General and rare memorials pertayning to the perfect arte of nauigation annexed to the paradoxal cumpas, in playne: now first published: 24. yeres, after the first inuention thereof.
Dee, John, 1527-1608., Gemistus Plethon, George, 15th cent., Canter, Willem, 1542-1575.
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GENERAL AND RARE MEMORIALS pertayning to the Perfect Arte of NAVIGATION: Annexed to the PARADOXAL Cumpas, in Playne: now first published: 24. yeres, after the first Inuention thereof.


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A BRIEF NOTE SCHOLASTICAL, FOR THE better vnderstanding of the Decorum obserued, (or, at the least, regarded) in this present Two-fold Treatise, written vnder the Names of Three diuers Proprieties, States, or Conditions of MAN: Wherby yt may appere, that they are not Scopae dissolutae: or, Du Coq à l' Asne: But, by the will, and Grace of the Highest, thus Recorded.

First, yt was needfull, for the Vnknown Freend, to declare his Sensible grief, conceaued, to see, and per∣ceiue an honest Ientleman, and Philosopher, by the ma∣lice and ignorance of sundry his Cuntrymen, to be al∣most oppressed, vtterly defaced, and by dangerous reports, greeuously and dammageably discredited. And secondly, to make a mournfull, and dolefull Supplication generall, to all his Cuntrymen, to help the sayd Ientleman to haue Iustice, and due amends, now at the end of his dayes. And all this, is the rather thus endited, that God his great Graces bestowed on him, should (to God his great glory) be acknowledged thankfully, and not be suffered any lon∣ger to be so craftily, wilfully, and violently trodden vn∣der foot, or barbarously despised. And it is likely, that, vnleast this Vnknown Freend, haue fauourable audi∣ence, and Credit, (in those things, which in this Aduer∣tisment he declareth: being Sensible, both past, & pre∣sent: pertayning to the forsayd Ientleman,) that the Me¦chanicien his industry, and great zeale, (vsed in col∣lecting, and penning, from the sayd Philosopher his mouth, the Hexameron Plat Politicall, of the Brytish Monarchie,) shalbe but slenderly, and slightly regar∣ded or wayed: and therby, the same to be found, final∣ly, to les Commodity Publik, auailable. But, yf the same Aduertisement, be earnestly, speedily, vnpartially, & charitably examined, and considered, good hope may a∣rise, that Omnia cooperabuntur ad Vtilitatem Salu∣tem{que} Page  [unnumbered] Publicam procurandam, ac promouendam, expeditissimè & potentissimè. VVhich, God graunt, Amen.

  • Trinitas Humana
    • Homo Dei —〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉—Mns
    • Anima Mda —〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉—Dianoea
    • omo Animalis 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉—Snsus.
    • 〈◊〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉—Snsus.
    • R••ormatus. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉—Snsus.
  • HOMO
    • Philosophus— The In•••uctr. — 〈◊〉 the BRYTISH MONARCHY
    • Mechnius. The Mechaniien o th Plat Poliiall. 〈◊〉 the BRYTISH MONARCHY
    • Siu. The Mechaniien o th Plat Poliiall. 〈◊〉 the BRYTISH MONARCHY
    • Philosophicus. The Mechaniien o th Plat Poliiall. 〈◊〉 the BRYTISH MONARCHY
    • Vulga••ter Iustus —The vnknown Frend. His Ad•••tisemen Introducory.

The Epistle in Meter, (annexed in the end of this Book,) was by the Mechanicien sent, after that the vnknown Freend had (at his own charges, and with his careful Trauail concurrent,) put the foresayd two Treatises, in Print: & deliuered again into the hands of the sayd Mechanicien, the whole Impression therof. The diuers Intents and purposes of which Episle, are easily to be perceiued. Therfore, yf to haue sayd thus much, was necessary, the same also may suffice.

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A necessary Aduertisement, by an vnknown freend, giuen to the modest, and godly Readers: who also carefully desire the prosperous State of the Common wealth, of this BRYTISH KINGDOM, and the Politicall SECVRITIE thereof.

LAmentable and irkesome, [ 1] are these our drery dayes:* (my welbeloued Cuntri∣man) Seeing the conditi∣ons of to to many, are be∣come such, as, to be to to curious of other * Mens dooings: As though, they them selues, were superha∣bundantly perfect: or dwelt in Security, of not be∣yng at any tyme, hereafter, either surueyed, or con∣trolled for their own.

Nay, seeing the subtilty and impudency of * some, [ 2] is such, that they can, and dare, cunningly and craf∣tily, conuey to them selues (or, to whom they list) the Title and Interest of the thanks and commen∣dation, due to other Men: who are not of so brasen visages, as to practise such ambitious fatches for them selues, or to procure such malitious Disgraces, to o∣ther: But are of that myldenes of Spirite, as, PA∣TIENTLY TO ATTEND THE END, which shall reueale the VERITY: when, iust gwerdon, shall to euery Man be distributed, ac∣cordingly.

And thirdly, Seeing, some are so doggedly vio∣lent, [ 3] and vayngloriously doting, that they can not Page  [unnumbered] like, consent, or well suffer any od Man, beside them selues: or, otherwise, then by them selues, to receiue due Salary, either of Credit, Commen∣dation, or liberall Consideration: where, their word or working (directly or indirectly) may hinder the same.

[ 4] Fourthly, how pitifull is the Case, that * diuers, of sundry states, haue, (of Late,) become so shame∣les lyers, and to some priuate mens liues, (thereby) so dangerous, That, if Credit had bin giuen to them, (by other, than the light hedded sort) of such Murders and Treasons, as (most diuell like) they haue imagined, and reported to be: and with∣all, (wholy, of their own hellish myndes, with∣out any spark or drop of Veritie,) haue fathered the same vpon the very Innocent (yea, so much an Innocent, as for any such thought, in his hart, at any tyme, embracing or ostering): It had bin greatly to haue bin douted that the mighty wrath of God, would not so long haue forborn the iust re∣uenge (of so haynous abhominacions) taking, vpon, aswell such wicked and principall Forgers, as on o∣ther the fickle fauourers, or careles sufferers of the same, any whit to preuaile.

[ 5] Seeing the Prince of Darkenes hath sundry such his Factors: And yet, one * other kinde, more wic∣ked and abhominable, than the rehearsed: which are such, as not onely, they them selues, commi Di∣uelish horrible facts, but also practise other very fraudulent feats: And all, to their priuate Lucre onely: Chiefly ayding and furnishing vp their own shamefull Credit herein, with the * Cownterfeting Page  [unnumbered] of other honest and learned Men their letters: as, written vnto them, in such their vngodly and vn∣lawfull affayres:* Or, as falsly, reporting their Con∣ferences had with them, to the behoof (say they) of such, as are become their miserable and Cosened Clients.

And Sixthly, how, (almost, without remedy,) hath [ 6] the most wily Tyrant, and Insatiable Bludsucker, layd the plat, for a wofull Tragedy contriuing: yf, the power and Iustice diuine, did not bridle his maliti∣ous Rage, and Infernall fury? How, hath he (I pray you) insinuated his Credit with some, so far, and so long since: that diuers vntrue and Infamous Re∣ports, by their Sinister information, haue bin giuen vp to such, as haue gathered Records, of those Mens Acts, who dyed in the Cause of Veritie? And so, the same hurtfull vntruthes, beyng (yet) the ra∣ther Credited, by reason of the Dignity of the place, wherin they were enstalled, haue seemed, bot to the foresayd Diuelish Cosener, and also, to the Cre∣dulous Cosen (yea, and to very many others,) to haue bin a certain kynde of warrant: To the one, without feare, to Counterfet letters, or Discourses, answerable to the foresayd fowle vntruthes, vnadui∣sedly Recorded. And to the other, without suspi∣tion, lightly to Credit any such matter, reported. And, so, hath the Feend Infernall, most craftily, and vnduly, gotten the honest * Name and Fame, of one extraordinary Studious Ientleman, of this land, within his Clawes: that, diuers his mere Maliti∣ous, and wilfull Enemies, do verily hope, that it is impossible, that this Ientleman, shall, with this Page  [unnumbered] English or Brytish State, either (during his life) be counted a good Subiect, or a Commendable, (nay, scarse a Tolerable) * Christian: or, any his Acts or Trauailes, all ready past: or, other his intended ex∣ploits, of great Importance, shall be, in this Land, acceptable: or, of the people, of this kingdome, re∣ceyued: as, by the fauour, light, and Ayde of the Blessed Trinitie vndertaken, inuented, Compassed, and atchieued: but, rather, by wicked and vngod∣ly Arte, to be framed: and, by the help of Sathan, or Beelzebub, to be finished: vnleast, the wise, or the peculiarly chief Authorized, will vse due Care∣full, and Charitable Discretion, From henceforth, to repres, abolish, and vtterly extinguish this very In∣iurious Report, (for these xx. yeres last past, and somwhat longer,) Spred & Credited, all this Realm ouer:* it is to wete, That the Forsaid Ientleman, is, or was, Not onely, a 1. Coniurer, or Caller of Di∣uels: but, 2. A Great doer therin: Yea, The Great Coniurer: & so, (as some would say,) 3. The Arche Con∣iurer, of this whole kingdom.

Before, that the (mentioned) Diuelish Cosening was vsed: this sklanderous vntruthe was recorded, publised, and Credited: But, by these new deui∣sed Cosening forgeries, the same, may (with some) seeme to be vndoutedly confirmed. Oh Lord, with how tickle and strong Snares, and with how wily Laberinthes, hath the most enuious Traytor, to the honor of our God and Christ, bewrapped and Daunted many a thousand of simple & honest Mens fantazies: inducing them, to Credit this Infamous Report? To Credit it, (I say) in respect of the Page  [unnumbered] honorable Seat, wherin, it was, (very vnaduisedly) set downe. In dede, euen he: who, at the begin∣ning, * sayd, Ascendam in Coelum, & similis ero Al∣tissimo: euen he, hath setled this intolerable sklan∣der of the vertuous, among the glorious Renown of the Righteous: to so great hurt, and dammage of the Ientleman (who, to all other Men, is harmles) as, neuer to him, by any one Mortall Man, the iust Amends, can duly be made. I would to God, this foresaid sklander, and other Disgracing Reports, to to rashly, and euen then * recorded, when this Courteous Ientleman was also a prisoner himself: (& bedfellow, with one Maister Barthelet Greene) had bin, in due tyme espyed, and vtterly cancelled, and razed out of all Records, wherin they were vnduly, and vnaduisedly (first) admitted.

Nerer to pres this Matter in particular, it is nede∣les. But, by this, and such like foule ouersight of Man, & Cruell despite of the hellish Enemy, it is come to pas (among many other great Inconueniences) that, wheras the said Studious Ientleman, hath at God his most mercifull handes, receyued a great Talent of knowledge and Sciences: (after his long, painfull, and Costly Trauails, susteyned for the same:) and both by God, being warned, and, of his owne dis∣position, desirous, not onely to enlarge and multiply the same, but also to communicate to other: He fin∣deth himself, (now, at length), partly forced, som∣what to yelde to the wickednes of these tymes, (be∣ing not possible to sayl against the windes eye): And partly demeth himself (in Gods Iudgement,) excu∣sable, not to bestow any more of his Talent & Care∣full Page  [unnumbered] Trauailes, vpon the Ingratefull and Thankles: Nay, vpon the skorners and Disdainers of such his faythfull enterprises: vndertaken chiefly, for the Ad∣uancement of the wonderfull Veritie Philosophicall: And also, for the State Publik of this BRYTISH MONARCHIE, to become florishing, in HONOR, WEALTH, and STRENGTH: as much, as any thing in him, mought haue bin therto, (by any means,) found seruisable.

But, who would haue * thought, that they, who are (in dede) of the honester sort, and more chari∣table: yea, of the wiser, and (by Office) mightier (& some of them, taken for his especial great freends) would, so many yeres, haue bin so * Careles, or slack, to Ayde, and procure the Innocent, to be * de∣liuered, from the greuous, and most Iniurious spoyle of his good Name and Fame: and all the inconue∣niences, depending theron? Or, who would haue thought, that so great, & so vncharitable Vntruthes, should so vndiscretely haue bin published: by those Men especially, who, otherwise, in woord and life, were very modest, and Circumspect?

I thought it good, Therfore (my honest freend and Cuntryman) to aduertise thee,* of some parte of the Cause, of the strange maner, of this Treatise com∣ming to thy sight, or reading: As, without the Name, of any certain Author therof: And, without the Name, of the zealous Artificer, who first did sollicite, and collect such matter (by Dicata, as it were) from this Ientleman. And Thirdly, without my own Name: into whose hands, the sayd Artifi∣cer, hath deliuered all the matter, that he could get Page  [unnumbered] of this Brytish Ientleman: to the Title of this booke, answerable: yea, and other rare Instructions, also.

For (vndowtedly) this BRYTISH PHILOSO∣PHER, is not 1. only discouraged to labor, or * pen any more Treatises, or bookes, him self, in ARTIFICI∣ALL METHOD, for his vnkinde, vnthankful, dis∣dainfull, and sklanderous Cuntrymen, to vse (nay abuse:) but, 2. also, is loth (and hath great reason, so to be) to haue his Name, any more, prefixed, or subscribed, to any Treatises, passing from him, either by writing, or by speech.

And, both these Inconueniences, are purposely committed: to auoyd, or, somwhat to preuent hens∣forward, the farther grief and offence, that might grow to him, and his true freends: to perceiue the former sundry sorts of Caterpillers, and great hinde∣rers of the prosperous Estate, of any Common-Wealth, to knaw vpon the leaf, or flower, of his Commendable Fame: who, would take very quick∣ly an Occasion (by the forefronts of bookes, garni∣shed with his BRYTISH NAME,) to fall to a fresh pang of enuious busiosity, impudent arrogancy, and dogged malicious speeches vsing and vttring against the Ientleman: who (vndoutedly) wisheth euill to none. And (perhaps) though it were very good matter, that should, by him, be contriued and writ∣ten, and vnder his Name, be published: yet, they would (in perusing it), either peruert their own Iudgements of it, through their vnquieted, and mere malicious fantazie, wilfully bent against him: or, rather, in dede, through their own great Igno∣rance, would verify the Prouerb: Scientia non ha∣bet Page  [unnumbered] Inimicum, nisi Ignorantem: as, they did by his Monas Hieroglyphica:* dedicated to the late Emperor Maximilian: wherein, the Queene her most Excel∣lent Maiesty, can be a sacred witnes (as I haue heard) of the Strange and vndue speeches, deuised of that Hieroglyphicall writing:

Or, if they liked the matter: then, they would say, that such a Treatise, (vnder his Name, published) is not, or was not, of his owne compiling and or∣dring, as Author therof: but that, some other Man, now liuing, or long since dead, was the only and first Author, of such a good Treatise. And, that mnr of malicious Iniury, hath bin very notably dn vn∣to him, for these many yeres past, about his Booke Intituled Propaedumata Aphorislica: and is, yet, searse ceased in all corners (for, it is backbiting worke, and seeketh Corners.) For, some men, (And they such, who ought to haue bin honest and discreet, as they are, or were accounted learned) haue, very enuious∣ly, fathered it, vpon the excellent Grardus Merca∣tor Rupelmundanus, (yet liuing at Duysburgh,) as, to be the only and true Author of those Aphorismes. But, afterward, when that was found a peuih fa∣ble: Then, vpon one Vrso (who liued many hundred yeres since) was all the Commendation bestowed, for that Aphoristicall worke contriuing. And then, a∣gayne, after that, vpon one Alkabitius: And at length, with shame enough (but more will follow) being driuen from these mere enuious, and spitefull false deuises: yet (most obstinately and impudently) they still auouch to diuers Ientlemen, and certaine Noble Men, that some other, or (in effect) any Page  [unnumbered] Man els, was the Author therof: rather, than they would honestly acknowlege the Truthe, of only this Ientleman his peculiar Industry, and no small skill, v∣sed in the contriuing and framing of that * Booke: containing the chief Crop and Roote, of Ten yeres his first Outlandish & Homish Studies and exercises Philosophicall: as, partly in the preface therof, to the Reader, is specified: but more habundantly and purposely, hath that point bin * proued and testifi∣ed to some, who were (before) fowly infected, with the sklaunderous Opinion, that one Vrso, was the Author of it, and not this honest Brytish Ientleman: as, at an other tyme, will be made more euident: When, a ful declaration, in more conuenient place, may be made, of the mere malicious, very rash, and Brutish Censure, of a certain Doctor, (yet liuing.) Who, lately, endeuored him self, to perswade some right worshipfull Ientlemen, that it were good, and behoofull for this Common Wealth, If the sayd Philosopher, were Banished this land, for euer.

Bi∣cause, said this Doctor (but most vntruly: as is now very euident, to Thousands of Men, of this Kingdom, and other) That, to no Man of this Realm, he did at any tyme, or yet doth, or will, communicate a∣ny part, of his learned Talent, by word or writing: But is wholy addicted, to his priuate commodity on∣ly auancing, by his own Studies and practises very secret.
That Doctor, his name, shall not, here, by me, be disclosed: for that, he hath (vpon honest Repentance, for his so iniurious & dammageable In∣tent) receiued his * Sentence of free forgiuenes: in the presence of worshipfull witnes, yet aliue.

Page  [unnumbered]And when, likewise, the perfect declaration may more aptly be had, of the most Iudas like pranke, of an other Doctor: who (in the tyme of this Brytan Innocent his Captiuity: and somewhat, before the day of his enlarging, by *letters, sent to his keper, from the Right honora∣ble Priuy Counsail, to KING PHILIP and QVEENE MARY) did, very ernestly sollicite with the Lord Chaunce∣lor, (with whom he could do very much) And with the Bishop of London, (whom, also, he could half perswade) that it were requisite, and Iustice, that the sayd Brytan Captiue, were not set at liberty at all: but, should be forthwith committed to PER∣PETVAL PRISON: And that, vpon such respects, as he, most vnchristianlike and maliciously, had de∣uised: and very impudently, vpon his Credit with them (such as it was) would haue forced, to pre∣uaile. But, God would not suffer the sayd Courte∣ous Captiue, his great freendship and humanity, a few yeres before, vsed toward that Doctor (in Paris) so, to be requited, with worse, then Ingratitude. Besides, that the sayd Captiue, could neuer (nor yet can) be duly charged, with any word or deed, vttred or done, contrary to the performance of his duty toward his Soueraigne and the higher Powers.

And though I here omit many other great Iniu∣ries, done vnto him, about the bereauing him, of Page  [unnumbered] the true and due Title and Interest, in and to his own works, writings and Inuentions, in other pla∣ces recorded (And among that sort, omitting that foule Iniury, done to him by one Ioannes Franciscus Offhuysius, whose booke De Diuina Astrorum facul∣tate, was of this Brytan Philosopher, his Inuention, chiefly: As, may be made euident, both by the mat∣ter therin contayned, being compared to his Propae∣deumata Aphoristica: And also, by the said Franciscus his daily familiar * Letters solliciting and requesting those & such like Hypothe∣ses Astrologicall, at the said Philosopher his hands: he being, moreouer here conuersant with, and de∣pending vpon this our Brytan Mathematicien, a∣boue a whole yere.) Yet I must Note vnto you, e∣uen here, that one of those Iniuries, was aboue all the rest, so Notorious: and withall, so notably well * known, to be an Iniury, that the last yere, a certain Mechanicien, (being bu∣sied about matter of Nauigation), calling to his Re∣membrance the same Iniury: being a fowle and Im∣pudent * brag, that an English Mariner, (now, a∣boue, 20. yeres sins, had made, to diuers honest men: of the new Sea Instrument, newly also, called Page  [unnumbered] the Paradoxall Cumpas: As, to haue bin of his Inuen∣tion.) was so inflamed with Indignation against this arrogant Mariner, his abhominable Impudency, (so long tyme, by this Ientleman, very patiently suffred,) that he made very earnest request to this Ientleman (the true Inuentor, of this Instrument Paradoxal) that, although, all the Iniuries receiued at their hands, who were deemed learned, he would not very sharply reproue: and, but at leysure: yet, that it should be an Act, mete and needfull for him to do, (being al∣so behoofull for the Common Wealth) speedily to detect, such shameles Braggers and Crakers: onely sophistically furnished, to outward shew: and that, with other Mens rare Inuentions: but, of them selues, vtterly vnhable to Inuent any worthy Conclusion, to be profitably practised, on Sea or Land.

Which Mechanicien his ernest request, (by the foresayd Ientleman) being graunted, was the very chief & first occasion, of these Rare Memorials (con∣cerning The perfect Arte of Nauigation) so comming in Record:* after a Mechanicall and vulgar Artificer his blunt maner of penning, and collecting the same. Who, about the Entrance into the matter of Na∣uigation, finding good * Opportunity, to speake First of a PETY-NAVY-ROYALL, continually to be mainteyned, for manifold great Commodities pro∣curing to this BRYTISH MONARCHIE: (which, no other way, can be brought to pas:) and among them all,* the PERPETVALL POLITIK SECV∣RITIE and better preseruation of this famous King∣dom, from all Forrein danger, or Homish disorder, to be the chiefest: and most needfull Publik Benefit: Page  [unnumbered] (and vndowtedly, likely, to ensue therof:) he was du∣tifully willing, rather to follow some brief discussing of that very waighty matter,* (and especially in these dangerous dayes, and Incredible peeuish practises, ful often deuised against the GOOD PEACE, AND PROSPEROVS TRANQVILLITIE of this IN∣COMPARABLE ILANDISH MONARCHIE:) then, to fall to the foresayd Generall and Rare Me∣morials recording, of THE PERFECT ARTE OF NAVIGATION: which, he, (therupon) set aside, a while. And wherof, now, only the Second Vo∣lume entreateth: vnder this proper Title:* THE BRYTISH COMPLEMENT, OF THE PER∣FECT ARTE OF NAVIGATION. For, no vul∣gar doctrine, or practise, is therin conteyned: But rather the GENERALL COMPLEMENT, and (al∣most in particular,) all that, which hitherto, was wan∣ting: or, which mought be most needfull to so ex∣cellent an Arte, and (to this kingdome) most bene∣ficiall of all other Mechanicall exercises:

And such is the foresayd Brytish Complement, (as I do right well know) that the Contents therof, are aboue the most part of the best learned mens ex∣pectations, (yea, or hope) of being brought to pas: and all that, in rare, general, and excellent Conclusi∣ons of Gubernautik, chiefly. And so great, is the Volume therof, that, to haue it fairely and distinct∣ly printed, with all the Appertenances, it would be, (in bulk) greater than the English Bible, of the grea∣test volume: And yet, the plat of Inuention, Dispo∣sition, and recording therof, was finished in les, than 4. monthes space: it is to wete, of September, Octo∣ber, Page  [unnumbered] Nouember, and December last. Due Laud and Glory, be, therfore, ascribed to the free geuer of all good and perfect Gifts.

*The third Booke, I neither will, or may (as yet) say any thing of. The Ientleman his desire was, that it should be vtterly suppressed, or deliuered to Vul∣can his Custody.

*But, the fourth Volume, I may Iudge it, to be as an Earthly Paradise: A Booke, of as great godly pleasure, as worldly profit and delight: A Booke, for the BRYTISH HONOR and WEALTH (And that, in diuers maner) such an one, as neuer, King Ptolomaeus, or Prince Abilfada Ismaël, or any Geo∣graphicall or Hydographicall Discouerer did write, or Collect: as I (for my simple Capacity) do verily Iudge of it. The Title wherof, is, OF FAMOVS, and RICH DISCOVERIES: The Discourse ther∣of, not only conteineth the Generall Suruey Hydro∣graphicall, of all the whole world, (and chiefly the rare Euidences for all the partes therof, most Septen∣trionall) but also, a particular and ample examinati∣on, of King Solomon his Ophirian three yeres voy∣age: And also, the lawfull and very honorable Enti∣tling of our most gratious and Soueraigne Lady, QVEENE ELIZABETH, (and so, this BRYTISH SCEPTRE ROYALL) to very large Forrein Do∣minions: such, as in, and by the same, duly recoue∣red and vsed, the Course of the Diuine prouidence generall,* in this present Age, will bring to light and life, matter of great Importance and Consequency, both to the Glory of God, and the benefit of all Christendom, and Heathenes. The greatnes of this Page  [unnumbered] Volume, is not much les, than of the Second. And one way, it far passeth the Second: For, in the Se∣cret Center therof, is more bestowed, and stored vp, than I may, or (in this place) will expres.

The same Volume, was, chiefly, of the Ientleman his own very speedy collecting: And (by his wil, and order) hath this Inscription, or Dedication, TO THE MOST VVORTHY: And the same Inscription, to be written, or printed in letters of Gold.

And had not the Incredible, and manifold Iniuries, and vndue Disturbances bin, which haue happened to him (by sundry parcels of tyme) for the space of three Monthes, and more, (in Totall summe), within the tyme of all these Collections, most speedily and Carefully heaping vp togither, since August last: I am rightwell assured, that, neuer, in so small tyme, so much matter, of so great Importance, with such syncere and dutifull zeale to pleasure his Natiue Cuntry: had by any Subiect (BRYTISH or ENGLISH) bin de∣liuered from him, by Inuention of his own, or by Circumspect Collection, or discrete Application, out of former or present writers, and Authors.

What is than (I pray you) in all his life tyme, to be thought likely, or possible, and in tymes more commodious, to haue bin Inuented: Or, conuerted to better Method of Knowledge, or vse of practise: or notably reformed, by the said Ientleman? Especi∣ally, for the space of these * Thirty yeres, last past? In which long tyme of his Tyrocinie, he hath, inces∣santly, to the vttermost of his power, and hability, followed an extraordinary, and most painfull, and very costly Course of Philosophicall Enquiries ma∣king, Page  [unnumbered] after the best Verities:* which, may yeld, (by due Considerations of the Creatures, their vertues and properties) to their Creator and ours, Glory, Praise, & Honor vnspeakable: for his Infinit Good∣nes, Wisdom and Power: the euident print, & De∣monstrable proof, wherof, the same, (our God), hath bestowed most abundantly, in his own handy∣worke, of all his Creatures Creating: all the whole, and vniuersall world ouer, dispersed: nay, rather Fil∣ling the whole Cosmographicall frame,* and Orbe: from the Center therof, to the vttermost Circum∣ference of the same: being, to Mortall mans out∣ward eye, vtterly vnsensible.

It will appeare, hereafter, in due tyme, that, grea∣ter, furder, and of longer Continuance, hath bin his doings, and very well liked of, Aduertisements and Instructions, in sundry affayres Philosophicall, and Cosmopoliticall, FOR VERITIE, IVSTICE, AND PEACE FVRDERING, than hath, of any Three, of his neerest freends, and most familiarly ac∣quainted Cuntrymen, bin (as yet) perceiued.

And this also, I may say of the same Ientleman (without seeming to flatter him, or any whit to a∣buse thee, my honest freend and Cuntryman:) or, he him self, with great Modesty, and no arrogan∣cy, might (to God his high Glory) say: That, yf in the foresaid whole cours of his tyme, he had found a Constant & Assistant CHRISTIAN ALEXAN∣DER: BRYTAN, should not haue bin, now, desti∣tute of a CHRISTIAN ARISTOTLE.*

Any farder, is nedeles, to be disclosed of this Ien∣tleman: whose greuous * wounds, (by dedly sklan∣ders, Page  [unnumbered] vpon diuelish Enuy, only: and the same, pri∣uily slasht, and hewed into his Sydes: and nere vnto his Hart) are not, yet, in the perfect and charitable Chirurgiens, curing. The more Lamentable, will the case be found: and the remedy, to late, thought vpon, I am greatly afraid.

In the mean space (my louing freend, and vnpar∣tiall Reader) I am, to aduertise thee, that, as con∣cerning the publishing of the other two great Vo∣lumes: though, the Inuentions, and Collections be such, as I sayd, and of great Value: both for the HONOR AND WEALTH OF ENGLAND, and no little furderance of the GLORY OF GOD: yet, (by Order, taken by him, who hath the chief Inte∣rest therin:) the same, are not to be printed, VNTIL THE PROOF BE PAST, How, this Mechanicien, his zealous, dutyfull, and humble Aduertisement Politicall, (for the Perpetuall Garde, and furder Ser∣uice, of a PETY-NAVY-ROYALL,* to be maintei∣ned, without any Cost or Charge to the Queene her most excellent Maiestie, or any vnpleasant bur∣den to the Commons, and faithfull Subiects, of this BRYTISH MONARCHIE) shall be liked of, and accepted: (for the zeale, and matter, I mean, rather, than for any Rhetoricall polishing bestowed on it.) Seeing, the same, conteineth in it, such Fragments of Instructions, receiued from the foresaid Philosopher: being, hitherto (almost) a * Freendles freend. Why say I, * freendles? Seeing, a Ientleman, of great Ex∣perience in this world, sayd vnto him, in my he∣ring, within these few dayes:

Tu certè Infoelix, at multos inter Amicos.Page  [unnumbered] Wherby, it might seme, that he hath many freends. But, for all that, betwene a cold freend, and a faint harted Enemy, is small diuersity. And vndowtedly, a fayned, hollow harted or Hypocriticall freend, is worse, ten tymes, than an open Enemy: And, in ve∣ry dede, is not to be counted a freend. And, so, may the outward repugnancy of these two sayings, aptly be reconciled.

But, proceding in my former purpose, you may vnderstand this, moreouer: that the Second Booke or Volume, (to this Preface apperteyning) will be of more hundred pounds, Charges, to be prepared for the print (in respect of the Tables, and Figures therto requisite): than you would easily beleue. Ther∣fore, though there were no warning, of Attendance to be giuen, to vnderstand the issue of liking or mis∣liking the foresaid, (zealously collected, and as hum∣bly presented) Politicall Aduertisement: yet, this matter of Charges, so far passeth my slender habili∣ty: and, withall, is so dreadfull to the Printers, for feare of great los therby susteining (So rare, and few mens Studies, are in such matters employed) that, delay, on my part, is rather, that way, Constrained: And,* therfore, no Order is to be thought vpon, by me, for the printing therof: * TYLL, A COMFOR∣TABLE AND SVFFICIENT OPPORTVNITY OF SVPPLY, DOTH VERY VVELL SERVE THERTO.

And before, I bid thee Farewell (my Cuntryman) I may yet aduertise thee, of one point more (whither the sayd Second Volume, be euer printed, or no) That, therin, is one parcell conteined: so, contriued Page  [unnumbered] and Dedicated vnto the AEternall, Royall, and Heroi∣call Honor, and Renowm of our Incomparable Gra∣cious QVEENE ELIZABETH: that, all the whole world ouer,* yea, among the Heathen, as well as Christen: what language so euer they speake, that haue to deale with Hydrography, or Dangerous and long voyages by Sea: euen they, will, most thank∣fully, and for euer, sing and extoll her marueilous Princely Benefit herein: as, to them, chiefly for her Maiesties sake and Merits, imparted: who, hath bin so constantly fauorable, and so gracious a Soueraign Lady, vnto the Inuentor therof, her most faythfull and obedient Subiect. The richest Pyramis at Mem∣phis, did neuer so far, and so durably spred the Fame and Commendation of the Builders therof, as these TABLES GVBERNAVTIKE, will win, and procure the large loue, and good liking of our Elizabeth, all the world ouer, and while the world endureth, to florish. The English Title therof, is,* THE BRYTISH QVEENE ELIZA∣BETH, HER TABLES GVBERNAVTIK. And the same, is of many Quires of Paper, conteining.

Now, haue I sufficiently (for this place & tyme) gi∣uen vnto you (my courteous Cuntryman) Aduertise∣ments: which (I trust) you will take in good part & thankfully: yf, in your own Conscience, you plain∣ly perceiue that all my zealous speech, herein be∣stowed, tendeth to the Aduancement of vertue, and to the great Benefit and Commodity Publik. At an other tyme, I hope to haue Comfort, and conuenient Opportunitie, to impart vnto you, other matter: for your exceeding good Contentation, and great de∣light also.

Page  [unnumbered]And, in the mean space, I trust that this my syn∣cere, blunt, and simple Aduise, shall be some Oc∣casion, that hensforward, this honest Ientleman, shal be fully restored to the Integrity of his duly deserued honest * Name and Fame: And, also receyue great Publik Thanks, Comfort & Ayde of the Whole Bry∣tish State. To the Honor, Welfare, and Preseruati∣on wherof (next vnto his duty doing vnto God) he hath directed all the course of his manifold Studies, great Trauailes, and incredible Costes. As, both, by these his Hexameron Lessons (First, here, for Se∣curity of the same) spedily Dictated: and also, by ve∣ry many other his wordes, workes, and writings els: both, in England, and other where, spoken, done, communicated, and published, will, or may abun∣dantly be testified. And, so, Fare you well in Christ, my Courteous, and vnpartiall Cuntryman: And, for a Remembrance, at this our most freendly Farewel, take this heauenly Counsail with thee:*Omnia quae∣cun{que} volueritis vt faciant vobis homines, sic & vos fa∣cite illis: haec enim est Lex & Prophetae.

Which kinde of skantlin, and Measure diuine, be∣ing, before hand, and in due tyme, layd vnto all our thoughts, wordes and dedes, may be as a good and familiar Angell vnto vs: to help vs to shonne, and flie from all sklandrous speeches vsing: all mali∣cious, or seditious Libels skattring: and all other vn∣iust, & vncharitable dealings: yea, and from consen∣ting or suffring of the same, where we can, or ought, to redres the Cause.

And, Then, the Glory, and Peace of God, will flo∣rish in this BRYTAN MONARCHIE. Ouer which, Page  [unnumbered] (so reformed) that our most Gracious and Soueraign QVEENE ELIZABETH, may, very many yeres, most prosperously and Triumphantly Raigne, it is (vndowtedly) our bounden duty, feruently and full oft, by Prayer, to request at his hands, who is the King of Kings, Almighty. To whose Protection, & furderance also, most hartily, and dutifully, I com∣mende the very waighty Case, of this Common Wealth: not vtterly vnduly, or, (yet) out of sea∣son (I hope) in this first booke ensuing, somewhat Considered of: as, in a * Preface, very nedefull, to the BRYTISH COMPLEMENT, OF THE PERFECT ARTE OF NAVIGATION. And herewith, (once more), I say, Adieu: and well motest thou Fare, my Chri∣stian Brother, and syncerely be∣loued Cuntryman.

Anno, Stellae (Coelo Demissae, recta{que} Reuersae) Quinto: Iulij verò, Die. 4. ET Anno Mundi. 5540.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  1

TO THE RIGHT WOR∣shipfull, [ 1] discrete, and singuler fauorer, of all good Artes, and Sciences, M. Christopher Hatton Esquier: Capitain of her Maiesties Garde, and Ientleman of her priuy Chamber.

NOt onely my dutifull good will toward your Worship, and my great desire, to doo some thing beneficiall to this my Natiue Cuntry: But allso, a certain stinging Indignation, agaynst the Impudent Attempt of such, as vse, wrong∣fully to challendge to them selues, other mens Trauailes, (and not hable to yeld any Ingeni∣ous Inuention of their own) haue, at this * pre∣sent, forced me, to doo my Indeuor, for the publishing of this strange Instrument, with the name of the true Inuentor therof, annexed: And humbly to dedicate my simple Industry herein, to your worships pro∣tection. Trustyng you will the rather accept the same, beyng (as it were) a Crum, to my great Contentation, faln from his plentifull Table, whom (I am assured) you doo derely and sincerely, both loue and esteme: as well, of your own most curteous disposition toward all men, with whom your worship hath to doo: as also, for sundry his vertues, and excellent Skill, in many Arts, and Sciences, Wherewith the highest hath very graciously blessed him. For which his habilitie, and Talent, he is all wayes most humbly thankfull, to the onely Author, and giuer, of all goodnes and wisedome. Verely, for these 24. yeres (at the least) I haue had the Ientleman in great admiration: As well for his foresayd excellencie in good learning (so iudged of, long sins, by the learned, in sundry Nations) As, for his most ready Curtesie in Communicating or conferring to and with such, as duly require his Aduise, Opinion, or Iudgement, in any Science, Arte or Practise, wherein he hath had any speculation or exercise. Such Commendations, as these, allthough they be great, (and rare, in any Studious Ientleman of this Kingdom, els:) Yet, neither the same, nor ten tymes as great (sownding lowd about his eares, for these many yeres past) haue at any tyme, or yet doo, any one pyns point, puf vp his hart, vayngloriously: but haue, and doo make him more Ioyfully thankfull, to the kingly and free giuer, of such his great Talent: So great, as, Quibus Res notae sunt, & qui illi benè volunt, existimant orationem non esse parem Magnitudini Rerum gesta∣rum, (As that prudent Atheniensien Gouernor, Pericles, sayd, In oratione Funebri: Commending them, that manfully had spent their liues, in the late warres, then:*) Alij, ignari, iudicant laudes esse im∣modicas: quia inuident excellenti virtuti. Laudes enim eò vs{que} tolerabiles sunt, donec ea dicuntur, quae Auditores se quo{que} facere posse arbitrantur: Si Maiora dicuntur, Inuident, non credunt.

Therfore, pardon me (I beseech your worship) Yf in rehearsing here, and there (glaunsingly) some points of his due Commendation, Page  2 I speak far short of that, which (farder) your worship and other, doo, or may know, and more aptly can expres, to Gods glory: for his graces, on that Ientleman, so abundantly bestowed: Who (I know right well) doth make no les account of your Worship, then the Iustice of dutifull and perfect Amitie requireth. Which is a thing, very rare (now a dayes) any where to be found. And for better proof of the Premisses, (by your leaue, and with your patience) I will, here, truly and briefly Note such matter vnto you, as neither (Withall) is impertinent to this Para∣doxall Instrument, now, first published: nor mete to be let pas (in a manner) vnknown, and vtterly vnrecorded.

For, whereas, about, 3. or 4. monthes last past, a vertuous * Ientleman and Marchant, with zealous Intent, for the Auauncement of God his glory, and the great Commoditie, and honor of this kingdom, procured vnto him, Worshipfull, yea and Honorable Ayde also: to set furth Ships, for a Northwest Discouery: And shortly after, there came abrode, in Print, a little English book, containing some probable rea∣sons, tending to the perswasion of the same Cours and voyage: In the Epistle of which little book, no small pece of Credit (for the Attempt to be liked of) was ascribed to M. ee his Iudgement, (as, there, is to be sene) set down, in his Mathematicall Praeface, with the En∣glish Euclide, published: So it came to pas, that it was his wur∣shipfull freend (M. Edward Dyer) his fortune, First, to Aduertise him (as he told me) both of the sayd book, by the Title therof: and of his Name, in the foresayd Epistle (to good purpose) vsed. Whereupon, he, calling to Remembrance his old Atlanticall Discourses, to the self same purpose (at the sayd M. Dyer his request) almost ten yeres sins, set down in writyng: And perusing throughly all reasons and allegations (both Pro and Contra) now, in the sayd Pamphlet expressed: did, furth∣with, by euery Article therof, in the Margent, Note their value, or imperfection. And, straight way, after that, made a new Collection, for the same voyage, very probable. And thirdly (the same day) writ, 18. new Considerations of his own: very pleasant, in probabilitie, for an other voyage of Discouery: (in respect of Safetie, Nerenes, and Com∣moditie) nothing inferior to that, which they, * now, haue vnderta∣ken, God send them good spede.

And, M. Dee, being thus furnished, aswell to maintein proba∣bly his former Iudgement (by M. Gascoyn recited, in the foresayd Epi∣stle) and intending to geue those his, 18. new and very straunge Articles of Consideration, to him or them, whom he should dme apt and de∣sirous to furder the sayd Discouery (no les, then this was by a discrete, carefull, diligent, and constant Procurer, follower and furderer, brought to the present execution): And also, purposing freendly to examin, and faithfully to Instruct M. Capitain Frobisher, and M. Christopher Hall, and other, that should haue the chardge about the sayd Northwest Dis∣couery (As he was, partly by the right worshipfull Sir Leonell Ducket Knight, and partly by M. Frobisher him self, before that, requested to doo) made, then, no delay, to repayr to the Moschouy house: Page  3 Where, he found him self courteously and very worshipfully enterteined. And at that tyme of his abode there, and after that, at sundry other tymes, of his Resort, thither, and to their Ships, he proceded so with them, according to his Intent: and pleasured them, so much according to their desire: That he finding them, quick of apprehension, and likely to remaine * Thankfull, for his pithy in∣structing of them: And they, finding him (aboue their expectation) skil∣full: And (more then could be wished for) Carefull, for their well doing, in this their commendable and hono∣rable Attempt: both the one and the other, became very sorry of their so late acquaintance and conference, for these their waighty affaires furde∣ring: And greatly misliked their want of tyme,* sufficient for the Complemēt and principall pointes of the Perfect Art of Nauigation learning at his hands. Such pointes, (I meane), as needed either great knowledge in the Sciences Mathematicall, and Arts Mechanicall: or expert Skill, of many Causes and effects Naturall Such points (I say) to their affaires, and the Perfect Art of Nauigation, incident he very aptly could, & right willingly wold haue dealt with them in: Yf that pinch of tyme, wold haue so permitted. For, it is very euident, by his description of the Perfect Art of Nauigation (in his foresayd Mathematicall Praeface, decla∣red) and also, common reason, and dayly experience, will confirme the same: that, not onely, such skill and furniture, as both here is rehearsed, and in that Praeface is specified: But, other also, is most nedefull for him to be fraught withall, that shall be allowed for an exact Hydrogra∣pher, Pylot-Maior, Arche-Pylot, or Grand-Pylot-Generall of such an Incompa∣rable Ilandish Monarchy, as, this BRYTISH IMPIRE hath bene:* Yea, as it, yet, is: or, rather, as it may, & (of right) ought to be: As I haue bene informed by him, who can reasonably declare how:

WHom, also, I haue heard, often and most hartily Wish,* That all manner of persons passing or frequenting any our Seas, appropriate: and many wayes, next enuironing England, Ire∣land, and Scotland, might be, in conuenient & ho∣norable sort (at all tymes,) at the Commandement and Order (by Beck or Check) of A PETY-NAVY-ROY∣ALL,* of Three score Tall Ships, (or more:) but in no case, fewer: and they, to be very well appoyn∣ted, Page  4 throughly manned, and sufficiently vittailed.

*The Publik Commodities wherof, ensuing: are, or would be, so great and many, as the whole Commons, and all the Subiects of this Noble Kingdome, would (for euer,) bles the day and houre, wherein, such good and politik Order, was (in so good Time and Opportunitie) taken, and established: And esteme them, not onely most worthy and Royall Counsailers, but also Heroicall Magistrates, who haue had so fa∣therly Care for the Communaltie: and most wisely,* procured so Generall Brytish Securitie:

[ 1] ¶ That, henceforward, neither France, Denmark, Scotland, Spaine, nor any other Cuntry, can haue such liberty, for Inuasion, or their mu∣tuall Conspiracies, or Ayds, any way, Transporting: to annoy the blessed State of our Tranquillitie: as, either they haue (in tymes past) had: Or els,* may haue, whensoeuer they will forget, or contemne, the Obser∣uing of their sworn, or pretended Amitie.

[ 2] ¶ Besides that, I report me to all English Marchant, (Sayd he) of how great value to them, and Consequently, to the Publik-Weale, of this Kingdom, such a Securitie were? Wherby, both outward, & home∣ward [ A] (continually) their Marchantlike Ships (many or few, great or small) may, in our Seas, and somewhat farder, pas quietly vnpilled, vn∣spoyled and vntaken, by Pyrates, or other, in time of Peace.

The wisedom and purpose of that most politik Lawmaker, King Minos, may, herein, to vs, be a sufficient Aduertisement. For, *Minos, anti∣quissimus eorum, de quibus audiuimus, Classem habuit. Et dominatus est in maxi∣ma parte eius Maris, quod nunc Hellenicum (.i. Graecum) vocaur: Et Regna∣uit in Cycladibus, & primus Conditor multarum vrbium in illis locis sui, Cùm inde eicisset Cares: & filios suos Gubernatores constituiset: Ac Praedandi con∣suetudinem (sicut consentaneum est) quantùm potuit, è mari susulit: Idque ob eam cansam fecit, vt vectigalia & Redditus magis ad se peruenirent.

What Abundance of Mony, now, lost by Assurance, giuen, or taken, [ B] would by this meanes, also, be greatly out of danger?

[ 3] ¶And Thirdly, how many men (before time of vrgent nede) wold, [ A] thus, be made very skilfull, in all the foresayd Seas, and Sea Coasts: in their Channels knowing, in Soundings all ouer, in good marks taking, for auoyding dangers, in good Harboroughs trying out, in good Lan∣dings assaying, In the order of Ebs and Fluds obseruing, and all other points aduisedly learning, which to the Perfect Art of Nauigation, are ve∣ry necessary: Wherby, they may be the better hable to be diuided and distributed, in a greater Nauy, with charge of Maistership or Pylotage, in tyme of great nede?

*For, this Art of Nauigation, requireth a great skill and industry. And, Yf, 2000 yeres since, it was found true, among the Graecians, that Ars est enim Res Nautica,*si quid aliud: Nec discitur obiter: Sed ita exrcenda est, vt in eam solam, cura intendatur, ne obiter smul alia agantur: How much more, now, in our dayes, may it be truly affirmed: When, it is, ten tymes more, (in particular skill, and ingenious feats) augmented, then it was, in those dayes? They of this Nauy, should oftentymes espy or meee the Priuy Sownders and Serchers of our Channells, Page  5 flats, banks, Pyts, &c. And so, very diligently, deciphring our Sea-Coasts: Yea and in the Ryuer of Thames also: otherwhile, vp to the Station of the Grand-Nauy-Royall. And likewise, ve∣ry oten, mete with the abhominable Theues, that steale our Corne, and vittailes, from sundry our Coasts: to the great hinderance of the Publik plenty of England. And these Theues, are, both Sub∣iects and forreyners: and very often, and to to euidently sene: and generally murmured at: but, as yet, not redressed: for all the good & wise Order, by the most honorable Senat of the Priuy Coun∣sayll, taken therein.

¶Fourthly, how many Thousands, of Soldyers, (of all Degrees, [ 4] and apt ages of men) wold be, by this meanes, not only hardned, well to broke all rage and disturbance of Sea, and endure healthfully all hard∣nes of lodging and dyet there, but also wold be well practised, and easi∣ly trayned vp, to great perfection of vnderstanding all maner of fight and Seruice at Sea? So that, in time of great nede, that expert and har∣dy Crue of some Thousands of Sea-soldiers, wold be to this Realme a Treasor incomparable. And, who knoweth not, what daunger it is, in time of great nede, either to vse all fresh-water-Soldyers: Or, to be a fortnight in prouiding a little Company of Omnigatharums: taken vp, on the sudden, to serue at Sea? For, our ordinary Land-musters, are ge∣nerally intended, or, now may be spared, to be employed otherwise, if nede be. I think, I haue so hard, out of some book, written De Re∣publica.

¶How many Hundreds of lusty and handsome Men, wold be (this [ 5] way) well occupied: and haue needfull maintenance: Which, now, are either Idle, or, want sustenance: or, both: In to to many places, of this renowmed Monarchy?

¶Moreover, what a Cumfort and Sauegard, will it, or may [ 6] it be, to the whole Realme, To haue the great Aduantage of so ma∣ny warlike Ships, so well manned and appointed (for all assayes) at all houres, ready to affront straight way, set on, and ouerthrow, any sudden or priuy forreyn Trechery: by Sea (directly, or indirect∣ly) attempted agaynst this Impire: in any Coast or parte therof? For, sudden forrein Attempts (that is to say, vnknowen or vnhard of to vs, before their Readynes) can not be done, with great power: For, great Nauies, most commonly, are espyed, or hard somwhat of, and that very certainly, while they are in preparing: though in the meane∣while (politikly) in diuers places, they distribute their Ships, and their preparations appertaining.

¶And, by reason of the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall, Yt shall, [ 7] at all tymes, not onely lye in our hands, greatly to displease and pinch the Pety forrein Offender, at Sea: but also (yf iust occasion be geuen) Page  6 on land, to doo very valiant Seruice: and that, speedily: as well, a∣gainst any of the foresayd forreyn possible Offenders: As, also, against such of Ireland, Scotland, or England, who shall, or will trayte∣rously, rebelliously, or seditiously assemble in Troups, or Bands, within the Territories of Ireland, or England: while, greater Ar∣myes (on our behalf) shall be in preparing, against them: Yf, farder nede, be. For, skilfull Sea-Soldiers, are, also, on land, far more traynable to all Martiall exployts executing: and therein to be more quick eyed and nymble, at handstrokes, or skaling: better to endure all hard∣nes, of Lodging, or dyet: and les to feare all daunger, nere or far: Than the Land-Soldyer, can be brought to the perfection of a Sea-Soldyer. As (to the same Intent) the Incomparable, and most expert Graeke Capi∣tain Pericles, in his Oration (had to the Parlement Senators of A∣thens) auowched: Comparing their State, to the State of the Lacede∣monians. Saying:*Cum{que} Praesidium alicbi aduersus nos collocabunt, noce∣bunt illi quidem: quia excursionibus vastabunt Agros, & recipient Transfugas: Sed non poterunt simul & obsidere nos, & prohibere nostras Nauigationes in ipso∣rum terram: Vbi cos Classe vexabimus. At nos quidem plus habemus Industriae, ad praelia in terra, ex vsu rei Nauticae: quàm ipsi habere possunt ad Rem Nauti∣cam, ex vsu Militiae Terrestris. Nec facilè erunt periti Rei Naualis. Nam, nec vos (quanquam à bello Persico, Classe vtimur, & nos exercemus) satis Idonei estis.

[ 8] ¶By this Nauy, also, all Pyrats, our own Cuntrymen (And they to no small number) wold be called, or constrayned to come home. And then (vpon good Assurance taken of the reformable, and men of choice, for their good Abearing, from hence forth) all such to be bestowed, here and there, in the foresayd Nauy. For, good accownt is to be made of their bodyes, (allready hardned to the Seas) and chiefly, of their Cou∣rages and Skill, for good Seruice to be done at the Sea.

[ 9] ¶Nynthly, Princes and Potentates, our forreyn frends, or pryuy foes, (the one for loue, and the other, for feare) wold not suffer any Marchant, or other, (Subiects of the Queenes Maiesty), either to haue to speedy wrong, in their Cowrts: Or, by vnreasonable delayes, or trifling Shifts, to be made wery, and vnhable to follow their right: And, notwithstanding such our freends, (or, Priuy foes), their Subiects, wold be glad, (most reuerently) to become Suters and Petitioners to the Royall State of this Kingdom, for iust Redres: Yf, any kinde of way, they could truly proue them selues, by any Subiect of this Realme, Iniuryed: and they, wold neuer, be so Stowt, Rude, and dishonorably Iniurious to the Crown and Dignity of this most Sacred Monarchy, as, (in such Cases) to be their own Iudges or, to vse against this Kingdom, and the Royall chief Cownsaill therof, such abhominable Terms of Dishonor: as, our to to great Lenity, and their to to barbarous. Impudency, might (in manner) Induce them to doo. And, all this, wold come to pas, through the Royalty and Souerainty of the Seas adiacent, or enuiron∣ing this Monarchy of England,* Ireland, and (by right) Scot∣land, and the Orknayes allso, very Princely, prudently, and Page  7 valiantly recouered: that is to say, by the sayd Pety-Nauy-Royall, duly and iustly Limited: Discretely possessed: and Tryumphantly en∣ioyed.

¶Should not forreyn Fishermen (ouer boldly, now, and to to [ 10] Iniuriously, abusing our Rich Fishings, about England, Wales, and Ire∣land) by the presence, ouersight, power, and Industry of this Pety-Na∣uy-Royall, be made content, and Iudge them selues well apayd, to enioy (by our leaue) some great portion of Reuenue to enriche them sel∣ues, and their Cuntryes by: with Fishing, within the Seas, appertay∣ning to our Ancient Bownds and Limits? Where, now, (to our great Shame, and Reproche), some of them, doo come,* (in maner) home to our doores: and, among them all, depriue vs, yerely, of many hun∣dred thousand pownds: which, by our Fishermen, vsing the sayd Fi∣shings, (as chief), we might enioy: And, at length (by little and little) bring them, (Yf we wold deal so rigorously with them,) to haue as little portion of our peculyer Commodity, (to our Ilandish Monarchy, by God and Nature, assigned) as, now, they force our Fishermen, to be conteted with: And yerely (notwithstanding) doo, at their fishing, o∣penly, and ragingly vse such words of reproche, toward our Prince and Realm, as, no true Subiects hart can quietly disgest: And, besides that, ofer such shamefull wrongs to the good laboursom people of this Land, as is not (by any reason) to be born withall, or endured any longer: De∣stroying their Nets, Cutting their Cables, to the los of their Anchors: Yea, ••d oftentymes, of Barkes, Men, and all. And, of these sorte of people they be, which (other whiles) by collour and pretence of com∣ming about their feat of fishing, doo subtilly and secretly vse Sowndings, and Serchings, of our Channells, Deeps, Showles, Banks, or Bars, along the Sea Coasts, and in our Hauen Mowthes allso, and vp in our Creeks, sometymes in our Bayes, and sometimes in our Roads, &c. Ta∣king good Marks, for auoding of the dangers: And allso trying good Landings. And (so, making perfect Chartes of all our Coats, rownd about England, and Ireland) are become (allmost) perfecter in them, then the most parte of our Maisters, Loadmen, or Pylots, are: to the dubble danger of mischief in tymes of War: And, allso to no little hazard of the State Royall: Yf (malitiously bent), they should purpose to land any puissant Army, in tyme to come.

And, as Concerning those Fishings of England, Wales, and Ireland: Of their places: Yerely seasons: the many hundreds of forrein Fisherboats, yerely resorting: the diuers sort of fish, there taken: with the apperte∣nances: I know right well, that (long ago) all such matter, concer∣ning these Fishings, is declared vnto some of the higher powers of this kingdom, and made manifest,* by an other honest Ientleman of the Mid∣dle Temple. Who, very discretely and faithfully hath dealt there in, and still trauaileth, (and by diuers other wayes also) to farder the Weale-Pub∣lik of England, so much as in him lyeth.

But, Note, (I pray you) this point very aduisedly: That, * As, By his plat, of our sayd fishing commodities, many a hundred thousand pounds of yerely Reuenue, might grow to the Crown of England, more than (now) Page  8 doth: And much more, to the Commons of this Monarchy, also: be∣sides the inestimable benefit of plentifull vitayling, and relieuing, both England: and Ireland: And beside the increasing of many thousands of expert, hard, and hardly Mariners: And besides the Abating the Sea forces of our forrein Neighbours, and vnconstant freends: And (Con∣trarywise) the encreasing of our own power, and force at Sea: * So, it is most euident and certain, that Principium (in this Case) is, Plus quàm dimidium totius. As I haue hard it verified (prouerbially) in many other affairs.

Wherfore, the very Entrance, and Beginning toward our SEA-RIGHT Recouering, And the foresayd Commodities enioying, at length: Yea, and the onely means, of our Con∣tinuance therewith: Can be no other, but by the dreadfull presence, and power, (with discreet ouersight, and due order) of the sayd PETY-NAVY-ROYALL: being (whole som tymes, sometyme a parte therof) at all the chief places, of our Fishings: as yf they were Publik Officers, Commissioners, and Iusticiers: by the Supreme Authority Royall, of our most Renowmed QVEENE ELIZABETH, rightfully and prudently therto assigned.

*So, that, this Pety-Nauy-Royall, is thought to be the onely Mai∣ster Key, wherewith to open all Locks, that kepe out, or hinder, this Incomparable Brytish Impire, from enioying (by many means) such a yerely Reuenue of Threasor, (both to the Supreme hed, and Subiects therof,*)

as no plat of Ground, or Sea, in the whole world, els, (being of no greater quantity) can with more Right,* greater honor, with so great ease, and so little Chardges: So nere at hand, in so short tyme, and in so little danger: any kynde of way, yeld the like, to either, King or o∣ther Potentate, and absolute Gouernour therof, whosoeuer.
Besides the Peaceable Security, to enioy all the same, for euer. Yea, yerely and yerely, (by our wisdom and valiantnes duly vsed) all manner of our Commodities, to arise greater and greater: as well, in wealth and strength, as of forrein loue and feare, where it is most Requisite to be: and also of Triumphant Fame, the whole world ouer, vndoutedly. Also, this Pety-Nauy-Royall, will be the perfect means, of very ma∣ny other, and exceeding great Commodities, redownding to this Mo∣narchy: which, our Fishermen, with their * Fisherboats onely, can ne∣uer be hable to Cumpas, or bring to pas: And those, being such, as are more necessary, to be cared for (Presently) then wealth.

*Therfore, the Premisses well wayed, aboue and before all other, this Plat of a Pety-Nauy-Royall, will (by Gods grace) be fownd,* the playn and perfect A. B. C. most necessary for the Commons, and eue∣ry Subiect, in his calling, to be carefully and diligently musing vpon, or exercising him self therin. Till, shortly, they may be hable, in effect, Page  9 to read before their eyes, the most ioyfull and pleasant Brytish Histories, (by that Alphabet onely, decyphred, and so brought to their vnderstan∣ding and knowledge) that euer, to this, or any kingdom in the whole world els, was known or perceiued.

¶Furdermore, How acceptable a thing, may this be, to the Ra∣gusyes, [ 11] Hulks, Caruailes, and other forrein rich Laden Ships, passing within, or by any the Sea Limits, of her Maiesties Royallty, euen there, to be, now, in most Security, where, onely heretofore, they haue bene in most Ieopardy: as well, by the Rauin of the Pyrat, as the Rage of the Sea, distressing them: for lack of Succour, or good and ready Pilotage? What great frendship in hart, of forrein Prince and Subiect: And what liberall Presents, and forrein Contributions, in hand, will duly follow therof, who can not imagin?

¶Moreouer, such a Pety-Nauy-Royall, (sayd he) wold be in [ 12] such sead: As though, 1. One were appointed, to Consider and listen, to the dooings of Ireland: 2. And, an other, to haue as good an eye, and ready hand, for Scotish dealings: 3. An other, to Inter∣cept or vnderstand, all priuy Conspiracies (by Sea to be communica∣ted) and priuy Aydes of Men, Munition, or Mony, (by Sea to be trans∣ported,) & to the endamaging of this kingdom, any way, intended: 4. An other, against all sudden forrein Attempts: 5. An other, to ouersee the forrein Fishermen: 6. An other, against all Pyrats haunting our Seas: [ A] And therewith, as well to wast and garde our own Marchants Fletes, as they shall pas, and repas, betwene this Realm, and wheresoeuer els they may best be planted,* for their ordinary Marts keping (yf England may not best serue that turne) And also, to defend, help, and direct many our [ B] forrein freends, who must needes pas by, or frequent any of those Seas, whose principall Royallty, (vndoutedly) is to the Imperiall Crown of these Brytish Ilandes, appropriate.

One such Nauy, (sayd he) by Royall direction, excellently well manned, and to all purposes, aptly and plentifully furnished, and appoin∣ted: and * Now, in tyme of our * Peace, and quiet euery where (Yet), before-hand, set forth, to the foresayd Seas: with their Chardges and Commissions, (most secretly to be kept from all foes and forreiners) wold stand this Common wealth, in as great stead, as sowr tymes, so many Ships, wold, or could do, yf, vpon the sudden, and all at once, we should be forced, to deale, (for remouing the foresayd sun∣dry principall manners of Annoyance:) we beyng, then, vttorly vnready thereto: And the Enemyes Attemp, requiring speedy (and admitting no successiue) defeating. [ 13]

¶To Conclude herein: This Pety-Nauy-Royall, vndowtedly, will stand the Realm in better stead; then the enioying of fowr such Forts or Townes, as Callys and Bulleyn onely, could do. For, this, will be as great strength, and to as good purpose, in any Coast of England, Ire∣land, or Scotland, betwene vs and the Forrein foe, as euer Callys was, for that onely one place, that it is situated in. And will help to enioy The Royallty and Souerainty of the Narrow Seas, throughoutPage  10 and of other our Seas also, more seruisably, then Callys or Bulleyn euer did: or could doo: yf all the Prouisoes hereto appertayning, be duly obser∣ued:* forasmuch as, we entend, now, Peace onely preseruing: and no Inuasion of France, or any Enemy, on that Mayn, inhabiting: toward whom, (by Callys, or Bulleyn,) we need to let-in our Land forces. &c. Much (I know,) may be here sayd, Pro, & Contra, in this Case. But, God hath suffred such matters to fall so out: and all to vs, for the best, yf it be so (thankfully) construed, and duly considered.

For, when all forrein Princes, our Neighbors: dowtfull freends, or vndutifull People: (Subiects, or vassals) to our Soueraign, shall perceiue such a Pety-Nauy-Royall,* houering purposly, here and there, euer rea∣dy and hable to ouerthrow any their malitious and subtile secret Attempts, intended against the weale Publike of this most Noble kingdom, in any parte or Coast thereof: Then, euery one of them, will, or may think, that, (of purpose) that Nauy was made out, onely to preuent them, and none other: And for their destruction, being bewrayed: as they wold deme. So, that, no one, such forrein Enemy, wold aduenture, first, to breake out into any notable disorder, against vs: Nor homish Subiect, or wauering vassall (for like Respects) durst, then, priuily muster, to Re∣bellion: Or make harmfull Rodes, or dangerous Ryots, in any English, or Irish Marches.

But, such matter as this, I iudge you haue, or mought haue hard of, ere now, (by the worshipfull M. Dyer,) and that, abundandy: Seeing, Synopsis Reipub. Brytanicae, was, at his Request (six yeres past) contriued: As, by the Methodicall Author thereof, I vnderstand.* Whose Policy (here) For the Partings, Meetings, Followings, Circuits, &c. of the Ships (to the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall belonging) with the Alterations both of Tymes, Places, and Number, &c. is very strange to here. So that, in Totall Somme, of all the foresayd Considerations, vnited in one: Yt see∣meth to be (almost) a Mathematicall demonstration, next vnder the Mer∣cifull and Mighty Protection of God, for a faesable Policy, to bring or praeserue this Victorious Brytish Monarchy, in a marueilous Secu∣rity: Whereupon, the Reuenue of the Crown of England, and Wealth-Publik,* will wonderfully encrease and florish: And then, ther∣upon, Sea forces (a new) to be encreased, proportionally: &c. And so, the Fame, Renowm, Estimation, and Loue, or Feare, of this Brytish Microcosmus, all the whole and Great world ouer, will speedily be spred, and surely be settled. &c.

Truly, I was carryed (almost, ere I was aware) and that, very pleasant∣ly, into the Consideration of the manifold and Incredible great Commo∣dities, that may arise to this Kingdom, by A Nauy, such, as I haue (by good Instruction) spoken of: whereas, my chief purpose was, and is, to entreat of matters, touching this Paradoxall-Cumpas, and the perfect Arte of Nauigation. But, seeing the word of a Nauy, was so nere, in Sownd, to Nauigation: And seeing, no Nauy (in dede) can be dealt Page  11 withall, at Seas, accordingly, without good skill of Nauigation: (though Nauigation, may be without a Nauy) verily, for so good a purpose, and so nere to my matter, I fauored my fantazy, while it somwhat strayed from my principall Intent. And not so, neither. For, my principall Intent and his chiefly, (whose brief Aduertisements herein I wold gladly make some Remembrance of) Is, (as it ought to be, of duty) to be fownd faithfull, seruisable, Comfortable, and profitable to the Politicall Bo∣dy of this Brytish Common-wealth:* Wherof, we all, be Mem∣bers, by God his mercifull Ordinance. That is to say:

All true Sub∣iects, their Chief Intent, and principall purpose, (in all worldly their af∣fayres, Artes, Sciences, and Studyes, &c.) ought to be, the procuring, furdering, mainteyning and encreasing of the weal and Commodity Publik, so much as in them lyeth, and as, they decently and dutifully may. And, So, the End of Ends, and yttermostscope of the sayd Arte of Nauigation, is such Publik Commodity, of this whole kingdom intended, and meant: that, from that Publik fowntain, very easily and certainly, may be deriued to euery priuat man, his proportionall parte of delitious Refreshing, and vitall preseruation, in very godly sort, and poli∣tik order.

But, Contrarywise, Where priuate wealth and commodity is sought [ 1] for, before Publik: Or, no publik Commodity at all, cared for, or inten∣ded: [ 2] but onely priuate: Or, where Publik Commodity and Security, [ 3] is euidently hindred, or, indammaged: There, by great wisdom, any such Common-Wealth, wold speedily be Cured from the Ruinous and Lamentable daunger, to the Strength and life of the Weale-Pub∣lik ensuying, of those three kindes of so greuous and vene∣mous wounds, if they be, ouerlong, neglected.

And, as Concerning the former Pety-Nauy-Royall: that I may, aswell Reporte some parte of his Plat, and Considerations, for the Charges thereof bearing and mainteyning,* as I haue expressed his ear∣nest wish for such a Nauy to be set forth, for the Causes alledged: After this manner, was his entrance into that parte of his discourse. What wold that Noble, Valiant, and Victorious Atheniensien PERI∣CLES, say, yf, now, he were lyuing, and a Subiect of Authority, in this Brytish Kingdom? What Common Contribution, wold his pithy Eloquence perswade, for the mayntenance of this Pety-Nauy-Royall? Who, taught by word, and proued in effect, Vnam Pecuniae pa∣randae rationem putandam, Naues quamplurimas habere: Alias verò extra eam rationes, nullius momenti existimandas. And so, effectually perswaded the Atheniensiens, Quòd, NAVES, Diuitias: Diuitias verò, aegestatem ducerent. Which AEnigma of Prudent Pericles, is thus (in Latin) expoun∣ded out of the Graeke Suidas. Opes igitur in Terra, Inopiam arbitrari: In MARI autem sitas esse Opes, existimare: Nihil aliud est, nisi vnas putare O∣pes, Naues quam-plurimas: Reliqua, Inopiam iudicare: Cuiusmodi est Pecu∣nia Page  12 Spectaculorum, & Iudiciorum. Suadet ita{que}, Omnes in haec factos sump∣tus, Nauibus esse assignandos. And, syns this matter of the Pety-Na∣uy-Royall, hath somwhat occupyed myne Imagination, I haue fownd (Sayd myne Instructor) by that worthy and excellent Plutarch his Graeke his∣tories,* of Notable mens liues, that this Peerles Pericles (about two thou∣sand yeres sins) faithfully and ernestly intending,* to aduance the Atheni∣ensien State and Common-Wealth: And to make it, after the best man∣ner, to excell all other, with whom it had, or might haue to doo: percei∣ued, the only means, to be Such, as, by manifold, and more forcible Arguments, the like, must to this Brytish Ilandish Monarchy be much more auailable, To procure vnto it, Triumphant pros∣perity: And how? By Sea Security: And how, that? By this Pety-Nauy-Royall, in due * tyme prouided, and discretely, at Sea main∣teyned. For, Pericles wisely vnderstanding, that no other means was so easy, so ready, and so sure, for Athens to atteyn to their wished for So∣uerainty, among their freends and foes, dwelling about them: But if, they were Lords and Maisters of the Seas, nere and far about them:* he wold not lose any opportunity of fardering his purpose therein, both by Ships preparing, and apt men trayning vp to Sea discipline. And ther∣upon wold not, Imperitis Voluptatibus Ciuitatem delinire: But with such exercises delight them, as, besides other their priuate Commo∣dities growing thereby, The Principall and finall Publik purpose, might also therewith, be brought to greater nerenes. As: Sexaginta autem Triremes quotannis emittere, in quibus multi ex C••ibus nauigabant: stipendium{que} singulis octo*Minae erat: qui eas pro meditatione, & exercitatione ad Nauticam & Marinam Disciplinam, perciperet. This Pericles, also, by many his victo∣ries, was found and tryed, abrode (on Sea and land) Vir bello fortis & stre∣nuus: as well, as, a most prouident and Circumspect Cownsailor, at home. Nulla enim incidit (eo Duce) ne fortuita quidem Belli offensio. And, Quàm diù in Pace vrbi praefuit, moderatè vsus est Imperio, & tuta Ciuitas e∣rat: Opibus{que} ac Potentia (ipso Rempub: gubernante) praecipuè florebat: As Thu∣cidides witnesseth, and other. And now behold, what followeth (in Plu∣tarch) noted, of some parte of that most comfortable frute enioying, which, of the former Ships prepared, And the Citizens to Sea discipline before hand trayned vp, was reasonably expected: Deindè, Magna Classe, optimé{que} ornata, & instructa, Graecas quidem Ciuitates, quarum ope & subsidio iuuabantur, benignè humané{que} tractauit: Vicinis autem Barbaris Natio∣nibus, Regibus & Tyrannis, ostendit Potentiae molem, licentiam{que} & audaciam, quacun{que} libitum foret Nauigantium: Maré{que} totum, sub suam ditionem & Imperium redigentium. O, a Sownd Cownsai∣lor and Couragious Capitain, most mete for the Brytish Sea Royal∣ty recouering. O Pericles, thy life (certainly) may be a pattern and Rule to the higher Magistrates (in very many points) most diligently, of them, to be imitated. But, albeit, that such a Graeke Pericles, can not, readi∣ly, for our purpose, be found out: Yet, it is (Sayd myne Instructor) Page  13 of some graue and expert men, thought probable, that this Politik De∣uise, and humble Aduertisement, can not so sone take effect,* as all the States and the whole Commons of this Brytish Impire, may, (for the manifold and waighty Respects declared), both very faithfully desire, and also very quickly be induced, to be, after a most easy manner, Contri∣butary thereunto: vnder the name of A perpetuall Beneuolence,* for Sea Security. For, who is there, of this Kingdom: A true and natu∣rall borne Subiect (Spirituall or Temporall,) but very willingly wold: and without any his hinderance, could, yerely forbeare (to furder and stablish so marueilous a Benefit publik) The Hundredth Peny, of his Rents and Reuenues: and the Fiue hundredth peny, of his Goods valuation? And after the same rate, is to be vnderstode of all and euery Fraternitie,* Guyld, Corporation, Misterie, Brotherhood and Communaltie Corpo∣rated or not Corporated, within this Realm of England, Wales, and o∣ther the Queenes Maiesties Dominions, their goods and reuenues. And that, for onely the first and immediatly next ensuing seuen yeres space. Then, for the second seuen yeres, to pay onely, The Hundred and fiftith peny, of his or their Rents and Reuenues, and the Seuen hundred and fiftith peny of his or their goods valuation, yerely. And after 14. yeres expired, to pay for euer, but the half of the first Contribution. So that, after the first. 14. yeres fully expired, (after the day of this decree and Act making,) the Rate to be, yerely, but The Two hundredth peny, of his or their Rents and Reuenues,* and the Thousandth peny of his or their Goods valuation, for euer, And that, I mean, onely, of all naturall born Subiects, of this our blessed Iland ALBION. So that, such an exact valuation of their wealth and hability, should not hereafter (in any wise) be a thing to the Sub∣iects and Commons, praeiudiciall: And a cause of greater Charge, or burden to them, in their Ceasments (to come) for any other Publik Ser∣uice, or Commodity, than heretofore, the most generall manner of fauou∣rable * leuying, of such other Taxes and Subsidies, hath bene vsed. But, Beleue, vndoutedly, After that this SEA SECVRITY (with that fauour of the Omnipotent King, which he chiefly beareth to Iustice, and Peace: and by the wisdom, and pru∣dency of the higher powers of this Impire) shall be ones esta∣blished, and confirmed, in trade of due execution, (either by means here expressed, or better), Vndoutedly, * All other ex∣traordinary TAXES, SVBSIDIES, RELIEVES, and LONES, &c. will cease, and vtterly be needles, FOR EVER. Prouided and excepted alwayes, that no man being in the retinue of the Pety-Nauy-Royall,* shall with this Contribution be Page  14 any thing charged: of what degree, or hability so euer he be. Suer∣ly, Seeing God challengeth the Tenth yerely, and First frutes, conti∣nually: in Token of our Thankfulnes toward him, and for Mayntenance of the Leuites, that are of the Spirituall Ministery, Truly: the Tenth of the Tenth, I mean, the Hundredth parte of our Reuenues, As it is a les portion then the other, So will many thowsands, be more willing to geue it, and more truly to Recken it, also, then (now adayes) they doo the other: And will Iudge This new Beneuolence, as a gratious, godly, & politik * Easter Offring, toward the Repayring and new Strength∣ning of the fowndation and Walls of TEMPLVM PACIS, or Solomons Temple, (as it were) I mean, of the whole Brytish Monarchie: Wherein, by this means, we may, in Peace, ioyfully, all the dayes of our life, and thankfully, serue the King of Kings, and Lord of Hostes: Little dreading, and les feeling the fury of any forreyn Enemies power. And thereby, also, be the better hable to cut of, and speedily to [ 2] Repres any homish prowd flesh, or Rebellious Carryen. And, as for the Free Denizon, yt is most reasonable and fauourable handling, that he be Contributary herein, The Two hundredth parte of his Yerely Reue∣nues, [ 3] and value in Substance: ioyntly esteemed: And the mere For∣reyner (here inhabiting) to be aunswerable, yerely, for the Hundredth parte of his Substance onely. In their Natiue Cuntry, they know (and we are not ignorant) how far greater Sommes, they haue byn Tributa∣ry of, yerely: and not, the Thousand part, to their Commodity so auai∣lable, as this will be: And as they also will gladly acknowledge: Yf they haue a faithfull hart: wishing (as they are bownd in Conscience) the pros∣perous estate of this Renowmed Kingdom: Which, so charitably and fa∣therly, in their necessityes, and half voluntary Banishments, hath re∣ceyued them, and still protecteth them: in no les Security, then the true and Naturall born Subiects of this Brytish Impire, are protected in: aswell from all forrein violence, as all other Iniuries within this Land, [ 4] sustayning. Also, that euery Forreyner or Alien, (Denizon, or not,) falling not vnder the generall reckning and order of Contribution afore∣sayd, and notwithstanding, of the Age of seuen yeres, or aboue, shall yerely yeld to this Contribution, fowr pence, euery one, for a Pety Forreyn [ 5] Courtesy. Finally, of the wages of all hyred Seruants, the Hun∣dredth Peny, of euery fiue Nobles wages, is to be accownted of, yerely: yf their meat and drink be also allowed them, besides their wages: As most willingly, all Discrete Seruants, English and other, will yeld there∣to. That is, of euery fiue Nobles wages clere, receyued, or to be re∣ceiued, onely fowre pence to be due to this Contribution, yerely. And of any wages vnder fiue Nobles, nothing to be accownted herein, due. And aswell, for the foresayd forreyner, his or her Pety Curtesy: as also, for all Seruants, their fiue Noble Grote, of Contribution, The Maister, (or he, or She), with whom the sayd Forreyner or Seruant (or being both) is or shalbe abyding (at the tyme of Contribution, or Contributions,) to be charged with the same, for lack of payment therof.

Page  15To be playn, and very brief: Who is there, in this whole Kingdom,* so Temperate and Thrifty in his expenses: that dispendeth not, yerely, in very vayn, and vtterly vnprofitable Charges, (I will not name some, worse,) the Hundredth part of his yerely Reuenues: and the Fiue hundredth part of the value of his Goods? Let euery man, vnparcially, examin him self, and his own Case, therein. But, yf we, now, wold leaue of, such vanity, and (in dede) folly, and turn that vayn folly to Ripe wisdom: And that superfluous charge, priuate, to wealth publik: We may be iudged to haue geuen an attentife eare, to the Kingly Prophet: and to haue bin obedient, to his Counsayle: Where he sayeth: Declina à malo, & fac Bonum: Inqui∣re PACEM, & persequere eam. Syr, pardon me I pray you: for, though I meddle not with the Mysticall and spirituall sense, hereof: (for, I am neither Doctor, nor Bacheler of Diuinity: no, nor, of any calling Leuiticall) Yet, truly, this exposition, or application, is not vtterly vn∣apt for this our purpose, of seeking wayes to preserue the Peace pu∣blik, with all forreyn Princes: And to establish the Security therof, perpetually: So far, as humain policy, may make reasonable account,* of so likely and circumspect meanes, duly executed.

It is an olde Prouerb. A Sword, keepeth peace: So, this Na∣uy, by his present readynes, and the Secret of his Circuits,* and visitati∣ons of sundry forreyn and homish Coasts, obserued: will make the mali∣tious murmurers, and priuy malefactors, of all sortes, to kepe in, and to forbeare their wicked deuises and policies: which, otherwise, against vs, they wold aduenture to execute.

Moreouer, wheras, some are of Opinion, that prety Speede,* were nedefull, in the Premisses (as the tickle and perillous State of Christen∣dome, is, at this present:) Truly, in Respect therof, we haue great cause to thank God, for the honest and prudent disposition of some Subiects of this Realm: at whose hands (till Ships enough for the purpose, might aduisedly be built) we may, partly buy, and partly hyre, both in num∣ber and goodnes, Ships, sufficient, to serue, in this Case, with all Op∣portunity.

But, as Concerning any of her Maiesties Principall Nauy,* to be a∣mong them, now, a the first, for Cowntenancing of their Credit, or furnishing of their Strength, he wold not presume, to sp••ke therof: referring (very dutifully) such points, to the great wisdomes of the highest Magistrats, to consider of.

And, Certaynly, if any thing, may (reasonably) be alledged, as a Hinderance, whereby this Incomparable Ilandish Impire, shall be barred (yet longer) from tasting of this most delitious, Comfortable, Cordiall, and preseruatiue frute of * Peace and Tranquillity (politikly [ 1] assured:) of * Wealth and Riches, comming in, abundantly, to Queene [ 2] and Subiect: And, of right honorable * Renown, and great freendship, [ 3] procured both nigh and far: Yf any thing (Sayd he) may seeme of Im∣portance, that, probably and possibly may hinder this Publik Policy,* from being put in execution: The first thing may be, a Certayn Dout, Page  16 which may arise among the graue Cownsaylers, and circumspect Gardi∣ans [ 1] of this Common-wealth: Whether the Threasor, by the former rate, generally in England leuyed and collected into their hands and or∣der, will be sufficient to counteruaile all Charges, ordinary and extraordi∣nary, to such a Pety-Nauy-Royall, appertayning or no:

[ 2] Also, they will, or may dout, whether vittailes will hereby wax scarse, and dere, the whole Realm throughout, or no:

[ 3] And Thirdly, the Poore and faithfull Commons, will on their part, only dout, of the true, due, and iust vsing and Bestowing of the fore∣sayd yerely Beneuolence: and that, perpetually: according to the very godly and politik Intent of the perpetuall Contribution therof. These three douts, chiesly, being reasonably dissolued, I will return to the Paradoxall-In∣strument, and other Nauigation matters, thus, a while, set aside.

*As for the first: Yf the Touchestone of all Subiects wisdom, that is, the Queene her most excellent Maiestie, and her right honorable and faithfull priuy Counsaill, do like, this Pety Nauy (for the purposes be∣fore rehersed) to be set srth and mainteyned:* So that, the same, become not chargeable to her highnes: but be sufficiently prouided for, by the most easy and voluntary Contribution of her louing and faithfull Sub∣iects, and other, (in maner, aboue specified:) Then, it is to be sayd to the Dout of want of Mony necessary: That, yf the oresayd ordinary and vni∣uersall Beneuolence of England, will not suffice (Though it will amount, [ 1] Yerely, to aboue an Hundred Thousand pounds) And especially, seeing the greatest Charges will be at the first preparations: yf all things be made and bought new: Yt is (vndoutedly) to be supposed, that many a Thousand of Men and Women: Yea (in dede) the most parte of all the former Contributers, seeing or vnderstanding the first yeres Contribution (before hand, deliuered) so well and duly bestowed, toward their Intent performing, wold, presently (vpon a Second Publik warning, of want,) of their own honest discretion, become (agayn) as Liberall and Beneficiall, [ 2] (and, but for this once) Extraordinary, as onely the Six hun∣dredth peny of their Goods and Reuenues, ioyntly, should be of value. That is, for him that may dispend, by Rents, of Lands, or o∣therwayes, a Hundred pounds, yerely: and be also, in Goods, worth 500. pounds, to yeld now, in extraordinary Contribution, xx. s. onely: and neuer, after that, any more extraordinary Ayde, to be, in this behalf, or otherwise, required.

Moreouer, in this Case of want, for such a Publik Benefit furde∣ring (as neuer was the like thereof, to this Brytish Monarchy so pro∣bably, [ 3] assured) we wold craue, the Charitable and Brotherly Beneuolence (and that onely for this ones, As for the first setting vp, of the sayd Pety-Nauy-Royall: And, but, according to this most easy, and Second Page  17* Rate to be leuyed) of the Inhabitants of Ireland, Iernsey, Garnsey, the Counties of Northumberlād, Cumberlād, Westmerland, the Town of New-Castle vpon Tyne, the Bishoprik of Durham: and of all those Cities, Boroughs, and Townes (onely the Town of Barwick to be excepted herein) which by any Letters Patents, of the Queenes Maie∣stie, or of her most Noble Progenitors, (otherwise) haue Exemption, Pri∣uilege, & Immunities, from paying any Tax, or Subsidy. &c. And likewise, of the Inhabitants of the Fiue Ports, and euery of their Members: And also of the present Inhabitants within the Liberties, of Romney Marsh. And therupon, good and sufficient Prouiso,* to be made, and established, to all and euery of the foresayd extraordinary Ayders, that this their dis∣crete and voluntary Contribution, shall in no case (hereafter) be vnto them any thing praeiudiciall, or dammageable to their Charter or Priui∣lege of Immunitie.

¶And this Request, with no little Reason,* may be offred to their Cour∣tesies, to Consider of: Seeing, not onely, it is for the better and more assured Peace and Tranquillitie enioying, ouer all these Kingdomes of England, and Ireland: and for a marueilous and Incredible wealth, and no les Strength, procuring to the same: But also, forasmuch as, all the former, ordinarily exempted of all Taxes, and Subsidies, &c. shall, or may, by the continuall Seruice of this Nauy, and also by the Threa∣sory therof (hereafter) be greatly ayded: and that (peculiarly) to the lesse∣ning both of their * Charges, and also of their * Danger, many wayes: In respect wherof, such Priuileges, Immunities and Exemptions, were first granted vnto them: and continually haue bin, and are confirmed. So that, such their extraordinary Beneuolence, shall not seeme merely giuen: no, nor so chargeable vnto them, as lent Good: But, to be Mony most com∣modiously (for their peculiar Causes, and behoof) somwhat before hand, disbursed.

¶Also, yf it were presently known, that this Pety-Nauy-Royall, (vndoutedly) should, for the foresayd exceeding waighty Respects, very shortly, be consydered of: And with conueniency and Opportunity, furdered to the setting furth, and vse therof: vpon that True and suffici∣ently warrented Assertion, and declaration: How many godly Alder∣men, [ 4] and other well disposed Marchants, of the City of London: How many a Marchant Venturer, & owner: Yea, how many great Wooll-Mais∣ters, Staplers, and Clothyers, throughout the whole Realm: Yea, and how many other, of all States and Professions, wold very charitably, in their Legacies,* Remember: or, be contented to be put in mynde, of deuout Contribution, or Legacy, toward the Threasory augmenting, for due mayntenance of the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall?

¶How many a Bishop, Dean, and Archdeacon, &c. With their [ 5] own hands, wold (Extraordinarily) be example to the Layity, of tur∣ning, Liberally, the Mammon of Iniquitie, to the preseruation of Pub∣lik Tranquillity: and the mayntenance of the Politik Security therof, Page  18 against Forreyn fraude and force: and all Homish possible Rebellions?

[ 6] ¶But, and if the Incredible great, and manifold Commodities ensu∣ing therof, were but had, a yere, two, or three, in proof: (O Lord) What lode wold be layd on, then, among the Godly, wise, and hable Subiects, to the better mayntenance of a bigger Nauy: And of new deuised, more warlik Ships? How many wold contend with other, vertuously, to excell herein: as zealous Benefactors, to the Weale-Pub∣lik? And so, for euer, to remayn recorded: not in boke onely, with pen and Ink marked: but in the harts of all Brytish, and English Posteri∣ty: and in their thankfull memories, deeply Imprinted.

Could the deuout zeale, and Intent of our forefathers, be so Bene∣ficiall to Thousands: And, without any Commaundement, or Request Publik, (they being then, in darknes, and beclogged with Superstition) most gladly, be so liberall, to the building of so many fayr Monasteries, &c. Their decking, and Threasory within: and enduing with Landes, a∣brode (far and nere) to their charge, of so many Hundred Thousand pownds, as, now, (in manner) are inestimable: And shall we, now, in the clere Sunne shyne of the pure Truthe and Gospell: in the tyme of true Religion,* known, and obserued (As we will be cownted of,) Shall we, (I say), be either so ignorant, how to vse our Liberality: Or, so colde in Charity: or so blynde in foresight: Or, so priuatly scraping, and miserably hoording vp: or, so thankles and vnfreendly to the Common State of this kingdom: Where, both, our Ancestors haue receyued their life, mayntenance and wealth: And we our selues, no les: and are most desyrous, that our Childern, Wiues, freends, and Posterity, should enioy as great Commodities, by means of the Publik Society, and the Ciuill Communalty, being preserued in Secure Tranquillity: Shall we (I pray you) in vertuous zeale, and Liberality, and chiefly, in these our Respects, of very needfull and certayn, very Godly and great Commodities enioying, be far Inferior to them, in their Respects, such as they were? We, being in wealth, and Reuenues also, far Richer, now: than they; then were? God forbyd: that so great disorder, and lack of discretion, should be to be suspected now, or to be douted of, in the people and Subiects, of this Godly, wise, and rich Kingdom.

¶And How, can any Man, reasonably doubt of the Hability of so mighty a kingdom, to set furth, and maynteyn most easily, only Three or Fowrscore Tall and Warlik Ships: Where, so many Thowsand Thousands, of folks, are Contrybuters to the Charges requisite? See∣ing, only Forty or Fifty worthy Subiects, of their own pryuate Habi∣lity, doo very easily, and (in manner) contynually, Maynteyn in trade, at Sea, so many (and more,) such tall Ships: And the same, well Ap∣poynted, well vittayled, well Manned: and they, Duly payd:

And chiefly, Seeing Such a Pety-Nauy-Royall, of Threescore Tall Ships,* and eche of them, betwene eightscore and two hundred, Tun of Burden: And Twenty other smaller Barks, (betwene 20, and 50, Tun,) may be new made, very Page  19 strong and Warlike: and all, well vittayled, for Six Thow∣sand, Six hundred, and Sixty Men: and those Men, Libe∣rally waged: And both Ships, and Men, to all needfull purposes, sufficiently appoynted: and so maynteyned con∣tinually, and that, very Royally, FOR EVER: for les, then Two Hundred Thowsand Pownds Charges, YERELY, sustayned.*

¶Moreouer, In Respect of farder by-help, toward the Charges maintayning: Yt is not to be forgotten or neglected, that for a while, [ 7] at the first (and perchance, now and then, afterward) this Nauy, is likely to mete with, and to Sease vpon, Diuers Pyrats and Rouers:* who, either at broader Seas (you may ges, where) or els, nerer hand, haue made Rauening hauock: And now, they, and their Goods, Threasor, Ships, and all, will fall into the hands, of Our Pety-Nauy-Royall, or some parte therof.

Mary, herein, my Instructor, wisheth some Iust and needfull Or∣der to be prouided, and kept inuiolably. That such Ships, Goods, Threasor: &c, should not rashly, greedily, or disorderly be dealt withall. As though, we our selues, also, would be come Parteners with Theeues: where, now, we are BY GOD AND OVR GOOD QVEENE, constituted, as Discrete Iusticers & faith∣full Reformers of manifold Wrongs, at Sea, susteyned: And therin, to execute our Charge, asmuch, and as conueniently, as we may:

Therfore, after that such a Pyrat, Ship, and goods, are vnder our safe Custody bestowed: Proclamation: is, so immediatly to be made, that within a Monthe after, (or six weekes space, at the far∣dest,) yt may be published in sundry chief and most frequented Portes, of this kingdom: lying, (as may vpon sundry Circumstances be ga∣thered) most apt, and toward the places, either from whence those goods came: or toward which, they were to be caryed: with all such necessary Notice and Aduertisement published, by the Proclamation a∣foresayd, as may be auaylable to help the true Owners to their goods agayne.*

Those taken Pyrats, alwayes, can (herein) best Instruct, where, of whom, when, and how, they came by that Booty. The wares them selues, the Marchants Marks, Letters, Bills, Reconings in that Ship or Ships, with those Pyrats fownd, will also geue some light to such Marchants here, as are best acquainted, with men of those quarters and Cuntryes, from whence, such goods came: Or whither they were to be brought. And, so, after the first Proclamati∣on made, euery six weekes after, the Like to be made, in place con∣uenient, as before: Till a whole Yere and a Day space, be fully expyred, after the Day of the sayd Pyrats taking.

And, yf, within that yere and a Day space, No Claym be Page  20 made: That, then only, and not before, of All such goods, (not yet Claymed),* Sale be made, by Auction Publik. Prouided allways, that of wares, which wold, by such length of tyme, take great hurt, or Perish: (in good order of Auction,) Mony be made in due tyme. And then, owt of all manner of that Auction Mony, all Charges, vn∣till that tyme, sustayned, to be first Discharged: And so, the whole Some therof, remayning: And the Threasor also of Gold, Syluer, and ready Mony, (Yf there be any,) is to be distributed, after this man∣ner, (* Yf it shall by the Higher Powers, be so liked of:)

Diuide the Some, and Value of all, into Ten equall Partes. Wher∣of 4. are to be allotted to the Threasory of the Exchecquer Royall of our Souerayn: 3. to the Threasory of the Pety-Nauy-Royall: 2. to be shared among the Capitaynes, Souldyers, and Mariners: That is to say, among all the Men of those Ships, which did present an ac∣tuall seruice, in the taking and Maistering of the foresayd Pyrat, or Py∣rats: and one parte of those Ten, to be Due to the Lord Admirall of England, for the tyme being.

And as concerning the Shares, which are to be parted among the sayd Seruitors of the Pety-Nauy-Royall: This, is Iustice: That (generally) it be distributed, according to the proportions of their Monthes wages: one compared to the other. And (particularly,) Od * Rewarde, owt of the Nauies Threasor, is to be cheerfully and thank∣fully geuen, to whosoeuer (at that tyme,) did most valiant and man∣full seruice. And so, for a Second, Third, and Fowrth. &c. Yf it so fall owt.

¶And of all Goods, Threasor, Mony, and Iuells &c. By meanes of the foresayd Proclamations (or otherwise.) Duly challenged: After all former charges, for the preseruing therof hitherto, shall be accordingly [ 8] payd, by the Lawfull Challendger: And vpon his paying also, only * the Tenth of the cleare value, of the so challenged Goods (the sayd char∣ges Deducted) Restitution, presently, is to be made to the sayd Chal∣lenger: And then, that Tenth, is to be distributed, in manner before ex∣pressd: by 4. 3. 2. 1. Yf the same be so liked of, By our Souerayn.

¶To Conclude then: One other Chapter (yet more) hereunto, [ 9] annexed, will make it most Certayn, that Threasor will not faill vs, for the Royall and Triumphant maintenance, of this our Pety-Nauy-Roy∣all, And, that is: Yf yt wold please the Queene her most gra∣cious goodnes,* to be so bountifull to the Commons, as to Geue, Graunt, and Assure FOR EVER, to the Threasory of the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall, all that her Right, Title, and Interest to the TENTH of all Forreyn Fishings, with∣in the Royall Limits and Iurisdiction of her BRYTISH SEAS of England and Ireland: where, now, No man, in her highnes behalf, or to her vse, receiueth of any Forreyn Fisherman, any one Peny, in token of their dutifull acknowleging her Royallty, with∣in her due Limits of the foresayd Seas.

Page  21There is a dubble Title, and a Third Reason, of this Lawfull de∣maund: The Titles, are these: Aswell for occupying those Our pecu∣lier Seas, and Sea-Coasts, (to their great Gayn) otherwise, then as a * Common Sea Passage: And also, for that they shall not be, nor ought to be exempt of all Tything, there, toward God his parte: where, with les cost, they receiue greater Benefit, then any Hus∣bandman, of Tylth of the Earth. In Respect (therfore) of Gods Glo∣ry: the Royall Authority, in our own Coasts, will Induce them, By Right and Might, to Remember both God, and Queene, by whose fauours, they are so greatly benefited, within our forsayd Sea Limits.

Which Limits (According to the Iudgement of myne Instructor,) Are, in all places, to be accounted, directly to the Myddle Seas ouer, Betwene the Sea-Shores, of her own Kingdom (and of all Pety Iles, to the sayd Kingdom appertayning) and the Opposite Sea-Shoares, of all Forrein Princes: And in all Seas, lying immediatly betwene any two of her own Coasts or Sea-Shoares, the whole breadth of the Seas ouer (in such places) is, by all Reason and Iustice, appropriat to her pecu∣liar Iurisdiction and SEA ROYALLTY.

The Proportion of the Equity of this Iudgement, dependeth som∣what vpon the Ciuill Law, concerning Partition or Propriety of Iles growing vp in fresh water Riuers. And it is not vnreasonable, to deme Seas betwene diuers next Kingdoms, to be in like and Analogicall Condi∣cion, in respect of King and King: As fresh water Riuers, are, in Res∣pect of Priuate Subiects, of one Kingdom, whose Grownds are lying on both sydes of the sayd Riuers: Though the Stream and waters therof (af∣ter a sort) be accownted Common.

Diuers priuate Groundes, haue, through them (by Praescription so wonne, or otherwise purchased:) Some, Iter: Some, Actum: Some, Viam: Yet, no man, that, may there lawfully pas, may also lawfully dig, to his gayn (or otherwise) In Itinere, Actu, or Via, of that sort, without furder and due licence obteyned. So, all high Wayes, are cown∣ted Common and Publik, to pas in: But, for any Priuat Man, (though he be a Subiect,) in any parte therof, to dig for a Quarry of Stone, or myne for Owre, or Stonecoles &c. Yt is not lawfull: though he wold fill it vp again, as well as he found it first. So, here, the Brytish Seas, are Common, and free for all Ships of all Nations to pas in, and vpon: But, as cōcerning the Fish, vnder the water of those Seas: (Which Fish, God & Nature, bringeth fauourably within the peculier Bownds & Iurisdic∣tiō of Our Royall Precinct:) No Forrein Subiect, ought, customably, or otherwise (presumptuously) therin, to cast Net for the same: or, (v∣sually or presumptuously) to serch, or drag, to his priuate gayn, ther∣in, without the especiall 1. good leaue, of the Maiesty of our Souerayn Page  22 Queene (the vndouted Lady and Mistres, of the Sea Coasts next ad∣iacent) first obteyned: or, generally to be 2. hoped for: * Or, at the least, not expresly known to the 3. Contrary.

And herein, we deale, neither Iniuriously or dishonorably. For, we will, to all our Opposite Neighbors, also attribute, allow, graunt and yeld as good Right and Interest, for the other Moyty of the Seas, to their Shore and Coasts appropriat, as we do now challendge, for our peculyar half. So, that, this is most Iust, Conscionable, and Godly: Here∣in, To do, as we wold be done vnto. Which poynt, tendeth greatly to the Assurance of all good Amity,* and peaceable Traffique contynuing, with our faithfull, or louing Neighbors.

And, Seeing Iustice, and God, is on our side, what Shame and dis∣credit ys yt, or may it be, to vs, with all Christen Nations, (that shall truly vnderstand the Case:) yf we, like faynt harted and degenerated Mea∣cocks, should, now,* make dainty, shrink, or be afrayd, valyantly to season on, and prudently to enioy, this so manifest Right and possession of our Sea Limits: and that, euery way? being, in dede (where they are greatest) in respect of other Princes late Attempts, and Succes, of enlarging and settling their new deuised Sea Limits: not so great a parte, as a drop of water, is, in respect of a pottle.

Can that Pety Marchantlyke king of Portingall, haue any rea∣sonable Pretence: either, by Law of God, or Man, to inuade and posses: not, Quod nullius in Bonis erat, aut est:* But, many other mens Ancient and lawfull Possessions, and Kingdoms: though they were, (and some yet be) Infidels? And that, in a course much longer, from his own, little, rightfull, and originall Kingdom, than half the world is about, in the greatest Circle: yea, after the shortest Cut or Cours, which any way, they can be brought, to the bounds of their late forced Royallty? And shall not we, haue the Courage and skill, rightfully to enioy the very Precinct of our own Naturall Ilandish walls,* and Royallty of our Sea Limits, here, at home, and before our doores?

Can the Portugale King (by the Popes Authority) cause the King of Spayn, to make his Nauies and Armados, to forbeare comming within any portion of the East half of the whole world? (as, to enioy, or be mai∣ster of any Sea, Mayn, or Iland therein:) And also, will the King of Spayn, be contented, so, to condescend and allow vnto the Portugale, vpon condition, that the other half of all the world (Westward) mought be at the like his choys and Iurisdiction? (And though, in dede, betwene them two, and before God, this Couenaunt Negatiue, is firm, and in∣uiolably to be kept: Yet, neither of them, by any law, of God or Man, can farder season on,* as their New possessions, but, as we, and o∣ther, lawfully, may: That is, where they finde, Quod Nullius in Bonis est,) Can they, honorably (Quoth he) thus presume, and with a Chri∣stien, Conscience, Deale, Diuide and Share the whole world, betwene them two only (quo Iure, quáue Iniuria) as much as they can: And will not they,* or must not they, and all our opposite Neighbours, be so rea∣sonable, Page  23 yea and honorable with all, as to alow, like, and commend our wisdoms and Industry, to enioy the skyrts and Purlewes (as it were) of our Brytish, naturall, and appropriat Sea Limits? And that, in the most decent, peaceable, and freendly manner, that Princely Coun∣saylors harts can deuise, and most discrete Capitaynes, vnder them, can execute?

Well, (Sayd he) my Hope is, that vnder our good Souerayn Eli∣zabeth (ere long, if it be her pleasure) the AEquity of this Case, will,* or may, be maryed, with the Security of the whole State of this Impire: And that they two, will bring furth COMMON 1. WEALTH, IN∣VINCIBLE 2. STRENGTH, AND IMMORTALL TRI∣VMPHANT 3. FAME: Three most lawfull Brytish Childern, and long wished for, of the true, Brytish, and Christian Druides, they being also, Politicall Philosophers, and not Sophisticate.

Beleue Pericles his Saying, betymes:*Magnum est, enim, potiri Ma∣ri. Considerate enim, SI INSVLANI essemus, INEXPVGNABI∣LES essemus.* Note, here, (I pray you,) a fowrfolde wise purpose, vn∣der One golden Saying: to the Brytish Monarchy (at this Instant) most aptly, applyable: SI INSVLANI ESSEMVS.

Besides all this: Yt is most ernestly and carefully to be considered, that our Herring Fishings, against Yarmouth chiefly, haue not (so No∣tably to our great Iniury and los,* and the great and Incredible gayn of the Low Cuntries) bin traded, but from xxxvj. yeres agoe, hitherward. In which tyme, as they haue in wealth, and number of Boats, and Men, by little and little, increased: and are now become very rich, strong, proud, and violent: So, in the Race of the self same tyme running, the Coasts of Norfolk, and Suffolk, next to those Fishing places adiacent, are de∣cayed in their Nauy: to the Number, of 140. Sayle, And they, from Threescore, to a hundred Tun, and vpward: besides Crayers, and other. Wherupon, (Besides many other dammages, thereby, sustey∣ned publikly:) These Coasts, are not * hable to trade Iseland, as in tymes past, they haue done: to no little los, yerely, to the wealth-Publik of this Kingdom.

But, the Herring Busses, hither, yerely resorting, out of the Low Cuntries (vnder King Phillip his dominion) are, aboue. 500.

Besides, an Hundred, or such a thing, of Frenche-men.

The North Seas Fishing, (within the English Limits,) are yerely possessed of 300. or 400. Sayle of Flemyngs, so accownted.

The Western Fishings, of Hake, and Pylchard, are yerely possessed by a great Nauy of Frenchmen: who, yerely, do great Iniuries, to our poore Cuntrymen, her Maiesties faithfull Subiects.

Strangers also, enioy at their pleasure, the Herring Fishing of A∣lamby, Wyrkington, and White Hauen, vpon the Coast of Lan∣cashire.

And in Wales, about Dyfi, and Aberysthwith, the plentifull Page  24 Herring Fishing, is enioyed by .300. Sayle of Strangers.

But (In Ireland) Baltemore, is possessed yeerly, (from Iuly to Michelmas) most commonly, with 300. Say•• of Spanyards: en∣tring there, into the Fishing, at a Streict, not so broad, as half the breadth of the Thames, against White-Hall. Where, our late good King Edward (the Sixth,) his most honorable Priuy Counsaill, was of the mynde (once) to haue planted a strong Bulwark: for other waighty Res∣pects, as well, as for his Maiesty to be Souerayn Lord of the Fishing of Myllwyn and Codd, there.

Blackrock, ys yerely fished by 300, or, somtimes 400, Sayle of Spanyards, and Frenchemen. But, to Recken all, I should be to tedious to you, and make my hart to Ake, for sorrow. &c.

Yet, Surely, I think it necessary, to leaue to our Posterity, some Remembrance of the places, where, our rich Fishings els, are, about Ireland: As at Kilsale, Cork, Carlingford, Saltesses, Dungar∣wen: Yowghall, Waterford, La foy, The Band, Calibeg. &c. And all, chiefly enioyed, as securely and freely, from vs, by Strangers, as yf they were within their own Kings peculiar Sea Limits: Nay, rather, as yf those Coasts, Seas, and Bayes, (&c) were of their pri∣uate and seuerall purchases: To our vnspeakable los, discredit, and dis∣comfort: And to no small danger (farder) in these perillous tymes, of most subtle Trecheries, and fickle fidelity. Dictum, Sapienti sat esto.

And, as for Ireland Fishings, some Towardnes of good Pollicy, and somwhat like reason of prouidence, was in the heds of the honorable Counsailors and Parlement Senators to King Edward the fowrth: When, in the fifth yere of his Raigne, this Act, (among sundry other,) was esta∣blished: That no Ship, or other vessell, of any forreyn Cuntry, shall go to Fishing in the Irish Cuntryes: And, for Custome to be payd, of the vessell that commeth from forreyn Landes to Fishing. Farder to vrge, or more particularly to specify the Conclu∣sions, and reasonable Sequeles, as well of the words of the Act, as the Intent of the Act making, is needles, in this place.

Now, then, who can dout, (to begin withall) but that it is a most reasonable and freendly Request, of all these forreyn Fishermen, to re∣quire, (with all circumstances of Humanity, Courtesy, and Freendship, therin, and thereto vsed,) The Tenth onely,* of all their yeerly Fishings: by such means, as, most conueniently for them, and to our behoof, best, we may receiue the same: In Token, of their reasona∣ble Acknowledging the ROYALTY of this Brytish Mo∣narchy, in the self same Brytish Seas, and Coasts, to be, by God and Na∣ture established: where, they receiue so great Commodity: and where, from hence forth, no Iniury by any Man of ours, shall be to them done, or offred: But, their thankfulnes to God, (in respect of Tithe) and their Freendly duty to the Royall Maiesty, and Imperiall Dignity of our Page  25 Souerayn Lady Elizabeth, (within her own Sea Limits) is, thus, in rightfull, decent, and freendly manner, required.

¶And here, also, the Third Reason of Demaunding the for∣sayd Tenth (* before spoken of,) is to be playnly specifyed: Which is this. Wheras, the Herring Busses, and other Forreyn Fishermen, haue, heretofore, vsed to be at great Charges, with hyring Wafters and certayn Ships (of their own Cuntry) appointed Warlike: for their Garde and Defence, in the tyme of their Fishings, within our Brytish Sea Limits: Now (by the Politik order, and valiant Industrie of her Maiesties Pety-Nauy-Royall, executed) No Pyrat, Rouer, or Pilfrer, nor any Warryour, in Ship of War: No, nor Executioner of any Letter of Mark, shalbe permitted to vse, or haunt any of our Bry∣tish Seas: and therefore, None of these sorts, shall brede vnto the Forreyn Fishermen, any Disturbance, Los, or hyndrance, in the tyme of their sayd Fishings: And, besides this, by the means of the sayd Pety-Na∣uy-Royall, (contynually maynteyned at the forsayd Seas,) all man∣ner of their Merchantlike Ships, at all tymes, may freely and safely pas, and frequent, not only the Brytish Narrow Seas, but also Di∣uers other Seas: being within, or any thing nere the Walk and Cir∣cuits, of the same Pety-Nauy-Royall. Wherfore, In regard of their sayd great Charges * Sparing: And for such Securitie * enioying in the tyme of their Fishings, (Which two points, are by our Pety-Na∣uy-Royall, supplyed, and to them procured): And in regard of the inestimable Los, and Dammage, assuredly preuenting, (against all Pyrats, Warriers, and all other violence of Man,) Which, els, might happen to their * Merchantlike, very rich Laden Ships, Hulks, or other, passing within, or nere the Circuits, which are (ordinarily and extraor∣dinarily) of our Pety-Nauy-Royall, to be vsed and frequented: (Whereby, also, among their own Nation, great Sommes of Mony, of∣tentymes, lost by * Assurance taking, may, now, be saued.) In Regard (I say) of these fowr, their great Benefits, by this Pety-Na∣uy-Royall, receyued: And in regard of the * Fyfth inestimable Bene∣fit, and Riches, yeerly receyued, of the Fish taken within our ap∣propriat Sea Limits. And Sixthly, in respect of the Honor, Reue∣rence, Priuilege, and * Praeeminence, which (By Law) is Due vnto her Royall Maiesty, enioying the Lawfull Possession of the Brytish Sea Royalty (Though, for a few yeres, last passed, yt hath byn by Pyrats, and other, somwhat abused:) And * Seuenthly, In respect of Gods parte, and their Forrein Tythe, Duly and thankfully paying, of our peculiar Commodities, by them receiued: And that, the rather: Bycause her Maiestie doth geue the same, For the preseruation of So many, of sundry Nations, from the Rauyn of the Pyrat, and mayntenance of God∣ly Peace, and good Order, in her Royall Sea Circuits. And * Eighthly, in Token of their Freendly, Honest, and Iust meaning toward vs: And Page  26 in token of their syncere and vnfayned making great Account of our sound Amitie, and good Peace with them to be continued: In respect, of all the Premisses,* The forsayd TENTH of Forrein Fishing (as before) demaunded, and agreed vpon, FOR EVER: may seme, both, on our behalf, and also, on the behalf of all the honest and well aduised Forreiners (whom it doth, or shall concern,) to be very reasonably, iustly, and freendly demaun∣ded, decreed, and accorded vpon, FOR EVER: That is to say, so long tyme, as the sayd PETY-NAVY-ROYALL, shall enioy, the ROYALL SOVERAINTY of the BRYTISH SEAS: according to this first Plat, or, some better Institu∣tion, thereof.

*Yt is also to be known and Noted, for our Comfort herein, toward the Charges of the sayd Pety-Nauy-Royall: That the Tenth, yeer∣ly, of all Forreyn Fishings,* within the Sea Limits, to her Ma∣iesties Royalty appropriat, is aboue an Hundred Thousand pownds, de Claro.

Gwicciardine, in his Description of the Low Cuntry, geueth good Euidence of one portion therof. As, of our Herring Fishing alone: (what say I, Ours? Nay, the Flemish Herring Fishings, in our Eng∣lish or Brytish Sea-Coasts.) For, he recordeth, that the Low Cuntries, make yeerly 490 Thousand pounds sterling, of those Herring, Salted and Barelled: Rebating the Charge of the Salt. By this, you may haue a gros gesse, of farder Reconing.

But, how soundeth this Latin Record, in a true & discrete Brytish Sub∣iects eares: either, in respect of the los susteyned, in Reuenue: or, in Res∣pect of some Disgrace, redounding to them, that can Redres the same: yf, it be amysse? Est etiam eodem*tempore, Copiosissima Halecis Piscatura, in Lit∣toribus Angliae & Scotiae: quae, per Piscatores Flandriae instituitur: á qui∣bus posteà, sortitur Nomen: vt, Romam ille Piscis delatus, Halec Flandrorum appel••tur. The same Sea, is called MARE*BRYTANI∣CVM: And the Sea-Coasts, be called of all Nations likewise LIT∣TORA BRYTANIAE, Littora Angliae: And yet, the Herring, therin taken, are called HALEC FLANDRORVM: Nay, we our selues, call them, Flemysh Herring: Yea, we our selues, being beaten from our own Fishings, and Fishing places, are glad to buy our own Commodity, of Strangers: Against all Reason, Conscience, Law, and good Ciuill Policy.

Yt were a shame, to allege, that they are woorthy to enioy our Fi∣shings, as Lords therof: bycause, they can skill to handle and or∣der the Herring, better, than English-men. We must take hede of that Page  27 Reason, betimes: For, so, they can do our Wooll, and vndressed Cloth: the more wicked or vnskilfull, are our workmen at home, the whiles: And the les of our wooll, and vndressed Cloth, wold haue bin put into their hands, to try such Maistries therewith: &c. But, to our present purpose returning.

Then, By Gods grace, we may (comfortably) thus Answere to this first Dowt,* In the name of the whole Body Politicall. Seeing, Our Re∣uenues, now, and wealth, are greater, then was our forefathers: And Seeing, we are sufficiently perswaded of the manifold Publik Benefits, such, as neuer hapned to our forefathers (for all their Incredible foresayd great Charges) And which, by all humayn coniecture, are like to ensue: not only to our selues, but also to our Wiues, Children, Kindred, Freends: And so, to this whole Brytish Kingdom, vniuersally: both now, and euer, after our dayes: We will (say we) be found, through Gods help,* so well aduised, so discrete, so liberall herein, and bountifull, as, aboue all things, this hoped-for Publik Peace, and Generall Security, chiefly requireth, that we should be:

And the Hundred Thowsand pounds, all manner of wayes, to these vses, collected, will amount to be so many, as we throughly are perswaded: (These last discourses, well considered: and two more, which we, of our selues, with great reason and probability, will annex hereunto) That, contrary to the first dout, we confidently, now, may trust, that, not onely, for this Pety-Nauy-Royall, a sufficient masse of Threasor, will easily and spedily be contributed: But, great * Ouerplus also, will thereof grow (ere long.)

And then, it is intended, That 1. a Parte therof, shall be employed toward the Relief of such poore Men, as either by Sicknes, maym, or vn∣weldynes of age, are to be dismissed from the sayd Nauy: and other, to be taken in, in their roomes. 2. Part, toward the finding of the poore Widdowes, and Orphanes of such Men, as in good seruice, in the sayd Nauy, haue manfully spent their lyues: 3. Parte, toward a sufficient Sti∣pend, for 4 Pety-Pylots-Publik,* in 4 sundry, and apt Ports of this Iland, to be resident, and ready to serue, Mathematically and Mechani∣cally, with Quadrants, Rings, Chartes, Sea Compasses, Sandglasses, and such other furniture, as to the charge and Seruice of Pylotage, and Maistership in the foresayd Nauy, may be found needfull: each one ap∣poynted to xx Ships: (or a Quarter of the whole Pety-Nauy-Royall, how great so euer it do grow hereafter:) To those Ships, I mean, that are to the Coasts, next him, assigned. And those 4 Pylots, First, to be chosen out of them, that haue, allready, become expert at Sea: And then,* by the Grand-Pylot-generall of England (for the tyme, being) to be informed farder, as appertayneth: And that, euery yere, once, by their appointed repayre, made vnto him, at place certayn. Other 4. parte, for Preparation of Store, of things necessary to the sayd Nauy: And eche thing, excellent good, and perfect in his kinde. An other 5. parte ther∣of, to be bestowed toward necessary Hauens, Harboroughes, Ports, Page  28 Blockhouses &c. mainteyning: or, in most needfull places, new making. And 6. Parte, in building euery yere, some excellent Ships of war, for the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall. Some, toward New 7. Forreyn Dis∣coueries making:* for Gods glory, the Wealth-Publik and the Honorable Renown of this Ilandish Impire. Wherupon, also, dependeth the First of our two discourses, before spoken of. For, so may parte of the Threa∣sory of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, be employed, toward New Discoue∣ries making, that, of all such Discoueries, the half Charges may be Contri∣buted out of the Threasory of the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall: And so, [ 10] likewise, the half clere * Gayn therof comming, to be to the sayd Threa∣sory due, and answered accordingly: by like, and like number of Offi∣cers, as are for the rest of the Society of such Discoueries.

Greater Publik Equitie, is in such a manner of New Societies ma∣king: and with better order,* and more ayd, may greater things be at∣tempted, than hitherto haue bin: with the Timerous myndes of a Few: and therefore, with their to to straight Allowances, at their first Onset giuing. Wherupo (oftentimes) not only their first Charges haue bin lost: But also, the Attempts discreditted: as of things, either vnlucky, vnlikely, or vntre: where, none of all these points, hath bin the oc∣casion of such yll Succes.

By this means, all Marchants, and other, that ae Partners of Priui∣leged voyages, shall be, not only vnhindred, of their hoped-for Gayn:* but, rather, greatly furdred, to bring that to pas, by Publik Ayd, and to the Benefit Publik, and Priuate also: which, before, with much adoo, could scarse be maistered: to make them (a few parteners of such Societies) to become, Priuately, Welthy thereby.

Hereuppon also, the Queenes Maiesties Customes, both owtward and homeward, will greatly be encreased: And all the Commons, and Body of the Realm, will grow in greater loue, with the Mar∣chants Dooings: and better like of the Princes establishing of such Pri∣uileged Societies: When, the wary and carefull Diligence of the Mer∣chant, and the gracious Priuilege of the Prince, shall (PROPOR∣TIONALLY) be beneficiall to ONE, A FEW, and ALL. (Which is the chief Mark, that One, a Few, and All, shold shote at.) For, so, shall such Dooings, be asmuch auaylable to the Common-wealth, then, as, now they are to the Priuate Lucre of a Few: And that, with Publik Dammage. Seeing, the self same things, which they Bring in, or Deale with, now, be Deerer bought than they were, before any such New Trade or Society, therin Priuileged.

[ 11] ¶And in like sorte, is to be sayd, in this our Second Discours, of all other 8 Homish Discoueries,* to be made within the Queenes Maiesties Dominions, of her Brytish Impire. For, most certayn yt is, that there is Naturally * couered in the Earth, and vnknown, in these Dominions, so great Riches of Lead, Tyn, Copper, Syluer, Gold, and Diuers kyndes of other very commodious and proffitable Minerall Matters, as might in∣credibly Page  29 encrease both the Threasor Royall, and also of all the Part∣ners Publik and Priuate: who, should Proportionally, be at all Char∣ges, about such Minerall Discoueries, to be throwghly and Maisterly executed.

And by the way: How think you? Doth it not sting the Naturall born Subiects, that Strangers shall be grafted into their places: and their Publik and priuate Parte of Benefit, to be, thereby Cut of? The Stran∣gers Science, and Cunning, might be recompenced, and their Charges al∣lowed: But, so vnnaturally to deale with the True and Naturall Bo∣dy Politik, yt is not Necessary: I will say no farder. And, if Stran∣gers, wold not so deale, other, wold: and will be found.

This thing, being once, by due Publik order and Authority, establi∣shed:* How many an Owre, and Myne, (very rich,) wold be disclosed and pointed to: Where, they are: and Minerall Examples, of great Cumfort, shewed by diuers Priuate Men? (Ientlemen and other) who, now, will neuer open their Mouthes, to disclose the same: By∣cause, in their own Grounds, where their Propriety (by Gods law, and the Law of Nature) should be, to them, most beneficiall of all othe Men: now, (as the manner, yet, is) their parte, wold be least, of all other.

But, when, with better Allowance to the Prince,* and the Proprie∣tary Owner of the Soyle also, (where any Gayn may rise by Myning) and with some great Publik Commodity (as to the Threasory of the Pety-Nauy-Royall,) these Minerall and Mettall woorks, shall be fol∣lowed, * Then, Priuate Men, will not grudge, though 40, or an hun∣dred other Priuate Partners, haue great Gayn of their peculiar ground. And therupon (Say we) the Commodity, all manner of wayes,* will arise greater, than euer it will do, otherwise, by such Societies, as they now are.

And vpon this Consideration, that, of their Perpetuall Beneuo∣lence, for Sea Security, Some portion therof, shall be employed to such Publik vses, as both the whole Body of the Realm, may vndou∣tedly haue some sensible and certayn proof,* that their Publik Threa∣sory of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, doth, as proportionally encrease, as a∣ny, or a few Priuate Mens Coffers els, before, were, or (by good or∣der) mought haue bin, by such Societies, well amended: vpon this Con∣sideration (Say we) How gladly, and how readily,* will euery Man be Contributer therunto, after the most easy Rate, and proportion prescri∣bed? And making this Reconing among them selues, (ouer and besides all the former marueilous great Benefits Publik, rehearsed:) Thus, will they, then, say:* Yea Mary: This, is Common-wealth like, in dede: When, our Common Threasory, is as carefully, and dis∣creetly augmented, by the wisdom and Authority of the Higher Magi∣strates, and the witty and Circumspect trauailes of our Parteners, (Mar∣chants, Page  30 and other, whosoeuer) As, before, by such Priuileges, All, was intended and procured for the Benefit onely of a few. And chiefly, Seeing, before, the gaynfull wares and things, wherof they were Parte∣ners, were, by their vnhabilities (not insatiable Couetousnes) that dealt with those Attempts: or by the manner, as they dealt with them, be∣come very dere: and derer, than before such their Societies established. Reason perfect none can be yelded, why it should so be: But, this Single soule Allegation, is often repeated: The great Charges, which hi∣therto haue byn layd on their Shoulders, in that peculiar Trade of their Society. &c. And therfore, assone as they are in possession of any thing, to raise Mony on: they think it politikly done, to make pre∣sently their Reconing of their whole Charges hitherto susteyned: And so, by and by, to begyn to raise the pryces of their things, higher, than they found them, before their new Societies erected: to hasten, thereby, their discharge,* or Recompence of Dammages (say they) as yet sustey∣ned. And so, by that means, the poore Commons, buying the same wares derer, than before: become (seely Soules) Contributers to these few Mens priuate wealth amending: But, to the decaying and weakening of the wealth and hability of the Commons.

And therfore, by the prescript of humayn Reason, yt is a more per∣fect Politicall Ordonance, so, before hand to ease all such dis∣ordered Charges, that, both, Rich *1. Forreyn New Trades, and great Threasor, may substancially and throughly be brought in, and purchased to this Kingdom: publikly, as well, as priuatly: And also, that Gods great Bountifulnes, *2. Couertly bestowed vpon this Incomparable Ilandish Monarchy, may, by Publik Ayde also, be so brought to light, hand∣ling, and vse, as the whole Commons, hereby, may in their Pety-Na∣uy-Threasor, become wealthyer: And pryces of such things as (either one way,* or the other) are gotten: may be either kept low, or brought low: That, the greatest parte of this Kingdom, (which are the poorer sort) may, both, laude and bles God, for the wisdom, Chari∣ty, and Iustice, of their Gouernors (Wherupon also, they will both better loue them: And for very loue, be more affrayd, to diplease them.) And also, vniuersally, all the Realm ouer, the true and faith∣full Blessing and prayer of all honest Subiects, may be concurrent with, and assistant to, all such honorable and Publik Attempts, either 1. Forreyn or 2. Homish:* for the better succes therof obtaining, by Gods mercy: wherewith, these our two brief Discourses, in this place, shall be finished.

These Ten Generall, and Extraordinary means, of increasing the Threasory of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, in this place, may be thought sufficient, for the probable Dissol∣uing of the first Dowt.

*And, as for the second Obiection, yt is more easy and certayn, Page  31 to put that point, owt of all Dowt. I mean, as Concerning Scarsity, and Dearth, of Vittailes, suspected or Dowted, by the continuall vittailing of this Nauy. Mary, herein, some forecast must be vsed: as, sundry other, in other points, are. (But not * here to be rehearsed.)

For, as the Men, to Furnish the forsayd Nauy with, are to be chosen, (and that, with Diuers Considerations) owt of all Shires, and Coasts of this Realm of England: So, likewise, the vittailes, are, so, to be prouided for, that the whole Realm, may yelde the same: eue∣ry parte, according to the fertility of the Soyle: And accor∣ding to the Store to be reserued, for their Seruice, actuall or possible,* o∣therwise. And that is very needfull: yf, against forreyn Enemy, we should nede a Mayn Army (one, or mo,) by land, any way, toward Coast or Border: or, for the Grand-Nauy-Royall vittailing, in tyme of nede.

And, seeing the Vittailes, shall be so indifferently, or proportionally prepared, all the Realm ouer (as before,) How can any one party, in this Publik, and Common-wealths Case, finde him self straightly, vndu∣ly, or vniustly, dealt withall?

And, as the Vittailes, and Men, should rise,* (after a sort) ioyntly and proportionally, within the places correspondent: Store alwayes to be re∣serued: as I sayd: (And such, about the Riuer of Thames chiefly, and within certayn myles therof, And in other Quarters: as, both for the City of London, continually: And the Grand-Nauy-Royall,* in tyme of nede, may be [as it hath bin] seruisable:) So, should the Ships, receiue those Men and Vittayles in, at Twenty sundry Places, or Ports, in England.

Now, seeing then, this Vittayle, thus orderly and indifferently pre∣pared, out of all Places, is to be bestowed on * Christen-men: yea, and them, our own * Cuntrymen: And not, on FORREYNER, SCOT, FRENCH, FLEMISH, DANE, or SPANIARD, &c. And some of them, either Sonnes, * or Brothers, or Fathers, or Cosens, or Kinsemen, or Singular Freends: Yea, some, Esquyers, some Knights, some Barons: And some of them, Landlords, to sundry of vs at home, here remayning: * Fourthly, Seeing, this Vittaile is to be bestowed on them, who do, and will aduenture their lyues, in all Casualties and dan∣gers of the Sea: And against all violence of Pyrate, or any open warryor: And that, not, for any their own Priuate Quarrell: But for the Publik Safety, and Security, of all England and Ireland. Not, for thyne, and myne, alone: But, for the Safegard and prosperous E∣state, of Millions of Men, Women, and Children, within this Monar∣chy, on Land: (and by this means,) at their ease, quyet, and pleasure, remayning. Considering then, well and ernestly, all those 4 gene∣rall Respects: What true and Sound member, is there, of this Com∣mon wealth: and faithfull desirer of the blessed Peaceable Security, of England and Ireland, vnder our Souerayn Empres, our most Gracious Elizabeth: who, will not (in a manner) be willing, the Charges to be Page  32 borne (parte and parte like) the whole Realm throughout? wherewith, to bestow meate and drink, on them, continually: that refuse no one day, or a moment (yf occasion be offred) to aduenture their hart blud, lyfe, and Lymmes, for vs: And on Seaboord, continually, to endure hard dyet and lodging: for Commodities innumerable, of both these whole Kingdoms?

*But, it is not so meant: as, to haue any farder Contribution of purs, then is before spoken of. But, what is he, (Yea, what is he, I say agayn?) is he, a sound member of the Common-wealth: a faithfull Subiect to our good Queene Elizabeth: or, a Charitable Christian, that either wold (in this Common-wealths seruice, or at any tyme els) * hide Corn, or other vittayle, from Publik Ayde, and Reliefe: Or els, wold not be content, to receiue the due value, and reasonable Pryce therof, very gladly? But, most miserably, wretchedly, couetuously, yea vnchristianly, (I will not say, Trayterously) wold desire (now chiefly) to en∣hance the price of Corn, and Vittayles, to the great pinching of the poore at home: And perchance, for a Trayterous means, to hinder the vittayling of the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall: or, to make it odious, or doutfully thought of, to some: as though, it were a iust occasion, of prices of Corn and vittayles starting vp:* more now, then before? O, vayn, blynde, Couetous Miser (who so euer he be, that is so mynded.) Thou, and thy like, and that of late dayes, when no Army, or Nauy, hath bin to be vit∣tayled, hast, on the sudden, and in the tyme of great Store, all the Realm ouer, (euen then) God knoweth, vpon what wicked Intent, or miscon∣struing, or light Credit geuing to Coniecture, found in some new Three halfpeny Prognostication: hast, most vnreasonably enhaunsed the Prices of Corn, Butter and Chese: And at other tymes, of Beofs, and Muttons, &c.

I Pray thee, be Reasonable: and think truly: and make Reckening with me, Christianlike; and like a good Member of this Common-Wealth: And, as a true Subiect, to our Souerayn.

What, may be the * true cause, of Dearth (whensoeuer it pleaseth God, to vse that his skourge?) Any other thing, but Want of Corne, or Vittayles? That Want, yf God send yt, is eyther by the Ordinary Cau∣ses Naturall, taking effect, according to the Predestined Plat of this whole wordls aeconomie, and contynuance: Or, it is, by Extraordinary Means, of Gods sending: And that, Diuersly, and in diuers tymes, and States of the Corne, or Cattayle &c. These, be true Dearths, vpon great wants of Corn, or Cattayle to be had: Or, at the least, to be had so good, as is behoofull for Mans bodily Sustenance? All other Dearths, that come not of Want, by Diuine means: are ei∣ther by 1. Fraudulent Want: As, through Corne, and Vittayles stolne, and Priuily conueyed to our Enemyes, or Fickle freends: for Priuate gayn only: to the hinderance of the Wealth-publik: Or, by falsly .2 Pretended Want: As the Vnchristianlike Practise, of such Caterpillers, and Raue∣ning Wolues: (Deuouring Come and Cattell) wold make the Commons beleue. And, when, Abundance and Sufficiency is, to make and Wrast a Dearth: by selling Three Quarters of Wheat, of the very value (then) Page  33 of fowr: And Three Oxen, of the very value of fowr: and so, of Shepe &c. What a Deuouting, and Rauening, is this? Of euey owr, to De∣voure and consume one: and the same, neuer more to be hard of, in this Common-Wealth? And this, only, for his most Priuate Gaynes sake, to be Bagged, or Chested vp, for his Idoll, to behold or Delight in, As in his strength, and furniture: ready to mainteyn hym, in other wicked purposes: And (as God knoweth) foolish Intents Pereance, with some of that p••• (so miserably and diuelishly scraped together; or violently, in manner, wrasted out of the poore Commons hands, and mouthes) to be at Charges, to enclose some parte of the Commons,* from a poore Village, or Township. With some, to buy his neighbours House, or Farme, ouer his hed: and so, to make him freends, of the Mammon of Iniquity. Nay, Nay, make himself, the Carefull reend, and doting louer, of wicked Mammon: The Diuell Infernall, and not of God, nor his Members: Nor the members of the Common-wealth: Yea, many at Thousand of such, as, eche one of them, is more profitable and Com∣fortable to the Weal-Publik of England, than a Thousand such Mam∣mons dearlings are. I mean the Maryner, the Soldyer; the Ientleman, Esquyer, and Knight, yea and Baron: now, Tost and Turmoyled at Seas: being the Publik Watchmen, Garde, and Champions, for the most Bles∣sed State of Trāquillity publik, in this Sacred Monarchy, preseruing.

And no les, is the Error and disorder vsed in this Kingdom, of Dar∣dnarie Trade, and Monopolie: two greuous hindrances, to the Weale-Publik. Iacobus Simanas; Episcopus Pacensis, sayd very well, in his book De Republica:* dedicated to the King of Spayn: Ne oneret•• Annona, & adò rrum Vaenalium Praeià, iniqua sint: animaduertere oportet in DARDA∣NARIOS, qui omia praeemunt, vt ea postea Carius vendant. Hi quidem perniciosiss••m Rebu-publicis esse slnt . Vtpoe genus auarum, & iniu∣sti Lucri Cupid siian. And agayn.*

Multis quo{que} lgibus Regijs Occusum est Dardanarijs. Sed illa, omniumest opi••, & Rbus-publicis v••lissima, quae vetat, Ne quisquam vnquam fru∣men••m ema, vt vendat. Ea enim essetum est, vt res frumentaria, iustis praeijs vendatur, & vilitas Annonae Consecutait. Quamobrem, plurimùm Repu∣blicae interest, vt ea Lex Conseruetur: & qui secus fecerit, acerrimè coerceatur.

And as for MONOPOLIE: this, had the same Simancas Noted, out of Zno his Constitutions.

Iubemus, ne quis cuiuscun{que} Vestis, vel Piscis, vel cuiuslibet alterius ad victum,*vel al quemcun{que} vsum pertinentis Speciei, Monopolium audeat exercere: Ne∣ue quis, illicitis habitis Conuentionibus, Conirare, aut pacisci, vt Species diuer∣sram Corporam negociationis, non minoris quàm inter se statuerint, vaenunden∣tur. AEdisciorum quo{que} artifices, aliorum{que} diersorum Operum professres, peni∣tus arceantur, pacta inter se Componere, vt ne quis, quod alte Commissum sit, Opus, impleat: ant iniunctam alteri solicitudinem, alter intercipiut. Si quis au∣tem MONOPOLIVM ausus fuerit exercere, bonis proprijs expo∣liatus, perpetuitate damnetur Exilij.

Agayn, what Reason hath any Man to go about, by raysing pryce Page  34 of vittayles,) to brede opinion in some simple heds, that this Nauy, is occasion therof: And so, to cause misliking of that, by one mean: which by his former Publik Contribution, he pretendeth to be glad and desi∣rous, that it should continually be well mainteyned? What dubble and hypocriticall dealing were that? * With one hand, to offer Bread: and in the other, to hold a Stone, ready to geue a blow therwith, to the Receiuer of that bread? All such sorts, of Fraudulently or Violently cau∣sed Dearths, as, they are very much against the Common-wealth, and Common Comfort, (to be receiued of Gods mercifull Plenty, or Suffici∣ency of Corn and Vittayles sent vs:) So, will they now, (as the poore Commons are in good hope) either, for very Conscience sake: Or, for good zeales sake, to the due and Reasonable maintenance, of the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall, be vtterly abhorred, eschewed, and very well left.

1. And here, also, the poore Commons wold (yf they Durst) make Supplication,* All, kneeling on Knees, Man, Woman, and Childe: and ioyntly, with one most humble Voyce, Request the Higher Powers, That No more Vittayles (Corn, or other,) might, vnder Licence, (or cullor therof,) be Transported to Forreyners: or otherwise, (in this Realme) by Priuilege to be vsed: Than, as may be best, to the Publik-be∣hoof of all them at home, and for the sufficient and more easy Mayn∣tenance, of those Valiant & worthy Publik Watchmen, lying owt at Seas.

2. ¶And, furdermore, that in tyme of Excellent Plenty, and good cheap: the Ouerplus of Corn, and other vittayles, may be brought to the next Publik Garners and Stoarhowses,* being at, or nere vnto, the foresayd Twenty Ports, to the Pety-Nauy-Royall, assigned. And there, with Publik Mony of the Pety Nauy his Threasor, to be payd for, presently:

3. And from those 20 Garners, or Stoarhouses, only, to be, to places conuenient * Transportable: vnder the Generall * Licence, from her Maiesty, before, graunted vnto the Body of the Pety Counsaill, of chief Officers, to the Pety-Nauy-Royall appointed.

4. ¶And wold, also, make humble Request, that the Incredible Abuses of Purueyers, and Takers of vittayles, and other things, might be more nar∣rowly sene to, and duly reformed.

5. And Fifthly, the selfsame Brytish and English Commons, Man, Woman, and Childe, with wringing hands, most pitifully lamenting a Remediles Inconuenience, and haynous Absurdity, already, and to long, committed: wold, most humbly and dutifully, make Petition, that Pre∣sently, such vnparciall prouidence may be vsed: * That, from hence∣foorth, The Priuate Commodity of a few, shall not cause the Braynes of many a thousand, of true and faithfull English Subiects, to fly in the Ayre. Braynes (say they) Armes, Leggs, Lymmes, and lyues of the Commons, to be (as the Case may fall out, which, God forbid,) solde after a sort: Though, not directly, and wil∣lingly: yet Indirectly & vnwillingly (in respect of our Cuntry-mens Intents therin:) Seeing the Chiefest Instruments, wherewith to work so wo∣full Page  35 a Spoyle and Calamity, are dayly (almost) from this Kingdom con∣ueyed: (No, no, it goeth not so nycely to woork: For, open Markets and Sales, are made of them, in great plenty,) to such Copemens hands, as, No one of them, doth hartily, and will constantly, or can perpetually, wish our prosperous estate. Nay, such, as, for many yeres, (almost con∣tinually) some of them, haue gone about, to ouerthrow, and confound, this blessed Brytish Monarchy: And some of them, such a Nation, whose Records, Chronicles, and Histories, both Ancient, and of late dayes, published, do term English-men, Their Ancient Enemies And, in dede, in hart, do ernestly desire, and constantly * Hope, one day, to handle them so: What thousand crouching Salutations so euer, (with Monsieur, and, A Vostre Commandement, Monsieur:) and the like appertenances, of glorious glosing, and depe dissimulation, their great Necessity (at any tyme) teacheth them to deuise, and counterfet. A true Lesson, this Olde Prouerb, will be found, in Such: That, which is bred in the Bone, will neuer out of the flesh.

Good God, who knoweth not, what Prouiso is made and kept, in o∣ther Common-Weals, Against Armour carrying out of their Limits? * Such, and to such Places, chiefly, from which, (possibly) they may, thereby, receiue great dammage. And shall we, with the most terri∣ble, forcible, and hurtfull kynde of Weapon, and Engyn, furnish both the Infidels, and the Barbarous Princes forreyn, (though, far from vs, yet to the destruction of Christians, notwithstanding.) And also, nere at hand, such kynde of people, as, (which way so euer, the matters in controuersy, fall out, finally) will be found, an Incredible great Scourge, to this Kingdom, by vnsuspected means: as the wofull Com∣mons, make their pitifull Reconing, already: or greatly do dout: how rude, so euer, some of these people, of them selues, be: And how sim∣ple and slender so euer, their presently sene, and known Nauy, is to be regarded.

Therfore, if the Brytish Communalty, may obteyn so much Grace at our Souerayn, and her most Honorable Priuy Counsailes hands: As, to enioy the Benefit of Sea-Security, by means of the foresayd Pe∣ty-Nauy-Royall: Then, such Cast-Peces of Iren Ordinances, we shall greatly nede, for our own Ships furniture: And also, other Iren works, diuers wayes. Fewell also, and Ship Tymber (from tyme to tyme) we shall haue occasion to vse, more, then els, wold be oc∣cupyed. And then, the want of so many Hundred Peces (of Iren we mean, and not, of Bras to) as haue bin, of late, from hens transpor∣ted, will make very euident, the Dubble Dammage, and Treble Dan∣ger, possibly, ensuing therof, when, our Enemies, being with our store furnished, we must be constrayned to prouide the like, new: and so, be driuen to tarry a great tyme. And also, to take the fortune of all faults, In Iren Peces, happening. Whereas, otherwise, at leysure, the Princi∣pall good Peeces (in all Respects) heretofore, continually culled out: And, in * Rupe Tarpeia, of our New Troy, reserued, mought Page  36 (without any detriment to the Prince or Commons) haue now serued our turns very well: And so, the Poore Commons should not haue, One, and the same Awle, twise thrust in their right Eyes. As, to see, and fele agayn, the Incredible Spoyle of Woods, and Forests, as hath bin made, to furder Iren works withall: And yet, (Notwithstanding,) Iren to be now, derer, than it was, when, from beyond the Seas, we were chiefly serued therof: And our Iren also (yet) worse, then the forreyn I∣ren. And our Woods, and Forests, already, so destroyed thereby, that Fewell, and Tymber, of all sorts, (of necessity) in many places of this Realm, is become, on the sudden, extremely dere: and therupon, * Pryces of vittayles, somwhat the higher raysed.

Oh, the Lamentable Spoyle of our woods, sundry wayes: both, contrary to Lawes made, and also, for lack of sufficient Prouiso, and due execution, as wisely and iustly performed, as either Olde Lawes made, or new, deuised, was, and may be, a sufficient Token of wisdom Speculatiue, in Lawmakers heds:* But the great Rechelesnes, in the Practise (which onely, should be the great Profit to the Common-Wealth, expe∣cted) doth make vs seme great Hypocrites: in good Lawes making: and keping the Bookes, wherein, the Lawes are recorded: but not obseruing the Lawes, in our Actions Ciuile.

*Peraduenture, yf (among sundry other Ordonances, for preserua∣tion of Wood and Tymber, to be made) some Prouiso were established, by Act of Parlement, that No man should Buyld, or cause to be Buylt, but with these Three poynts, concurring: First, according to his Ha∣bilitie, and not aboue: Secondly, according to his State, or Voca∣tion, and not aboue: Thirdly, according as his Necessary Affaires, and allowable Commodities,* shall require, and not Superfluously: Ther∣upon, fewer Banckrupts, and more House-keepers, would be found: Les Ambition, and more Charitie, wold be vsed: And, Thirdly, bet∣ter Cheap of more Store and Choyce of Ship-Tymber, and other, wold be reserued.

The Penalties of the former Transgressors, might be, after this, or, a better manner, Decreed.* Of the First, the House and Houses, so built, to be sold, by Auction: And the Tenth parte of the Whole Va∣lue, to be contributed, to the Threasory of the Pety-Nauy-Royall. [ 1] And the other Nyne partes, to be payd to the Creditors: to euery Man, proportionally: so fa, as the same Auction-Mony will reach: And, yf there be any Ouerplus remayning, the same, to be restored to the sayd [ 2] Offender. Of the Second, the House and Houses, to be duely valued: And the Fifth Parte, of the Whole Value, to be immediatly Payable: the one half therof, to the Queenes Maiestie her Exchecquer: and the other half therof, to the Threasory of the Pety-Nauy-Royall. Of the [ 3] Third, the valuation of the Superfluous Houses, or other Buildings, (beeing duly estimated and rated:) the Twentith parte therof, to be forfetted to her Highnes Threasory, onely.

Out of which Three manner of Forfets, and Amercements, the Fifth parte of the Forfet, is to be awarded due to him, or them, who truly Page  37 do geue Aduertisement of the sayd Disorder: and sufficiently doth prou the same, so to be, as his Aduertisement specifieth.

Now then, how can it stand with the Termes of good Policy, All these great Incommodities Publik, depending vpon our greatly disordred Iren Mynes: And yet, notwithstanding, such Warlike prouision, as,* so Dere∣ly to the Commons, is wrought and made therof: For a fewe Mens priuat commodity (we know not whom) to be caryed away, far and nere: to our great disfurnishing: And to the furniture and Strengthning of Moore or Moschouite: or other Forreyn Prince: French or Fleming: our Secret Mortall Foes, or vnassured Freends? In effect: The Sorrowfull Commons, most hartily wishing the Pety-Nauy-Roy∣all, to be duly mainteyned: And most assured, that thereto, will be re∣quisite, not onely, Stoare of such Iren Cast Peces, * But also, of Tymber, Fewell, and other Iren worke: (The * pryces of all which, being by the foresayd disorders, vnreasonably enhaunsed) do greatly dout, that either the foresayd things, will, (by farther disorder,) become deerer, then they now are: Or els, the Extremity of the pryces, being, then, made more sensible: the simple Multitude, or some other wrangling head,* will Impute all, to this new deuised Policy, of the Pety-Nauy-Royall mainteyning. And therfore, in this place of Consideration of Pryces and Dearth, they wold haue had such a Petition (as before) most humbly moued, to the higher States. But no one man dare, (I know no iust cause why) vtter, in * Dutifull order, the Tenor of the Premisses, to the higher powers. Though, (disorderly) many Thousands do murmur at the matter, in mar∣ueilous manner: when, dayly, they finde so many Camps (as it were) of Iren Peeces, ready layd to the Forreyn Market: and for Forreyn Na∣uyes, or Forts furnishing. Deliuering (thereby) a Rod, of our own making, into the hands of them, who could finde in their harts, to skourge vs with wyer whips, as God best knoweth: And to bring vs, into farder Incon∣ueniences, then, either Dearth of Tymber, Fewell, Iren, or Vittayles, are to be esteemed. But, vnto God his most Mercifull and Mighty hands, we commit our principall Protection, now and euer.

And Suerly, yf there be any Brytish, or English * Pericles, now lyuing, who conueniently may, and will, both Zealously take to hart, and also Circumspectly, and depely looke into these, and like Matters: (No∣thing fawning vpon Forreyners, Nor to much listening or leaning to their Aduises, or Deuises, best for them selues, and their Purposes: and not for vs, and Ours: Nor fearing Forreyn, or Homish hurt, therefore: Meaning none, him self) He wolde not make Strange, though the weaker and Imperfecter sorte of People (Which are so nooselled and em∣broyed vp to the elbowes, Yea, to their hart rootes, with the Insatiable loue, of To to Priuate Lucre, that, therefore, they care, To to little, for the Publik and Common-Weale,) He would not (I say) be Agast, though such wolde Diuilishly Maligne hym, and Subtily seke his Discredit, and Confusion: as (in deede) the Atheniensiens, and other, did, to good Pericles, and other, his like. Yet, for all that, such A Pe∣ricles, wold goe forward, so long, as he might preuayle: obseruing the Page  38 wise Precepts, of Perfect Politik Gouernment. And to such, as fownd them selues greued, by any their Priuate Payne, Hur, Los, or Chardge, susteyned, by meanes of his Direction or Cownsaill, for Duti∣full, and Nedefull Seruice, to be done, to and for the Common-Wealth, eiheMilitando,* or, Contribuend, or otherwise, he wold say thus: (For, so, sayd the True Pericles:)

*Non est mihi inexpectata Indignatio Vestra: Intellexi enim me 〈◊〉 e∣••{que} ob caus••, Vos conuocaui: vt vos admoneam, & reprehendam•••• vet mi∣•• Succenseti, vel Rebus Aduersis succumbisis. Eg enim Iudico, Floin•• Patria, ••ebus esse Priuatis: quám Florentibus Priatis, 〈…〉 Repub: Nam, 〈◊〉 Priuatus tenet Opes, tamen Euersa Patria, simul haec omnia pere••t•• Bedin Florente Patria, etiam Pauper Ciuis, saluus esse potest. Quando igitur, Ciuitas, Priuatorum Ciuium Difficultates sustinere Potest: Nemo autem Priuatus v∣nus, Rempub. Laborantem Sustentare potest: Iustum est, V•••ersos E I, opem ferro: Et non (quod vos nunc facitis) Perterritos Priuatis Iacturis, deserere REMPVBLICAM.

And in the same Oration.

Omnibus autem Imperantibus accidit, vt In praesentia, in odio sint. Prae∣clare autem facit, qui Inuidiam propter Res Honestas & magnas perfert. Odia au∣tem, non sunt perpetua: Sed praesentem Splendorem, sequiur aeterna Gloria.

And agayn:

Vos existimatis, tantùm Socijs, vos Imperare. Ego autem affirmo, cùm duae partes Bellantibus vsui sint, TERRA, & MARE: Vos, porsus Maris Dominos esse:* & eius partis Cui nunc Imperatis, & Reliqui Maris: SIHAC CLASSE, quam habetis, PROCEDERE VOLVERITIS. Nec vllus Regum, nec vlla Gens, impedire vos in Mari potest.

In the ATHENIENSIEN STATE, then, yf that were True, Much more, may the BRYTISH IMPIRE Verifie that worde, absolutely, NOW.

O ALBION, O BRYTAN, O ENGLAND, and (I say) O BRYTAN, agayn: What is to be hoped, of the Races of those thy true Noble Courages: fraught with wisdom and valiantnes: whose worthy Fame (most certainly) is registred all the world ouer? God forbid, that it should truely be sayd: that Onely now, in our days, None can, None may, None dare: or None will, Carefully, and Faithfully vndertake to do so due seruice to God, so Beneficiall to this Im∣pire, so victorious an exploit for his own Immortall Renown esta∣blishing, as, to Merite some parte of a Praeface to the Me∣moriall of his Triumphant Stile, such, as the Ro∣mane Pompeius Magnus, did iustly deserue, in the Romane Impire. Which, with these wordes, by *Plinie is diligently recorded: and for euer (thereby) and Gratefully remembred: Page  39

CVM ORAM MARITIMAM PRAEDONIBVS LIBERASSET: ET IMPERIVM MARIS, POPV∣LO ROMANO RESTITVISSET: Ex Asia, Ponto, Armenia, Paphlagonia, Cappa∣docia, Cilicia, Syria, Scythis, Iudaeis, Albanis, Iberia, Insula Creta, Basternis: Et super haec, de Regibus Mithridate At{que} Tigrane, TRIVMPHAVIT.

Oh, Note. What was the Actuall Praeface, and politik preparatiu to all these Triumphes? Was it any other, than, IMPERIVM MA∣RIS, POPVLO ROMANO RESTITVTVM?

God graunt vs (therfore) the verity and frue, of this Sea Souerain∣ty, euery way: And that, with all Oportunity.

To Conclude then, (In this poynt Answering:) And to end my Conference, with that kinde of People, which either delight in Dearth of Gods sending: or vse (nay abuse) Dearth Fraudulently procured by other: Or, will them selues Violently force in, And Counterfet a Dearth:* And all, for Priuate Lucre onely: (which is a poyson to the Body-Politik of this Kingdom) To those, I confidently affirme: And, Euident and sure it is, that the Mayntenance of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, can cause no one Grayn, or any one pound of Beof, Butter, or Chese: Or any quan∣tity of any other vittayle, to be wanting in this Kingdom: No more, than yf no such Nauy, were to be vittayled.

And the Reason is: No more Men, are now fed at Sea, thereby, [ 1] than (yf no such Nauy were) should and wold be fedd at Land. And the little diuersity, and Changing of the place, of the eating of it (As from Land, to Sea) ys not the Cause of any great want. And therfore, (by Reason, afore declared,) no Iust cause of any Dearth, thereby growing.

Secondly, the Vittayles are so Proportionally, and discretely from all [ 2] Quarters and Partes of this Kingdom prouided: and so orderly serued in, as no one Corner therof, is, thereby molested, or left destitute of Corn or vittayle: otherwise, than by their own Iudgements, may very well, in that place (to so good vse) be forborne.

Thirdly, True and speedy Publik Payment also, will help to pleasure [ 3] many Farmars, and other: and be a means, of better cheape buying, com∣monly. But, olde Custome, yll vsed, of Debentur Bylls, their ouerlong delayed discharge, shall (here) vtterly be abolished.

[ 4] Page  40Fourthly, the Pl••ty of 〈…〉 (by Princely * Privi∣ledge) duly prouided, and discretely saued, and ordered, in our Tweny Publik Store-houses and Garners, of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, may in tyme of True Dearth 〈◊〉 not onely be a aruellous dae to this Realm, for the 〈◊〉 Charge of maintayning so many Thousand English or Bry∣tish Subjects as appertayn to the Pety-Nauy-Royall: But also (by very good reason) may be deemed, 〈◊〉 and politikly made read: to be seruisable, for the relief, of many an Hundred of the poore Common at home: And that, for pryces, tolerable. I mean, the sayd Store-houses, to be peculiarly seruisable euery one of them, to such places 〈◊〉, as do ye most commodiously, or next vnto them, to receue the 〈◊〉. From some of which places, before (Ordinarily, and in the tyme of Plen∣ty) parte of the Publik Prouision, was gathered into the sayd Garn••, or Store-houses. Which manner of pleasuring the Commons, is very Charitable Iustice.

[ 5] Fifthly, by the Continuall Sea-Circuits, of this P••y-Nauy-Roy∣all, (duly vsed) we shall, 1. Either, at Sea, be a Terror or Bar, to such, as els (abhominably) wold conuey out of this Kingdom, the Publik Re∣lie of diners sortes of Vittayles. So that, they will not (hensforward) lightly attempt that their wicked desire: And thereby, the Commons may the longer tyme (within the Realm) enioy the frute of Publik Plenty, lately beore florishing: 2. Or, if any (notwithstanding the vigilant Garde and Circumspction of our Pety-Nauy-Royall, in euery Coast of this Realm) will e so diuelishly aduenturous, as most detestably to disfurnish this Land of the Vittayles: euen then, most nedefull (and alwayes by God Nature, and Humayn Industry, appropriat, to this Kingdom) Vndouted∣ly, we shall very easily intercept, and at Sea, season vpon the conueyed Corn, Butter, Chese, Bacon, Barells or Hog••eds of Beof in Powlder, &c. of such wilfull Offenders: being, (by Mans Law, and all good Con∣science,) forfetted and lost, from the late lewd Owners thereof. And then, the sayd Prouision, so orfayted, may at the pleasure and order of the Queene her most excellent Maiesty, and her honorable Priuy Coun∣saill, be distributed by reasonable sale, into that parte, or partes of this Realm, which is known (at that instant) to be most destitute. And where, also, the Publik Garners, and appropriated Store-houses of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, can not conueniently (or, of all the Twenty, the least conueniently) any longer, supply the want, of their peculyarly assigned Ter∣ritories.

Moreouer, this forfetted Prouision, by some of the smaller Barkes, of the Pety-Nauy, may very speedily, and with small extraordinary Char∣ges, be carryed, & landed, either in the very place, where (then) the Dearth pincheth the Commons, most: or, in any oher place: from whence, ve∣ry commodiously, by farder Landish or Inlandish Carriage of it, (rom the Sea side, Or, from any Hauen or Creke,) it may be brought: (yea, if nede be), into the very Hart, and Myddle of this Allin.

And here, it is to be Considered, also: that the Mony, arising of the Page  41 foresayd Charitable Sale, of the forfet, will, the one half thereof, be∣come due to the Threasory of our Soueraign: And the other half, to the * Cofers of the Pety-Nauy-Royall: which is (in effect) the Threa∣sory of the Commons, and Common-wealth. And thus, the Priuate dis∣order of some one, or a few naughty persons, is so prudently corrected, that, (besides the deserued Penalty, layd vpon the Offenders Backs: and the Publik Terror, thereby procured to the like mynded Misers,) both the Vit∣tailes them selues, do relieue and pleasure many Hundreds of honest and faithfull Subiects: And the Mony therof, also, is no les profitable to the encreasing of the Threasories, aswell of our most Gracious Queene, as also, of the Pety-Nauy-Royall.

And, Seeing that the accustomed Goodnes, (yea the most mercifull and Bountifull aeternall prouidence) of our heauenly Father, is such, ap∣propriated vnto this Ile of Albion, that, by the* Fertility of the Soyle, and due Industry of Man, employed thereto, it is very plentifully and hole∣somly hable (one yere, with an other, and most commonly) to Vittayle * Two tymes so many more, as the Naturall Subiects of this Land are, in multitude, of Men, Women and Children, (So that, the same, might, by very good Order, be reserued within this Kingdom.) Who is there then, of any sound reason, or experience, that can dout, that the * Neces∣sary Vittayling of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, (The Men therof, being but a little Parcell, of the whole Body-Politik, of this Kingdom,) can cause any vndue Want, or Dearth of vittayles?

Seeing, also, by this Hypothesis,* it followeth, that within euery Three yeres, space (Ordinarily,) Stoare may be Layd vp, for Six yeres: or, at the least, for Fowr: to maintayn the whole Realm: yea, though, for two yeres together, neither Wheat, not Barly did grow at all, in the same: or, at the most, did yeld (clere) but fower graynes, for one, sowed.

And, where I speake, of Corn and Grayn reseruing: I mean, no lon∣ger, Store to be made thereof, then (holesomly) the same may * serue. Wherein, also, is many a foule fault committed, in this Kingdom: either by the diuelish Greedy guts, ouer long keping back their Corn from the Common Market: or by other, to negligently vsing it, (in shorter tyme) reserued.

But, when, Extraordinary plentifull yeres do come, then, may the Publik Threasory, fele the great Extraordinary Benefit therof: (as, be∣fore is told, how:) And, also, the Ordinary Store, yerely be layd vp, Notwithstanding.

And, here, you may Note:* that, very seldom, any Dearth, onely of God his sending, doth continue aboue two, or * three yeres, togither, continually.

Therefore, I Conclude, that we of this Kingdom, might (vpon wise Order taken, and inuiolably obserued,) so enioy continuall Plenty: Or (at the least,) Sufficiency of all manner of most nedefull Vittayles: (And of Corn and grayn chiefly,) that, the price of Wheat, should not, in any Common Market, arise * aboue a Mark the Quarter: Rye, x.s. and Barly, viij.s. the Quarter. And, So, Proportionally, of Peason, and Beans. Page  42 And Butter, * Not aboue ij.d. the pound: and Chese, not aboue a peny the pound, &c. And here, I vse this phrase, Not aboue: For, rather, the Prices will be les. And thereupon, you may easily Conclude, that all Laboring Men, Handicraft Men, and other, may affoord their Labors, yea, and wares, better cheape. And so, a marueilous number of other Commodities, will therof ensue: wherof, any man of experience, or good iudgement, will sone perceiue the Dependency, or Consequency.

Vnto which peculiar great Blessing of God, our enioying, No certayner, readyer, and easier means, can be deuised, Than, by the Continuall Circuits of our PETY-NAVY-ROYALL: Thereby, (besides many other Commodities, ensuing) either keping in, and terrifying the wretched harts of them, who, vndu∣ly wold, (els,) proloyn Corn, and Vittailes, out of this Realm: Or cat∣ching them by the back, assone as they begin to Cros the Seas, to any forreyn Nation. Of which point, this may suffice to aduertise them, that are faithfully willing, to follow constantly the Redres, and Reforma∣tion of the manifolde disorders, herein, continually committed, against the Weale-Publik of this Brytish Monarchy.

*And, where the Quantity of Vittayles, before hand, together, at once prouided, Maketh a Shew, of great Waste, either made, or in Danger to be made: (yf Diligent Regarde therof, be not had:) Weake rayn hath that Man, that wold think Waste to be made, for Laying vp together, in a Fortnights space, so much, as shall not be spent, in Fowr∣tene Wekes. But, yf there should so much be spent in a Fortnight, as wold duly serue the Nauy Fowrtene Wekes: Then were there Waste, in∣dede: And so, some Want, fondly procured, more, than els is nedefull. Or, yf, vnder Pretence of Beof Powldring, for the Pety-Nauy-Royall, some Fals Iudas wold steale or proloyn A Hogshed, Two, or Six, to send ouer Seas, to Forreyner: And that, for Priuate Lucre: or for a Farder, and Worser Intent, &c. But, that, and such like sowle Disor∣ders, will be left now, (We Hope:) or, most Narrowly be sene to: As well in Beof, as Butter, Chese, and Bacon, &c.

And, as for Seeing to, or Sauing of the Vittayles, that they be not lost: Ye nede not Dowt. For, yt standeth them more vpon, than so. And, As for Excessiue Feeding at Sea: Who knoweth not, their Dyet to be but Reasonable, and Sufficient? With Hunger rather finishing their Meales, than with Vnweldy Carcasses: Ouercharged with Meat and Dink, As among vs, at home, many a Thowsand is?

I Omyt also, to speak of the great Ayde of Fresh Vittayles, which the Nauy may haue, sundry Wayes, at Seas: by Diuers kynde of good Fish, (our Men being sufficiently skilfull, now, at length, to preuent or Cure the Skyrby.) As Pylchard, Whyting, Haddock, Playce, Sole, Cunger, Herring, Burt, Thornback, Salmon, Bream, Gurnard, Mullet, Mackerell, &c. All, being (most commonly,) Better, then we haue them at Land, brought to vs. Which * good Fish, will also, be a Means, of their spending les Flesh, at Sea: And therefore, to Nede the les, from Land.

Page  43So that, Yf all things be Duly, and Deeply Wayed: besydes a great number of other the Principall Benefits, Redownding to this King∣dom (by the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall:) it is rather thought, that the streict Dyet, (in dede, a moderat, prescribed, and vniform Dyet) of our Publik freends at Sea, in the foresayd Nauy employed, will be a means of very much Vittayles, and Flesh sauing: and to help toward plenty finding, on Land. For (As English-mens noted Vice, or Disorder is:) Of the self same Men, some, wold at their Landish home, or in Alehouses, and Ta∣uernes, eat and drink, more, then Mans nature, behoofully needeth: Or els, some wold be more fine, delicate, and costly in their Dyet, then wis∣dom and discretion wold Prescribe them &c. So that, No dout, can here remayn, that Dearth can haue Roote, or iust occasion, to rise, or grow in this Kingdom, of this Temperate Dyet, allowed to them at Sea: who, els, ought to haue asmuch, or wold haue costlyer, and more, yf they had continued on Land.

And, while the Consideration of one great Ayd, and Means,* for Flesh to become better Cheap, is in our hands: I think it very needfull, to geue you to vnderstand, that by the wicked Wilfulnes only, and eui∣dent fraude, of diuers Subiects of this Realm, There is, yerely, de∣stroyed, more than Fiue Hundred Cart-loads of good fresh Fish, within this our Ile of ALBION. And though, then, not Meat-able, for Man, when they are so destroyed: yet, within short tyme after, they wold be. And likewise, though, not then, likely to amount, in the whole Quantity, yerely, to so many loads: Yet, at the tyme of their being Market-able (of the Myddle * sort) they wold euidently appere, so, to be rated: or rather, far aboue. And neither, any more Charges, nor yet any greater trauaile of Man, is to be employed, for the same sorts of Fish hauing and enioying: both, when they wold be (as is sayd) Markat-able: And also, when the foresayd great haboundance of Vit∣tayles, by them, might be enioyed: Than is, when, so abhominably, they are destroyed, and vtterly spoyled.

And, that this brief, and very needfull Aduertisement, may be found the more manifestly true, and duly geuen: You may vnderstand, That, in the Riuer of Thames only (as my Instructor, by Worshipfull Ien∣tlemen, and other Men of experience, heretofore hath tryed out) most commonly, euery yere, by the Fishermen belonging to some one small Town (or within a little Circuit about it,) there is destroyed, aboue a Thousand Busshels, of the yong Fry, of di∣uers kindes of good Fish: which, in due tyme of their growth, and by lawfull order, being taken, wold haue byn able, to satisfie Two Hundred Thousand Men, one day: Or, Twenty Thousand Men, ten dayes: or, Two Thousand Men, an Hun∣dred dayes, or, Fowr Thousand Men Fifty, dayes. &c.

Which Account, dependeth vpon the Rating of euery kynde of Myddle Markat-able Fish,* to be (one with an other) of Ten tymes so Page  44 much meat, as, when, they are destroyed in such Small Fry, as we mean of: And also, that a Bushell of such Markat-able Fish, is hable to satisfie 20 English-men, One day, for their sufficient Repaste and Suste∣nance: (the Bread and drinke, requisite thereto, being excepted.) What is, then, (I pray you) to be rekened, of the Publik Dammage, of 500. Cart loads, of Fish, (yerely) thus destroyed? How may it (reasonably) any longer, remayn vnreformed? Which 500, Cartload, (according to the former Rate of Myddle Markat-able Fish,) do amount and ryse, of only 2400 Bushels of Fry, yerely destroyed.

But, yf you suppose to be only 30 Trink-Boats: and that euery one of the sayd 30 Trink-Boat Nets, euery day, only for 300, dayes, in euery whole yere, destroy, but one Bushell of very small Fry: The Somme therof, doth amount to Nyne Thousand Bushels of Fry, so de∣stroyed, yerely. Which Fry, when it should be Myddle Markat-able, wold be, (one with an other) of Ten tymes more Meat and Fish, than, when, it is so destroyed. Therefore, the Crafts-men of the Trink-Boats, on the Thames, may, very probably, be accused, conuicted, iudged, and condemned, as the most abhominable yerely Destructioners of Nynety Thousand Bushels of Markat-able Fish.

And, if you abridge me, in the number of the dayes of their Labor, yerely: I will, then, charge eche of their Nets, with destroying dayly, more, than a Bushell of Fry: one day, with an other, euery day of their Labor. And I know (notwithstanding,) how much, I kepe me, with∣in my Bounds, yet: How Horrible and Intollerable, so euer, this Fact, doth sound in your eares: who haue not listened to this matter, before now: nor know the Verity therof, yet.

Of this Nynety Thousand Bushels of Fish, if you will account but euery 48 Bushels, (which make six Quarters,) to be a Cart loade: the Somme will be 1875 Cart loads, of fresh Fish: which is destroyed, yere∣ly, by the Trink-Nets, only: And that, in the Noble Riuer of Thames, only. Whereby, it is most euident, that my first Assertion, of 500 Cart Loads of fresh Fish, destroyed, in the whole Realm of England, is most vndoutedly true.

So is it, now, also, Probable: that, in all England, by the manifold disorder, vsed about Fry and Spawn, destroying, there is yerely Spoyled, or Hyndred,* the Broode of Two Thousand Cart Loads, of fresh Fish, of myddle Markat-able skantlyn.

*The Value, of the foresayd Nynety Thousand Bushels, of fresh Fish, (one with an other, being rated at fiue Shillings a Bushell) is Two and Twenty Thousand, and Fiue Hundred Pounds, of Current Mo¦ny of England.

Which quantity of Fish, also, (according to our former Hy∣potheses) wold mainteyn, for one day, a Thousand Thou∣sand, and Eight Hundred Thousand Men. Or, Nyne Hun∣dred Thousand Men, two dayes: Or, Three Hundred Thou∣sand Page  45 Men, six dayes: Or, a Hundred Thousand Men, 18 dayes: Or, Fifty Thousand Men, 36 dayes: Or, 25 Thousand Men, 72 dayes. &c.

And, yf, in the Riuer of Thames, Trinker-men only, do not (in your Opinion, or, in the estimation and knowlege of them, who are somwhat expert in these Cases,) seme duly charged, with this Incredible Spoyle, and Dammage Publik: I will allow, vnto you and them, into this Reckening (to make vp, the full and heaped vp measure, of this abhominable Iniqui∣ty) all the Destruction of Fry, and yong Fish, which the 18, or, 19 Tym∣ber-Nets, do yerely make: who are fayn, euery two howrs of the Flud or Tyde, to discharge their Nets, for feare of breaking. I will geue you in also, the Spoyle, which is yerely made with the Engynes, called Kyddels. And they, are in the Thames, aboue an Hundred and For∣ty. And now, you can not dout, but I haue good reason, to warrant you, that the Destruction and Spoyle of Fry and yong Fish, made yere∣ly, and that* only, by the Three former vnlawfull Engynes, (occupyed in the Thames) doth amount, yerely, to the foresayd Publik los, of 90000 Bushels of Myddle Markat-able good Fish: in the Totall Somme: I mean, when, the same should come to be, of Myddle Markat-able growth. Though, at the tyme of their Spoyling them, they are, in Measure, but Nyne Thousand Bushels.

And, bycause, the 30, or 31 Trinker-Men, not 1. only, are the chiefest Cause, of the foresayd exceeding great Destruction of FRY, and yong Fish, (to the Intollerable Dammage Publik,) but 2. also, lye in the Ri∣uer of Thames, to the great Annoyance, and Cumber (many tymes) of the Ships, and Boats, passing betwene London, and Grauesend (and farder:) And otherwhile, to the losse, both of Goods and Liues, of ma∣ny of her Maiesties Louing, and Faythfull Subiects: What discrete Sub∣iect, or true Member of the Brytish, or English Monarchie, is there, who, in his hart, Doth not abhorre this Haynous Enormity? and will not, with his Voyce, Hartily, Cry owt, and Say: Fy on them, Fy on them: Away with them, Away with them: Who, so ab∣hominably, conuert Mans Meat, to the Feeding of *1. Swyne: And O∣therwhile, 2. Bury some of their vnlawfull Spoyle of Fry, and young Fish, in the Shores of the Thames, and Otherwhere.

God, of his infinite Goodnes, sendeth vs (Yerely) Euident To∣kens, of the great Habundance, of this kynde of good Vittailes, prepa∣red purposely for this parte, of this Brytish Albion: But, these Tryn∣ker-Men, Cast Incredible Much of such a Threasor, before their Swyne, to Battle them withall: And are, (by that meanes,) great Hynderers, bot to the Wealth, and Reliefe Publik: and also, to the Glory of God: Who, wold be Duly Glorifyed, and Praysed of many a Thowsand of the Rich, and Poore, who, should be Serued, Pleasured, and Relieued, with the great Habundance, of the Dyuers sorts of good and wholesome Fish, Swarming in this Incomparable Riuer of Thames (from the Page  46 one end therof, to the other,) in very mayn Skulls: Yf these Publik Enemies of God and, Man, did not (more than Barbarously, and les than Christianlike,) vtterly spoyle, and wickedly tred vnder their feet, such a Blessing and liberall Gift of our GOD, and most louing heauenly father, profered vnto vs, and in manner, put into our hands.

Very much, more abhominable, and more vnreasonable, is the wic∣kednes of these Trinker-men, than was the Disorder, heretofore (and till of late) committed in Ireland: where, the Inhabitants of diuers Cities and Towns, adioyning nere to Riuers, that do Eb and Flow (in which Riuers, the Fry of Salmon, Ele, and other Commodious Fish are bred and nourished) did kepe great heards and numbers of Swyne: which, at low water, they do, or (till of late) did lead, of suffer, to fede vpon the Strands, of the sayd Riuers: where they do, or did, destroy great Quantity of Salmon, and Ele Fry: and of diuers other good Fishes: to the great hurt, and hindrance of Fishing: and the exceeding great dammage, of the Common-Wealth. As, by the Act, made against the same, at Dublyn, Anno vndecimo, of our most Gracious Souerayn La∣dy, Queene Elizabeth, more at large, may appere.

And, at this present, I am the bolder, to expres my Instructor his feruency, against the Trinker-Men, their haynous endammaging of the Publik-wealth of this Kingdom: Seeing, for (abowt) an Hundred and Fifty yeres ago, the whole Body of this Realm, by their Parlement Senators, left vnto vs, worthy Record of their vigilant Eye (to finde out such Offences) and their Politik Prouiso: by very good Iustice, either to Cut of the Cause, of so greuous hindrance to the Common-wealth: or, discreetly to punish the fact (so often, as it should be Committed) with a Hundred Shillings, to be Forfetted, to the King.

In the Second yere, of King Henry the Sixth, these are the wordes of the Statute, to our purpose, prudently established: CAP. XV.

*ITem, it is Ordeined, that the Standing of Nets, and Engins, called Trinks, and all other manner of Nets, which be, and were wont to be fastened, and hanged continually, day and night, by a certayn tyme, in the yere, to great Posts, Boats, and Anchors, ouerthwart the Riuer of Thames, and other Riuers of the Realm, (which Standing, is a Cause and an Occasion of as great, [and more] destruction of the Broode, and Fry of Fish, and Di∣sturbance of the Common Passage of vessels, as be the Weares, Kyddels, or any other Engins,) be wholy defended, for EVER. And that, euery Per∣son, that so setteth, or fastneth them, from henceforth, to such Posts, Boats, and Anchors, or like thing, continually to Stand, (as afore is sayd,) and be du∣ly therof, by the Cours of the Law, conuict: he shall forfait to the King. C.S. at euery tyme, that he is so proued, in Default. Prouided alwayes, that it shall be lawfull to the Possessors of the sayd Trinks, (if they be of* Assise,) to Fish with them, in all seasonable tymes: Drawing and conueying them, by Hand: as, other Fishers, do other Netts: and not fastning, or tacking the sayd Netts, to the Posts, Boats, and Anchors: continually to Stand, as afore is sayd. Sauing alwayes, to euery of the Kings liege People, their Right,

Title, and Enheritance, in their Fishings, in the sayd Water.

Page  47But, what shall any Zealous Louer of Iustice, and good Publik Po∣licy, say, or think, herein? Seeing, so long ago, so Iust, sufficient, and easy a Remedy, was prouided, against these Trink-Boats: 1. aswell, for the manifold Cumber, Danger, and Dammage, happening by them, to such, as should, and did pas (Vp or Down,) vpon the Thames, by Day: and chiefly in the Dark Nights, and Foggy Weather: As also, a∣gainst the exceeding great Publik-Dammage, to the Naturall and Ordina∣ry Encrease, of very good Fish, (of diuers sorts) wilfully, and very vn∣godly, procured by the sayd Trinker-men, hath byn, no better regarded?

And, seeing, 2. Sutes in the Law, haue byn, in our dayes, commen∣ced, and followed (by vertue of the sayd Act) against the sayd Trinker-men: And they, therupon Condemned: And yet (that notwithstanding,) their vnlawfull Practises, still are continued?

And Thirdly, Seeing, (before our Eyes,) the Dammage to the Com∣mon-wealth, and the incredible hinderance to that plenty of Vittailes fin∣ding and enioying, which God hath prepared for vs, is, by these Trinker-men procured, more now, than euer before, most vnlawfully, and fraudu∣lently: etiam, cum Calumnia quadam, to the Pitifull Clemency, and the very great Lenity, vsed toward them?

Therfore, Seeing, (I saye,) that Neither the foresayd very good Law, can feare them: Nor, the Amercements, (as they are vsed,) do sufficient∣ly pinch thm: Nor, the manifold iust Complaynts (besides Costly Sutes, made and had) against these Trinker-Men, are (yet,) of sufficient effect, to the poore Commons, to be vsed herein, according to the Lawes of this Realm: But that, they remayn remedyles, (yet,) and are euidently Spoyled (yerely) of an incredible great Publik Benefit, by these Trinkerly disordred, and vnlawfull Fishings (as before is declared:) How can I, hope, that, vpon this very brief, and simple Aduertisement, of my Instructor, These Trink-Nets shall vtterly, and speedily, be cut of,* without any lon∣ger sinister means to be vsed, by any Subiects, to beard, check-mate, or, to deface so commendable and needfull a Statute, as that is, which be∣fore is expressed, against the Standing of any Trink-Nets? But, yet, for all that, such is my Confidence in the goodnes of her most excellent Ma∣iesty: and so, assured I am, her Maiesties hart, to be fraught with pitifull Compassion, on the Lamentable, and due Complaynts, made, of the great and excessiue hynderance, and dammage to her Commons and Sub∣iects wealth and relief: And, likewise, so well, are we acquainted with the most commendable Iustice, executed by her Maiesties most Hono∣rable Priuy Counsaile, when duly and throughly they vnderstand the Causes: That, (with calling these things, to my Remembrance) not on∣ly, now, my Hope is reuiued: but, also, I dare half warrant the Com∣mons, That Trink-Net-Men, henceforward, shall be vnparti∣ally constrayned, to vse their Trade of Fishing only, according to the Law: and, Not, as they (most vnlawfully and very vn∣godly,) to long a tyme haue done, and very abhominably at this present, they do: Yerely destroying far more Fish, than they send, good, seasonable, lawfull, and allowable, to the Markets. For, Page  48 the more parte of those, which they send, are Vnseasonable or Vnlawfull Smelts, or Whiting-Mops: Wherin, the Hebber-Boats, only, might suf∣ficiently well, (or, with much les Publik-dammage) serue: as the wise and expert, are well assured of it.

Of the diuers, yea the manifold * other abuses, of Fishing: or hyn∣drances to the same, in this noble Riuer of Thames, only: to disclose, rehears, and expres the matter, and manner, particularly, fully, and vn∣partially, it doth require a peculiar, and great Treatise.

But, to Conclude this necessary Digression, withall: I may, aptly enough (and omitting many other,) Note only two manners of Hyn∣drances: Which, (easily, and most quickly) may be redressed: The one, is, of long tyme vsed, and (I know not, why,) permitted: and yet (notwith∣standing) is a great Hindrance and cause of Destruction, to the Western store of diuers kyndes of good Fishes. I mean, aboue London Bridge, vpward (which is Westward.)

And that is, the Fishing with any man∣ner of Net, in the places, which either for a Season, or in the other, which are continually exempted from being Fished in, (commonly called Seueralls, and Rough places.)
In which places, what vnlawfull, or vndue Subtlery is vsed, to auoyd the Roughs, and Stakes, for feare of hur∣ting, or renting of their Nets, (and yet, to beat, and punch the Beds, or Skulls of Fish: and by [in manner] thundring sowncing, thumping, and pashing, or, with Chayn drawing vnder the water, &c: to driue the Fish, to their Nets) may easily be vnderstood, and dayly sene, or nightly hard, and perceiued. But, with all men, of sufficient Iudgement (in many Res∣pects,) it may be condemned, as a great hyndrance to the Broode and Store preseruing: and a violent breaking, of the first Intent of the Politik Ciuill Senators: who, made the Ordonances, for such Places Seueralling, or vtterly Exempting, and reseruing vnransakt, and vndisturbed. And though Peter-Men, will make great shew of good Argument, to the Contrary: yet, it is best, to make sure woork: in Circumspectly establi∣shing the Priuilege, and exemption of those peculiarly assigned, and well known places, of Store and Broode: from any manner of Net casting in the same, or any artificiall disturbance, purposely, therin to be vsed, for any Fish taking.

The Second Hyndrance, is the Stinching, Soyling, (or, rather Beslouening,) of the Thames: Both Shores, and Channels: Where, the yerely Recours, and far more Plentifull Haunt, than now is, of the Western * Smelt, (which is the Seasonable, and best Smelt) was wont to be. Which kynde of Fish, greatly abhorreth such Fylthy grownd. And this new, and to bold Attempt, hath, but of very late yeres, excessiuely, bin enterprised: Not only, (as I sayd,) to the great Hyndrance of the best, and most Seasonable Smelt, his annuall Delight, as in times past (and till, of very late) to Return, and abyde in great Plenty, for the space of the whole Season, in the Ancient Place of the chief Western Smelt Fishing: But, also, to the causing of many lothsome Sights, horrible Sauours, and infectuous euaporations, of such Dunghill stuf: to no little grief of Sent, and no les danger to the health of very many, of Court, Cuntry, and City: which, either do frequent, or (now and then) pas vpon the same Page  49 Riuer of Thames, betwene the City of London, and Richemond: where (most vsually) our Soueraygn, euery yere, doth make some abode.

Betwene which two places, as our Soueraigns, (Kings and Queenes) haue very often, and (almost) yerely, heretofore, passed by water: So, durst no man, in those dayes, so carelesly, and vnlawfully annoy, and be∣stinche the Thames: either, Banks or Shores, (in that Tract of the Ri∣uer, chiefly: being, also, the fayrest and pleasantest passage, of the whole Riuer:) both, in respect of not offending, either the Eye, or Smell, of the Maiesty Royall: and also, for feare of breaking * Ordonances, gene∣rally prouided, and very duly appliable to the same Case.

And how, either already, it hath of∣fended, or may here after, offend the Eye and Nose, and be dan¦gerous to the health, aswell of the right Honourable, Priuy Counsailers to our Soueraygn, or, of o∣ther of the Nobility: or, of the Ladyes and Ientlewemen of the Court: As of ve∣ry many other also, of all Degrees: any man may easily iudge, that either hath those his two * Senses [ 1] sound and perfect: or good vnderstanding of * Decorum obser∣uing, [ 2] in respect of Cleanlynes and whol¦somnes in Publik and Princely Passages: or who hath due and expert * perceiue∣rance, [ 3] that, both it is Vnlawfull, and al∣so Needles, in Such Maner to be done, as it is.

And some, haue of late, so much en∣croached vpon the Patience of the Commons (in this vndecent and vnlawfull filthy Attempt:) yea, so far, as, not 1. only, by Scattrings, they haue annoyed the Chan∣nels, Page  50 and Publik Shoares,* with the sayd Dung: and (in some places, nere the vsuall Landing of the right honorable Priuy Counsaile, and Embassa∣dors: and of other her Maiesties Subiects, of all sorts) with the oten Recours of the Carts to the Dung boats sides, haue made such Publik Shores, and Stronds, as before, were very clean, hard, and grauelly, to become (thereby) very myry, and depe to the knees: and vyly stin∣king, at the Eb, when the Sunne hath had any power thereon: And chief∣ly, if the wynde do cary the Noysome Sauour therof, toward any man: But 2. also haue made two kynde of Standing-Leystoofs or Dung-hils: the one immediatly to receiue from Boat the foresayd Filth: And the other, not far of: and nere, or in the High and Publik wayes: or in the Lords waste ad∣ioyning. Both which kyndes of new deuised Dung hills, if heretofore, any Law or Policy did permit, or rather, not sufficiently preuent: yet (not∣withstanding that slight permission, or want of Prouiso: better Considera∣tion, aduise, and examining of the matter, will or may finde good Re∣medy for the noysome Disorder: and establish some sufficient * Order: aswell, for apt places assigning, or admitting, for certayn Leystooss ma∣king: as also, for a very short tyme limiting for such stuf, lying or con∣tinuing there, to the great Annoyance, and possible Infection, not onely and chiefly of the nere Inhabitants, but of them also, which do and shall pas thereby: of what Dignity, Degree, or State so euer, they (he or she) are: English, or Forreiner.

And, though the Husband-Men, therabout, do greatly allow such kynde of helping their poore and hungry erable groundes: more, now, than in tymes past: yet, this Notable dangerous, and needles annoying of so many. Thousands, of the Queenes Maiesties louing Subiects: (and that for a very few Husband-mens fansies) hath not holpen them, to be hable, or (at the least) admonished them, to be the more willing, to sell their Corn any better cheap, either at Market, or at Home, to their poore Neighbours, or, to other. And yet (forsothe) for their onely Priuate wealth amending, they dare be so bold, or are become so careles, to an∣noy, and vnlawfully to vex, with lothesome Sights, and vnwholsome Sauours, so many, and so much, as they do. Yea, and that, dayly: and more and more. Farder I will not (as now) say, in this vnpleasant matter: though I could.

But, in this point, (as in many other,) the poore Commons, and quiet Subiects of her Maiestie,* do Hope, that some Redres, will speedily en∣sue. So, that Priuate Gayn, Delight, or wilfulnes, shall not so much either rechlesly, craftily, or violently, deuoure, or bar the PROFIT-PVBLIK: or, be so Noysom, and greeuous, to the poore Commons: Whose Health and welfare, ought, in all good Common-Wealths, to be carefully procured, and constantly maynteined: as much, as any Humayn, or their best Policy, can aduaunce, and preserue the same.

The Third and last Dowt, is of the Due, True, and Iust, Bestowing, of such a Masse of Threasor, which yerely will be, Ordi∣narily, Contributed: and odly, otherwise, now and then: as by Gift while men are lyuing: Or, by Legacy, after their Decease: and sundry Page  51 otherwayes. The meaning hereof, is this: That the Threasor Contribu∣ted, may sundry wayes be abused. As, Partly, through the corrupt Na∣ture, and very falshood of such, as should in Office haue the fingring of yt: Being not contented with their sufficient Salary, and Due Allowance. Or, by Vndiscrete bestowing some parte thereof: by wasting it to other purposes, or vses, than it is meant, intended, and contributed for: one tyme or other. Or, by fayned Robberyes: or Los, by Negligent Wayes. Or (perhaps) the Poore Commons, and Body of the Realm, may (to Scrupulously) settle in their Fansyes, A Speciall Dowt herein, which they dare not expressely Declare: As might be, To consider many things, which haue bene, in tymes past, Liberally geuen to vses Publik, and to Gods great Honor: (As, in those Dayes, Christian Religion, was rated.) And the same Gifts, then, most circumspectly also, by the best Aduise of Lawyers, (in Tenor of woords) ordred: And with many other Cir∣cumstances, confirmed: Yet, Notwithstanding all that Assurance, And the Force of Legacy Law: Many a Thousand Pounds Rent, of such Free Gifts, haue byn in our Dayes, by Act of Parlement, turned from the first appoynted Vses: And Therefore, herein also, mought the lyke Al∣teration be Dowted.

¶Easily, and Probably, their Fantazies might,* in this their Dowt, be satisfied. First, the Cases are very vnlike. For, there, either withowt Aduise and Consent of the whole State: Or, of a Simple In∣tent, [ 1] but Vaynly, (in Respect of the Means, to obtayn that their Intent,) such Gifts were First geuen: But, in this our Gift, and Publik Oblation, the whole Realm is priuy: the whole Realm consenting: the whole Realm, ay∣ding: And the whole Realm, certainly feeling the Publik Commodity of Peace, Wealth, and of Blessed Security, thereby, enioyed. And, Seeing the Case so standeth, who can Dout, that euer hereafter, in any Parlement, all the Parlement Senators, or the more parte, will be so much corrupted in their Iudgements: as, either to mislike the Continu∣all Garde of this Monarchy, by the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall: or, to Sollicite it to be layd aside, in parte, or in all: And wold (notwith∣standing) haue the Commons, the Realm, vrged to the Conty∣nuance of the foresayd Perpetuall Beneuolence: for Sea Securi∣ty onely, meant, and giuen?

¶Secondly, to Preuent the likelyhood or possibility of such dange∣rous [ 2] Innouations: No les Wisdom and Prudency, may herein be vsed, than was in Athenes, vpon Occasion, not vtterly vnlike to this: But, ours, for manifold Purposes, to vs, more Commodious, than theirs, could be to them.

The Peloponnesians, being returned homeward from Attica, Thucidides (Lib. 2) recordeth some of the Atheniensiens new Ordonances ensuing: Saying:

Post quorum discessum, Athenienses Praesidia & excubias disposuerunt, in Terra, & in Mari, sicut volebant per totum Belli tempus seruari. Et decreue∣runt * Mille Talenta de Pecunia in Arce posita, à reliqua summa segregata, separa∣tim reponenda esse, ne{que} insumenda: sed de Reliqua Pecunia, in Bello sumptus fa∣ciendos. Page  52 Si quis suaderet, vel decerneret, vt ea Pecunia moueretur, aut in alios vsus expenderetur, quàm cùm Hostes Atticam Classe & Nauali Exercitu pe∣terent, & reprimendi essent, Illi Suasori, Poenam statuebant SVPPLI∣CIVM CAPITIS. Et centum Triremes praecipuas at{que} instructis∣simas, quotannis, à reliqua Classe seiunxerant, adiunctis singularum Praefectis: Quibus, vnà cum Pecunia illa, ad nullam rem vti fas erat, praterquam, cùm Ci∣uitas, illa extrema necessitate & Periculo premeretur.
The like Prouiso, hath byn in sundry other Realms, established: And in this Kingdom also, or∣deyned: And, in this Case, full well, and necessarily, may be.

[ 3] ¶And, here also, such other Circumspect Considerations of Proui∣so, will vndoutedly be had, against all fals and negligent Officers, in any Seruice Publik, (to the vse and behoof, of the foresayd Pety-Nauy-Royall, appointed:) That, so sone, as, any of them, shall be suffici∣ently conuicted of falshood, in their Office, vsed: Rigorous and sharp Iudgement (according to the greatnes of the fault,) shall pas against them: and they vtterly be dishabled for euer, From all Publik function of Office, within the Realm of England, and Ireland: vpon a Band of Re∣cognisance, taken of their hands, to that Intent. And the matter, Proces and Conclusion, fully to be Recorded, in two books: with the Offenders Name, subscribed with his own hand: (As, sundry other things, els, are, for Safety, and Readynes, to be twise, or oftner Registred.) And if any Officer shall, twise, or thrise, be found a Trespaser, by his own Negli∣gence, or of any vnder him: in any matter of Importance, touching his Of∣fice: After due Amends shall by him, or his Suerties, be made, to the Publik Threasory: That Negligent Officer, shall be put out of his Office, im∣mediatly. And, after this, or some better Rate, all Fults, and Of∣fences of Falshood, and Negligences, and such like, in euery kinde of Officers (to the Pety-Nauy-Royall belonging,) shall diligently (by apt Sur∣ueyors) be sene to, and quikly espyed: narrowly sifted, and duly correc∣ted. So that (vndoutedly) such Iustice, being vnpartially, and speedily v∣sed, shall make, that, ere long, all these Officers, from the lowest to the Highest, shall be tryed, approued, graue, honest, discrete, and cir∣cumspect Men: who will deale so iustly, carefully, and diligently, as their Othes receiued,* shall bynde them: And their sufficient Suerties, shall be answearable for: And, as, the whole Commons will hartily request them, for to do: and will, most faithfully promise vnto them, and gladly performe (vpon their good seruice, and due desert) such extraordinary Re∣wards, and so great, as may encourage any Christen Man, to deale tru∣ly, and iustly, in so waighty Affaires Publik: And may also reioyce any godly mans hart els, to see excellent Vertue, receiue such Publik Honor, Credit,* and Gwerdon.

[ 4] ¶To Conclude: who Douteth, but that our King and God, of his Infinite mercy may graunt vs, euen at our first discrete and circumspect Choys, and assigning, to finde all sorts of those Officers, so wise, faith∣full, Iust, Carefull, and Diligent: as, it may be accounted his very handy∣work, and great Blessing, herein? Whose Mercifull Prouidence, at no tyme, is wanting in matters Cosmopoliticall, of great importance: and Page  53 which, also, incomparably surpasseth all Humayn Policie: though the same be most carefully vsed, for matters tending greatly and chiefly to his Glorie, and Honor: as, vndoutedly, this doth. And so, are the Three former Douts, briefly, and sufficiently (as this place may admit.) Dis∣solued, and taken away.

Therfore, Seeing No Dout, or Obiection, (worthy of Consi∣deration, or, of any Importance,) is remayning, to the Contrary of that most zealous WISH, or rather, SVPPLICATION, which (certain∣ly) is agreable to the Harty Desire, of the most parte of all Naturall, and Faithfull Subiects of this Kingdom, at this very Present: (vpon our own State, both, in it self, chiefly, and absolutely: And also, in Respect, of our Forrein Neighbors, their vnassured Frendship, being Considered): Why should not we HOPE, that, RES-PVBL. BRYTANICA,* on her knees, very Humbly, and ernestly Soliciting the most Excellent Royall Maiesty, of our ELIZABETH, (Sitting at the HELM of this Imperiall Monarchy: or, rather, at the Helm of the IMPERIALL SHIP, of the most parte of Christendome: if so, it be her Graces Pleasure) shall obteyn, (or Perfect Policie, may perswade her Highnes,) that, which is the Pyth, or Intent of RES-PVBL. BRYTANICA, Her Supplicati∣on? Which is, That, TOΛO ΕΩΠΛΙMENO, may helpe vs, not onely, to POYPION TH Λ•• ΛΛEIΛ: But make vs, also, Par∣takers of Publik Commodities Innumerable, and (as yet) Incredible. Vnto which, the HEAVENLY KING, for these many yeres last past, hath, by MANIFEST OCCASION, most Graciously, not on∣ly inuited vs: but also, hath made, EVEN NOW, the Way and Means, most euident, easie, and Compendious: In-asmuch as, (besides all our own sufficient Furniture, Hability, Industry, Skill, and Courage) our Freends are become strong: and our Enemies, sufficiently weake, and nothing Royally furni∣shed, or of Hability, for Open Violence Vsing: Though their accustomed Confidence, in Treason, Trechery, and Disloyall Dealings, be very great. Wherin, we beseche our HEAVENLY PROTECTOR, with his GOOD ANGELL to Garde vs, with SHIELD AND SWORD, now, and euer. Amen.

Page  54

TRuly, I can not here let pas, an o∣ther Little Discourse, (as there are Diuerse,) of his, much to this In∣tent. I am not vtterly Ignorant, (Sayd he,) of the Humors, and Inclinations, of the People of this ALBION, being (now) the greater Portion, of the BRYTISH IMPIRE. For, although, as well through so many Conquests, as al∣so, great Resortings hither, of sun∣dry other Nations, there hath byn made a Maruellous Mixture of Peo∣ple, of Repugnant Conditions: Yet, from Yere to Yere, the Gene∣rall Disposition, of the present Inhabitants, doth, much alike, Alter to this great Imperfection:* That is: Though otherwhiles, they know and Taste of the Best: yet, seldome tyme, they do Constantly follow, and continue in the same: I mean now, in Publik Behauiour, Et officijs Ciuilibus: For that, their Ciuile Conuer∣sation, and Industry, in many poynts, is nothing so answerable to the Dignity of Man, As the very Heathens did prescribe Rules for the Gouernment therof. Let CICERO, his Golden Book, DE OF∣FICIIS, be the Euidence against them, to the Contrary: And that, in those Poynts, by the Heathen Orator expressed, which both greatly are agreable to the most Sacred Diuine Oracles, of our IEOVA: and also, for the Common-Wealths-Prosperity, right Excellent.

I haue oftentymes, (Sayd He,) and many wayes, looked into the State of Earthly Kingdoms, Generally, the whole World ouer: (as far, as it may, yet, be known to Christen Me, Commonly:) being a Study, of no great Difficulty: But, rather, a purpose, somewhat answe∣rable, to a perfect Cosmographer: to fynde hym self, Cosmopolites:* A Citizen, and Member, of the whole and only one Mysticall City Vniuersall: And so, consequently, to meditate of the Cosmopo∣liticall Gouernment therof, vnder the King Almighty: passing on, very swiftly,* toward the most Dreadfull, and most Cumfortable Term prefixed:

And I finde (sayd he) that if this * Brytish Monarchy, wold here∣tofore, haue followed the Aduantages, which they haue had, onward, They mought, very well, ere this, haue surpassed (By Iustice and God∣ly, sort) any particular Monarchy, els, that euer was on Earth, since Mans Creation. And that, to all such purposes, as to God are most accep∣table: And to all perfect Common-Wealths, most Honorable, Profitable, and Comfortable.

But, yet, (sayd he) there is a Little lock of LADY OCCA∣SION, Flickring in the Ayre, by our hands, to catch hold on: wher∣by, we may, yet ones more (before, all, be vtterly past, and for euer) Page  55 discretely, and valiantly recouer, and enioy, if not all our Ancient and due Appertenances, to this Imperiall Brytish Monarchy, Yet, at the least, some such Notable Portion therof, As, (all Circumstances, duly and Iustly appertayning to Peace and Amity, with Forreyn Princes, being offred and vsed) this, may become the most Peaceable, most Rich, most Puissant, and most Florishing Monarchy of all els (this day) in Christendome.* Peaceable (I say) euen with the most parte of the self same Respects, that good King Edgar had, (being, but a Saxon:) And by sundry such means, as, he chiefly, in this Impire did put in proof and vre, Triumphantly. Wherupon, his Surname, was PA∣CIFICVS, most aptly and Iustly. This Peaceable king Edgar, had in his mynde (about 600. yeres past) the Representation of a great parte of the self same Idea, which (from aboue onely, and by no Mans aduise,) hath gratiously streamed down into my Imagination: being (as it becom∣meth me, a Subiect) Carefull for the Godly Prosperity of this Brytish Impire, vnder our most Peaceable Queene Elizabeth.

For, EADGARVS PACIFICVS, Regni sui prospiciens Vtilitati, pa∣riter & Quieti, Quatuor Millia*Octingentas sibi Robustas congregauit Na∣ues: E quibus, Mille Ducentas, in Plaga Angliae Orientali: Mille Ducentas, in Occidentali: Mille Ducentas, in Australi: Mille Ducentas in Septentrionali Pelago*Constituit: Vt ad Defensionem Regni sui, contra Exteras Nationes, bellorum Discrimina sustinerent:

O wisdom Imperiall: most diligently, to be Imitated. Videlicet, PROSPICERE: to Foresee: O Charitable Kingly Parent, that was touched with Ardent Zeale, for Procuring the Publik-Profit of his Kingdom: Yea and also, the Peaceable enioying therof. O, of an Incredible Masse of Threasor, a Kingly Portion, yet, in his Cosers, remayning: Yf, then, he had, (or late before,) any warres: Seeing no Notable Tax, or Contribution Publik, is (Historically) mentioned, to haue byn, for the Charges hereof, leuyed. Yf, in Peace, he him self, florished so wealthyly. O marueilous Politicall and Princely Pruden∣cy, in tyme of Peace, to Foresee and preuent, (and that, most Puissant∣ly and Inuincibly) all possible malice, fraude, force, and mischief For∣reyn. O most discrete Liberality, to such excellent good vses, pow∣ring out his Threasor, so abundantly. O faithfull English People (Then) and Worthy Subiects, of such an Imperiall and Godly Go∣uernour. O your True and willing Harts, and blessed ready hands (Then.) So, to Impart such Abundance of Vittayles, for those Huge Nauies mayntenance. So, (I say) as, neither Dearth or Famine, see∣med (fondly) to be feared of you, for any intollerable want, likely to ensue, thereby. Nor, prices of Vittayles, complayned of, to be vnreaso∣nably enhansed, by you: finding, for their great Sales, so good and rare Oportunity.

Page  56This Peaceable KING EDGAR, was one of the perfect Imperiall Monarchs of this Brytish Impire: and therfore, thus, his Fame remayneth (for euer) Recorded:

ANGLICI ORBIS BASILEVS, FLOS, ET DECVS AEDGARVS, non minus Memorabilis Anglis quàm Cyrus Persis: Romu∣lus Romanis: Alexander Macedonibus: Arsaces Parthis: * Carolus Francis: Anno vitae 37mo. Regni sui, cum Fratre, & póst, 21mo. Idibus Iulij, obijt: & apud GLASCON. Sepelitur.

O Glastonbury, Glastonbury: the Threasory of the Carcasses of so famous, and so many rare Persons, (*Quae olim MATER SANC∣TORVM dictaes: &, ab alijs, TVMVLVS SANCTORVM: quam, ab ipsis DISCIPVLIS DOMINI, aedifica••m fuisse, Venerabilis habet An∣tiquorum Authoritas.) How Lamentable, is thy case, now? How hath Hypocrisie and Pride, wrought thy Desolation? Though I omit (here) the names of very many other, both excellent holy Men, and Mighty Princes (whose Carcasses are committed to thy Custody), yet, that A∣posle like Ioseph, That Triumphant BRYTISH ARTHVR, And now, this Peaceable, and Prouident Saxon, King Edgar, do force me, with a certayn sorrowfull Reuerence, here, to Celebrate thy Memory.

*This Peaceable King Edgar, (as by Ancient Records may ap∣pere:) His Sommer Progresses, and Yerely chief pastymes, were, The Sayling rownd about this Whole Ile of Albion: Garded with hys Grand Nauy of 4000 Sayle, at the least: parted into 4 Equall Partes, of Pety Nauies: eche, being of a Thowsand Ships. For, so it is Anciently Recorded. Idem quo{que} AEDGARVS, 4000 NAVES CON∣GREGAVIT: ex quibus, omni Anno, post festum Paschale 1000 Naues ad quamlibet Angliae partem*Statuit: Sic, AEstate Insulam * Circumnauigauit. Hy∣eme verò, Iudicia in Prouincia exercuit. Et haec omnia, ad sui Exercitium, & ad Hostium fecit Terrorem.

Could, and would that Peaceable, and wise King Edgar, before nede (as being in Peace, and Quiet, with all Nations, about hym) And Not∣withstanding, mistrusting his possible Enemies, make his Pastymes, so Roy∣ally, Politically, and Triumphantly: with so many Thowsand Ships: And at the least, with ten tymes so many Men, as Ships: And that, yerely? And shall we, being not assured of such Neighbours rendeships, as may Page  57 become, to vs, as Cruell and Tyrannicall Enemyes, as neuer King Edgar neded to Dread any the like: And they, as many, and Migh∣ty Princes, as neuer King Edgar coped with the like? Shall we (sayd he,) not Iudge it, some parte of Wisdome, to Imitate carefully, in some little Proportion, (though not with so many Thousands,) the prosperous Pastimes of Peaceable King Edgar, that Saxonicall Alexander? Yea, Prosperous pastimes, those may be iustly cownted, by which, he al∣so made euident to the whole world, that, As he wisely knew the Anci∣ent Bownds, and Limits, of this Brytish Impire: So, that he could, and wold, Royally, Iustly, and Triumphantly * Enioy the same: Spite of the Diuell, and Maugre the Force of any Forreyn Potentate: And, all that, so Highly, and Faithfully, to the glory of God, finally,* intended, and brought to pas: As the Wisest, and Godlyest Prelats, and Cownsailors of those Dayes, (so cownted of, and recorded,) could best aduise or direct him: Or (Perchance,) but sincerely Commend, and Dutifully encourage him, in: He being, of himself, so bent: As, pur∣posing, first, Inuincibly to Fortify the Chiefest and Vttermost Walls of his Ilandish Monarchy,* against all Forreyn Encombrance possible: And in that Fortification Furdering, and Assuring, to trust best his own Ouersight, and Iudgement: in yerely vewing the same, in euery Quar∣ter therof: And that, (as it were) for his Pastime Imperiall, also, in the Sommer Tyme: to the ende, that afterward, In all Securitie, he might, in Winter tyme * (VACARE:) be at conuenient Ley∣sure, On Land: chiefly, to set furth Gods Due Honor: And Second∣ly, to Vnderstand, and Diligently to Listen to the Causes and Com∣playnts, of his Commons. For, (As Mathaeus Westmonastariensis, of him, to his Immortall Commendation, hath left vs a Remembrance:)

Habebat autem*praetereà Consuetudinem, per omnes Regni Prouincias trans∣ire: Vt intelligeret, quomodo Legum Iura, & suorum Statuta Decretorum, à Principibus obseruarentur: Et, ne Pauperes à Potentibus praeiudicium passi, oppri∣merenur, dligenter inuestigare Solebat. In*vno, FORTITVDINI, In altero, IVSTITIAE studens: Et Reipub. Regni{que} Vtilitati consulens, in Vtro{que}. Hinc, HOSTIBVS circumqua{que} TIMOR, Et AMOR om∣nium erg eum exreuerat SVBDITORVM.

Thus, we see, how, in * Opportunity, this Peaceable Edgar, procured, to this Impire, such prosperous Security: That his true and faithfull Subiects, all manner of wayes, (that is, at home, and also at Sea, both outward and inward,) mought peaceably, Safely, and Se∣curely, employ their wits and trauayles, for the marueilous enritching of this Kingdom, and pleasuring very many other: Carrying forth, the Na∣turall Commodities of this Land, abounding here, aboue our necessa∣ry vses: (and due Store reserued): And likewise (agayn), Furnishing the same, with all necessary (and not superfluous) Forreyn Commodi∣ties: fet from far, or Forreyn Cuntryes. This, was, in dede (as before is Recorded) a Kingly Prouidence:*Reipub. Regni{que} Vtilitati Consulens, &c.Page  58 Besides which great Vtility and Profit publik, foresene: and by this means, enioyed: he him self, vsed most gladly the Aduantage of that Security, in ministring of Iustice: Or causing the same to be executed, all his Kingdom ouer: Not Squeymihly, frowningly, or skornfully shun∣ning the ragged and tattered sleue of any * Suppliant, holding vp to him a simple soyled Bill of Complaynt, or Petition, and that, homely con∣triued: Or, afrayd at, and Timerously hasting from, the sickly Pale face, or feeble Lymmed Suter, extremely constrayned, so, to speak for him self: Nor, partially smoothering his own Conscience, to sauor, or mayntein the fowle fault, and trespas vnlawfull, of any his Subiects: How Mighty, or Necessary so euer, they (els) were: But, diligently made Search, least, Pauperes, à Potenibus preiudicium passi, opprimerenur.

*Thus, did Publik-1.Security, from orreyn foe, abrode: And True 2. loue, of his own Subiects, garding him, at home: And the 3. Heauenly Spirite, directing all his godly Purposes: Cause Iustice and Equity, in all Quarters of this ALBION, to florish. For which, his Peaceable and prosperous Benefits, at the Eternall King his had, obtayned: he became, not Insolent, or declyned to Tyrannic••l Regi∣ment (as some Princes, in other Cuntries haue made their lyues, •••∣cotragicall,*) But with all his foresayd Inuincible Sea Strength, aboun∣dant Wealth, Triumphant Peace: with Security, and Iusice, ouer all his Monarchy preuayling: his hart, was continually, and most ea∣lously bent, to set forth the Glory, Laude, and Honor of the Almigh∣ty Creator, the Heauenly and euerlasting King: By such principall and Princely means, as, (then,) were demed, to God, most acceptable: And such, as many Monuments, yet, to our dayes, remayning, do of him vndoutedly Testify: As this, for one:

*ALTITONANTIS Dei largisua Clementia, qui est Rex Regum, Ego AEDGARVS Anglorum Basileu, omnium{que} Rgum Insula∣rum, OCEANIQVE * BRITANNIANI Circumacentis, Cunctarum{que} Nationum quae infra eam includuntur IMPERATOR & Dem••us, gratias ago ipsi Deo Omnipotenti, Regi mo, qui meum IMPERIVM sic ampliauit & exaltauit super Regnum Patrum me∣rum:* Qui, lict Monarchiam ttius Angliae adpi sint, à tempore ATHELSTANI, (qui primus Regnum Anglorum, & omnes Natio∣nes quae Britanniam incolunt, sibi Armis subegit,) Nullus tamen eorum, vlira eius Fines, Imperium suum dilatare aggressus est. Mihi autem concessit Propitia Diuinitas, cum Anglorum IMPERIO, omnia Rega Insularum OCEANI, cum suis ferocisimis Regibus, vs{que} NORVEGIAM: maximam{que} Partem Hiberniae, cum sua Nobilisi∣ma Ciuitate Dublinia, Anglorum Regno subiugare. Quos etiam om∣nes, meis Imperijs colla subdere (Dei fauente gratia) coegi. Quaprop∣ter, & Ego, CHRISTI Gloriam & Laudem exaltare, & eius Serui∣tium amplificare deuotus, disposui:* & per meos ideles Fautores, Dun∣stanum videlicet Archiepiscopum, AEthelwoldum, & Oswaldum E∣piscopos, (quos mihi Patres Spirituales, & Consiliatores elegi) magna ex parte, secundum quod disposui, effeci. &c.

Page  59And agayn, this, in an other Monument.

A. Omnipotentis Dei &c.* Ipsius Nutu & gratia sufful∣tus, Ego AEDGARVS, Basileus Dilectae Insulae ALBI∣ONIS, subditis nobis sceptris Scottorum, Cumbrorum, ac Brytonum, & omnium circumcirca Reginum, quteta Pace * perfruens: studiosus sollicitè de laudibus Creatoris omnium occupor addendis: Ne nunc Inertia, nostris{que} diebus (plus aequo) seruitus eius tepescere videatur. &c. Octauo * decimo mei Terrent IMPERII Anno &c. Anno Incarnationis Dominicae. 973.

Ego AEDGARVS, totius ALBIONIS Basilcus, hoc Priuilegium (tanta roboratum Authoritate) Crucis Thauma∣te Confirmaui. &c.

So that, by all these Rehearsed Records, it is most euident, that the Peaceable King Edgar, was one of those Monarchs, in whose hands (if life had sufficed,) the * Incredible Value and Priuilege, graunted by God and Nature, vnto this Brytish Monarchy, might haue byn pea∣ceably purchased: In such sort, as the very Blessing and fauour of the Di∣uine Trinity, hath layd means, for our Industry to Attayn to, and en∣ioye the same, by.

And though sundry other valiant Princes, and Kings of this Land, I could recite, which, in tymes past, haue either by Intent gone about: or, by wise and valyant exployt, haue meetly well prospered, toward this Ilandish appropriat Supremacy atteyning: Yet, Neuer, any other reasonable Means was vsed,* or by Humayn wyt, and In∣dustry, can be contriued, to all purposes Sufficient, But one∣ly, by our SEA-FORCES preuayling: And so, by our In∣uincib•• enioying All, within the SEA-LIMITS, of our Brytish Royallty, Conteyned.

To which Incredible Politicall Mystery atteyning, No easyer, rea∣dyer, or perfecter Plat and Introduction, is (as yet) come to my Imagi∣nation, than is, The Present and Continuall Seruice, of Three∣score, good, and Tall, warlik Ships, with Twenty smaller Barks and those 80,* Ships (great and small) with 6660 apt Men, furnished: and all, singularly well appointed, for Ser∣uice, (both on Sea and Land) faithfully and diligently, to be done, in such Circumspect and Discrete Order, As, partly, I haue in other places declared: and farder (vpon good Occa∣sion Offred) may declare.

This Grand Nauy, of peaceable king Edgar, of so many * Thou∣sand 1. Ships: And they furnished with a * Hundred Thousand 2. Men, (at the least): with all the Finall 3. Intents of those Sea-forces, (so Inuincible,) 4. Continually maintayned: the 5. Order of Execution of their Seruice: The Godly & Imperiall 6. Succes, therof: are, (in a maner,) Kingly lessons, and Page  60 son, Propheticall Incouragements, to vs left:* (Euen now) to be as 1. Prouident for Publik Security, as he was: To be as 2. Skilfull of our Sea-Right, and Royall Limits: And wisely to finde our selues, as Hable to Recouer and 3. Enioy the same, as he was: who, could not chose, but with the Passing and yeerly Sayling about this Brytish Albion, with all the Lesser Iles, next adiacent, round about it: He could not chose (I say) But by such Full and * Peaceable Possession finde him self, (according to right, and his harts desire) the True and Souerayn Monarch, of all the Brytish Ocean, enuironing any way, his Impire of Albion, and Ireland, with the lesser Ilands, next adiacent. With Me∣moriall wherof, (as with one very precious Iuell Imperi∣all,) he adorned the Title and Crown of his Regality: As (with the Testimony annexed of the States and Nobles of his Impire) to Commit to perpetuall Memory, The Stile of his chief worldly Dignity, in this very Tenor of woords (before, also, Remembred:)

*EGO AEDGARVS, ANGLORVM BASILEVS, omnium{que} Regum Insularum, OCEANIQVE BRITANNIAM *CIRCVMIACENTIS, Cunctarúmque Nationum quae infra eam includuntur, IMPERATOR ET DOMINVS.

What nede we, now, any better President: than of a King, so * Iust, as Edgar was, to learn, how Iustly, our Plat, for the Pety-Nauy-Royall is Prescribed, and layd owt? And, of a King, so * Peaceable, as Edgar was, (And Therefore, Surnamed PACIFICVS,) To learn those Princely Policies, which not onely stand with the Due Termes of Forreyn Peace, and Amity present, Royally preserued: But, also, cary with them, (Triumphantly) The Deadly Darte, and Hedding Axe, ineuitable to all forreyn Offenders, and Homish Rebells?

SOMWHAT MORE, he sayd herein: (which I here purposly o∣mit:) But very much, is to be sayd, in the Premisses: (As by my sayd Instructor, I perceiued not long synce:) which, to you, or other, in con∣uenient Tyme and Place, (and after his manner) he him self, can best [ 1] expres: 1. AS WELL of the Fowr conuenient Places, for the AERARIVM PVBLICVM, or Pety-Nauy-Exchecquers, to be Page  61 in: (as, LONDON, YORK, WEST-CHESTER, and BRISTOW:) Both in respect of Safe Custody, of the Publik-Threasor: And also in respect of the Conueni∣ent Distances, from our Twenty Portes: And from the Fowr Chief Quarters, and the Hart also, of this ALBION: So that, Both to the sayd Exchecquers, and from them, all Payments, and Caryages, requisite, may be conueniently made: 2. As also, of his Plat, and IDEA De Officijs, Or, De Mu∣neribus [ 2] Militum Naualium, & Nautarum, of the PETY-NA∣VY-ROYALL: In tyme of Peace, In tyme of Dowtfull Inclination Forrein, and in the Tyme of Open War: And that, eyther Ordinary, or Extraordinary, for the Day, for the Weke, for the Monthe, for the Quarter, and for the Yere. 3. Likewise, for the Certificat, of the Affaires, and State, [ 3] of the PETY-NAVY-ROYALL, to be sent wekely, or Oftener, to our Gracious Soueraign, and her most Vigilant Priuy Cownsailors, from the Pety-Nauy his Grand-Gouer∣nor, in Tymes Suspicious, or Dowbtfull: And but euery Fortnight, Once, in Tymes of Assured Tranquillity: And that, by some of our Smaller Barkes: And to One of the Assigned Twenty Portes, being next to him, at that Instant. And there, the sayd Messager, with the Smaller Bark, to At∣tend and Receiue from the Queenes Maiestie, and her Ho∣norable Priuy Cownsaile, their will and pleasure: Answe∣rable to the forsayd Certificat: And such farder Direction, as to them semeth for that Tyme, to be most Expedient. 4. Fardermore, of the Prerogatiue-Prouiso Royall, very Suf∣ficienly [ 4] to be made, That the Grand-Gouernor, and All and euery of the Sea-Soldiers and Mariners, of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, with their Ships, shall come-in, and be in their Assigned Ports: Within any one Fortnight Space, after the Day of their Receiuing the Expres Charge, and Suf∣ficient Warrant, from our Soueraign, to that Intent: Vn∣les, Contrary, or Raging Storme, and Tempest, Cause, and Force, longer Delay. Wherein, the FAITHFVLL COM∣MONS, do nothing Dowt of the Prouident-Circumspec∣tion of the Higher Powers, to Forsee, that Such Dutifull Repayre and Attendance of the Grand-Gouernor, with all his Charge, (as is here specifyed,) shall be Nothing Dam∣mageable, Page  62 or Preiudiciall, to the Prosperous Continuance of the Pety-Nauy-Royall, those his waighty Seruyces, which partly before are spoken of, and other, which (Yet) are to be spoken of. For, Respub. Omnis, Sua quaedam habet AR∣CANA.

[ 5] 5. There remayne also, to be Declared, the Reasons, why my Instructor doth Wish, and Aduise, Parte of the Publik-Threasory, to be bestowed vpon some Two, or Three Ho∣nest Men, who should be Skilfull in Far-Forreyn-Langua∣ges: As, in the Sclauonian, or Moschouite, the Arabik Vulgar, the Turkish, the Tartarien, the Chiny Language, the Canadien, and the Islandish, &c. For that, (within these few yeares next following,*) with Men of all these Cuntries, and farder, Great Affayres are by some of our Cun∣try-Men to be handled: Yf God contynue his Gracious Direction, and Ayde thereto, as he hath very Cumfotably begonne: and that, by means not yet published.

[ 6] 6. And some also, of the sayd Pety-Nauy-Threasor, he did Assigne, for a good Stypend geuing to an Excellent Enginer, aswell for Matters of Fortification, as also, for Inuenting of Weapons, or Engyns, Offensiue, or Defensiue, by Land, or Sea: And likewise, for Engyns of Seruice, for Profit-Publik, otherwise: By Land, and Sea: Either aboue Grownd and Water, or vnder Grownd and Water, &c.

[ 7] 7. Moreouer, some Parte to be bestowed on Fowr Chris∣tian Philosophers, Skilfull, or to become Skilfull, and also Excellent: both in Speculation, and also Practise, of the best Manner of the Ancient and Secret Philosophie: which is not Vulgar: but, Vndowtedly, which may be most Com∣fortable, and Profitable,* to Some, of Courteous KALID, his Disposition, &c. By which Titles of Matter, left Vnspe∣cifyed hitherto, It may Euidently appere, that my Instructor hath (as it were,) but opened the Doore of his Philoso∣phicall and Politicall Brytish Furniture: to be Fauorably vewed of them, whose Insight, is Sharp, and Pro∣found: Whose Zeale, and Care also, for the State-Publik of this Monarchy, to become most Christianlike Happy, (in all Respects,) is Ardent, and not Luke-warme.

Page  63Seeing then,

  • NO KINGDOM, in these Dayes, hath more nede of a PETY-NAVY-ROY∣ALL, and to be Continually at Sea maintayned, for the Respects aboue rehearsed:
  • No Kingdome, hath apter TYMBER for Shipping: And thereof (YET) store enough:
  • No Kingdome, hath Skilfuller, and more SHIP-WRIGHTS:
  • No Kingdome, hath Subiects better HA∣BLE, and which more willingly will be Contributary for the sufficient Set∣ting forth, and mayntenance of such a PETY-NAVY-ROYALL, con∣tinually, at Sea (and that, for the for∣mer Respects:)
  • No Kingdome, hath better store of APT and willing MEN: as well couragi∣ous Ientlemen, as other: very man∣fully disposed, to furnish the fore∣sayd Nauy with, for all kynde of pur∣poses:
  • No Kingdome, hath better, or more Hauens, and HARBOROVGHS, (and those, round about it) to Succour a Nauy in, from Dangers, or Distres of Sea:
  • No King, nor Kingdome, hath, by Na∣ture and Humayn Industry (to be v∣sed) any, more LAWFVLL, and more Peaceable Means (made eui∣dent) wherby, to become, In wealth, far passing all other: In Strength, and Force, INVINCIBLE: and in Ho∣norable estimation, Triumphantly Fa∣mous, ouer all, and aboue all other:
Than this hath:

And, (To be brief) Seeing No Kingdome, Page  64 is more Discrete, and willing to Vse the * Opportunity, of any exce∣ding great and Publik Benefit procuring to the same, than this Bry∣tish Monarchy, is, or May be: Our hope, then is, That, vpon the Vniforme, Brotherly, Willing, and Frank Consent, of all States, of Men and People, of this Incomparable Realme of England: to this God∣ly, Politik, and most Commendable Means: to 1. preserue Amity and Peace, with all Forreyn Princes: And to Garde this State-Publik in 2. Se∣curity, from taking Iniury of any, or by any, (Fraudulently, or Forci∣bly,) And to 1. kepe our own hands and harts, from Dooing, or Inten∣ding Iniury, to any Forreyner, on Sea or Land: Our Hope is, (sayd he,) That vpon this Godly 1. Intente, Discrete 2. Couenant, and Publik Contributary 3. Oblation: the Omnipotent 4. Author of Heauenly Peace, will so bend down his Mercifull and gratious Eyes, vpon vs: and so ma∣nifestly stretch forth his Almighty hand to Bles, Furder, and Prosper the foresayd Oblation, with all the Purposes and Commodities ther∣of expected, and likely to ensue: that, all we may, with the Kingly Prophet Dauid, (both old and yong, Rich and Pooe,) most ioyfully, and Triumphantly, (IN PERFECT SECVRITIE,) Syng,

*Lauda HIERVSALEM Dominum,
Lauda Deum tuum SION.
Quoniam confortauit Seras Portarum tuarum:
Benedixit filijs tuis in te.
Qui posuit fines tuos PACEM,
Et adipe Frumenti satiat te. &c.
Non fecit Taliter omni Nationi.
O Hierusalem, prayse the Lord: Prayse thy God, O Syon. For, he hath Strengthened the Barres of thy Gates, And hath blessed thy Children within thee: He hath made all thy Borders PEACE: And with the good Nutriment of wheat, doth satisfy thee. &c. He hath not done thus, to euery Nation, els: Prayse we all, the Lord therefore.

Page  65

SOmewhat, I haue now sayd, (quoth my Instructor) in this PETY NAVY MATTER: to discharge me of my Duty, to the COMMON-WELTH, herein: And very sory I am, that I know not, as much, as this most waigh∣ty Case requireth, to be * Speedily known: And that I am not able, apt∣ly and Duly to Order and expres so much, as I already know. And most of all, I Dowt, that some men will stick to performe, or shrinke to pre∣fer, or be Careles to amend this Sim∣ple Plat: of me, speedily, zealously, and vnartificially * deliuered to the pen, and very Briefly, expressed.

Moreouer, (Sayd he) if it should not be taken in worse parte, of OVR SOVERAIGN, than, of the Emperour of Constantinople, Emanuel, the syncere Intent, and faythfull Aduise, of Georgius Gemistus Pletho, was, I could (proportionally, for the occasion of the Tyme, and place,) frame and shape §. very much of Gemistus those his two Greek Orations, (the first, to the Emperor, and the Second to his Sonne, Prince Theodore:) for our BRYTISH ILES, and in better and more allowable manner, at this Day, for our People, than that his Plat (for Reformation of the State, at those Dayes, (could be found, for Peloponnesus, auaylable. But, See∣ing those Orations, are now published: both in Greek and Latin, I need not Dowbt, but they, to whom, the chief Care of such causes is com∣mitted, haue Diligently selected the Hony of those Flowres, already, for the Common-Wealths great Benefit. But, Gemistus sayd very well, THEN:

GEORGII GEMISTI PLE∣thonis de Rebus Peloponnesi, ORATIO. 1.

BEllum quidem cum Italis, Peloponnesum tenentibus à praestantissimis filijs gestum, magna cum Laude, et E∣molumento confectum est, (Imperator Auguste:) Cùm & plurima maximé{que} opportuna illorum Dominia, no∣stram in potestatem, longo post tempore redierint: & ipsi, cùm reliqua nobis omnia cesserint, tùm in vniuersum se nobis obtemperaturos receperint. Quibus ex rebus, vobis quidem hoc pacto Imperium & confirmantibus & augentibus, decus et gloria: nobis au∣tem, SECVRITAS nascitur, & Vtilitas: Maiorúm{que} in poste∣rum consequendorum, (Si Deus permiserit) Occasio. Mihi verò, * nunc ea tibi exponere in mentem venit, quae multis de Causis arbitror, si obseruentur, multum his rebus esse profutura: siue negligantur, mag∣nam Salutis partem detractura. Ac primùm de ipsa Regione, quanti sit vobis facienda, pauca quaedam dicam: non tàm quòd vestrum er∣ga ipsam studium non videam, quàm vt ipsa recto ordine procedat Oratio. Etenim, Nos quibus Imperatis, Graeci genere sumus: vt par∣tim, Page  66 è Sermone, partim ex auita Disciplina constare potest. Graecis verò vix vlla magis familiaris reperiri possit Regio quàm PELO∣PONNESVS, & quaecun{que} iuxta hanc ad Europam spectant, quae{que} adiacent Insulae. Hanc enim Terram, quantùm humana potest memoria recolere, ijdem semper à nullis antè possessam incoluerunt Grae∣ci: Nec Aduenae eam occuparunt, eiectis aliis, ipsi{que} nonnunquam ab alijs eiecti: sed contrà, semper hanc Regionem tenuerunt Graeci, nec deseruerunt vnquam. Iam, inter omnes huius Regionis partes, Pelo∣ponnesum, praecipuas ac nobilissimas Graecorum gentes protulisse tra∣ditur: ex ea{que} Graecos profectos, maximas ac praeclarissimas quás{que} res gessisse. Quid qúod magnae quo{que} istius ad Bosporum sitae * Vrbis, (quae vestra nunc est Regia,) terram hanc, qui rectè rem consideret, quasi Matrem, non iniuria dixerit. Nam & qui antè, Byzantium incoluerunt, Graeci fuerunt ac Dores: (Dores autem, Peloponnesios esse, Nemini dubium est:) Et qui posterioribus Saeculis illustrem illam ex Italica Roma deduxerunt Coloniam, tam{que} praeclaro Byzantium auxerunt Additamento, non sunt à Peloponnesijs alieni. Siquidem, vt AEneadae & Sabini pari Iure permisti, Romanam Vrbem foelicissi∣mam incoluerunt, Ita Sabini censentur Peloponnesij de Lacedaemonijs profecti. Quocirca, nec his de causis parui facienda tàm vobis, quàm nobis, est haec Regio: Quandoquidem & maximè propria, cu∣randa sunt maximè: Et haec omnium est maximè Propria. Et, si de ipsius virtute, qua nulli Terrae cedit, dicendum est, vt ea quae de An∣ni temporum temperie, de{que} Terra nascentium, & omnium ad vitam pertinentium prouentu dici possint, nunc omittam: AD SECV∣RITATEM sanè,* nullam non Regionem haec superat: cum & In∣sula pariter tanta sit, & Continens.

Nec difficulter possint eius In∣colae, si rectè suppetentibus vtantur adiumentis, cum apparatu mini∣mo, si quis inuadat, repellere:
Tùm ad alios, vbi videatur ipsi, ac∣cedere: ita{que} Regionis terminos non leuiter augere. Praetereà, nunc Montium munimenta, qui per totam porriguntur terram, & vbi{que} (Arcium instar) eminent, sic vt hostes, etiamsi Campestri solo forte potiantur, tota tamen excidant Regione. Quo fit, vt non tàm fami∣liaritatis, quàm virtutis ipsius causa curanda videatur haec Regio: "Quandoquidem possessiones potiores, potius etiam studium solent requi∣rere. Iam cùm omnibus, qui inter Graecos censentur, haec impendit Cu∣ra, tùm Regibus maximè, quibus vniuersi Tutela, prae cae∣teris, est commissa. Neminem porrò superiorum Regum, pro∣pius quàm Te, haec Res attingit. Nam & cùm Itali ditionem hanc tenerent, in ea{que} longo tempore Regnassent, soli eam vestrae Fa∣miliae Principes recuperarunt.* Et ipse Tu, praeter alia multa magná{que} Beneficia, praeclarum illud at{que} ingens Opus nuper erexisti, ducto per Isthmum * Muro: maxima & praestantissima Perpetuae Salutis oc∣casione. Page  67 Quocircà vos decet, cum priorum Beneficiorum collocatione, haec etiam consequentia coniungere: quò simul & ipsi rerum praeclara∣rùm augmento studere videamini, & ipsa à vobis ante collata beneficia, perpetuitate Consequentium, salua permaneant. Neque parùm, tùm SECVRITATIS, tùm Emolumenti, magnae quo{que} isti vrbi (vt arbitror) haec Regio rectè constituta adferet: id quod, hoc quidem lo∣co pluribus explicare superuacaneum nobis videtur. Ac studium qui∣dem summum hanc mereri Regionem, satis à me, quantùm res postu∣lat, demonstratum existimo: Quam autem cpiam diligentiam, cum prioribus vestris coniungi Beneficijs, quae{que} harum rerum corrigendae potissimùm videantur, quo{que} illae pacto compositae, plurimùm sint fru∣ctus allaturae, nunc aperiam: si ea priùs, quae in his minus rectè ha∣bent, explicuero. Primum ita{que}. &c.

And agayn:

Quocirca, priusquam tale quid eueniat,*Decet nos, dum in Tu∣to Sumus, & quae minus rectè videntur se habere, corrigere: &, quantùm Liceat, Necessaria praeparare: ne, Si quis fortè casus ac∣cidat, eum difficulter feramus. Nam, in ipso quidem discrimine,* non satis commodè correctionem, si quae requirunt, recipiunt. &c.

SECVRITATEM deni{que} vniuersis praestant Milites,* & Praefecti, qui{que} alij alias Reipub. partes curant: singula{que} tùm parua, tùm magna conseruant: & praecipuus REX, omnibus Imperans, omniá{que} gubernans, & conseruans &c.

Quòd si quid sanè aliud, melius pariter et facilius, ab alio subijciatur,* illud sequendum erit. Contemnenda certè res ista non est: nec in hoc statu prauo, simul & periculoso, reliquenda. Atqui nec melius nec vtilius quenquam, quid aliud, eo, quod à me prolatum est, repertu∣rum aio: Ne{que} difficulter ad effectum id perduci posse: aut potiùs, difficulter, hoc in statu, res istas diutius, abs{que} magno periculo & in∣commodo, durare posse. Tuum porrò duntaxat, Imperator, prae∣cipuum oportet accedere calculum. Ne{que} difficulter facies, vt, cùm ipse Rebus presis omnibus, quae optima simul ac Iustissima vide∣antur, ac tùm publicè, tùm priuatìm omnibus vtilissima, con∣stituas. &c.

Atque Ego quidem quae fore vtilia censeo, quibús{que} de Causis, dixi: Et, vt, eadem etiam praestantissimis filijs tuis, hac Orationis forma exposui: ita, Tuum praecipuè requirunt Calculum: quem, tan∣quam ab aliquo sortita Numine., simul & honesta videantur, & ad exitum perducantur: Faxit autem Deus, vt eum qui & prosit, & vndecun{que} rectè se habeat, Calculum feras.

Page  68ANd Bycause, in Gemistus, his Second Oration, to Prince Theodore, (this Emperour his Sonne) there are many thinges, (In my In∣structor his Opinion) woorth the knowledge and Consideration: and not vtterly vnapt for this place: And for that, it should be a Dis∣grace, so to mangle the whole matter, and a hynderance to the vnder∣standing therof: to break of, the particular Notes, so often, from the other Circumstances of woords, and Sentences annexed in the course of the same Oration, as thinges fall owt, Notable: And bycause, this way, the very whole * Text of the sayd Oration, may easier be had, than from beyond the Seas, (as they are,) in Greeke and Latin prynted: I thought it some Reasonable Cause, why, I should, here, set down the same Oration, whole: that, whosoeuer should mete with the MEMORIALS of these Discour∣ses, nede not want the same, if it be to his Liking.

Page  69

〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 GEORGII GEMISTI PLE∣thonis ad Principem Theodorum de Rebus Peloponnes: Oratio Posterior: GVLIELMO CANTERO, Interprete.

Elisabetha Regina
CVm in Naui Gubernator, om∣nia pro suo solet arbitrio dirigere, quae ad vectorum Salutem pertinēt: Tùm in Exercitu, Dux, quae ad Mi∣litum victoriam. (Alioqui nec ve∣ctoribus, nec Mi∣litibus, vel tantil∣lo tempore res rectè procederent, nisi ab Vno vtrae{que} vi∣ro regerentur: & apertissimè, maxi∣mis in periculis, Monarchiam, si∣mul tutissimam & vtilissimam deprehendimus:) Veruntamen, et in Naui Licere videmus * Vectorum alicui, qui consilio suo communem videatur Salutem iuuare posse: et in excercitu, Militi similiter: il∣li quidem apud Gubernatorem, huic autem ante Ducem, quae in mē∣tem venerint exponere. Illis porrò cùm audierint, vel arripere Li∣cet consilium, vel benignè et sine acerbitate reijcere. Siquidem non iniquè ferendum est, Siquis in Periculo communi, Salutis publicae curam ad se quo{que} nonnihil arbitretur pertinere. Enimuerò hac quoque in Gente nostra, atque Vrbe, tibi quidem, vir Clarissime, totius est rei cura commissa: per{que} multorum maiorum, Regum, Patris{que}, etiam Regis, manus, haec ad te deuenit nostrae Regionis haereditas: in qua ti∣bi omnia, prout tibi ac nobis videantur profutura, Licet omniū ple∣no consensu disponere. Cum autem tuae quidem sic se res habeant, nostrae autem in magno versentur discrimine: (Siquidem, vndique no∣bis, Page  70 Terra Mari{que} tenduntur* Insidiae: adeóque Domi etiam à Barba∣ris simul & Gentilibus, maximè autem à vicinis istis Barbaris, qui etiam reliqui Dominij maximam ac potissimam partem nobis ademe∣runt: & Parapamisadae origine cum sint, & obiter ab Alexandro Philippi F. deuicti, cum is ad Indos tenderet, à nobis nunc, tanquam Graecis, longo quidem pòst tempore, multiplices autem horum poenas expetunt: Cum{que} longè praestent viribus, extrema nobis quae{que} sem∣per minantur.) Cùm igitur haec ita se habeant, non absurdè mihi fac∣turus videor, Si, cùm de Salute communi paulo melius fortasse, quàm caeteri, sentire videar: ad te, Principem nostrum, accedam, que{que} tibi simul et nobis omnibus existimem Salutaria fore, subijci∣am.
Illud autem primùm à te petam,* si forte non Totus Sermo vo∣luptate sit conditus, verùm aliquid etiam subsultet asperius, vt me praestantiora & vtiliora patiaris incundis praeferre. Nam ne Me∣dicos quidem video, cùm Salus aegrotantium agitur, vel acerbissimis cibis, potibus, & Pharmacis alijs abstinere: Contráque, Coquos ple∣run{que}, obsoniorum Voluptate, corpus etiam corrumpre. Adeo non semper quae iucunda, sunt vtilia: verùm iuuant etiam acerbissima.

At{que} hoc primum est existimandum, nec priuatis hominibus, nec Re∣buspub. vel in maximis difficultatibus, de meliori fortuna esse despe∣randum. Siquidem permulti sunt in integrum restituti. Nam & Tròiani, qui cum AEnea, capta à Graecis patria, in Italiam sunt ex Phrygia delati, ita prosperam deinde sunt experti fortunā, Vt, cùm Romam paulò post vnà cum Sabinis, de Lacedaemonijs profectis, pari iure permistis, incoluissent, ab hoc principio maximum pariter & praeclarissimum obtinuerint Imperium. Et Persae, post Alexandri Graecorum{que} dominium, Cùm à Romanis esset euersa Macedonum potentia, non leuiter & ipsi Parthorum ope suas recuperarunt Vires: sed vt etiam contra Romanos, qui tum erant potentissimi, bellum gesserint: & vt nonnunquam superati fuerint, ita postremò splendi∣dam reportarint victoriam: ex eáque multis annis Tributum quoque Romanis imperarint. Quocirca nec nos decet nosmetipsos abijcere, vel de Salute desperare: Sed cùm & ipsi post has aerumnas meliora speremus, illud etiam omni diligentia considerare, quibus modis ad SECVRITATEM aliquam res nostrae reducantur, & melio∣rem pro facultate nostra statum nobis comparemus. Vt autem melio∣rem sibi statum vel Ciuitas vel Gens aliqua firmiter, (quantùm qui∣dem res humanae ferunt,) comparet, non alia res efficit, quam REI∣PVBL: EMENDATIO.

Nulla siquidem alia Ciuitatibus est vel faelicitatis vel infaelicitatis causa, quàm Resp. rectè vel secus constituta. Quòd si qua Casu rectè se Ciuitas habeat, id firmum non est, ac leui de causa potest immutari. Plerunque autē, vel bona Rep. conseruantur & crescunt Ciuitates: vel contrà, corrupta, & ipsae col∣labuntur Page  71 ac pereunt. Nam & communiter Graeci non antè la∣tissimè patentem obtinuerunt gloriam, quàm Hercules Amphitryonis F. Iniustitia Sublata, bonam Reipublicae constitutionem, virtutisque studium ipsis conciliauit.
(Siquidem ante Herculem quidem non val∣dè fuit celebre Graecorum genus, cui Danai, & Cadmi, ex Barba∣ria aduenae, imperarent: post Herculem autem, multas Graeci mag∣nâs{que} tùm à Graecis, tùm à Barbaris retulerunt victorias:) & Lace∣daemonij non antè vel Graecorum facti sunt Principes, quàm à Ly∣curgo praeclaram illam Reip: constitutionem acciperent: vel Principa∣tu pulsi exciderunt, quàm eandem negligerent, ac tum sibi Maris im∣perium vindicarent, qui terram eatenus tenuerant: tùm equitatu mi∣nimùm valerent: quem vt alebant ditissimi qui{que}, ita belli tempore, alijs, cum armis qualibuscun{que} tradebant: tùm sociis non clementer am∣plius imperarēt. Quocirca sunt à Thebanis deuicti, ductu Epaminondae, qui Doctrinam * Pythagoricam non segniter perceperat. Philippus quo{que} ab hoc Epaminonda, cum Thebis Obses degeret, institutus, Graecorum Princeps euasit: nec non eius F. Alexander, cùm Philippi patris, tum Aristotelis insuper institutione, & Graecorum Imperium, & Asiae Reg∣num superatis Persis sibi comparauit. Quinetiam Romani ad maxi∣mum Principatum, Reip. bonitate peruenerunt: nec prius res illorum labi coeperunt, quàm Remp. immutassent. Saraceni deni{que} isti olim qui∣dem parua quaedam erant Arabum pars, & Ronnis ferè parebant: Postquam verò mutata Rep. leges quasdam ferri sibi passi sunt, quae vt non ad aliud quicquam, saltem ad Ciuitatum augmentum & belli∣cas victorias viderentur conducere: Primùm Gentilium Arabum nacti sunt Imperium, deinde Romanorum dominio maximam & potissimam ademerunt partem: tum Africam sibi adiecerunt: postremò Persas in suam redegerunt potestatem. Sed & aliae Gentes aliquot, horum vten∣tes moribus & ritibus, foelicitate frui videntur. Atque adeò isti, qui nobis plurimùm praestiterunt, Barbari his vtentes legibus maxima po∣tentia polluerunt. Eodem ferè pacto, si quis reliqua consideret, & Gen∣tes & vrbes reperiet ex bonis vel malis Rebuspublicis, recte se vel se∣cus habuisse. Quare, si hoc videbitur considerandum, quibus modis tùm ad Salutem perueniamus, tùm potiorem statum nobis comparemus: Emendanda duntaxat est Respublica, prauis institutis in rectiora com∣mutatis.

Iam, cùm sint multa quae Rempub. constituant, eam{que} singu∣la vel meliorem vel peiorem efficiant, nimirum quae plurimis & potis∣simis constabit melioribus, proba futura est Respub. quae ijsdem pe∣ioribus, improba. Ac primùm, quia Rerump. tria sunt genera, Mo∣narchicum, Oligarchicum, & Democraticum: Plures{que} item singulo∣rum species, quibus vel corrigitur vel corrumpitur Resp. Prudentissi∣mi sanè qui{que} Monarchiam, Consultoribus optimis et legibus probis,* ijs{que} Page  72 ratis vtentem, cunctis praetulerunt.

*Ac de Consultoribus quidem, primùm, Eruditorum hominum lauda∣tur moderata Copia. Nam & vulgus, quoniam difficulter inter se intelligunt, multos{que} habet indoctos, temerarios plerun{que} fert calculos: Et qui paucissimo constant numero, cùm Priuatim sectentur Lucrum, praua dant ferè Consilia.

At qui simul & moderato numero fuerint, & non indocti, cùm vt alius aliud consideret, atque in medium pro∣ferat, ita Communi vtilitate communiter ducantur, optimi erunt ac certissimi Consultores.
Deindè hoc requiritur, vt mediocri sint fortu∣na, nec vel ditissimi vel pauperrimi: siquidem illi, prae diuitiarum stu∣dio, nihil ferè suadent aliud, quàm vnde Lucrum ipsis aliquod proue∣niat: hi, prae inopia, nihil spectant aliud, quàm vt Necessitati sub∣ueniant suae. At qui se mediocriter habent, Communem potissimum Sa∣lutem curant. Ac de Consultoribus quidem, hactenus.

*Leges verò, probae sunt, vt vno verbo dicam, quae sua singulis, tùm in Vrbe, tùm in Gente quauis, officia definientes, alienis negotijs vetent se immiscere.

*At{que} in omni ferè Ciuitate, Primum & maximè Necessarium est, et Numerosissimum, Rusticorum genus: Agricolarum videlicet, Pastorum, qui{que} alij Terrae fructus proprijs manibus colligunt. Alterum est Opisi∣cum genus, Mercatorum, Institorum, & similium: quod primis illis ac reliquae Ciuitati inseruit:* dum Opifices quidem Supellectilem huma∣nae vitae necessariam,* in medium producunt: Mercatores autem, quae singulis Regionibus vel desint vel supersint, de vna in aliam trans∣ferendo Exaequant: & quoniam alij suis coguntur rebus vacare, ipsi hanc Prouinciam suscipiunt:* Institores deni{que}, de Rusticis quidem, vel Mercatoribus emunt vniuersa: requirentibus autem singulis, quando∣cun{que} & quocun{que} velint numero,* diuendunt. Nonnulli etiam corporis vires elocantes, nunc his nunc illis ministerium exhibendo victitant. Postremum est Principum genus,* qui vel Vrbem, vel Gentem totam con∣seruant, at{que} custodiunt. Quorum, vt supremus est Rex,* ita post illum, alij alias Vrbis vel Gentis sortiti partes, ritè conseruant. Cùm enim hoc omnibus persuaderi nequeat, aequitatem abs{que} iniuria sectandam esse, nec tendendas cuiusquam bonis insidias: Nonnulli autem, vel primi vel secundi generis, omissis operibus suis, aliorum inhient laboribus: Contra hos, instituti sunt, ex amicis quidem, Iudices,* & reliqui Prae∣fecti: ex inimicis verò, Milites,* & horum Duces. Quibus, cùm tan∣quam publicae intentis custodiae, aliundè suppeditanda essent necessaria, Tributa Rusticis, in Dimensum Publicorum Custodum, imperata sunt: Merces pariter et Praemium Custodiae futura.* Atque haec Tributorum est origo.

Cum porrò, tria haec prima sunt hominum in vrbe genera, propria quaedam singulorum esse debent officia: quae quidem proba Lex obire Page  73 quem{que} iubet, nec inter se confundere. Principes igitur nullum sube∣ant Ministerium, quandoquidem Imperio maximè contrarium est mi∣nistrare. Sunt autem inter Ministeria, cùm alia quae recensuimus, tum Institoria & Mercatura. At Prinipem ibet Lex, nec Merca∣turam nec Institoriam facere, nec aliud quicquam non liberale tracta∣re. Similiter à Vulgo secernantur Milites; ac Seruatores à seruandis: & illi quidem ab omni Collatione liberi Militent, ac Populum tuean∣tur Hi verò suas res agentes idonea, simul nec grauia Principum & Militum delectorum Dimenso, Tributa pendant. Maior verò pars Ex∣ercitus & potior, Ciuium sit ac domesticorum, non Peregrinorum: si∣quidem raro fidi sunt Peregrini, multis{que} mutationibus: interdum pro Seruatoribus at{que} Custodibus hostes existunt. Domestici verò si rectè curentur, magis firmi sunt at{que} fidi. De Rusticis autem pleri{que} mili∣tiae assueti, per coniugationes diuidantur, eorum{que} alterutro communi∣bus ferè laborante sumptibus, vicissim alter laboret, alter militet: sic vt pariter et familiae suae curam & Salutis Communis ijdem, quantum fieri possit, gerant. Separentur autem in exercitu Pedites ab Equiti∣bus: Peditibus quidem in Turmas sub Ducibus, Equitibus autem in Alas sub Magistris relatis, quò confestim possint, vbicun{que} fuerit o∣pus, ordine adesse. Neque simul vtrae{que} Copiae, Terrestres ac Naua∣les, cogantur: verùm alterae semper, eae{que} * Si id Vrbis & Gentis at{que} etiam Regionis patiatur Natura, potiùs terrestres: ne cum vtris{que} si∣mus inferiores, neutros vincamus. Ac praestat longè * Terrestribus Co∣pijs in militum ac Ducum virtute, quam Nautarum ac aliorum homi∣num vilium arte fiduciam ponere: ac terra potitos, indidem necessa∣ria nancisci, quàm peregrè petere: relictis{que} Mari proximis locis, nisi cogat extrema necessitas, soli cum vicinis bello vacare: quàm pluri∣bus, tùm cum vicinis, tùm cum exteris. Iam cm Tributorum tria sint minimùm genera, Primum Seruitus, deinde certa siue pecuniae, siue aliarum rerum summa, tùm quaedam rerum nascentium pars: Gra∣uissimum quidem Tributi genus est Seruitus, quippe quod non opes arripiat, sed corpora: nec paruam ipsis praebet exactoribus molestiam, quorum praesentiam quotannis requirit: certa verò summa, praeter ser∣uitutem, magnam etiam habet inaequalitatem, dum & necessariò pen∣ditur, et saepènon pro opibus: quando nec facilè sit opibus cuius{que} Tri∣butum exaequare, nec singulorum opes eandem semper obtineant mag∣nitudinem. (Eadem quidem per partes quotannis saepiùs à pluribus ex∣acta, longè maiorem difficultatem parit.) Rerum autem nascentium quae∣dam pars cùm seruitutis minus habet, tùm quouis alio Tributo, tan∣tundem quod efficeret, multo leuior est, ipsa temporis ratione, (quan∣doquidem, quo tempore fructus à singulis colliguntur, de ipsis petitur fructibus:) nec non aequalitatem habet maximam, dum quis{que} pro opi∣bus persoluit: quo fit, vt optimum sit hoc Tributum, cùm & leuissi∣mum Page  74 sit, vt diximus, & aequissimum: &, si cum aequitate exigatur, Reipubl. vtilissimum.

Quae porrò aequitas hîc locum habeat, hinc licet animaduertere. Ter∣rae fructus tria potissimùm requirunt, Operas, Sumptus operis prae∣bendos, (vt boues, vineas, Armenta, et similia) & horum Custodiam. Quapropter etiam Tribus iure debentur, Operis, sumptuum Dominis, ac deni{que} Custodibus vniuersorum et Seruatoribus, quos Reges, Princi∣pes, alios{que} Praefectos diximus.

Rustici ergo, qui suis laborant sump∣tibus, cùm liceat ipsis quocun{que} loco, terram quouis pacto colere, dua∣bus fruentes partibus, altera operis, altera sumptibus debita, Tertiam Reipubl. et Custodibus vniuersorum praestent: omni alia Collatione qua∣cunque omni{que} ministerio vacantes.
At{que} hoc sit iustissimum Tribu∣tum, Praemium simul ac Dimensum publicis ministris futurum. Ac de Tributis quidem hactenus.

Viuendi porrò ratio, cùm reliquorum Ciuium, tùm Praefectorum ma∣ximè, non sumptuosa, sed moderata sit: sic vt peregrinas quidem ve∣stes et nugas alias negligant: ad Bellum autem sint omnes compositi, qui{que} huc pertinent apparatus, diligenter procurent: quos quidem, cm aliò sumptus transferuntur, diminui oportet ac deteri.

Terrae fructus nemini liceat, quocunque velit, nisi alteram par∣tem pro vectigali pendat, euehere. Ad socios quidem, euehere liceat. Sin quis ferro, vel armis, vel alia re necessaria velit mutare, nihil pendat.

Moneta nec improba nec peregrina vtamur: ne videamur etiam pra∣ua & aliena vti Republica. Siquidem non paruum in Republica mo∣mentum habet Monetae ratio.

Sontes ne Barbarico more mulctentur, vt post mulctam minimùm deinceps peccent. Nam qui videntur insanabiles esse, eos de medio prae∣stat auferentes, animam corpore liberare, qua non recte nouit vti: quàm illos mutilantes, hanc tùm corpori mutilo at{que} inutili, tùm re∣liquae Ciuitati alligare.

At{que} hae quidem probae sunt Reipubl. Leges, aliae{que} similes: Caput autem horum est omnium, de Deo rectè & publicè et priuatim sentire, maximè autem haec tria: Primùm, esse Deum quendam praestantissi∣mam omnium Naturam: deindè, hunc & homines curare, et res om∣nes humanas tùm magnas, tùm paruas regere: tùm arbitrio suo cun∣cta illum rectè iuste{que} semper administrare, nusquam ab officio defle∣ctentem, vel alia de causa, vel hominum donis delinitum, quibus non indigeat. Quae cùm ita se habent, consequitur illud, vt in cultu sa∣cra donaria{que} modo & pietate adhibitis offerant, velut inde bonum omne proficisci fatentes: nec vel minùs praestantes, aut duarum, aut alterius saltem duarum impietatis formarum opinionem sibi compa∣rent: vel nimio sumptu, & priuatas domos & Rempubl. perdentes, Page  75 quasi donariorum quicquam proficeret magnificentia: nec amplius quid offerre, sed redimere visi, tertio se impietatis generi obstringunt. Has demum sententias publicè priuatim{que} confirmatas, necessariò vir∣tus & honesti omne studium sequitur.

At vitium quoduis et maxima mortalium peccata, de contrarijs nas∣cuntur sententijs. Semper enim existunt nonnulli prauis opinionibus imbuti: & vel nullum esse prorsus Deum arbitrantes, vel vt sit, res tamen humanas negligere: vel deni{que} vt sit atque curet, corrumpi ni∣hilominus posse, sacris{que} ac donarijs delinitum, nonnunquam ab officio deflectere.

Ab his enim duabus inter se contrarijs de Deo sententijs, tanquam fontibus, duo procedunt vitae genera, plurimùm inter se dissidentia: quorum alterum virtutem vel solum, vel summum ponit bonum, alte∣rum Voluptatem.

Etenim cùm Hominis natura, partim Diuina sit, partim huma∣na, (quod omnibus & Graecis & Barbaris vel aliqua praeditis mente visum fuit) Diuinitatem quidem Animo, humanitatem autem ex∣primente Corpore. Qui quidem Diuinitatem Ducem secuti, cùm re∣ctè de cognata natura senserint, tùm ad virtutis normam vitam om∣nem direxerint, Boni sunt omnis inter homines Auctores: qui verò mortali ac ferina parte ducti, cùm de Deo secus senserint, tùm ad voluptatem retulerint omnia, magnorum contrà sunt Auctores Malorum.

Inter hos Medij sunt, & qui Gloriae student, & qui Diuitijs: cùm simulacrum illa sit virtutis, hae voluptates concinnet.

Et in eorum quidem numero, qui virtutem sunt amplexi, cùm alij saeculis omnibus extitere, tum Amphitryonis F. Hercules, quem dixi∣mus bona reipubl. constitutione virtutis{que} studio Graecis conciliato, ce∣leberrimos illos reddidisse, cùm sibi primùm ipsi virtutem crebris la∣boribus & certaminibus comparasset: Lycurgus item Lacedaemonius, qui fratre Rege sine liberis mortuo, cùm Coniunx, quae graui∣dam se norat, ad ipsum se, fetu abolito, Regnum vnà cum Matrimo∣nio delaturum recepisset, re non concessa, quoniam Iustitiae repugna∣bat, fratris{que} filio tum vita conciliata, tum paterno dominio restitu∣to, aliquanto pòst tempore Legislator à suis constitutus, praeclara illa Reip. constitutione introducta, celeberrimam ipsam vrbem cùm inter Graecos tùm inter Barbaros reddidit: Alexander quoque Rex Ma∣cedonum, qui per virtutem simul & animi magnitudinem, Graecorum Princeps effectus, ipsis pariter & Macedonibus, Asiae comparauit im∣perium:

Nec non inter Barbaros, Persa Cyrus, qui Persas suos virtute pro∣pria cùm tyrannide Mdorum liberauit, tùm & horum & Asiae reli∣quae dominos constituit.

Page  76In altero verò numero cùm alij recensentur, tùm Alexander Troia∣nus, Priami filius, qui in Dearum iudicio, vitae{que} generum electione, tùm Iunone contempta, virtutis Praeside, tum Auctore gloriae Miner∣ua, Venerem voluptatis Deam praetulit. Quapropter neglectis tùm Regno à Iunone concesso, vita cum virtute et foelicitate coniuncta: tùm à Minerua oblata victoria bellica, vita gloriosa: Helena verò Lacaena Tindarei F. Menelai Atridae coniuge, praemio tam iniqui iudicij accepta, tanquam voluptatis colophone, vt corpore omnium pulcherrima, sic a∣nimo turpissima & adultera, cum hac sese simul & Patriam pessun∣dedit. Sardanapalus item Assyrius, qui per Mollitiem et luxum, Asiae Imperium Assyrijs quidem suis ademit, Medis autem concessit: Nec non de Romanis Nero, qui cùm alijs grauibus ac nefandis perpetratis, tùm occisa matre, seipsum quo{que} tandem malum malè perdidit.

Nam Patriam cupiebat quidem, sed prae Romanorum virtute, nondum pote∣rat euertere. Ac saepè plures existunt huius generis, tum inter Princi∣pes, tùm inter Priuatos, alij grauiùs alijs peccantes: in his etiam illi, qui Iustitiam quidem et Veritatem & Bonum Commune pro vm∣bris ducunt, auro autem & similibus inhiant: foelicitatem quidem in vestibus, auro, argento, luxu{que} quotidiano ponentes, Propriam vero simul & liberorum, et Patriae totius Libertatem, ac SECVRITA∣TEM negligentes. Quidam etiam donec auro & similibus, res ca∣ret, ac per se consideratur, vehementissimè Iustitiam & Veritatem defendunt: Sed simul atque vel aurum, vel Auri quid simile micuerit, mox & lingua ligatur, & os obturatur, ac de Iustitia quidem silent: Ad contraria verò, omnis illa conuertitur vehementia.
Siquidem ab his & huius generis hominibus, cum reguntur Respub. semper sunt infoe∣lices, quando ne probissimae quidem latae leges habentur ratae, sed om∣nia temerè permiscentur.* Non enim tantùm probas leges requirunt Respubl. sed etiam ratas: quales quidem per virtutem Principum ex∣istunt: quam, tria praecipua Pietatis genera diximus consequi.

Postquam autem alia re nulla, quàm Salute, nunc indigemus, (non enim nos latet, quò res ex amplissimo Romanorum Imperio deuene∣runt, quibus duae tantum in Thracia relictae sunt vrbes, et Pelopon∣nesi pars aliqua, ac si qua restat etiam Insula,) Salutem autem Ciui∣tatum duntaxat è proba Republ. diximus proficisci: Respubl. nobis & legibus praestantissimis et Moderatoribus quàm fieri poterit optimis erit emendanda. Etenim quantò res nostrae peiori sunt loco, & infir∣miores cum potentioribus hostibus committimur, tanto magis Rem∣publ. potiorem decet nos opponere, quae reliquorum exaequet imbecil∣litatem.

Quibus autem rationibus optima constituatur Respub. iam diximus:

potissimis quibús{que} & ad rem praesentem maximè pertinentibus expo∣sitis, ijs{que} non valdè difficilibus. Quae enim res ex vnius voluntate Page  77 effectum suum vel sortiuntur, vel amittunt, non debent pro valdè dif∣ficilibus haberi. Vnius porrò voluntatem, tuam potissimùm iudico. Ete∣nim si tibi, qui Princeps noster es, & maxima polles potentia; praecla∣rae alicuius rei gerendae Deus amorem inspirauerit, cùm virtutem at{que} honestatem exactè secteris, non difficulter hae res constitui poterunt, nec ampliùs erit de salute nostra desperandum. Siquidem in hoc posita omnia sunt, ex eo{que} vel Salus nostra, vel Pernities dependet. Etenim si quam rem praeclaram & magnam cupias gerere, nihil vel praeclarius vel maius tùm Salute Gentis, tùm Regni SECVRITATE facilè repereris.
Haec autem non nisi probae Reipubl. constitutione parantur. Ea porrò non alia ratione, quàm quae modò fuit à nobis exposita, componitur: quam{que} omnes vbi{que} laudatae sunt Ciuitates secutae.
Ac si duntaxat ip∣se volueris, & hoc fueris animo, nullo negocio socios operis inuenies: probiores quidem primos muneribus destinans, reliquos autem benefa∣ctis & mulctis corrigens:
ac duobus his, tùm cupiditate bonorum, tùm contra peccantes ira rite vsus.
Siquidem nec absentia bona cuiquam li∣cet adipisci, nisi cum labore desideret: nec praesentia seruare, nisi ra∣tioni ira obtemperet.

Ac Reipubl. Constitutionem, si videtur, à Consultoribus ordire:* e∣os{que} tibi cùm alijs, tùm numero instructissimos, quemadmodum praece∣pimus, constitue. Siquidem hinc aequum est incipere: cum{que} maiori par∣ti visum quid fuerit, ita demùm rerum mutationē & emendationem ag∣gredi. Ne{que} illos lateat, quanto res nostrae versentur in discrimine, quantum{que} salutis indigi simus: nec eam nisi emendata Republ. possi∣mus consequi. Nam & qui aegrotant, si consueta viuendi ratione lae∣duntur, non aliter sanantur, quàm cùm hac omissa, commodiorem deli∣gunt.

Deindè, maiorem exercitus partem expurga: diuisis bifariam Pelo∣ponnesijs: in Militantes, & Collationem pendentes, prout singulorum feret ratio: sic, vt non ampliùs ijdē simul et Militent et pendant. Etenim nec teipsum pariter et gentem seruare poteris, nisi hostes deuiceris:

nec hostes deuincere, nisi exercitum potiùs beneuolum & animosum, quàm copiosum habueris. Difficulter autem, pendens Exercitus, beneuolen∣tiam simul & animos conseruat: sed vtrum{que}, ferè, perdit.

Praefecti quo{que} secernantur à Mercatoribus:* & cunctis quidem im∣peretur, ne Mercaturam vel Institoriam deinceps exerceant: sed se pro Praefectis gerant, Reipubl. custodiam et salutem procurantes, non ser∣uilia obeuntes officia, & quidem nequam seruorum, qui ponderibus iniustis & quacun{que} re alia miseros Rusticos damno afficiunt. Sin e∣tiam de Mercatoribus aliqui fuerint ad Magistratus euecti, ij vel re∣licta Mercatura, si fuerint idonei, munere fungantur: vel loco moue∣antur. Oportet enim haec secerni, non Praefectos cum Mercatoribus per∣misceri, nec Milites agros colere, nec Rusticis communem salutem com∣mitti: Page  78 quae sunt omnia Reipubl. prauissimae, quae{que} nihil vnquam mag∣num vel praeclarum gesserit. Enimuero nec Asinis ad Equorum vti∣mur opera, nec Equis ad Asinorum: adeo{que} nec Equis ijsdem ad om∣nia, verùm alijs bello, alijs ad sarcinas. At hoc discrimen, in homi∣nibus multo magis obseruandum erat. Tributis quo{que} multis istis, cre∣bris, & inaequalibus sublatis, illud omnium loco repone, quod rerum nascentium Tertiam diximus aequissimè complecti partem, leuissimum pendentibus & Reipublicae vtilissimum idem futurum. Nam propter hoc Tributum, nec temerè quis aufugiet, nec ab exactoribus iniuriam accipiet, dum illi pendentibus quamplurima volunt attribuere, quo vi∣delicet simul Tributum crescat. De his autem Hilotis, primùm tuae familiae, quot videbitur opus, selige: reliquos deinde Praefectis et Mi∣litibus primarijs, quanto voles numero concede.

Tum verò cogantur singuli pro Hilotarum asscriptorum numero Clientes alere, seruos vide∣licet militares: ne pecuniam publicam temerè profundant: quae{que} hostes in votis habent, vt Salutis Communis impensae turpiter dissipentur, ip∣si videantur procurare.

Haec quo{que} Naturae consideres licet Exempla.§ Aquila Rex quidem est Auium, & Iòui fuit olim consecratus, minime tamen varias aut ful∣gentes habet Alas. Pauo contrà varius quidem est & fulgens, sed mi∣nimè Regia natura. Plures{que} Aues aliae Pauone longè viliores, colo∣rum sunt varietate distinctae. Quare videtur, qui vestibus praetextis ac similibus * superbit, tanquam Pauonis pulcritudine gloriari. Iam il∣lud specta, sitne honestius ac iucundius, huc praecipuè tendentem, & bello quantùm licet consulentem, moderato tùm vestitu, tum reliquo viuendi modo, hostes quidem contemnere, de Imperio autem ac Regno Securum esse: an veste praetexta inuolutum, tremere, et hostes metu∣ere. Quòd si porrò Pastores essetis, vtro modo lac impenderetis? Vtrùm partem quidem alteram ipsi consumeretis, altera verò canes robustos a∣leretis, qui à ferarum insidijs Ouile defenderent: vt eo conseruato tùm Pastores esse, tum fructibus diù frui possetis: an hoc neglecto, partem quidem alteram ingurgitaretis & vestimenta prolueretis, altera verò, Canum robustorum loco, Maelitaeos catellos & vulpes aleretis, aut Vr∣sos, vt voracissimas Bestias, ita parùm intentas custodiae?

Huc igitur omne studium conuerte, nihil omittens ne{que} praetexens, siue quid aut priorum Regum alicui, aut ipsi tibi aliter olim fuit vi∣sum, siue quibusdam non est res placitura: sed cùm omnia mouens, tùm nihil non ad Communem salutem pertinere visum tentans,* quando ne Medici quidem sua semper possunt seruare decreta, sed cum omnia mouent, tum nihil ad sanitatem pertinens omittunt, ac secant etiam, vel vrunt, manum{que} interdum vel Pedem insuper ob salutem totius cor∣poris Page  79 abscindunt. Horum siquidem ipse quaedam, si videbitur, cum li∣ceat, perages: nonnulla ab Augusto Imperatore, & Patre, Salutis Publicae causa postulabis. Neque tibi ille difficulter ea concedet, cùm huc spectare cognouerit, Ingenium simul & Impetum diuinum admi∣ratus. Caeterum his, quae maximè & proximè videntur ad Salutem tendere peractis, reliqua sine vlla difficultate deinceps, quaecun{que} ad Reipubl. virtutem & ornatum pertinent, assequeris: ac tandem op∣timam omnino Rempubl. nobis constitues. Quanto quidem maior tibi à nobis habetur honor, tantò etiam iacturam fore credes maiorem, si quid secus euenerit. Enimuerò te potissimùm Salutis Communis decet curam gerere, nihil Cunctantem, nec differentem. Siquidem nec licèt cunctari, cùm sit prae foribus periculum: nec alioqui tale negoti∣um conuenit differre. Nec imperitè videtur He∣siodus dicere:


AND with this pithy peece of wise warning, by HESIODVS (very aptly to our present purpose) recorded, I will end this first Treatise: falling out, in very good Oportunitie, to be in stead of a Preface, for the better vnderstanding and enioying the rest of the RARE MEMO∣RIALS ensuing: collected, according to the Title prefixed. For which Preface, being thus, (though with more zeale than cunning) finished, I yeld thanks most humbly to the Omnipotent Spirit of Veritie, the Spirit of all Comfort and Bountifulnes: which Directed & enclined the Minde and Tongue of my Instructer, thus to prefer the SAFETY AND POLI∣TIKELY ASSVRED PEACE VNIVERSALL, OF THIS BRYTISH KING∣DOM, before any other Lucre, or Honor, Publike or Priuate: As, with∣out which PEACE AND TRANQVILLITY, neither the COMMONS: nor, the LORDES SPIRITVALL OR TEMPORALL: no, nor yet our most GRACIOVS ELIZABETH, can atteyne to the excellent Scope, and per∣fection of Ciuill State: vnto which, both, by the Law of God and Na∣ture: and also by Humaine Policy, all sound Common-Wealths, and Bodies Politike, ought to direct all their Actions Ciuill.

And I beseche you (Right Worshipfull Sir,) not onely to take these my speedy Trauailes and Collections in good parte, your selfe: But also, to whom so euer, you will deliuer any one of the Copies, (wherof, only one Hundred are to be printed, by the warning of my Instructor:) You would be my Carefull Orator, to this purpose chiefly: That my good will, and exceding zealous Intent herein, dutifully to pleasure this BRYTISH MO∣NARCHI, might be thankfully accepted: and so, my simple & very fayth∣full Trauailes, to be rewarded. And finally, that you would very earnest∣ly Page  80 request * them, (for the COMMON-WEALTHS CAVSE,) Speedily, Circumspectly, and Paradoxally to vewe this plat. And then, to amend the Imperfection: and to Supply the wants thereof: (the better now to be espied, by these few warnings,) and prosperously, to farder some pithy Extract made of the whole matter: So much, as they, both by their Politike skill, and auailable Au∣thority, best can: And, THEN, shall the fore∣said PSALMODY, most aptly and hartily, of all true BRYTISH AND ENGLISH SVBIECTS, be song:

Lauda HIERVSALEM Dominum,
Lauda Deum tuum SION.
Quoniam confortauit Seras Portarum tuarum:
Benedixit filijs tuis in te.
Qui posuit fines tuos PACEM,
Et adipe Frumenti satiat te. &c.
Non-fecit Taliter omni Nationi.

Prayse we all the Lord therfore. Amen.

Finished, Anno Domini. 1576. Augusto Mense.

PRINTED AT LONDON BY IOHN Daye, Anno 1577. In Septemb.

Cum Priuilegio Regiae Maiestatis.

Page  [unnumbered]

TO THE RIGHT WORSHIPFVL M. CHRISTOPHER Hatton, Esquyer, Capitayn of her Maiesties Garde, and Ientleman of her Priuy Chamber.

YF Priuat wealth, be leef and deere,
To any VVight, of Brytish Soyl:
Ought Publik Weale, haue any peere?
To that, is due, all Wealth and Toyl.
Wherof, such Lore as I (of * late,)
Haue lernd, and for Security,
By Godly means, to Garde this State,
To you I send, now, carefully.
Vnto the Gardians, most wise,
And Sacred Senat, or Chief Powr,
I durst not offer this Aduise,
(So homely writ,) for fear of Lowr.
But, at your will, and discreet choyce,
To keep by you, or to imparte,
I leaue this zealous Publik voyce:
You will accept so simple parte.
M'Instructors freend did warrant me,
You would so do, as he did his:
That *Redy freend, can witnes be,
For Higher States, what written is:
Of Gratefulnes, due Argument.
Yf greeuous wound, of sklandrous Darte,
At length to cure, they will be bent,
M'Instructor, then, will doo his parte,
In ernest wise, I know right well:
No Merit shall forgotten ly.
Thus much, I thought, was good to tell:
God graunt you Blis, aboue the Sky.
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