the original whereof is lodg'd in the Archives at Turin, which he augmented in the year 1434. and both are printed by uSansovin. Duke Charles the Third, made new Statutes at Chambery the 11. of Sept. anno 1518. these were enlarged by Duke Emanuel Philibert, anno 1568. and published in the year 1577.

The Order of the Thistle of Bourbon in France. (24.)

At the solemnity of the a marriage of Lewis the Second Duke of Bourbon, with Anne Daughter to the Count Daulphine of Auvergne, celebrated in the Town of Arde, on New-years day 1370. this Duke instituted the Order of Knights of Page  111 our Lady, otherwise called the Thistle, and the b first solemnities thereof were performed at Nostre Dame de Maulins in Bourbonnois, where he founded a Col∣ledge of twelve Canons in honor of the blessed Virgin.

The ground of the Institution wasc to strengthen this Dukes power and interest, for the aid of Charles Duke of Orleans, and of his two Brothers Philip and Iohn, against the Faction of the House of Burgundy: And by joining of Flowers de Lis and Thistles (the Symbols of hope and courage) emblematically to express the nobleness of his Spirit, against all power of Fortune.

He ordained a set number of Knights of this Society, to wit, d 26, therein com∣prehending himself and Successors Dukes of Bourbon, as Chiefs; and obliged these to wear daily a eBelt or Girdle made of watchet colour Velvet, lined with Crimson Sattin, embroidered with Gold, in the midst of which embroidery was curiously wrought the word ESPERANCE. This Girdle was fastned with a Buckle and a Tongue of Gold, bearded and checquered with green enamel, in form like to the head of a Thistle.

On the Anniversary of the Festival (namely the day of the Conception of our Lady in December) the Knights wore Cassocks or Surcats of Carnation Damask, with wide sleeves, girded with the Girdle before described.

The fMantle of this Order was of Skie-coloured Damask, having broad welt of Gold embroidered on the Collar, and lined with red Sattin; but the Mantlet of green Velvet.

The Bonnet was also of green Velvet, at the point of the band hung a sai Tassel of Crimson Silk and threds of Gold, the lining of Crimson Tassaty, and turned up after the antique manner, whereon they had embroidered the Golden Shield with the word Allen.

Whoso considers in this Constitution, the number of Knights, the principal colours of the Mantle, Surcoat and Girdle (with the injunction for wearing there∣of) shall plainly see that this Founder took an exact pattern from the Order of the Garter, which he had observed in England, and acquainted himself with its Constitutions, while he was Prisoner in Windsor Castle: for here is little change or alteration, and only a Belt or Girdle made the chief Ensign of this, as the Gar∣ter was of that Order.

The great iCollar was of Gold, of the weight of ten Marks, enamelled with Green, opened like Network, which was fill'd with Flowers de Lis of Gold, and each of them(together with the Letters of the Impress)placed in a Lozenge of red enamel. At the bottom of the Collar, in an Oval of Gold(the Circle whereof was enamelled with Green and Red) appeared the Figure of the Patroness, the blessed Virgin Mary, surrounded with rays of the Sun, crowned with twelve Silver Stars, a Crescent of the same under her feet, enamelled with Purple and Skie colour, lastly at the end of the Oval depended the head of a Thistle enamelled Green, but bearded White.

Some little difference is put by k others in the fashion and composition of this Collar; namely, that it was made either of Gold or Silver, and framed of Flowers de Lis, and four leaves or Flowers of a Thistle, set in the form of a Cross.

The Order of the Dove in Castile, (25.)

Was instituted by lIohn the First of that name, King of Ca∣stile, in the City of Segovia Anno Dom. 1390. (so saith mMen∣nenius and nMiraeus, but oFavin placeth it 1379.) and pro∣posed to his Nobles, as a p reward to encourage them to pro∣secute the noble acts of his Grandfather King Henry the Second.

The qCollar of this Order was linked or enchained with the resplendent beams of the Sun,* both waved and pointed, Page  112 at which hung a golden Dove enamelled White, and r encompassed with rays, the Eyes and Beak Red.

Herewith the Founder, saith Favin, adorned himself on Whitsonday (yet Men∣nenius and Miraeus will have it the Feast-day of St. Iames) and at the Altar of the great Church in Segovia, distributed other the like Collars to his intimate Fa∣vourites, together with a Book containing the Statutes of the Order. But he dy∣ing the very same year, before the Order had taken sufficient root, it became of small continuance.

The Order of the Argonautes of St. Nicholas in Naples. (26.)

tCharles the Third, King of Naples, instituted this Order, in the year of our Lord 1382. and with the Ensign thereof invested several of the Nobility of that Kingdom; with which as by a Bond, he designed to tye them one to another in a brotherly obligation.

The end of its Institution, was to preserve amity among the Nobles, to com∣pose enmities, and suppress seditions; Insomuch, as if any of the Knights of this Order, were at variance one with another, and refused to be reconciled, the En∣signs were then to be taken from him: but u some say the ground and cause, was to advance Navigation, which the Neopolitans stood in need of. To which the principal Ensign of this Order seems rather to allude, it being a wShip float∣ing upon the waters, in the midst of a storm, having this Motto, Non credo tempori.

x In the Convent of that sumptuous Church, which St. Nicholas Bishop of Smyr∣na caused to be built, was the grand Feast held, on the Anniversary of that Saint.

This King appointed a yWhite Habit for the Knights, and prescribed laudable Constitutions to the Order; but because he setled no Revenue thereupon, the splendor thereof ceased at his death; nevertheless z he obtained the end for which it was instituted.

Knights of St. Anthony in Hainolt. (27.)

aAlbert of Bavaria, Earl of Hainolt, Holland, and Zeland, designing an Expe∣dition against the Turks and Moors, instituted this Order, in the year of our Lord 1382.

The Ensign thereof was a golden Collar, wrought after the fashion of an Hermits Girdle: at which hung a walking Staff, and a little golden Bell.

The Order of the Porcupine in France. (28.)

b Monsieur Lewis of France, Duke of Orleans, instituted this Order, in the year 1393. to honor the Baptism of his eldest Son Charles, by Valentina his Wife, Daughter to Iohn Galeas Duke of Millan; and made choice of the Porcupine for his Devise, with this Epigraph Cominus & Eminus; not only out of the high hopes he conceived of this Child, c but also to intimate something of revenge against Iohn Duke of Burgundy, his mortal Enemy, no less than self-defence, against all his designs and assaults, of which this Animal is a proper Emblem.

dParadine,eMennenius, and fMicheli, make Charles, the Son of this Monsieur Lewis, the Founder anno Dom. 1430. in imitation or emulation of Philip Duke of Burgundy, Founder of the Order of the Golden Fleece; but gFavin strengthens his foresaid relation, from the authority of one Hennotin de Cleriaux an Herald,Page  113 who attended the forementioned Christning in his Heralds Coat, and set down an account of the Institution by Monsieur Lewis, together with the names of the Princes, Lords, and Gentlemen, on whom he then bestowed his new erected Or∣der, their number being 25, including the Founder.

The hHabit assigned to the Knights were Surcoats of Violet Velvet, and over them Mantles of Watchet Velvet, lined with Carnation Satin.

The iCollar was formed of Gold Chains, at the end whereof hung a Porcupine of Gold, upon a little enamelled hillock of Grass and Flowers; which k Creature was also embroidered on the Knights Belts.

The Order of the Lilly in Aragon. (29.)

According to mHieronymus Zurita, this Order was instituted by Ferdinand King of Aragon, called the Infant of Antiquera, in the year of our Lord 1403. and dedicated to the honor of the blessed Virgin.

The Collar was composed of nBough-Pots, fill'd with White Lillies, inter∣laced with Gryphons; and as oHieronymus Romanus reports, was vulgarly called La Orden de la Terraca o de las Azucenas, ò Iarra de S. Maria, which is as much as to say, The Order of Lillies, or the Vessel of St. Mary.

pFavin gives it under the Title of the Looking-glass of the blessed Virgin Mary in Castile, instituted (as he saith) in honor and memory of a Victory, which this King Ferdinand had obtained in that Kingdom against the Moors, anno 1410. to wit, seven years after the time assigned by Zurita for the foundation. The Foun∣der transplanted this Order with him into Aragon 1413. when he received the Crown of that Kingdom, and where it continued under the Sons of this King, but no longer.

The Order of the Dragon overthrown in Hungary. (30.)

The Emperor Sigismond, surnamed the q Glorious (for the many Battels he gained over the barbarous Nations, in defence of the Christian Religion) r ha∣ving greatly laboured the peace of the Churches of Hungary and Bohemia, and, by his Travels into England, France, and Spain (to invite those Princes to join with him in that his Enterprise) brought the same to pass by the Council of Constance; out of extream joy at the accomplishment thereof, instituted this Order, in the year of our Lord 1418. for defence of the Christian Religion, and to s crush all Hereticks and Schismaticks that should arise: which Order in short time became of high esteem, not only throughout Hungary, but Germany also.

The Knights wore daily for their Ensign of Honor, a tGreen Cross story, on solemn days a Scarlet Cloak, and on the Mantlet of Green Silk a double Chain of Gold (Micheli saith a Green Ribbon) at the end of which hung a Dragon dead, with broken Wings, in the posture of being overcome (the Symbol of Heresie vanquished) and the whole enamelled with variety of Colours proper. But this Orderu continued not long, for it almost expired with the Founder.

Peter Beloy, President of Tholouse, affirms he had seen a w Diploma, dated anno 1413. purporting that Basilius Colalba Marquess of Ancona was admitted into this Order, in these very words, Te quem manu propria militiae cingulo & societatis nostrae Draconicae ac Stolae seu amprisiae charissimi fratris nostri Regis Aragoniae in∣signivimus, &c.

Page  114

Equites Tufini in Bohemia. (13.)

We find but a bare mention thereof made by aMennenius, and that it was erected in the Kingdom of Bohemia (or else both in bBohemia and Austria) but he doth not in the least inform us either of the cause of its Institution, the Badge of the Order, or to what the Title refers.

The two first of these particulars Ios. Micheli supplies, but as to the third, we cannot give so perfect an account as we would; yet we remember to have read somewhere, that this Order had its name from Toca, a Cap or Coif.

The c Arch-Dukes of Austria (saith he) were Founders of this Order, which they instituted to ingage their Subjects in the defence of the Christian Religion, and expulsion of the Turks, and those they called Hereticks, out of their Domi∣nions: for having about 200 years maintained a War with vast and excessive charge, by erecting this Order, and bestowing upon the Knights thereof all that they gained in War towards their supportation, they very much ea••d them∣selves in their Military Expences; and indeed this proved so great an encou∣ragement to them, that in a few years (performing service wheresoever their Chiefs commanded them to ingage) they cleared their Provinces almost of both Turks and Schismaticks.

The dEnsign of this Order was a plain Green Cross, and the Habit of the Knights Red.

This and the following Order (saith the same eAuthor) were under the Rule of St. Basil, and profest conjugal Chastity and Obedience; but we see not from what ground he alledges this; for if so, then ought we to have placed it among the Religious rather than Military Orders, these being absolute notes and marks thereof. But inasmuch as we f elsewhere find, that Albert the Emperor adorned Moyses Didacus de Valera in Spain (a Knight of known and approved courage) with the Ensigns of his three Orders, viz. of the Dragon, as he was King of Hun∣gary; of the Tusin, as King of Bohemia; and with the Collar de la Disciplinas, as Duke of Austria, it is hence manifest, they were all compleat Military Orders, of which this Emperor was Soveraign or Chief: for no man can be admitted into more than one Order at a time (if it be of a religious Constitution) and when∣soever he obtains leave to change that Order, he cannot be received into ano∣ther, without relinquishing the former.

Ordo Disciplinarum in Austria. (32.)

Bohemia (saith gMicheli) finding it self very much endangered by Turks and Hereticks, the Kings thereof instituted this Order, to suppress, or at least to keep them under, and to secure the Confines of that Kingdom. But I suppose, this Author means Austria, in regard it appears immediately before to have been con∣ferr'd by the Dukes of that Country.

The Collar of the Order had a h White Eagle hanging thereat.

This, and the former Order, together with that of the Dragon in Hungary, are said to have flourished in Germany, in the Reigns of the i Emperors, Sigismund and Albert.

Ordo de la Scama in Castile. (33.)

This Order received Institution from kIohn the Second, King of Castile, about the year of our Lord l 1420. to perswade and stir up his Nobility to fight against Page  115 the Moors. For he being overcharged with War, designed this Order chiefly to awaken their courage, for the defence of his and their own Estates: which af∣terwards upon all occasions they performed so well, and gave so great demon∣strations of their Valour, that in a short time the Moors were vanquished.

What their symbol or Ensign was, or the reason of the Title de la Scama, hap∣ned to be so far worn out, that gHieronymus Romanus (who wrote the life of this King Iohn) professeth he knew not what was meant or intended by it, though he had been very diligent in the search thereof.

Yet hIos. Micheli informs us, that their Ensign was a Cross, composed of Scales of Fishes, which does plainly enough demonstrate it to be derived from the Latin word Squama, from whence comes the Spanish word Scama, that signifies the Scale of a Fish.

Some that speak of this Order, say i nothing as to its beginning, being ignorant of the Founder; but it is generally believed to be Instituted by the foresaid King Iohn, in whose time it flourished; insomuch as there were few of his Nobility, but were also Knights thereof.

The k duty to which they were obliged, was to defend the Kingdom of Castile against the Moors, and to dye in defence of the Christian Faith; besides which, upon every occasion, when the King went out to War, they march'd before him.

Their l Priviledges were given them by King Iohn, as also Statutes and Rules to be governed by. Upon whose m death the splendor of this Order was eclipsed; as many times it hath fared with other Foundations in the like case: the Successors, wanting the zeal and love for their continuance, equal to that of the Founders for their Institution.

The Order of Knights of the Golden Fleece in Flanders. (34.)

oPhilip the Second, Duke of Burgundy, of the second and last Line, issuing out of the House of France, surnamed the Good, instituted this Order, under the Title of the Golden Fleece, in memory of the great Revenues he raised by the traffick of Woolls with the Low Countries. Some will have it erected in comme∣moration of valiant pGideon, who with 300 men vanquished a numerous Army of Midianites. Or else (according to others) the Founder followed the example of qIason, and his Argonautes; whose Expedition to Colchus against Actes, he per∣haps might intend to imitate, by a Voyage into Syria against the Turk.

Whatsoever the occasion was, 'tis certain (from the preamble of the Sta∣tutes of Institution) that this Duke out of the perfect love he bore to the noble estate of Knighthood, founded this Order, to the glory of the Almighty Creator and Redeemer, in reverence of the Virgin Mary, and honor of St. Andrew, the Apostle and Martyr (whom he made Patron thereunto) to the advancement of the holy Faith, the service of the Catholick Church, and promoting of Virtue. For the maintaining and upholding of which, and for the increase of honor and fair renown, no less than the correction of Vice, r several good orders, set down in the Institution, are appointed to be observed, at the Chapter held on the last day of every Annual Feast of the Order.

The day of Institution, was the s 10. of Ianuary, anno Dom. 1429. on which very day the Founder solemnized his Marriage, with Elizabeth, Daughter to Iohn King of Portugal, in the City of Bruges in Flanders.

The number of Knights first chosen, were t 24. beside the Duke, Chief and Supream, who reserved to himself the nomination of six more at the next Chap∣ter. But Charles the Fifth, anno 1516. encreased them to fifty.

And though the Founder at first resolved upon the Feast of u St. Andrew annually, for holding the solemnities of the Order; nevertheless in consideration of the shortness of the days, at that time of the year, and how troublesome it would prove, especially to aged Knights, who lived at great distance, to take a Journey Page  116 in so cold a season; it was afterwards ordained, that the Grand Feast and Gene∣ral Assembly, should be kept w from three years to three years, on the first of May, in such place as the Sovereign of the Order should beforehand give compe∣tent notice of.

As to the Habit, it was at first ordained, that at the Grand Solemnity, the Knights should wear three different Mantles, to wit, the first day of the Feast, of xScarlet Cloth, richly embroidered about the lower end, with Flints struck into sparks of Fire, and Fleeces, with Chaperons of the same; and the same day after Dinner, to proceed to Vespers in yMantles of Black, and black Chaperons: The day following, the Knights were to hear the grand Mass of our Lady, z clad as should seem good to themselves. But Duke Charles, Son to the Founder, appointed them Mantles of White Damask, for that days Ceremony, and changed their Cloth Mantles into Velvet.

The great Collar is composed of cdouble Fusils, interwoven of equal big∣ness, in form of the Letter B. with Flint-stones, seeming to strike fire, and sparkles of fire between them, at the end whereof doth hang the resemblance of a Fleece of Gold, enamelled in its proper Colours. These dFusils are placed back to back, two and two together, thereby representing the Letter B both ways, intending to signifie Bourgoigne, they are also intermingled with Flint-stones, in reference to the Arms of the ancient Kings of Bourgoigne; but it was the devise of the Founder to ingirt them with sparkles and flames of fire. To the Flint, Paradine (in his Heroical Devises) ascribes this Motto, Ante Ferit, quam Flamma micet, and to the Fleece this, Pretium non vile laboris.

The Iewel is ordinarily worn in a double Chainet or Males of Gold, linked to∣gether at convenient distances; between which runs a small Red Ribbon: and so is Philip the Fourth, King of Spain, represente, wearing his Jewel in a Picture at full length, hanging in his Majesty's Gallery at Whitehall; or otherwise it is worn in a Red Ribbon alone.

The Founder ordained e four Officers to attend and serve the Order, after the manner declared in the Ordinances for their Instructions, annexed to the Sta∣tutes, namely, a Chancellor, a Treasurer, a Greffier or Register, and a King of Arms, called Toison d' Or.

fLewis the Eleventh of France refused to accept of this Order, because his Pre∣decessors were not accustomed to receive the Orders of their Subjects; for such were the Dukes of Burgundy accounted, who held that Dutchy and other Seig∣niories in homage leige to the Crown of France.

Albeit the Emperors of Germany are descended from Philip Arch-Duke of Au∣stria, Duke of Burgundy, and Count of Flanders; nevertheless the power of con∣ferring the Order is lodg'd in the Kings of Spain only, the Title of Head and Soveraign being solemnly resigned by the Emperor Charles the Fifth to his Son King Philip, the g 25. day of October anno Dom. 1556. in the Roy∣al Chappel at his Palace in Bruxelles, and the Collar taken from his neck, and with his own hands put over his said Sons shoulders, in the presence of divers of the Knights, at which Ceremony he used this form of words, hAccipe Fili mi, quem è Collo meo detraho, Tibi praecipuum Aurei Velleris Torquem, quem Phi∣lippus Dux Burgundiae cognomine Bonus Atavus noster, Monimentum fidei sacrae Romanae Ecclesiae esse voluit, & hujusce Institutionis ac Legum ejus fac semper memineris.

Afterwards, though Philip the Second, King of Spain, invested the Infanta his Daughter Isabella, in the Dominion of the Low Countries, upon the Contract of her marriage with the Arch-Duke Albert of Austria, yet he i retained to himself, and Successors, Kings of Spain, and Dukes of Burgundy, the honor of being Chief of this Order, in which Crown it remains to this day.

The Statutes (ratified under the Founders Seal the 27. of Nov. 1431.) are print∣ed in the kIurisprudentia Heroica, together with those other l additions and alte∣rations which were since made by his Successors. So also are the m Priviledges granted to the Knights by the Founder, his Son Charles, and Maximilian, which re∣ceived confirmation from King Philip the Second, anno Dom. 1556.

Page  117The Names of the first n 24 Knights, and their Successors, to the number of 450. are there also registred, together with a Catalogue of the oChancellors, Trea∣surers, Registers, and Kings of Arms, and lastly a q Figure of a •••ght, vested in the Habit, may be there likewise seen.

The Original and Foundation of this Order is written at large in French by William Bishop of Tournay, Abbot of St. Bertin, and second Chancellor to the Or∣der, in a Treatise of his called The Golden Fleece, dedicated to Charles Duke of Burgundy, Son to the Founder, and printed at Troyes, in the year of our Lord 1530. In this Work the Author treats of two manner of Golden Fleeces, viz. first of Iason's Fleece (of which he useth the testimony of Eustathius, to assert it for a true History) and by it represents the noble Virtue of Magnanimity, demon∣strating several Virtues appertaining to the state of Nobility. Secondly, of Ia∣cobs Fleece (viz. the party-coloured and streaked Fleece) by which he sets forth the Virtue of Iustice, which Virtue principally appertaining to Kings, Knights, and noble persons, moved the heart of Duke Philip to institute this Order, under it comprehending the Virtues of both the other Fleeces.

The Order of St. George at Genoa. (35.)

The a Republick of Genoa have an Order of Knighthood among them, dedi∣cated to the honor of St. George, their titular Saint and Patron; it was instituted by Frederick the Third, Emperor of Germany, and the Knights thereof are called, bKnights of St. George at Genoa.

The Ensign is a plain Cross Gules, and worn by the Knights at a Chain of Gold about their neck.c

The Dukes of Genoa are Chiefs thereof, and in regard their Dignity lasts but two years, the Order is much impaired through the inconstancy and alteration of times.

The Order of the Croissant in France. (36.)

eRene, or Renatus, descended of the second Line of the House of Anjou, King of Ierusalem and Sicily, &c. Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence, &c. erected this Order, under the denomination of the Croissant, or half Moon, in the City of An∣jou, anno Dom. 1464. But the fSaincte Marthe's make it 16 years older, by placing the Institution in the year 1448.

gIos. Micheli reports, that Charles King of Sicily▪ and Ierusalem was the first In∣stitutor, anno 1268. in the great Church at Messina in Sicily, on the day of St. Lewis King of France; but he by mistake confounds this Order with that of the double Croissant instituted by St. Lewis in France; and after his death retained and setled in Sicily by the said King Charles his Brother.

The end wherefore King Rene founded this Order, is noted to be in h honor of God, support of the Church, and exaltation of Knighthood. Over which he declared himself and his Successors Dukes of Anjou, and Kings of Sicily Chiefs.

He also chose i St. Maurice, Knight and Martyr, for Patron, and held the first Ceremonies in the k Church of Angiers, dedicated to his name.

The lSymbol which the Knights wore on the right side of their Mantle, was a golden Crescent, whereon, in red enamel, was this word L'oz, signifying (in the opinion of Peter Mathieu) L'oz en Croissant,m whereby they were encouraged to search after the increase of valour and reputation.

At this nCrescent was fastned as many small pieces of Gold, fashioned like Co∣lumes and enamelled with red, as the Knights had been present in Battels, Sieges Page  118 of Towns, Cities, or Castles, which gave due intimation to all men, of their va∣lour shewed in martial services; for o none could be adopted into this Order, unless he had well m••ited in some of these kinds.

The Knigh•• who were 36 in number (but the Saincte Marthe's say 50) did wear for the Habit,pMantles of red or Crimson Velvet, and a Mantlet of White, with the lining and Surcoat of the same.

The Order of the Ermine in Britagne. (37.)

In the year of Christ r 1450. Francis the First of that name, Duke of Bretagne, in memory of his s Grandfather Iohn, surnamed the Conqueror, or else in imitation of other Princes of the bloud in France, founded this Order, consisting t of 25 Knights, and thereupon also, new-built his Castle of the Ermine.

He ordained the uHabit to be Mantles of White Damask, lined with Carnation, and the Mantlet of the same.

The great wCollar to be of Gold, composed of Ears of Corn in Saltir, bound above and beneath with two Circles of Gold (in imitation of the Crown of Ceres) hereby noting the care of Husbandry, which the ancient Counts and Dukes of Bretagne had, as also the fertility of that Province; and hence is this Order other∣wise called of the Ears of Corn.

x At the end of this Collar hung the yMus Ponticus, or Ermine, passing over a Turf of Grass, diapred with Flowers, at the edge whereof was imbossed this Epigraph in French, A Ma Vie, the devise of his z Grandfather Iohn, by which he made known the greatness of his courage, and rather than fail of his word, that he would undergo any misfortune.

This Order took ending, when the Dukedom of Bretagne became * annexed to the Crown of France, by the marriage of Anne Dutchess of Bretagne with Charles the Eighth, and he being dead, with Lewis the Twelfth, both French Kings.

The Order of the Ermyne in Naples. (38.)

aFerdinand the First, King of Naples, after the end of the War which he had with Iohn of Lorain, Duke of Calabria, erected this Order, in the year of our Lord 1463. being moved thereunto upon the Treason intended against him, by Marinus Marcianus Duke of Sessa, and Prince of Rosiona, his Bro∣ther-in-law; who raising a confederacy against him, intended to kill him, when they should be together, that so he might transfer the Kingdom to the Duke of Calabria.

But this Plot being discovered, and the Duke apprehended by the King (his Subjects expecting that he should have executed Justice upon him) he not only forbore it, but having instituted this Order of Chevalry, the first of many that were invested with the Collar thereof, was this his Brother-in-law, (whom he not only pardoned, but also honored) and besides whom, admitted all the Noblemen of Title in the Kingdom thereinto.

The Collar was of Gold intermixt with Mud or Dirt, to which depended an Ermyne, and this Motto, Malo mori, quam faedari.

The Order of St. Michael in Naples. (39.)

bAlbertus Miraeus makes this King Ferdinand Founder of another Order of Knighthood in Naples, in memory of St. Michael the Arch-Angel, Patron of Apu∣lia. The cHabit of the Knights was a long White Mantle, embroidered with Page  119Ermyns, and the Collar of Gold composed of the Letters O, to which was added for Symbol, this Epigraph, Decorum.

This Order is likewise taken notice of by the Author of the dIurisprudentia Heroica; but perhaps it may be the same with that of the Ermyn; since we ob∣serve the Habit hereof is embroidered with Ermyns, and might be otherwise called of St. Michael, if so be it were dedicated to his honor.

The Order of Knights of St. Michael in France. (40.)

aLewis the Eleventh of France, considering how much the Factions of the No∣bility of his Realm had disordered his Affairs, to the end he might reunite their affections to himself, and confirm the same, by new obligations of Honor, in∣stituted this Order in the year of our Lord 1469. to which he gave the Title of St. Michael, this Arch-Angel being esteemed the b titular Angel and Protector of the Realm of France; in c reverence of whom the ancient Kings of France were wont to observe the Feast-day of this Saint with great solemnity, and keep an open Court.

This King Lewis by the foundational Statutes of the Or∣der (which passed his Royal Assent at Amboise the d first of August in the year aforesaid) ordained, e That the number of Knights should be 36. whereof himself and his Successors were to be Chief: but afterwards the number far exceed∣ed, even to f 300.

The Collar of this Order is composed of gScallop-shells of Gold, joined one with another and double banded, fastned on small Chains or Males of Gold; to the midst thereof is annexed an Oval of Gold, on which a rising hillock, whereon standeth the Picture of St. Michael combating with, and trampling upon the Dragon, all curiously enamelled, to which saith *Mennenius was adjoined this Epigraph, Immensi tremor. Oceani.

The Habit appointed by the Founder, was a hMantle of White Damask hanging down to the ground, furr'd with Ermyn, having its Cape embroidered with Gold, and the border of the Robe interwoven with Scallops of Gold, the Chaperon or Hood, with its long Tippet, was made of Crimson Velvet.

But afterwards King Henry the Second ordered, i That this Mantle should be made of Cloth of Silver, embroidered with three Crescents of Silver, interwo∣ven with Trophies, Quivers, and Turkish Bows, semed and cantoned with Tongues and Flames of fire: and moreover that the Chaperons of Crimson Velvet, should be covered with the same embroidery.

The k grand Assembly was by the Soveraign and Knights directed according to the Statutes, to be held as a solemn Festival on Michaelmas day, and the l place ap∣pointed for celebration of these pompous Ceremonies, at the Church of mMount St. Michael in Normandy, built by St. Autbert, upon St. Michael's appearing to him in a Vision, and liberally en∣dowed by nollo Duke of Normandy and hiso Successors, but afterwards removed to Bois de Vincennes not far from Paris.

There is an Herald of Arms appointed to this Order called Monsieur St. Mi∣chel, whose duty is to attend the Solemnities thereof, and q who in most things is precedented by our Garter, King of Arms.

Such care and moderation was used by King Henry the Third of France, when he instituted the Order of the Holy Ghost, not only to preserve the honor of this Order in its full splendor (notwithstanding the example of former times, where the rising of a new Order hath commonly proved the setting of the old) but to reform some miscarriages which had crept into it, by bestowing it upon some me•• and undeserving persons; that he not only continued the annual Solemnities thereof, and Election of Knights thereinto; but also declared, that neither Page  120r Strangers, nor the Natives of France, who before are Knights of any other Or∣der, should enter into that of the Holy Ghost, except those only of St. Michael.

The Collar of which Order is thereby made lawful to be worn, with that of the Holy Ghost, and usually represented within it, that being esteemed the more worthy place: And we are told it is now s customary for those that are design'd to be Knights of the Holy Ghost, to be admitted into the Order of St. Michael the Evening before they receive that Order.

Knights of St. Hubert in Gullick. (41.)

tGerard Duke of Gullick and Berg (or as the French call them Iuliers and Mont) Instituted a Military Order in the year of our Lord 1473. in veneration of St. Hubert Bishop of Liege, who died anno 727.

The Statutes thereof were written in the Dutch Tongue, whereunto was added a Catalogue of the Knights and their Arms, to the year of our Lord 1487. But further mention of this Order, or what was the Badge thereof, we do not find.

The Order of the Elephant in Denmark. (42.)

Observing some difference among uWriters touching the Institution, Collar, and Ensign of this Order, I was in doubt what to say, till at length I haply met with better satisfaction from a Letter wrote anno 1537. by Avo Bilde Bishop of Arhusen, sometime Chancellor to Iohn King of Denmark and Norway, unto Iohn Fris Chan∣cellor to King Christian the Third, a Copy whereof was most freely communi∣cated to me by Monsieur Cristofle Lindenow Envoye from Christian the Fifth, now King of Denmark, to his sacred Majesty, the present Soveraign of the most noble Order of the Garter.

This Letter informs him of the Institution, and some other particulars relating to the Order, to wit, That King Christian the first being at Rome (whither he had travelled upon a religious account) Pope Sixtus the Fourth, among other Ho∣nors▪ invested him with this Order, in memory of the Passion of our Lord and Saviour; and withal ordained, that the dignity of Chief and Supream, should be continued as a successive right to the succeeding Kings of Denmark.

This King founded the magnificent Chappel of the three Kings in the Cathe∣dral Church at Roschilt (four Leagues from Copenhagen) where the Knights were obliged to assemble, upon the death of any of their Fraternity. He also admitted thereinto divers Kings, Princes, and Noblemen.

The chief Ensign of this Order was the Figure of an Elephant, on whose side (within a Rundle) was represented a Crown of Thorns with three Nails, all bloody; in honor and memory of the Passion of our blessed Saviour.

The Knights were obliged to the performance of acts of Piety, Alms Deeds, and certain Ceremonies; especially upon those days, on which they wore the En∣signs of the Order: But King Iohn set so high a value upon it, that he wore them on every solemn Festival.

He also advanc'd the honor of this Order to so great esteem, that it became ac∣cepted by both our King Henry the Eighth, and Iames the Fifth King of Scot∣land, his Sisters Son; with whom the Ensigns thereof, remained as a Pledge and assurance of constant and perpetual friendship; with these he likewise invested divers Ambassadors, Senators, and noble Danes.

There is one Ivarus Nicholai Hertholm, a learned Dane (as I am informed) who hath written a particular Treatise of this Elephantine Order, but not yet printed; The scope whereof is to shew, that the beforementioned Epistle of the Bishop of Arhusen does not sufficiently make it appear, that it received its first Institution, when Christi∣an the First had those many Honors conferr'd on him, by Pope Sixtus the Fourth. Page  121 And that the Badge was an Ensign meerly Military, anciently given as a memo∣rial and incitement to the Danish Princes, who took upon them the defence of Christianity against the Moors and Africans. 'Tis greatly presumed that this Book (which we hope may shortly be published) will furnish the world with many choice things relating to the antiquity and honor of the Institution, Ensigns and Ceremonies of this royal Order.

Heretofore the Knights wore a Collar of Gold, composed of Elephants and Crosses, fashioned something like Crosses Ancrees (Mennenius calls them w Spurs) at which hung the Picture of the Virgin Mary to the middle, holding Christ in her arms, and surrounded with a Glory of Sun-beams: but they have long since laid this Collar aside, and now wear only a Blue Ribbon, at which hangs an Ele∣phant enamelled White, adorned with five large Diamonds set in the middle. Those Elephants worn by the Knights in the Reign of Christian the Fourth, had in the same place within a Circle the Letter C, and in the heart thereof the Figure of 4, made to signifie Christianus quartus.

This Honor hath been most commonly conferr'd by the Kings of Denmark, on the day of their Coronation, both upon the Nobles and Senators of the King∣dom.

It seems Frederick the Third brought into use (in imitation of the most noble Order of the Garter) an embroidered Glory of Silver Purle, wrought upon the left side of their Cloak or Vest, on which was embroidered two Crowns within a Rundle, bearing his Motto, Deus providebit; for such a one did Count Gulden low (Ambassador hither from that King) wear at his residing here in England, anno 1669. But we are to note, that the Motto hath changed with the King, for that of the present King is Pietate & Iustitia; and this the Knights of his Electi∣on now wear, in the middle of the Circle. Nevertheless all the Knights created by his Father, are obliged still to continue the former Motto.

The Order of the Burgundian Cross at Tunis. (43.)

aCharles the Fifth, Emperor of Germany and King of Spain, after he had re∣stored Mulleasses, King of Tunis, to his Kingdom (who had been expulsed thence by that famous Pyrate Barbarossa) on the day of his victorious entrade into Tunis, with solemn and magnificent Pomp, was apparelled in a Coat which he used to wear in Battel, whereon was embroidered the Burgundian Cross: and being de∣sirous to gain the good respect of all, who had served in that War, was chiefly willing to adorn the Commanders, that had behaved themselves valiantly in the Victory, with some Badge or token of Honor, as a reward: and for this reason did he institute this Order in the year 1535. on * St. Mary Magdalen's day.

To this Burgundian Cross he added a Steel striking sparks of fire out of Flint, with this Inscription BARBARIA, to be the Badge or Ensign thereof: And for an additional Ornament, gave a bCollar of Gold, whereat hung the said Badge.

c Some say this Order was instituted at ten of the Clock that day, it being also the hour of Mercury, in which respect the Character of that Planet is usually enamelled on the one side of the Jewel, as the Burgundian Cross is on the other. But it was of short continuance, for it expired long since.

The Order of Knights of the Holy Ghost in France. (44.)

This Order received a Institution from the French King, Henry the Third, the first Chapter being held on the last day of the year 1578. The design thereof was chiefly to b unite and tye his Nobility and Prelates more firmly to Page  122 their natural obedience, as also to c stir up and encourage them to persevere in the Romish Religion, to illustrate and adorn the state of the Nobility, and to re∣store its ancient splendor and dignity.

It had its denomination from the Holy Ghost (to d whose power and assistance the Founder usually ascribed all his Actions and Councils, advanced with most glorious and fortunate successes) in e remembrance that he was born on Whitson∣day in the year of our Lord 1550. elected to the Crown of Poland on Whitsonday 1573. and lastly came to the Crown of France on Whitsonday 1574.

The number of Knights whereof this Order was to consist, is by the Statutes or∣dained to be one f hundred, besides the Soveraign or Great Master, which Office and Dignity is g inseparable from the Crown of France.

A long hMantle of Black Velvet turned up on the left side, and opened on the right, was also appointed for the Habit of this Order, being at first embroider∣ed round with Gold and Silver, consisting of Flowers de Lis and Knots of Gold, between three sundry Cyphers of Silver; and above the Flowers de Lis and Knots were thickly seeded or powdered Flames of Fire.

This great Mantle was garnished with a i Mantlet of Cloth of Silver, covered with embroidery, made after the same fashion as was the great Mantle, excepting only, that instead of Cyphers there were wrought fair Doves of Silver; and both these robes double-lined with Satin of Orange-tawney colour.

The great kCollar of the Order (worn over the Mantlet) was at first composed of Flowers de Lis, cantoned or cornered with Flames of Fire, interwoven with three Cyphers, and divers Monogramms of Silver, one was the Letter H, and a Greek Lambda, both double; the first of these belonging to the Kings own name, the other to the Queen his Wife, Madam Lovisa de Loraine; the other two were reserved in the Kings own mind, but not without l suspicion of referring to some wanton Amours.

But these m Cyphers were taken off from the Collar, and the embroidery of the Robes by Henry the Fourth his Successor, and for a mark of his Battels and Vi∣ctories, Trophies of Arms were interlaced instead thereof, with the Letter H crowned (because it was also the initial Letter to his Christian name) whereout arose flames and sparks of Fire; and for the like reason hath this Letter H been since changed into the Letter n L, both by Lewis the Thirteenth, and Lewis the Fourteenth.

At this Collar hung a oCross, artificially wrought and adorned with a rich en∣amel, in the midst whereof was represented the form of a Dove, in a flying po∣sture, as descending down from Heaven, with full spread Wings: and to the end an Epigraph might not be wanting, some have attributed to it this, pDuce & Auspice, thereby to signifie, that those who wear it, ought to hope for good success in their designs and enterprises, being guided and assisted by the happy conduct of the Holy Ghost.

Besides these Ornaments, the Knights wear a q Black Velvet Cap adorned with a white Plume; their r Breeches and Doublets are of Cloth of Silver, and their Shoes White, tyed with Roses or Knots of Black Velvet.

The Badges ordained to be ordinarily worn, are a sCross of Yellow or Orange colour Velvet, wrought in the fashion of a Malta Cross, fixed on the lest side of the Soveraigns breast (but this at pleasure) and the like Cross sewed on the left side of the upper Garments of the Prelates, Commanders, and Officers; except in actions of Arms, and then they are permitted to wear them of Cloth of Silver, or White Velvet; having in the midst thereof a Dove embroidered in Silver, and at the angles or corners, Rays and Flowers de Lis of Silver.

Moreover t a Cross of the Order made of Gold, like to the Cross of Malta al∣so, with a Flower de Lis in each angle thereof, was appointed to be worn about their necks in a Blue Ribbon, and to be enamelled White about the sides, but not in the middle; such as are Knights, both of the Order of St. Michael and the Holy Ghost, are to bear the Figure of St. Michael on the one side, and of a Dove on the other.

The Anniversary of the grand Feast is ordained to be held on the u first day of Page  123 the new Year, but the first part of the Ceremony begins always on the w last day of the old; the place for celebrating thereof is the Church of xAugustine Friars in Paris. An account of the first Solemnity, as also of some other which have succeeded in the Reign of King Lewis the Thirteenth, are set forth by Monsieur Boitel, in his historical relations of the Pomps and Ceremonies used at the receiv∣ing of several Knights into this Order by this King, and Printed at Paris 1620.

The Order of the Precious Blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ of Mantua. (45.)

aVincentio de Gonzago the Fourth Duke of Mantua, and Second of Mont∣ferat, instituted this Order, anno Dom. 1608. for defence and propagation of the Christian Religion, and in honor of three drops of blood of our Saviour and Re∣deemer; as also the more nobly to set forth the Nuptials of his eldest Son Fran∣cisco (who succeeded him in his Dukedoms) with Margaret of Savoy, Daughter to Charles Emanuel Duke of Savoy, and Catharine of Austria.

It was allowed and approved by Pope bPaul the Fifth, and consisted of 20 Knights; the Founder declared himself Great Master, and after him his Succes∣sors Dukes of Mantua and Montferat.

The Collar is fill'd with variety of fancy and design, being c composed of Ovals of Gold, some extended in length, others in breadth, and interlinkt with small Annulets. On those Ovals in length, is raised in white enamel, these words, Domine Probâsti; on the other in breadth, upon flames of Fire on a Trevet enamelled Black, a Crucible Grey, fill'd with small rods of Gold; he being desirous to intimate by this devise, that they who entred into this Society, should hold inviolable faith, and perpetual concord, in the greatest tryals and extremities.

At the end of this Collar is pendent a larger Oval of Gold, in which are ex∣prest d two Angels standing upright, enamelled according to life, holding be∣tween them a Chalice crowned, in the Table whereof are figured three drops of blood, enamelled Red, and round the Oval, Nihil isto triste recepto.

On eWhitsonday, in the year 1608. were the first Ceremonies of this Order performed, in the Dukes Chappel of the Palace at Mantua.

The Order of Amaranta in Sweden. (46.)

This Order of the Knights of Amaranta, was instituted by Christina Queen of Sweden about the year 1645. in honor of a Lady of that name of great beau∣ty, courage, modesty, and charity: The chief Ensign is a Jewel of Gold, com∣posed of two great AA, adorned with Diamonds on both fides, and joined toge∣ther by reversing one of them, being set within a Circle of Laurel Leaves wreathed about with White, and on the four sides this Motto, Dolce nella memoria; which Jewel the Knights wear, either in a Gold Chain, or a Crimson or Blue Ribbon, as they best like of.

The Ceremony used at the Investiture of these Knights with this Ensign, is briefly this. The Queen being seated under her state, the designed Knight is brought up, with usual Reverences, and approaching neer the Queen, he kneels before her, then she in a short speech acquaints him with the inducements that invited her to bestow this honor, enumerating his services and merits; to which he makes a return of humble thanks.

This done, he takes his Oath, still kneeling and holding his hands between the Queens hands; the effect whereof is to defend the Queens person from harm, and the persons of the Brothers of the Order, to promote to his power, Justice, Vir∣tue, and Piety, and to discountenance Vice, Injury, and Wickedness.

Having obliged himself to the performance of this Oath, the Queen puts about Page  124 him (in the manner of a Baudrick) a Crimson Silk Scarf, with the Iewel fastned thereto, after which the Knight ariseth and retireth, with all sutable reverence.

To an absent Prince or great Personage, whom the Queen intends to honor with this Order; he sends the Jewel, accompanied with her Letter, which serves instead of a personal Investiture.

Among many others admitted thereinto, were Vladislaus Sigismundus late King of Poland, Carolus Gustavus late King of Sweden, and Adolphus Iohannes his Brother, also Iohn George Duke of Saxony, the Lantgrave of Hesse, several German Princes, the Count Montecuculi General of the Horse to the Emperor, Don Antonio Piementelli de Parada Envoye Extraordinary from the King of Spain, as also divers great Lords of the Court of Sweden; and of our Nation, Sir Bulstrode Whiteloke, to whose friendly civility we are obliged for the foregoing Account.

SECT. II. Of Knights in the West-Indies.

IF after all these we take some prospect of those Martial Honors, bestowed in the West-Indies, which the Europeans commonly call by the Title of Knight∣hood; as having some resemblance to it from the nature of the Ceremonies, used at the entrance and admittance into that Dignity, and the end for which they were bestowed; we shall find they properly enough deserve mention here.

The aMexicans gave the first place of Honor to the profession of Arms; and therefore on such as had performed valiant services in Wars, they bestowed great recompence, and gave them sundry Priviledges, which none else might enjoy.

Valour and Courage were with them the steps by which a man of mean extra∣ction, ascended to high dignity and honor; and therefore the chief of their No∣bility commonly sprung from the Camp.

Among whom bMoteçuma set Knighthood in highest splendor,* ordaining certain Military Orders, with several Badges and Ensigns. The most honorable among the Knights, were those that carried the crown of their Hair tied with a little Red Ribbon, having a rich Plume of Feathers, from which did hang branches and rolls of Feathers upon their shoulders. They carried so many of these rolls, as they had done worthy deeds in War.

The King himself was of this Order, as may be seen in Capultepec, where Mo∣teçuma, and his Sons are represented, attired with those kind of Feathers cut in the Rock.

There was another Order of Knighthood,* which they called of the cLyons and Tygers; these Knights being commonly the most valiant, and most noted in the Wars, and always bore with them their Badges and Armories.

Other Knights there were,* as the dGrey Knights, not so much respected as the rest, they had their Hair cut round about the ear. They went to the Wars, with Ensigns like the other Knights, yet not armed, but to the Girdle, while the most honorable were armed all over.

All Knights might carry Gold and Silver, wear rich Cotton, use painted and gilt Vessels, wear Shoes after their manner; but the common people only earthen Vessels, neither might they carry Shoes, nor attire themselves but in a gross Stuff called Nequen.

e Every Order of these Knights had their Lodging in the Palace, noted with their Ensigns; the first was called the Lodging of the Prince, the second of Ea∣gles, the third of Lyons and Tygers, and the fourth of Grey Knights.

They of the Province of Cinaola (an Inland part near new Mexico) created their Knights by giving a Bow,* then setting them to encounter a Lyon, or some other wild Beast; the death of which was accounted the life of their Gentility.

Page  125The fInguas Lords of Peru, in their solemn Feasts at Cusco, dedicated their Children to Honor, by adorning them with Guarras or Ensigns. They pierced their Ears, whipt them with Slings, anointed their Faces with Blood, and all in sign that they should be true Knights to the Ingua.

Those of the g blood royal in Peru,* before they received the Degree of Knight∣hood, pass'd through sundry probations, but chiefly they performed some Mili∣tary Exercises, and managed the Lance, Dart, and other Arms. The manner and order of tryal of their skill and courage, was both rigorous and severe; h as abstaining from all things for seven days, except a little raw Corn and Water, then being heartned again, their running of Races, afterwards, one day holding out, another besieging a Fort, then Wrestling, Leaping, Shooting, Slinging, throwing the Dart and Lance, exercising in all Weapons of War, and enduring to be beaten on the hands and legs with wands; all these things tending to discover whether they could bear the hard adventures of War, or not; which tryals if they could not manfully suffer, they were rejected and denyed Knighthood.

Next followed the Circumstances and Ceremonies of their Creation, as i boar∣ing a hole in the Ears, putting on gallant Shoes, as also Breeches, which before they might not wear, adorning their heads with Flowers, and an Herb that none else might use; and lastly giving an Axe into their hands. All which Mr. Pur∣chas having set down at large, we thought it less needful to be more particular.

These Knights are by kMennenius called Oreiones, from the Spanish word Orejas, which signifies flap or loll-eared, and in Latin Auriculares, either from the Leaf which they carried hanging in their Ears, or as Ios. Micheli saith, l for that they were only to negotiate, and treat of great Affairs with the Emperor, and had his ear at all times.

To these we shall add the account we have of an Order of Knights in Iapan,* intituled mMengoras, part of them are called Bonzoes, living in Fraternities, as do our religious Brotherhoods in Europe. Some of these relate to their Temples, and have the charge of their Idols, and the service appertaining to them; others are Knights and follow the Wars, accepting pay from any Lord that imploys them.

Of this Order there are found to be about 30000. who in many things bear paral∣lel with the Religious Knights in Europe: They prosess Chastity with such seve∣rity, that into their Cities no Woman may enter. They have the Rule given them over those Kingdoms which they conquer, and are very rich; some of them having not less than 60000 Duckets per annum Revenue.

Every day they make and present five Arrows to the publick Armory, which is a very prudent provision, in regard no man is sensible of the charge; and thereby they find themselves well provided upon all occasions.

SECT. III. The Feminine Cavaliers of the Torch in Tortosa.

AND now, in close of our Discourse of the Orders of Knighthood, give us leave to bring up the rere, with a memorial relating to Feminine Valour, and of the later Age (for we shall not need to instance in the Amazons of old, whose fame in Arms is so generally known) since some of that Sex, having acquired honor and renown, by their personal courage and valiant exploits; have had be∣stowed on them the priviledge of living after the manner, and in the esteem of Knights.

The Example is of the noble Women of Tortosa in Aragon, and recorded by Io∣seph Micheli Marquez, who plainly calls them aCavalleros, or Knights; or may I not rather say Cavalleras, seeing I observe the words bEquitissae and Militissae (formed from the Latin Equites and Milites) heretofore applied to Women, Page  126 and sometimes used to express Madams, or Ladies; though now these Titles are not known.


Don Raymond, last Earl of Barcellona (who by an intermarriage with *Pe∣tronilla, only Daughter and Heir of King Ramiro the Monk, united that Princi∣pality to the Kingdom of Aragon) having, in the year 1149. gained the City of Tortosa from the Moors, they on the 31. of December following, laid a new Siege to that place, for the recovery of it out of the Earls hands. The Inha∣bitants being at length reduced to great streights, desired relief of the Earl; but he being not in a condition to give them any, they entertained some thoughts of making a surrender. Which the Women hearing of, to prevent the disaster threatning their City, themselves, and Children; put on mens Clothes, and by a resolute sally, forced the Moors to raise the Siege.

The Earl, finding himself obliged, by the gallantry of the action, thought it to make his acknowledgments thereof, by granting them several Priviledges and Immunities; and, to perpetuate the memory of so signal an attempt, d Insti∣tuted an Order, somewhat like a Military Order, into which were admitted only those brave Women, deriving the honor to their Descendants, and assigned them for a Badge, a thing like a Fryars Capouche, sharp at the top, after the form of a Torch, and of a crimson colour, to be worn upon their Head-clothes. He also ordained, that at all publick meetings, the Women should have precedence of the Men; That they should be exempted from all Taxes; and that all the Apparel and Jewels, though of never so great value, left by their dead Hus∣bands, should be their own.

These Women (saith our Author) having thus acquired this Honor by their personal Valour, carried themselves after the manner of Military Knights of those days.

We may also, not unfitly, bring in here a word or two, of a more general Orna∣ment of Honor, not long since made peculiar to this fair Sex, to wit, that of the Cor∣don; which some will have to be an eOrder, or somewhat equivalent thereto, un∣der that Title. The f Institution of it, is attributed to Anne of Britane, Wife to Charles the Eighth of France, who instead of the Military Belt, or Collar, bestow∣ed a Cordon or Lace on several Ladies, admonishing them to live chastly and de∣voutly, always mindful of the Cords and Bonds of our Saviour Iesus Christ; and to engage them to a greater esteem thereof, she surrounded her Escocheon of Arms with the like Cordon. From which Example, it is since drawn into use, that the Arms of unmarried Ladies and Gentlewomen (usually represented on Esco∣cheons made after the form of a Lozenge) are adorned with such a Cordon.

But if we look back into ancient times, we may see when Women among the Romans were first thought worthy of enjoying respect and peculiar favours; and in particular, out of a great honor to the Mother of Marcus Coriolanus, the liber∣ty of wearing the Segmenta aurea, or bordures of Gold and Purple on their Gar∣ments (the latter of which the Romans raised to an high esteem) was g first permit∣ted to the Roman Matrons, since she had so extraordinarily deserved of that Com∣mon-wealth, by h diverting the fury of her Son, and drawing off his Army from before the City, whose ruine he had threatned, upon a just resentment of the Citi∣zens ingratitude towards him; in memorial of which i preservation, was there also a Temple erected and dedicated to the Female Fortune. On this occasion al∣so, other accessions of honor and respect were decreed to this Sex; namely k to have place in passing on the way, and the permission of wearing golden Ear-rings. To all which the Romans willingly condescended for her sake, whose powerful perswasions, and rhetorical tears, had gain'd them so great a deliverance.