Pseudo-martyr Wherein out of certaine propositions and gradations, this conclusion is euicted. That those which are of the Romane religion in this kingdome, may and ought to take the Oath of allegiance.
Donne, John, 1572-1631.
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CHAP. IX. That the authority which is imagined to be in the Pope, as he is spirituall Prince, of the Monarchy of the Church, cannot lay this Obligation vpon their Consciences: first because the Do∣ctrine it selfe is not certaine, nor presented as matter of faith: Secondly because the way by which it is conueyed to them, is su∣spitious and dangerous, being but by Cardinall Bellarmine → , who is various in himselfe, and reproued by other Catholiques of e∣quall dignity, and estimation.

WEe may bee bold to say, that there is much iniquity, and many degrees of Tyranny, in establishing so absolute and transcendent a spiritual Monarchy,Page  247 by them, who abhorre Monarchy so much, that though one of their greatest Doctors, to the dan∣ger of all Kings, say, aThat the Pope might, if hee thought it expedient, constraine all Christians to create one temporall Monarch ouer all the world: yet they al∣low no other Christian Monarchy vpon Earth, so pure and absolute, but that it must confesse some subiection and dependencie. The contrarie to whichbBellarmine → saies, is Hereticall; And yet there is no Definition of the Church, which should make it so. And hereby they make Baptisme in respect of Soueraintie, to bee no better then the bodie in re∣spect of the soule. For, as the bodie by inhaerent corruption vitiates the pure and innocent soule, so they accuse Baptisme to cast an Originall serui∣tude and frailtie vpon Soueraintie: which, hauing beene strong and able to doe all Kingly offices be∣fore, contracts by this Baptisme a debilitie and im∣perfection, and makes Kings, which before had their Lieutenancie and Vicariate from God, but Magistrates and Vicars to his Vicar, and so makes their Patents the worse by renewing & confirming.

2 Nor doe they only denie Monarchie to Kings of the Earth, but they change the state and forme of gouernment in heauen it selfe; and ioyne in Commission with God, some such persons, as they are so farre from beeing sure that they are there, that they are not sure, that euer they were heere. For their excuse, that none of those inuocations Page  248 which are vsed in that Church, are so directly in∣tended vpon the Saints, but that they may haue a lawfull interpretation, is not sufficient. For words appointed for such vses, must not only be so conditioned, that they may haue a good sense, but so, that they may haue no ill. So that to say, That God hath reserued to himselfe the Court of Iustice, but giuen to his Mother, the Court of Mercie, And that a adesperate sicke person was cured by our Lady, when he had no hope in Physitians, nor much in God, howso∣euer subtill men may distill out of them a whole∣some sense, yet vulgarly and ordinarily they beget a beliefe, or at least a blinde practise derogatorie to the Maiestie, and Monarchie of God.

3 But for this spirituall Monarchie which they haue fansied, I thinke, that as some men haue imagined, and produced into writing, diuers Idae∣as, and so sought what a King, a Generall, an Ora∣tour, a Courtier should be, So these men haue only Idaeated what a Pope would be. For if he could come to a true and reall exercise of all that power which they attribute to him, I doubt not, but that Angell,* which hath so long serued in the place of being the particular Assistant in the Conclaue, (for, since they affoord a particular Tutelar Angell to euerie Colledge and Corporation, And ato the race of Flyes and of Fleas, and of Ants, since they allowe such an Angellbto euery Infidell Kingdome,cyea to Antichrist,dyea to Hell it selfe, it were verie vne∣quall Page  249 to denie one to this place,) This Angell, I say, would be glad of the roome, and become a Suiter to the holy Ghost, to name him in the next Conclaue. For he should not onely enlarge his Di∣ocesse, and haue all the lower world vnder him, but hee shall haue those two principall Seraphins which euer attend the Pope,*Michael, and Gabriel; (for, that Gabriel is the second, Victorellus produ∣ces two very equall witnesses,*The Romane Lita∣nie, and Tassoes Hierusalem.) And all the particu∣lar Angels of all spirituall Societies;* And (because also (as he saies) he is Temporall Lord) all the Arch∣angels, and Principalities, which gouerne particular estates, hall concur to his Guard and assistance.

4 As Nero had an officer A voluptatibus, So, it seemes, haue the Popes, A titulis. And flatterers haue alwaies a Complacencie and Delight in themselues, if they can bestow a stile and Title vp∣on a great Prince, because therein they think they contribute somthing to his greatnesse; since Ce∣remonie is a maine part of Greatnesse, and Title, a great part of that. And now they had obserued, that all the chiefe Titles of the Pope had been at∣tributed to others, and were in their Naure and vse communicable;* For all the Apostles, and all the Disciples of Christ, are called Vicarij Christi; And this name will not serue his turne, if it were peculiar to himselfe. For, as his Victoria teaches vs,aThis Vicariate doth not enable him to doe all thinges which Page  250 are not expresly forbidden him (as some doe thinke) but onely such things as are expresly graunted vnto him, and therefore his claime by that Title will be too strict. And the name of Vniuersall Bishop, was gi∣uen to Cyprian,* when hee was stiled, Totius orbis Praeses. And in that sense it may iustly bee giuen; For as a Physician or Chyrurgion, which hath taken into his Cure any one part of a mans body, either corrupted, or in danger of being so, may iustly be said to looke to, and preserue the body of such a man; So that Bishop which gouernes well one Church, is therein a Bishop of the whole Church, & benefits the whole mystical body therof, by rea∣son of the strong relation, & indissoluble cōnexion of all the parts, with one another, and to the head.

5 And for that stile of Pontifex Maximus, which either is not due to the Pope, or else is so sublime and transcendant a name,* as Bellarmine → could bring it within no Rule nor Predicament, when hee makes vp the Canon of the Popes fif∣teene Titles, by all and euery one of which, hee sayes, his Primacie is euidently collected;* They saw it giuen to Atanaius, in Ruffinus. And the name of Pope was so communicated, that not onely euery Bi∣shop was called a Pope,* but Cyprian, The Pope. Quem Christiani suum Papam vocant. In the estimation of which name, they haue often fluctuated and wauered. For,* almost for nine hundred yeeres, they affoorded it to all: Then they restrain'd it to the Page  251Bishops of Rome, to which purpose aBiel vpon the Canon of the Masse, cites diuers Canons, though farre from the matter.

6 And euer since the Reformation of the Church was couragiously begun, and prosperously and blessedly prosecuted, they hauing beene call'd Pa∣pists for their implicite relying vpon the Pope, lest their owne Argument against vs,*That to bee deno∣minate from any person, is a marke of Heresie, should be retorted vpon themselues, they haue in all De∣dications and publike Acts, as much as they can, forborne, and declin'd that name Pope, and still vsurped, Summus Pontifex, and Pontifex Maximus. And yet being stil vrged and followed, and hauing no escape, but that the name of apists, stickes to them, and by their Rules imprints some markes of Heresie;* though Bellarmine → , a little ashamed of the name Papist, say; That onely the Lutherans, and a few neighbour Countreyes call them so: Yet that late Carmelite that hath defended Lypsius, sayes confi∣dently. aWe are Papists; we confesse it; andbwe glory in that Name.

7 And this name of Pope, they are the rather content to take to him againe because they thinke that we grudge him that name.* For so that Coun∣cellour of the Parliament of Burdeaux, which in his Historie of the progresse and decay of Heresie, hath ta∣ken occasion to speake of the affaires of England, in which, because no man should doubt of the Page  252 trueth therof, he proesses to follow Sanders, and Ribadenera, (by whome a Morall man may as well be instructed for matter of Fact, as a Christi∣an might be by Arrius or Mahomet, for his Faith) sayes, That Henrie the ight, made it Felonie to call the holy Father Pope, or to reade that name in any Booke, and not to blot it out.

8 Hauing therefore found such easinesse, and flexibility in all olde Names, they haue pro∣uided him now of this name spirituall Prince; in a larger sense, then that great Prince, whom they call Praeste-gian assumes it (for that name signifies Apostolique,* and Christs Vicegerent, in his owne king∣domes) or then Christ himself euer assumed, or the Holy Ghost, by the Prophet Esay,* reckoning vp his most glorious titles, euer attributed to him; and yet in that place of Esay, both his eternall King∣dome by his filiation, and his euerlasting King∣dome of glory, inchoated in his resurrection, and his Kingdome of grace in our consciences, are e∣uidently to bee discerned: For, though there be mention oPrincipality, yet it is said, Principatus su∣per humerum eius,* which your Doctor expounds of carying the Crosse; and that he shall be Princeps pa∣cis, which is Intrinsicall,aies the same Expositor & belonges to the Conscience. But this Doctrine which must so settle and affirme a Catholique conscience, that it must binde him to die, and en∣title him to Martyrdome, hath no touch, nor tin∣cture Page  253 of either of these Principalities, of Patience, or of Peace; bu all therein is Anger and Warre, not onely with that sword of two edges, of the Word and Censures, which is his, but with two swords; which now we shall see how he claimes.

9 The Pope represents Christ to vs (saies Bellar∣mine) as he was,*whilst he liued amongst men: nor can we attribute to the Pope any other office, then Christ had as he was a mortall man. And in tis Capacitie, saies he,*Christ neither had the execution, nor the power of any temporall Kingdome.* And that therefore, if the Pope, as a King, can take from any King the execution of his place,*he is greater then Christ; and if he cannot, then he hath no Regall power. Thus hee disputes a∣gainst those which entitle the Pope to a Direct, and Ordinary Iurisdiction ouer Prines.

10 And the same reasons and groundes, by which he destroies that opinion, will destroy his; which is,*That as Christ was, so the Pope is, spirituall prince, ouer all men, and that by vertue of that power, he may dispose of all temporall things, as hee shall iudge it expedient to his spirituall ends.

11 For first, against that opinion of Ordinarie Iurisdiction hee argues thus;*If it were so, it would appeare out of the Scriptures, or from the Tradition of the Apostles: but in the Scriptures, there is mention of the keyes of Heauen, but none of the Kingdomes of the earth; nor doe our Aduersaries offer any Apostolique Tradition. Will not you then, before you receiue Page  254 too deepe impression of Bellarmines doctrine, as to pay your liues for maintenance thereof, tell him, That if his opinion were true, it would ap∣peare in Scripture, or Apostolique trdition? And shal poore and lame, and lacke arguments coniectu∣rally and vnnecessarily deduced from similitudes and comparisons, and decency, and conueniency binde your iudgements, and your liues, for reue∣rence of him, who by his example counsels you, to cal for better proof? wil you so, in obeying him, disobey him, & swallow his conclusions, & yet ac∣cuse his fashiō of prouing them? which you do, if when he cals for scriptures against others, you a∣cept his positions for his sake, without scriptures.

12 Another of Bellarmines reasons against Or∣dinary Iurisdiction, is, That Regall authority was no necessary nor of vse in Christ to worke his end,*but s∣perfluous and vnprofitable. And what greater vse, or necessity can the Pope haue of this Extraordina∣rie authority (which is a power to work the same effects, though not by the same way) then Christ had, if his ends be the same which Christs were? and it appeares that Christ neither had, nor forsaw vse of either, because he neither exercised nor insti∣stuted either. For, that is not to the purpoe, which Bellarmine → saies, that Christ might haue exerci∣sed that power if he would,* since the Popes authority is grounded vpon Christs example; and limited to that: For Christ might haue done many thinges Page  255 which the Pope cannot do; as conuerting all the world at once, instituting more sacraments, and many such:* and therefore Bellarmine → argued well before, that it is enough for him to proue, that Christ did not exercise Regall power, nor declare himselfe to haue it which Declarion onely, and practise, must be dra∣wen into Consequence, and be the precedent for the Pope to follow.

16 The light of which Argument, that the Pope hath no power, but such as Christ exercised, hath brought so many of them to thinke it necessarie to proue That both Christ did exercise Regall autori∣ty in accepting Regall reuerence vpon Palme-Sunday, and in his corrections in the temple, And his iudgement in the womans case which was taken in Adulterie.*And that S. Peter vsed also the like power, in condemning Ananias and Saphira, and Simon Magus.

14 In another place Bellarmine → saies, That S. Paul appealed to Caesar,*as to his Superiour Iudge, not onely de facto, but de Iure; and that the Apostles were subiects to the Ethnique Emperours, in all temporall causes, and that the law of Christ, depriues no man of his right, which he had before. And lately in his Recog∣nitions he departs from this opinion, and denies that he was his Iudge, de Iure. If his first opinion be true, can these consist together, that he which is subiect in temporal causes, can at the same time and in the same causes be superiour? Or that he ouer whom the Emperour had supreame tempo∣rall Page  256 authority, should haue authority ouer the Emperour in temporall causes? and what is there in the second opinion, that should induce so strong an Obligation vpon a conscience, as to die for it; Since the first was better grounded (for, for that he produed Scriptures) and the second is detitute of that helpe, and without further searh into it, tels vs, that neither the Doctrine, nor the Doctor are constant enough to build a Maryre∣dome vpon.

15 Thus also Bellarmine → argues, to our aduan∣tage (though he doe it to proue a necessity of this power in the Church) that euery Common-wealth is sufficiently prouided in it selfe,*to attaine the end, for which it is instituted. And, as we said before, the end of a Christian Common-wealth, is not onely Tranquility (for that sometimes may be main∣ained by vnchristianly meanes) but it is the pra∣ctise of all morall vertue, now explicated to vs, and obserued by vs, in the exercise of Christian Religion; and therfore such a Common-wealth hath of it selfe, all meanes necessary to those ends, without new additions: as a man consisting of bodie and soule, if he come from Infidelity to the Christian Religion, hath no new third esseniall prt added to him, to gouerne that body, and soule, but onely hath the same soule enlightned with a more explicie knowledge of her duety.

*16 Bllarine also tels vs, That in the Apostles Page  257 time, these two powers were seperated, and o all the Temporall was in the Emperour, as all the Ecclesi∣asticke in the Apostles and that Hierarchie. By what way then, and at what time came this Au∣thoritie into them, if it were once out? For, to say, that it sprong out of Spirituall Authoritie, when there was any vse of it, were to say, that that Au∣thoritie at Christs institution had not all her perfe∣ctions and maturity, and to say, that it is no o∣ther but the highest act, and a kinde of prerogatiue of the spirituall power, will not reach home For you must beleeue and die in this, that the Pope as spirituall Prince, may not onely dispose of tempo∣rall matters, but that herein hee vses the temporall sword, and temporall iurisdiction.

17 But when Bellarmine → saies,* That this supreme authority resides in the Pope, yet not as he is Pope, And that the Pope, and none but he, can epose Kings, and transfer Kingdomes, and yet, not as Pope, I proesse that I know not, how to speake thereof with so much earnestnesse, as becomes a matter of so great waight. For other Princes, when they ex∣ercise their extraordinarie and Absolute power, and prerogatiue, and for the publique good put in practise sometimes some of those parts of their power,* which are spoken of in Samuel, (which to many men seeme to exceede Regall pwe) yet they professe to doe these things as they are Kings, and not by any other authoritie then that.

Page  25818 And if there be some things which the Pope cannot doe as Pope, but as chiefe spirituall Prince, this implies that there are other inferiour spirituall Princes, which are Bishops: (for so Bellarmine → saies, That Bishops in their Diocesses are Ecclesiastique Princes.*) And haue Bishops any such measure of this spirituall principality, that they may do somthings by that, which they cannot doe, as they are Bi∣shops

19 All Principalities maintaine their being by these two, reward, & punishment. How lame then and vnperfect is this spirituall principality, which can affoord but one halfe? For it is onely then of vse, when the Pope will punish, and correct a King, by Deposing him: for all Rewards & Indul∣gences in this life, and in the next, hee conferres and bestowes, as hee is Pope, and needes not this Title, to doe any good which is in his power. And for corrections and punishments, all which we are sure he can lawfully doe, which is, to in∣flict Church censures, vpon those who are vnder his spirituall obedience, he doth as he is Pope, and needes not this principalitie for that vse neither.

20 But for irregular actions, and such as oc∣casion tumult and sedition,* he must be a spirituall Prince. For, sayes Bellarmine → , Though the Pope as he is president of a generall Councell, (and he is that, as he is Pope) ought to follow the greatest number of voy∣ces in making Decrees yet as he is chiefe Prince, hee is Page  259 not bound to doe so, but may follow the lesser number. And yet scarse constant to himselfe, he sayes, That this libertie belongs to the Pope, because he hath the assi∣stance of the holy Ghost: Now the Pope, as Pope, hath the assistance of the holy Ghost, (for else his Determination in Cahedra, in matters of faith, were not by his Ordinarie, and Direct power,) and therefore as Pope hee may follow the fewer voyces in a Councell, and as Pope (or no way) he may depose Princes.

21 For as, though they seeme to place more power,* or dignitie, in Pontificatu, then in Aposto∣latu, because the Popes date their Rescripts, from the time of their Election to their Coronation, thus, Anno Apostolatus primo, &c. and seale but with halfe the seale, but after their Coronation, they begin to call their gouernment Pontificatum: yet all the authority which they haue, is certainly in them from theirElection, because saies the glosse, that conferres praesulatum: so they haue fancied & ima∣gined a Principatum aboue all these, yet certainly all the authoritie they haue, is as they are Popes. Which serued them to doe mischiefe enough, be∣fore this title was inuented. And to say, that they haue authoritie, as they are Popes, to doe some acts, as they are not Popes, is such a darke, and mi∣stie, and drowsie Doctrine, as it is the fittest and most proportionall Martyrdome in this businesse, for a man to dreame that he died for it.

Page  26022 For it is strange that thee men can dis∣cerne and distinguish in the same office, betweene the Pope, and a spirituall Prince, when as Philip the last King of Spaine, could not distinguish be∣tweene the Person and the Office of the Pope for being in so much forwardnesse, that he had giuen the D. of Alua Order to besiege Rome, because Paul the fourth had brought into Italy an Armie of French, to infest the Kingdome of Naples, and be∣ing solicited by the Venetians, to desist from offen∣ding the Pope, though hee aunswered, That his preparations were not against the Pope, but against Pe∣ter Caraffa his subiect, and a Rebell, yet when the Ve∣netians replied,*that if he could seperate Caraffa from the Pope, they would intercede no farther, else they would giue the Pope their assistance, the King, saies a Catholique writer, gaue ouer, because he saw it im∣possible to distinguish them.

23 And as the Doctrine it sele is too inexpli∣cable, for any man to aduenture thereupon his lie, or such dangers as the lawe esteemes equiua∣lent to this purpose, which are, all such damages as induce a iust feare: So is the Channell and way by which it is deriued to vs, so various, and muddy, as that also should retard any man, from such a Preiudice, and such an Anticipation of the reso∣lution of the Church herein as it is, to seale with life, that which no man yet knowes, how the Church will determine. For, in Bellarmine → , who Page  261 hath got the reputaion to be the principall of tis faction (though I confesse he found the foundati∣on of it, and his best Arguments for it, in our Countriman Sanders, out of whom and Stapleton and a few more, that Church hath receiued more strength, then from the late writers of all other Nations,) his authority and credit is not onely infirmed and impaired, in that, Baronius, a man of as much merit of the Church, and rewarded by her, with the same Dignitie, is of a contrarie o∣pinion, but also, because auerring, that his opinion is the opinion of the Diuines, and the other onely of Ca∣nonists, Diuines themselues, (for such Baronius and Bozius are) haue more then others oppugned it.

24 And so that new Order of the Congregati∣on, of which both they are, beeing (as I said be∣fore) laid for a stumbling block, that the world, which in such a rage of Deuotion ranne towards the Iesuites, might be arrested a litle vpon the con∣templation of an Order which professed Church-knowledge, as the other did state-knowledge, hath ex∣ceeded the Iesuites in their owne Art, of flattering and magnifying the Pope. For they haue main∣tained his Direct and Ordinarie power, whereas the other haue but prouided him a new and spe∣cios Title.* And so not only such as Carerius layes the imputation of Impious Politician vpon Bellar∣mine and all his followers in this point, And bit∣terly Anathmatises Bellarmine → by name, and main∣taines Page  262this power to be in the Pope,*either as Pope, or not as Christs Vicar,* But Bozius also calls these men nouos Theologos, and sayes,*They teach doctrine eui∣dently false, and such as fights against all Truth. And another Catholique writer,* though hee impugne both these opinions, of Bellarmine → , and Baronius, yet he protests, that the opinion which Bellarmine → calls the Canonists opinion, is the more probable, and defensible: because, saies hee, that opinion is not against the order of Nature, that the Pope should ex∣ercise such a power, which they maintaine to be directly granted to him: but that opinion, which they call the Diuines opinion, is against Nature, since it admits the exercise of such an Authority, as is neither by name granted, nor necessarie to the ends of the Church: And therefore, saies this Catholique, though the Diuines ouerthrow the Canonists, yet they proue not their owne opinion.* And in another place he saies, That though Bellarmine haue giuen as much to the Pope, as honestly he could, and more then he should haue done, yet he was so farre from satisfying the Pope herein, that for this opinion the Pope was very neere condemning all his workes, as, saies he, the Iesuites themselues, haue tolde mee.

25 VVhich disposition of enclining to the Canonists opinion, appeares still in the Popes, who accept so well the bookes of that purpose, that the greatest part of those Authors, which I haue cited in this booke, of that matter, are dedicated Page  263 to the late Popes. So that, that Doctrine, which is so much denied in the substance and Essence ther∣of, that all wayes of the existence thereof are pe∣remptorily denied, hath not yet receaued conco∣xions enow from the Church, to nourish a con∣science to such a strength, as Martyrdome requires. For that, which their great Doctor Franciscus a Vi∣ctoria pronounces against his direct Authoritie,* we may as safely say against that & the indirect, This is the strongest prooe that can be against him, This Authority is not proued to be in the Pope,*by any meanes, and therefore he hath it not. To which pur∣pose he had directly said before, of the direct Au∣thoritie, It is manifestly false, although they say that it is manifestly true; And I beleeue it to be a meere deuise, on∣ly to flatter the Popes. And it is altogether fained, with∣out probability, Reason, Witnesse, Scripture, Father, or Diuine. Onely some Glossers of the law, poore in for∣tune and learning, haue bestowed this authority vpon them. And therefore, as that Ermit which was fed in the Desert by an Angell,* receaued from the An∣gell withered grapes, when hee said his prayers, after the due time, and ripe grapes when he obser∣ued the iust time, but wilde sower grapes when he preuented the time, so must that hasty and vn∣seasonable obedience to the Church, to die for her Doctrine, before she her selfe knowes what it is, haue but a sower and vnpleasant reward.

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