The decades of the newe worlde or west India conteynyng the nauigations and conquestes of the Spanyardes, with the particular description of the moste ryche and large landes and ilandes lately founde in the west ocean perteynyng to the inheritaunce of the kinges of Spayne. ... Wrytten in the Latine tounge by Peter Martyr of Angleria, and translated into Englysshe by Rycharde Eden.
Anghiera, Pietro Martire d', 1457-1526., Eden, Richard, 1521?-1576.
Page  [unnumbered]

¶The historie written in the latin toonge by Paulus Iouius bysshoppe of Nuceria in Italie, of the legation or am∣bassade of greate Basilius Prince of Moscouia, to pope Clement the .vii. of that name: In which is conteyned the description of Moscouia with the regions confininge abowte the same euen vnto the great & ryche Empire of Cathay.

I〈◊〉 fyrste briefely to describe the situati∣on of the region which we plainely see to haue bin little know•• to Strabo and Ptolome, and then to procede in rehearsinge the maners, cu∣stomes and religion of the people. And this in maner in the lyke simple style and phrase of speache as the same was declared vnto vs by Demetrius the ambassadoure,* a man not ignoraunt in the Latin toonge, as from his youth browght vp in Liuonia, where he learned the fyrst rudimentes of letters. And beinge growne to mans age, executed thoffice of an ambassadour into dyuers Christian pro¦uinces. For wheras by reason of his approued faithfulnesse and industrie, he had before byn sent as oratoure to the kyn∣ges of Suecia and Denmarke, and the great master of Prus∣sia, he was at the last sente to Themperoure Maximilian, in whose courte (beinge replenysshed with all sortes of menne) whyle he was conuersant, if any thyng of barbarous maners yet remayned in so docible and quiet a nature, the same was put away by framynge hym selfe to better ciuilitie. The cause of his legacie or ambassade, was gyuen by Paulus Centurio a Genuese,* who when he had receaued letters commendatori of pope Leo the tenth, and came to Moscouia for the trade of marchaundies, of his owne mynde conferred with the fami∣liers of Duke Basilius as touchynge the conformation of the rites of both churches. He furthermore of great magnanimi∣tie and in maner owtragious desire, sowght howe by a newe and incredible viage, spices myght bee browght from India.* For whyle before he had exercised the trade of merchaundies in Syria, Egypte, and Pontus, he knewe by fame that spices myght bee conueighed from the further India vp the riuer In¦dus ageynst the course of the same,* and from thence by a smal Page  278 vyage by lande passinge ouer the mountaynes of Paropani∣sus, to bee caried to the riuer Oxus in Bactria,* which hauing his original almost from the same mountaynes frome whense Indus dooth springe, and violently caryinge with it manye other ryuers, fauleth into the sea Hircanum or Caspium at the porte cauled Straua.* And he ernestly affirmed that frome Straua, is an easy and safe nauigation vnto the marte towne of Citrachan or Astrachan and the mouth of the ryuer Uolga and from thense euer ageynst the corse of the ryuers,* as Uol¦ga, Occha, and Moscho, vnto the citie Moscha, and frome thence by lande to Riga and into the sea of Sarmatia and all the west regions. For he was vehemently and more then of equitie accensed and prouoked by the iniuries of the Portuga¦les,* who hauynge by force of armes subdued a great parte of India, and possessed all the marte townes, takynge holy into theyr handes all the trade of spices to brynge the same into Spayne, and neuerthelesse to sell them at a more greuous and intollerable price to the people of Europe then euer was hard of before: And furthermore kepte the coastes of the Indian sea so straightly with continuall nauies, that those trades are thereby lefte of, which were before exercised by the goulfe of Persia and towarde the ryuer of Euphrates,* and also by the streightes of the sea of Arabia and the ryuer Nilus, and in fine by owre sea:* by which trade all Asia and Europe was abundantly satisfied and better cheape then hathe byn sence the Portugales had the trade in theyr handes with so manye incommodities of such longe viages wherby the spices are so corrupted by thinfection of the poompe and other fylthynesse of the shippes, that theyr naturall sauour, taste,* and qualitie aswell hereby as by theyr longe reseruyng in the shoppes, sel∣lers, and warehouses in Lussheburne, vanyssheth and resol∣ueth, so that reseruynge euer the fresshest and neweste, they sel only the woorst and most corrupted. But Paulus, although in all places he ernestly and vehemently argued of these thin∣ges, and styrred great malice and hatred ageynst the Portu∣gales, affirmynge that not only therby the customes and reue¦newes of princes shulde bee much greater if that vyage might bee discouered, but also that spices myght bee better cheepe bowght at the handes of the Moscouites, yet coulde he no∣thinge auayle in this sute, forasmuche as Duke Basilius Page  [unnumbered] thowght it not good to make open or disclose vnto a straun∣ger and vnknowne man, those regions which giue enterance to the sea Caspium and the kyngedomes of Persia.* Paulus therfore excludynge all hope of further trauayle, and become nowe of a marchaunte an Ambassadoure, browght Basilius letters (pope Leo beinge nowe departed) to Adriane his suc∣cessoure,* in the whiche he declared with honorable and reue∣rened woordes his good wyll and fauorable mynde towarde the bysshop of Rome. For a fewe yeares before, Basilius (then keepynge warres ageynste the Polones at suche tyme as the generall counsayle was celebrate at Laterane) requyred by Iohn, kynge of Denmarke (the father of Christierne who was of late expulsed from his kyngedome) that safe passage myght bee graunted to thambassadours of Moscouia to go to Rome. But wheras it so chaunced, that kynge Iohn and pope Iulius dyed both in one day, wherby he lacked a conue¦nient sequester or solicitoure, he omittted his consulation as touchynge that legacie. After this, the warre waxed hot be∣twene him and Sigismunde the kynge of Polonie: who obtei¦nynge the victorie ageinst the Moscouites at Boristhene,* sup¦plications were decreed in Rome for the ouerthrowe and van¦quyssynge the enemies of the Christian faithe, whiche thinge greatly alienated both kynge Basilius him selfe and all that nation from the bysshop of Rome. But when Adriane the .vi. departed from this lyfe, and lefte Paulus nowe redie to his seconde vyage, his successour Clemente the .vii. perceauynge that Paulus styll furiously reuolued and tossed in his vnquiet mynde that vyage towarde the Easte, sente hym ageyne with letters to Moscouia,* by the which with propense and frend∣ly persuasions, he exhorted Basilius to acknowleage the ma∣iestie of the Romane churche,* and to make a perpetuall leage and agreement in matters of religion, which thynge shuld be not only for the health of his soule, but also greatly to thin∣crease of his honour: And further promysed, that by the holy autoritie of his office he wolde make hym a kynge and gyue hym kyngely ornamentes, if reiectyng the doctrine of the Greekes, he wolde conforme hym selfe to thautoritie of th Romane churche. For Basilius desyred the name and tytle of a kynge by thassignation of the bysshoppe of Rome, foras∣mch Page  279 as the iudged that to apperteyne to the catholyke right and the bysshoppes maiestie, of whome (as he knewe ryght well) euen Themperours them selues by an auncient custome haue receaued there insignes of honoure with the Diademe and scepter of the Romane Empire:* althowghe it is sayde that he required the same of Themperour Maximiliane by ma∣ny ambassades. Paulus therfore who with more prosperous iorneys then great vantage, had from his youth trauayled a greate parte of the world, althowgh he were nowe aged and sore vexed with the strangurie, came with a prosperous and spedy iornay to Moscouia, where he was gentely receaued of Basilius, and remayned in his courte for the space of twoo monethes. But in fine, mistrustynge his owne strength, and deterred by the difficultie of so great a iorneye, when he had vtterly put away all his imaginations and hope of this trade to India, returned to Rome with Demetrius hambassadour of Basilius, before we yet thowght that he had byn in Mos∣couia.* The bysshoppe commaunded that Demetrius shuld bee lodged in the most magnificēt and princely part of the houses of Uaticane, the rouffes of whose edifies are gylted and em∣bowed, and the chambers richly furnysshed with sylken bed¦des and cloth of Arresse. Wyllynge furthermore that he shuld bee honorably receaued and vesured with silk. He also as∣signed Franciscus Cheregatus the bysshoppe of Aprutium (a man that had often tymes byn ambassadoure to diuers regy∣ons) to accompanie hym and shewe hym thorder and rites of owre religion with the monumentes and maners of the citie. Furthermore, when Demetrius had certeyne dayes rested and recreate him selfe, wasshyng away the fylth he had gathered by reason of the longe vyage, then apparelled with a fayre vesture after the maner of his countrey, he was browght to the bysshoppes presence, whom he honoured kneelynge with great humilitie and reuerence (as is the maner) and therwith presented vnto his holynes certeyne furres of Sables in his owne name and in the name of his prince,* and also delyuered the letters of Basilius, which they before, and then the Il∣lyrian or Slauon interpretoure Nicolaus Siccensis transla∣ted into the Latine toonge in this effecte as foloweth.

Page  [unnumbered]To pope Clemente sheparde and teacher of the Romane churche,* greate Basilius by the grace of God, lorde, Empe∣rour and dominatour of al Rusia, and great duke Uolode∣maria, Moscouia, Nouogrodia, Plescouia, Snolenia, Ifferia Iugoria, Periunia, Uetcha, Bolgaria. &c. Dominator & great prince of Nouogrodia in the lower cōtrei: Also of Cerngouia, Razania, Uolotchia, Rezeuia, Belchia, Rostouia, Iaroslauia, Belozeria, Udoria, Obdoria, & Condinia. &c. Yow sent vnto vs Paulus Centurio a ctizē of Genua with letters wherby yowe do exhorte vs to ioine in poure and counsayle withyowe and other Princes of Christēdome ageynst the enemies of the chri¦stian faith: and that a free passage and redy way may bee ope¦ned for bothe yowre ambassadours and owres to coome and go to and fro, whereby by mutuall dewtie and indeuoure on both parties, we may haue knowleage of the state of thinges perteynynge to the welth of vs both. Wee certes as we haue hetherto happely by the ayde and helpe of almyghty god con∣stantly and ernestly resisted the cruell and wycked enemies of the Christian faithe, so are we determined to doo hereafter. And are likewise redy to consente with other Christian Prin∣ces, and to graunt free passage into owte dominions. In con¦sideration wherof, we haue sente vnto yowe owre faithfull seruaunt Demetrius Erasmus with these owre letters: and with hym haue remitted Paulus Centurio: desyringe yowe also shortly to dismisse Demetrius with safegarde and indem¦nitie vnto the borthers of owre dominions. And we wyl like¦wyse doo the same if yowe sende yowre ambassadoure with Demetrius, wherby both by communication and letters, wee may bee better certfied of thorder and administration of such thynges as yowe require: so that beinge aduertised of the mindes & intent of al other Christian princes, we may also con¦sult what is best to be done herein. Thus fare ye wel. Giuen in owr dominion in owr citie of Moscouia, in the yeare from the creation of the worlde, seuen thousande and three hun∣dreth, the thyrde day of Aprell.

But Demetrius, as he is experte in diuine and humane thynges, and espcially of holy scripture, seemed to haue se∣create commaundement of greater matters whiche we thinke he wyll shortly declare to the seate in priuate consultations. For he is nowe deliuered of the feuer into the whiche he fell Page  280 by chaunge of ayer, and hath so recouered his strengthe and natiue colour, that beinge a man of threescore yeares of age, he was not only presente at the popes masse celebrated with great solemnitie in the honour of saynt Cosmus and Damian but came also into the Senate at such tyme as Cardinal Cam¦pegius commynge yrst from the legacie of Pannonia,* was re¦ceaued of the pope and all the nobilitie of the courte: And fur¦thermore also vewed the temples of the holye citie with the ruines of the Romane magnificence,* and with woonderynge eyes behelde the lamentable decay of the auncient buildinges So that we thinke that shortly after he hath declared his mes¦sage, he shall returne to Moscouia with the bysshop of Sca∣rense the popes legate, not vnrecompensed with iust rewards at the handes of his holynesse.

The name of the Moscouites is nowe newe,* althowgh the poete Lucane maketh mention of the Moschos confinynge with the Sarmatians, and Plinie also placeth the Moschos at the sprynges of the great ryuer of Phasis in the region of Colcho aboue the sea Euxinus towarde the East. Theyr re∣gion hath very large boundes, and is extended from the al∣tars of great Alexander abowt the springes of Tanais,* to the extreme landes and north Ocean in maner vnder the Northe starres cauled charles wayne or the greate beare, beinge for the most parte playne and of frutfull pasture, but in sommer in many places full of marisshes. For whereas all that lande is replenysshed with many and great ryuers which are great∣ly increased by the winter snow and ise resolued by the heate of the soonne, the playnes and fyeldes are therby ouerflowen with marisshes,* and all iorneys incumbered with continuall waters and myrie slabbynesse vntyl by the benefite of the new wynter the ryuers and marisshes bee frosen ageyne, and giue safe passage to the sleades that are accustomed to iorney by the same. The woodde or forest of Hercynia (and not Hyrca∣nia as is redde in sum false copies) occupieth a great parte of Moscouia,* and is here and there inhabited, with houses buylded therein and so made thinner by the longe laboure of men that it dooth not nowe shewe that horrour of thicke and impenetrable woods and laundes as many thinke it o haue. But beinge replenysshed with many wylde beastes,* is so farre extended through Moscouia with a continuall tracte betwene. Page  [unnumbered] the East and the North towarde the Scythian Ocean,* that by the infinite greatnesse therof it hath deluded the hope of such as haue curiously searched thende of the same. In that parte that reacheth towarde Prussia, are founde the greate and fierce beastes cauled Uri, or Bisontes,* of the kynde of bulles: Also Alces lyke vnto hartes, whiche the Moscouites caule Lozzi, and are cauled of the Germaynes Helenes.*

On the East syde of Moscouia, are the Scythyans which are at this day cauled Tartars,* a wanderinge nation, and at all ages famous in warres. In the stede of houses they vse wa∣gons couered with beastes hydes, wherby they were in owlde tyme cauled Amaxouii.* For cities and townes, they vse greate tentes and pauilions, not defended with trenches or waules of tymber or stone, but inclosed with an innume∣rable multitude of archers on horsebacke. The Tartares are diuided by companies which they caule Hordas,* which word in theyr toonge signifieth a consentynge companye of people gathered togyther in forme of a citie. Euery Horda is gouer¦ned by an Emperour whom eyther his parentage or warlyke prowes hath promoted to that dignitie. For they oftentimes keepe warre with theyr bortherers and contende ambiciously and fiercely for dominion.* It dooth hereby appeare that they consiste of innumerable Hordas, in that the Tartars possesse the most large desertes euen vnto the famous citie of Cathay in the furthest Ocean in the East They also that are neareste to the Moscouites,* are knowen by theyr trade of marchaun∣dies and often incursions.* In Europe nere vnto the place cauled Dromon Achillis in Taurica Chersoneso, are the Tar¦tars cauled Precopites, the dowghter of whose prince, Sely¦mus Themperour of the Turkes tooke to wyfe. These are most infest to the Polones, and wast the regions on euery syde betwene the ryuers of Boristhenes and Tanais. They that in the same Taurica possesse Caffam a colonie of the Liguriās (cauled in owlde tyme Theodosia) doo bothe in religion & al other thynges agree with the Turkes. But the Tartars that inhabite the regions of Asia betwene Tanais and Uolga, are subiecte to Basilius the kynge of the Moscouites,* and thuse them a ouernour at his assignement. Amonge these, the Cre¦mii afflicted with ciuile seditions, where as heretofore they were riche and of great poure, haue of late yeares loste theyr Page  281 dominion and dignitie. The Tartars that are beyonde the ryuer of volga,* do religiously obserue the frēdship of the Mos¦couites and professe them selues to be their subiectes. Beyond the Cassanites towarde the Northe, are the Sciambani, rich in heardes of cattalle and consistynge of a great multitude of men. After these, ar Nogai,* whiche obteyne at this daye the chiefe fame of ryches and warly affayres. Theyr Horda, althowgh it bee most ample, yet hath it no emperoure, but is gouerned by the wysdome and vertue of the most ancient and valient men after the maner of the common wealthe of Ue∣nece. Beyonde the Nogais sumwhat towarde the south and the Caspian sea, the nobelest nation of the Tartars cauled Za¦gathai,* inhabite townes buylded of stone, and haue an excea∣dynge greate and fayre citie cauled Samarcanda, which Iax¦artes the greate ryuer of Sogdiana runneth through,* and passinge from thense about a hundreth myles, fauleth into the Caspian sea. With these people in owre dayes, Ismael the Sophi and kynge of Persia hathe often tymes kepte war with doubtfull successe:* In so muche that fearynge the greate¦nesse of theyr poure which heresysted with all that he myght, he lefte Armenia and Taurisium the chiefe citie of the kynge∣dome, for a pray to Selinius the vyctourer of one wynge of the battayle. From the citie of Samarcanda,* descended Tam¦burlanes the myghty Emperoure of the Tartars whome sum caule Tanberlanis.* But Demetrius sayth that he shulde bee cauled Themircuthlu. Thys is he that abowte the yeare of Chryste .M.CCC.lxxxxviii. subdued almost all the Easte partes of the worlde: And lastly with an innumerable multy∣tude of men inuaded the Turkes dominions, with whom Ba∣iasetes Ottomanus their kynge, (and father to the greate grandefather of this Solyman that nowe lyueth) metinge at Ancyra in the confines or marches of Galatia and Bythinia, gaue hym a sore battaile, in the whiche selfe on the Turaes parte .20000. men, and Baiasetes hym selfe was taken priso¦ner,* whom Tamburlanes caused to bee locked in an irencage and so caried hym abowte with hym throwgh all Asia which he also conquered with a terrible army. He conquered al the landes betwene Tanais and Nilus, and in fine vanquisshed in battayle the great Soltane of Egypte, whom he chased be¦yonde Nilus, and tooke also the citie of Damascus.

Page  [unnumbered]Frome the region of these Tartars cauled Zagathei, is browght great plentie of silken apparel to the Moscouites.* But th Tartars that inhabite the midland or inner regions, binge none other wares then truckes or droues of swyft runnynge horses and clokes made of whyte feltes: also hales or tentes to withstonde thiniuries of coulde and rayne. These they make very artificially and apte for the purpose. They receaue agayne of the Moscouites, coaes of cloth, and syluer monye,* conteynynge all other bodely ornamentes, and the furnyture of superfluous housolde stuffe. For beynge de¦fended ageynst the violence of wether and tēpestes only with suche apparell and couerture whereof wee haue spoken, they trust only to theyr arrowes which they shoote aswell back∣warde flyinge as when they assayle theyr enemies face to face: Albeit, when they determined to inuad Europ, theyr princes and capitaynes had helmetts coates of fense, and hooked swoordes which they bought of the Persians. Towarde the southe,* the houndes of Moscouia are termined by the same Tartars which possesse the playn regyons nere vnto the Cas∣pian sea: aboue the marysshes of Meotis in Asia, and about the yuers of Borysthenes and Tanais in parte of Europe. The people cauled Roxolani, Gete and Bastarne,* inhabited these regions in oulde tyme, of whom I thynke the name of Russia tooke originall.* For they caule parte of Lituania, Rus¦sia the lower, wheras Moscouia it selfe, is cauled whyte Rus¦sia. Lituania therfore, lyeth on the Northwest syde of Mos¦couia:* But towarde the full west the mayne landes of Prussia and Liuonia are ioyned to the confines or marches of Mosco¦uia, where the Sarmatian sea breakynge furth of the streigh¦tes of Cimbrica Chersonesus (nowe cauled Denmarke) is bē∣ded with a crooked goulfe towarde the northe. But in the furthest bankes of that Ocean where the large kyngedomes of Norwaye and Suecia are ioyned to the continent and al∣moste enuironed with the sea, are the people cauled Lapones, A nation exceadynge rude, suspicyous, and fearefull, fly∣inge and astonysshed at the syght of al straungiers & shyppes. They knowe neyther frutes nor apples, nor yet any benigni∣tie eyther of heauen or earth. They prouyde them meate onely with shootynge, and are pareled with the skynnes of wild beastes. They dwell in caues fylled with drye leaues, and in Page  282 holow trees consumed within eyther by fyre or rotten for age Suche as dwell neare the sea syde, fysshe more luckyly then cunnyngly, and in the stead of frutes, reserue in store fysshes dryed with smoke, They are of smaule stature of body, with starre visagies, pale and wannye coloure, and very swyfte of foote. Their wittes or dispositions, are not knowen to the Moscouites theyr bortherers, who thynke it therfore a mad∣nesse to assayle them with a smaule poure,* and iudge it ney∣ther profitable nor glorious, with greate armies to inuade a poore and beggerly nation. They exchunge the most whyte furres which wee caule Armelines for other wares of dyuers sortes:* Yet so, that they flie the syght and coompanie of all marchauntes. For comparynge and layinge theyr wares to∣gether, and leauynge theyr furres in a mydde place, they bar∣geyne with simple fayth, with absente and vnknowen men.* Sum men of great credite and autoritie, doo testifie that in a region beyond the Lappones, betwene the west and the north oppressed with perpetuall darkenes, is the nation of the peo∣ple cauled Pigei, who beinge growen to theyr ful grought, doo scarsely excede the stature of owre chyldren of ten yeares of age. It is a fearefull kynde of menne, and expresse theyr wordes in such chatteryng sort that they seeme to be so much the more lyke vnto apes, in howe muche they dyffer in sence and staure from men of iust heyght.

Towarde the North, innumerable people are subiecte to thempire of the Moscouites. Theyr regions extende to the Scythian Ocean for the space of almoste three moonethes iorney.*

Nx vnto Moscouia, is the region of Colmogora aboun¦dyng with frutes.* Through this runneth the ryuer of Diuid¦na beinge one of the greateste that is knowen in the Northe partes, and gaue the name to an other le••e ryuer wich brea∣keth furthe ino the sea Baltheum.* This increasynge a cr∣teyne tymes of the yeare as dooth the ryuer Nilus, our low∣eth the feldes and playnes, and with his fat and nurishinge moysture, dooth maruelously reist the iniuries of heauen and the sharpe bastes of the North wynde. When it ryseth by rea∣son of molten snowe and greate shoures of rayne, it faulth into the Ocean by vnknowen nations, and with so large a trenche lyke vnto a greate sea, that it can not bee sayled ouer Page  [unnumbered] in one day with a prosperous wynde. But when the waters are faulen, they leaue here and there large and frutful Ilan¦ds. For corne there cast on the grounde, groweth without any helpe of the plowe, and with maruelous celeritie of ha∣stynge nature fearynge the newe iniurie of the proude ryuer, dooth both sprynge and rype in short space.

Into the ryuer Diuidna, runneth the ryuer Iuga:* And in the corner where they ioyne togyther, is the famous marte towne cauled Ustiuga distant from the chiefe citie Mosca .vi. hundreth myles.*

Note that wheras Paulus Iouius wryteth here that the ryuer of Diuidna, otherwyse cauled Dwina,*runneth throughe the region of Colmogor, it is to bee vnderstode that there are twoo ryuers of that name, the one on the Northeast syde of Moscouia towarde the frosen sea, and the other on the southwest syde faulyng into the sea Beltheum, or the goulfe of Finnonia by the citie of Riga in Liuonia. And forasmuch as the trewe knowleage of these and certeine other i very necessary for all such as shall trade into Moscouia or other re¦gions in those coastes by the northe sea, I haue thought good to make further declaration hereof as I haue founde in the hystorie of Moscauia, most faythfully and largely wrytten by Sigismundus Li∣berus who was twyse sent ambassadour into Moscouia, as fyrst by Maximilian Themperour, and then ageyne by Ferdinando kyng of Hungary and Boheme. This haue I doone the rather, for that in all the mappes that I haue seene of Moscouia, there is no mention made of the ryuer of Dwina that runneth through the region of Col¦mogor and by the citie of the same name, although the prouynce of Dwina bee in all cardes placed Northewarde frome the ryuer of Ustiug or Succana,*whiche is the same Dwina whereof we nowe speake, and wherof Paulus Iouius wryteth, although it bee not so named but from the angle or corner where ioynynge with the ryuer of Iug and Suchana, it runneth Northewarde towarde the citie of Colmogor, and from thence fauleth into the north or frosen sea,*as shall hereafter more playny appeare by the woordes of Sigismun∣dus, that the one of these bee not taken for the other being so farre distant that great errour myght ensue by mistakynge the same, espe¦cially bicause this wherof Paulus Iouius wryteth is not by name ex¦pressed in the cardes, but only the other, wherby is the errour myght bee the greater. Of that therfore that runneth by the confnes of Liuonia and the citie of Riga, Sigismundus wryteth in this maner.

The lake of Dwina, is distante from the sprynges of Bousthe∣nes, almost tenne myles, and as many from the marysshe of Frono¦wo. From it, a ryuer of the ame name towarde the west, distante from Uuilua .xx. myles, runneth from thence towarde the Northe, where by Riga the chiefe citie of Liuonia, it faulethe into the Ger∣mayne sea which the Mocouites caule Uuareczk••e moue. It run∣neth by Uuitepsko, Polotzko, and Dunenburg, and not by Plescouia as one hath wrytten. This ryuer beinge for the moste part nauiga∣ble, the Lyuons caule Duna.

Page  283Of the other Dwina wherof Paulus Iouius speaketh, he wry∣teth as foloweth.

The prouince of Dwina and the ryuer of the same name, is so named from the place where the ryuers of Suchana and Iug mea∣tynge togyther, make one ryuer so cauled.*For Dwina in the Mosco¦uites tounge, signifieth two. This ryuer by the course of a hundred myles, entereth into the North Ocean on that part where the sayde sea runneth by the coastes of Swecia and Norwaye, and diuidethe Engronlande from the vnknowen lande. This prouince situate in the ful north, perteined in tyme cast to the segniorie of Nouegorede.*From Moscouia to the mouthes of Dwina, are numbered .CCC. my¦les: Albeit as I haue sayde, in the regions that are beyond Uolga, the accompte of the iorney can not bee well obserued by reason of many marysshes, ryuers, and very greate wooddes that lye in the way. Yet are we led by coniecture to thinke it to bee scarsely twoo hundreth myles:*forasmuch as from Moscouia to Uuolochda, from Uuolochda to Ustyug sumwhat into the Easte: and laste of all frome Ustyug by the ryuer Dwina, is the ryght passage to the northe sea. This region, besyde the castel of Colmogor and the citie of Dwina, situate almost in the mydde way betwene the spryngs and mouthes of the ryuer, and the castell of Pienega standynge in the very mou∣thes of Dwina, is vtterly withowt townes and castels: yet hath it many vyllages whiche are farre in sunder by reason of the baren∣nesse of the soyle. &c.

In an other place he wryteth, that Suchana and Iug, after they are ioyned togyther in one, loose theyr fyrste names and make the ryuer Dwina. &c. But lette vs nowe returne to the hystone of Paulus Iouius.

Unto Ustiuga, from the Permians, Pecerrians, Inugri∣ans,* Ugolicans, and Pinnegians, people inhabytynge the north and northeast prouinces, are brought the precious fur∣res of Marterns and Sables: Also the cases of woulfes and foxes both whyte and blacke: And lykewise the skynnes of the beastes cauled Ceruarii Lupi (that is) harte woolfes,* be∣inge engendered eyther of a woolfe and a hynde, or a harte and a bytch woolfe. These furres and skyns. they exchange for dyuers other wares. The best kynde of sables and of the finest heare wherwith nowe the vestures of princes are lyned,* and the tender neckes of delicate dames are couered with the expresse similitude of the lyuynge beaste, are brought by the Permians and Pecerrians, whiche they them selues also re∣ceaue at the handes of other that inhabte the regions neare vnto the north Ocean. The Permians and Pecerrians, a lyt¦tle before owre tyme, dyd sacrifice to Idols after the maner of the Gentyles:* but doo nowe acknowleage Chryste theyr God. The passage to the Inugrians, and Ugolicans, is by Page  [unnumbered] certeyne rowgh 〈…〉, which perhappes are they that in owlde tyme wee culed Hyperborei. In the toppes of these, are founde the be••e kyndes of Falcons: whereof one kynde (cauled Herodiu) is whyte with spotted fethers.*

There are also ierfalcons, sakers, and peregrines, whiche were vnknowen to the ancient princes in theyr excessiue and nise pleaures.

Beyode those people whom I last named (beinge all tri∣butares to the kinges of Moscouia) are other nations the last of men, not knowen by any viages of the Moscouites, foras∣muche as none of theym hue passed to the Ocean,* and are therefore knowen onely by the fabulous narrations of mar∣chauntes. Yet is it aparente that the ryuer of Diuidna or Dwina, drawynge with it innumerable other ryuers, run∣neth with a vehement course towarde the northe: and that the sea is there exceadyng large: so that saylyng by the coast of the ryght hande, shippes may haue passage from thense to Cathay as is thought by most lykely coniecture,* excepte there lye sum lande in the waye. For the region of Cathay perey∣neth to thextreme and furtheste partes of the Easte, situate al¦most in the paralell of Thracia,* and knowen to the Portuga∣les in India when they sayled neare thereunto by the regions of Sinara and Malacha to Aurea Chersonesus, and brought from thense certeyne vestures made of Sables skynnes, by which only argument it is apparente that the citie of Cathay is not farre from the coastes of Scythia.

*But when Demetrius was demaunded whether eyther by the monumentes of letters or by fame lefte theym of theyr predicessours, they hadde any knowleage of the gothes who nowe more then a thousand yeares sence subuerted Thempire of the Romane Emperours, and defaced the citie of Rome, he answered,* that both the nation of the Gothes of the name of kynge Totilas theyr chiefe capitayne, was of famous memo∣rie amonge them: And that dyuers nations of the north regi¦ons conspired to that expedition, and especiallye the Mosco∣uites: Also that that armie increased of the confluence of the Barbarous Liuons and wanderynge Tartars: But that they were all cauled Gothes forasmuch as the Gothes that inha∣bited Scondania and Iselande, were the auctoures of that inuasion.*

Page  284And with these boundes are the Moscouites inclosed on euery side, whom we thinke to be those people that Ptolome cauled Modocas: but haue doubtelesse at this day their name of the riuer Mosco whiche runneth through the chiefe citie Mosca named also after the same.* This is the most famous citie in Moscouia, aswell for the situation thereof beinge in maner in the myddest of the region, as also for the commodi∣ous oportunitie of ryuers, multitude of houses, and stronge fense of so fayre and goodly a castell. For the citie is exten∣ded with a longe tracte of buyldynges by the bankes of the ryuer for the space of fyue myles. The houses are made all of tymber, and are diuided into parlers, chambers, & kichins of large roomes: yet neyther of vnseemely height or to lowe, but of decent measure and proportion.* For they haue greate trees apte for the purpose browght from the foreste of Herci∣nia? of the which, made perfectly rounde like the mastes of shippes, and so layde one vppon an other that they ioyne at the endes in right angles, where beinge made very faste and sure, they frame theyr houses thereof of maruelous strength with smaule charges and in verye short tyme. In maner all the houses haue priuate gardens aswell for pleasure as com∣moditie of herbes, wherby the circuite of the dispersed citie appeareth very greate. All the wardes or quarters of the ci∣tie, haue theire peculiar chappells. But in the chiefest and highest place therof, is the Church of owre ladi of ample and goodly workemanshyppe, whiche Aristoteles of Bononie, a man of singular knowleadge and experience in architecture, buylded more then .lx. yeares sence. At the very head of the citie,* a little ryuer cauled Neglina which dryueth many corne mylles, enteryth into the ryuer Moscus, and maketh almost an Iland, in whose end is the castell with many strong towrs and bullwarkes, buylded very fayre by the diuise of Italien architecturs that are the masters of the kinges workes. In the fieldes abowt the citie, is an incredible multitud o hares and roe buckes,* the which it is lawefull for no man to chase or persue with dogges or nettes excepte only certeyne of the kinges familiars and straunge ambassadours to whom he gi∣ueth licence by speciall commaundement. Almost three par∣tes of the citie is inuironed with two ryuers, and the resytus with a large mote that receaueth plentie of water frome the Page  [unnumbered] sayde ryuers. The citie is also defended on the other syde with an other ryuer named Iausa, whiche fauleth also into Moscus a little beneath the citie. Furthermore Moscus run∣nyng towarde the South, fauleth into the ryuer Ocha or Oc∣ca muche greater then it selfe at the towne Columna,* and not very farre from thense Ocha it selfe increased with other ri∣uers, vnladeth his streames in the famous riuer Uolga,* wher at the place where they ioyne, is situate the citie of Nouogro¦dia the lesse,* so named in respecte of the greater citie of that name from whense was browght the firste colonie of the lesse citie. Uolga cauled in owlde tyme Rha,* hath his originall of the greate marysshes named the white lakes.* These are a∣boue Moscouia betwene the Northe and the West, and sende furthe from them almost all the ryuers that are dispersed in∣to dyuers regions on euery syde, as wee see of the Alpes from whose toppes and sprynges descend the waters of whose con¦course the ryuers of Rhene, Po, and Rodanum, haue theyr increase. For these marysshes in the steade of mountaynes ful of sprynges, minister abundant moysture, forasmuch as no mountaynes are yet founde in that region by the longe tra∣uayles of men, in so much that manye that haue byn studious of the owlde Cosmographie, suppose the Ryphean and Hy∣perborean mountaynes so often mentioned of the ancient wri¦ters,* to bee fabulous. From these marysshes therfore, the ry¦uers of Dwina, Ocha, Moschus, Uolga, Tanais, and Bo∣rysthenes, haue theyr originall. The Tartars caule Uolga Edel: Tanais they caule Don: And Borysthenes is at this day cauled Neper.* This, a lyttle beneathe Taurica, runneth into the sea Euxinus.* Tanais is receaued of the marysshes of Meotis at the noble marte towne Azoū. But Uolga lea∣uynge the citie of Moscha towarde the south, and runnynge with a large circuite and greate wyndynges and creekes first towarde the Easte, then to the West, and lastly to the south, fauleth with a full streame into the Caspian or Hyrcan sea.* Aboue the mouth of this, is a citie of the Tartars cauled Cy∣trachan, which sum caule Astrachan,* where martes are kepte by the marchauntes of Media,* Armenia,* and Persia.* On the further banke of Uolga, there is a towne of the Tartars cau¦led Casan,* of the which the Horda of the Casanite Tartars tooke theyr name. It is distante from the mouth of Uolga Page  285 & the Caspian sea fyue hundreth myles. Aboue Casan .Cl. myles at the enteraunce of the ryuer Sura,* Basilius that now reig¦neth, buylded a towne cauled Surcium,* to thintente that in those desertes, the marchauntes and trauailers which certifie the gouernours of the marches of the doinges of the Tartars and the maners of that vnquiet nation, may haue a safe man¦sion amonge theyr customers.

Themperours of Moscouia at dyuers tymes, eyther mo∣ued therto by occasion of thynges presente, or for the desyre they had to nobilitate newe and obscure places, haue kepte the seate of theyr courte and Empire in dyuers cities. For Nouogrodia whiche lyeth towarde the Weste and the Lyuon sea,* not many yeares past, was the headde citie of Moscouia, & obteyned euer the chiefe dignitie by reason of the incredible number of houses and edifies, with the oportunitie of the large lake replenysshed with fysshe, and also for the fame of the moste auncient and venerable temple whiche more then foure hundreth yeres sence was dedicated to Sancta Sophia Chryste the soonne of God,* accordynge to the custome of the Emprours of Bizantium nowe cauled Constantinople. Nouo¦grodia is oppressed in maner with continuall wynter and darkenesse of longe nyghtes.* For it hath the pole Artike ele∣uate aboue the Horizon threescore and foure degrees: and is further from the Equinoctiall then Moscouia by almoste .vi. degrees. By whiche dyfference of heauen, it is sayde that at the soommer steye of the soonne, it is burnte with continuall heate by reason of the shorte nyghtes.*

The citie also of Uolodemaria,* beinge more then twoo hundreth myles distant from Mosca towarde the Easte, had the name of the chiefe citie and kynges towne, whyther the seate of Thempire was translated by the valiant Emperours for necessarie considerations, that such ayde, furniture, and requisites as appperteyne to the warres myght bee neare at hande at suche tyme as they kepte continuall warre ageynste the Tartars theyr bortherers. For it is situate withowt Uol∣ga, on the bankes of the ryuer Clesma, whiche fauleth into Uolga. But Moscha,* aswell for those gyftes and commodi∣ties whereof we haue spoken, as also that it is situate in the myddest of the most frequented place of all the region and Em¦pire, and defended with the ryuer and Castel, hath in compa∣ryson Page  [unnumbered] to other cities byn thowght moste woorthy to bee estee∣med for the chiefe. Mocha is distant from Nouogrodia fiue hundreth myles: and almost in the mydde way is the citie of Ottoferia (otherwyse cauled Otwer or Tuwer) vppon the ry¦uer of Uolga.** This ryuer neare vnto the fountaynes and springes of the same, not yet increased by receauyng so many other ryuers, runneth but slowely and gentelly: And passeth from thense to Nouogrodia through many wooddes and de∣solate playnes. Furthermore frome Nouogrodia to Riga the nexte porte of the Sarmatian ea,* is the iornay of a thousand myles lyttle more or lesse. This tracte is thought to bee more commodious then the other, bycause it hath manye townes and the citie of Plescouia in the waye,* beinge imbrased with two ryuers. From Riga (perteynynge to the dominion of the greate master of the warres of the Liuons) to the citie of Lu∣becke a porte of Germanie in the goulfe of Cymbrica Cherso∣nesus (nowe cauled Denmarke) are numbered aboute a thou∣sande myles of daungerous saylynge.*

From Rome to the citie of Moscha,* the distance is know∣en to bee two thousande and syxe hundreth miles by the nea∣rest way passynge by Rauenna, Taruisium, the Alpes of Car∣nica: Also Uillacum, Noricum, and Uienna of Pannonie: and from thense (passynge ouer the ryuer of Danubius) to Ol¦mutium of the Marouians and to Craconia the chiefe citie of Polonie, are coumpted .xi. hundreth myles. From Cracouia to Uilna the headde citie of Lithuania, are coumpted fiue hun¦dreth myles: and as many from that citie to Smolenzko situ∣ate beyonde Borysthenes, from whense to Moscha are coump¦ted syxe hundreth myles. The iorney frome Uilna by Smo∣lenzko to Moscha,* is trauayled in wynter with expedite sleades and incredible celeritie vppon the snowes hardned with longe froste and compacte lyke Ise by reason of muche wearynge. But in soommer, the playnes can not bee ouer∣passed but by difficulte and laborious trauayle. For when the snowes by the continuall heate of the soonne begyn to melte and dissolue, they cause greate marysshes and quamyres able to intangle bothe horse and man,* were it not that wayes are made throwgh the same with brydges and causeys of wood, and almost infinite laboure.*

In all the region of Moscouia, there is no vayne or mine Page  286 of golde or syluer, or any other common metall excepte iren: neyther yet is there any token of precious stones. And there∣fore they bye all those thynges of straungers. Neuerthelesse, this iniurie of nature is recompensed with abundaunce of rich furres,* whose price by the wanton nisenesse of men is growne to such excesse that the furres perteynynge to one sorte of ap∣parell,* are nowe soulde for a thousande crownes. But the tyme hath byn that hese haue byn bought better chepe when the furthest nations of the north beinge ignorant of owr nyse finenesse and breathyng desyre toward effeminate and super∣fluous pleasures, exchanged the same with muche simplicitie often tymes for tryfles and thynges of smaule value: In so muche that commonly the Permians and Pecerrians, were ac¦customed to gyue so many skynnes of Sables for an Iren axe or hatchet as beinge tyed harde togyther,* the marchauntes of Moscouia coulde drawe through the hole where the hafte or handyll entereth into the same. But the Moscoutes sende into all partes of Europe the best kynde of flaxe to make lyn∣nen clothe,* and hempe for ropes: Also many oxe hydes,* and exceadynge great masses of waxe.*

They proudely denye that the Romane churche obteyneth the principate and preeminent autoritie of all other.

They so abhorre the nation of the Iewes,* that they detest the memorie of them, and wyll in no condition admitte them to dwell within theyr dominions: esteemyng them as wycked and mischeuous people that haue of late tawght the Turkes to make gunnes. Besyde the bookes that they haue of the an¦cient Greeke doctours,* they haue also the commentaries and homelies of saynt Ambrose, Augustine, Ierome, and Grego∣rie, translated into the Illirian or Slauon tounge whiche a∣greeth with theyrs. For they vse bothe the Slauon tounge and letters, as doo also the Sclauons, Dalmates, Bohemes, Pollones, and Lithuanes. This tounge is spredde further then any othr at this day.* For it is familyar at Constantino¦ple in the courte of the Emperours of the Turkes: and was of late harde in Egypte amonge the Mamalukes in the court of the Soltane of Alcayre otherwyse cauled Memphis or Ba∣bilon in Egipte. A greate number of bookes of holy scripture ae translated into this tounge by thindustrie of saynte Ie∣rome and Cyrillus. Furthermore, besyde the hystories of Page  [unnumbered] theyr owne countreys,* they haue also bookes conteynyng the factes of great Alexander and the Romane Emperours, and lykwyse of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. They haue no maner of knowleage of philosophie, Astronomie, or spcula∣tiue phisicke with other liberall sciences: But such are taken for phisitians as professe that they haue often times obserued the vertue and qualitie of sum vnknowen herbe.

They number the yeares, not from the byrth of Chryste, but from the begynnynge of the worlde.* And this they begin to accoumpte, not frome the monethe of Ianuary, but from September.

They haue fewe and simple lawes throwghe owte all the kyngedome,* made by the equitie and conscience of theyr prin∣ces, and approued by the consent of wyse and good men: and are therfore greatly for the welthe and quyetnesse of the peo¦ple forasmuch as it is not lawfull to peruerte them with any interpretations or cauillations of lawyers or atturneys. They punyshe theues, rouers, priuie pyckers, and murtherers.

When they examine malefactours, they poure a great quanti∣tie of coulde water vppon suche as they suspecte, whiche they say to bee an intollerable kynde of tormente. But sumtymes they manacle suche as are stoborne, and wyll not confesse ap∣parent crymes.

Theyr youth is exercised in dyuers kyndes of games and plays resembelyng the warres,* wherby they both practise pol¦licie and increase theyr strength. They vse runnynge both on horsebacke and afoote. Also runnynge at the tylte, wreste∣lynge, and especially shootynge.* For they gyue rewardes to suche as excell therin.

The Moscouites are vniuersally of meane stature,* yet ve∣ry square set and myghtyly brawned. They haue al grey eyes longe beardes, shorte legges, and bygge bellyes. They ryde very shorte, and shoote backewarde very cunnyngely euen as they flye. At home in theyr houses, theyr fare is rather plen∣tifull then deyntie. For theyr tables are furnysshed for a smaule price with all suche kyndes of meates as may bee de∣syred of such as are gyuē to most excessiue gluttony.* Hennes and duckes are bought for lyttle syluer pense the piece. There is incredible plentie of beastes and cattayle bothe greate and smaule. The flesshe of biefe that is kylled in the myddeste of Page  287 wynter, is so congeled and frosen, that it putrifiethe not for the space of two moonethes.* Theyr beste and moste delicate dysshes, are gotten by huntynge and haukynge as with vs.* For they take all sortes of wylde beastes with houndes and dyuers kyndes of nettes. And with falcons and erens or eagles of a marueylous kynde whiche the region of Pecerra bryngeth furth vnto them, they take not onely fesantes and wylde duckes, but also cranes and wylde swannes. They take also a foule of darke coloure abowte the byggenes of a goose with redde ouerbrowes, whose flesshe in taste passeth the pleasauntnesse of Pheasauntes. These in the Moscouites tounge are cauled Tetrao, whiche I suppose to bee the same that Plinie cauleth Erythratao, knowen to the people of the Al∣pes, and especially to the Rhetians which inhabite the laun∣des abowte the sprynges of the ryuer Abdua. The ryuer of Uolga ministreth vnto them great fysshes and of pleasaunte taste:* especially sturgions or rather a kynde of fysshe lyke vn¦to sturgions: whiche in the wynter season beinge inclosed in Ise, are longe reserued fresshe and vncorrupte.* Of other kin¦des of fysshes, they take in maner an incredible multitude in the whyte lakes whereof wee haue spoken before. And wher¦as they vtterly lacke natiue wynes,* they vse suche as are browght from other places. And this only in certeyne feastes and holy misteries. Especially the pleasaunte Maluasies of the Iland of Creta nowe cauled Candy,* are had in moste ho∣noure: and vsed eyther as medicens or for a shewe of excessiue aboundaunce, forasmuche as it is in maner a miracle that wynes browght frome Candy by the streyghtes of Hercules pillers and the Ilandes of Gades,* & tossed with such fluddes of the inclosed Ocean, shulde be droonke amonge the Scythy¦an snowes in theyr natiue puritie and pleasauntnesse.

The common people drinke mede made of hony & hoppes sodden together, whiche they keepe longe in pytched barrells where the goodnes increaseth with age. They vse also beere and ale as doo the Germanes and Polones. They are acusto¦med for delycatenes n sommer to coole theyr beere and mede with puttynge Ise therin,* whiche the noble men reserue in theyr sellars in great quantite for the same purpose. Summe there are that delyte greately in the iuse that is pressed owte of cherries before they bee full rype:* whiche they affyrme to Page  [unnumbered] haue the coloure of cleare and ruddy wyne with a verye plea∣saunte taste.

Theyr wyues and women,* are not with them in suche ho¦noure as they are in other nations. For they vse them in ma∣ner in the place of seruantes. The noble men and gentelmen, doo diligently obserue theyr walkes and haue an eye to their chastitie. They are seldom bydden furth to any feastes: nether are permytted to resorte to churches farre of, or to walke a∣brode withowt sum greae consyderation. But the common sorte of women, are easely and for a smaule price allured to lecherye euen of straungers: by reason wherof, the gentelmen doo lyttle or nothynge esteme them.

Iohn the father of kynge Basilius dyed more then .xx. yeares sence. He maryed Sophia the doughter of Thomas Paleologus who reigned farre in Ploponnesus (now cauled Morea) and was brother to Themperoure of constantinople.* Shee was then at Rome when Thomas her father was dry∣uen owte of Grecia by the Turckes.* Of her were fyue chyl∣dren borne, as Basilius hym selfe, George, Demetrius, Sy∣meon, and Andreas. Basilius tooke to wyfe Salomonia the doughter of George Soborouius a man of synguler fideliie and wysdome & one of hys counsayle. The excellent vertues of whch woman, only barennesse obcured.

When the prynces of Moscouia delyberat to marie, theyr custome is to haue choyse of the vyrgynes in the realme,* & to cause suche as are of most fayre and bewtyfull vysage and personage with maners & vertues accordyng, to bee browght before them. Which afterwarde they committe to certayne faythful men and graue matrones to bee furder vewed, in so muche that they leaue no parte of them vnserched. Of these, shee whome the prynce moste lyketh, is pronounced worthy to bee hys wyfe, not withowt greate and carefull expectatiō of theyr parentes, lyuynge for that tyme betwene hope and feare. The other vyrgyns also which stoode in election and contended in bewty and integritie of maners, are often times the same day to gratyfye the prynce, maryed to hys noble mē, gentellmen, and capytaynes: wherby it sumtymes commeth to passe that whyle the princes contemne the lynage of roiall descente, suche as are borne of humble parentage, are exalted to the degree of princely estate, In lyke maner as Thempe∣rours Page  288 of the turckes were accustomed to bee chosen by cumly∣nesse of personage and warly prowes.

Basilius was vnder thage of forty and seuen yeares,* of culy personage, singuler vertue, and princely qualities, by all meanes studyous for the prosperitie and commodities of hys subiectes. Furthermore in beneuolence, lyberalytie and good successe in hys doynges, to bee preferred before his pro∣genitours. For when he hadde .vi. yeares kepte warre with the Lyuons that moued .lxxii. confetherate cities to the cause of that warre, he obteyned the victorie and departed with fewe conditions of peace rather gyuen then accepted.* Also at the begynnynge of his reigne, he put the Polones to flight and tooke prisoner Constantine the capitayne of the Ruthens whom he brought to Moscouia tyed in chaynes. But shortly after at the ryuer Boristhenes aboue the citie of Orsa, he hym selfe was ouercomne in a great battayle by the same Con¦stantine whom he hadde dismissed: Yet so, that the towne of Smolenzko whiche the Moscouites possessed before and was nowe woonne by the Polons, sulde styll perteyne to the do∣minions of Basilius. But ageynste the Tartars,* and especi∣ally the Tartars of Europe cauled the Precopites, the Mos∣couites haue often tymes kepte warre with good successe, in reuenge of thiniuries doone to them by theyr incursions.

Basilius is accustomed to brynge to the fielde more then a hundreth and fiftie thousande horsemen deuided into three bandes and folowynge the banners or enseignes of theyr ca∣pitaynes in order of battayle.* On the banner of the kynges wynge, is figured the image of Iosue the capitaine of the He¦brewes at whose prayer the soonne prolonged the daye and steyde his course as wytnesse the hystories of holye scripture. Armies of footemen are in maner to no vse in those great wyl¦dernesses, aswel for theyr apparel beinge loose and longe, as also for the custome of theyr enemies, who in theyr warres truste rather to the swyftenesse of theyr lyght horses then to trye the matter in a pyght fyelde.

Theyr horses are of lesse then meane stature:* but verye stronge and wyfte. Theyr horsemen are armed with pykes, ryuettes, mases of Iren and arrowes. Fewe haue hooked swoordes.* Theyr bodies are defended with rounde Targets after the maner of the Turkes of Asia: or with bendyng and Page  [unnumbered] cornarde targettes after the maner of the Greekes: Also with coates of mayle, brygantynes, and sharpe helmettes. Basili∣us dyd furthermore instytute a band of hargabusiers on hors¦backe:* and caused many greate brasen pieces to bee made by the woorkemanshype of certeyne Italyans:* and the same with theyr stockes & wheeles to bee placed in the castell of Mosca.

The kynge hym selfe with pryncely magnyfycence & syn∣guler familiaritie (wherwith neuerthelesse no parte of the ma¦iestie of a kynge is vyolate) is accustomed to dyne openly with hys noble men and straunge ambassadours in hys owne cham∣ber of presence where is seene A meruelous quantitye of syl∣uer and gylte plate standynge vppon two great and high cub∣bardes in the same chamber.** He hath not abowte hym any other garde for the custody of hys person sauynge only hys accustomed famylye. For watche and warde is dylygently kepte of the faythfull multytude of the citisens: In so muche that euery warde or quarter of the citie is inclosed with gates rayles,* and barres: neyther is it lawfull for any man rasshely to walke in the citie in the nyght, or withowt lyght. All the courte consysteth of noble men,* gentelmen, and choyse souldy∣ers which are cauled owte of euery regyon by theyre townes and vyllagies, and commaunded to wayte course by course at certeyne moonethes appoynted. Furthermore when warre is proclaymed, all the armye is collected bothe of the owlde souldiers and by musterynge of newe in all prouynces. For the lieuetenauntes and capytaynes of the armye, are accusto∣med in all cities to muster the youth, and to admytte to thor∣der of souldyers such as they thynke able to serue the turne. Theyre wages is payde them of the common treasurye of eue∣ry prouynce which is gathered and partely payde also in the tyme of peace although it bee but lyttle.* But such as are assig¦ned to the warres, are free frome all tributes, and inioye cer∣tein other priuilegies wherby they may the more gladly & cher¦fully serue theyr kynge and defend theyr contrey. For in the tyme of warre, occacyon is mynystred to shewe trewe vertue and manhodde, where in so greate and necessarie an instititu∣on, euery man accordynge to hys approued actiuitie and in∣genyous forwardnesse, may obteyne the fortune eyther of per¦petuall honoure or ignominie.

Page  289
Vix olim vlla fides referentibus horrida regna
Moschorum, & Ponti, res glacialis erat.
Nunc Iouio autore, ill oculis lustramus, et vrbes.
Et nemora, et mones cernimus et fluuios.
Moschouiā, monumenta Ioui, tua culta reuoluen.
Coepi alios munds credere Democriti.

¶ Other notable thynges as concernynge Moscouia: gathered owt of the bookes of Sigismundus Li∣berus. Note that when he sayth myles, he meaneth leaques.

FRom whense Russia had the name,* there are dyuers opinions. Sume thynke that it was so named of one Russus the soonne or neuie of Lech the kynge of the Polons. Other af∣firme that it was so cauled of a certeyne owlde towne named Russus not farre frome Nouogoroda or Nouogardia the more.

Sum also thynke that it was so cauled of the browne coloure of the nation.* But the Moscouians confute al these opinions as vntrewe: Affirmynge that this nation was in owlde tyme cauled Rosseia as a nation dispersed, as the name it selfe dooth declare. For Rosseia in the Ruthens tounge,* doothe signifie dispersed or scattered. The which thynge to be trew, dyuers other people commyxt with thinhabitauntes, and dy∣uers prouinces lyinge here and there betwene dyuers partes of Russia doo playnely declare. But whense so euer they tooke theyr name, doubtlesse all the people that vse the Sla∣uon tounge,* and professe the fayth of Chryst after the maner of the Greekes, (cauled in theyr common language Russi, and in the Latin tounge Rutheni) are increased to suche a multy∣tude that they haue eyther expulsed all the nations that lye beewene them, or drawne them to theyr maner of lyuynge, in somuche that they are nowe cauled all Rutheni by one com∣mon name.

Furthermore the Slauon tounge (whiche at this daye is sumwhat corruptly cauled Sclauon) runneh exceadyng fa, as vsed of the Dalmates, Bossuenser, Croatians, Istrins, Page  [unnumbered] and by a longe tracte of the sea Adriatike vnto Forum Iulii: Of the Caruians also whome the Uenetians caule Charsos: and lykewyse of the Carniolans and Carinthians vnto the ry¦uer Drauus: Furthermore of the Stirians within Gretzi∣um and by Muera vnto Danubius and from thense of the My∣sians, Seruians, Bulgarians, and other inhabitynge euen vnto Constantinople: Furthermore of the Bohemians, Lusa∣cians, Silesians, Moranians, and thinhabitauntes neare vnto the ryuer Uagus in the kyngedome of Hungarie: The Polons also and the Ruthenians whose Empire reacheth ve∣ry farre: lykewyse the Circasians and Quinquemontanians vnto Pontus: and is from thense vsed in the north partes of Germanie amonge the remanent of the Uandales inhabityng here and there.* All whiche nations althowgh they acknow∣leage them selues to bee Sclauons, yet the Germayns taking the denomination only of the Uandales, caule al thē that vse the Slauon tounge, Uuenden, Uuinden, or Uuindysh.

Of the Princes that nowe reigne in Russia,* the chiefe is the great Duke of Moscouia who possesseth the greatest part therof. The seconde is the great duke of Lithuania: and the thyrde the kynge of Polonie, who nowe obteyneth the domi∣nion of Polonie and Lithuania.

In autoritie and dominion ouer his subiectes, the prince of Moscouie passeth all the monarkes of the worlde.* For he depriueth all his noble men and gentelmen of al theyr holdes and munitions at his pleasure. He trusteth not his owne bro¦therne, but oppresseth all with lyke seruitude. In so muche that whome so euer he commaundeth eyther to remayne with hym in the courte, or to goo to the warres, or sendeth on am∣bassage, they are compelled to bee at theyr owne charges, ex∣cepte the younge gentelmen the soonnes of the Boiarons, that is, the noble men of the lowest degree. He vsurpeth this au∣toritie aswell ouer the spiritualtie as the temporaltie: consti∣tutynge what him lysteth of the goods and lyfe of al men. Of his counsilers there is not one that dare dissente from hym in any thynge. They openly confesse that the wyl of the prince is the wyll of god: and therfore caule hym the key bearer and chamberlen of god, and beleue him to bee the executor of gods wyll. By reason wherof, the prince hym selfe when any pe∣ticion is made to hym for the deliuerie of any captiue, is ac∣customed Page  290 accustomed to aunswere: When god commaundeth he shalbe deliuered. Lykewyse when any asketh a question of an vncer∣teyne or doubtefull thynge, theyr custome is to answere thus: God knoweth and the greate prince. It is vncerteyne whe∣ther the crueltie and fiercenes of the nation doo requyre so ty∣rannous a prince, or whether by the tyranny of the prince, the nation is made so fierce and cruell.

Basilius the soonne of Iohn, was the fyrst that tooke vp¦pon hym the name and title of a kynge in this maner: The great lorde Basilius, by the grace of god kynge and lorde of all Russia and the greate duke of Uuolodimaria, Moscouia, Nouogardia. &c.

Furthermore, wheras nowe this prince is cauled an Em∣perour,* I haue thought good to shewe the tytle and cause of this errour. Note therfore that Czar in the Ruthens tounge signifieth a kynge, wheras in the language of the Slauons, Pollons, Bohemes, and other, the same woorde Czar, signi∣fieth Cesar by whiche name Themperours haue byn common∣ly cauled. For bothe they and the Slauons that are vnder the kyngdome of Hungarie, caule a kynge by an other name: as sum Crall, other Kyrall, and sum Koroll: but thinke that only an Emperoure is cauled Czar. Whereby it came to passe that the Ruthene or Moscouite interpretours hearynge theyr prince to bee so cauled of straunge nations, began them selues also to name hym an Emperour, and thinke the name of Czar to bee more worthy then the name of a kynge, althowgh they signifie all one thynge. But who so wyl reade all theyr hysto¦ries and bookes of holy scripture,* shall fynde that a kynge is cauled Czar, and an Emperour Kessar. By the lyke erroure Themperour of the Turkes is cauled Czar, who neuerthe∣lesse of antiquitie vsed no hygher tytle then the name of a kynge, expressed by this woorde Czar. And hereof the Tur∣kes of Europe that vse the Slauon tounge, caule the citie of Constantinople Czargead, (that is) the kynges citie.

Sum caule the prince of Moscouie the whyte kynge,* whi∣che I thinke to proceade of the whyte cappes, or other tyre∣mentes they weare on theyr heades, lyke as they caule the kynge of Percia Kisilpassa (that is) redde headde.* He vseth the tytle of a kynge when he writeth or sendeth to Rome, the Emperour, the pope, the kynge of Suetia and Denmacke, the Page  [unnumbered] greate master of Prussia and Liuonia, and also to the greate Turke as I haue byn credably informed: but he is not cauled kynge of any of them, excepte perhappes of the Liuons. Yet by reason of his later conquestes, sum haue thought hym wor¦thy the name of a kynge or rather of an Emperour bycause he hath kynges vnder his Empire.

To the kynge of Polone, he vseth this tytle: The greate lorde Basilius by the grace of god, lorde of all Russia, and greate duke of Uuolodimeria, Moscouia, Nouogardia. &c. leauynge owt the tytle of a kynge. For none of them vouche∣safeth to receaue the letters of the other augmented with any new tytle, as I knewe by experience at my being in Mosco∣uia, at which tyme Sigismundus the kynge of Polone sente hym his letters augmented with the tytle of the duke of Ma∣souia, wherwith he was not a lyttle offended.

They glorie in theyr hystories that before Uuolodimeria and Olha, the lande of Rusia was baptised and blessed of saynt Andrewe thappostle of Chryst,* affirmynge that he came from Grecia to the mouthes of the ryuer Borysthenes: and that he sayled vppe the ryuer to the mountaynes where as is nowe Chiouia; and that there he blessed all the lande and pla¦ced his crosse, prophesyinge also that the grace of god shulde bee greate there, and that there shulde bee many churches of Chrystian men: Lykewyse that he afterwarde came to the sprynges of Borysthenes vnto the great lake Uuolok, and by the ryuer Louat descended into the lake Ilmer: from whense by the ryuer Uuolcon whiche runneth owte of the same lake, he came to Nouogardia: and passed frome thense by the same ryuer to the lake Ladoga and the ryuer Heua, and so vn¦to the sea whiche they caule Uuaretzkoia, beinge the same that we caule the Germayne sea, betwene Uuinlandia or Fin¦landia and Liunia, by the whiche he sayled to Rome, and was at the laste crucified for Chryste his gospell in Pelopon∣nesus by the tyranny of Agus Antipater, as theyr crownacles make mention.

The prynce euery seconde or thyrde yeare, causeth a mu∣ster to bee taken of the soonnes of the Boiarons,* and takethe an accoumpt bothe of theyr number and howe many horses and men euery of them is able to make: and then appoynteth Page  291 a certeyne stypende to suche as are able further to beare theyr owne charges in the warres. They haue seldome any rest or quyetnesse. For they eyther keepe warre with the Lithuani¦ans. Liuonians, Suetians, or Tartars of Casan. Or yf it so chaunce that the prynce keepe no warre, yet dooth he yeare∣ly appoynte garrysons of .xx. thousande menne in places a∣bowt Tanais and Occa to represse the incursions and robbe∣ryes of the European Tartars cauled Precopites.

As in other matters,* euen so in thorder of warrefare ther is great diuersitie amonge men. For the Moscouian as soone as he begynneth to flye, thinketh of none other succoure but putteth all his confidence therein. Beinge pursued or taken of his enemie, he neyther defendeth him selfe nor desirethe perdon.

The Tartar cast of from his horse, spoyled of al his armure & weapons, and also sore woūded, defendeth hym selfe with handes, feete, and teethe, and by all meanes he may, vntyll his strength and spirite fayle hym.

The Turke, when he seeth hym selfe destitute of all helpe and hope to escape, doth humbly desyre pardon, casting away his weapons & armure, and reching furth to the victourer his handes ioyned together to be bounde, hopynge by captiuitie to saue his lyfe.

The Moscouites in placeinge theyr armye chuse them a large playne where the best of them pytch theyr tentes & the other make thē certen arbours of bouwes fyxt in the grounde,* bendyng together the toppes therof, whiche they couer with theyr clokes to defende them selues, theyr bowes, arrowes, saddyles, and other theyr necessaries from rayne. They put furth theyr horses to pasture, and for that cause haue theyr tentes so farre in sunder, which they fortifye neyther with cartes or trenches or any other impedyment, excepte per∣happes the place bee defended by nature as with wooddes, ryuers and marysshes.

It may perhappes seeme straunge howe he maynteyneth hym and hys so longe with so smaule an armye as I haue sayde.* I wyll nowe therfore brefely declare theyre sparynge and frugalitie. He that hath syxe or sumtymes more horses, vseth one of them as A packe horse to beare all theyr necessa∣ryes, Page  [unnumbered] eyes. He hath also in a bagge of two or three spanes longe, the floure or meale of the grayne cauled mylle: and .viii. or x. poundes weyghte of swynes flesshe poudered. He hathe lykewyse A bagge of salte, myxte with pepper if he bee ryche. Furthermore euery man caryeth with hym A hatchet, A fyre boxe, and a brasen potte: so that if they chaunce to coomme to any place where they can fynde no frutes, garlyke, onyons or flesshe, they kyndle a fyre and fylle theyr pottes with wa¦ter wherunto they put a spoonefull of meale with a quantitie of salte, and make pottage therof, wherwith the master and all hys seruauntes lyue contented. But if the master bee very hungary he eateth all alone, and the seruantes are sumtymes inforsed to faste for the space of two or three dayes. And yf the master intende to fare sumwhat more delycately, then he addeth therto a lyttle portion of swynes flesshe. I speake not thys of the best of them, but of suche as are of the meane sorte. The gouernours and capytaynes of tharmye, doo sum¦tymes bydde the poorer sorte to theyre tables: where theye feede them selues so wel, that they fast two or three dayes af¦ter. When they haue frutes, garlyke, and onyons, theye can well forbeare all other meates. Procedynge forwarde to the battayle, they put more confydence in theyr multitude, and with what greate armyes they assayle theyr enemyes, thē eyther in the strengthe and valyantenesse of theyr souldyers, or in well instructynge theyr armye: and fyght better afarre of, then at hande: and therfore study howe to circumuent or inclose theyr enemyes and to assayle them on the backe halfe.

*They haue many trumpiters: The which whyle they blow all at once after theyr maner, make A meruelous straunge noyse. They haue also an other kynde of instrumentes which they caule Szurna. These they blowe withowte seasynge for the space of an houre togither, so temperyng the same and holdyng in the wynd whyle they drawe more, that the noyse seemeth continuall withoute intermyssion.*

They vse all one maner of appareyle: as longe coates withowte pleyghtes and with narrowe sleaues after the ma¦ner of the Hungaryans. These the Christians vse to butten on the ryght syde: and the Tartars (vsinge the lyke) butten them on the lefte syde. They weare redde and shorte buskyns that reache not to theyr knees: and haue the soules therof de∣fended Page  292 with plates of Iren. In maner all theyr shyrtes are wroughte with dyuers colours aboute the necke: and haue the collars and ruffes bysette with lyttle rounde baules lyke beades, of syluer or gylted copper, and sumtyme perles also. They gyrde them selues beneth the bellye euen as lowe as theyr priuy members, that they may seme more boorely which they greately esteme, as doo at thys day the Spanyardes, I¦talyans, and Almaynes.

The prouince of Moscouia is neyther very large nor frut¦full,* forasmuche as the fertylytye is hyndered with sandye grounde which eyther with to muche drynesse or moyster kyl∣leth the corne. Furthermore the immoderate and sharpe vn∣temperatenesse of the ayre while the coulde of the wynter o∣uercommethe the heate of the soonne,* sumtymes dothe not suffer the corne to rype. For the coulde is there sumtyme so ex¦treame, that lyke as with vs in sommer by reason of heate, euen so there by extreame coulde the yearth hath many great chynkes or breaches. Water also cast into the ayre, and spet¦tle faulyng from ons mouthe, are frosen before they touche the grounde. I my selfe, when I came thether in the yeare 1526. sawe the braunches of frutefull trees wythyred by the coulde of the wynter before, which was so extreame that ma¦ny of theyr wagoners or caries (whom they caule Gonecz) were founde frosen to deathe in theyr sleades. There were sum that at the same tyme leadyng and dryuyng theyr cat∣tayle from the nexte villagies to Moscouia, dyed by the way with theyr beastes through thextremytie of the coulde. Fur¦thermore, the same yeare many players that were accustomed to wander aboute the contrey with daunsyng beares, were founde dead in the high wayes. Wylde beares also inforced therto by famyn, lefte the wooddes and ranne here and there into dyuers villagies and houses: At whose commyng while the men of the countrey forsooke theyr houses and fledd into the fieldes, manye of them perysshed throughe the vehemen¦cie of the coulde. Agayne, it sumtymes so chaunceth that in sommer the heate is as extreame:* as in the yeare .1525. in the which almost al kynds of pulse and grayne were scorched and burnte: and such a derth of corne folowed that drought, that that which before was bowght for three dengas, was afterwarde soulde for .xx, or .xxx. Furthermore also, ma∣nye Page  [unnumbered] villagies, wooddes, and stackes of corne, were sette on fyre by thextreame heate: The smoke wherof so fylled the re∣gyon, that the eyes of many were sore hurte therby. There arose also as it were a darke and thycke myst without smoke which so molested the eys, that many loste theyr sight therby.

They sowe and narysshe the seades of melons with great diligence in certeyne raysed beddes myxte with doonge: wher¦by they fynde a remedy both ageynst extreame could and heat. For if the heate exceade, they make certeyne ryftes in the beddes as it were breathyng places least the seades shulde be suffocate with to muche heate. And if the coulde bee extreme it is tempered with the heate of the mucke or dunge.

*Theyr beastes are muche lesse then owres: yet not all withowt hornes as one hath written. For I haue there sene oxen, kyne, goates, and rammes all with hornes.

Not farre from the citie of Moscha, are certeyne monaste¦ries which a farre of, seeme lyke vnto a citie. They saye that in thys citie is an incredible number of houses:* And that the syxte yeare before my commynge thyther, the prince caused them to bee numbered, and founde them to bee more then one and fortye thousande and fyue hundreth houses. The citie is very large and wyde: and also very slabby and myrie. By rea¦son wherof it hath many brydges and causeys.

The ayre of the regyon is so holsome,* that beyond the sprynges of Tanais, especially towarde the north and a great parte also towarde the Easte, the pestylence hath not byne harde of sence the memorye of man. Yet haue they sumtimes a disease in theyr bowells and headdes not much vnlyke the pestylence. Thys disease they caule a heate: wherwith suche as are taken, dye within fewe dayes.

*Sum wryte that Iohn the duke of Moscouia and sonne of Basilius, vnder the pretence of religion sacked & spoyled, the citie of Nouogardia: and caried with hym from thense to Moscouia three hundreth sleades laden with golde, syluer, and precious stones of the gooddes of the Archebysshoppe, the marchauntes, citisins, and straungiers.

Solowki is an Ilande situate in the north sea .viii. leaques from the continent betwen:* Dwina and the province of Corela. Howe farre it is dystant from Moscouia, can not bee well knowne by reason of manye sennes, marysshes, Page  293 Wooddes, and desolate places lyinge in the way. Albeit, sū say that it is not three hundreth leaques from Moscouia, & two hundreth frome Bieloiesero.* In thys Ilande is made greate plenty of salte: and it hath in it a monasterie into the which it is not lawfull for any woman or virgyn to enter.

There is also great fysshyng for hearyng. They say that here the soonne at the sommer Equinoctiall,* shyneth continually excepte two houres.

Demetriowe, is a citie with a castel, distante from Moscouia xii. leaques declining from the west sumwhat toward the north. By this runneth the ryuer Lachroma that runneth in to the ryuer of Sest. Sest also receaueth the ryuer Dubna which vnladeth it selfe in Uolga. And by the commoditie of thus many ryuers, many riche marchaundies are browght without great laboure or difficultie from the caspian sea by the ryuer Uolga to Moscouia and dyuers other prouynces & cities abowte the same.*

Bieloiesero, a citie with a castell, is situat at a lake of the same name. For Bieloiesero in the Moscouites toung, signi¦fieth a white lake.* The citie standeth not in the lake as sum haue sayd. Yet is it so enuironed with marysshes that it may seeme to bee inexpugnable: In consideration wherof, the prin¦ces of Moscouia are accustomed to keepe theyr treasure there. Bieloiesero is from Moscouia, a hundreth leaques, and as muche from Nouogardia the great. The lake it selfe, is .xii. leaques in length and as much in breadth: and hath (as they say) three hundreth ryuers faulynge into it. Thinhabitaun∣tes of this place, haue a peculyar language, although nowe in maner all speake the Moscouites tounge. The longest day here in the soommer Equinoctial,* is sayde to consyste of .xix. houres. A man of greate name and credite toulde me, that at the begynnyng of the sprynge when the trees began nowe to bee greene, he wente in poste from Moscouia to Bieloiesero: And passynge ouer the ryuer Uolga, founde the region there so couered with Ise and snow, that he was fayne to dispatch the residue of his iorney on fleades. And although the wyn∣ter bee longer there, yet doo the frutes waxe rype and are ga∣thered euen at the same tyme that they are in Moscouia. With in an arrowe shotte of the lake,* there is an other lake that bryngeth furth brymstone. which a certē ryuer running owt of Page  [unnumbered] the same, caryeth with it in great quantitie flotyng aboue the water lyke a scoomme. Yet through the ignorance of the peo¦ple, they haue no commoditie therby.

The people that inhabite the regions lyinge farre northe and east from Moscouia, exchaunge theyr furres for apparel, knyues, needles, spoones, hatchets, and suche at her necessa¦rye wares.* For they haue not the vse of golde and syluer.

¶ The description of the regions, people, and ryuers, lyinge North and Easte from Moscouia: As the way from Mos∣couia to the ryuer Petzora, and the prouince of Iuga∣ria, or Iuhra: And frome thense to the ryuer Obi. Lykewyse the discription of other countreys and regions, euen vnto Thempire of the greate Cham of Cathay.

THe dominion of the Prince of Moscouia rea∣cheth farre towarde the Easte and north vnto the places which we wyll nowe descrybe. As concernynge whiche thynge,* I translated a booke that was presented vnto me in the Mos∣couites tounge, and haue heare made a bryefe rehearsall of the same. I wyll fyrst therfore describe the ior∣ney from Moscouia to Petzora, and so to Iugaria and Obi.

From Moscouia to the citie of Uuolochda,* are numbered fyftie Werstes,* one Werst conteynynge almoste the space of an Italyan myle. From Uuolochda to Ustiug towarde the right hande descendinge with the course of the ryuer of Uuolochda and Suchana with whom it ioyneth,* are coumpted fyue hun¦dreth Werstes: where within two Werstes of the towne cau∣led Strelze and hard by the citie of Ustiug Suchana ioyneth. Iug which runneth from the south: from whose mouth vn∣to the sprynges of the same, are numbered fyue hundrethe Werstles.

Note that wheras here before the autour numbereth but fyftie werstes from Moscouia to Uuolochda, it semeth that the place is cor¦rupted by the Printers mystakynge one worde for an other, as Quin¦quaginta, which is fyftie, for Quingenta, whiche is fyue hundreth. For the distance is no lesse from Moscouia to Uuolochda, then is frō Uuolochda to Ustiug, which is fyue hundreh werstes.

Page  294But Suchana and Iug after they ioyne togyther,** lose theyr fyrst names and make bothe one ryuer named Dwina,* by the whiche the passage to the citie of Colmogor conteyneth fyue hundreth Werstes:* from whense in the space of syxe dayes iorney, Dwina entereth into the north Ocean at .vi. mouthes, And the greateste parte of this iorney consysteth by nauigati∣on. For by lande, from Uuolochda vnto Colmogor, passing ouer the ryuer Uuaga, are a thousande Werstes. Not farre from Colmogor, the ryuer Pienega runnynge frome the Easte on the ryght hande for the space of seuen hundreth Werstes, fauleth into Dwina. From Dwina by the ryuer Pienega by the space of two hundredth Werstes,* they coome to a place cau¦led Nicolsi:* from whense within halfe a werst, shyppes haue passage into the ryuer Kuluio,* which hath his original from a lake of the same name towarde the north, from whose sprin¦ges is .viii. dayes vyage to the mouth of the same where it entereth into the Ocean.

Saylynge by the coastes of the ryght hande the sea,* they passe by the regions of Stanuwische, Calunczscho, and Apnu. And saylynge abowt the promontorie or cape of Chorogoski Nosz, Stanuwische, Camenckh, and Tolstickh, they come at the length into the ryuer Mezen, and frome thense in the space of syxe dayes to a vyllage of the same name, standyng in the mouth of the ryuer Pieza:* by the which ageine ascendyng towarde the lefte hande and soommer East, they come to the ryuer Piescoya.* From whense saylynge for the space of fyue Werstes, they coomme into two lakes in the whiche are seene two wayes: wherof one on the ryght syde, goeth to the ryuer Rubicho,* by the which they passe to the ryuer Czircho. Other by an other and shorter way, brynge theyr shyppes frome the lake directly into Czircho:* From whense, except they be hyn∣dered by tempest, they coomme in the space of three weekes to the ryuer and mouth of Czilma,* flowynge into the great ry¦uer Petzora,* which in that place is two Werstes in breadthe. Saylyng from hense, they coomme in the space of syxe dayes to the towne and castell of Pustoosero,* neare vnto the which, Petzora entereth into the north Ocean at syxe mouthes. The inhabitauntes of this place, are men of simple wytte. They receaued the fayth of Chryste, and were baptised in the yeare M.D.xviii.

Page  [unnumbered]From the mouth of Czilma vnto the mouthe of the ryuer Ussa,* goinge by Petzora, is one monethes vyage. Ussa hath his sprynges in the mountayne Poyas Semnoi, being on the lefte hande towarde the soommer East,* and springeth owte of a great stone of the same mountayne, cauled Camen Bols∣choi. From the sprynges of Ussa to the mouthes of the same, are numbered more then a thousande Werstes. Furthermore Petzora runneth from this south wynter parte, from whense ascendynge from the mouthes of Ussa vnto the mouthes of the ryuer Stzuchogora,* is three weekes vyage. They that described this vyage, sayde that they rested betwene the mou¦thes of the ryuers of Stzuchogora and Potzscheriema:* and lefte theyr vyttayles there whiche they browght with theym from Russia. Beyonde the ryuers of Petzora and Stzucho∣gora towarde the mountayne Camenipoias and the sea with the Ilandes there abowte and the castell of Pustoosero,* are dyuers and innumerable nations whiche by one common name are cauled Samoged (that is) such as eate them selues.* They haue great increase of foules, byrdes, & dyuers kyndes of beastes:* as Sables, Marternes, Beuers, Otters, Herme∣lines, Squyrels: and in the Ocean the beaste cauled Mors: Also Uess, whyte beares, woolfes, hares, Equiwoduani, great whales, and a fysshe cauled Semfi, with dyuers other. The people of these nations, come not to Moscouia. For they are wylde,* and flye the company & societie of other men.

From the mouthes of Stzuchogora saylynge vp the ryuer vnto Poiassa,* Artawische, Cameni, and Poiassa the greater, is three weekes vyage. Furthermore the ascendynge to th mounte Camen,* is three dayes iorney: from the whiche, des∣cendyng, they come to the ryuer Artawischa,* and from thense to the ryuer Sibut,* from whence they passe to the castell of Lepin,* and from Lepin to the ryuer Sossa. The people that inhabite the region by this ryuer, are cauled Uuogolici. Lea∣uynge Sossa on the ryght hande,,* they come to the greate ry∣uer Oby,* that spryngeth owt of the lake Kitaisko* the whi∣che with all the haste they coulde make, they coulde scarsely passe ouer in one day, the ryuer beinge of such breadth that it reacheth fourescore Werstes. The people also that dwell a∣bowt this ryuer, are cauled Uuogolii and Ugritzschi.* From Page  295 the castell of Ohea ascendynge by the ryuer of Oby, vnto the ryuer Irtische into the which Sossa entereth,* is three moo∣nethes iorney. In these places are two castels named Ierom and Lumen,** kepte by certeyne lordes cauled Knesi Iuhorski. beinge tributaries to the greate duke of Moscouia as they say. Here are dyuers kyndes of beastes and furres.

Frome the mouth of the ryuer Irtische to the Castell of Grustina,* is two monethes iorney: from whense to the lake Kitai by the ryuer Oby (which I sayde to haue his sprynges in this lake) is more then three monethes iorney.* From this lake come many blacke men, lackyng thuse of common spech.* They brynge with them dyuers wares, and especially pearles and precious stones, whiche they sell to the people cauled Grustintzi and Serponowtzi. These haue theyr name of the castell Serponow,* situate in the mountaynes of Lucomorya beyonde the ryuer Obi.* They say that to the men of Luco∣morya, chaunceth a marueylous thynge and incredible.* For they affirme, that they dye yearely at the .xxvii. daye of No∣uember, beinge the feast of saynt George amonge the Mosco∣uytes: and that at the nexte sprynge abowte the .xxiiii. daye of Apryll, they reuyue ageyne as doo frogges.

With these also, the people of Grustintzi and Serponowtzi,* exercise a newe and straunge kynde of trade. For when the accustomed tyme of theyr dyinge, or rather of sleapynge, apro¦cheth, they leaue theyr wares in certeyne places appoynted, which the Grustintzi and Serponowtzi carye away leauynge other wares of equall valewe in theyr places: whiche if the deade men at the tyme of theyr reuyuyne perceaue to bee of vn¦equall pryce, they requyre theyr owne ageyne: by reason wherof muche stryfe and fighting is betwene them.

From the ryuer of Obi descending toward the left hand,* are the people cauled Calami,* which came thether from Obi∣owa and Pogosa. Beneth Obi, abowte Aurea Anus (that is the golden owlde wyfe) are the ryuers Sossa, Beres, Uua,* and Danadim, al which sprynge owt of the montayne Camē, Bolschega, Poiassa, and the rockes ioynynge to the same.

All the nations that inhabite from these ryuers of Aurea A∣nus, are subiecte to the prynce of Moscouia,

Page  [unnumbered]Aurea Anus cauled in the Moscouites toonge Slata Baba,* is an Idole at the mouthes of Obi in the prouince of Obdo∣ra,* standynge on the furthest banke towarde the sea. Alonge by the bankes of Obrand the ryuers neare there about, are here and there many castells and fortresses, all the lordes wherof are subiecte to the prince of Moscouia, as they say.

They say also, or rather fable, that the Idole cauled Aurea Anus, is an Image lyke vnto an owlde wyfe hauyng a chyld in er lappe: and that there is nowe seene an other infante which they say to bee her neuie: Also that there are certeyne instrumentes that make a continuall sounde lyke the noyse of trumpettes. The which if it so bee, I thynke it to bee by rea¦son of the wynde blowynge continually into the holowe pla¦ces of those instrumentes.

The ryuer Cossin,* fauleth owt of the mountaynes into Lucomoria. In the mouth of thys, is a castell. Whyther frō the sprynges of the great ryuer Cossin, is two moonethes by age. Furthermore from the sprynges of the same ryuer, the ryuer Cassima hath hys original:* which runnynge throwgh Lucomoria, fauleth into the great ryuer Tachnin,* beyonde the which (as is sayde) dwell men of prodigious hape, of whom sum are ouergrowne wich heare lyke wylde beastes: other haue heades lyke dogges,* and other theyr faces in theyr brestes withowt neckes, and with longe handes also and withowte feete.* There is lykewyse in the ryuer Tachnin, a certeyne fysshe with headde, eys, nose, mouthe, handes, fiete,* & other members vtterly of humane shape, and yet with∣owt any voyce, & pleasante to bee eaten as are other fysshes.

All that I haue hetherto rehersed, I haue translated out of the sayde ioyney whiche was delyuered me in the Mos∣couites tounge. In the which perhappes sum thynges maye seeme fabulous and in maner incredible, as of the doomme men and the deade reuyuynge, the Aurea Anus also, and the monstrous shapes of men, with the fysshe of human forme: wherof althowgh I haue made dylygēt inquisicion, yet could I knowe nothynge certeyne of any that had seene the same with theyr eys, neuerthelesse to gyue further occasion to other to searche the truth of these thynges, I haue thowght good to make mention hereof.

Noss in the Moscouites tounge signifieth a nose: and ther∣fore Page  296 they caule all capes or poyntes of lande that reache into the sea, by the same name.

The mountaynes about the ryuer of Petzora,* are cauled Semnoi Poyas, or Lingulus mundi: (that is) the gyrdle of the worlde, or of the yearth.

Kithay, is a lake of whome the greate Chan of CATHAY whom the Moscouiās caule Czar Kythaiski,* hath hys name. For Chan in the Tartars language signifieth a kyng.

The places of Lucomorya nere vnto the sea,* are saluage, full of wooddes, and inhabited withowt any houses. And albeit that the autour of thys iorney, sayd that many nations of Lucomorya are subiecte to the prynce of Moscouia, yet for asmuch as the kyngdome of Tumen is neare therunto,* whose prince is a Tartar and named in theyr toung Tumenski Czar (that is) a kynge in Tumen, and hath of late doone great do¦mage to the prynce of Moscouia, it is moste lyke that these nations shulde rather bee subiecte vnto hym.

Neare vnto the ryuer Petzora,* (wherof mentiō is made in thys iorney) is the citie and castell of Papin or Papinow∣gorod,* whose inhabytauntes are named Papini, and haue a priuate language differyng from the Moscouites. Beyond thys ryuer, are exceadynge hygh mountaynes,* reachyng euen vnto the bankes: whose ridgies or toppes by reason of con∣tinuall wyndes, are in maner vtterly barrayne withowt grass or frutes. And although in dyuers places they haue dyuers names, yet are they commonly cauled Cingulus Mundi, (that is) the worlde. In these mountaynes doo ierfalcons breede, wherof I haue spoken before. There grow also Cedr trees, amonge the which are founde the best and blackest kynde of sables. And only these mountaynes are seene in all the domy¦nyons of the prynce of Moscouia, which perhappes are the same that the owld writers caule Rhipheos or Hyperboreos, so named of the Greeke worde Hiper, (that is) vnder: and Bo∣reas (that is) the north. For by reason they are couered with continuall snow and froste, they can not withowt great diffi∣cultie bee trauayled and reache so farre into the north, that they make the vnknowne land of Engroneland.* The duke of Moscouia Basilius the soonne of Iohn, sent on a tyme two of hys capitaynes named Simeon Pheodorowitz Kurb∣ski, and Knes Peter Uschatoi, to search the places beyonde Page  [unnumbered] these mountaynes and to subdewe the nations therabowte. Kurbiki was yet alyue at my being in Moscouia: and declared vnto me that he spent xvii. days in ascendyng the mountayn, and yet coulde not coome to the oppe therof, which in they tounge is cauled Stolp (that is) a pyller.* Thys mountayne is extended into the Ocean vnto the mouthes of the ryuers of Dwina and Pezora. But nowe hauyng spoken thus muche of the sayde iorney, I wyll returne to the domynyons of Mos¦couia with other regyons lyinge eastwarde and southe frome the same towarde the myghtye Empyre of CATHAY.* But I wyll fyrst speake sumwhat brefely of the prouynce of Rezan and the famous ryuer of Tanais.

The prouynce of Rezan situate betwene the ryuers of Oc¦ca and Tanais,* hath a citie buylded of woodd not farre from the banke of Occa. There was in it a castell named Iaros∣law,* wherof there nowe remayneth nothynge but tokens of the olwd ruine. Not farre from that citie, the ryuer Occa maketh an Ilande named Strub which was sumtym a great dukedome, whose prince was subiect to none other. Thys prouince of Rezan is more frutfull then any other of the pro∣uynces of Moscouia: In so muche that in thys (as they saye) euery grayne of wheate bryngethe furthe two and sumtymes more eares: whose stalkes or strawes growe so thycke that horses can scarsely go throwgh them, or quayles flye owt of them. There is greate plenty of honnye,* fysshes, foules, byrdes, and wylde beastes. The frutes also do farre exceade the frutes of Moscouia. The people are bould & warlyk men.

¶Of the famous ryuer of Tanais.

FRome Moscouia vnto the castell of Iaros∣law, and beyonde for the space of almoste xxiiii. leaques, rūneth the ryuer of Tanais, at a place cauled Donco,* where the mar∣chauntes that trade to Asoph,* Capha,* and Constantynople,* fraight theyr shyppes: and thys for the moste parte in autumne beynge a rayney tyme of the yeare. For Tanais here at other tymes of the yeare doth not so abounde with water as to heare Page  297 shyppes of any burden: Thys famous ryuer of Tanais, dy∣uydeth Europe from Asia:* and hath hys orygynal or springes almost .viii. leaques from the citie of Tulla toward the south inclynyng sumwhat towarde the Easte:* and not owte of the Riphean mountaynes as some haue wrytten: But owte of a great lake named Iwanowosero (that is) the lake of Iohn:* being in length and breadth abowt .1500. Werstes in a wood whiche sum caule Okonitzkilies, and other name it Iepipha∣nowlies. And owt of this lake, sprynge the twoo greate ry∣uers of Schat and Tanais.* Schat towarde the Weste recea∣uynge into it the ryuer of Uppa, runneth into the ryuer of Oc¦ca betwene the West and the north. But Tanais at the fyrste runneth directly East: and continueth his course betwene the kyngdomes of Casan and Astrachan within syxe or seuen leaques of Uolga:** And frome thense bendynge towarde the south, maketh the fennes or marysshes of Meotis.* Further∣more, nexte vnto his sprynges, is the citie of Tulla:* and vp∣pon the banke of the ryuer almoste three leaques aboue the mouthes of the same, is the citie of Asoph, which was fyrste cauled Tanas. Foure dayes iorney aboue this, is a towne cauled Achas,* situate harde by the same ryuer:* whiche the Moscouites caule Don. I can not sufficiently prayse this ry¦uer for the exceadynge abundaunce of good fysshes, and faire¦nesse of the regions on bothe sydes and bankes, with plentie of holsoome herbes and sweete rootes, besyde dyuers and ma∣ny frutefull trees growynge in uche coomly order as though they had byn set of purpose in gardens or archardes. There is also in maner euery where suche plentie of wylde beastes,* that they may easely be slaine with arrowes▪ In so much that suche as trauayle by those regions, shal stand in neede of none other thynge to mayntayne theyr lyfe but only fyre and salte.* In these partes, is no obseruation of myles, but of dayes ior¦neys. But as farre as I coulde coniecture, from the foun∣taynes or sprynges of Tanais vnto the mouthes of the same iorneyinge by lande, are almost fourescore leaques. And say∣lynge from Donco (frome whense I sayde that Tanais was fyrste nauigable) in scarsely .xx. dayes vyage,* they come to the citie of Asoph tributarie to the Turkes:* which is (as they say) fyue dayes iorney frome the streight of Taurica, other∣wyse cauled Precop. In this ctie is a famous mart towne, Page  [unnumbered] vnto the which resort many marchauntes of dyuers nations, and from dyuers partes of the worlde.* For, that all nations may the gladlyer haue recourse thyther, free lybertie of bying and sellynge is graunted vnto all:* and that withowt the citie euery man may freely vse his owne and accustomed maner of lyuynge withowt punysshement.

Of the altares of great Alexander and Iulius Cesar whi∣che many wryters make mention of in this place,* or of theyr ruines, I coulde haue no certeyne knowleage of thinhabi∣tauntes or any other that had oftentymes trauayled these pla¦ces. Furthermore the souldyers whiche the prince of Mos∣couia maynteyneth there yearely to oppresse thincursion of the Tartars, beinge of me demaunded hereof, answered that they neuer sawe or harde of any such thynge. Neuerthelesse, they sayde that abowt the mouthes of Tanais the lesse, foure dayes iorney from Asoph nere vnto a place cauled Sewerski, by the holy mountaynes,* they sawe certeyne images of stone and marble. Tanais the lesse,* hath his sprynges in the duke∣dome of Sewerski: whereof it is cauled Donetz Sewerski: and fauleth into Tanais three dayes iorney aboue Asoph. But suche as iorney from Moscouia to Asoph by lande,* they, passynge ouer Tanais abowt the owlde and ruinate towne of Donco, doo sumwhat turne from the south to the Easte: In the which place, if a ryght line bee drawen from the mouthes of Tanais to the spirnges of the same, Moscouia shalbe found to bee in Asia and not in Europe.*

¶ More directly from Moscouia. to Cathay.

THe great and large prouince of Permia,* is dy∣stante from Moscouia two hundreth and fyftie or (as sum say) three hundreth leaques directly betwene the East and North: And hath a citie of the same name by the ryuer Uischora which runneth .x. leaques beneth Kamam. The ior∣ney by lande can scarcely bee trauayled thyther but in wynter by reason of many ryuers, marysshes,* and fennes. But in som∣mer, this iorney is dispatched with more facilitie in boates or smaule shippes by Uuolochda, Ustiug, and the ryuer Uit∣zechda Page  298 which runneth into Dwina .xii. leaques from Ustiug.** But they that go from Permia to Ustiug, muste sayle vp the ryuer Uischora ageinst the course of the streame: and passing ouer certeyne ryuers, sumtymes also conueyinge theyr boates into other ryuers by lande, they come at the length to Ustiug three hundreth leaques distant frome the citie of Permia. There is smaule vse of breade in this prouince. For theyr yearely tribute,* they pay to the prynce furres & horses.* They haue a priuate language, and letters of theyr owne, whiche one Steuen a bysshop (who confirmed them yet waueryng in the fayth) dyd inuente. For before beinge yet infantes in the fayth of Chryste, they slewe and fleyde an other bysshop that was appoynted to instructe them. This Steuen afterwarde when Demetrius the sonne of Iohn reigned, was taken for a saynte amonge the Ruthens. Of these people there yet re∣mayne many Idolatours here and there in the woods, whom the moonkes and heremites that go thyther,* doo not cease to conuert from theyr vayne errour. In the wynter they iorney in Artach as they doo in many places of Russia. Artach, are certeyne longe patentes of woodde of almost syxe handfuls in length,* whiche they make faste to theyr fiete with latchettes, & therwith performe theyr iorneys with great celeritie.* They vse for this purpose greate dogges in the steade of other bea∣stes, with the which they cary theyr farthels on sleades, as other doo with hartes in other places, as we wyll further de¦clare hereafter. They say that that prouince toward the East confineth with the prouince cauled Tumen, perteynynge to the Tartars.

The situation of the prouince of Iugaria,* is apparente by that which we haue sayde before. The Moscouites caule it Iuhra with an aspiration: and caule the people Iuhrici. This is that Iugaria from whense the Hungarians came in tyme paste,* possessed Pannonia,* and vnder the conduct of At∣tila,* subdued many prouinces of Europe: wherin the Mosco¦uites doo greatly glory, that a nation subiecte to them, inua∣ded and wasted a great parte of Europe. Georgius Paruns a greeke borne, and a man of reputation with the Prince of Moscouia, wyllynge to ascribe to the ryght of his prince the great dukedome of Lithuania, and the kyngedome of Polo∣nie with certeyne other dominions, toulde me that the Iuha∣rici Page  [unnumbered] or Iuhgary, beinge subiectes to the great duke of Mosco¦uia, came furth of theyr owne countrey, and fyrste inhabited the regions abowt the fennes of Meoris, and then Pannonie which was afterwarde cauled Hungarie,* by the ryuer of Da¦nubius: Also that in fine they possessed the region of Mora∣uia so named of the ryuer: and lykewyse Pollonie,* so cauled of Polle, which signifieth a playne. Furthermore that Bu∣da was so cauled after the name of the brother of Attila.* They say also that the Iuhgari vse the same tounge that doo the Hungarians. The which whether it be trew or not, I do not knowe. For althowgh I haue made diligent inquisition to knowe the truth hereof, yet coulde I fynde no man of that region with whom my seruaunt beinge expert in the Hunga∣rian tounge myght speake. They also pay furres for theyr tributes to the prince of Moscouia.* And albeit that pearles and precious stones are brought frome thense to Moscouia,* yet are they not gathered in theyr Ocean, but in other places: especially about the coast of the Ocean nere vnto the mouthes of Dwina.

The prouince of Sibier,* confineth with Permia and Uui¦athka: The whiche, whether it haue any castels or cities, I doo not yet certeynly knowe. In this the ryuer Iaick hathe his originall, and fauleth into the Caspian sea. They saye that this region is desere bycause it lyeth so neare the Tar∣tars:* Or that yf it bee in any parte inhabited, the same to be possessed of the Tartar Schichmamai. Thinhabitantes haue a peculiar language: and haue theyr chiefe gaynes by the furres of marterns, whiche in fayrenes and greatnes, excell all the furres of that kynde that are founde in any other pro∣uinces. Yet coulde I haue no great plentie of them in Mos∣couia at my beinge there. Note that longe after the wri∣tyng of this hystorie, at Rycharde Chaunceler his fyrst being in Mos¦couia, Duke Iohn Uasilivich that nowe raygneth, subdued all the Tartars with theyr regions and prouinces euen vnto the great citie and mart towne of Astrachan & the Caspian ea. At the same tyme also, there was in the dukes court an ambassadour that came frome this prouince of Sibier: who declared that his father had byn sent ambassadour to the great Chan of Cathay. And that the great citie of Cambalu where the great Chan kepeth his courte in winter, was in maner destroyed by Necromancie and magicall artes wherin the Cathaynes are very expert as wryteth Marcus Paulus Uenctus. Ther was also at the same tyme thambassadour of the kynge of Per¦sia cauled the great Sophic. This ambassadour was appareled all inscarlet, and spake much to the duke in the behalfe of owre men, of whose kyngdome and trade he was not ignorant.

Page  299The people cauled Czeremisse,* dwell in the wooddes be∣neth Nouogardia the lower. They haue a peculiar language and are of the secte of Machumet. They were sumtyme sub∣iecte to the kynge of Casan: but the greater part of them are nowe subiecte to the prince of Moscouia. Many of them at my beinge there, were brought to Moscouia, as suspected of rebellion. This nation doth inhabite a large region withowt houses from Uuiathka and Uuolochda,* to the ryuer of Kama All the nation aswell women as men, are very swyft of foote, and expert archers: wherin they so delite, that theyr bowes are in maner neuer owt of theyr handes: and gyue theyr chil¦dren no meate vntyl they hyt the marke they shoote at.

Two leaques distante from Nouogardia the lower, were many houses to the similitude of a citie or towne, where they were accustomed to make salte.* These a fewe yeares sense be¦inge burnt of the Tartars, were restored by the commaunde∣ment of the prince.

Mordwa, are people inhabytynge by the ryuer of Uolga on the south banke beneth Nouogardia the lower: And are in al thynges like vnto the Czeremisses but that they haue more houses. And here endeth Thempire of the Moscouites.

Note here that Matthias of Michou, in his booke of Sarmatia Asiatica, writeth that the dominion of the duke of Moscouia recheth from the northwest to the southeast fyue hundreth myles of Germa∣nie, which are more then leaques. For they affirme that a Germane myle is more then three Englysshe myles.

¶Of the Tartars.

WEe wyll nowe adde hereunto sumwhat of the people confinynge with he Moscouites towarde the East: of the which the Tartars of Casan are the first.* But before wee speake of them particularly, wee wyl fyrst reherse sumwhat of theyr maners and customes in generall.

The Tartars are diuided into companies which they caul Hordas, of the which the Horda of the Sawolhenses is the chiefe in fame and multitude.* For it is sayde that the other Hordas had theyr ofsprynge and original of this. And albe∣it that euery Horda hath his peculiar name, as the Sawol∣henses, Precropenses, and Nahays with dyuers other being all Machumetans, yet doo they take it euyll and count it re∣proch to bee cauled Turkes: but wyll them selues to bee cau∣led Besermani,* by the which name also the Turkes desyre to bee cauled. Page  [unnumbered] And as the Tartars inhabyte many prouynces reachynge far on euery syde, euen so in maners and order of lyuynge doo they not agree in all thynges. They are men of meane sta∣ture,* with broade and fat faces, holowe eyde, with roughe and thyck beardes, and poulde heades. Onely the noble men haue longe heare, and that exceadyng black, which they wreath on both sydes theyr eares. They are stronge of bo∣dy and stoute of mynde: prone to leacherye, and that vnnatu¦rall. They eate the fleasshe of horses, camells, and other bastes excepte hogges,** from which they absteyne by a lawe. They can so abyde fasting & hunger, that they sūtime forbeare meate and sleepe for the space of foure days, occupyed neuer∣thelese aboute theyr necessary affayres. Ageyne when they gette any thyng to deuoure,* they ingorge them selues beyond measure: and with that surfecte in maner recompense theyr former abstynence. And beynge thus oppressed with laboure and meate, they sleepe contynually for the space of three or foure days withowt doyng any maner of worke or labour: durynge which tyme the Lyuons and Moscouites into whose domynyons they are accustomed to make theyr incursions, as∣sayle them vnwares thus oppressed with meate and sleepe, lyinge scatered here and there owt of order withowte watch or warde. Also if when they ryde, they bee molested with hunger and thyrste,* they vse to lette theyr horses blud, and with drynkyng the same, satysfye theyr present necessytie, and affyrme theyr horses to bee the better therby. And bicause they all wander in vnknowen places, they vse to dyrect theyr iorneys by thaspecte of the starres,* and especyally of the pole starre, which in theyr tounge they caule Selesnikoll, (that is) an iren nayle. They greatly delyte in mares mylke,* and beleue that it maketh men strong and fatte. They eate herbes very much: and especyally such as growe abowt Tanais. Fewe of them vse salte.* When theyr kynges dystrybute any vytayles among them, they are accustomed to gyue one horse or cowe to fortye men. Of the slayne beaste, the bowells and trypes are reserued for the chiefe men and capytaynes.* These they heate at the fyre vntyll they may shake owt the doonge, and then deuoure them gredely. They sucke and lycke, not only theyr fyngers imbrued with fatte, but also theyr knyues and styckes wherwith they scrape the doong from the guttes. Page  300 The heades of horses are counted delycate disshes with them as are bores heades with vs:* and are reserued only for the chyefe men.* Theyr horses (wherof they haue great aboun∣daunce) are but smaule, and with short neckes: but very strong and such as can wel away with labour & hunger. These they fede with the branches & barkes or ryndes of trees & the rotes of hearbes and weedes, wherby they accustome them to hard feedynge, and exercyse them to contynuall laboure: by reason wherof (as say the Moscouytes) theyr horses are swyfter and more durable then any other. These kynde of horses, they caule Pachmat. They haue none other saddells and ste∣roppes then of woodd,* except suche as they eyther bye of the Chrystians, or take from them by vyolence. Least theyr horse backes shulde bee hurte with theyr saddells, they vnderlaye them with grasse and leaues of trees. They also passe ouer ry¦uers on horsbacke. But if when they flye, they feare the pur∣suynge of theyr enemyes, then castynge away theyr saddells, apparelle, and all other impedymentes, reseruyng only theyr armoure and weapons they flye amayne and with greate ceelrytye. Theyr women vse the same kynde of apparell that doo the men withowt any dyfference except that they couer theyr heades with lynnen vayles,* and vse lynnen hose muche lyke vnto maryners sloppes. When theyr queenes coome abrod, they are accustomed to couer theyr faces. The other multytude of the common sorte that lyueth here and ther in the feeldes, haue theyr apparell made of sheepes skynnes, which they chaung not vntyll they bee worne and torne to fytters. They tarye not longe in one place, iudgyng it a great mysery so to doo:* In so muche that when they are angrie with theyr chyldren, the greatest curse that they can gyue them, is that they maye remayne perpetu∣ally in one place, and drawe the stynshe of theyr owne fyl∣thynesse as doo the Chrystyans. When they haue consumed the pasture in one place, they go to an other with theyr droues of cattayle and theyr wyues and chyldren whom they euer cary about with them in Wagons: albeit the Tartars that dwell in cities and townes, vse an other order of lyuynge. If they be inclosed with any daungerous warr, they place theyr wyues, chyldren, and owld folkes, in the sauest places. There is no iustice amonge them.* For if any man stande in Page  [unnumbered] neade of any thynge, he may withowt punnysshemente take it awaye from an other. If any complayne to the Iudge of the vyolence and wronge doonne vnto hym, the offender de∣nyeth not the cryme, but sayth that he coulde not lacke that thyng. Then the Iudge is wonte to gyue thys sentence: If thowe also shalte haue neede of any thynge doo the lyke to other. Sum say they do not steale: But whether they steale or not, lette other iudge. They are surely a thee••sshe kynd of men and very poore,* lyuynge only by robbyng of other, and stealyng away other mens cattayle, and vyolently also cary∣ynge awaye the men them selues whom eyther they selle to the Turkes or proffer them to bee redemed by ransome, reser¦uynge only the younge wenches. They seldome assaulte cities or castells,* but burne and waste townes and vyllagyes: In so muche that they so please them selues herin, that they thynke they haue so muche the more inlarged their empire, in howe muche they haue wasted and made desolate manye pro∣uynces. And althowgh they bee moste impacyent of reste and quyetnesse, yet doo they not kyll or destroye one an other, ex∣cepte theyr kynges ee at dessention betweene them selues. If any man bee slaine in any fraye or quarel, and the autours of the myschefe bee taken, only theyr horsse, harnesse, wea∣pons, and apprell, are taken from them, and they dismissed. So that the murtherer by the losse of a vyle horse or a bowe, is dyscharged of the Iudge with these woordes: gette the hense and goo abowte thy busynesse. They haue no vse of golde and syluer, excepte only a fewe marchauntes: But ex∣ersyse exchaunge of ware for ware. And if it so chaunce that by sellyng of such thynges as they haue stolne, they gette any monye of theyr bortherers, they bye therwith certeyne appa∣rel and other necesaryes of the Moscouites. The regyons of theyr habytations (the feelde Tartars I meane) are not ly∣mytted with any boūdes or borthers.** There was on a tyme a certeyne fatte Tartar taken prysoner of the Moscouites: to whom when the prynce sayd, How arte thow so fatte thowe dogge, sythe thowe haste not to eate, the Tartar answered, Why shulde not I haue to eate sythe I possesse so large a land from the East to the west, wherby I may bee abundaun∣tely nuryshed? But thowe mayste rather seeme to lacke, syth thowe inhabytest so smaule a portion of the worlde, and duste Page  301 dayly stryue for the same.

Casan,* is a kyngedome, also a citie, and a castell of the same name, situate by the ryuer Uolga on the further bnke, almost threscore and tene leaques beneath Nouogaria the lower. Alonge by the coure of Uolga towarde the East an South, it is termined with deserte fyeldes. Towarde the som¦mer East, it confineth with the artars cauled Schiba•••i, and Kosatzki. The kynge of this prouince,* is able to make an army of .xxx. thousande men, especially foote men, of the which the Czeremise & Czubashi are most expert achers.* The Czubaschi are also cunnynge maryners,* The citie of Casan, is threscore leaques distant frō the principl castel Uuiathka. Furthermore, Casan in the Tartars language,* signifieth a braen potte boylynge. These Tartars are more ciuile then the other. For they dwell in houses, tyll the grownde, and exercise the trade of marchaundies. They were of late subdu¦ed by Basilius the greate duke of Moscouia, and had theyr kynge assigned them at his arbitriment. But shortely after,* they rebelled ageine: and associate with other Tartars, in¦uaded the region of Moscouia, spoyled and wasted many ci∣ties and townes, and ledde away innumerable captiues, euen from the citie Moscouia which they possessed for a tyme, and had vtterly destroyed the same if it had not byn for the valy∣antnesse of the Almayne gunners which kept the castell with great orinaunce.* They also putte duke Basilius to flyght, and caused him to make a letter of his owne hande to Mach∣metgirei theyr kynge to acknowleage hym selfe for a perpetu∣all tributarie to them, wheruppon they disolued the siege, and gaue the Moscoutes free liberie to redeeme theyr cap∣tiues and gooddes, and so departed. But Basilius not longe able to abyde this contumelie and dishonour,* after that he had putte to death suche as flyinge at the fyst encounterynge were the cause of this ouerthrowe, assembled an armye of a hundreth and fourescore thousande men shortely after in the yeare .1523. And sent forwarde his army vnder the conducte of his Lieuetenaunte: and therewith an heralde at armes to bydde battayle to Machmetgirei the kynge of Casan, with woordes in this e••ecte: The last yeare lyke a theefe and rob∣ber withowt byddyng of battayle, thou dyddeste pryuilie op∣presse me. Wherefore I nowe chalenge the, once ageyne to Page  [unnumbered] proue the fortune of warre if thou mystruste not thyne owne poure. To this the kynge answered, that there were manye wayes open for hym to inuade Moscouia: And that the war∣res haue no lesse respect to the commoditie of tyme and place thē of armure or strēgth: And that he wold take thaduantage therof when & where it shulde seeme best to him and not to o∣ther. With which woordes Basilius binge greatly accensed and burnyng with desyre of reuenge, inuaded the kyngdome of Casan: whose kynge beinge stryken with suddeyne feare at thapproche of so terrible an army, assigned the gouernance of his kyngdome to the younge kynge of Taurica his neuie, whyle he hym selfe went to requyre ayde of the Emperour of the Turkes. But in fine the kynge of Casan submytted hym selfe vppon certeyne conditions of peace whiche the Mosco∣uites dyd the gladlyer excepte for that time because theyr vit¦tayles fayled them to maynteyne so great a multitude.* But wheras duke Basilius hym selfe was not present at this last expedition, he greatly suspected Palitzki the Lieuetenaunte of tharmy to bee corrupted with brybes to proceade no fur∣ther. In this meane tyme, the kynge of Casan sent ambassa¦dours to Basilius to intreate of peace: whome I sawe in the dukes courte at my beynge there: but I coulde perceaue no hope of peace to bee betwene them. For euen then, Basilius to endomage the Casans, translated the marte to Nouogar∣dia, which before was accustomed to bee kepte in the Ilande of marchauntes nere vnto the citie of Casan:* Commaundyng also vnder peyne of greuous punysshemente that none of his subiectes shulde resorte to the Ilande of marchauntes: thyn∣kyng that this translation of the marte shulde greately haue endomaged the Casans: and that only by takyng away their trade of salte (which they were accustomed to bye of the Mos¦couites at that marte) they shulde haue byn compelled to sub∣myssion. But the Moscouites them selues felte no lesse incon∣uenience hereby then dyd the Casans, by reason of the dearth and earesenesse that folowed hereof of al such thynges as the Tartars were accustomed to brynge thyther by the ryuer of Uolga from the Caspian sea,* the kyngedomes of Persia and Armenia,** and the marte towne of Astrachan:* especially the great number of most excellent fysshes that are taken in Uol∣ga both on the hyther and further syde of Casan.

Page  302But hauynge sayde thus much of the warres betwene the prince of Moscouia and the Tartars of Casan, we wyll now procede to speake sumwhat of the other Tartars inhabytyng the regions towarde the southeast and the Caspian sea.

Next beyonde the Tartars of Casan,* are the Tartars cau∣led Nagai or Nogai,* which inhabte the regions beyond Uol¦ga abowt the Caspian sea at the ryuer Iaick, runnyng owt of the prouince of Sibier. These haue no kynges but dukes In owre tyme, three bretherne diuydynge the prouinces equally betwene them, possessed those dukedomes.* The fyrst of them named Schidack, possesseth the citie of Scharaitzick, beyond the ryuer of Rha or Uolga towarde the Easte, with the regi∣on confinynge with the ryuer Iaick. The seconde cauled Cos¦sum, enioyeth all the lande that lyethe betwene the ryuers of Kaman Iaick and Uolga. The thryde brother named Schich¦mamai, possesseth parte of the prouince of Sibier and all the region abowt the same. Schichmamai, is as much to say by interpretacion, as holy or myghty. And in maner al these re¦gions are full of wooddes, excepte that that lyeth towarde Scharaitz, which consysteth of playnes and fyeldes.

Betwene the ryuers of Uolga and Iaick, abowt the Cas∣pian sea, there sumtymes inhabyted the kynges cauled Sa∣wolhenses.* Demetrius Danielis (a man among these barba∣rians, of singular fayth and grauitie) toulde vs of a marue∣lous and in maner incredible thyng that is sene amonge And that his father beinge sente by the prynce of Moscouia to the kynge of Sawolhense, sawe whyle he was in that legacie, a certeyne seede in that Ilande sumwhat lesse and rounder then the seedes of Melones: Of the whiche be∣inge hydde in the grounde, there groweth a frute or plante very lyke a lambe,* of the heyght of fyue spannes: And is therfore cauled in theyr tounge Boranetz, whiche signifyeth a lyttle lambe. For it hath the headde, eyes, eares, an all other partes like vnto a lambe newly cyned: with also a very thynne skynne wherwith dyuers of thinhabitauntes of those regions are accustomed to line theyr cappes and hattes and o∣ther tyrementes for theyr heades. Many also confirmed in owre presence that they had seene these skynnes. He sayde furthermore that that plant (if it may bee cauled a plant hath bludde, and no flesshe: but hath in the steade of flesshe a cer∣teyne Page  [unnumbered] substance like vnto the flesshe of creuysshes. The hoofes also are not of horne a are the lambes, but couered with heare in the same forme. The roote cleaueth to the nauell or myddest of the belly. The plante or fruite lyueth vntyll all the grasse and herbes growyne abowte it beinge eaten, the roote wythereth for lacke of nurysshement. They say that it is very sweete to bee eaten, and is therefore greately desyred and sought for of the woolues and other rauenynge beastes. And albeit I extreme all that is sayde of this plant to be fabu∣lous, yet forasmuch as it hath byn toulde me of credible per∣sons, I haue thought good to make mention hereof.

Of this straunge frute, Mandeuell maketh mntion,* where in the .ixxxiiii. chapiture of his booke he wryteth thus: Nowe shall I say of sum landes, countreys, and Iles that are beyonde the lande of Cathay. Therfore who so goeth from Cathay to India the hygh and the lowe▪ he shall go through a kyngedome that men caule Ca∣dissen, and is a great lande. There groweth a maner of frute as it were gourdes. And when it is rype, men cut it a sunder: and fynd therin a beast as it were of fleshe, bone, and bludde, as it were a lyttle lambe withowt woolle.*And men eate that beast and the frute also, which is a great maruayle Neuerthelesse, I sayde vnto them that I helde that for no maruayle. For I sayde that in my counrey are tres that beare frute that become byrdes flying which are good to bee eaten. And that that fauleth into the water, lyueth: And that that fauleth on the earth dyeth. And they had greate maruayle of this▪ &c.

From the prince of Schidack, proceadyng .xx. dayes iorney towarde the East, are the people which the Moscouites caule Iurgenci, whose prince is Barack Soltan,* brother to the greate Chan of Cathay.* In tenne days iorney from Barack Soltan, they coomme to Bebed Chan. And this is that great Chan of Cathay.

Names of dignities amonge the Tartars,* are these, Chan, signifieth a kynge. Soltan, the soonne of a kynge. Bii, a Duke. Mursa, the soonne of a duke. Olboud, a noble man or counsiler. Olboadulu, the soonne of a noble man. Seid, the hygh preste. Ksi, a priuate person.

The names of offices are these:* Ulan, the seconde digni∣tie to the kynge. For the kynges of the Tartars haue foure principall men whose counsayle they vse in al theyr weyghty affayres. Of these the fyrste is cauled Schirni: the seconde Barni. the thyrde, Gargni: The fourth, Tziptzan. And to haue sayde thus much of the Tartars, it shall suffice. Page  303 Marcus Pauus wryteth that the greate Chan, is cauled han Cu¦bli that is, the great kynge of kynges:* as the greate turcke wry∣teth hym selfe in lyke maner, as I awe in a letter wrytten by hym of late to the citie of Raguls, in the which he veth this ubcrpti∣on: Soltan Soliman deselun Chain Signore de Signo in empiter¦no. As concernynge Mocouia and Cathay, I was mynded to haue added hereunto dyuers other thynges, but that for certeyne considerations I was persuaded to proceade no further. Unto whoe requeste, herein satisfyinge rather other then my selfe, wyllynge o∣therwyse to haue accomplysshed this booke to further perfection, I was content to agree for two causes especaially mouynge me: wher∣of the one is, that as touchynge these trades and vyages▪ as in ma∣ner in all other sciences, there are certeyne secreates not to bee pub¦lysshed and made common to all men. The other cause is, that the parteners at whose charge this booke is prynted, although the cp¦py wherof they haue wrought a longe space haue cest them nought doo not neuerthelesse cease dayly to caule vppon me to make an end and proceade no further: affirmynge that the booke wyll bee of to great a pryce & not euery mans money: fearyng rather theyr owne losse and hynderaunce, then carefull to bee beneficiall to other, as is nowe in maner the trade of all men. which ordinarie respecte of priuate commoditie hath at this tyme so lyttle mued me, I take god to wytnesse, that for my paynes and trauayles taken herein such as they bee, I may vppon iust occasion thynke my selfe a looser manye wayes, except such men of good inclination as shall take pleasure and feele sum commonditie in the knowleage of these thynges, shall thynke me woorthy theyr good woore, wherwith I shall repute my selfe and my trauayles so abundantly satysfyed, that I hall repute other mens gaynes a recompense for my losses, as they may bee in deede, yf men bee not vnthankefull, which only vice of ingratitude hath hyndered the worlde of many benefites.

☞ The nauigation by the frosen sea.

AT my beinge in Moscouia when I was sent thyther by kynge Ferdinando my lorde and master, it so chaunced that Georgius Isto∣ma the duke of Moscouia his interpretour, a man of great experience who hadde before lerned the latin tounge in the court of Iohn kynge of Denmarke, was there present at the same tyme. He in the yeare of Christ .1496. beinge sente of his prince with master Dauid a scotte borne and them am∣bassadour for the kynge of Denmarke, (where also I knows there at my fyrst legacie) made me a breefe information of all Page  [unnumbered] thorder of his iorney. The which, forasmuch as it may seeme difficult and laborious aswel for the distaunce as daungerous places, I haue thought good to describe the same as I recea¦ued it at his mouth.

Fyrst he sayde that beinge sent of his prince with the sayd Dauid, they came fyrst to Nouogardia the great.* And wher¦as at the tyme the kyngedome of Suecia reuolted frome the kynge of Denmarke, and also the duke of Moscouia was at discention with the Suctians,* by reason wherof they coulde not passe by the most accustomed way for the tumultes of war they attempted theyr iorney by an other way longer by safer And came fyrst from Nouogardia to the mouthes of the ryuer of Dwina and Potiwlo,** by a very dyfficult and paynefull ior¦ney. For he sayd that this iorney which can not bee to muche deested for suche laboures and trauayles, continueth for the space of three hundreth leaques. In fine, takyng foure smaul shyppes or barkes at the mouthes of Dwina, they sayled by the coaste on the ryght hande of the Ocean, where they sawe certeyne hyghe and rowgh mountaynes:* and at the lengthe saylynge .xvi. leaques, and passynge a great goulfe, folowed the coaste on the lefte hande: And leauyng on the ryght hand the large sea which hath the name of the ryuer Petzora (as haue also the mountaynes adiacent to the same) they came to the people of Finlappia:* who, although they dwell here and there in lowe cottagies by the sea syde, and leade in maner a beastly lyfe, yet are they more meeke and tractable then the wylde Lappians.* He sayde that these also are tributaries to the prince of Moscouia. Then leauynge the lande of the Lap∣pians, and saylynge fourescore leaques, they came to the re∣gion of Nortpoden vnder the dominion of the kynge of Sue∣cia This the Moscouites caule Katenska Semla,* and the people Kayeni. Departynge from hense, and saylynge alonge by the coaste of a wyndynge and bendynge shore reachyng to∣warde the ryght hande, they came to a promontorie or cape cauled the Holy nose,* beinge a greate stone reachynge farre into the sea to the similitude of a nose: vnder the whiche is seene a caue with a whyrlepoole which swalowth the sea eue∣ry syxe houres:* and castynge furth the same ageyne with ter∣ryble rorynge and violence, causeth the sayde whyrlepoole. Sum caule this the nauell of the sea: and other name it Cha∣rybdis. Page  304 He affirmeth that the violence of this swalowynge goulfe is such, that it draweth into it, inuolueth,* and swa∣loweth vp shyppes and al other thynges that comme neare it: and that they were neuer in greater daungioure. For the whyrlepoole so suddeynely and violentely drewe vnto it the shyppe or barke wherin they were caryed, that with the helpe of ores and great labour they hardly escaped. When they had thus ouerpassed the holy nose, they came to a certeyne stonye mountayne which they shulde needes compasse abowte. But beinge there stayed with contrary wyndes for the space of cer¦teyne dayes, the pylotte of the shippe spake vnto them in this effecte: This stone (sayth he) that yowe see, is cauled Semes:* The which except we please with summe gyfte, wee shall not passe by withowt great daungiour. But the pylot beinge re∣proued of Istoma for his vayne superstition,* helde his peace. And when they had byn deteined ther by tempest for the space of foure dayes, at the length the tempest ceased and they went forwarde on theyr vyage with a prosperous wynd. Then the pilotte spake vnto them ageyne, sayinge: Yowe despised my admonicion of pleasynge the Semes, and scorned the same as vayne and superstitions. But if I had not priuilie in the nyght ascended a rocke and pleased the Semes, wee shulde surely haue had no passage. Beinge demaundd what he offe∣red to the Semes,* he sayde that he poured butter myxt with otemele vpon the stone which wee sawe reache furth into the sea. As they sayled further, they came to an other cape named Motka,* which was almost enuironed with the sea lyke an I∣lande: in whose extreme poynte, is situate the castell of Bar∣thus, which sum caule Wardhus,* (that is) a house of defence or fortresse. For the kynges of Norway haue there a garry∣son of men to defende theyr marches. He sayde furthermore that that cape reacheth so farre into the sea, that they coulde scarcely compasse it in eyght dayes. By which tarying leaste they shulde bee hyndered, they caryed on theyr shulders with greate laboure, theyr barkes and fardelles ouer a streyght of lande conteynyng halfe a leaque in breadth. From hense they sayled to the region of the wyld Lappones,* cauled Dikilappo¦nes to a place named Dront,* beinge .CC. leaques distant from Dwina towarde the North. And thus farre as he sayth, doth the prince of Moscouia exacte tribute. Furthermore leauyng Page  [unnumbered] theyr barkes here, they fynysshed the residue of theyr iorney on sleades.* He further declared that there were heardes of hartes as are with vs of oxen, whiche in the Noruegians tounge are cauled Rhen, beinge sumwhat bygger then owre hartes.* These the Lappones vse in this maner. They ioyne them to sleades made lyke fyssher botes, as wee put horses to the carte. The man in the sleade, is tyed fast by the feete least he fall owte by the swyfte course of the hartes. In his lefte hande, he holdeth a collar or rayne wherwith he moderateth the course of the hartes: and in the ryght hand, a py••ed staffe wherwith he may susteine the sleade frō faulyng if it chaunce to decline to much on any part. And he toulde me that by this meanes he trauayled twentie leaques in one daye,* and then dismysses the harte, who by hym selfe returned to his owne master and accustomed stable. This iorney thus fynysshed, they came to Berges a citie of Norduegia or Norway,* situ∣ate drectly towarde the north betwene the mountaynes: and went from thense to Denmarke on horsebacke. At Dront and Berges, the day is sayde to bee .xxii. houres longe in the som∣mer Equinoctiall. Blasius an other of the prynce of Mosco∣uia his interpretours, who a fewe yeares before, was sent of his prince into Spayne to Themperour, declared vnto vs an other and shorter way of his iorney.* For he sayde that when he was sent from Moscouia to Iohn the kyng of Denmarke, he came fyrste on foote vnto Rostowe:* And takynge shyppe there, came to Pereaslaw:* and from Pereaslaw by the ryuer Uolga to Castromow:* and that from thense goynge seuen Werstes by lande, he came to a lyttle ryuer: saylynge by the which, when fyrst he came to Uuolochda,* then to Suchana,* and Dwina,* and in fine to the citie of Berges in Norway, o∣uerpassynge in this vyage all the perelles and laboures that Istoma rehearsed before, he came at the length to Hafnia the chefe citie of Denmarke,* whiche the Germaynes caule Kop∣penhagen.* But in theyr returnynge home, they both confesse that they came to Moscouia by Liuonia:* and that they were a yeare in this vyage: Albeit Georgius Istoma, sayde that halfe the parte of that tyme, he was hyndered by tempestes, and inforced to tary longe in many places by the waye. Yet they both lykewyse constantely affirme that in this iorney ey∣ther of them trauayled a thousand threescore and ten Werstes*Page  305 (that is) three hundreth and fortie leaques. Furthermore al∣so Demetrius who of late was sent ambassadour from the prynce of Moscouia to the bysshoppe of Rome, (by whose re∣lation also Paulus Iouius wrote his description of Mosco∣uia) confirmed all these thynges to bee trewe.* All they being demaunded of me of the congeled or frosen sea, made none o∣ther answere but that in places nere vnto that sea,* they saw many and great riuers by whose vehemente course and abun∣daunt flowynge, the seas are dryuen farre from the shore: and that the sayde water of the ryuers is frosen with the sea a good space from the lande, as in Liuonia and other partes of Suecia. For althowgh by the vehemencie of the wyndes,* the Ise is broken in the sea,* yet dooth this chaunce seldome or neuer in ryuers, excepte by sum inundation or flud the Ise gathered togyther bee lyfted vp and broken. For the flakes or pieses of Ise caryed into the sea by force of the ryuers, doo flote aboue the water in maner all the hole yeare, and are a∣geyne so vehemently frosen togyther, that a man maye there sumtymes see great heapes of the Ise of manye yeares,* as dooth appere by such pieses as are dryuen to the shore by the wynde. I haue also byn credebly informed by faythfull men that the sea Baltheum (otherwyse cauled the goulfe of Liuo∣nia) is often tymes frosen in many places.* They say further∣more, that in that region whiche is inhabyted of the wylde Lappones, the soonne in the sommer Equinoctiall dooth not faule for the space of .xl. dayes:* yet that the body therof is so hydden with a darke myste or cloude three houres, that the beames doo not appere: Neuerthelesse to gyue such lyght du∣rynge that tyme, that the darkenesse hyndereth not theyr woorke. The Moscouites make theyr boste that these wylde Lappones are tributaries to theyr prynce.* Wherat I do not greatly maruayle, forasmuch as they haue none other neare vnto them, that may demaunde tribute of them. Theyr try∣bute is onely furres and fysshe,* hauynge in maner none other thynge greately commodious. And albeit they lacke breade, salte, and other intysementes and glutteny, and lyue onely with fysshe and wylde beastes, yet are they exceadyng prone to lechery. They are such expert archers,* that if in theyr hun¦tynge they espye any beastes whose skynnes they desyre to saue vnperysshed, they wyll not lyghtly mysse to hytte them Page  [unnumbered] in the nosethrylles. hen they go furth on huntynge, they are accustomed to leaue at home with theyr wyues suche mar∣chauntes or straungers as they haue receaued into theyr hou∣ses.* So that if at theyr returne, they perceaue theyr wyues throwgh the company of the strangers to be myrier and more iocunde then they were wonte to bee, they gyue the straun∣gers sum present. But yf they fynd it otherwyse, they thrust them furth of the doores with woordes of reproche. But nowe by the company they haue with straungers that resorte thyther for gaynes, they begyn to leaue theyr natiue barba∣rousnesse. They gladly admitte marchauntes, bycause they brynge them apparel of grose cloth: also hatchettes, needels, spones, knyues, drynkynge cuppes, earthen and brasen pot∣tes, with such othr necessarie wares:* So that they vse now to eate sodden and rosted meate, and doo embrase more ciuile maners. Theyr owne apparell is made of the skynnes of dy∣uers beastes sowed togyther. And in this apparell they sum∣tymes comme to Moscouia. Yet fewe of them haue cappes or hosen, which they vse to make of hartes skynnes. They haue not the vse of golde or syluer money:* but vse only barteryng of ware for ware. And beinge ignorant of other languages besyde theyr owne, they seeme amonge straungers to bee in maner domme. Theyr cotages are couered onely with the barkes of trees.* They haue no certeyne restynge habitacion. But when they haue consumed the fysshe and wylde beastes in one place, they remoue to an other. Furthermore also the sayde ambassadours of the prince of Moscouia, declared that in the same partes they sawe certeyne hygh mountaynes con¦tinually castynge furth flames of fyre as doth the mountayne of Etna in the Ilande of Sicilia:* and that euen in Norway, many mountaynes are faulen downe and burnte in maner to asshes with such continuall flames. Which thynge sum con∣syderyng, fayne the fyre of Purgatorie to bee there.* And as concernynge these mountaynes of Norway, when I was sent ambassadour to Christierne kynge of Denmarke, I was infor¦med the lyke by the gouernours of Norwaye who chaunced at that tyme to bee present there.

Abowt the mouthes of the ryuer Petzora that are toward the ryght hande from the mouthes of Dwina,* are sayd to bee dyuers and great beastes in the Ocean: and amonge other, a Page  306 certeyne great beast as bygge as an oxe, which thinhabitaun∣tes caule Mors.* This beast hath shorte feete lyke a beuer or an Otter, with a brest sumwhat hygh and brode for the pro∣portion of the residue of his body: and two longe and greate teeth growynge owte of the vpper iawe. These beastes for rest and increase, doo sumtymes leaue the Ocean, & by great heardes ascende the mountaynes: where before they gyue thē selues to profounde sleepe (wherunto they are naturally incli¦ned) they appoynt one of theyr number as it were a watche∣man as doo cranes for the securitie of the reste.* Whiche if he chaunce to sleepe, or to bee slayne of the hunters, the residue may easely bee taken. But if the watchman gyue warnynge with torynge (as the maner is) immediatly the hole hearde a wakened thereby, suddeynly put theyr hynder feete to theyr teeth: And so faulynge from the mountayne with great cele∣ritie as it were on a seade. they cast thē selues headlong into the Ocean: where also they rest and sleepe for a whyle vppon the heapes of Ile. The hunters pursue these beastes only for thyr teethe: Of the which the Moscouites, Tartars, and es¦pecially the Turkes, make haftes for swoordes and dagges very artificially. And vse these rather for ornamente, then to gyue the greater stroke for the weyght or heauinesse thereof as summe fable. Also amonge the Turkes, Moscouites, and Tartars, these teethe are soulde by weight, and are cauled the teethe of fysshes.

The frosen sea reacheth farre and wyde beyonde Dwina to Petzcora and vnto the mouthes of the great riuer Obi:* be∣yonde the which they say to bee the region of Engroneland,* vnknowen and seperate from the trade and conuersation of owre men, by reason of hygh mountaynes coue∣red and coulde with perpetuall snowe, and the sea no lesse incumbered with conty∣nually Ise whiche hyndereth na∣uigations and maketh them daungerous, as they saye.