Fiftie godlie and learned sermons diuided into fiue decades, conteyning the chiefe and principall pointes of Christian religion, written in three seuerall tomes or sections, by Henrie Bullinger minister of the churche of Tigure in Swicerlande. Whereunto is adioyned a triple or three-folde table verie fruitefull and necessarie. Translated out of Latine into English by H.I. student in diuinitie.
Bullinger, Heinrich, 1504-1575., H. I., student in divinity.
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¶ Of signes, and the manner of signes, of Sacramentall signes, what a Sa∣crament is, of whome, for what causes, and howe many Sacra∣mentes were instituted of Christe for the Christian Churche. Of what things they do consist, how these are cōsecrated, how the signe and the thing signified in the Sacra∣ments are either ioyned together or distingui∣shed, & of the kind of speeches vsed in the Sacraments.

¶ The sixt Sermon.

THE treatise vppon the sacramentes re∣maineth, which wée heard is ioyned to ye woord of God and prayer. But in spe∣king of sacraments deliuered by Christ our king and high priest, and receiued and lawfully vsed of his holy and catholique Churche, I will by Gods grace and assistance, ob∣serue this order, first to entreate of them generally, and thā particularly, or seuerally. And heere before hand I wil determine vppon the certeine sig∣nification of a signe or Sacrament, wherein if I shalbe somewhat longe or tedious, I craue pardon (déerly be∣loued) therefore, for I hope it shal not be altogether fruitlesse. Signum, a signe, the Latine writers call a token, a representing, a marke, and shew of * some thing that hath signification. So say Tullie and Fabius. Fabius sayeth. Some call Signum〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, thoughe some terme it Indicium, other some Vestigium, a marke or token where∣by a thing is vnderstood, as slaughter by bloud. S. Aurelius Augustine the famous Ecclestastical writer, Cap. 4. De magistro, sayth, We generally call all those things signes which signifie somewhat, where also we finde words to bee. Againe, Lib. 2. de doctrina Christiana, cap. 1. he saith, A signe is a thing beside the semblance, whiche it layeth before our senses, making of it selfe somethinge to come into oure mind or thought, as by seeing smoke, we beleue there is fire. The said Aur.*August. doth diuide signes into signes naturall, and signes giuen. Naturall he calleth those, whiche without any wil or affection to signifie, beside thē∣selues make something else to be kno∣wen, as is smoke signifying fire. ForPage  956smoke hath not any will in it selfe to signifie. Signes giuen are those, which all liuing creatures do giue one to an other, to declare as well as they cā the affections of their mind, or any thing which they cōceiue, meane, or vnder∣stand. And signes giuen hee diuideth againe by the senses. For some belong to the eyes, as the ensignes or banners of Capteines, mouing of the hands, & all the members. Some againe belong to the eares, as the trumpet and other instruments of musicke, yea & words themselues, which are chiefe & prin∣cipall among men, when they intend to make their meaning knowen. Vn∣to smelling hee referreth that sweete sauour of oyntment mētioned in the*Gospel, whereby it pleaseth the Lord to signifie somewhat. To the tast hee referreth the supper of the Lord, For (saith he) by the tasting of the sacra∣ment of his bodie and bloud, he gaue*or made a signe of his will. He addeth also an exāple of touching, And whē the woman by touching the hemme of his vesture is made whole, that is not a signe of nothing, but signifieth*somewhat. In this manner hath Au∣gustine entreated of the kinds & diffe∣rences of signes. Other also whose opiniō doth not much differ from hi, * distinguish signes according to the or∣der of times. For of signes (say they) some are of thinges present; some of thinges past; and some of thinges to come. They thincke them signes of thinges present, whiche signifie those things to be presēt which are signifi∣ed: as ye Iuie garlād hāging for a signe doth giue vs to vnderstand that there is 〈◊〉 to be fould, where it is hanged vp. The signes whiche our maister Christ wrought; did signifie that the Messs, and the kingdome of god pro∣mised by the prophetes was come. * Vnder signes pat they comprise all tumbes, monuments of the dead, and those stones pitched of Iosue in the middest of Iordane, signifying to them * which came after what was done in times before. The fléece did giue to Gedeon, a signe of thinges to come, y* is to say, a signe of the victorie whiche he should haue ouer his enimies.

But those signes being well consi∣dered * & not neglected, maye more am∣plie and plainly be diuided into other signes wherof some are giuen of men, and some ordeined of God himselfe. Signes or tokens are giuen of men, whereby they shew and signifie some thing, and by the which also they kéepe some thing in memorie among men, or do as it were seale vpp that, which they would haue certeine & sure. Af∣ter this maner is euery description or * picture demonstratiue called a signe. For in Ezechiel, cap. 4. Hierusalem * which was portrayed in a tyle, is cal∣led a signe. They also in ancient time termed the images of the dead, signes, because by those images they would renue a freshe the memorie of them, whose signes they were called, & kéepe them in remēbrance, as if they were aliue. Yea, and the holy scripture cal∣leth idols signes, as it appeareth in E∣saie, cap. 45. and the 2. Paralip. 33. So stones beeing sett or layed to marke out any thing, as land marks, and all tumbes or monumentes are signes. Raha of Hiericho said to ye Israelits, Giue me a signe by oath, that you wil shew mercie to me, and they gue her a rope to hange out of her wi••owe. Behold the rope was a signe 〈…〉 faith and trueth, wherewith the 〈…〉 (as yee would say) seale themselues surely and without all dissimulation, to take diligent héede that Raha should not be destroyed.

Page  957 We Zwicers terme such signes gi∣uen or receiued in confirmation of faith and trueth, Wortzeichen, bee∣cause they are added to the woordes, and doe as it were seale them, and Warzeichen also, because by them we doe as it were giue wittnesse that in good faith, and without all fraude or guile we will performe that in déede, which we promised in word.

Nowe these kinde of signes are of diuers sortes. For some are mute or * dumbe, and perteine to the sense of the eyes, of which sort are ye standards vsed in warre, crosses, banners, fla∣ming fiers, whereof mention is made Num. 2. Psal. 73. &c. Neither is any man able to reckon vp all of this sort: for euer & anon new come in as plea∣seth men. Iudas gaue a signe vnto his companie, Whomesoeuer (sayeth he) I shall kisse, that same is hee, take*him. The ioyning of right handes, whiche pertayneth to the sense of fée∣ling, is a signe of faithfulnes, helpe, and fellowshipp, yea, it is a dumbe signe, whiche signe Paule calleth the Right hand of fellowship. Hitherto * belong diuers mouings and gestures. Some of them are pertayning to the voice, which are conceiued by hearing, and are vttered by mans voice, or by the sound of things which haue no life. By mans voyce are vttered woords, whistling, & whatsoeuer other things are of this kinde, wherevnto watch∣woords vttered by the voice, maye be added, as Schiboleth in the 12. Chap. * of the Iudges.

Moreouer, voices without life are they whiche are made by trumpets, flutes, hornes, gunnes, drumbes, by ringing of bells and sounding instru∣mentes, which also extend very farre and largely. Now signes are giuen of * God to this end, to teach & admonishe vs of thinges to come, or of thinges past, either that they may after a sort lay before the eyes of the beholders, & represent in a certaine likenesse the thinges themselues whereof they are signes: or else that they maye (as it were) seale the promises and woords of God with some visible ceremonie celebrated of men by Gods instituti∣on: to be short, that they might ex∣ercise oure faith, and gather together those whiche are scattered into one as∣semblie or companie. And these are not all of one sort, but do much differ betwéene themselues. For some haue * their beginning of naturall causes, and yet neuerthelesse are giuen as signes of God, to put vs in minde of things past, or to renue his promises, and to teache men thinges that haue béene done, of which kind is the raine∣bowe, mentioned by Moses Gen. 9. For when the floud ceassed, that God made a newe league with Noah, and ordeined the rainebowe for a signe of his couenaunt, he made it not a new, but beeing made long afore, & appea∣ring by natural causes, by a newe in∣stitution he consecrated it, to the in∣tent it might cause vs to call to our re∣membrance the floud, and as it were renue the promise of God, that is to say, that it should neuer come to passe againe, that the earth should be drow∣ned with water. Now this signe hath not any ceremonie ordeined, wherby it might bée celebrated amonge men, neither doth it gather vs together in∣to the societie of any bodie or fellow∣ship. But this signe is referred chiefly to God, saying: I will sett my raine∣bowe in the clouds, that when I see it, I may remember the euerlasting co∣uenant made betweene mee and you. Not much vnlike to this are signes & * wonders, signes & say in the Sunne, Page  958 the moone, and the starres, whiche doe forewarne men of destruction and ca∣lamities * to come, vnlesse by repen∣tance they amende: but neither haue these any ceremonie ordeined, to cele∣brate the remembrance of them, or to gather vs together, &c.

Againe, there be other signes alto∣gether myraculous, not naturall, * thoughe there bée naturall thinges in them, of which sort Gedeons fléece is, and the shadowe of the Sunne going backe in the diall of king Ezechias. * These signes as we read them to haue béene once shewed, so by no instituti∣on are they commaunded to bée fol∣lowed, or for some certeine end to bée celebrated. To Ezechias they were giuen at that time, to signifie & witt∣nesse the victorie which he shuld haue against his enimies, and the recoue∣rie of his health. Altogether & méere∣ly meruailous are those things which in the last of Marke, by oure Lord Ie∣sus Christe are called signes, giftes I meane of healing, and speaking with tongues, giuen vnto & bestowed vpon men, not by any power of mā, or ver∣tue of healing in him, but by the power and vertue of Christ onely. Those sig∣nes declared vnto men, that that was the true and vndoubted preaching of the Gospell whereby Christe is decla∣red to bee Lord of all, Lord of life and death, of Sathan, & of hell also it selfe. For nowe when through the name of Christe the dead doe rise, and diseases being driuē out go their way, by these verie signes it is proued that that is true, which is said, that Christ is Lord of all things. So the wonders which Moses & Aaron wrought in Aegypt, Exod. 4. are called in the Scripture signes. For they were witnesses both of Gods lawefull sending, & tokens of his mightie power to be executed a∣gainst Aegypt, but neither had these any ceremonie, nether gathered toge∣ther into any societie.

Now also we read that some signes are paradigmaticall, that is, vsed in * déede of men, but not without Gods commaundement, that these also may be said to be signes from God. Those be altogether frée from myracles, and in déede not onely fetched from natu∣ral things, but also from things méere common and vsual, as were ye bands, pitcher, and chaines of ye holy prophet Ieremie, whereby, beeing willed of God so to doe, hee layed before them * those thinges in a certaine euident fourme and figure, I meane, in a visi∣ble signe to be séene with mens eyes, which by his preaching he prophecied should fall vppon them. The like wée maye sée in Ezech. the 17. and 24. cap. These signes paradigmaticall or for exāple, are in some things like to those exercises of Rhetorique, called Chriae Actiuę, yea rather they are certeine mixt Chriae, so termed, for that they consist partly in woords and partly in déeds. Aphthonius defineth an Actiue Chrię, To be that which declareth & plainely sheweth a thinge by action, deed, or gesture. As when Pythagoras was demaunded, how long mans life lasted? He for a while stood still, yt they might looke vppon him, but anon hée shrunke away and withdrew himselfe out of their sight, after that manner & action signifying, ye mans life is but short & momentanie. But in the scrip∣ture for the most part are sett downe Chrię, cōsisting of word & déed, as whē Christ toke a little child, and set him in the middest of his disciples, and spake these words, Verilie I saye vnto you,*except ye shall turne and beecome as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdome of heauen. But these Page  959 actions or signes haue not the institu∣tion and commaundement of God, charging vs to renue this very action by solemne celebrating the same. Ne∣uertheles * sacramentall signes haue some affinitie with these, namely bap∣tisme and the Lords supper. For they are giuen vnto vs from aboue, & are taken from naturall thinges, without any myracle, yea, they are instituted vnder the fourme of naturall and sen∣sible things, and in such things as are verie common, water, bread, and wine. This they haue common with other signes giuen of God, in that they renue thinges past, and shadowe out thinges to come, and by a signe do re∣present thinges signified. They differ peculiarlie from other signes, in that they haue ceremonies ioyned with ye commaundement of God, which cere∣monies, hee hath commaunded his church to solemnize. And this also is peculiar to them, yt being seals of gods promises, they couple vs visiblye to God, and to all the sainctes, & they are dedicated to ye most holy mysteries of God in Christ. Of these I wil intreate more largly and diligently hereafter.

The sacramentall signes of Christ and of Christ his church, namely whi∣che * Christ our Lord hath deliuered to his church, and which his church hath receiued of him, and do lawfully vse, ye same are called of Latine writers by the name of Sacraments. But ye word is not found in the whole Scripture, sauing that it is read to be vsed of In∣terpretours: howbeit, the word Signe is oft in the scriptures, and that which helpeth for our purpose, is most signi∣cantly set down in Gen. 17. & Rom. 4. In the meane while we do not reiecte the Latine word Sacramentū, a sacra∣ment, as lightly regarding it, neither yet reiecting it do we forge or deuise a new. I likewel enough of ye word Sa∣cramēt, so it be vsed lawfully. S. Au∣gust. in his. 5. epist. to Marcellin{us} saith, It were too long to dispute of the di∣uersitie of signes, which whē they per∣teine to holy things, are termed sacra∣ments. From whēce doubtles sprange that cōmon definition or descriptiō, A Sacrament is a signe of an holy thing, which as it cannot be reiected, so there is none but séeth, that in it the nature of the thing is not fully cōprehended or expressed, neither is it separated frō those thinges whiche also are holy sig∣nes. There is another definition ther∣fore brought forth and vsed, which is in déed more perfect than the other, A sacrament is a visible signe of an inui∣ble grace. But because this also doeth not in all poinctes expresse the nature of the thing: this definition following séemeth vnto many more allowable, which is after this manner: Sacra∣ments are ceremonies, wherwith god exerciseth his people, first to stirr vp, increase, and mainteine their faith: then to the end to testifie before men his religion. This is a true and right definition. But what if you define a * sacrament somewhat more fully and largely in this manner? Sacramentes are holy actions consisting of wordes or promises of the Gospell, or of pre∣scripte rites or Ceremonies, giuen for this ende to the Churche of God from heauen, to bee wittnesses and seales of the preaching of the Gospel, to exercise & trie faith, and by earth∣ly and visible thinges to represent & sett before our eyes the deepe myste∣ries of God, to bee short, to gather to gether a visible Church or congrega∣tion, and to admonishe them of their duetie. This definition truely is farre fett, large, and many fold, a definiti∣on, I say, gathered of many parts, but Page  960 we meane to goe to it simplie & plain∣ly, & to lay forth the whole matter be∣fore your eyes to be séen, then wil we make manifest euery part therof, and confirme the same wt testimonies of scripture. Now yt I may fully intreat * of the names ye are giuen to this thing, I finde that Latine writers call Sa∣crament an oath or a religious bond: because it was not done (as I thinke) thoroughly and to the proofe, without certeine ceremonies. M. Varro in his second booke De lingua Latina, decla∣ring what it is to contend with an oth sayth, The plaintife & the defendant, eche of them in some thinges gaged down at the place appointed for that purpose, fiue hūdred peeces of siluer, and also in other thinges a sett num∣ber of ounces, so that he which reco∣uered in iudgement should haue his gage againe, but hee whiche was cast should forfaite it to the treasurie. Since therefore by intermeddling of holy thinges through partaking of the sacraments, we are boūd to God and to all the saincts, as it were by obliga∣tion, and that God himselfe also by ye testimonie of the sacraments, hath as it were by an oathe bound himselfe to vs, it appeareth yt the name of sacra∣ment is very aptly & properly applied to our signes. We read also in La∣tine writers of an oath that souldiers * vsed to take. For it was not lawefull for thē to fight vnlesse they were put to their oath and sworne. They toke a solemne oath, hauing one to recite the fourme of the oathe to them woord by word, (as Vegetius saieth in his booke Deremilitari) yt they would stoutly & readily do whatsoeuer their capiteine commaunded them, and yt they would neuer forsake the field in the defence of the common weale of Rome. They had a donatiō giuen vnto ech of them as it were a pledge or earnest, they gaue vp their names to be inrolled, & were marked that they might be kno∣wen frō other souldiers. Now because wee by our sacramentes, specially by baptisme, are receiued & inrolled to be Christes souldiers, and by receiuing ye sacraments doe professe and witnesse our selues to be vnder Christ our cap∣taines banner, therefore not amisse, nor without reason, are the signes of Christ & his church called sacraments. In ye meane while I will not stoutly stand in contention yt the word Sacra∣ment was for ye cause chiefly attribu∣ted of them in auncient time to these our signes. For Eras. Rot. a mā very wel seene in the tongues, & throughly tried in old and ancient writers none better, In Cathec. sua Symb. 5. saith, They whiche speake most exquisitly cal Sacramentū, an oth or bond, cōfir∣med by the authoritie of god & reue∣rence of religion. But our elders vsed this word to expresse that whiche the Greekes call a mysterie, which a man may call a religious secret, because the cōmon people were excluded from meddling with them. Thus farre he. Therfore the old writers did cal those signes sacraments in stéede of myste∣ries. For ye self-same signes are called of ye Gréeks, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 mysteries, which * the Latine writers for the most part interprete holy and religious secrets, holy secrets, I say, from the celebrati∣on of which secrets the prophane com¦mon people were excluded & debarred. For Cęliusin Lectio. antiquis. suppo∣seth yt they are called mysteries, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 because it beho∣ued thē which hid them, or which mini∣stred them to kéepe them close, and to shewe them to no common person. Whervppon mysteries may be well called separated & holy secrets, knowē Page  961 to them only which were ordeined for that purpose, & to be celebrated onelye of sainctes or holy men. Yet it maye séeme that 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 is deriued of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, & 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, as 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 & 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, yt the Etymon thereof with the Gréeks, maye be of no more force than Testa∣mentum amonge the Latines, which is a wittnesse bearing of the minde. Althoughe I am not ignoraunt what some also do reason in this case. Sa∣cramentes therefore are called myste∣ries, because in a darcke speach they hide other thinges which are more ho∣ly. And Paule willingly vseth this word in his epistles. And why this word was attributed to ye holy signes of ye christian church, there is a plaine reason. For these thinges are onely knowen to the faithfull, and are hidd from those that are prophane and vn∣holie. And surely the preaching of the Gospel it selfe is called The mysterie of the kingdome of God, to teach vs, * that the vncleane being shutt out, it is reuealed to the onely children of God. * For our chiefe interpretour of myste∣ries, sayth: Cast not your pearles be∣fore swine, neither giue that which is*holie vnto dogges. And Paule, If our Gospell lie hidd as yet, (sayth he) it is hidd in them which are lost, in whom the God of this world hath blinded the minds of them that beleeue not, 2. Cor. 4. Furthermore many of the Gréeke doctours of the Church, haue * called our sacraments 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Sym∣bola, which word is also receiued and vsed verie often of the Latines. It is deriued of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, (that is to say) Confero, to conferr or compare toge∣ther. For by comparing one thinge wt another, symbols are made apparant and rightly perceiued. Symbolum therefore signifieth a signe, which hath relation to some other thinge, as wée said of the standard, &c. And truely a∣monge the Grecians in old time the vse of symbols or signes was diuers, for in their sacrifices they had their symbols, signes (I say) Allegorically meaning something, as in the sacrifi∣ces of Bacchus, a siue was their sym∣bole or signe, & the same they carried about when they were well tippled: thereby signifying y such as be dron∣ken are blabbes, and can kéep nothing in secret. What if I can proue that o∣pinions of men cōteyning somewhat of déepe vnderstanding by an allego∣rie or dark speach are called symbols? For Pythagoras his symbols are wel enough knowen. So mysticall diuini∣tie began to be called symbolicall bée∣cause it was inwrapped in more hidd and secrete mysteries. So that is my∣stical which is darkely vttered, and in maner of a riddle, hauing in it a farre contrarie meaning than by wordes it séemeth to offer. Againe, the gift and token of faith & trueth whiche by mu∣tual consent passeth betwéene ye bride and the bridegrome, wherby it is not lawefull for them to shrincke or goe backe from their word, promise, or co∣uenaunt, is called a symbole. Fur∣thermore to souldiers also seruing vn∣der one and the same banner, symbols or badges were giuen. Vnto certeine confederate cities in like maner, and ioyned together in league of friend∣ship, to the end that they might go safe¦ly to the bordering cities, & to those which toke parts with them, symbols or mutuall signes were giuen, that is to say, tokens, whiche being shewed & séene, they gaue eche other gentle and curteous interteinement, as to their league-fellowes, companions and singular friends. The auncient wri∣ters therfore herevppon haue applied this word symbol to our sacraments, Page  962 bycause they represente and shewe vnto vs the excéeding great and déepe mysteries of good: they are Allegorical & Aenigmatical, hard & dark to vnder¦stand, bycause the Lord him selfe by ye institution of his Sacraments, hath bounde him selfe vnto vs, and we a∣gaine by the partaking of them, doe binde our selues to him, and to all the Saints, testifying and openly profes∣sing to fighte stoutly and valiauntly vnder the Lordes banner. Moreouer these holy symbols or signes, doe ad∣monishe and put vs in mynde of bro∣therly loue and concord, and that we remēber to loue thē most entirely & wt al our hart, as Gods children & our brethren, which are cōmunicants or partakers with vs of the same table, and are washed cleane by the same baptisme. Thus much concerning sa∣craments, what they are, by what names they are called, and why they are so called, let it be sufficient that we haue briefly noted.

Setting aside all other thinges, it séemeth necessarie firste of all to de∣clare * and shewe who was the author of the sacraments, and for what cau∣ses they were instituted. All men in a manner confesse that God alone is the authour of sacraments, and not men, nor yet the Church it selfe. An odde man there is among the schole∣men, which teacheth the Churche this lesson, to wit, that she should remem∣ber she is no Ladie or mistresse ouer the sacraments, but a seruant or mi∣nister, and that she hath no more po∣wer or authoritie to institute anye fourme of a sacrament, than she hath to abrogate any law of god. Aquinas also Part. 3. quaest. 46. ariculo. 2. saith, He instituteth or is the authour of a thing, which giueth it force and ver∣tue: but the vertue and power of the sacraments commeth from God a∣lone, therefore God alone is of po∣wer to institute or make sacraments. And in déede God alone is of power to institute the true seruice and wor∣ship: but sacraments belong to his seruice and worship, therefore God a∣lone doth institute sacraments. If a∣ny * one in the olde testament had offe∣red sacrifice whiche God commaun∣ded not, or offered it not after that manner that God willed it to be of∣fered, it was not only nothing auail∣able vnto him, but also his offence in so doing was rewarded with moste terrible and fearefull punishment. Who knoweth not that the sonnes of Aaron, for offering strange fire, were * horribly burnt and scortcht vp with fire which fell downe from heauen? Suche sacrifices therefore displease God, as prophane or vnholy, neyther deserue they to be called lawfull sa∣craments, whiche haue not God him selfe for their authour. Herevnto is added, that sacraments are testimo∣nies, and as it were seales of Gods good will and fauour toward vs. And who I pray you can better, more vp∣rightly, or more assuredly beare wit∣nesse of Gods good will to vs-warde, than God him selfe? In no wise de∣serueth that to be called or counted the seale of God, whereto he neyther set his hand, nor printed it with his owne marke, yea, it is a counterfet seale, bycause it cōmeth not frō God, and yet in the meane time beareth a shew outwardly of the name of god. In this behalfe is reade that saying of S. Augustine, whiche is in euerie mans mouth, The worde is added to the element, and there is made a sa∣crament. Whereby we gather, that in the institution of sacraments, the worde of God obteyneth principall Page  963 place, and hath most adoe. The word I say of God, not the worde of men, nor yet of the Church: Wherevpon it followeth, that the signe ought to haue his procéeding euen from God him selfe, and not from any manner of mē, be they neuer so many, be they neuer so clearklike or lerned, be they neuer so harmlesse and holy of life: of that nowe there can be no other au∣thour of Sacraments than God him selfe alone.

As we doe receiue the worde of * saluation and grace: so it is néedefull also that we receiue the signes of grace. Although the worde of God be preached vnto vs by men, yet we re∣ceiue it not as the worde of man, but as the worde of God, according to that saying of the Apostle, When ye had receiued the worde of God whi∣che ye hearde of vs, ye receyued it not as the worde of men (but as it is*in deede) the woorde of GOD. It is behoneful for vs, to haue respect to the first authour thereof, who when he sent abroade his disciples, sayde, Goe into the whole worlde, and preache the Gospell to all creatures,*teaching them to obserue what so e∣uer I haue commaunded you, and baptising them in the name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the holie Ghoste. He that heareth you, heareth mee, and he which despiseth*you, despiseth me. And therefore al∣beit by the handes of men the Sacra∣mentes are ministred, yet are they not receyued of the godly and re∣ligious, as procéeding from men, but as it were from the hande of GOD him selfe, the first and principall au∣thour of the same.

To this belongeth the question, which Christe our Lorde asked in the Gospell, saying: The Baptisme of Iohn, was it from heauen, or of men?* Truely Iohn, who did baptise, was a man: but in that he baptised, he baptised according to Gods institu∣tion and ordinaunce: and therefore the baptisme of Iohn was from hea∣uen, though the water (wherewith he baptised) flowed out of the bottome∣lesse depthe into the riuer Iordan, and Iohn him selfe conuersaunt on the earth. To this also notably a∣gréeth that which Paule sayth, That*whiche I deliuered vnto you, I re∣ceyued of the Lorde. Therefore although Sainte Paule were a man, yea, and a sinner too, yet that whiche he deliuered to the Churche, he did not deliuer it as from him selfe, or as any inuention of man, but as Christ had deliuered the same, so that it is not his, or mans, but Christes tradition, a diuine and heauenly tra∣dition. Besides this, oure highe Prieste and euerlasting Byshoppe woorketh, euen at this daye, in his Churche, whose ministerie they exe∣cute, that is, at whose commaunde∣ment they baptise, and according to whose institution, they which are the stewardes or disposers of the myste∣ries of GOD, minister the holie Sa∣cramentes of the Lordes Supper. The institution therefore of the Sa∣cramentes must be acknowledged of vs, to be the verie worke of GOD. And thus farre touching the authour of Sacramentes.

Peter Lombard in his sentences * reckoneth vp thrée causes why Sa∣cramentes were instituted, that is to say, why spirituall and heauenly thinges were deliuered and com∣mitted vnto vs vnder visible signes, fourmes and ceremonies: the first of Page  964 whiche is so colde and weake, that I am loathe to moue it to memorie. He placeth merite in that that by Gods gouernement and direction (as he affirmeth) man séeketh saluation in thinges baser and inferioure to him selfe. Vnto the whiche he ad∣deth this afterward, Although not in them, yet in GOD through them he séeketh saluation: which also vnadui∣sedly enoughe he hath vttered, and not sufficiently considered. The o∣ther two causes, to wit, that Sacra∣mentes were inuented and ordeined vnder visible signes for oure instruc∣tion and exercise, séeme not altoge∣ther absurde or disagréeing from rea∣son.

The truest and most proper cause why Sacramentes be instituted vn∣der visible signes, séemeth partly to be Gods goodnesse, and partly also mans weakenesse. For verie hard∣ly doe we reache vnto the knowledge of heauenly thinges, if without any visible ourme, as they bee in their owne nature pure and excellent, they be layde before oure eyes: but they are better and more easily vnder∣stoode, if they be represented vnto vs vnder the figure of earthly thinges, that is to say, vnder signes familiar∣ly knowne vnto vs. As therefore our bountifull and gratious Lorde did couertly and darkely, nay rather eui∣dently and notably, set before vs to viewe the kingdome of GOD in pa∣rables or darke speaches: euen so by signes it pleased him to lay before our eies after a sort, the very same thing, and to pointe out the same vnto vs as it were painted in a table, to re∣nue it a freshe, and by liuely repre∣sentation to mainteine the remem∣braunce of the same among vs. This cause doth Iohn Chrysostome allowe as a chiefe and proper cause, who in his eightie and thrée Homilie vppon Matthewe, sayeth: The Lorde hath*deliuered vnto vs nothing that is sensible. The thinges in deede are sensible, howbeit they haue altoge∣ther a spirituall vnderstanding or meaning. So Baptisme is ministred vnder a sensible element, namely wa∣ter, but that which is wrought there∣by, that is to say, regeneration and*the newe byrth, doth spiritually en∣ter into the mynde. For if thou wert a bodilesse creature, hee would haue deliuered vnto thee all these giftes, bare, naked, and bodilesse, according to thy nature: but since thou hast a re¦sonable soule coupled and ioyned to thy body, therefore hath he deliuered vnto thee in sensible signes & substā∣ces, those things which are perceyued with a spiritual vnderstāding. Which I doe not alledge to this end, as if I woulde take the testimonie of man for my stay, but bicause I sée S. Iohn Chrysostome his speache according to the manner obserued and vsed in the Scripture. For who knoweth not that the Scripture is full of pa∣rables, similitudes, allegories, and fi∣guratiue speaches, whiche the holie Ghoste vseth, not for his owne, but for oure sakes? The talke whiche Christe had in the Gospell with Ni∣codemus, touching heauenly regene∣ration, is verie well knowne, where he by hidden and couert kynd of spea∣ches, of ayre, winde, and water, &c. reasoneth, saying: If I haue told you*of earthly things, and ye beleeue not, howe will you beleeue if I shall tell you of heauenly thinges. He calleth Earthly things, yt his doctrine of hea∣uēly regeneration or new birth, figu∣red to vs vnder earthly signes of wa∣ter & the spirit, or of aire & the winde. Page  965 And by heauenly things, he meaneth that selfe same doctrine of heauenly regeneration, nakedly deliuered to Nicodemus, without any imaginati∣on, without similitude, or sēsible sig∣nes. The Lorde therefore signifieth hereby, that men do more easily con∣ceiue and vnderstand the doctrine of heauenly thinges, when it is shado∣wed out vnder some dark and couert signe of earthly things, then when it is nakedly, & spiritually indéede deli∣uered: that by comparing together of thinges not much vnlike, it may ap∣peare, that the sacraments were for none other cause foūd out or institu∣ted thā for demonstratiō sake, to wit, that the heauenly thinges might be∣come more familiar and plaine vnto vs. In which thing we haue to mark the Analogie, which is a certeine apt∣nesse, proportion, or (as Cicero ter∣meth it) a conuenience or fit agréemēt of things, I say, knowne by their sig∣nes, that if they be sleightly passed o∣uer without this analogie, the reason of a sacrament can not be fully and perfectly vnderstoode: but this ana∣logie being diligently discussed, and obserued to the full, offereth to the beholder without any labor at al the verie 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is to say, the hid∣den and secrete meaning of a sacra∣ment. We will when we come to in∣treat of these things, do what we can to make them manifest by examples.

Whosoeuer therfore shal through∣ly * weigh the institution of sacramēts he can not choose but extol with pray∣ses the excéeding greate goodnesse of the Lorde, who doth not onely open vnto vs miserable men the mysteries of his kingdome, but hath a singular care of mans infirmitie, whereby he framing him selfe to oure capacitie, doth after a sort stutte and stammar with vs, whilest he hauing respect to oure dulnesse & the weakenesse of our wit, doth as it were cloath and couer heauēly mysteries with earthly sym∣bols or signes, thereby most plainely and pithily opening them vnto vs, and laying them before our eyes eui∣dētly to be beheld. In this same insti∣tution * of the sacraments, wee haue cause to extoll and prayse the wise∣dome of God: if so be we take in hand to compare great and small things to∣gether. For this custome is receiued as a lawe throughout the world, that all the wisest men, when they had oc∣casion to speake of high mysteries of wisedome, they did not by words on∣ly, but by signes and words together commende them to their hearers, to the ende that the two most noble sen∣ses in man, to wit, Hearing, and See∣ing, might be both at once vehement∣ly moued, and forceably prouoked to the consideration of the same. The vo∣lumes of heathenish philosophers are ful of examples. What say you to the Iewes, Gods olde & auncient people, did not God him selfe shewe among them verie many such kind of exam∣ples? Againe as in making leagues, or in confirming promises in earnest * and weightie matters, men vse sig∣nes or tokens of truth to winne cre∣dite to their wordes and promises: euen so the Lord doing after the ma∣ner of men, hath added signes of his faithfulnes and truth to his euerlast∣ing couenaunt and promises of life, the sacraments I meane, wherewith he sealeth his promises, and the verie doctrine of his Gospell. Neyther is this rare or straunge vnto him. Men sweare euen by the Lorde him selfe, when they would make other beléeue certeinely, and in no case to mistrust the truth of their promises: yea, it is Page  966 read in the holy Scriptures, that the Lord him selfe tooke an othe & sware by his owne selfe, when hee ment Most aboundantly to shewe to the heires of the promises (as the Apostle sayth) the stablenesse of his counsel.

Moreouer, it was the accustomed manner among them of olde, as they were making their league or coue∣naunt, to take a beast and to diuide him in péeces, and ech of them to passe through and betwéen the péeces so di∣uided, testifying by that ceremonie, that they would yeald them selues so to be diuided, and cut in péeces, if they did not stedfastly stande to that which they promised in their league or co∣uenaunt. After the same manner the Lorde making, or renuing a league * with Abraham, which Moses descri∣beth at large in the 15. of Genesis, he commaundeth him to take an heifer, a she goate, and a ramme, each of thē thrée yeares olde, and to diuide them in the middest, and to lay euery péece one ouer against an other, which whē Abraham had done, the Lord himselfe in the likenesse of a smoaking fornace or firebrand went betwéene the sayd péeces, that thereby Abraham might knowe, that the lande of Chanaan should of a certentie be giuen to him, and to his séede to possesse, and that all things which he had promised in that league shoulde be brought to passe. Since therfore the good and true lord is alwayes like vnto him selfe, & fra∣meth himselfe after the same manner, nowe to his Churche, as we sayde he did then: what wonder or straunge thing is it (I praye you) that he hath left vnto vs also at this day vnder vi∣sible thinges, signes and seales of his grace, and mysteries of the kingdome of God? And hitherto haue we en∣treated of the chiefe causes of Sacra∣ments for the which they were insti∣tuted. Touching the kinde & number * of Sacraments, which hath the nexte place to that which went before, there are diuers opinions among the wri∣ters, specially of later time. For a∣moung the olde and auncient this question as an vndoubted and well knowne perfecte principle, drewe quickly to an end. But he which shal diligently search the Scriptures, shal finde that they of the old Testament had Sacraments after one kynd, and they of the newe Testament Sacra∣ments after an other kind. The Sa∣craments of the people vnder the old Testament, were circumcision and the Paschal lambe, to which were ad∣ded sacrifices, whereof I haue aboun∣dantly spoken in the thirde Decade and the sixt Sermon.

In like manner the Sacraments of the people vnder the newe Testa∣ment, that is to say, of Christians, by the writings of the Apostles, are two in number, Baptisme, & The Supper of the Lorde. But Peter Lombard reckoneth 7. Baptisme, Penance, the supper of the Lorde, Confirmation, Extreme vnction, Orders & Matri∣monie. Him followeth the whole ra∣blement of interpretours, and route of scholemen. But all the auncient doctours of the Church for the moste part do reckon vp two principall sa∣craments, among whome Tertullian in his first & fourth booke Contra Mar¦cionem: and in his booke De coro∣na militis, very plainly maketh men∣tion but of two onely, that is to saye, Baptisme and the Eucharist or sup∣per of the Lorde. And Augustine also Lib. 3. de doctr. Christiana. cap. 9. sayth, The Lorde hath not ouerbur∣thened vs with signes, but the Lorde him selfe and the doctrine of thePage  967Apostles haue left vnto vs certeine fewe thinges in steade of many, and those most easie to be done, most re∣uerend to be vnderstoode, most pure to be obserued, as is baptisme, and the celebration of the body and bloude of the Lord. And againe to Ianua∣rius Epist. 118. he sayth: He hath knit and tyed together the fellowship of a newe people, with sacramentes in number verie fewe, in obseruing ve∣rie easie, in signification verie excel∣lent: as is baptisme consecrated in the name of the Trinitie, and the parta∣king of Christs body and bloud, and whatsoeuer thing else is commended vnto vs in the canonicall scriptures, excepte those thinges wherewith the seruitude of the olde people was bur¦dened, according to the agreeablnes of their heartes, and the time of the prophets. Which are read in the fiue books of Moses. Where, by ye way, is to be marked that he sayth not, And whatsoeuer things else are commen∣ded vnto vs in the canonicall scrip∣tures: but, And what so euer thing else, &c. which plainely proueth that he speaketh not of Sacramentes, but of certeine obseruations bothe vsed and receyued of the Churche, as the wordes of Augustine whiche folowe do declare. Howbeit I confesse with∣out dissimulation that the same Au∣gustine elsewhere maketh mention of the Sacrament of Orders: where neuerthelesse this séemeth vnto me to be also considered, that the selfe same authour giueth the name of Sacra∣mentes to Annoynting, and to Pro∣phecie, and to Prayer, and to certeine other of this sorte, as well as he dothe to Orders: and now and then among them he reckoneth vppe the Sacra∣mentes of the Scripture, so that we may easily sée that in his workes the worde Sacrament is nowe vsed one way and sometimes an other. For he calleth these Sacraments, bicause being holie, they came from the holie Ghoste, and bycause they be holie in∣stitutions of God obserued of all that be holie: but yet so, that these differ from those Sacramentes whiche are holie actions consisting of wordes and ceremonies, and whiche gather together into one fellowshippe the partakers thereof. But Rabanus Maurus also Byshoppe of Mentze a diligent reader of Augustins works, Lib. 1. de Instit. cleric. cap. 24. sayth: Baptisme and vnction, and the body and bloude are Sacramentes, whiche for this reason are called Sacraments, bycause vnder a couert of corporall thinges, the power of GOD woor∣keth more secretely oure saluation signified by those Sacramentes: wherevppon also for their secrete and holie vertues, they are called Sacramentes. This Rabanus Mau∣rus was famous about the yeare of the Lorde eight hundreth and thirtie, so that euen by this we may gather that the auncient Apostolique Chur∣che hadde no more than two Sacra∣mentes.

I make no mention here of Am∣brose, although he in his bookes of sa∣cramentes, numbereth not so many as the companie of scholemen doe, bycause some of those workes sette foorthe in his name are not receyued of all learned men, as of his owne doing: so I little force the authoritie of the workes of Dionysius, whiche of what price and estimation they be among learned and good men, it is not needefull to declare. But howe so euer the case standeth, the holye Page  968 Scripture the onely and infallible rule of life, and of all thinges whiche are to be done in the Churche, com∣mendeth baptisme and the Lordes Supper vnto vs, as solemne insti∣tutions and Sacramentes of Christ. Those two are therefore sufficient for vs, so that we néede not be mo∣ued what so euer at anye time the subtile inuention of mans busie brayne bring against, or beside these twaine. For why? GOD neuer gaue power to any to institute Sa∣cramentes. In the means while, * wee doe not contemne the whole∣some rites and healthfull instituti∣ons of GOD, nor yet the religious obseruations of the Church of Christ. We haue declared elswhere touching Penaunce, and Ecclesiasticall Or∣der. Of the residue, whiche latter writers doe authorize for Sacra▪∣mentes, we will speake in their con∣uenient place. So haue we also elsewhere, so farre foorthe as we tho∣ught requisite, entreated of the like∣nesse and difference of Sacramentes of the people of the olde and newe te∣stament.

Nowe let vs sée in what thinges Sacramentes consiste. By the te∣stimonie of the Scripture, and of all the godly men, they consiste in two thinges, to witte, in the signe, and the thing signified, in the worde and the rite, in the promise of the Gospell and in the ceremonie, in the out∣warde thing and the inwarde, in the earthly thing (I saye) and the hea∣uenly. And (as Irenaeus the Mar∣tyr of Christe witnesseth) in the visi∣ble thing and inuisible, in the sensi∣ble thing and the intelligible. *

For heerevnto belongeth that whiche Sainte Iohn Chrysostome vppon Matthewe sayth: 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: CHRIST deliuereth no∣thing vnto vs that is sensible, but vnder visible thinges, the outwarde thinges are sensible, but yet all spi∣rituall. But hee calleth those thin∣ges, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 sensible, whiche are per∣ceyued by the outwarde senses, as by séeing, hearing, tasting and tou∣ching, but those thinges he calleth 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, intelligible or mentall, whiche are perceyued by the mynde, the vn∣derstanding, consideration, discourse or reasoning of the mynde, not of the fleshe, but of fayth.

By the testimonie of the Scrip∣tures, this thing shall bée made ma∣nifest.. * The Lorde sayeth to his disciples in the Gospell, Goe into the whole worlde and preache the Gospell to all creatures, and he whi∣che shall beleeue and bee baptised, shall be saued. Yee shall baptise in*the name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the holie Ghoste. The same sayeth of Iohn Baptiste, Iohn baptised in the wildernesse, preaching the baptisme of repen∣taunce for the remission of sinnes. So also Sainte Luke witnesseth, that Sainte Peter sayde to the Is∣raelites: Repent yee and bee bap∣tised euerie one of you in the name*of IESVS CHRISTE for the remission of sinnes, and yee shall re∣ceiue the gifte of the holie Ghoste.

Therefore in baptisme, water, or sprinckling of water in the name of ye Father, and of the Sonne, and of the holie Ghost, and al that which is done of ye church is a signe, rite, ceremonie, & outwarde thing, earthly & sensible, lying opē, & made plaine to ye senses: Page  969 but remission of sinnes, partaking of (euerlasting) life, fellowshippe with Christ and his members, and gifts of the holy ghoste, which are giuen vnto vs by ye grace of God through fayth in Christ Iesus, is the thing signified, the inward and heauenly thing, and that intelligible thing, whiche is not per∣ceiued but by a faythfull mynde. Af∣ter the same manner the Scripture bearing witnesse also of the Supper of the Lord, which is the other sacra∣ment of the Church, sayth: The Lord Iesus when hee had taken breade, hee*gaue thankes and brake it, and gaue it to his disciples, and sayde, take ye, eate ye, this is my body whiche is gi∣uen for you. Likewise he tooke the cuppe and gaue it to them, saying, drinke ye all of this, for this is my bloud of the newe Testament which is shed for many for the remission of sinnes, doe this in remembraunce of me. Nowe therefore all that action which is done of the Church after the example of Christ our high Prieste, I meane, breaking of bread, the distri∣bution thereof, yea, and the banquet or receyuing of breade and wine, is the signe, rite, ceremonie, and the out¦warde or earthly thing, and also that selfe same sensible thing which lyeth open before the senses: but the intel∣ligible thing & thing signified, the in∣ward and heauenly thing is the verie body of Christ giuen for vs, and his bloud shed for the remission of sinnes, and oure redemption and fellowship which we haue with Christe and all the Saintes, yea, whiche he chiefly hath with vs.

By these things it shall be easie to determine certeinely of the names * or termes nowe giuen to the sacra∣mēts. For they are called external or outward signes, bicause they are cor∣porall or bodily, entring outwardly into those senses, whereby they be perceyued. Contrariwise we call the thing signified, inwarde thinges, not that the thinges lye hidde included in the signes, but bycause they are per∣ceiued by the inwarde faculties, or motions of the mynde, wrought in mē by the spirit of God. So also those * signes are termed both earthly and visible, bycause they consist of thinges taken from the earth, that is to wit, of water, breade, and wine: and by∣cause they are manifestly séene in these likenesses. To be short, the thin∣ges signified are called heauenly, and inuisible, bycause the frute of them is heauenly, & bicause they are discerned with the eyes of the mynd, or of faith, not of the body. For otherwise ye same body and bloude of our Lorde Iesus Christ which in the supper are repre∣sented to the faythfull by the fourme of breade and wine, are not of their owne proper nature heauenly, or in∣uisible. For the body of our Lord, tou∣ching his substaunce and nature, is consubstantiall, or of the same sub∣staunce that our bodyes are of? Now the same is called heauenly, for his deliueraunce from corruption and infirmitie, or else bycause it is clarifi∣ed, not by reason of the bringing to nought or laying aside of his owne nature. The same body of his owne nature, is visible, not inuisible, resi∣dent in heauen: howbeit it is séene of the godly celebrating the supper, not with the eyes of the body, but with the eyes of the mynde or soule, there∣fore in respect of vs it is called inui∣sible, which of it selfe is not inuisible. Now the worde in the sacraments is * called, and is indéede, a witnessing of Gods will, and a remembraunce and renuing of the benefits and promises Page  970 of God, yea and it is the institution and commaundement of God, which sheweth the author of the sacrament, with the manner & ende of the same. For the word in baptisme, is the ve∣rie same that euen now we haue re∣cited. Goe ye into all the worlde &c. In the supper of the Lord this is the word of God, Iesus tooke breade &c. And the rite, custome, and manner, howe to celebrate the supper, is to be sought out of the example of the lord, going before in ye holy action, where∣in we comprehend bothe prayers and those things which are recited out of the worde of Christ. For as he brake breade and diuided it, and in like ma∣ner the cuppe, so likewise with holy imitation, and sacramentall rite, we follow the same in this holy action. As he gaue thankes, so also wee doe giue thankes: wee by certeine prayers in baptisme doe request the assistaunce and grace of the Lorde, we recite certeine places out of the gospell, which we know to be requi∣site in the administration of baptis∣me, and we are woont to doe the same also in the celebration of the Lordes supper. But it is not my intent at this presente, to speake largely and exactly of ye rites of the Sacrament, which notwithstanding we holde to bee beste, that are taken out of the holie scripture, and doe not excéede, of whiche shall be spoken in theire place.

Some in stead of the word, doe put * promise, and in stead of rite, ceremo∣nie. And truely in the word ceremo∣nie, I sée no daunger at all, if by ce∣remonie be vnderstood the outwarde comelines and rite, which the Lorde him selfe hath commended to vs by his example, and left to be vsed in the celebration.

And in verie deede Sacramentall signes are not simple or bare signes, but ceremonies or religious actions: so also there séemeth to bee no daun∣ger in the worde promise: so that by promise, wee vnderstand the prea∣ching of the gospel, & the commemor∣ation or remembrance of Gods pro∣mises which we often vse in the pre∣ching of the gospell and celebration of the sacraments, that is to say, that God doeth receiue vs into his fel∣lowship, for Christe his sake, through faith, doeth wash away our sinnes, endeweth vs with diuerse graces, that Christe was giuen for our sin∣nes, shed his bloud to take away the sinnes of all faithfull. For in celebra∣ting of Baptisme, we vse these wor∣des of the Lord, Suffer little children to come vnto mee, for vnto such be∣longeth the kingdome of heauen &c. In the celebration of the banquet of Gods holie children, we vse these ho∣lie wordes of our Lord: And after supper Iesus tooe bread, and after he had giuen thanks he brake it & gaue it to them saying, take ye, eate ye: this is my bodie whiche is giuen for you. This is my bloud which is shed for you for the remission of sinnes, this do in the remembrance of me &c.

For those remembrances and re∣hersalls, are promisses of the Gos∣pel, promising forgiuenesse of sinnes to the beléeuers, shewing that the Lords bodie is giuen for them, and his bloud shed for them, whiche faith verilie, is the onely and vndoubted meane to obteine life and saluation, Christe is the strength and substance of the Sacramentes, by whome one∣lie they are effectuall, and without whome they are of no power, vertue or effecte. But if any man by promise doe vnderstand couenaunt, whereby Page  971 the Lorde doeth singularly binde or as you would say tye him selfe to the signes, in which, or with whiche he would be present bodily, essentially, and really, therein hee saith more than hee can shewe or proue by the Scriptures. For in no place hath Christe promised to be present cor∣porally, that is, with his true bodie, in the signes or with the signes: other wise I am not ignoraunt how God appeared sometimes to our fathers vnder a bodily figure, that is, in some visible forme or shape, as when he shewed him selfe to Iacob whiche was named Israel leaning on a lad∣der, and to Moses in the hole of a rock as it were in a glasse. But these do not properly perteine to this pur∣pose where we entreate of the corpo∣rall presence of Christe, and of the sa∣cramentall signes. But because ma∣ny wrest these wordes of the Lord, This is my body, This is my bloud, to proue a corporall presence of the Lordes bodye in the Supper, I aun∣swere that those wordes of the Lord are not roughly to be expounded ac∣cording to the letter, as though bread and wine were the bodie and bloude of Christe substantially and corpo∣rally, but mystically and sacramen∣tally: so that the bodie and bloud of Christ, doe abide in their substance & nature, & in their place, I meane, in some certeine place of Heauen, but the bread and wine are a signe or sa∣crament, a witnesse or sealing, and a liuely memorie of his bodie giuen, and his bloud shedd for vs, but of this thing in place conuenient, we wil in∣treate more at large. By these thin∣ges whiche we haue spoken of, it ap∣peareth sufficiently, howe Sacra∣ments consist of two things, the signe and the thinge signified, of the worde of God and the rite or holie Ceremo∣nie.

There are some notwithstan∣ding, whiche thincke there is suche force graffed of God into the words, that if they bee pronounced ouer the signes, they sanctifie, chaunge, and in a manner bring with them, or make presente the thinges signified, and plante or include them within the signes, or at the leaste ioyne them with the signes. For here-vppon are these kinde of spéeches hearde, That the water of Baptisme by the ver∣tue of the wordes doeth regenerate, and that by the efficacie of the wor∣des, the breade it selfe and the wine in the Supper are made the natu∣rall fleshe and bloud of the Lorde.

But the Sacramentes of Christe and his Churche doe consiste of the * worde and the signe. But it séemeth that we must diligentlie searche out what muste be vnderstoods by The worde. I saide euen now that▪ The worde in the Sacramentes was a witnesse-bearing of Gods will and the commaundement of God it selfe, or institution of God, whiche decla∣reth vnto vs the author, manner, and end of a Sacrament.

By this word (I say) and Com∣maundement of GOD, by this will and institution of God, the Sacra∣mentes are sanctified, not that the wordes are so pronounced of the mi∣nisters, as they ar read afore to be re∣cited of the Lord him selfe, or deliue∣red by his Apostles▪ but because God so would, so did, and commaunded his Apostles to doe. For whatsoe∣uer GOD doeth or commaundeth to doe, is sanctified by the very com∣maundement or déede of God. For all thinges which hee hath done are excéeding good, therefore these things Page  972 which he commaundeth to doe, can∣not choose but be holie, because he is holie, and the onelie sanctifier.

Wherefore by the nature, will, déede, and commaundement of God, and not by the pronuntiation of any wordes are the Sacramentes sancti∣fied. To which wil of GOD, that it may bee applyed vnto man and doe him good, the faithfull obedience of men is necessarily required, whiche altogether should make vs putt our trust and confidence in the mercie and power of God, who in no wise should despise or cast behinde vs the institution of God, although it séeme in outwarde appearaunce base and contemptible. This will appeare * more plainlie in the example of Na∣aman, the captaine of the King of Sy∣ria his bande▪ He heard of the Pro∣phet vndoubtedly at the Lords com∣maundement, that he should washe him selfe seuen times in Iordane. For so it should come to passe that he should bee cleansed from his Lepro∣sye.

Héere thou doest heare the worde, the will, (I say) and commaunde∣ment of God, but thou dost not heare that any wordes were rehearsed ei∣ther ouer Iordane or ouer Naaman, or that any words were prescribed of the prophet to Naamā that he should repeate, wherby (forsooth) there might be any force of purifying or clensing giuen to the water. Naaman by faith obeyeth the commandement of God, and is clensed frō his leprosie, not by his owne merit, or by the benefite of the water of Iordane, but by the power of GOD and faithfull obe∣dience.

Lepres also in the Gospel, and that not a fewe, are clensed by the power * and will of Christ, and through faith, and not by pronouncing or spea∣king of words. The Lorde indéede said, I will, be thou cleane: but if any man at this day shoulde haue recited the same wordes a hundred times ouer any Lepre, he should haue pre∣uailed nothing. Whereby it is manifest, that to words there is no force giuen of working health, if they be pronounced

The Apostles indéede saide to the sick, féeble, and lame, In the name of*the Lorde Iesus, arise and walke, and they rose vpp and were healed, but they were not healed by the benefite of the words, but by the name, by the power (I meane) and vertue of Christe.

For Peter whiche saide vnto the lame man in Hierusalem, In the name of Iesus Christe of Nazareth, a∣rise*and walke, saide in the middes of the counsell of Hierusalem, If wee this day bee examined of the deede done to the sick-man, by what meanes he is made whole: be it knowen vn∣to you all, that in the name of Iesus Christe of Nazareth, this man stan∣deth heere whole. And to the same people hee sayeth, And his name, through faith in his name, hath made this man sounde, whome yee see and knowe, and the faith which is by him hath giuen to this man health. Beside these, we read in the Actes of the A∣postles, * that y sonnes of one Scaeua a priest, being exorcists or cōiurers, did call on the name of the Lord Iesus o∣uer thē that had euil spirits, but these were so farr off from giuing place to their exorcismes and coniuringes, that they ranne on them and ouer∣came them, so that they had muche a doe to escape aliue. Where it is moste apparaunt, that those Exor∣cistes vsed the same forme almoste in Page  973 their inchantmentes, whiche the A∣postle vsed (for in the name of the Lord Iesus they proued to caste out the foule spirit.) But sith these were not able so to do, who cannot sèe and perceiue, that the words pronounced doe preuaile nothing at all. Neither is that any let or hinderaunce at all, that those Exorcistes were without faith. For this is a thinge very well knowen and receiued of all men, that Sacramentes are no lesse effectuall when they are ministred by wicked ministers, then when they are mini∣stred by the best ministers.

But héere is obiected againste vs this saying of the Apostle, Christe*gaue him selfe for the church to sanc∣tifie it, cleansing it in the founteine of water by the word, or in the word. Beholde (say they) men are clean∣sed by the water of Baptisme, which by the word hath the force of sanctify∣ing put into it: therfore it must néeds be, that words haue force to sanctifie. But I wil confute them by an eui∣dent demonstration, that the Apostle did not so meane as they suppose.

The Apostle prescribeth vnto mar∣ried Christians their dutie: to the more plaine and pithyer settinge foorth whereof, he vseth the example of Christe and his Church, commen∣ding that excéedinge loue whiche Christe beareth toward his Church, wherewith béeing inflamed he gaue him selfe for it, to this end to make it to him selfe a pure and glorious spouse, where, by the way, hée set∣teth downe the manner of purge∣ing.

For the Lord Iesus him selfe say∣eth, hée hath cleansed it. For it is on∣lye Christes office to purge and cleanse. Now the manner of purge∣ing followeth: In the founteine of water by the worde▪ which because it is briefly spoken, hath in it some obscuritie.

He maketh mention of two thin∣ges which the Lord vseth to cleanse those that bée his, The founteine of water, And, The worde. The Foun∣teine of water, is Baptisme, whiche is the outwarde action and witnesse-bearing of the inwarde purifying or cleansing, wrought by the grace and spirite of GOD, as the Apostle sayeth: According to his mercie*hee saued vs by the founteine of re∣generation, and renewing of the holie Ghoste, which hee shed vpon vs richlie throughe Iesus Christe our Sauiour. For hee addeth, in way of interpretation, And renewing of the holie Ghoste, whereof the foun∣teine of water is a signe.

Moreouer, the Worde is the ve∣rie preaching of the Gospell, tes∣tifying that by the grace and mer∣cie of (God) the Father, his one∣lye Sonne was giuen vnto vs, who béeinge giuen for our sinnes, ma∣keth them that beléeue in him hey∣ers of eternall life: so that now these wordes of Paule to the Ephesians the 5. Chapter, doe verie well agrée with this Commaundement of the Lorde mentioned in Sainct Marke, Goe into all the whole worlde and preache the Gospell to all creatures, hee whiche shall beleeue and be bap∣tised shall be saued. &c.

For by these words also the Lord shadoweth out vnto vs the manner and meanes of our saluation, that it is hee onelie whiche purgeth vs by faithe: yet in the meane while hee willeth the beléeuers to bee signed with Baptisme, and that it shoulde be preached openlye in the worlde, Page  974 that it is he which pardoneth sinnes, yea and which freely giueth euerla∣sting life. But, what doe all these thinges (I pray you) make for their purpose, who wil proue by those wor∣des of Paule, that there is force and vertue in the words to sanctifie bap∣tisme? These wordes of the lord spo∣ken to his Apostles, do yet make our matter more manifest. Now are ye cleane, saith he, through the worde*which I haue spoken vnto you. Shall we say here that through the wordes which Christ rehearsed, the disciples of Christ were made cleane? what then néeded he the nexte day to haue bene crucified & to haue died? What, to the ende that he might purchase power vnto the wordes? Therefore all boastinge in the force of wordes shal be cleane taken away. Doth not faith and godlunesse tell vs, By the worde of the Lorde, we should rather vnderstande this, which is declared by the preaching of the Lorde, that is, the death and redemption of Christ, wherby, because they beleued it they are clensed. For in an other place he saith, purifying their hearts by faith. Wherefore they erre in that, because they doe not rightly iudge of ye word or speach. For the Lorde speaketh of the word preached and beléeued, and they vnderstande him of the worde pronounced, as though béeinge pro∣nounced, it had force from the Lorde to sanctifie. S. Augustine also ma∣keth for vs, who in his 80. treatise v∣pon Iohn, saith, From whence com∣meth so great vertue and power vnto the water, that it should touch the bo∣die and wash the heart, but through the woorking of the worde, not be∣cause it is spoken or pronounced, but because it is beleeued? For in the word it selfe, the sounde passing away is one thing and the vertue which remaineth is an other thinge. This is the worde of faith which wee preach, saieth the Apostle, because if thou shalt confesse with thy mouth, that Iesus is the lord, and beleeue with thy heart that God hath raised him from the deade, thou shalt be saued. For with the hart, man*beleeueth vnto righteousnesse, and with the mouth confession is made vnto saluation. Whereupon we reade in the Actes of the Apostles, purify∣ing*(or cleasing) their heates by faith. And S. Peter in his Epistle saith: So also Baptisme saueth vs, not the put∣ting away of the filth of the flesh, but in that a good conscience maketh re∣quest to God. This is the worde of faith which we preach, wherwith vn∣doubtedly baptisme is also consecra∣ted, that it may haue power to clense. For Christ with vs the Vine, with his father the Husbandman, hath loued his church, and gaue him selfe for it. Reade the Apostle, and marke what he addeth, saying: That he might san∣ctifie it, cleansing it by the founteine of water in the worde. In vaine there∣fore should cleansing be attributed to a fraile and vading element, vnlesse this were added. In the word. And so forth. For thus farre I haue reci∣ted S. Augustines wordes: not that I stay my selfe vpon mans testimo∣nie, or that I would haue any man to vrge the same, or that I am content to be ruled by the witnesse of man, but because in these wordes he hath gathered together some testimonies out of the scripture, bearing witnesse of the worde. Whereby we may vnderstande, that the worde of faith preached, and not the worde spoken or pronounced ought to be receiued. This worde I say doth truly clense, that is to say, the grace of Christ only Page  975 doth purifie, to the which both the worde & faith are directed, & for yt cause he saide xpresly, Not because it is spoken, but be∣ause it is beleeued. Anon after he saith, The word of faith which we preach. Fur¦hermore he saith, by ye word of faith bap¦isme is cōsecrated yt it might haue pow∣r to clense. Which what is it else thē if e had said, the very substāce of faith ma∣kth baptisme effectual. For it followeth, For clensing in vain should be attributed to the vading & corruptible element, vn∣les were added, In the word. Now if a mā o consider the mysteries of the saints or * holy men in old time, he shal not finde in he celebration of Circumcisiō, the feast of the Passeouer, & sacrifices, any words to haue ben spoken or pronounced, wher¦by thei were formed & as it were created sacramentes, & were made effectuall. To which belongeth this, that Iohn Baptist did not only baptise the common people without respect of person, but ye Lord Ie∣sus himself also in the water of Iordane: no words in the mean while béeing pro∣nounced, wherby he called & drew down the heauenly grace ouer or vpon the wa∣ter of baptisme. Againe, whiles Christe our high bishop, did institute his supper in the gospell, he cōmaunded nothing to be spokē or pronounced, by vertue of which spéech or pronuntiation, the elementes might either be chaunged, or the things signified béeing drawen down from hea∣uen should be present with, or ioyned to the signes: but what the lord hath simply done, & what his wil was we should doe, after what maner, & to what end he insti¦tuted his supper, ye Euangelists haue de∣clared. We read in no place that ye Lord said, As often as ye speake or pronounce these my wordes, This is my body, this is my bloud, it shall come to passe by ye ver∣tue of my words, that ye substance of the signe shalbe made void, & that in the same prick of time wherin the words are spo∣ken, it shl begin to be the true bodie and the true bloud of the lord, vnder y formes or likenesses of bread & wine, or that the formes or likenesses & the truth of y signe remaining, it shal begin at once with the bread and wine to be the very body and blood of Christ. Wherfore in the pronoū∣cing or speaking of yt words of the lord in the supper, there is no power or vertue, either to cal down the things signified or to change yt things presēt. These imagina¦tions do rather séem more to mainteine superstition than religion. As though the words pronoūced according to the forme conceiued, had power to call down out of heauē, to bring frō one place to another, to restore health, to draw to, to put from or to transforme or change. S. Au. reco∣neth vp amonge superstitions vanities, those things which for remedies of disea∣ses are tyed or fastened about the body, which also physick maketh no account of, whether it be in charmings or in certein signes called characters, or in hanging certeine thinges about some parte of the body. The place is to be séene Cap. 20. Li. De doct. Christ. 2. And Chrysost. béeing ve∣ry angry with them that hang the writē gospel about their neck, hath these words vpon Mat. 23. cha. Wherin consisteth the force or power of the gospel? in the forme and figure of the letters, or in the vnder∣standing of the meaning and sense of the same? If in the forme of letters, thou dost wel to hang it about thy neck: but if in the vnderstanding of the meaning, it is better they were laid vp in thy hart. Thus saith he. But there is the same reason of the fi∣gures, and of the pronuntiatiō of the let∣ters, or words of the gospel. For as the fi∣gure of the letters is of power to doe no∣thing: euen so is there no force or vertue either in the pronuntiation or sounde of words. Plinie an hethenish writer alled∣geth many heathenish examples, wherin he declareth that words are effectual: but yet among other thinges which he brin∣geth Page  976 he hath this. It is a que••io (〈◊〉 he) whether words or inchanting speeches are of any force: but euerye one that is wise is so far from beleeuing it, that e∣uen man by man they vtterly denye it. The place is to be séene Lib. 28. Cap. 2.

But most worthily is the true word of God it self preferred before al these, the which by Moses. Deu 18. with great seueritie forbiddeth and condemneth all kinde of superstitions and inchant∣ments. I knowe what the aduersaries wil here obiect vnto me, namelie that * it is a blessing or consecration, and not a superstition which they vse. Besides this, they bring many examples out of the scripture, set downe in their Cano∣nicall decrées, whereby very foolishly & most vnaptlie doutlesse they go about to proue that by blessing or consecrati∣on (as they say) the natures of ye things are chaunged, whervpon they also ga∣ther that the breade by the wordes of blessing or consecrating, is turned into flesh. Their examples are these and of * this sorte, The water flowing out of ye rock, after it was smittē with Aarons rod, the riuer Nilus turned into bloud, the water at the marriage in Cana of Galile turned into wine, the bitter wa¦ters of Marath chaūged into swéet wa∣ter, & Moses his rod turned into a ser∣pent. But (I beséech you) what make these to ye Lords supper, wherwith they haue no māner of similitude or likenes, so that this must néeds be a very vnapt cōparison & a doltish which they make. The riuer Nilus was turned into blod, therfore the bread is turned into flesh: the water at the mariage in Cana was changed into wine, therefore ye wine in the lords supper is changed into ye blood of Christ. For while yt the water gush∣d out of the rock when it was smittē, while the riuer Nilus was turned into blood, while yt water at ye mariage was chaged into wine, while the bitter wa∣ters of Marath becāe swéet, while Mo∣ses rod was turned into a serpēt: ye wa∣ter truly, the blood, ye wine, ye swéet wa∣ter & the serpēt so turned & chāged, were not vnder y forme or likenesse of 〈◊〉 things which they were before, 〈◊〉 were they at once yt whiche they were before, & that which thei were thē made: but y water of Nilus was very bloud, not water & bloud together, nether was there inuisible bloud vnder the visible forme of water. And so standes the case also in ye other examples, therfore they do nothing agrée with the sacramental signes, but are so farr from béeing like them, that they are altogether vnlike them. Moreouer, who can wel tell by what pronuntiation of wordes Moses made water brust out of the hard rock? turned ye riuer Nilus into bloud? chan∣ged ye bitter waters into swéete? Who knoweth what forme also of wordes ye lord vsed, when he changed water into wine? Therefore very vnfitly do they apply these examples to their blessing or consecration, changing the natures of thinges, since it cannot be shewed what maner blessings y saints or holy men vsed. Likewise we reade not that Moses & Iosue pronoūced any wordes of blessing wherby they diuided ye cha∣nell of the Erithean sea, & the riuer Ior∣dan. Eliseus is read to haue vttered no * words of blessing when he made y are to swim, & reached it out of the water by ye helue. In al these things the pow∣er * of God did worke. But we must not imagine what we list to procede from it. For it is weakenes and not power which is repugnant to iustice, & taketh things in hande which are contrary to gods trueth. But the mighty workes of god are of such sort, that any mā may vnderstande and manifestly see, yt they are such as they are saide to be.

Page  977 The Lorde saide, Let there be light and there was light. Suche a kinde of * light I meane whiche was both cal∣led light and according to the nature of light, gaue light: it was not cal∣led, or made light, whiche was light in déede and yet gaue not lighte: as the Breade is called the bodie of Christe whihe yet hathe not so muche as one iotte of the bodie of Christe.

Furthermore this word blessing in no place in the scriptures is so v∣sed, as * they woldmake vs beleue. To blesse in the Scriptures, is to thank, to praise, to salute, to bid farewel, to speake wel of any, to wish wel, to re∣ioyce, highly to extoll, to giue thanks for a good turne, to increase, to en∣riche, to multiplie, or to make frute∣full. I could if néede were, bring ex∣amples to proue eche of them. But a man shall no where reade, that to blesse, is as much as to turne the na∣tures of things by the words of God, or otherwise by good wordes and prayers, after a set manner pronoū∣ced. We read (say they) in the gos∣pell, that the Lord tooke bread and blessed. Yea and Paule also calleth the Bread and cupp by that name, to wit, The bread and Cupp of blessing, the bread and cup vndoutedly of con∣secration, * by whiche consecration the substance of the signes is miraculou∣sly chaunged. I aunswere, That the words bothe of the Gospel and of the Apostle, are wrongfully wrested to that sense, which neuer came into the mind of the Lord or his apostles. For to declare the meaning of that place in the Gospel: To blesse, is not with the gesture of the hande to make the signe of the crosse, or to lay ones mouth vnto the bread and cup, and in a lowe voice to whisper out the set syllables of the words of con∣secration: but to singe praises to God, or to giue him thankes for his benefites bestowed on vs.

That whiche I haue saide I will confirme by the authoritie of the E∣uangelistes and Apostles. For the Apostles and Euangelistes vse the * worde of blessing or thankesgiuing, indifferently. For where Marke hath 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, (that is to say) Bles∣sing, Mathew, Luke and Paule haue 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, (that is to say) Giuing thankes, which worde Marke also v∣sing a little after writeth, And when he had tooke the cup,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, When he had giuen thankes he gaue to them. To blesse there∣fore is as the Apostles them selues doe interprete it, to giue thankes, since that they put the one for the o∣ther. The diligent Reader may see the same also in yt place of Paule which is 1. Cor. 10, chap. which place we will fullie and wholie entreate of in that whiche followeth. Our ad∣uersaries therefore haue not as yet proued out of the Scriptures, that to blesse is as muche as to chaunge the things, or that by words, pronūtiati∣on, or reciting of words, the thinges them selues signified are brought to, or made present. The aunciente writers truely made mention of a mysticall blessing, but in a farr other sense than these consecrators. Of true consecration wee will speake a∣non, and will confute also in ano∣ther place whatsoeuer thinges they haue brought concerning blessing or consecrating of Baptisme: now wee will make an end of that whiche we began. Words of thē selues were in∣stituted of god to this end, to signifie, and by signifying to beare witnesse, and to admonishe, neither haue they Page  978 beside any hiden force to chaunge the natures of things, or to cause ye thin∣ges them selues to be corporally pre∣sent, neither doe we reade that holie men euer vsed them after this man∣ner: therefore they sinne and de∣ceiue men which otherwise vse them than they were instituted.

Aurel. August. acknowledged the very same thinge, who in his En∣cheiridion*ad Laurent, Capit. 22. saith, And verily words to this purpose are instituted, not that men should de∣ceiue one another by them, but by the whiche one might make another to know his meaning: therefore to vse wordes vnto deceipt, and not to that end, wherunto they were ordeyned, is sinne. The same Aurelius Augusti∣nus gathering a summe of his whole booke intituled De Magistro, asketh this question: But nowe I woulde haue thée tel me what thy opinion is of al this that I haue spokē vnto thée, whiche by and by he answereth: I haue learned beeing admonished by thy wordes, that a man is taught no other thing by words, than to learn, and that it is a verie small matter, that by speeche or talke we knowe partly what he thinketh yt speaketh: but whether the wordes whiche he spake were true, that teacheth he on∣ly who admonished that hée dwelt in the harte when the other spake with the toung. Thus much he, in the last Chapter of his booke De Magistro. To this purpose perteine the words of Solomon the wise in the Booke of the Preacher, saying, The wordes of the wise are like prickes and nayles*that go through of the authors of ga∣theringes, whiche are giuen of one sheepherd. Where we willingly acknowledge, that there is great force in eloquence and prayers of the iust, as the Graecians signified by that Hercules of Gallia, also Cicero verie plentifully hathe declared the same Lib. 1. De Oratore. But that whiche they doe forge and imagine of Pitho, or Suada, or Suadela the Ladie and mistresse of eloquence, that verily do we attribute to the holy ghost, which doth bothe giue grace to the speaker, and prepareth and styrreth vppe the mindes of the hearers. By these thinges it is manifest vnto all men, I thinke, that it is a newe forge∣rie of man, and not a doctrine of O∣racle, to say, that in the celebration of the sacraments, there is such force graffed in the wordes recited, that they turne and chaunge the thinges, or make the thinges signified to bée present, and either put on, or ioyne them with the signes. But wee will shewe hereafter that the signes are not chaunged or mingled with the thinges signified, but that bothe of them do remaine still in their own nature and propertie. It shalbe suf∣ficient if wee attribute that to the wordes whiche the scripture doth at∣tribute, to wit, the office of signifying & admonishing, of mouing and styr∣ring vp, whiche they haue from God. For they do defile and blemishe the wordes of God, whiche decke them with straunge and falsified titles.

We acknowledge in déed that all the * power of almightie God is attribu∣ted to the word of God: but who séeth not that yt is spoken & ment of ye euer lasting sonne of God, wherin yt scrip∣ture is called the word of God? Who is such a dorhead, that cannot rightly distinguish betwéene the euerlasting word of God, which is y sonn of God the second person in ye reuerend Tri∣nitie: & the word rehearsed spoken, or pronounced by man? The euer∣lasting Page  979 word of god remaineth in his owne substance & nature a creator, & not a creature: it is not mingled: it is not graffed or incorporated into mans voice. The word whiche pro∣céedeth from man, is a creature, not a creator, and remaineth still a crea∣ture. For it is a sound which passeth away. Neuerthelesse it is a vertue which (stil) remaineth, if it be sincere and not adulterate, and receiued by faith. For so it preserueth, yet not of his owne proper vertue, or power, or because it is pronounced by man: but through his power or vertue whiche reuealed the word, who is true, and therefore preserueth those thinges which by his worde he promiseth to preserue, so that nowe in déede God himselfe doth preserue, who said yt by his word he wold preserue those yt be∣léeue. The word therfore which God hath reuealed vnto vs by his seruāts the Prophetes, and by his chosen A∣postles, is not, neither is called the word of God, as if the sounde of syl∣lables, wordes, and voices, are of their owne nature the word of God, that very same I meane, which of his substance is the sonne of God: But because the reuelation of the woorde was made frō God in the holy ghoste through the word or wisdome of god. Wherefore although the original be of God, and not of man, yet the words which the prophets and Apostles vt∣tered are mans wordes, neither can they do any thing else but giue signi∣fication, wt the which notwithstāding I wold not haue yt due force of the ex∣ternal word of God to be lifted vp a∣boue that which is méete & comely, & those thinges imputed to the literall worde, which is proper to God. I ac∣knowledge all those thinges whiche with a sound vnderstanding or iudg∣ment are attributed to the word of God. But of this thing I haue else∣where discoursed more at large. But now some wil say, If by reciting the * wordes of God, sacramentes are not sanctified or consecrated, from whēce then haue they this, yt they be, and are called sacraments or holy signes? Is the consecration vaine & of no force? Surely vain & of no force is that cō∣secration which the papists haue feig∣ned. But of consecration or true san∣tification I haue spoken in the begin∣ning of this chapt. which now I will set forth a litle plainer & more aboū∣dantly. The holy scriptures whē they make mention of holy thinges, they vse verie oftē this Hebrue word ** which the Gréeke interpreters com∣monly haue translated by 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 the latines by Sanctifico Consecro and Initio. The vse of this word reacheth verie far. For it signifieth to sanctifie, to offer vnto god, to purifie or clense, and to iustifie, also to seuer or to put a-part and to separate, to separate (I meane) from prophane vse & to dedi∣cate them to holie thinges, to call a thing by some name, to applie & to ap∣point. Therfore we say yt to cōsecrate in this place, is no other thing but to sanctifie, to dedicate to god, & after a fashiō to separate, or of a thing pro∣phane to make an holy thing. But who doeth this? or he which doth it, by what meanes or instrument (I pray you) doth he it? who I beséech you cō∣secrateth, or holieth? is it God? or is it man? Verily God & not man. For God instituting any thing, & testify∣ing & declaring by his word, what he hath instituted & to what ende, of his owne holy iust and good will, by his own only institution (I say) without any other meane, he consecrateth the thing which he himselfe hath already Page  980 instituted. For as he is holy, iust, and good: so whatsoeuer he cōmandeth is holy iust & good. And man vnderstan∣ding by the word of God, yt God hathe instituted any thing to a holy iust & good vse, accepteth, receiueth, and vseth yt institution for holy good & iust. Therfore man doeth not by vttering certein words consecrate & make ho∣ly the institution. And because he be∣léeueth yt all the institutions of God are holy & good, therefore he also cele∣brateth this institution of God, euen as God hathe ordeined, & giueth God thankes, depending altogether vpon God and the rule of his word. Of this manner of sanctification the Apostle speaking in another certein place sai∣eth. Now the spirit speaketh euidētly*that in the latter times there shal rise deceiuers forbidding to marrie & cō∣manding to absteine frō meates, whi∣che God hath created to be receiued with thanksegiuing of them whiche beleue & know the trueth. For euerie creature of God is good, and nothing to bee refused, if it bee receiued with thankesgiuing. For it is sanctified by the word of god & praier. Lo he saith meate is sanctified by the worde of God & prayer. But the word of God is in this place (as Paule the Apostle expoundeth it) a testimony of ye scrip∣ture, & will of God, whereby we are taught yt all things which God hathe made are excéeding good, & yt they are cleane & not vnclean which God hath created for to be eaten, & for our vse. In the Actes S. Peter heareth, Arise Peter, slea, and eate, (for he sawe in a * vision before him al liuing creatures of the earth and the Aire) Peter aun∣swered, Not so Lorde. For I haue ne∣uer eaten any thing that is common or vnclean. Therfore he heard again What God hath clensed that cal thou not common.

But where (I pray you did hee make them cleane? When hee made and gaue them for the vse of man. To the word is annexed prayer, not a charming or an inchantment, but a faithfull thanks giuing. For the A∣postle more then once or twise, ma∣keth mention of thanks giuing, that by the generall word, that is to say, prayer, no other thinge might be vn∣derstoode than the speciall worde, I meane thanks giuing. For prayer is (as a man would say) to inuocation and giuing of thankes, as the roote to the braunches. Therefore saith he, the meate is holy, because GOD who is good hathe made and ap∣pointed the same for the vse of man, and also because it is receiued of man with faith and thankesgiuing. For meate is not holy and good to many men, not through any fault in yt meat which is always the good creature of God, but in thē is the fault which ac∣knowledge not by faith the benefits of God, or which abuse them, & glut thē∣selues contrarie to the worde of thē Lord. Euen so standeth the case with the matter of sanctification, whiche we must also applie to ye sacraments. God of his owne good wil, and for the * commoditie of men ordeined sacra∣ments. He chose vnto him selfe out of his good creatures, water, bread, and wine, and appointing them to some certeine ende, he laide a platfourme and commaunded vs to vse and cele∣brate them: nowe therefore by the commaundement and choice of God, the water bread and wine are con∣secrated, and he signeth them with his word, and declareth that he will haue them counted for sacraments, and sheweth the manner howe hee will haue them celebrated.

Page  981 So that the consecration of Sa∣craments is made through the will, institution, choyce, or commaunde∣ment of God, and seale of his word. Wherfore, water, bread, & wine, vsed after a cōmon maner, or not so as they are chosen and instituted of God, the word of God is as it were slaunde∣red, and they are altogether common & prophane: but being only vsed ac∣cording to ye choyce or cōmandement of God holily, and the worde or signe being added, they begin to be Sacra∣mentes whiche they were not afore. The same substaunce remaineth in them still which they had before. But they are instituted to another ende and vse, for they are sealed with the word and commaundement of God, and therefore are hallowed, where∣vnto may also be added their holy vse, by a true faith setting forth the bene∣fite of our redemption, and giuing of thanks by faithful praiers to our boū∣tiful redéemer. To this purpose we may fetche examples of ciuil gouern∣mēt, wherin some things for certein newe causes adioyned, hauing their substance remaining still, are now made that whiche before they were not. For siluer or golde being not yet coyned with the Magistrates marke is nothing else but siluer and golde. But if by the commandement of the Magistrate a new forme be added by a printe, it is made money, whiche it was not before, althoughe it be the verie same substance whiche it was before. Waxe, before it be sealed, is common and vsuall waxe: but when by the kinges will and commaunde∣ment that which is ingrauen in the kinges seale, is printed in the waxe, and is sette to euidences and letters patentes, by and by it is so estéemed, that who so shall deface the sealed e∣uidence is attached as guiltie of trea∣son.

Whereby I trust you sée plainely, that the true sanctification or conse∣cration of Sacraments doeth consist in the will and institution of God, in a certaine ende and holie vse of the same, whiche are declared vnto vs in the word. Of the whiche peraduen∣ture I haue spoken more at large than some may think néedfull. But the godlie Reader will pardon mée, this my tediousnesse, since my desire is to open all thinges faithfully, dili∣gently, and at large.

Now that I haue defended the lawfull vse of the word, and declared the vertue of it, and opened vnto you as occasion serued, the true sanctifi∣cation or consecration of Sacramen∣tes, I will returne to that where I left: and because I taught that sacra∣ments consist of two parts, the signe and thinge signified, it remaineth to shew that those two parts reteine their natures distinguished, not com∣municating properties, by declarati∣on whereof, bothe to those thinges which go before, and to those whiche followe, yea and to the whole sub∣stance of the sacrament, a wonderful light without doubt shal appéere. But of communicating of the names or termes I will speake in their conue∣nient place. That eche parte retei∣neth * theire natures distinguished, without cōmunicating or mingling of properties, it is to be séne hereby, that many be partakers of the signe, and yet are barred from the thinge signified. But if the natures of the partes were vnited or naturallye knit together, it must néedes be then, that those whiche be partakers of the signes must be partakers also of the thing signified. Examples of Scrip∣ture, Page  982 as they are ready, so are they e∣uident. For Simon Magus in the Actes of the Apostles receiued y signe and was baptised: but of the thing signified he had not, neither receiued so much as one iote. And Iudas Is∣cariot a cruell and faythelesse tray∣tour of his maister, did likewise Eate the bread of the Lord, but he did not eate bread the Lord. Otherwise he had liued happie, iust, & blessed for * euer. For he which eateth me (sai∣eth the Lord himselfe) shal neuer dy: But Iudas died euerlastingly, there∣fore he did not eate that foode of life.

To these euident testimonies of scripture, I will nowe adde also cer∣teine of Saint Augustines pertey∣ning to that purpose, who in his trea∣tise vpon Iohn 26. saith. We receiue this day visible meate: but the Sa∣crament is one thing, and the vertue of the sacrament is another. Howe many doe receiue of the things vpon the altar, and when they haue recei∣ued it doe die? Wherevppon the A∣postle sayth, He eateth and drinketh his owne damnation. Was not the morsel poyson which the Lord gaue vnto Iudas? and yet he receiued it, & after he had receiued it, the enimie entred into him: not because that was euill which he receiued, but because he being euil, did receiue yt good thing vnworthily. And immediately after he saith, The sacrament of the thing, that is, of the knitting together of the bodie and bloud of Christ, is recei∣ued at the Lords table, of some vnto life, of other some to destruction: but the thing it selfe whereof it is a Sa∣crament, is reteiued of all men vnto life, of none to destructiō, whosoeuer shalbe partakers thereof. And againe he sayth, He which dwelleth not in Christe, nor Christe in him, without doubt he neither eateth his flesh, nor drinketh his bloud spiritually, al∣though earnally and visibly he chawe with his téeth the Sacrament of the bodie & bloud of Christ, but he doeth rather eate and drinke the Sacramēt of so great a thing to his owne dam∣nation. And so forth. He hath the like words in his booke De Ciuit. Dei. 21. cap. 25. And in his booke De Doctri. Christ. 3. ca. 9. he sheweth that In the Coniunction of natures there had need to be a distinction, lest we shuld sticke too muche vpon the outwarde signe.

Now we come to the proofes of the scripture. The Apostle witnesseth in the Cor. 10. chap. that all our fathers were baptised, and did all eate of one spirituall meate, and did all drinke of one manner of spirituall drinke, but the Lord in many of them had no delight. Whereas if they had eaten that spiritual meate, and dranke that spirituall drinke spiritually by faith, vndoubtedly the Lorde had deligh∣ted in them. For without faith, as he himselfe saieth, it is impossible to please God: therefore with them that haue faith, GOD is well pleased. Wherefore our fathers truely were partakers of visible sacraments, but they were destitut of inuisible grace, whereby it followeth that the signe and y thing signified do reteine their natures not confounded or mingled, but distinguished and separated. Be∣sides this, the wordes of the gospell * haue some affinitie, or at the leasfe some likenesse with Sacramentall signes. Otherwise the wordes are preferred farre before the signes, the Apostle sayinge, that he was sente to preach, and not to baptise. But many heare with their outwarde eares the worde of the Lorde, who for all that, Page  983 because they are voyde of faith, are also without the inwarde frute of the worde, Paule saying yet againe, For to vs was the gospell preached, as well as vnto thē, but the word which they*heard did not profite them, because it was not coupled with faith. For so it commeth to passe that many receiue the visible sacramentes, and yet are not partakers of the inuisible grace, whiche by faithe onely is receiued. Whervpon yet againe it followeth that the signe is not confounded with the thing signified: but bothe of them do reteine their substance and nature distinguished. What, & doth not the scripture expressely & pithily make a difference betwéene the outward mi∣nisterie of man, and God the inward worker and giuer of spirituall gyfts? For Iohn Baptiste saith, I baptise you with water, But he (Christ) shall*Baptise you with the holy Ghoste.

Wherewith agréeth yt saying of Pe∣ter, Baptisme saueth vs, not the put¦ting*away of the filth of the flesh, but in that a good conscience maketh re∣quest to God. To this nowe pertci∣neth that euident testimonie of saint * Augustine which is read 3. Quest. lib. in Leuit. Quest. 83. In these wordes: Wee must diligently consider as of∣ten as he saith, I the Lord which san∣ctifie him, that he speaketh of the priest: when he also spake this to Mo∣ses, & thou shalt sanctifie him. Howe therefore doth both Moses and God also sanctifie? for Moses doth not san∣ctifie for the Lord: but Moses doeth sanctifie in the visible sacraments by his ministerie: and the Lorde by in∣uisible grace by his holy spirit, where the whole fruit of visible sacraments also is. For without this sanctificatiō of inuisible grace, what profite haue we by visible sacraments? Thus farre August. As Iohn Baptist made di∣stinction betwéene his owne mini∣sterie in Baptisme, and the power of Christ: euen so maketh he distinc∣tion betwéen the ministerie of prea∣ching, & the drawing of the spirituall teacher, I am (saith he) the voyce of a crier in the wildernes, make streight*the way of the Lord. And againe, He that commeth from on high, is aboue all, he that is of the earth is earthly, & speaketh of the earth, he that cōmeth from heauen is aboue all, and what he hath sene and heard that he testifieth, &c. Saint Paule also agréeing there∣vnto * sayth, Who is Paule? What is Apollos? but ministers by whom ye beleeued, euen as the Lorde gaue to e∣uerie man. I haue planted, Apollos watered but god gaue the increase. So that neither is hee that planteth any thing neither he that watereth, but God that giueth the increase. Albeit the comparison of ministers with ye signes agrée not altogether and in e∣uerie part (which I told you before▪) because ministers are fellowe labou∣rers with Christ, according to their office, but the signes which are wtout life are not so, vnlesse 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, we translate vnto them that whiche is the ministers, yet by other proofes I suppose it to be made plaine that the signe & thing signified do reteine their natures distinguished in the sacraments. These things doe speci∣ally disproue and conuince those who * are persuaded of that papisticall trā∣substantiation of bread and wine in∣to the substance of the bodie & bloud of Christe. For these men vtterly de∣nie that the breade and wine béeing consecrated in the mysteries, do re∣maine in their owne substances. For they contend that these substāces (of bread & wine) are annihilated & tur∣ned Page  984 into the verie bodie and bloud of the Lord, so yt after the consecration, the accidents of bread and wine doe remaine, and no part of the substance thereof at all.

For they say that the Lorde in expresse words pronounced ouer the bread & wine, This is my bodie, This is my bloud, & that the Lord can ea∣sily bring to passe, by his own omni∣potencie, that that which he said may be as he said. For proofe wherof, they alledge these & such like places, yt the Lord for soothe fashioned man out of ye clay of the earth, & by & by of the rib of man made woman, & also turned Lots wife into a piller of salt, & ther∣fore y he, by the selfe same his power can make of bread his bodie, & of wine his bloud. And these truely are their bulworkes. But we in another place haue plentifully disputed of the mea∣ning of the Lords words, This is my bodie. So that it is superfluous to make long repetition of them. I haue also tolde you y of the omnipotencie of God, we muste not gather & deter∣mine whatsoeuer commeth into our braine: & also that Gods power doth nothing against trueth, neither a∣gainst it selfe, and that no Godly man ought to take that in hand vnder pre∣tence of the power of God, whiche is repugnant to the plaine Scriptures, and the articles of the catholique faith.

Now it is euident, and plaine, that after consecration there remaineth * in the sacrament, ye substāce of bread & wine. And herein we néed no other witnesses than our verie senses, whi¦che perceiue, sée, taste, and féele, no o∣ther thing than bread and wine: but while clay was turned into a mans bodie, the ribb into a woman, & Lots wife into a piller of salte, they were not, as the sacrament of the supper, yt which they were before, neither did there appeare vnto the senses any iotte of the clay, of the ribbe, of Lots wife. Verie foolishly therefore and vnaptly are these examples applyed to the mysterie of the Lordes supper, wherewith they nothing agrée: whi∣che thing also we touched before.

The Gospel verie diligently descri∣bing the moste holy institution of the Lordes supper, and the maner there∣of, maketh no mention of miraculous transubstantion: but calleth the bread and wine whiche the Lord tooke and distributed to his disciples, and which they also receiued, by the names of bread & wine, as wel after the words of consecration (as they tearme it) were spoken, as also before consecra∣tion. Doeth not the Lorde in the 26. cha. of Mat. call the wine being cōse∣crated not wine only, but the fruit of the vine, after a more vehement and significatiue kinde of spéeche, lest any shold be ignorant that the wine was wine in déede, and so remained? In Marke we reade this of the Cuppe: And he tooke the Cuppe, and when he had giuen thanks he gaue to them, And they dranke of it, and he saide vnto them. This is my bloud of the new Testament, &c. Loe they danke all (sayth he) of the Cuppe, before ye words of consecratiō (as they terme it) were spoken: therefore they dranke wine. Nowe if so be they an∣swere that this place of the Euange∣list is to be expounded by the figure Hysteroprotero, yt is whē any thing is declared out of order preposterously, thē admitt they tropes & figures in ye celebration of the supper, which not∣withstandinge they haue conten∣ded Page  985 ought simplie to bee vnderstoode without the help of tropes or figures. But Paule also the Apostle in the 1. Cor. cap. 10. calleth the bread of the Lorde beeing nowe in the verie holy vse, and (that I may so say) consecra∣ted, by the name of bread. And in the 1. Cor. 11. chap. the thirde time hee calleth it bread. To this appertey∣neth that the Actes of the Apostles doe testifie, how that the Churche of the Apostles do call the whole mysti∣call action The breaking of breade, not The breaking of his bodie, or dis∣tribution of his bloud. It is manifest therefore that the substance of bread and wine in the Sacrament of the Lordes supper doe remaine in their owne nature, and that transubstan∣tiation is a sophistical imagination. This also is a sophistical and a nota∣ble papisticall forgerie, in that they * say that the bread and wine consecra∣ted in the Supper is therefore called of the Apostles breade and wine, bée∣cause they were bread and wine be∣fore. For that is nowe done whiche is reade in Erod. to haue béene done in times past, where Araons rodde is saide to deuoure the Inchaunters rods, which neuerthelesse then were not roddes, but Serpentes: but now they are named roddes, because they were rods before they were so chaun∣ged which now are serpents and not rods. But againe, who doth not sée this example hathe no similitude or likenesse with the breade and wine of the Lord? For the rod truely was called a rod. But in the meane while it was, and séemed plainly to be, not now a rod, but a serpént: but ye bread is called bread, neither doeth it ap∣peare to be any thing else but bread: here is no forme of flesh séene, as was séene there the fourme of a serpent. Beside this the rod is saide to be tur∣ned into a serpent, & is shewed for a wonder or miracle: but ye shal read in no place that the breade was tur∣ned into flesh, by any miracle: but a sacramēt is instituted, which in déed looseth the name & nature of a sacra∣ment when the substance of the signe beeing annihilated & made voide no∣thing remaineth there, but the thing signified: for ye which they triflingly say of accidents myraculously subsis∣ting without their subiect, & remay∣ning in sted of the signe, is to no pur∣pose. If we shuld go about to boast of our dreames for miracles, there will be nothing so absurde, & foolish which we shal not colour with our fansies, & lyes. What if this word transub∣stantiatiō doth manifestly proue that this whole trifling toy, is not fetcht from the simple & plaine doctrine of the Apostles, but frō the subtile schole of quarelling sophisters?

But the Apostle Paule giueth vs in charge to beware both of Philo∣sophie * and straungenesse of wordes, though at this present we do not on∣ly intreate of new wordes, but also of new matter and new doctrine con∣trary in all pointes to the Apostles. For this doctrine of transubstantia∣tion is cleane cōtrary both to the doc∣trine of the Apostles & Euangelistes touching the true incarnation of our Lorde, and the true nature and pro∣pertie of his humane body, and also the true raising vp againe of our bo∣dies. For they are constrayned to forge many thinges altogether my∣raculous, as of the inuisible body of Christ, & of the subtile body of Christ pearcing by his subtility through the gate, & the stone, I meane that which couered his sepulchre, or the Lordes very body béeinge altogether and at Page  986 one time in many places, and filling all thinges, and other innumerable which are of this stampe absurde and wicked. Nowe also Ioan. Scotus a subtile doctour in his woorke Sen∣tent. Distinct. 11. Lib. 4. quaest. 3. saith, That the article of Transubstantia∣tion is neyther expressed in the créede of the Apostles, neyther in those crée∣des of the auncient fathers: but that it was brought in and inuented of the Churche (so sayth he, meaning the Romishe Churche) vnder Innocenti∣us the thirde in the Counsel of Late∣ran. Whereby we gather that the doctrine of Transubstantiation is * of late time, and newely start vp, the historie whereof we haue elsewhere more largely compyled. But by this that I haue sayde, I thinke it playnely and effectually enoughe de∣clared, that the signes are not ming∣led with the things signified or chaū∣ged into them, but that eache of them remaine in their seuerall natures.

But albeit eyther of the parts with∣out myxture doe reteine their owne nature, yet those two agrée in one sa∣crament, and being ioyned together and not diuided, do make one perfect and lawfull Sacrament. For water alone both priuately and ordinarily sprinckled is no sacrament, vnlesse it be applyed and vsed according to the institution of Christ. Purifying also or washing away of sinnes, and the ingraffing or receiuing into the lea∣gue and fellowshippe of God and all Saintes, of it selfe is no Sacrament, vnlesse there be also a sprinckling of water, in the name of the blessed Trinitie.

In like maner it is no Sacrament, if we eate bread in a common assem∣bly, and drinke wine of the selfe same cuppe after the common manner: neyther is it a Sacrament if through a faythfull remembraunce thou con∣sider that the Lordes body was be∣trayed for thée, and his bloude shedde for thée, for the which also thou giuest thankes: but so farre f••rth as they are all mysteries of God and our sal∣uation, they are generally termed sa∣cramentes, that is, secrete and spiri∣tuall mysteries of GOD and oure saluation. For in a perfect and law∣full Sacramente, there must néedes goe together both the holy action cor∣porall or sensible, and the spirituall celebration thereof, for the whiche this sacramentall action was inuen∣ted and put in practise.

But here some moue many and diuers questions touching the sacra∣mentall * vnion, whether it be perso∣nall, reall, or rationall. I, bycause I sée nothing of this matter doubtful∣ly deliuered of the Apostles, and that the thing being playne of it selfe by such maner of sophisticatiōs is made dark, doubtful, difficult, and obscure: simply and playnely saye, that the signe and the thing signified are ioy∣ned together in the Sacramentes by Gods institution: by faythfull con∣templation and vse: to be shorte, in signification and likenesse of the thin∣ges: but I vtterly denye that those two are naturally vnited together, so that the signe in the Sacrament be∣ginneth to be that, whiche the thing signified is in his owne substaunce and nature: I denye that the thing signified is ioyned corporally with the signe, so that the signe remayneth still in his owne substaunce and na∣ture, and yet neuerthelesse in the meane time hath the thing signified corporally ioyned vnto it, that there∣by who so euer is partaker of the signe, shoulde be also by the signe or Page  987 with the signe partaker of the thing it selfe.

The reason why I do so constant∣ly denie that, appeareth I thinke suf∣ficiently by those examples whiche I haue hetherto declared, and whiche hereafter shall be declared. Fur∣thermore, * I say that the signe and the thing signified, are coupled together by Gods institution, bycause he whi∣che instituted the Sacrament of bap∣tisme and the Supper, instituted it not to this ende, that with water we might washe awaye the filthe of the body, as the custome is to doe by dai∣ly vse of bathes, neyther that wee should take oure fill of the breade and wine, but that vnder visible signes he might commend vnto vs the myste∣ries of our redemption and his grace, and to be shorte of our saluation by represēting them to renue them, and by sealing them to confirme thē. My saying is, that they are coupled toge∣ther in a faythful contemplation, by∣cause they which partake the Sacra∣mentes religiously, doe not fasten their eyes on sensible thinges onely, but rather on thinges insensible, sig∣nified, and heauenly, so that the faith∣full haue in them selues both twaine coupled together, which otherwise in ye signe or with ye signe are knit toge∣ther with no bonde. For corporally & sensibly they receiue the signes, but spiritually they possesse, comprehend, renue, and exercise the thinges signi∣fied.

In signification and likenesse of the thinges, I say, they are coupled together, bycause the signe is a token of the thing signified: And vnlesse signes haue likenes with those things whereof they are signes, then coulde they be no signes. They haue there∣fore most apt and verie neare affini∣tie betwéene them selues.

For as water washeth away the filthe of the body: as breade and wine satisfieth and maketh merrie the hart of man: euen so by the grace of God, the people of God are purified: euen so the body and bloude of the Lorde which was giuen for vs, being appre∣hended by fayth, doth both satisfie and make merrie the whole man, that he maye yealde him selfe wholy vnto thankesgiuing, and obedient to God∣warde.

I would speake here more large∣ly of the Analogie or of the signe and thing signified, but that I sée I maye doe the same hereafter in place more conuenient. But I thinke I shall not néed any more places out of the scrip∣ture to open these thinges more eui∣dently, since they followe of their owne accorde vppon that which we haue hitherto by testimonies of scrip∣tures confirmed, and will hereafter more at large confirme.

Moreouer, in respect of the like∣nesse * of the signe and the thing signi∣fied, the name of the one is giuen to the other, as I will proue by most e∣uident testimonies of Scripture. In Genesis 17. the Lorde sayth thus to Abraham, Thou shalt keepe my co∣uenaunt therefore, bothe thou and thy seede after thee in their genera∣tions. This is my couenaunt whiche ye shall keepe betweene me and you. Euerie man-child among you shall be circumcised. Ye shall circumcise the fleshe of your foreskinne, and it shall be a token of the couenaunt be∣tweene*me and you. The mouthe of the Lorde hath spoken this. Who will gainesay the worde of GOD? The worde of GOD calleth Cir∣cumcision a couenaunt, therefore the name of the thing signified, is giuen Page  988 to the signe. For in verie déede Circumcision is not the couenaunt it selfe. For the couenaunt is the bargaine and agreement betwéene GOD and men, whiche hath cer∣teine conditions and articles. Wher∣fore afterwarde by interpretation, the same Circumcision is called A token of the couenaunt. And who will finde fault with this interpreta∣tion of GOD? The signes there∣fóre, yea, GOD béeing the inter∣preter, take the names of the thinges signified.

So you may reade in the twelfth chapter of Exodus. Yee shall eate*the lambe in hast, for it is the Lords Passeouer. Againe, And the bloud shall be vnto you a signe in the hou∣ses wherein you are, &c. And a∣gaine, This day shall be vnto you a remembraunce, &c. What can be spoken more plainely, than that the Lambe is called the Passeouer? But what is the proper meaning of the Passeouer? Let vs giue eare to the Lorde, here agayne expounding him selfe, and saying: I will pasle through the lande of Aegypte this same night, and will smite all the first borne of Aegypt, from man to beast, and when I shall see the bloude (of the Lambe) I will passe ouer you, and the plague shall not bee vppon you to destroye you. Beholde, the Passeouer, GOD him selfe so inter∣preting it, is that passing ouer, where∣by the Angel of GOD passing ouer the houses of the Israelites whiche were marked with the bloude of the Lambe, spared their firstborne, & slue ye first borne of ye Egyptians. If thou art ignoraunt what, and what man∣ner of Lambe it was, listen againe to the Lorde instructing thée, and say∣ing: In the tenth day of this moneth euerie man take vnto him a Lambe according to the housholde, and let your Lambe be without blemishe, a male of a yeare olde, which yee shall take out from among the sheepe, and from among the goates. And here the Lambe is playnely called the Passeouer. And who dothe not sée that the Lamb is not the Passeouer? yet bycause it is a signe or remem∣brance of the passeouer, as the mouth of the Lorde sayth, surely it taketh the name of the Passeouer or passing by.

Againe you reade in the nintenth of Num. Thus spake the Lorde vnto Moses: Speake vnto the children*of Israel, that they bring thee a red cow without blemishe, And ye shall giue her vnto Eleazar the Priest, that he may bring her without the hoast, and cause her to bee slayne before his face, and to bee burnt whole, And a man that is cleane shal gather vp the ashes of the cow, and lay them with∣out the hoast in a cleane place, And it shall bee kept for the multitude of the children of Israel, for a water of separation (or sprinckling.) For it is sinne. Marke againe the manner of the speaking of the Scripture. A heifer or cow is sinne, that is, a sa∣crifice for sinne, as Christe is sayde to be made sinne for vs, that for (or by) * sinne, he might condemne sinne, whi∣che is, that by the one oblation of his body, he might cleanse and purge vs from sinne. Hitherto also belong∣eth that whiche the Apostle speaking of sacrifices vnto the Hebrues, sayth: But in these sacrifices there is men∣tion*made of sinnes euerie yeare, for it is not possible that the bloude of bulles and goates should take awaye sinnes.

As often therefore as sacrifices, as Page  989 Heifers, Goates, Bulls, and Lambs, are called sanctifications, cleansings, or sinnes, the signes take the names of the thinges signiied. For these were certein types and figures of the * Prieste whiche was to come, and of Christe, vppon whome all our sinnes are layd. For, He, truly, is the Lambe*of GOD whiche taketh away the sinnes of the worlde.

Nowe we are come also to the sacramentes of the newe Testament, * whose signes also beare the names of the thinges signified. For Peter saythe, Actes 2. Let euerie one of you*bee baptised in the name of Iesus Christe for the remission of sinnes. And Paule also in the Actes of the * Apostles heareth, Arise and be bap∣tised, and washe away thy sinnes by calling on the name of the Lorde, Therefore truely baptisme is called a cleansing, or washing awaye of sinnes.

And Peter also elsewhere saiths, Baptisme saueth you, not that therby the filthe of the fleshe is put awaye, but in that a good cōscience maketh request vnto God. And Paule also saith, Ye are washed, ye are sanctified*ye are iustified, in the name of the Lord Iesus, and by the spirite of our GOD.

Therefore the due and right cōpa∣ring of these places betweene them selues doth manifestly proue, that to the signe of baptisme, whithe is wa∣ter, is giuen the name of the thing sig∣nified.

After the same manner is it to be séene in the institution of the Lordes Supper or Euchariste. The broade * is called the body of Christe, and the wine the bloude of Christe. But since the right faythe beléeueth, that the true bodye of Christe ascended out of this world, liueth, and is nowe in heauen, and that the Lorde retur∣neth no more into this worlde vntill he come in the cloudes of heauen to iudge the quicke and deade, euerie man vnderstandeth, that to the signe, to wit, breade and wine, the names of the thinges them selues, to witte, the bodye and bloude of Christe are giuen throughe the communicating of names.

Many other speaches vsed in the Scripture and in oure dayly talke * are not muche vnlike to the speaches vsed in the Sacrament. We reade that Christe is, and is called a Lyon, a Lambe, a Shepehearde, a Vine, a doore, a waye, a Ladder, the Day, the Lighte, the Sunne, the Water, the bread, a Spring, and a Rocke, which if at this day any shuld roughly vrge, contending that Christe is a Lambe in deede, a doore in substaunce, a natu∣rall vine or suche like: who, I pray you, coulde abide him so reasoning? We woulde hisse and driue out from amonge vs suche a one as a madde man, and a peruerter of GODS oracles.

Wee reade in déede, And that rocke was Christe: In the meane time it is to bee considered, what shoulde followe. For if that rocke really and in vrye déede had béene Christe, none of them that dranke of that rocke had béene reprobates. For they are acceptable vnto GOD which are partakers of Christe: But in many of them that dranke of the rocke, the Lorde had no delight. For they were stayne in the wilder∣nesse: therefore they whiche dranke of the rocke which was Christe, were not made partakers of Christe.

Page  990 Therefore the rocke was not Christe really and in verie deed. We also sée∣ing * the standards of kings, princes, and cities, we call the signes by the names of the kings, princes, and ci∣ties: for we say, This is the king of Fraunce, This is the prince of Ger∣manie, this is Tigure, this is Berne. So if we sée the marriage ring, or the image of any prince, we call it the fayth and trothe of wedlocke, or man and wife, yea, and we saye by the Image, This is the prince. For matrones shewing their wedding ring, say, this is my husband. When we shewe to any man the picture or image of the duke of Saxonie, we say, This is the duke of Saxonie. If any should goe on obstinately to affirme, that the signe in verie déede is the thing signified, bycause it beareth the name thereof, woulde not all men crye out that suche a one were with∣out with or reason, and that he were to be abhorred by all meanes as an obstinate brawler? Those therefore that are skilfull in the things, vnder∣stand that that is & hath béene Catho∣lique, receiued of all men, and also sounde, which we shewed euen nowe at large, to witte, that the signes doe borrowe the names of the thinges, and not turne into the thinges (whi∣che they signifie). And therefore the auncient fathers moued no strife nor * contentions about the Sacramentes as are at this day among vs. For as they did beautifie the signes with the names of the thinges (signified) so did they acknowledge the kynde of speache: neyther did they roughly vrge the wordes, as though the verie signes were really & corporally that selfe same thing which they signified. Therefore this canon or rule is so often repeated and beaten vppon by Aulerius August. That the signes do take or borrowe the names of thin∣ges signified. By the same canon or rule he maketh playne certein darke places: of which thing we will nowe set downe some testimonies. In this Epist. 23. ad Bonifacium de paruulorū baptismate. he sayth: If sacraments had not some likenes with those thin∣ges whereof they are sacraments, no doubt they were no sacramentes, for of this likenesse for the most part they take the names of the thinges them selues. As also the Apostle speaking of baptisme, sayth, Wee are buried with Christe by baptisme into his death. He doth not say, We signifie the burial, but he doth flatly say, We are buried. Therefore he called the sacramēt of so great a thing, no other∣wise but by the name of the selfe same thing. And in Tract. super Ioan. 63. When the vncleane person is gone, all which remaine are cleane. Such a like thing shall there be, when the world being ouercome of Christ shall passe awaye, and there shall no vn∣cleane person remayne among the people of God, when the tares being separated from the wheate, the iust shall shine like the sunne in the king∣dome of their father. The Lord fore∣séeing this woulde come to passe, and nowe witnessing that it was signifi∣ed when Iudas fell awaye, as tares separated, ye holie apostles remaining as wheat, he sayth, Now is the sonne of man glorified, as if he had sayde, Beholde what shall be, when I am glorified, where there shall be no wic∣ked person, and where no good man shall perishe. For he saith not thus, Nowe is the glorifying of the sonne of man signified: but he sayth, Nowe is the sonne of man glorified: As it * is not said, The rock signified Christ: Page  991 but, The rocke was Christe: neyther is it sayde, the good séede signifieth the childrē of the kingdome, but he saith, the good séde these are the children of the kingdome: and the tares, the children of the wicked. As the scrip∣ture therefore is wont to speake, cal∣ling the thinges which signifie, as the thinges that are signified: euen so spake the Lord, saying, Now is the Sonne of man glorified, after that wicked (Iudas) was separated, and his holy Apostles remayning with him, his glorification was signified, when the wicked being diuided, he shal remaine eternally with the sain∣tes. The same Aurelius Agust, in his Epistle to Euodius 102. saythe, The sounde of the voyce, and the bo∣dily shape of a doue, & clouen tongs like vnto fire, which came vppon e∣uerie one of them, as those thinges in mount Sina, whiche were done af∣ter a moste fearefull manner: and as that piller of the cloud by day, and that piller of fire by night, were or∣dayned and set for some operation which they signified. Héerein we must specially take héede of this, that none be persuaded or beléeue, that the nature and substaunce of the Fa∣ther, or of the Sonne, or of the ho∣lie Ghoste is chaungeable, or maye be turned. Neyther let any man be moued, for that sometime the thing which signifieth, taketh the name of that thing which it signifieth. The holie Ghoste is sayde to descend and remayne vpō him in the bodily shape of a doue. For so also is the rocke Christe, bycause it signifieth Christe.

By these examples alledged oute of the Scripture, it is playne, that * the signes doe borrowe the names of the thinges, and not their na∣tures and substaunces. Where∣vpon it is vndoubtedly true that they erre as farre as heauen is wyde, whi∣che are persuaded that the sacramen∣tall speaches are not to be expounded as figuratiue, and borrowed, but most properly and literally, so that by that meanes the water, bread, and wine, are not nowe signes and to∣kens onely of regeneration, and of the body of Christe giuen, and of his bloude shed for vs: but regeneration it selfe, and the verie substantiall bo∣dy and bloude of oure Lorde Iesus. For being of this opinion they are of∣fensiue vnto the common manner, both of speaking and interpreting v∣sed in all ages: they are also repug∣naunt to true fayth, yea & to common sense. Whereby it commeth to passe, that by their confounding of the signe with the thing signified, they bring in a seruile weaknesse, & (that I may vse S. Aug. words) A carnall bondage. For he Li. 3. de. doct. Ch. ca. 9. intrea∣ting of the Sacramentes of Christi∣ans, sayth: The Lorde him selfe and the Apostles in their doctrine haue left vs fewe thinges in steade of ma∣ny, and those most easie to be done, most reuerend in vnderstanding, and moste pure in obseruing, as is bap∣tisme, and the celebration of the bo∣dy and bloud of the Lorde. Which Sacramentes euerie man when hee receyueth, being instructed, acknow∣ledgeth wherevnto they are refer∣red, that wee should not worshippe them with carnall seruitude or bon∣dage, but rather with spirituall free∣dom or libertie. And as to folow the*letter and to take the signes in stead of the thinges which are signified by them, is a point of seruile weaknesse: so to expound the signes vnprofita∣bly, is a point of euill wandering er∣ror. And yet he speaketh more plain∣ly Page  992 chapter. 5. First of all you must be∣ware let you take a figuratiue spech according to the letter. For to this a∣greeth that which the Apostle saith: The letter killeth, but the spirite gi∣ueth life. For whē that which is figu∣ratiuely spoken, is taken as though it were spoken properly, it is carnally vnderstanded. Neyther is there any thing that may more agreably be ter∣med the death of the soule, then whē that wherein we excell beasts, which is vnderstanding or knowledge, is made subiect to the fleshe by follow∣ing the letter. For he that followeth the letter vnderstandeth words tran∣slated or borrowed as proper or naturall, neither doth he referre that which is signified by a proper worde to another signification: but if (for an example) he shall here mention of the Sabbaoth, he vnderstandeth it no otherwise but as one day of the seuē, which by continuall course come & goe. And when he heareth mention made of sacrifice, it wil not out of his heade but that this is ment of that whiche was wont to be done aboute offering of beastes and fruites of the earth. To be shorte, this is the misera∣ble bondage of the soule, to take the signes for the things them selues, and not to bee able to lifte vp the eyes of the mynd aboue the bodily creature, for the obteyning of euerlasting light. Thus farre August. By these wordes of Augustine we doe gather, that they reuerēce the sacraments by spirituall libertie, which neither stick to the letter, neither worship and re∣uerence the visible thinges and ele∣ments, as, water, breade, and wine, in steade of the thinges signified: but being rather admonished and stirred vp by the signes, they are lifted vp in their mindes to behold the things sig∣nified. * The same Augustine in the same booke chapter 15. teaching when, and after what manner a trope or fi∣gure is to be receiued or acknowled∣ged, sayth: In figuratiue speaches this manner of rule shall be kept, that so long you viewe with diligent consi∣deration what is read, vntill the in∣terpretation come vnto the rule of charitie. For if it be not repugnaunt to charitie, thinke not that it is a fi∣guratiue speach. And yet more plain∣ly hee addeth in the 16. chapter fol∣lowing. If it bee an imperatiue speache, eyther forbidding any hay∣nous offence or wicked deede, or cō∣maunding any profitable or good deede, it is no figuratiue speach. But if it commaund any wicked deede, or forbid any deede of charitie, then it is figuratiue. Except ye eate the fleshe of the sonne of man, and drinke his bloude, ye haue no life in you. Hee seemeth to commaund some horri∣ble offence or wicked deede: there∣fore it is a figuratiue speache com∣maunding vs to communicate with the passion of Christe, and comfor∣tably and profitably to lay vp in our remembraunce that his fleshe was crucified and wounded for vs. The Scripture sayth, If thine enimie hun∣ger, feede him: Heere no man doub∣teth but hee commaundeth well do∣ing, but that whiche followeth: For in so doing thou shalte heape coales of fire vppon his head, A man would thinke that a wicked and euill deede were commaunded: therefore doubt not but that it is figuratiuely spoken. And so foorth. All these thinges doe conuince their errour whiche inter∣prete sacramentall speaches, as pro∣per, and reiect al figures and tropes, especially in the institution of the sup¦per. Neuerthelesse I am not ignorāt, Page  993 what they set againste this last testi∣monie * of S. Augustin, that the words of our sauiour in the sixte of Iohn doe make nothing to the interpretation of the ministration of the sacrament, and therefore that the place of S. Au∣gustine doth nothing agrée to our pur¦pose. But it is manifest that in the same booke S. Augustine disputeth of signes and of the sacramentall spea∣ches. And that is manifest also by many other places oute of S Augu∣stine, that he often alledgeth these wordes of our sauiour out of the sixte of Iohn, to expounde the celebration of the supper. But why doe they no∣thing perteyne to the celebration of the Supper? Doth he speake of one body in the Supper, and of an other in the 6. chap. of Iohn? shal we beleue that the Lorde had and hath two bo∣dies? Our Lorde Iesus hath but one body, the whiche as it profiteth no∣thing being eaten corporally, accor∣ding to S. Iohn 6. chapter: euen so that body being corporally eatē, doth nothing auaile, according to S Mat. 26. chapter. But this matter we haue elsewhere handled. And of as little force is this vnsauourie obiection of theirs, which is, that the consequence is false when we argue thus: Cir∣cumcision * is the couenant: the lambe is the Passoeuer: Sacrifices are sin∣nes, and sanctifications or cleansings are sacramentall speaches mysticall and figuratiue: therefore this also, This is my body, is a mysticall and figuratiue speache. For since in Sa∣cramentes there is the like rea∣son, why may wee not frame argu∣ments from the one to the other? And that sacraments haue the like reason, it is receyued of all them whiche ac∣knowledge the trueth aright, and it shall be proued hereafter to the full. But if it be not lawfull to reason frō the sacraments of the olde testament, and by them after a certeine compa∣rison to interprete ours, and by ours to make them plaine: truely then the Apostle did not well, who by a false consequent by comparison we reade to haue argued from their sacramēts vnto ours, in the 1. Cor. 10. and to the Coloss. 2. chap. But now we returne to oure purpose. That we may yet at lengthe make an ende of this place, * they are sacramentall and figuratiue speaches, when we reade and heare that the breade is the body of Christe, and the wine the bloud of Christ, and that they do eate and drinke the body and bloude of Christe, which eate and drinke the Sacramente of the body and bloude of the Lord, also that they are purged from their sinnes and re∣generated into a newe life which are baptised in the name of Christe, and that baptisme is the washing awaye of all our sinnes. And after this man∣ner speaketh the scripture, and this fourme of speache kept the olde doc∣tours of the Churche, whome for so doing none that is wise dothe dis∣praise, neyther can one discommend any man whiche speaketh after this manner, so that he also abide in the same sinceritie wherein it is manifest that those holy men of god did walke. For as they did willingly and simply vse those speaches, so did they not roughly & rigorously strayne the let∣ter and speaches: they did interprete them in suche sorte, that none was so vnskilfull, but that he might vnder∣stand that the signs were not yt thing it selfe whiche they signified, but that the signes doe take the names of the things, therfore they vsed words sig∣nificatiuely, sacramentally, mystical∣ly, and figuratiuely.

Page  994 Nowe whereas some will not haue * the Sacramentall speaches to be ex∣pounded, as though being not expoū∣ded they were of more authoritie, ma∣iestie and worthines, this draweth af∣ter it a soare daunger, and giueth a most gréeuous offence, and is repug∣nant to the rule of the Apostles, to sounde reason, and to the custome of them of old. For when these kinde of spéeches are set forth and vttered to the simple sort béeing not expounded, to witt, The bread is the bodie of Christe. When thou drinckest the wine of the Lord thou drinckest the verie bloud of the Lord. Bap∣tisme saueth vs, &c. what other thing * I pray you, is set forth, than a snare of carnall bondage, and a most daunge∣rous offēce of idolatrie? Many words néede not in this matter, since experi∣ence doeth aboundantly enoughe sett forthe in this place, what hath béene done, and what at this day is done.

The rule of the Apostles comman∣deth the diuine oracles to be expoun∣ded in the Church, and to lay forth all ye mysteries of the scripture, that they may be soundly vnderstanded, as wée may sée, 1. Corinth. 14. And reason it selfe teacheth vs, that the mind of mā is litle or nothing moued if the things themselues be not vnderstoode. What fruite therefore shall the simple sorte receiue by ye Sacraments, vnto whom the meaning of the sacramentes hath not béene opened. Better therefore did the auncient fathers, not onely in expounding all the mysteries of the kingdome of God, and especially the sacraments: but in teaching also that they ought to be expounded. Whiche although it be made plaine inough by those thinges whiche goe before, yet will I add two examples out of S. Augustine touching this matter. Hee, cap. 6. de chatechisandis rudibus, say∣eth: Let the newe Christian man bée taught concerning ye sacraments, that they bée visible signes of heauenlye thinges, and that inuisible things are to be honoured in them, neither that the signe after it is blessed and sancti∣fied, is so to bee taken as it is daily v∣sed. It must also be tould him what that spéech signifies which he heareth: and what thing is giuen in the signe, whereof it is a representation. More∣ouer vppon this occasion hée must bée taught that if he heare any thing euen in the Scriptures that soundeth car∣nally, although he vnderstand it not, yet to beléeue that some spirituall thing is signified thereby, whiche be∣longeth to holy manners, and to the life to come. And as followeth. The same Augustine, Lib. 4. de doctr. Chr. cap. 8. doth vtterly forbid the doctours & teachers of the church, not to thinke that they ought therefore to speake obscurely of the mysteries of the scrip∣ture, because they sée that these things are deliuered somewhat intricately and darckely in the scripture: but he rather requireth light & plainnesse in them. If any man desire to heare his wordes, they are these: If we fetche examples of the manner of speaking out of the writinges of our canonicall authours and doctours which are ea∣sily vnderstoode, yet wée ought not to thincke that wee should followe them also in those spéeches wherein they haue vsed a profitable and wholesome obscuritie, to exercise, and as it were to quicken the readers mindes, and to take awaye lothsomnes, and to stirre vp the studies of the willing learners, and also to make the minds of the wic∣ked zealous, that they may either bée turned to godlines, or else excluded from the mysteries. For so they spake Page  995 that those which came after them and could vnderstand and rightly expound them, might reueale a second grace vn¦like to the former, but yet ensuing in the church of God. Therefore they which expounde them ought not so to speake as if they by the like authori∣tie would offer themselues to bee ex∣pounded: but in all their kinde of spée∣ches, first let them labour chiefly and first of all to be vnderstanded, with as plaine kinde of speaking as they can, that he be very dull and slow-witted, which doeth not vnderstand, or at the least let not the fault of the hardnesse and subtiltie of the thinges which we goe about to open and declare, be in our owne spéech, whereby that which we speake should be somewhat longer in vnderstanding. Thus farre Augu∣stine. And let this that I haue hither∣to said of sacramentall spéeches be sufficient. The Lord be praised. Amen.

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