The prospectiue glasse of vvarre Shevving you a glimpse of vvarres mystery, in her admirable stratagems, policies, wayes; in victualling of an armie, prouiding money to pay souldiers, finding out the enemies purposes, traps, and stratagems: ordering of marches, framing of battails, sundry fights, retreats, and the like, to auoide battell or fight. Furnished with argument to encourage and skill to instruct. By C.E. Warre is a schoole of necesary knowledge.
Cooke, Edward, fl. 1626-1631.


After what manner a Commander or Generall should best prouide Victuals and Mouie to con∣tent his Souldiers, & how to finde out the pur∣poses, Trapps, and Stratagems of his Enemy.

VIctuals is the Soule of an Army: Money, but the Sinewes: with∣out the first your Army cannot at all subsist; without the se∣cond, but indifferently: but with both, admirable well. That your Army may haue both Soule and Sinewes, thereby to subsist long and well, prouide for it good store of victuals and money: Likewise prye into the wiles and stratagems of the Enemy in time, that it may go well with your Army. Which that you may well do, these precepts follow∣ing will direct you aright. But first of Victuals.

Page  2 Victuals consist first in conuenient prouision of them, then in safe keeping and preseruing of them, then in good distributing, or spending, or bestowing of them alwayes.

* All which you must carefully execute if you would not willingly taste of want.

1. Prouide for victuals before you vndertake the warre, for then is the time of best prouision.

2. In your warre begun, store your selfe with vi∣ctuals, either neere hand or farre off. And conduct it with good and strong conuoyes, lest the Enemy surprise it.

3. In your Townes of warre, either without or within, haue great store of Milles to grinde corne to sustaine you the better in a seidge: And bee sure to looke well vnto them, & sufficiently to defend them, especially those that are without the Towne.

4. If you beseidge Townes or Cities, you ought to hurle downe all Milles within and without, and to cut of the water from them, if you cannot keepe them for your owne vse.

5. Prouide that such neighbours as dwell neere vnto you, may safely bring victuals into your Campe without danger of the Enemy.

6. In case of necessity send your Souldiers into their Prouince to abide & be relieued with victuals for a time. Example,

Galli being in some distresse of victuals, choose the Citie Attella, a Citie full of victuals, to stay there vn∣till by their friends they might bee relieued, both with victuals and Souldiers. In which Citie their Souldiers for a while were largely relieued and freely, with or at the charges of the Cittizens.

Page  3 7. Seeke by all meanes to intercept your Enemies victuals; and lay seidge to those places from whence their chiefe reliefe of victuals doth come. Example,

The Captaines of Charles the sift, in the warres a∣gainst the Germans, lacked victuals somewhat, where on the other side, the Germans lying in a plaine fer∣till Country, had plenty of victuals, vpon the occasi∣on of the aoundance of the Country, being large; and partly because certaine friendly Cities and Countries lay behinde them on the otherside of the Riuer. For the same purpose Charles the Emperour went about for to gaine the Cities standing about the Riuer from them, and so the aduantage of the same Riuer with victuals: which was a braue act.

Like this was that of Francis Sforsa, who vnder∣standing that the Frenchmen, or Army at Nouaro, had great comfort of victuals from Biagrassa, he beseidged that Towne suddenly, & tooke it: by which occa∣sion hee tooke from them their chiefe victuals: And shortly after the French Army was faine to remoue.

8. If you are for to iourney towards the warres, iourney in a plentifull Country, and which hath in long time beene in peace. Thus did the French King Charles the eight when he came to the Citie of Ast.

9. Also you are to iourney in your Confederates Country, and who vpon very great occasion is to de∣sire your society, for such will ayde you liberally. This was likewise practised by Charles the eight when he inuaded Naples: For other wayes of getting of victuals, and preseruing them so got, peruse these presedents.

10. Some Kings, Captaines, and Generals, which haue either taken, or saued some Citie which was Page  4 likely to be lost, haue caused their Souldiers to be re∣leiued of victuals in the same; in the houses of them which were their Enemies.

11. Some haue vsed for to send certaine Captaines of Souldiers into other Cities, for to ease the present spending in the place where they were.

12. Some haue vsed to send all the poore and im∣potent people out of their Citie so beseidged, that their victuals might last the longer.

13. Some would suffer none either to returne or to haue reliefe of victuals: Which vnreasonable hard vsage needed not, if Gouernors would before hand, and before need, prepare both for abundance of vi∣ctuals, or else withall take order for the moderate spending of their victuals: For negligence of prouisi∣on of victuals in time, and mispending, or else lacke of good keeping or ordering them which you haue, should be well seene vnto. I pretermit this. And I fall vpon the prouision of money for the payment of your Souldiers wages.

* Hauing money sufficient, it is best to pay your Souldiers beforehand, or monthly.

1. If you be bare of money, pay some wages, and procure that the Souldiers may haue victuals good cheape all the while you lacke money, or imploy them where continuall spoyle may be had.

2. If you haue little money, pay a part of that o∣penly in the hands of such souldiers as are most like∣ly to make a Mutiny.

3. Some Generals when as their souldiers haue beene ready to reuoult or mutiny for lacke of pay, haue straight way brought them to the battell, for this purpose; if victory happened on their side, they Page  5 would pay their souldiers of the spoyle of their Ene∣mies, or else if their Army were ouerthrowne, then they should be cleerely and well discharged of the grieuous and dangerous complaint.

4. Some haue caused the Cittizens of Cities to receiue souldiers into their houses for to giue vnto them meate, drinke, and lodging, and to giue wages vnto the same souldiers. Thus did Anthony de Leua at Millan.

This was he that forbad all his Cittizens for to eate any bread but onely such as should bee bought of him: For which purpose he appointed in euery streete certaine houses where bread should be sold, at what price he lusted, and none durst do the con∣trary. By which kinde of means he got into his hands all such kinde of money as any Citizen of Millan had in his Chests, or else could make or reserue by any meanes or wayes; with which he payd his souldiers. This was his way, but some haue found other wayes besides these.

* 5. Some Generals haue gaged all their plate and Iewels vnto rich monyed men, to pay their souldiers.

* 6. Some Kings haue borrowed all the Iewels and ornaments of certaine great Ladies or Estates, which were their friends and kinsmen, and haue pawned the same to Vsurers for to pay their soul∣diers.

7. Borrow largely of your Confederates money, who seeketh your society in his warres: for his spe∣ciall purpose: The French King Charles the 8. could do this passing well.

8. Seeke of such a Confederate any other ayde or furniture for your warres, which furniture can Page  6 stay your laying out of much expence.

9. Seeme (to such a Confederate) to deferre your warres that you may the better wring forth of him greater summes. It may bee he may proue like Lodowicke Sforza Duke of Millan.

This Duke, seeing Charles the eight make no haste to inuade Naples according vnto promise, be∣cause Lodowicke was to worke a feate by Charles his comming, which otherwise hee was very hardly to do; he sent his sonne in Law with a braue Captaine into France vnto the King, offering him money, shippes, horsemen, and many other things of great importance, which the King accepted, and for that cause before did stay the warre. Thus much of this, which shall suffice for the wayes of getting of money to pay souldiers, and likewise for victualling your Army. I will now shew the wayes by which you may finde out your Enemies purposes, Trapps, and Stratagems. To doe which, well obserue these pre∣cepts.

* 1. First, you are to suspect vehemently, or else to feare, how your Enemy hath an invention by some subtiltie or politique stratagem, or inuention, or else some crafty deceite or wile to entrap, beguile, or o∣uerthrow your Army.

2. Next for such intents or purposes, you should entertaine very good and sundry espialls, who by all meanes are to be very attentiue, inquisitiue, curious, liberall, suspitious, and bold.

3. Which especially should remaine or abide neer the Court of your Enemy, or else neere vnto the Ar∣my of your Enemies, or in some friends Country of your Enemies, or neere some neighbour of your Page  7 Enemies, or in the way of your Enemies, or else a Common Trauellor, or else a Studient in the Land of the Enemies, or a subiect of reputation in the Land of your Enemies, or else a Merchant or common seller of wares, or a Barber, or a Victualler in your Enemies Country.

5 Which kinde of espialls, you are neuer to trust throughly, but euer to bee iealous of them, and to weigh and conferre their reports with the reports of other espialls, and with likely-hoods, oppertunities, and reasons.

Haue espialls continually, if it be possible, in your Enemies Army.

The Langraue, with other Captaines of the Germans, (against the Emperour Charles the first by name) had in Charles his Army 00. good Espials, whereby he al∣most euery houre had certaine knowledge what was done or said in Charles his Campe or Tents.

Charles the first Emperour lacked good Espials, for which cause he left many things vndone, which had beene for his singular profit, if hee had knowne of such occasions.

Therefore prouide you good Espialls; which Espials are so necessary in the wars as any thing else: for by them you shall vnderstand how your Enemie will fight, what hee will doe against your Army, Marching, Fighting, or Flying. Which motions, (or rather principall heads of the Art of warre) shall be handled in the foure next Chapters following.