The boke named the Gouernour, deuysed by syr Thomas Elyot knight
Elyot, Thomas, Sir, 1490?-1546.

The diuision of Ingratitude, and the dysprayse therof. Ca. XIII.

THe most damnable vice, and moste a∣gaynst iustice, in myn opinion, is IN∣GRATITVDE, commenly called vn∣kindnesse. All be it, it is in diuers formes, and of sondry importaunce, as it is discry∣bed by Seneca in this fourme.

¶ He is vnkynde, whiche denyeth to haue receyued any benefite, that in dede he hath receyued, He is vnkynde, that dissimuleth, he is vnkynde, that recompenseth not: But he is moste vnkynde, that forgetteth. For the other, though they render not agayne kindnesse, yet they owe it, and there remai∣neth some steppes or tokēs of desertes, in∣closed in an yuel conscience, and at the laste by some occasion maye hap to retourne to yelde agayne thankes, whan eyther shame therto prouoketh them, or sodeyne desyre of thynge, that is honest, whiche is wonte Page  [unnumbered] to be for that tyme in stomackes, thoughe they be corrupted, if a lyghte occasyon do moue them. But he that forgetteth kinde∣nesse, maye neuer be kynde, sens al the be∣nefite is quite fallen from hym: And where lacketh remembraunce, there is no hope of any recompence.

¶ In this vice, men be moche warse than * beastes. For dyuers of them wyl remembre a benefytte, longe after they receyued it. The courser, fierse and couragious, wyll gladely sufre his keper, that dresseth and fedeth hym, to vaunte hym easely, and ste∣reth not, but whan he lystethe to prouoke hym: where if any other shulde ryde hym, thoughe he were a kynge, he wyl stere and plonge, and endeuour hym selfe to throwe hym. Suche kyndenesse hath ben founden * in dogges, that they haue not only dyed in defendynge theyr maysters, but also some, after theyr maisters haue died or ben slaine, haue absteyned from meate, and for famine haue dyed by theyr maysters.

¶ Plini remembreth of a dogge, whiche in Epiro (a contrey in Grece) so assaulted the murdrer of his mayster in a great assembly of people, that with barkynge and bytynge he compelled hym at the laste, to confesse his offence.

Page  153 ¶ The dogge also of one Iayson, his mai∣ster beinge slayne, wolde neuer eate meate, but dyed for hunger.

¶ Many sēblable tokens of kindnesse Pli∣ni reherseth, but principally one of his own tyme, worthy to be here remembred.

¶ Whan execution shoulde be done on one Titus Habinius and his seruantes, one of them had a dogge, whiche moughte neuer be dryuen from the pryson, nor neuer wold departe from his maysters body: and whā it was taken from the place of executiō, the dogge houled mooste lamentably, beynge compased with a great nombre of people, of whom whan one of them had cast meate to the dogge, he brought and laide it to the mouthe of his maister. And whā the corps was throwen in to the ryuer of Tiber, the dogge swamme after it, and as longe as he moughte, inforced hym selfe to beare and susteyne it, the people scateryng abrode to beholde the faythfulnesse of the beaste.

¶ Also the Lyon, whiche of all other bea∣stes is accounted mooste fierce and cruell, hath ben founden to haue in remembraunce a benefite shewed vnto hym.

¶ Aul. Bellius remembreth out of the hy∣story of Appion, howe allon, out of whose fote a yonge man had ones taken a stubbe, and clensed the wounde, wherby he waxed hole, after knewe the same man, being cast Page  [unnumbered] to him to be deuoured, and wolde not hurt hym, but lyckynge the legges and handes of the man, whiche laye dysmayde, lokinge for deathe, toke acquaintaunce of him, and euer after folowed hym, beynge ladde in a small lyam, whereat wondred all they that behelde it. Whiche hystorie is wonderfull pleasaunte, but for the lengthe therof I am constrayned to abrege it.

¶ Howe moche be they repugnaunte, and (as I moughte saye ennemies) bothe to na¦ture and reason, whiche beynge aduaun∣ced by any good fortune, wyll contemne or neglecte suche one, whom they haue longe knowē, to be to them Beneuolent, and ioy∣ned to them in a sincere and assured frend∣shyppe, approued by infallible tokens, ra∣tifyed also with sondry kyndes of benefy∣cence? I require not suche excellant frend¦shyppe, as was betwene Pitheas and Da∣mon, betwene Horestes and Pilades, or be twene Gysyppus and Titus, of whome I haue before wrytten (for I fyrmely beleue, they shall neuer happen in payres or cou∣ples) nor I seke not for suche as will alway prefer the honour or profyte of theyr frēde before theyr owne, ne (which is the leaste parte of frendshyppe) for such one as desi∣rously wyll participate with his frende all his good fortune or substaunce. But where Page  154 at this daye maye be founden suche frend∣shyppe betwene two, but that if fortune be * more Beneuolente to the one, than to the other, the frendeshyppe waxeth tedyous, and he that is aduaunced, desyrethe to be matched with one hauynge semblable for∣tune? And if any damage hapeneth to his olde frende, he pytyeth hym, but he soro∣weth not, and thoughe he seeme to be so∣rowfull, yet he helpeth not: and thoughe he wolde be sene to helpe hym, yet trauai∣leth he nat: And though he wolde be sene to trauayle, yet he suffreth not. For (let vs laye a parte assystence with moneye, why∣che is a very small portion of frendeshyp) who wyll so moche esteme frendshyp, that therefore wyll entre in to the dyspleasure, not of his prynce, but of them, whome he supposeth may mynysshe his estimation to∣wardes his prince, ye and that moche lesse is, wyll displease his newe acquayntaunce, equall with hym in auctorite or fortune, for the defence, helpe, or aduauncement of his auncient and well approued frende? O the moste miscrable astate at this present tyme of mankynde, that for the thynge, whiche is mooste propre vnto them, the exaumple muste be founden amonge the sauage and syerce beastes.