The prospectiue glasse of vvarre Shevving you a glimpse of vvarres mystery, in her admirable stratagems, policies, wayes; in victualling of an armie, prouiding money to pay souldiers, finding out the enemies purposes, traps, and stratagems: ordering of marches, framing of battails, sundry fights, retreats, and the like, to auoide battell or fight. Furnished with argument to encourage and skill to instruct. By C.E. Warre is a schoole of necesary knowledge.
Cooke, Edward, fl. 1626-1631.


How a Commander or Generall, should order his Battells, and how behaue himselfe in the time of Fight, and after the Battell lost.

THe substance of the Art Military doth subsist in this: How to order your Battell, and how to behaue your selfe in the time of Fight, and after the Battell lost: To do which, obserue these particular precepts, and you will be enabled to doe accordingly. I begin Page  16 with the ordering of your battels.

* 1. You are to chuse your place both for Rainging of your battels before fight, and in the fight of the bat∣tell, that the same place be able to containe your whole Army without disturbance.

2. Next in ordering your battels▪ you must consider what dangers are likely, or else may happen by causual∣tie or fortune, and to prouide for remedies by your or∣der beforehand.

3. Likewise you are to consider, that you ought not to order your battels in all cases and respects alike, but very diuersly as your case shall require. For you are to order your battels according, partly vnto the nature of the ground, partly vnto the quantity, quality, or regard of your Enemies Army, and partly vnto such respect as is fittest against such orders or battels of your Enemies best knowne to your selfe for your best aduantage.

4. You are to order your Army into conuenient parts, and to appoint euery one his place, number, and action.

5. You are to order your battels, that no part of your Army be any disturbance to any part of your battels.

6. Your are to chuse your place, and to order your Army so, that your Enemies cannot compasse you ei∣ther with their horsemen, or with their shoot, great or small, or otherwise to your hurt.

7. You are with discretion to learne and know the equality and inequality of the number of your Ene∣mies Army with your owne Army. For you can ne∣uer most aptly order your Army in iust battels, for to be ordered according to discipline of warre, before you know and consider throughly, the nature, force, and weakenesse of either of your Armies.

Page  17 8. Also you are to consider, how you may take any aduantage vpon any orders, prouisions, oractions; of your Enemies present order, weakenesse, or strength.

9. Consider also what kindes of aduantages the times of the yeare or the day affordeth, which can bee had by your Enemies or your selfe, or else of the Ayre, or else of Tempests past or present.

10. Further consider which things first are possible or may be; then which are likely; next which are ap∣parant before your eyes easie to bee knowne or to bee prouided for.

11. Which well knowne and considered, you are then to order your battels, to take your ground, for to plant your ordnance, to auoyd your dangers, to take your aduantages, for to worke your stratagems also for your most comfort, and so to fight accordingly. But how to order your battels, and so to fight accordingly, is to bee discussed of more largely; for therein is the chiefe substance of the Art Military, in which some Generals haue beene more expert then others.

Excellent Generals (of old) commonly did vse to ordaine of footmen apt for to fight, three great battels; a Vantgard, a Battell, and a Rearward; and two wings of their horsemen: And when they came to fight, they did set them for the most part in an euen front: The Battell in the midst; on the right hand the Vantgard, which was called the right winge; on the left the Reareward, which was called the left winge. Their order we doe in a manner follow: For wee haue Vantgard, Battell, and Reareward, which wee place in Front as they did; onely we differ in the kinde of Embattailing. By kinde of Embattailing, I meane not bils, & bowes; but grosse Bodies: For they parted their Army into three parts, Page  18 and Embattailed them into three grosse Bodies. Wee diuide our Army into three parts, but not into such grosse Bodies; as for example, Say wee haue 12000. Foot, and 4000. Horse; if we bring them into one front without seconds, we do thus.

In our Vantgard, or right winge, we put 3000. men, diuiding them into three battalions, sometimes into more, as we see occasion. In our Battell wee put 6000. men diuiding them into three battalions, euery one containing 2000. a piece, for the battalions in the Bat∣tell, must exceede those in the wings.

In our Reareward or left winge, we put 3000. men, diuiding them into as many battalions, with as many men in either of them, as was to bee in the Vantgard a∣boue mentioned. Our horse we place halfe in the righ∣winge, and halfe in the left winge, the ordinary place for horse. For proofe of this, looke into the ordinary pra∣ctise of the Netherlands, and you shall see them some∣times to put two Regiments into one battalion, some∣times but one, and sometimes they will make two bat∣talions of one Regiment. Wee as they are not tyed to any certaine number, but may vary as we see occasions.

Occasions are produced by the Enemy, by the ground, by our selues to our best aduantage, and there∣fore we do accordingly. If our number bee more, wee haue the more battalions; if lesse, the fewer, vnlesse some pollicie be vsed.

Some Generals haue Martialed their Army onely into one Battell, some into two, some into three, some into foure, some into fiue, some into six, and some into nine.

The Venetians at the battell of Taro, did martiall their Army into nine battalions; whereof three was to Page  19 fight with the Enemy, other three to bee aide to the o∣ther three fighting, and the other three was appointed for sundry other purposes and effects.

King Ferdenand, besides his ordinary battalions, had another standing aloofe behinde his other battailes, for to take aduantage, or else to helpe in necessitie as occa∣sion serued; which were light horsemen.

The Earle of Surry, at the battell of Sloddon, had like∣wise besides his ordinary Battels, one battell of light horsemen, with which hee discomfitted Iames (the fourth) King of Scots.

Iames King of Scots, at the same battell of Sloddon, did martiall his Army into six battailes, without horse reliefe, or seconds, which lost him the field. For the English with their horse (when the King had the better) would presently giue vpon his Flanks, so snatcht the victory out of his hands, hauing neither Horse nor se∣conds to recouer it.

The Argonians, haue diuided their Army into fiue Battels; which battels in forme of straight or direct hornes, were extended from the great battell or midle∣ward. But these were partly Horse and Foote.

The Heluetians, haue martialed their Army into three battels, without Horse or seconds; sometimes in∣to one battell onely of footmen, which was their vsuall forme by custome. But not to be imitated.

The Spaniard, haue martialed their Army into two battels; one of footmen in one winge, and another of horsemen in another winge, all in an euen Front. Now they do otherwise.

The Ancient Romanes, haue martialed their Armed foote into three Battels. The first subsisting of the Hastatij, the second of the Principes, the third of the Page  20Triarij: with Velites to either of them, and Horse in the winges. How their Velites (light Armed men) were placed, being too weake to deale with Horsemen, or armed Foote (without aduantage) I will shew you hereafter.

Some haue ordered a weake battell of Foot or horse∣men, against a strong battell of their Enemies Foote or Horsemen, thereby to bring their Enemies strength in∣to some stratagem, which was wisely done by the great Captaine Gonsaluo, against the Frenchmen. This Gonsaluo sent a noble Spaniard called Mondotius, against the Generall of the Frenchmen to fight with his Reare∣ward; which Mondotius, had a company of light horse∣men for to inuade the Reare of the Frenchmen, and with him likewise went two Cohorts of Calliuer-shot, which kept company in the front almost with them, being ex∣tended as in two spred winges. Mondotius horse left these shot, and inuaded freshly the hindermost of the French. The French barbed horsemen, with fury set vp∣on Mondotius light horsemen: Mondotius light horse∣men retired as though they were not able to encounter the barbed Horsemen: thus flying, caused the barbed horsemen to persue out of order: Then the Calliuer-shot keeping aloofe off (about a furlong) and in forme of a halfe Moone, shot of vpon the French barbed hors∣men, before & on the Flanks. Gonsaluo thereupon sent a company of his barbed horsemen to the aide of his light horsemen flying, & his Calliuers fighting: There∣upon his light horsemen returned, and ioyned with their owne barbed horsemen that came for aide, and both of them in order, did set vpon the Frenchmen out of order; the shot continuing on both sides, and backes as before. Which kinde of order (you see) and flying, Page  21 and ayde of the Spaniards, was for to bring first such French force to disorder, and so thereby to discomfort them the easlier, which was done to their mindes.

Some haue rainged certaine files of shot before eue∣ry battalion, to skirmish with the Enemy a farre off, and neere at hand, thereby to weaken him by degrees, be∣fore they did ioyne battell. This was pactised by Henry the fourth the French King, against Albertus Arch Duke of Austria, Gouernor of Brabant, in the name of the King of Spaine, when he came to raise the seidge at A∣mens. The forme of whose battell I will now describe both by word and figure: But first let me declare his number. For his number, it was 12000. foote, and 4000. Horse. Now hee ordered them in this manner: His foote was Martialed into nine Battalions; three of which were for the right winge, three for the battell, and three for the left winge; The three battalions on the right winge, were two Regiments of English, and one French Regiment; each flankt with Muskettiers, and containing very neigh 1000. Foote a peece; before euery one of which were placed nine files of Musket∣tiers; three in the right angle, three on the left, and three in the midst before them: (peruse the first figure follow∣ing,) euery file contained ten men. The three battalions for the Battell, were three Regiments of Swize, flankt with Muskettiers, with nine files of Muskettiers a peece placed before them as the other, onely these Regiments contained more men then the rest, being together about fiue thonsand. The three battailions for the left winge, were three French Regiments, embattailed as the rest, with Muskettiers before them in the same forme as the other; euery battalion containing aboue 1000. The King had 12 field Peeces, which to his commendations Page  [unnumbered]

The forme of the French Kings battell, containing 12000.
Foote, and 4000. Horse.
The Horse should haue beene higher placed, and more inclining to the three vppermost field Peeces.
Page  23 he planted Souldier like; Three foreright, three flank∣wise, six on either winge to annoy the Enemy, both in front and flancke. His Horse was raunged without these, not forthright, but obliquewise, to encompasse the Enemy; being in number 4000. in each winge 2000. two hundered in Front, and 10. in depth; that the one halfe of the winge might giue the charge, the other bee their seconds. Behinde the King were his Trenches, guarded with 3000. Foote to defend him from the sal∣lies of the Towne, therefore the King needed no se∣conds at all. But if you would see 12000. Foote, and 4000. Horse, embattailed both with seconds and aydes for all attempts, peruse the second Figure going before, (ioyned to that of the Kings.)

Where you shall see 15. battalions of Foot, martialed in a manner after the French Kings forme, viz. In the Vantgard or right wing, are three battalions of 500. a peece, Flanckt with Muskettiers; before euery one of which are raunged ten files of Muskettiers; three in the right angle, three in the left, and foure in the midst iust before them; euery file containing ten men, which shot are to make their way through the interuals of the battalions in the Reare of all, there to giue vpon the Enemies Flanks. In the Battell are three battalions, containing 3000. men, (a thousand a peece) flankt with Muskettiers, and with Muskettiers be∣fore them in the same fashion as the rest. In the Reare∣ward (or left winge) of the battell, are likewise three battalions of 500. a peece, Embattailed as the rest, with Muskettiers before them, in the same forme as the o∣ther: Behinde these battalions (for seconds) are foure battalions of 500. a peece, standing against the Interuals of their opposite battalions; which Interuals are 200. Page  24 foote broad, that the foure battalions may the better passe through them. These foure battalions haue shot before them as the former, which with the rest may march forth to skirmish with the Enemie; or stand still to second them vpon their retreate, before the Battels ioyne: after being in the Reare to giue vpon your Ene∣mies flanks as the other. The rest of the battalions are in Front but twelue foote distance one from another, and at three foote order.

The diuisions of Muskettiers are allowed six foote, that they may the better fall through, hauing giuen fire.

In the Reare of all are two battalions, of a thousand a peece, standing iust behinde the three battalions of the Battell, about a furlong of. On the Flanks of these are 800, Horse, 400. in each flanke, oblique wise, the better to start forth and inuiron the Enemy. In like manner are the Horse martialed in the outward flanks of the rest, but in greater numbers. peruse the Figure.

By the winges of these two battalions are two field Peeces ready turned and bent to the Reare, to discharge vpon the Enemy, if he should with Horse or Foote giue vpon that part; if not, then these field Peeces may bee with ease brought from thence to some other place to annoy him other wayes.

As for the rest of the Ordance, I haue planted them vpon two Hils opposite against the Enemies flanks, thereby to distresse him. And for the better perfor∣mance of this, I haue planted 700. Muskettiers to guard them; and will ayde them with more if neede be.

Now against this Battell hauing Ordnance in the Reare, and on the Hils, to distresse the Enemies Flanks, I oppose this Battell following.

Page  [unnumbered]

A Battell of 12000. foot and 4000. horse, with Ordnance in the midst, and on the wings. Described in the next page. The pricks inclosed with lines are 800. shot to surprise the enemies Ordnance on the hils.

Page  26 Here (or in the Figure going before) you see are sixteene Battalions. The Ordnance planted both in the Wings and in the Front of the maine Battell. The Ordnance in the maine Battell, hath before them 400. Muskettiers, ranged in the same forme as the Enemies, the better to hide the deceit: for so soone as the Muskettiers are cleare of the Battell, the Ordnance are to discharge vpon the Enemy to breake his maine Battell; and then the other Battels are to march on to charge the Enemy in disorder: the Horse are martialled outward on the wings, and stand obli∣que wise to inuiron the Enemy.

Now before the Horse giue the charge, eight hun∣dred Musketties doe sallie forth to surprise the Enemies Ordnance, being planting on the hils.

The Figure doth demonstrate it as plaine as can be, with the number of euery battalion; onely take notice that the shot before euery battalion are to make their passage through the interuals, and sides of the battailes, in the Reare of all; from thence to giue vpon the Ene∣mies Flankes, if occasion be, otherwise to aide their own men in the Fight. All the shot before the battalions are in number 1200.

This appointing of shot for to march before, and to surprise the enemies Ordnance (in such a place of ad∣uantage) was heretofore practised by ancient Gene∣rals, and lately by our great Commander Sir Horatio Vere in the Palatinate, though the Battel were vnfought.

The planting of Ordnance in the Front of the maine Battaile, betweene the interuals, to breake the Ene∣mies Battalia, was, and is at this day practised by the Turkes, and other Nations.

Likewise the placing of Ordnance in the Reare with seconds for all attempts, was, and is at this day practi∣sed Page  27 both by Italians, French, Germanes, and other Ge∣nerals besides.

You see then that all this is no crotchet of mine (as the pacing of the shot before euery battalion was no crotchet of the French Kings) but the vsuall custome of all Generals before and in his time.

The ancient Romans did continually obserue it in pla∣cing their Velites before euery Maniple. Their Velites were their light Armed, such as vsed throwing wea∣pons (in Latine Massilia) as Bowes, Slings and Darts. To a popular Legion they allotted 1200. Velites. 1200. Hastalij, 1200 Principes, and 600. Triarij. These made vp a Legion. This Legion of 4200. foot was deuided into 30. Maniples; ten of the Hastatij, ten of the Prin∣cipes, and ten of the Triarij. The ten of the Hastatij made the first Battell, the ten of the Principes the second Bat∣tell, the ten of the Triarij the third Battell: if but one Legion were Embattailed. To each of these Battailes were allotted 400. Velites, fortie to a Maniple: the Bat∣tels containing 3000. of well armed men, besides the Velites which were but lightly armed. How these Ma∣niples were placed: how far distant each Battell stood one from another: the order of the Velites: the num∣ber of their Horse, and how ranged by Troopes, must not be passed ouer. Briefly thus.

Thee ten Maniples of the Hastatij they set in an euen Front, leauing so much distance or void ground betwixt euery Maniple, as a Maniple it selfe tooke vp in stan∣ding. At a reasonable space behinde, were the Princi∣pes placed in as many Maniples; but so, that their Ma∣niples stood directly behinde the void places of the Ha∣statij. And against the bodies of the Hastatij, they left likewise spaces in the Principes, to the end the HastatijPage  [unnumbered]

The Embattaling of a Romane Legion; shewing you how the Velites were first pla∣ced, being in number 1200. They are marked with Prickes, being fiue in ranke, eight in depth, 40. before euery Maniple. The Maniples of the Hastatij are marked with H. those of the Principes with P. those of the Triarii with T. Fiue Troupts of horse in the right Wing, fiue in the left, and 32. in a Troupe.
Page  29 being ouer laid might retire into these spaces; or else themselues might aduance against the Enemy through the Internals of the Hastatij.

Lastly, at a larger distance behinde these were the Triarij set, aud deuided with spaces betwixt euery Ma∣niple, which spaces were great enough to receiue the Principes in case they retired also: but how bigge the crosse interuals were I cannot truely and soundly set downe; rather I beleeue they varied, according to the Forces and will of the Generall. Polibus noteth that Haniball in his Affrican Battell remoued the third Bat∣tell (for so he had diuided them according to the Ro∣man fashion) more then a furlong from the second. And although I dare not affirme that the Romans did the like, yet may I probably guesse it differed not much, because they had neede to haue such space to retire, and to auoid the mingling and confusion of Troopes. Now the direct waies were indifferent, sometimes of one di∣stance, sometimes of another, as vse required: if the Ve∣lites were there placed as often as they were, they had neede be broad, so large as to receiue them with the Ma∣niples; yet not so large as the crosse interuals, of which I haue spoke.

In the Crosse Internals the Velites were first of all placed, 40. before euery Maniple, aud so stood before the Battell did begin *: afterward they marched forth all together to beginne the Fight before the Army did ioyne: *they fought a good way before the Front, as our Forlornes doe, scattering and disbandied. After which, hauing spent their Darts and Arrowes vpon the Ene∣mies, they retired in good order through the direct wayes, and stood in the Reare of euery Maniple, as for∣merly they had done in the Front; from whence with Page  [unnumbered]

The manner of the Velites fight dismarching from their Maniples, mark∣ed with S. with their retreat in the Reare of all behinde the Triarii, marked with V. and prickes.
Page  31 their missiue weapons they annoyed the Enemy from thence ouer their owne mens heads: And sometimes were remoued from this station, to assaile the Enemy in Reare and Flankes. This remoue was through the di∣rect wayes of the Maniples of the Triarij into the Reare of all; for by the crosse wayes they could not passe, by reason the Horse were ranged in the sides thereof.

The Horse of this Legion were in number 320. diui∣ded into ten troopes, 32. in a troope: fiue troopes pla∣ced on the right wing, fiue on the left wing, oblique wise, withall closing in the Front, and opening in the Reare, like this letter A put downewards.

The manner of the Velites fight with their Retreat in∣to the Reare of all behinde the Triary is in the former page figured to the life. With the station of the Horse on the Flanks, to saue the Battell from inuironing, and to charge the Enemy in the Flanke, if the Enemy gaue the charge with his Horse in the Front.

I with Iustus Lipsus doe admire the Romane Em∣battailing, and will affirme as much as hee, that if this ancient discipline were ioyned with these our new found Armes, the old and new world would be subiect to one man: for surely if our light Souldiers (so I call shot) were mixt betweene the Maniples and be∣fore the Maniples of the armed, with Interuals and di∣stances for retreat, and that against the Horse and Ar∣med Foot, what Battalia durst assaile, nay, what Bat∣talia could resist vs? For in regard hereof our men should be alwayes fit to charge, fit to retire for a second charge. All which notwithstanding is to be done with long vse and exercise, least they trouble vs in the doing. If any obiect against the Romans discipline, because such Maniples are not able to cope with great Battaliaes? Let Page  32 them know, that the Romans did make their Maniples Cohorts; and their Cohorts were sometimes 500. sometimes 600. nay, a thousand if we beleeue Vegetius: and is not this our number when wee Embattaile? and will not you imitate them? well, if you will not, yet fol∣low the discipline now in vse; a discipline approued for instruction, instructing you to doe thus.

1. When your Battalia of Footmen come to ioyne Battaila with your Enemies Footmen, haue a great com∣pany of Muskettiers before you to hurt and weaken your aduersary before you ioyne battell or fight; which shot when they haue wrought their effect must haue roome ready open for them to retreat into the Reare; from whence they may be fecht to serue against the E∣nemies Flankes. Your Enemies Battalia in such case, comming without shot before, hath his next remedy in all haste to ioyne to handy stroakes. Your care must euer be to auoid confusion of fight.

Confusion of fight isto begin before your time, which causeth such inconuenience, as is cause oftentimes of losse: therefore in the beginning of your Fight take great heede that you inuade nor fight confusedly. Whereas euery part of the Army hath his ordinary time to fight: neither suffer any part of your Army to fight with your Euemy in any other fashion then you appointed him. And for such casualties and accidents as may happen to you in Battell or Fight, keepe these conclusions following in memory and heart, and they will much auaile you in time of neede.

2. If your Horsemen be oppressed with your Ene∣mies Horsemen, send for succour a supply of Musket∣ties, who may scattering and out of order, as occasion shall serue, shoot at the oppressors, and vpon occasion Page  33 retire and returne very often.

3. To these you may send a gard of Pikes for rescue, the better to bring them off safe: but if you inuade your Enemy with Muskettiers, with your gard of Pike send some Horse, that both may defend them from inuasi∣on of the Enemies Horsemen.

4. Likewise to giue the Enemy his hands full, follow him with a battalion resolutely, to put all or one of his battalions to rout; and hauing discomfited any one of his Battels, send onely a small or conuenient company to persue the chase, and with the rest inuade quickely some part of his Army fighting with any one of your Battels: This must of necessitie be done; for sundry vi∣ctories haue beene lost vpon this occasion: that when one Battell hath ouerthrowne his first encountered E∣nemies Battell, it hath immediately followed the chase, and not holpen his owne fellowes in danger.

Likewise in your first ioyning of Battell, if your fore∣ward gaine the victory, ioyne your other Battels imme∣diately whilst comfort is on your side, on your Enemies discomfort. This got Bucoy the victory at Prague.

6. If your Footmen be vehemently oppressed with your Enemies footmen; send your horsemen to inuade the sides of your Enemies, and with them some shot to hold them play: but if you can plant a peece of Ord∣nance against their flanke, it will much abate their courage.

7. If your Enemies come vpon you vnprouided and vnlooked for, send your Horsemen or shot, to skirmish with them, whilst you intend to make you ready for Battell. Also your Horse may extend themselues into a deepe Heirse battell, for to inuade your Enemies with their more trouble and stay.

Page  34 8. Or to deceiue your Enemies, march towards them with a company of Horse, and make semblance of fight, as if the whole Army followed. The Enemy at this will stand; your battels in the meane time be set: you by this may outface the Enemy, and returne againe without fight.

9. Then being in good order, if your occasion be such, that you would not haue your Enemies vnder∣stand of your orders and policies, cause you Horsemen to run vp and down: the dust, to let their fight. Doe the like if you haue planted and ordered your Army all in stratagems.

10. If your Enemies maine battell doe vrge very va∣liantly your foreward, and his other battell be not rea∣dy to helpe, or rescue, cause both your other battels one on the one side, and the other on the other side, freshly to inuade your Enemies maine battell; and herein you shall doe wisely, imitating your predecessours, the braue English, at the battell of Poytiers.

11. If you hauing a small and weake number, and you vnderstand that your Enemies goe for to distresse a cer∣taine aide comming to helpe you: where you be sent after the Enemy to inuade the backes of them when they be fighting with your aide; comming, set not you on rashly vpon your Enemies, before your time ap∣pointed; for if you fight with your enemies so, being stronger, before your aide haue set vpon their Front, you foolishly cast away your selues, and also leaue your aide in danger: and by your vntimely, rash, and vnwar∣like onset bereaue your selues of your aide and helpe. And withall you much comfort your Enemies, who might haue beene discomforted; for if you had obser∣ued your discipline and purpose, you should haue fol∣lowed Page  35 your Enemy closely, with as little noyse as might be, vntill your Enemies had set vpon your ayde; then in the heat of their fight, you should haue set vpon their backes, before your Enemies were knowing of your comming: which kinde of dealing had beene most hurtfull to your Enemies, commodious to your Ayde, and profitable to your selues; for warlike discipline is, that a weaker company neuer fight with a greater strength, without a speciall aduantage of time, occasion, and place for to helpe you. Also, neuer to breake your aduised determinate purpose, without you be either en∣forced, either drawne to fight by occasion of some no∣table accident offered by chance. Accident will hap∣pen; for in warres no most certaine rule can be appoin∣ted, which is not broken by some meanes at some seue∣rall times: therefore wait time, and so I proceede to o∣ther Councell.

12. If you abound in number, couet to compasse your Enemies, and to distresse them being weake.

13. If your Enemies abound in number, prouide by order, or stratagem, or place, that your Enemies cannot compasse you.

14. Plant your Campe or Army to fight in a very strong ground by nature, and helpe it by Art.

15. Some haue vsed to choose their ground fortified by nature, as Prosper Colonno.

16. Some haue no regard of the strength of the place by nature, but choose rather to fortifie all wholly by Art and industry, as the ancient Romans.

17. Some seeke places somewhat by nature strong, and by Art and industry make them more stronger. They fortifie themselues as well in Fight as in Campe, which the good Captaines of our time doe vsually.

Page  36 18. Therefore if you be vnwilling to fight, and your Enemies must needes fight with you, by your industry make a ditch three foot deepe, and fiue or sixe foot broad, and cast the earth towards you; which ditch, if you thinke good, let it be especially in the Front, also in the sides, and on your backes also, as Prosper Colonno would often dot.

19. Which Ditch, if it haue sundry places open and free for your Enemies to enter, of no great space, it shall encourage them there to enter; where if you prouide some stratagem against them, you doe well. The fittest stratagem for this occasion, is to place certaine Compa∣nies before the gaps, and certaine Ordnance behinde them to be discharged when they open in the midst.

20. Whereupon, if your Enemies desist, vrge them hardly, onely make a faire shew, but proceede no fur∣ther. For you are not to put your confidence in such weake fortification: nor in the arrogancy of your men to fight; by arrogancy many Armies are ouerthrowne, where by wisedome many are saued. I present you the Figure of such an Intrenched Battell to peruse; (in the next page following) but you may doe as you please.

21. If your Company be small, and your Enemy haue great store of Horsemen against you, so that you be likely to loose the Battell, if your Enemies againe set vpon you; if any great Wood be neere, seeke to saue your Army by the thicknesse of the same Wood, and suffer your Enemies to gaine your Ordnance, and Bag∣gage, and Victuals, that they spoyling the same, you may the better escape.

22. Likewise when you haue a Battell more then the Enemies, diuide it into two parts; and where you see any danger among your Enemies, send first one

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A Foure-Fronted Battell for Stratagem, being enuironed with a Ditch.

THe Ditch is 6. foot broad, and 3. foot deepe. It hath foure gaps (for sallyes) twentie paces broad, to allure the Enemy there to enter. It hath at euery gap fiue battalions of 300. a peece: it hath a field Peece behinde euery middle battell; euery middle battell must open in the midst, before the Peece doe dis∣charge; then the Horse must issue forth vpon the Enemy: for this cause the Horse haue their place in the midst, remote from the Foot, diuided into foure squadrons, (in the forme of a crosse) ready faced to the gaps: being in all 1600. the foot 6000. If you will haue no Horse in the midst, then diuide them into 8 troupes; place them for wings, in an euen front, or on the angles: so the Battell will be hollow, and the foot battels for the gaps but 3 a peece.