The gouernment of health: a treatise written by William Bullein, for the especiall good and healthfull preseruation of mans bodie from all noysome diseases, proceeding by the excesse of euill diet, and other infirmities of nature: full of excellent medicines, and wise counsels, for conseruation of health, in men, women, and children. Both pleasant and profitable to the industrious reader
Bullein, William, d. 1576.
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The Gouernment of Health: A Treatise written by William Bullein, for the espe∣ciall good and healthfull preser∣uation of mans bodie from all noy∣some diseases, proceeding by the ex∣cesse of euill diet, and other infirmi∣ties of Nature: full of excellent medi∣cines, and wise counsels, for con∣seruation of health, in men, women, and chil∣dren.

Both pleasant and profi∣table to the industri∣ous Reader.

LONDON Printed by Valentine Sims dwelling in Adling street, at the signe of the white Swan, neare Bainards ca∣stel, 1595.

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To the right worship∣full sir Thomas Hilton knight, Baron of Hilton, and Captaine of the king and Queens maiesties castel of Tinmouth, William Bullein wisheth encrease of wor∣ship and health.

QVintus Curtius, the fa∣mous writer of the great battels that king Alex∣ander, the sonne of Phi∣lip of Macedonie, had a∣gaynst the most noble and rich king of the Medes and Persians, cal∣led Darius (right worshipful sir) declareth (that when one Philip the Phisition vnto the said king Alexander, and his most tru∣stie subiect,) by sodain chaunce the king fell sore sicke, to the great heauines of all his royall armie, at which time with all speede this phisition did prepare a medicine, most excellent for his souereigne Lord, whom he so dearely loued, to this end, that the great vertue thereof might preuent his present sicknesse, and immenent danger: but malici∣ous spite that wretched enemie, which ne∣uer sleepeth but watcheth euer, to bring Page  [unnumbered] vertue and good fame to destruction: Im∣mediatly before this gentle Philip did pre∣sent himselfe vnto the king with his medi∣cine, Letters were sent to king Alexan∣der, containing, that the said Philip was corrupted so with money from king Da∣rius, that he had put most deadly poison and vncurable venom into Alexanders medi∣cin. The king perusing the letters, kept them secret vntill he had drunke his medicin, and immediatly hee tooke his phisition by the hand, and deliuered him the letters that he might reade them, hauing in him so great confidence, that he did in no maner of case mistrust him. The cause why I haue alledged this most worthy prince king Alexander, and his excellent phisition Philip, is to de∣clare the great trust in the one, and the fide∣litie in the other, not forgetting the shame∣lesse conditions of the flattering Parasites, which euer walke with two faces in one hood, bearing fire in the one hand, and water in the other: sowers of discord, rea∣pers of mischiefe: which be alwayes ene∣mies vnto the disciples of Philip, whose venemous stings can not hurt them, which euer haue in store the precious, Iewell of pacience, and arme themselues to doe good Page  [unnumbered] to euerie good man, for the preseruation of their liues, by the true rules of the Gouern∣ment of health, which here I am so bold to present vnto your worship. For whereas there lacketh gouernment in a common wealth, the people doe eftsoones fall into ruine. The ships that lacke good gouer∣nance, oftentimes be cast away vpon sands and rocks. And therefore there is nothing vnder heauen that hath life, but if it lacke good gouernment, it will quickly fall into vtter decay. For like as the Creator of all things hath formed the bodies of all men, into the goodliest shapes of euery liuing thing that euer was, or euer shall be: euen so hee hath ordained for man, hearbes, fruits, rootes, seeds, plants, gums, oyles, pre∣cious stones, beasts, foules fishes, for the pre∣seruation of health, to be moderately vsed with discretion, which peserueth the bodie in good estate, without whose vertues the bodies cannot liue, for they bee the nouri∣shers of life. But misusing or abusing them, bringeth to the bodie many diseases, as rheumes, cathers, dropsies, impostumes, gowts, flixes, opilations, vertigoes, blind∣nesse, ruptures▪ fransies, with many mo noi∣some diseases, which come thorowe the Page  [unnumbered] corruption of meats and ill aire. For what auaileth riches, honours, costly buildings, faire apparell, with all the pompe of this worlde, and to bee honoured of the people, and in the meane time to bee eaten with wormes in the breast, or in the bellie, consu∣med with Agues, tormented with gowtes, sorenesse, bone-ach, &c. Well, I thinke an whole Codrus is better than a sicke My∣das.* And seeing that to possesse health, is better than to gouerne golde, insomuch that health maketh men more happie, stronger and quieter than all maner of ri∣ches, lacking health: as example. Great princes, noble men, men of great substance, when they be wrapped and enclosed with many and sundry sicknesses, and in dayly daungers of death, in their extreme paines and passions, they do more greatly couet one drop of health, than a whole tunne of gold, crying out for the helpe and counsell of the Phisition. Whom Iesus Siracke in his godly booke did counsell all wise men to ho∣nour,* and whom the almightie God did create and ordaine for the infirmitie of mankinde, and also medicine for his helpe, and that no wise man should despise them. Therefore yet againe (right worshipfull Page  [unnumbered] knight) I shall most humbly desire you, to ac∣cept the good will of him, which wisheth the yeares of your prosperous life and health, to be equall to Nestor, Arganton,* and Galen, whose liues were long, healthfull and happie. And thus wishing the dayly encrease of your worship, with continuall health, to Gods pleasure: who euer be your guide and gouernor, Amen. Your worships to com∣maund.

William Bullein.

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THis booke to prayse, I will not be curious,
Let the wise Reader with iudgement discus
The sunne neede no candel, to giue it more light,
The Eagle requier none to teach him his flight,
Ech fruits hath their taste, and forth witnesse bring,
From what trees they came, and had their growing,
So is this worke a manifest seale,
Of great commendacion, to which I appeale,
The beginning, scope, and ende of the counsell,
Health to preferre, and sicknesse expell.
Such matter digesting as they do assende,
Applying good medicines those euils to a mende,
With hearbes that doth binde or else be expulsiue,
Vicious humours, to correct and out driue,
Diseases thus anished, and health brought in place.
Thou maiest liue quietly, and finish thy race,
If death then shall come, whereto thou must trust,
Thy soule shallbe safe, let him dooe his worst.

quod R. B.

FINIS.
Page  [unnumbered]

¶ A Table of the contents of of this Booke of the Gouerne∣ment of health.

THe Epistle
 
Verses in mee∣ter against sur¦fetting com∣mending mo∣derate diet.
 
Verses in praise of the Book Of the Epicures lif.
Fol. 1
Heliogabalus court fitte for Epicures
ibidem
Belly gods plagued
2
Fruites of inordinate ban∣quets
ib.
Variety of opinions
ib.
An obiection against phy∣sicke
ib.
God, author of phisicke
3
God ordained hearbs for the health of men
ib.
The praise of Phisicke
4
A definition of phisicke
ib.
Sundry sectes of phisitions
5
Phisicke diuided into fiue partes
ib.
The discription of the foure complexions
6
The discription of the foure lements
7
Creatures compound of mo elements than one
8
Elements felt & not seen
ib.
The 4 complexions diuided into foure quarters of the yeere
ib.
Meates and medicines bee knowen
The bringing vp of chil∣dren
10
Best time to prouide for age
11
The description of the foure humors
12
Men hote, but womens tongues hoter
13
Al things bringeth their ap∣parell with him, man onlie except
14
A definition of mēbers
15
A part called by the name of the whole
ib.
What anotomy is
16
Foure things considered in the body of man
ib.
Against dropsie
18
Helping the Emerodes
ib.
Thernia excellēt triacle
ib.
Capers good
ib.
Page  [unnumbered]Miracle helpeth when phi∣sicke faileth
19
Time for al things
ib.
Of bloud letting
20
Vsurpation
21
Morning best to let blod
ib.
Of meats & medicines
ib.
Best time to purge
21.
Vomites & their profits
22
Custome in vomiting il
ib.
Of bathings and their pro∣perties
ib.
Discommodities by com∣mon hot houses
ib.
Afore bathing vse good ointments
ib.
Perillous to bathe vppon an empty stomacke
ib.
Of neesing
23
Of suppositers
ib.
Boxing good for the body
ib.
Of glisters
ib.
Manupractitioners
ib.
Beastes and birdes vse prun∣ing, &c.
ib.
Hot water vnwholsome
24
Frication wholsome
ib.
Combing the head
ib.
Cutting off haire and pa∣ring nailes
ib.
Consideration to be had in eating
ib.
A cause why the soul depar∣teth from the body
25
To eate both flesh and fish together hurteth the fleg∣matike
ib.
Diuerse sorts of meates cor∣rupt the body
ib.
Good diet prolonges life
26
What meats doe cause good bloud
ib.
To goe to bed with empty stomacke hurts
ib.
An order in dieting
ib.
An order for them that bee sicke.
27
Of sirrops and drinkes
28
As the complexion is, so man desireth
ib.
Moderate walke after meat profiteth
ib.
To helpe digestion by di∣uers waies
29
A note which be the whol∣somest aires to dwel in
30
What aires doe corrupt the bloud
ib.
Corrupt aire bringeth sun dry diseases
ib.
Feruent praier vnto God doeth mitigate his wrath
ib.
Sweete aires to be made in time of sickenesse
ib.
Page  [unnumbered]What situation is best for an house
31
Pleasant people
ib.
Moderate exercise a soue∣raigne thing
ib.
What profite commeth by exercise.
32
Vse maketh labour easie
ib.
Idlenes the mother of mis∣chiefe
ib.
Of exercise before meare
ib.
Of sleepe and weaking
33
To sleepe after dinner hur∣teth
ib.
To sleepe on the right side best
34
Lodging to bee kept cleane
ib.
To sleepe in fields is hurtful
ib.
The cause of the stone
ib.
Remedies for the stone
35
Of vrines with the colours therof, and the iudgements
ib.
Contents in vrine bee the chiefe things to know dis∣eases by
36
Of stooles, and the iudge∣ment of the colours there∣of
ib.
Of doctor Diet, Quiet, and Meriman
37
Better to lacke riches than to want quietnes & mirth
ib.
Many apt similitudes for the same
ib.
Poore mens pleasure
38
The torments of the mind.
ib.
Thought killeth many.
ib.
Ire is a grieuous passion
ib.
Diuels incarnate.
ib.
A good face in a glasse.
ib.
Better to be spited than pi∣tied in some case.
39
The vertues of Worme∣wood.
40
The propertie of Annis seed
ib.
The vertue of Mouse are.
ib.
Of Chickweed.
41
The properties of sorrel.
ib.
The properties of plantain.
ib.
Of Camomel and his pro∣pertie.
42
Of Sage and his propertie.
ib.
Of Polipodio and his pro∣pertie.
43
Of horehound and his pro∣perties.
ib.
Of veruen and his proper∣ties.
ib.
Page  [unnumbered]Of Rew or hearbe grace.
ib.
The properties of Burnet.
44
The properties of Dande∣lion.
ib.
Of Spinage.
ib.
Of Cucumbers.
ib.
Garlike & his propertie.
45
Onions.
ib.
Lettis and his propertie
46
Mints & their properties
ib.
Fenel and his properties
47
Isope and his operation
ib.
Sencion & his operation
ib.
Parcely & his operation
48
Mugwort and his propertie
ib.
Of cabbage
ib.
Philopendula and his opera∣tion
49
Agremony and his operati∣on
ib.
Of Dragon
ib.
The vertue of violets
ib.
Of the white lillie and his operation
ib.
Centory & of his vertue
50
Rosemary
ib.
Peniroyall and his operati∣on
ib.
Of mustard and his operati∣on
51
The vertue of buglosse
ib.
The vertue of Basil
ib.
Roses & their vertues
52
Sauory and his vertue
ib.
Time and his vertue
ib
Parcely and saxifrage, and their operations
ib.
Liuerwort and his operation
ib.
Bitony and of his vertue
53
Beetes and their vertue
ib.
Maidenhaire & his vertu
ib.
Nelilot and his vertue
ib.
Pease and beanes, and their operation
54
Of hutles and tares
ib.
Leekes & their properties
ib.
Of radish and other rootes
ib.
Hearbs ingender melancho∣ly
ib.
Good things to disgest cho∣ler
55
To purge choler
ib.
To disgest fleugme
ib.
To purge melancholy
56
To prouoke vrine
ib.
Comforts for the braines to smell on
ib.
Things good to stoppe the flixe
ib.
Good thinges to prouoke neesing
ib.
Good things to comfort the Page  [unnumbered] heart
ib.
Figges and dates
ib.
Of peares
57
The friers peare
ib.
Of apples
ib.
A medicine for the small pox
58
Of peaches
ib.
Of quinces
ib.
Of cherries
59
Of grapes
ib.
Sweete prunes laxatiue
ib.
Of Barberies & medlers
60
Of Capers
ib.
Of Biefe
ib.
Remedy for the flix
ib.
How to help disgestion
61
A medicine for the eies
ib.
Porke and his operation
ib.
The description of swine
ib.
Beasts haue no reason
62
Puddings of swine
ib.
A plaister of Saint Antho∣nies fire
63
Of rammes, weathers, and lambes
ib.
Of redde and fallow deeres flesh
64
Of hares and conies, & their properties
ib.
A medicine for bloudy eies
65
Of cockes, hennes, and ca∣pons
ib.
Of geese
66
The properties of great foules
ib.
Of the flesh of duckes
ib.
Of pigeons and doues
ib.
Of the flesh of peacocks
67
Rosted pigeons
ib.
Of the flesh of cranes
ib.
Of swannes flesh
ib.
Of herons, bittors, or sho∣uels
ib.
Of partriches, sesants, and quailes, &c.
ib.
The properties of smal birds
68
The operation of fishes
ib.
The best feeding for fish
69
Soone labour after eating fish hurteth
ib.
Fat fish grose
ib.
The election of fish
70
Crauises and crabs
ib.
Of oile
ib.
Of water
ib.
What kinde of water is best
71
Of vineger
ib.
Of common salt
72
Of hony
ib.
Bees example to vs
ib.
Of milke
73
Page  [unnumbered]Milke not good for ful sto∣mackes
74
Of Butter and Cheese
ib.
Of egges
75
Of wine
ib.
Heate of excesse in drinking
76
Beere and Ale
ib.
Breade of all sorts
77
Rise
78
Almonds
ib.
Walnuts
ib.
Filberds
79
Nutmegs
ib.
Of Cloues, Galingale, and Pepper
ib.
A practice
ib.
Callamus
ib.
Of triacle
83
Of methridatum
ib.
Of saffron
ib.
A regiment of the pestilēce
84
Good aire
ib.
Noone sleepe
85
Of sleepe
ib.
Exercise
ib.
Of mirth
ib.
Signes of the pestilence
ib.
Mithridatū andromachi
86
FINIS.
Page  1

The Gouernement of Health.

Iohn.

OF al pleasures and pastimes mee thinke there is none like vnto good cheere, * what shoulde a man doe but passe away the time with good fellowes, and make merrie, seeing we haue but a time to liue, cast away care, wherefore is meate and bel∣lies ordained, but the one to serue the other? The flesh that we dayly enc•••se is our owne. Abstinence and fasting, is a mightie enemie and nothing plea∣sant to mee, and bee vsed of very fewe that loue themselues, but onely of beg∣gers, and couetous sparers, which doe spare much, and spend little.

Humfrey.

I know well your good∣ly expence of time, I wis it is no mar∣uell, although you make your bellie your god, and boast of it. You sée that all lustie reuellers, and continual ban∣ket makers, come to great estimation, as for example, Varius Haelyogabalus,Page  [unnumbered] which was dayly fedde with many hundred fishes and foules, and was ac∣companied with manie brothels, baudes, harlots and gluttons, and thus it doeth appeare by your abhorring vertue, that of right you might haue claimed a great office in Haeliogaba∣lus court,* if you had beene in those daies, but you haue an infinite number of your conuersation in these dayes, the more pitie.

Iohn.

What? good sir, I require not your counsell, I pray you bee your owne caruer, and giue mee leaue to serue my fantasie. I will not charge you, you are verie auncient and graue, and I am but young, wee be no mat∣ches.

Hum.

Good counsell is a treasure to wise men, but a verie trifle to a foole, if thou haddest seene those things which I haue séene, I knowe thou wouldest not be such a man, nor thus spend thy time.

Iohn.

What hast thou seene, that I haue not seene?

Hum.

I haue séene many notable and grieuous plagues, which haue Page  2 fallen vpon gréedie gluttons, as wa∣sting their substance, disforming their bodies, shortning their pleasant daies:* and in this poynt to conclude with thée, whereas gluttonie remaineth, from thence is moderate diet bani∣shed: and those bellies that follow the lust of the eyes (in meates) in youth, shall lacke the health of all their bodies, in age if they liue so long.

Ioh.

Mee thinke thou canst giue good counsell, thou seemest to be seene in phisicke. I pray thee, is it so great hurt to delight in plenti of banquets?

Hum.

Sir,* if it will please you to bee somewhat attentiue, I will tell you. It is the verie graine whereof commeth stinking vomits, sausy faces, dropsies, vertigo, palsies, obstructions, blindnes, flixes, apoplexis, caters, and rheumes, &c.

Ioh.

Is it true that you haue said to mee?

Hum.

Would to God dayly expe∣rience did not trie it, I doe perfectly know it. And once thou shalt be a wit∣nesse thereof, if thou come to age.

Page  [unnumbered]
Iohn.

Then I beseech thee gentle friend Humfrey, declare to mee, whie there is such diuision among Phisitions.

Hum.

Thou seest among the Theo∣logians there is much varietie, and yet but one truth.* Discords bee soone knowne of Musitions, and the Physi∣tions be not ignorant of the generall natures of things. No diuision is al∣though it doe so appeare: for regents, place, age, time, and the present state of mans nature must bée obserued, and not the olde rules in all poynts. For mans nature is sore altered and chan∣ged, into a viler sort than it was woont to bee.

Ioh.

Some doe report that men of great estimation say: what needeth phi∣sicke, * it is but an inuention only for mo∣ney, we see (say they) who liueth so wel, as they which neuer knewe phisicke, and so euill as these pothicarie men?

Hum.

Many men be more rich than wise, and more estéemed for titles of their honours and worships, than for any other vertue or cunning, such men in some pointes, be more ingrate∣full to naturall remedies than dogges: Page  3 which can elect or choose their vomit∣ting grasse, or birdes which can choose grauell or stones for their casting. But to conclude with thée in this mat∣ter, Plinie the great clearke, hath a thousand reasons,* to proue them foolish that will obiect agaynst physicke. And the authour of all things did well fore∣sée and knowe,* what was good for mans nature, when hee stretched out so large a compasse round about the earth, with the noble Planets and signes, and their courses, influences and heauenly qualities, and garnished the earth with fruits, hearbs, flowers, leaues, graines, oyles, gums, stones, for mans comfort and helpe, and or∣dained the Physition for to helpe man. Thus the Almightie hath done (sayeth Salomon.) And in recompence,* God hath not appointed the Phisitions to be rayled vpon, or despised,* but honou∣red and rewarded: yea, estéemed of princes. And seeing good nature and wise men bee on my side: I force not of other mens phantasies, with whom neither good wisedome, nor good na∣ture is guide.

Page  [unnumbered]
Ioh.

Why is phisicke of such great au∣thoritie, or hath it bin in estimation among olde fathers, May that be pro∣ued of thy parte?

Hum.

Yea that I can.

Ioh.

If thou canst bring in any re∣uerent fathers that loued phisick, I will not despise, but greatly esteme it, and desire counsell in demaunding of a fewe questions.

Hum.

*Phisicke hath beene in so hie an estimation, that the Gentiles did al consent, it came from the immortall gods. The Hebrues did well knowe it, as Moises in the most auncient booke,* called Genesis primo, doth describe the worke of the almightie God: of herbs, fruites,* and plantes, that Adam might teach the vertues of thē to his children.*Iesus Sirack which was endued with the spirit of God hath lefte a laude be∣hinde him greatlie commending Phi∣sicke amongest the diuines of the He∣brues, Mercurie amongest the Egip∣tians,*Ouid doeth greatly commende Apollo, the inuenter of herbes, when they were almost out of memorie, he reuiued their vertues, and taught Page  4 their nature to others that followed him. After that came in Aesculapius, which did many most excellent cures. And Chiron, the instructer of Achilles,* whose name can neuer die as long as the herbe Centauri, groweth vpon the earth, which is called after his name. Podalirius, & Mechaon,* were two bre∣thren, in the time of the battel of Troy which were excellent Phisitions, and be greatly commended of Homer, who was more excellent than Hippocra∣tes, in the Ile of Coose:* whose works will neuer die, for he brought in Phi∣sicke, and digested it into faire bookes, for mans great health. Then came Galen,* not vnknowne to all wise and learned Phisitions. I coulde rehearse manie moe, but this shall suffise to prooue Phisicke to bée of greate authoritie amongst the olde fa∣thers.

Ioh.

I pray thee friend Humfrey, what is phisicke? I would bee glad to learne some of thy knowledge, for thou hast a good order in talking▪ and seeme to be grounded of authority. Therfore I am sory that I haue cōtended with thee: Page  [unnumbered] I pray thee be not angry with my for∣mer talke.

Hum.

*Hippocrates in his booke of windes or blastes, saith that phisicke or medecine is but a putting to the body which it lacketh, or taking from the bodie things superfluous. And al∣though our life be short,* yet the art of phisick is long, because great numbers of things be in it, and requireth much study, labour and practise, and first of all, it requireth much contēplacion or knowledge,* in studying good bookes, which is called Theoricha. Secondly the very effect of contemplation or study,** is practica or actiua, which is do∣ing of the things, that learning hath taught, as reparing, amending, or pre∣seruing the bodies of men, women and children, &c.

Ioh.

It seemeth to be a goodly sci∣ence.

Hum.

*Herodotus sayeth: they greatly erre that call it a Science, for it is an excellent Art in doing of nota∣ble things. And science is but to know thinges. There is also in this excellēt art sundry sectes of phisicions, some be Page  5 called Emperici, who suppose that only experience doeth suffise,* and so by vse and experience dooe take in hande to heale diseases, not knowing the cause of the said disease or sickenes.*Philinus was one of that secte at the first begin∣ning. Then folowed Serapion,* and after that the Apolonis.* And then came Glaucius, Menadotus, Sextus, &c. An∣other kinde of phisicions, be called Methodici,* which neither obserue tyme, place, age, state, nor condition: & think them things of smal profit, but onely their respect is to their disease: they loue not lōg study in phisick, & are greatly deceyued, because they would build without foundation: and haue the fruits before they haue planted the trées. These mens cures bee but by chaunce medly. One Sirus began this, which receyued certaine rules of As∣clepiades.* The chiefe and best sect of Phisitions called Dogmatici.* These be the wise men which set not the cart be∣fore the horse, nor the rootes of the trées vpward. They doe prudently consider the chaunge of mans nature, the dwelling place, the alteration of Page  [unnumbered] the aire, the time of the yeare, the custome of people, the maners of disea∣ses, the fashions of mens diet. And this they will proue by true argu∣ments and reasons, and will bee verie carefull for their patientes· The disci∣ples of those men, be the best scholers, therefore I counsell thee Iohn to loue wel Hippocrates the prince of Phisi∣cions,* which began the best maner to giue rules to al the louers of phisicke. Of this writeth Galen, much lauding Hippocrates and his followers, and in these daies Leonhardus Futchius, Ma∣theolus, &c.

Ioh.

Seeing thou hast spoken of sundrie partes of Phisitions, I pray thee what partes be there of phisicke?

Hum.

Truly there be fiue thinges to be noted in phisicke,* as fiue princi∣pall parts, as Galen saith: in lib. de Elementis.* The first is, to consider the nature of mans bodie. The second is, to kéepe the bodie in health, and to defend it from sickenes and infirmities. The third is, to know all the causes, rules, and seedes, whereof the sicknes doth grow. The .iiii is Crises or iudgemēt Page  6 of the disease of thinges present, past, and to come. The fifth is the best and most excellēt, for it sheweth the maner of healing, dieting, fashion, order, and way to helpe the sicke bodie, and pre∣serue the same, as long as man doth remaine in the state of life.

Ioh.

Thou hast spoken of the partes of phisicke, what is the forme maner or distribution thereof?

Hum.

It is distributed in 3. formes, one is natural, another vnnatural, the iii. against nature. The first is,* by those things whereof the body is com∣pact, constituted or made, as Galen saith: in his .iii. booke of his Tempera∣mentis. Cap. 4. The second is called not natural, as meates or things to preserue the bodie 〈◊〉 health they be not called vnnaturall, because they be against the bodie, but because the 〈◊〉 taking, or glotonous vsing of thē, may bring many thinges to the vtter de∣struction of the bodie. The third, bee things against nature, which doth cor∣rupt the bodie or po••on nature wher∣of Galen writeth.*

Page  [unnumbered]
Ioh.

Now thou hast taught me short rules of the partes and formes phisicall, I pray thee shewe me some pretie rules of the complections of men, and that I may aptly knowe them with their pro∣perties, elements, temperaments, and humours.

Hum.

Upon my Lute some time, to recreate my selfe, I ioine with my sim∣ple harmonie, many plaine verses. A∣mong all other one small song of the foure complections: wilt thou heare it? take that chaire and sit downe, and I I will teach thee my song.

Ioh.

I thanke thee.

Humfrey.
The bodies where heat and moysture dwel,
Be sanguine folkes as Galen tell,
With visage faire and cheekes rose ruddy:
The sleepes is much & dreames be bluddy.
Pulse great and full, with digestion fine,
*Pleasantly concocting flesh and wine,
Excrements aboundant, with anger short,
Laughing very much and finding sport,
Vrine grosse, with colour red:
Pleasant folkes at boord and bed.
Page  7Where cold with moisture preuaileth much,
Flegmatike folks be alwaies such,
Fatnes softnes, haire plaine and right,*
Narrow veines and colour white,
Dull of wit, no heart, too bold,
Pulse very slo, disgestion cold,
Sleeping ouer much, vrine grosse and pale,
Spittle white and thicke thus ends the tale.
Choler is hot and drie as fire,
Leannesse of lims and puffed with ire.
Costiue bellies▪ with lite sleepe.
Dreames of fier, or wounds deepe.*
Sallowe coloured, or tawie red,
Feeding on salt meats, and crustes of bread,
Voice sharpe, and quickenes of wit,
Vrine yellow and saltnes of spit,
Pulses swift, and verie strong,
Cruell countenance, not anger long.
Melancholy is cold, and very drie.
As here in rime the signes will trie,
Haire plaine, and verie thin,*
A leane wretch with hardnes of skin.
Colour whitelie, or like to lead,
Much watch, and dreames of dread,
And stiffe in folish fantasie,
Disgestion slowe, and long angrie.
Fearefull of minde, with watrie spitle.
Seldome laughing, and pulse little
Page  [unnumbered]Vrine waterie, and verie thin,
The colde earth, to him is kin.
Ioh.

This is a good song, and I will learne it, for though it seeme not verie pleasant, yet I perceiue it is profitable. Now thou hast spoken of the signes of the .4. complections, I praie thee teach mee shortly, howe to knowe the ele∣ments.

Hum.

*They be the foure beginners vnmingled and vntempered, from whose mixtures euerie corporall thing hath his substance.

Ioh.

What be the partes? I pray thee tel me.

Hum.

Foure, the one is earth the heauiest matter and grossest, which is colde & drie, and melancholy. And the other is water, which is lighter and more subtil then the earth,* and of na∣ture is cold, moist, and fleugmeticke. Then is ayre more purer and lighter then water, and if it bée not altered with any other straunge cause,* it is hot and moist and sanguine: Then fier is most light, pure and cleare, a clarifier and a clenser of al the other elementes, when they are corrupted, and is of his Page  8 owne nature hote, drie, and chole∣ricke.

And of these foure Elements, both man, beast, fishes, foule, hearbe, stone, mettall, haue their proper working, not of one of the Elementes alone, but of all: some more and some lesse, accor∣ding to their natures.

Hippocrates saieth:* after the soule is gone from the bodie, the body doeth returne to the first matter whereof it was made▪ And to conclude, all things that be made vpon earth, shall returne vnto the earth againe in tyme.

Ioh.

What, might not men, beasts, fish or foule, hearbe or tree, bee of one element aswell as of foure? I pray you tell me.

Hum.

No, for Aristotle saith: Deus & natura nihil agunt frustra, God and nature hath doone nothing in vaine. And if any thing vpon the earth sen∣cible were of one element,* no sicknesse could hurte it, nor disease corrupt it, but euerie thing liuing vppon the earth, seeing it hath had beginning, it must néedes haue ending, to whom these foure complexions doeth belong Page  [unnumbered] if they do greatly abound or diminish or withdraw their vertues with quan∣tities or qualities.

Ioh.

May a man see any of the Ele∣ments?

Hum.

The thing which men do see be none of the foure Elements: not earth, but earthie, not water, but wa∣trie, not ayre, but airie, not fier, but firie. But the things which man doth féele,* be the foure Elements, as earth, aire, fier, and water. And these be the vttermost simples of complexions, di∣uersly and specially, alone of them selues, or mingled with other, taking sundrie and diuers effectes, maners, condidions, formes and qualities, both in man and beast, and euery liuing thing, sensible and insensible.

Ioh.

What is the complexion of the quarters of the yeare, and names of the signes?

Hum.

The spryng time when bloud doeth increase:* Summer when red colour doeth rule: Haruest when colour aduste, or melancholy doth reigne. Wynter when fleugme doeth abound in full strength.* It is called wynter Page  9 from the twelfth day of December, vnto the tenth daie of March: This sea∣son is colde and moiste, it is called spring time, from the .xii. day of March, and endeth about the .xii. day of Iune. Summer begins about the xii. day of Iune, and endeth about the .xii. day of September. Autumne or Haruest, beginneth about the .xiii. daie of Sep∣tember, and endeth about the .xi. daie of December. Capricornus, Aquarius, & Pisces, be winter signes, Aries, Tau∣rus, & Gemini, be signes for the spring. Cancer, leo, and Virgo be the signs for Summer. Libra, Scorpio, and Sagitari, be the signes for haruest. And the sun goeth through al these xii. signs in xii. months. And ye Moone goeth xii. times through each of the foresaid signs once in the yeere, and do take sundry effects in man, beastes, and fruits, in the said signes: hote or cold, moist or drie.

Iho.

What be the complexions of medicines?

Hum.

Those things that ouercome and gouerne the body, as purgations, expulsiues, &c. These be called medi∣cins,* and those things that nourisheth Page  [unnumbered] and augmenteth the bodie, bee called meates. For the complexions of meats and medicines bee knowne by their tastes, as coldnes, hotnes, moistnesse, drines,* bitternes, saltnes, swéetnes, fat∣nes, sharpnes, stipticke, and clammie. And because thy request is to haue prescribed vnto thée, but onely a little gouernment of health: I will shewe vnto thée another of my little songs, in plaine méetre, how thou shalt know meates and medicines by their tastes.

Iohn.

That is my chiefe desire, I will heare thee, say on.

Humfrey.
Cold quencheth the cholers pride,
*Moist humecteth that which is dried,
The flowing moisture, by proofe I trie,
Is wasted of humours hote and drie,
The subtill foode, that is piersing quicke,
The clammy meates, maketh it thicke,
Bitter things, cleanse and wipeth oft,
And expell fleugme, and maketh soft.
Salt drieth, and resolueth fleugme tough,
Fat nourisheth, and makes subtile inough.
Stiptike or rough taste on the tongue,
Bindeth and comforteth appetite long.
Sweet things in clensing, is very good
Page  10It dissolueth much, and nourisheth blood.
These things well vsed, nature will please,
But abusing them beastly, bringeth disease.
Iohn.

In good faith, me thinks thou sayest well, for there apeare perfite rea∣sons in these thy prety rules. Now thou hast declared vnto mee, the signes of complexions of men: with the way and apt knowledge of meates by their tastes, I would faine learne, shortlie the temperaments and complections of mankinde.

Hum.

There was neuer so discreet nor wise phisition, that either feared God, or pitied mankind, or loued his owne honestie, would take in hand ei∣ther to prescribe diet, or to minister medicin to any body, before he wel did consider, and wisely wey with himself, the temperament, mixture or cōplexion of mankind: first, whether he were hot or colde, moist or drie, fat or leane, or indifferent betwene them both:* tem∣pered by health, or distempered by sick∣nesse, as the extremities of hotenesse, coldnesse, moistnesse, and drynesse. Therefore Iohn, these things may not bée forgotten: you must note also the Page  [unnumbered] foure ages of mankinde, & first the ten∣der state of children, which beginneth at the birth, & so continueth vntill xv. yeres next after their said birth: Their temperaments or complections, be hot and moist, very like vnto ye seed wher∣of they bee procreated, then next vnto childhood or innocēt age. Youth which is the second part of life, beginneth to reigne, his temperament or complecti∣on hath rather more firy heat, than per∣fite naturall heat, and this second age, continueth for ten yeares, as Galen sayth.* Well, in these two first states of life, let all naturall fathers & mothers bring vp their youth, set God before their eyes,* for they haue no smal charge committed vnto them, that must giue account to God, how they haue brought vp their children: and they that in these yeres do space correction, truly be grie∣uous enemies vnto their children, and at last shalbe recōpensed with shame, when they shall sée misfortune & wret∣chednesse fall vpon the fruites of their owne séeds. For men haue smal profite of their corne, which be choked and o∣uercome with Thistles, Bryers, and Page  11 Brakes which were not weeded in time, much lesse of their children, which haue receyued neyther correc∣tion nor honest learning in due sea∣son. If the kéepers of gardens be care∣full ouer their late sowne séedes, and tender hearbes, which are in daun∣ger to bee destroyed of euerie frost: What shoulde good fathers and mo∣thers doe for their children, whose tender and youthfull yeares bee ca∣ryed away, and ouercommed of eue∣rie foolish fantasie, and it is no mar∣uaile. But this shall suffice for the wise, and smally profite the fooles: but to my matter which I tooke in hande, I will returne vnto the thirde age of mankinde, which is called the lustie state of life, and beginneth at xxv. yeares, and continueth vnto xxxv, This age is hote and drie, and ve∣rie cholericke, as Galen sayth:* This part of life is subiect, to manie bur∣ning and extreeme feuers, and hote vlcers: therefore it is necessarie to knowe this temperament of com∣plection, which is called cholericke, as plainely may appeare by age, Page  [unnumbered] strength, diet, vrine, &c.

This is the best time for mankind to trauell in, with godly exercise in science, arte, and profitable trauelles in his vocation, putting in practise, the vertues which he hath learned in youth, for this is the sommer part of life, wherein all goodly frutes do flo∣rish in euerie good occupation.* This is the very haruest, to gather the precious corne, and the frute of their labours against the colde stormes and cloudie daies of their aged winter, wherein the bodie shallbe weake, and the eies sight decay, and the handes tremble, and therefore it is not comely to sée the state of age, without rest, which in the time of youth, did honestly trauell. For there is a grace giuen to many creatures vnreasonable, both beastes and foules: to make prouision before hande, what is then to be required of men reasonable, as foloweth in these verses.

THe Bird in time her nest can make,
The Bee will build his huse full fine,
The Crane with stone in foot wil wake,
Page  12The Conie will carue vnder the myne,
The Squirel in trees her nuts can keepe,
Against colde winter to feed and sleepe,
And should not a man well foresee,
In youth to know his old degree?

Then from .xxxv. or few yeres folo∣wing, the lusty braunches of youth, begin to abate his pleasant leaues, flowers and fruit by litle and litle wil decay, raw humors, crampes, dropses, quaterns, melancholy, will then draw neer. The riots, surfets, sore labours, bearing of extreame burdens, wrest∣ling, actes venerous with the abuse of youth, wil then spring forth, to the de∣triment of age and sodaine decay of life, in especiall of drunkardes.

Ioh.

What, be the places of bloud, Choler, Fleugme, & Melancoly, natu∣rall or vnnatrual? Thou hast not made a particular distinction of their proper places, but generally thou hast spoken well in thy song.

Hum.

There are also other descrip∣tions of the foure humors very neces∣sarie to bee knowen, and their pla∣ces whereas they dwell within the Page  [unnumbered] body, and first of bloud, as Galen saieth: in his first booke of effected places, bloud (saieth he) that is in the pulses, doeth greatly differ from the bloud of the veines, for the bloud of the pulses is thinner, yelower and hotter, and this bloud, may bée called the gouernor of life.* The spring and fountaine of the bloud generall is in the liuer, which serueth euery veine of bloud, and this bloud in colour is verie redde. Fleugme is white, & is ingendred in the stomacke, and at length by the vertue of naturall heate, pure fleame is turned into bloud. There be also watrie, slimy, glassie, grosse, salt, sower, thicke, hard binding, and extreme cold fleames, which in dede be vnnaturall, that bée engendred thorowe surfets, coldnes or idlenes, bringing to the body many noisome deseases. There is also choler, which is yelowe, whose place in the body is the gall, which com∣meth of the clensing or purifying of bloud: and this choler is cleare, hote and drie, and the comforter of decoc∣tion. Greene choler, or choler myn∣gled with fleugme, be vnnaturall, me∣lancholie Page  13 naturall: in the Splene is nothing but the sixe degrées, or hea∣uie residents of the bloud, the natu∣rall melancholie is knowen by his blackenesse, the vnnaturall commeth of the burning of choler, and is ligh∣ter and hoter, browne of colour, sower of taste, and putteth the bodie in great daunger: as madnesse, blacke ianders, continuall feuers, and sodaine deadly diseases. Therefore my friend Iohn, remember this short description of hu∣mours,* as the wordes of Galen and A∣uicen say.

Iohn.

Thus I haue heard thy seue∣rall placing of the foure complecti∣ons of bloud, Choler, Fleugme and Melancholie, and is there anie distinct hotenesse, coldnesse, moystnesse, and drinesse, in anie other creature besides man? tell me.

Hum.

Not onely in man, but in beastes, fish, foule, serpents, trées, hearbes, mettals, and euerie thing sensible and insensible, according to their natures, and bee equally min∣gled or tempered togither, which is cal∣led meane temperance, or else excee∣deth Page  [unnumbered] in degrées, which is called intem∣perance, hote and moist, may be com∣pounded together, so may colde and drie, hote and drie, colde and moist: example, A cholericke man, hote and drie:* a fleugmatike man, colde and moyst, &c. Of hearbes, as Hysope and Rew, hot and drie, Purslen and Cow∣cumbers, cold and moist, &c. But tem∣peraments or complections of men, beasts, and trées, be some hoter, some colder, according to their natures. As a Lion is hoter than a cholericke man: Pepper is hotter than Cloues. And though there be degrées in more hot∣nesse or more coldnesse, yet they are called but hote or cold, as men after la∣bour or trauell, they will say they are hot, but the fire which people warme them at, is hotter.

Also there bee things repugnant to temperaments, as moyste and drynesse together, heate and colde∣nesse together, as fyre to bee colde, or the water of his owne nature to bee hote, which water peraccidence of the fire is made hote: and fire quenched by the water. And euerie Page  13 thing exceeding greatly with distem∣peraunce or wanting temperaunce or complexion, do eftsoones come to an end, as man by extreme sicknesses, surfets or woundes, or finally age. lacking naturall vertue. Of heate and moistnes of trees and hearbes, from whom iuice and sap is withdrawen,* these things of necessitie must needes die, and come to corruption, as Galen and Aristotle saie.

Ioh.

Whether be men or women of colder complexion?

Hum.

Auicen saieth:* like as men be hot and drie, so be women colde and moist.

Ioh.

Yea but Lucian saieth: they be perillous hot of their tongues & full of venim: though I am no phisicion, yet can I make a description of that mem∣ber, * for I am oftentimes stinged with it, I would to God they had beene wor∣med when they were young, but when they are olde, they are past all cure: but the best medicine that I haue, it is a gentle herbe called Rewe, of which I am neuer without great store.

Hum.

Mankinde was borne naked Page  [unnumbered] to this ende, that hee might cloathe himselfe with other creatures:* which hee brought not into this world with him, as cloath, leather, harnesse made of iron, for his defence, because he is the chiefe creature. But hor∣ses of nature haue hard hooffes, Li∣ons sharpe téeth, Porpentines sharpe prickes, which is their continuall and naturall armour, as thinges euer prepared to debate and strife, and by no Art can scant bee tamed. The Rose as pleasauntly as shee doeth ap∣peare, and as swéetely as shee doeth smell, spring not further without a greate number of sharpe prickes. Therefore it is tollerable for men to beare with them whom nature hath sealed and marked for his owne. With that humour most cholericke, digresse from this thy communication, and let vs talke of thinges more pro∣fitable, for in déede this is pleasant to no man.

Ioh.

Seeing thou wilt not describe me these particular members, of which wee haue spoken, I would bee glad to know the partes of mankinde, with a Page  15 short description of his members.

Hum.

Members be simple and also compound, the simples be ten in num∣ber, the cartillages, the gristles, the bones, veynes, and synewes, arte∣ries, pannicles, lygaments, cordes, and the skinne. Members compounded,* bee those that be ioyned and builded together of simple members, as the handes, face, feete, lyuer, and heart, and so compounded members be made of simple.

Some of the compounded members be called principalles: as the heart from whence the arteries springs, the braine, from whence the sinewes springes, the liuer which is the well of the bloud, from whence the veines doe spring, and the stones of generation from whence the seed of life springeth: but those compounded members that bee principall bee all the other mem∣bers except the simple, as the nose, the eares, the eies, the face, the necke, the armes and legges, and the braines and chiefe substaunce of our flesh, bee com∣pounded members of sinewes, and couered with panacles which bee of a Page  [unnumbered] sinew nature, but that sinewes giue féeling to all the whole bodie: euen as the arteries giueth spirituall bloud from the heart to euerie member. The whole body is couered with filmes and skinnes. Out of the head springeth hard matter issuing from the places called the pores, to purge vapours and smoke from the braine, which ascen∣deth out of the stomacke into the head, and is cleansed through pia mater, cal∣led the tender couering of the braine or spirites animall. And therefore as some partes of the bodie being diuided in sunder, be each like vnto the other, and yet called by the name of the whole, as for example: When the bones be broken in sunder, or the flesh cut into diuerse péeces, or the blood powred into sundrie vessels, a péece of flesh is still called flesh,* a fragment of a bone, is called a bone, and a droppe of blood is called bloud: Euen so an hande, arme, veyne, or such like vnse∣parate partes beeing diuided into péeces, or called by the name of péeces, and not by the name of the whole part (as is before.) But my friend Page  15Iohn, to make a large description of Anatomie, it were too long for mee, but shortly I will say some thing. And first, the definition thereof is, when the bodie of a dead man or woman, is cut and opened and the members diuided,* or for the want of dead bo∣dies to reade good bookes, as Galen, A∣uicen, &c. And it behooueth them that cutteth a deade corpse, to note foure things. First,* the nutrimentall mem∣bers, as the liuer with the veynes: the second is, the members spirituall, as the heart with the arteries:* the third is, the animall members, as the head, braines and sinewes: the fourth and last, be excrements of the bodie, as armes, legges, skin, haire, &c. Of these said members, with the bones, is all the bodie compounded. And like as euerie trée and hearbe, haue their rootes in the earth, and their braun∣ches springeth vpward, euen so the rootes of mankinde, haue the begin∣ning in the braine, and the sinew and branches groweth downeward: in the which braine, dwelleth the vertues of imagination, fantasie, memorie, &c. Page  [unnumbered] And these animall vertues, be placed as it were heauenly aboue al the mē∣bers, communicating their heauenly influences, down vnto the heart, as to a prince, or chiefe ruler within the body, which giueth life to euery part thereof Thou shalt consider, that the hart was the first that receiued life from the spi∣rites, and shalbe the last that shall die. Note also, that as there be noble sences giuen to the body, as seeing, hearing, smelling tasting, féeling: euen so na∣ture hath foure principall vertues, first Attractiue, the second Retentiue, the third Digestiue, the fourth Expul∣siue. Attractiue is that by the which e∣uery part of the body draweth the food of life, & serueth the vertue disgestiue, and the Retentiue doeth holde the meate vntill it be readie to be altered and changed. Digestiue doth alter, and maketh the foode like vnto the thing that it nourisheth, as fleme, bloud, &c. Expulsiue separateth them from the other, the good from the bad. Thou oughtest also most chiefly to learne the knowledge of the veines, and for what sicknesse, they must bée opened, and Page  17 what medicins either in sirups or pils thou must vse. And first marke this fi∣gure of the Anatomie here present be∣fore thee, with the heauenly signes, be∣cause I haue not painted at large the seuerall parts of the said Anatomie.

[illustration]

Page  [unnumbered]The middle veine of the forehead is good to be opened against Megrim, forgetfulnes, & passions of the head. And they that be let blood of this, or any other veyne, must first haue their head purged with pillule Chochi Rasis, or some purgation, but first vse thinges to extenuate matter, as syrruppe of Bu∣glosse, &c.

Against Leprosy and deafnes. Let bloud the two veines behind the eares, and vse the said pilles or els pillule Aurea Nicholai or Arabice, or cōfectio Hameth minor.

Against replexion or too much blood, or bloud in the eies, flowing in the head, vpon the temple veines called Artiers, for they bée euer beating. And vse to purge with pillule Artritice Ni∣cholai or puluis, ad epithema Hepatis.

Against Squinancie, stopping the throte, and stopping of the breath: Let bloud the veines vnder the tongue. And for this vse Philoniūmaius Ne∣cholai and Gargarismes pilule Bechie and oxymel Simplex.

Ueines called Originales, open not Page  18 without great counsaile of a learned Physicion, or cunning Chirurgion. They be in the necke, and haue a great course of bloud, that gouerneth the head, and the whole body.

Against short winde, and euill bloud aproching to the heart, and spitting bloud. Open the vaine called Cor∣diaca, or heart veine, in the arme. Use thinges to extenuate, as Aromaticum, Chariophillatum Mesue, serapium ex Absinthij in colde time, serapium Bo∣raginis hote time, and pillule sto∣machi.

Agaynst palsie, yellow Iaundies, burning heats, and apostumations of the liuer. Open the liuer vein vpon the right arme. Take Serapium exendiue. Diamargariton frigidum Auicennie.

Against dropsy,* open the veine be∣tweene the belly and the braunch, the right side against the said dropsy, and the left side against the passions of the milte, but bée not rash, vnlesse ye haue the consaile of one well seene in the Anothomie. Use pillule Hiere cum Agarico.*

Agaynst the stopping the secrete Page  [unnumbered] tearmes or fluxions of women, or hel∣ping the Emerods, and purging sores, Open the veine called Sophane vnder the ancle.*Theriaca Andromachi, Pil∣lule, Mastichine, Petri de Ebano.

Within twentie houres after one is infected with the pestilence, com∣ming sodenly: Open the vein betwéen the wrest of the foote, and the great toe. Use Serapium Cichorij, and Pillule pestilentialis Ruffi.

Against stinking breath: Open the veyne betwéene the lip, and the chin. Use for this Catharicum imperiale. Ni∣cho. Alexandri.

Against the toothake: Open the veine in the roofe of the mouth. And first purge with Pillule. Choci Rasis, or with pilles of masticke.

*Against quartens, tercians, and paines of the left side: Open the splene veine, commonly called the low veine, with a wide cut, and not deepe: For Chirurgions nicely pricking or ope∣ning veynes, with little Scarisfacti∣ons, doe let out good pure bloud, and still retaine, grosse, colde, and drie earthly matter, to the great hurt of Page  19 their patients. And albeit many more veynes might here be spoken of, and their vtilities, yet this shall well suf∣fice by Gods grace to kéepe all people in health, that vpon iust cause haue these veynes opened: except olde men, women with childe, and children, vn∣der xiiii. yeares of age, or men after diuerse agues. For bloud letting, will then engender perillous palsies, as ve∣rie excellent Phisitions haue well de∣clared. And after one be infected with the pestilence xxiiii. houres, before hee haue receyued medicine,* or bloud let∣ting, miracle helpeth him, but truly no medicine hath vertue to doe it.

Ioh.

This same figure although it appeareth in many bookes: yet verie fewe do vnderstand it in all points, such be the secrete workes of nature. And whereas thou hast well spoken of some veynes, and apt medicines for the body: I woulde faine see the true forme and shape of the bones.

Hum.

Oh Iohn, it were a long time to shewe the singular members with compounds, as Galen doth in his booke of the partes and bones. It requireth Page  [unnumbered] onely one worke, but I haue taken in hand to teach thee but a Gouernment of health: notwithstanding at thy re∣quest, I will briefly rehearse the num∣ber of the bones, no lesse true than newe, which is, the verie timber, or postes whereupon our fraile flesh is builded, beginning in our mothers wombes, and ending in earth the mo∣ther of all things. And as the noble prince Auicen affirmeth, the number of all the bones, be two hundred fourty and foure, beside Sasamina, & Os laude.

Ioh.

Thou hast spoken of the ope∣ning of veynes, and medicins conueni∣ent to cleanse the bloud, with the num∣ber of bones, but thou hast not spoken of conuenient time when to let blood, nor of the state or age of them whose veynes should be opened. Therefore I would be glad to learne, not onely time of bloud-letting, but also, of purging, the belly vomits, bathings, neesings, and rubbing of the bodie, &c.

Hum.

*Euery thing hath his time conuenient, and must bee done with sober discretion, and not with rash ignorance, which killeth an infinite Page  20 number. Therefore the cause must be knowne, and the time obserued, as Ga∣len writeth in the Commentarie of the Afforismes of Hippocrates,* manie bodies be extinguished by suddē death, in whom is extreme fulnesse, or aboun∣dance. For aboundance of blood or any other humor sayth Aristotle,* is the cause of many sickenesses, and those men that vse much gluttonie in Winter, shall bee apt to receyue ma∣nie diseases in the Spring time. Therefore when the bodie hath ex∣treme heat, fulnes of veynes, flushing, with sodain rednesse in the face, grosse and red vrine, and such burning heate in the night that let the sleepe, &c: then it is tyme to euacuate the bodie, with some purgation, bloud letting, or ab∣stinence as the strength and age of the patient will serue. For manie dis∣eases, be helped by discrete bloud let∣ting, as Plurises, hot Feuers,* Fren∣sies, Repletion, or Surfets taken with ouermuch eating or drinking, as Galen sayeth, The letting of bloud dryeth vppe the superfluous moy∣sture of the bellie, helpeth memorie, Page  [unnumbered] purgeth the bladder, quieteth ye braine, warmeth the marrow, openeth the or∣gans of hearing, helpeth digestion, in∣duceth sleepe, &c. Unto this agréeth Ra∣sis,* saying, it helpeth greatly against Leprosie, Squinances, Appoplexes, Pestilences, &c. But olde men, chil∣dren, or women with childe, ought not to be let bloud, nor also those people that dwell in colde regions, may not be let bloud, because the bloud is the chief warmer of nature. The people that dwell in hot regions, if they be letten bloud, it will dry their bodies, for blood is the chiefe moister of nature. There∣fore is the heate of Sommer, and the coldnesse of Winter, forbidden to open veynes, or let bloud, except for a stripe, or sudden chaunce,* as Rasis sayth, the spring of the yeare is the chiefe time to let bloud in the right arme, or right foote,* in the veyne called Mediana. Which veyne must bee opened aswell at other times in the beginning of sick∣nesses, as hot feuers, and plurisies, &c. as Basilica should bee opened in the middle, or toward the ende of a sicke∣nesse. Purgations ought to bee mini∣stred Page  21 with great discretion, and not rashly to be taken, for euerie trifle as thou hast heard me speake of bloud let∣ting. So obserue the selfe same rules in purgation, as time, person, quali∣tie, or quantitie.* For Hippocrates say∣eth, without doubt it is needfull to purge the superfluitie of the bodie. As if bloud doe abound to take things to purge blood. If fleugme be superfluous, then take things to cleanse his super∣fluitie. If choler bée too ardent hote, vse things to extinguish: If melancho∣ly be too extreme then taste things to bring him into a meane. And not to purge one humour with the medicines of an other,* but to take them in due or∣der and aptnes. For the said humors as Valarius Cordus. Mesue, and Nicho∣las, teach the maner of making of the most excellent purgations with their quantities.* And as in blood letting sléepe must bee auoyded for viii. or xii. houres after them: so when your pur∣gations be taken, aire is to be auoided and to be kept close for ii. or thrée daies or more as the malice of the disease, or power of the purgations be, & the coun∣saile Page  [unnumbered] of Rasis must bee followed:* which sayth, oftentimes to take Purgations or laxatiue medicines doeth make the bodie weake, and apt to the Feuer ethicke, and specially in verie leane or weake persons, they that bee verie fat haue small guts and veynes, pur∣gations bee verie noisome vnto them. But strong bodies hauing large ves∣sels, may sustaine purgations without any hurt, but strong purgations, either in pils or potions, if they any thing do excéede be verie hurtfull: therefore the doces or quantities may not excéede. And also they must bee made as plea∣sant as Art can doe them, vnlesse they offend the stomacke.*Hippocrates gi∣ueth counsell that men should not min∣gle medicins with meate, but to take them thrée or foure hours before meat, or else so long after. Unlesse they bee pils called Antecibum, which may bée taken at the beginning of supper, or else Pilli chochi, a little before sléepe, two hours after supper. The best time of purgations is in the spring time,* as the doctors doth affirme: the apt dayes and signes are commonly knowne in Page  22 the English Almanacks, calculated in∣to English. As in the writings of ma∣ster Leonard Digges,* and of William Kenningham, a learned student both in Astronomie and Phisicke, with manie mo good men that taketh paynes to profite the common wealth. There is another maner of purging of the bodie by vomit,* for it clenseth from the mid∣riffe vpward, if they haue large brests, and be cholericke persons. It is good a∣gainst dropsies, & leprosies, & better in summer than in winter,* as Hippocra∣tes saith: and wholsomer one houre be∣fore supper than at any other time, and not to be vsed as a custome:* for the cu∣stome of vomits hurteth greatly the head and eies, and maketh the stomack so féeble, that it will scant beare anie meates or drinkes, but eftsoones cast them vp again. They which haue nar∣rowe throtes and breastes, and long neckes, vomits be neither apt nor good for them. And Auicen saith,* that vo∣mits ought to bee twise in the Mo∣neth for the conseruation of health, but that which is more doeth hurt the bo∣die.* There is another kinde of the Page  [unnumbered] clensing of the body by sweating, as with hot drinkes, warme clothes, per∣fumes made of Olibalum brimstone, niter, &c. There is also bathes and sweating in hot houses for the pockes, scurffe, scabbes, hemerodes, piles, which hot houses haue the vertue of helping the saide diseases.* But if any that be of an whole temperate com∣plexion do sweate in drie hot houses, it doth them much harme: as hyndring their eyesights, decaying their teeth, hurting memory. The best bathing is in a great vessel, or a litle close place with the euapuration of diuers sweete hearbes wel sodden in water, which haue vertue to open the poores softly, letting out feeble and grosse vapors, which lieth betwene the skinne and the flesh.* This kinde of bathing is good in the time of pestilence, or feuer quar∣ten: in the end of the bathes, it is good to anoint the body with some swéete oyle, to molifie and make soft the sinewes. And thus to conclude of ba∣thing, it is verie holsome, so that it be not doone vppon an emptie stomacke,* palsies may come thereby, or to take Page  23 sodaine colde after it, there foloweth an other purgation, called neesing or sternutacion which is beneficial for the bodie if it be vsed vpon an empty sto∣macke.* Twyse or thrise in a morning with a leafe of Bittony, put into thy nose, it helpeth memory, good against opilation, stopping, and obstructions: Suppositers be good for weake people or children,* made with Hieria Picra and hony,* made in the length of a fin∣ger: Scarifiyng or boxing, as Galen saith, applied vnto the extreme partes, as the legges, and the armes, doth great helpe vnto the body, in drawing watery humour away from the body, but boxing is not good for the brest, ap∣plied thereto in hote feuers, is daun∣gerous. Glisters made according to arte,* be good for them whieh be too weake to take purgation. The maner of the said glisters, because they be not here to be spoken of at large, I entend by Gods grace to set forth in my next book of helthful medicins.* Purgations venerous, there be so many practici∣oners thereof, that I neede to write no rules but this, that affection, lust and Page  [unnumbered] fantasie, haue banished chastitie, tem∣perance, and honestie.

Ioh.

Plaine people in the countrie, as carters threshers, ditchers, colliers, and plowmen, vse seldome times to wash their hands, as appeareth by their filthynes, and as verie few times combe their heads, as it is seene by floxe, nittes, grease, fethers, strawe, and such like, which hangeth in their haires. Whether is washing or combing things to decorate or garnish the body, or els to bring health to the same? *

Hum.

Thou séest that the deere, horse, or cowe, will vse friction or rub∣bing them selues against trees both for their ease and health. Birdes and haukes, after their bathing will prune and rowse them selues vpon their braunches and perkes, and all for health.* What should man do, which is, reasonable but to kéepe himself cleane, and often to wash the handes, which is a thing most comfortable to coole the heate of the liuer, if it bee done often, the handes be also the instrumentes to the mouth & eies, with many other thinges commonly to serue the bodie. Page  24 To wash the handes in cold water is very holsome for the stomake and ly∣uer,* but to wash with hot water en∣gendreth rheumes, wormes and cor∣ruption, in the stomacke, because it pulleth away naturall heate vnto the warmed place, which is washed.* Fri∣cation or rubbing the bodie, is good to be done in mornings after the purga∣tion of the belly with warme clothes, from the head to the brest, then to the belly, from the belly to the thighes, legges, and so forth. So that it be done downwarde, it is good. And in drie folkes to be rubbed with the oyle of camomill.* Kembing of the head is good in mornings, and doth comfort memo∣rie, it is euil at night and openeth the pores. The cutting of the haire,* and the paring of the nailes, cleane keepe∣ing of the eares, and teeth, be not only thinges comely and honest, but also holsome rules of Phisicke for to be su∣perfluous things of the excrements.

Ioh.

The chiefe thing that I had thought to haue demanded, & the very marke that I would haue thee to shote at, is to tell me some thing of dieting Page  [unnumbered] my selfe with meate and drinke, in health and sickenesse.

Hum.

*There is to be considered in eating, the time of hunger or custome, the place of eating and drinking, whe∣ther it be colde or hote, also the time of the yéere, whether it bee Winter or Summer: also the age or complexion of the eater, and whether he bee whole or sicke: also the things which be ea∣ten, whether they be fish or flesh, fruits or herbes. Note also the complections and temperaments of the said meates hot or colde, drie or moyst, and most chiefly, marke the quantitie, and so forth. And like as lampes doe con∣sume the oyle, which is put vnto them, for the preseruation of the light, al∣though it cannot continue for euer: so is the naturall heate which is within vs preserued by humiditie and moyst∣nesse of bloud and fleugme, whose chief engenderer be good meates & drinkes. As Auicen saith de ethica. When na∣turall heate is quenched in the bodie, then of necessitie the soule must de∣part from the bodie. For the workman can not worke when his instrument is Page  25 gone. So the spirits of life,* can haue no exercise in the body when there is no naturall heate to worke vpon. Without meate saith Galen, it is not possible for any man to liue, either whole or sicke: and thus to conclude, no vital thing liueth without refe∣ction and sustenaunce, whether it be animall reasonable, or animall sen∣sible, without reason or any vital thing insensible, both man, beast, fish, and worme, trée, or hearb. All these things be newtrified with the influence or substaunce of the foure Elementes or any of them.

Ioh.

Well Humfrey, thou knowest my complexion and disorder of my diet what remedy for me, that haue li∣ued like a riotter?

Hum.

I know it well thou arte fleg∣matike,* and therefore it is long yer thy meate be disgested. When thou dost eate fish and flesh together, it doth corrupt in thy stomack and stink, euen so doth hard cheese and cold fruits. And olde poudred meates, and raw hearbes ingender euil humors: so the diuersity of quality & quantity of diuers meats, Page  [unnumbered] doth bring much paine to the stomack, & doth engender many diseases, as thou maist reade in the first booke of Galen: Inuementis membrorum. cap. iiij.* And the Prince himselfe sayeth in 3. prim. doct. 2. cap. 7.* Saying, nothing is more hurtfull than diuerse meates to be ioyned together. For while as the last is receyuing, the first beginneth to digest. And when the table is garni∣shed with diuerse meates, some rosted, some fried and baked, some warme, some colde, some fish, some flesh, with sundrie fruites, and sallets of diuerse hearbes to please thine eye, remem∣ber with thy self, that the sight of them all is better, than the feeding of them all.

*Consider with thy selfe thou art a man and no beast, therefore bee tem∣perate in thy féeding, and remember the wise woordes of Salomon.* Bee not gréedie, sayeth hée, in euerie ea∣ting, and bée not hastie vppon all meates: for excesse of meates brin∣geth sickenesse, and gluttonie com∣meth at the last into an vnmeasura∣ble heate. Through surfet haue ma∣nie Page  26 a one perished, but hee that die∣teth himselfe temperately,* prolongeth his life. Therefore grosse fish, lambs flesh, the in-meates of beastes, rawe hearbes, pigges braines, and all sli∣mie meates, bee euill for thee: but late suppers is woorst of all, and specially if they bee long, for it causeth pain∣full nights to follow. But Galen say∣eth in his Booke De ethimia, the meates which bee without all blame, bée those which bee betwéene subtill and grosse. Good bread of cleane wheat, flesh of capons or hennes, phesants, and partriches, pigeons, and turtle doues, blacke birdes, and small fielde birdes, rosted veale, or boyled mutton: These doe engender good bloud say∣eth Galen. Note also,* that any other meate that thou doest eate at supper, although it séeme repugnant to a fleug∣maticke stomacke, if thou sleepe well after it, and féele no paine, thou mayest vse it as a meate necessarie. And when thou canst not sleepe well, if the default came through meate, marke that meate or drinke, although it ap∣peare pleasant, refuse it as an enemie.

Page  [unnumbered]And whereas thou hast vsed euill di∣et as a custome in abusing time, quan∣titie and qualitie, by little and little bring thy selfe into good order, and to time, both for thy breakfasts, dinner, and supper. Prouided alway to eate good things, but not many things. For like as repletion or abundaunce of meate is an enemie to the bodie, and the soule, and bringeth sodaine death: euen so is emptinesse a shortner of time,* a weakner of the braine, a hin∣derer of memory, an increaser of wind, choler, & melancholy. And oftentimes to many bringeth sudden death also, except nature haue some thing to worke vpon, as I did tell thée before: vse some light things at breakfast of perfite digestion, within foure houres after that receiue thy dinner obser∣uing the good order of diet, drinking wine or béere oftentimes, and little at once, eschewing great draughts of drinke, which is vsed among beasts, and mingle thy meate with mirth,* which is euer the best dish, at the boord, and be thankefull to God And so leaue with an appetite, passing ye time wise∣lie Page  27 betwéene dinner and supper, with exercise, labour, study or pastime, vnto the ende of sixe houres, and then begin thy supper, prouided that it bee shorter than thy dinner, eating thy meate by little and little: for gréedie and sudden eating is hurtfull to nature, as Galen sayth in his Diatorie. Note also,* that thou maist eate more meat in Winter than in Summer, because thy naturall heate is enclosed with thy bodie in Winter, but vniuersally spread in Summer. Also cholericke men may as lightly digest béefe, bacon, veneson, &c. With as much spéede and litle hurt as the fleugmatike man may eate, ra∣bit chicken, and partridge, &c. But the melancholie man through the cold∣nesse of the stomacke hath not that strength in the stomacke as hee hath promtpnes in wil:* to eat things warm and moyst be good for him. The san∣guine man is not so swift in this di∣gestion, as the hote cholericke man is.* But notwithstanding, he hath good di∣gestion through the humiditie and warmnes of bloud, and coueteth to eat swéete things, which greatly augment Page  [unnumbered] the bloud: therfore sharpe sauces made with vinegar, onions, and barbaries bée wholesome. Purslen, sorrell, small fishes that féede vppon the stones in fayre running waters, cowcumbers and pure French wine partly delayed with water, bee good for the saide san∣guine men: to kéepe them from much encrease of flesh.

Ioh.

Thou hast shewed vnto me a ve∣ry discrete and wholsome order of diet particular to my selfe, and partly to o∣ther complexions: but what rule or pre∣ty Gouernment is for sicke folks?

Hum.

They that be sodainlie vexed with sharpe sicknesses,* must haue thin diets, with water gruell, thin mutton or chicken pottage without any fat or thicknes, violet leaues, endiue leaues, and such like cooling hearbes, and let their drinkes be made of Tezantes, thus doe to them that haue hot sharpe sickenesses, occasioned of choler. And also colde siroppes of endiue, violets, sugar, water, and vinegar, sodden to∣gether bee verie wholesome. But if sickenesses bee long of continuance, their diet must bee the thicker, and Page  28 their meates made the stronger, spe∣cially if their diseases be cold: with the flesh of cocks, capons, temperate wine, stewed broath, with wholsome hearbs, as buglos, borrage, basill, parcely, and finkle rootes, with some maces, dates, damaske prunes, reisins of the sunne, and such like.* Sirops of Isope and citeron, prouided that they ney∣ther take meate nor medicine immedi∣ately before, or soone after their fittes: posset ale with clarified hearbes, ex∣cepted, which they may take, for their comfort, according to the estate of their disease, for such as be sicke must haue meate, contrarie to their complexion. For they that be colde, must haue hote meate, and medicines. And they that be drie, must haue moyst thinges. But they that bée hote must haue colde thinges, for the ardent heate of the fire is quenched with the moystnesse of the water, and so the quantitie of one qualitie, ouercommeth the qualitie of an other. And in deede, Phisicke sayeth, the bodies that bee hote, must be fed with things like, as they that be moist, with moyst things to preserue Page  [unnumbered] their moistnes. They that be hote, with hot things to preserue their heate and such like. But when they doe ex∣ceede in heate, cold, moist or drie, then let the qualities of moistnes, be tem∣pered with drienes, and the coldnes with warmnes.* For like as man de∣lighteth in things of like, as the chole∣ricke man, cholericke things, euen so do beasts, and fruites, as the Collo∣quintida, which is bitter, delighteth in bitter ground. Hote spices delight to grow in hot ground, and euery fruit and hearbe doth delite in the thing that is of like: euen so doth man in his foode. But in al things let him beware of distemperaunce, surfites or repletion reare suppers and drunkennesse.

Ioh.

But if a man feele great griefe after meates or drinkes, what way is there then for to helpe him?

Hum.

Use walking vp and down, and perhappes that will disgeste,* as Auicen saieth: And Rasis sayeth, to walke a hundreth paces after meate, is holsome, for it comforteth disgestion prouoketh vryne, and giueth one po∣wer and strength of stomacke to eate Page  29 his supper. But the counsaile of Galen must here be obserued. Which saieth:* there is no meate but it will corrupt or stinke, if the bodie be cast into a so∣dain heate, by strong trauel soone after meate, which coruption of disgestion is the mother of all diseases, and the beginner of all infirmities,* as Auicen reporteth: And if you see this will not helpe to disgest your ingorged full sto∣make, then prouoke your selfe to sleepe lying vppon your right side, lea∣uing toward your breast and belly, laying your warme hand vpon your breast, as Auerois saith: the power of disgestion is made strong when a man sléepeth.* For naturall heat that is dra∣wen inwardly with warmnes, or heat hath power to digest. But if sleepe ease you not, prouoke vomit or fast it out, and this is the counsell of many lear∣ned men. For it is no meruaile al∣though many meates corrupt one man, which be of sundrie and diuers workinges in the stomake, liuer and veine,* for the qualities doe hinder nature as much as the quantities. And take heed, these signes and euill tokens Page  [unnumbered] be not found in youth. The paines of all your members with idlenes and wearines, to go or moue your bodie. Sodayne great blushing or rednesse in your face, veines swelled and puf∣fed vp, red vryne, and grosse skinne, ex∣tēded or stretched out with fulnes, like a blowen bladder and ful pulses, small desire to meat, il rest & griefe in sléepe, séeming in sléep to beare some intolle∣rable burden, or dreaming to be spéech∣lesse: these be the euill & dangerous to∣kens of replection. And of this I giue you warning, for it hath slaine as manie by aboundance, as hunger hath killed through scarcitie.

Ioh.

I haue heard say that holsome aire is a great comfort to mans nature, but corrupt ayre doth much harme: I shall require you therefore to tell me of the good and the bad aire, that I may learne to vse the good, and refuse the bad.

Hum.

Galen in lib. de Sectis. saieth: A wise phisicion ought to know the natures of men, of waters, of aire, of regions, and dwellings, generally, par∣ticularly to thy self, being a naturall Page  30 English man of birth and education: this land is very temperat. Howbeit, our dwellinges in this land, be varia∣ble as fennes, marishes, woods, heithes valleis, playnes, and rockie places, and neare the sea side.* But the said Ga∣len geueth counsell in his regiment of health, saying: a good aire, which is pure and holsome, is that, which is not troubled in standing water pooles. Therefore marish grounds and places where hempe and flax is rotten, & dead carrions be cast, or multitudes of peo∣ple dwelling together, or houses enui∣roned with standing waters, wherein∣to iakes or sinks, haue issues, or wallo∣wing of swine,* or carion vnburied or foule houses, or such like places be dan∣gerous, corrupteth the bloud, which is worse than infection of meate, for the prince, saith that al places of cōcauets, as sellers, vaults, holes of minerals where mettels be digged, or houses, or wals ioined togither where as the sun with reflexiō beateth in wc sodain heat, whose absence bringeth cold: this aire is distempered, but pleasant clear aire, swéete gardens, goodly hilles, in dayes Page  [unnumbered] temperat when one may sée far off. These be good also,* there be certaine stars called infortunates, in their exal∣tation, whose influence bringeth cor∣ruption to creatures, rot and pestilēce to man and beasts, poisoning waters, and killing of fish, blasting of fruite in trées, and corne in the fields, infec∣ting men with diuers diseases, feuers palsies, dropsies, fransies, falling sick∣nesses, and leprosies. Against the said influences al christian men must pray to God to be their defence,* for they be Gods instrumēts to punish the earth. Example we haue of mortall pesti∣lence, horrible feuers, and sweating sicknes, and of late, a generall feuer, that this land is often greatly plaged withall.* Then one must make a fire in euerie chimney within the house, and burne swéete perfumes to purge this foule aire: and now in conclusion to answere thy question, for the health of dwelling, Auicen saith, to dwell vpon hils is cold. And in vallies com∣prised with hilles, is hote. Upon a hill side against the north, is cold and drie Towarde the west, grose, and Page  31 moist, verie subtill towardes the East. And cleare and warme towards the South. And Rasis saieth, in his first booke Afforien. A man dwelling néere the Sea side, or great waters, can not liue long, nor cannot be without weak¦nes of members, or blindnes, but the best building of a house, is vpon a drie ground,* and a hill towardes the west side, and southwest dores, and win∣dowes open towards, the east, and north east, hauing neere vnto the said house, sweet springs of rūning waters from stonie or chaulkie ground, which is both pleasaunt and profitable to the house. For Hippocrates saieth in his booke of Aire and Water, the second chapter, cities and townes, which are placed toward the east, be more sure, then the townes builded towardes the north, for temperat aire or winde, and sicknesses be lesse. And in the said book Auicen greatly commendeth pleasant riuers, running towards the rising of the sunne,* the dwellers in such places sayeth he, be fayre and well fauored: smothe skinned, cleare and sharpe voy∣ces: and thus to conclude with thée, Page  [unnumbered] this shal suffise at this time, what, and where, good and pleasant dwelling is. Note also, that thou must obserue aire in sicknes, as thou must do meate in sicknes, colde sicknesses, warme aire, drie sicknesses, moist aire, and so in the contraries to them that be sick and they that be hole, aire of like qualitie is moist holsom, they that haue long sicknesses, chaunge of aire is a great helpe, both in feuers, dropsies, falling sicknesses and rheumes.

Ioh.

I haue found verie much dis∣quietnes in my body, when my sruants and labouring familie, haue found case, and yet wee are partakers of one aire.

Hum.

The cause why thy labou∣ring seruants in the fielde at plough, pastures,* or woodde, haue such good health, is exercise labour, and thy disquietnes commeth, partly of idle∣nes, and lack of trauell, which mo∣deratly vsed, is a thing most soueraign to nature.

Ioh.

I pray thee tel me some thing of exercise.

Hum.

The well learned man Ful∣gentius,* saith: that exercise is a file and Page  32 chaufer of the heate naturall, which chaseth away sléepe, and consu∣meth superfluous strength.* Of the na∣turall vertues, redeeming of time, enemie vnto Idlenes, due vnto yong men, ioy of old men, and to say the truth, he which doth abstein from exercise shall lack the ioyes of health, and quietnesse both of body and minde. And Galen saieth in his regi∣ment of health, if wee will keepe per∣fite health, wee must begin at labour and moderate trauell, and then to our meate and drinke, and so foorth to sléepe, and this is the cause why haw∣kers, shooters, hunters, and plowmen, gardeners, &c. haue so good disgestion and strength of bodie. Who be stronger armed men than Smithes, because of the exercise of their armes: stronger bodied, than carpenters, which lift great blockes: and masons which doe beare great stones, not onely in their youth, but such men will take mar∣uellous trauels in age, which to idle people seeme verie painefull,* vnto them selues that trauell, no paine but pleasure, because of custome?

Page  [unnumbered]These people can digest grosse meats, eating them with much pleasure, and sléeping soundly after them, whereas the idle multitudes in Cities, and noble mens houses, great numbers for lacke of exercise doe abhorre meates of light digestion and daintie dishes, Marie in deede they may bee verie pro∣fitable to Phisitions. But if trauaile be one of the best preseruers of health, so is idlenesse the destroyer of life, as Auerois writeth, and Hippocrates saying,* euerie contrarie is remooued and helped by his contrarie, as health helpeth sicknes, exercise putteth away idlenesse,* &c. But euery light mouing or soft walking may not bee called an exercise as Galen sayeth, therefore tennis, dauncing, running, wrastling, riding vpon great horses, ordained, as well for the state of mens health, as for pleasure, whereunto it is now conuer∣ted, rather to the hurt of many, than the profite of fewe, exercise doeth occu∣pie euery part of the bodie, quicken the spirits, purge the excrements both by the reynes, and guts, therefore it must be vsed before meate,* for if strong ex∣ercise Page  33 bee vsed immediately after meate, it conueyeth corruption to each part of the bodie, because the meate is not digested: but when thou séest thy water after meate appeareth some∣what yellowe, then mayest thou begin exercise, for digestion is then well. But sicke folkes, leane persons, yong children, women with childe may not much trauaile. The exercise of dice, cardes, fighting, drinking knauish rai∣ling, of bauderie, and such like, ra∣ther may be called an exercise of di∣uels, than of men. And thus to con∣clude with Salomon, quam pretiosus sit sanitas thesaurus.

Ioh.

After painfull labor and exer∣cise, or disquietnesse of the mind, there was neuer thing that hath done mee so much comfort as sleepe hath done.

Hum.

Auicen saith, that sléepe is the rest and quietnesse of the powers of the soule, of moouings, and of senses,* without the which man can not liue. And truely sléepe is nothing else but an Image or brother to death, as Tul∣lie sayth.* And if by imagination thou didst perceiue sléeping & waking weied Page  [unnumbered] in the ballance together, there thou shouldst sée them equall in weight, for Aristotle saith, that man doth sléepe as much as he doth wake.* But this is to be considered in sléep, that natural heat is drawen inwardly, & digestion made perfite, the spirites quieted, and all the bodie comforted, if the true order of sléepe be obserued in sixe points. First, a quiet minde, without the which ei∣ther there is no sléepe, or else dreadfull dreames, tormenting the spirites. Se∣condly, the time of sleepe, which is the night, or time of most quiet silence, for the day sléepes bee not good, most chieflie soone after dinner, except to sick persons or young children, in their tymes conuenient. Thirdly, the ma∣ner of sleepe,* that is, to eschew the ly∣ing on the backe, which bringeth ma∣nie grieuous passions, and killeth the sleeper with sodaine death. To lie vppon the left side is verie euill in the first sleepe, but tollerable in the seconde, but the most surest way to make the digestion perfite, is to lie vpon the right side, with one of the handes vpon the breast. Fourthly, Page  34 sléepe hath the quantitie which must be meane,* for superfluous sléepe ma∣keth the spirits grosse and dul, and de∣cayeth memorie, sixe or eight houres will suffice nature. For, like as much watch dryeth the bodie, and is peril∣lous for falling sicknes, and blindnes: euen so too much sléepe is as perillous, for extremes be euer ill. Fiftly,* in the time of colde feuers, the patient must not sléepe vntill the trimbling fitte bee past, for then the hot fit that fol∣loweth will bee extremer than any o∣ther fit, and hard to helpe. Note fur∣thermore, that those bodies that be full of hote inflamations sleepe not well, therefore they must vse things to exte∣nuate and to make colde, as Tizantes and colde sirops, or gentle purging frō the bellie and liuer, or finally to haue the median veine opened according to time, state and age. Sixtly, the cham∣ber must bee considered that it bee cleane, swéete, comely clothes fit for the time of the yeare, and the age of the people, & to kéepe the head warme, is very holsom, for in sléepe natural heat is drawne into the body, for the braine Page  [unnumbered] of nature is colde & moyst.* Windowes in the south part of the chamber be not good, it is best for them which haue colde rheumes, dropsies, &c. to lie in close lofts, & for dry bodies to lie in low chambers, and in the time of the Pe∣stilence, often to shift chambers is healthfull, lying vpon the ground in Gardens, vnder trées, or neere vnto stinking priuies bee hurtfull to the bodie:* and this shall suffice for thine instruction of sleepe, prouided, that thou doost not long retain thine vrine, for feare of the stone, and paine in thy reynes.

Ioh.

There is nothing which I more feare than the stone, for my father was sore vexed therwith, what shal I marke in mine vrine?

Hum.

Among all mortall diseases, the stone is the greatest, a preuenter of time, a deformer of man, and the chiefe weakner of the body, and a grie∣uous enemie to the common wealth. Howe manie noble men and woor∣shipfull personages hath it slaine in this Realme▪* manie one, which com∣meth of hote wines, spices, long ban∣quets, Page  35 repletions, fulnesse, costife∣nesse, warme kéeping of the backe, salt meates, &c. The remedie where∣of is,* in all poyntes contrarie to these causes, small wines, temperate béere or ale, no spices, but wholsome hearbs, as Time, Parcely, Saxifrage, &c. Light meales, most chiefly the supper, no baked, nor rosted thing, but one∣ly sodden meates, and oftentimes to relaxe the bellie with Cassia Fistula, newe drawne from the Cane, with sugar, and to eschew salt meates, and not to kéepe the backe warme: the stone is often found in yong children, which commeth of the parents, and oftentimes in old folke. Which stones bee ingendred as I haue saide: be∣sides milke, fruites, hearbes, saltfih, and flesh, hard chéee, &c. Now marke well this lesson following, for thine vrine.

Ioh.

That shall I gladly, reade but softly, and I will write thy wordes.

Humfrey.
First in vrine foure things marke,*
Thus said Actuarij the good clearke,
Colour, regents and contents therein,
Page  [unnumbered]Substaunce grosse, thick or thin,
A faire light, an vrinall pure,
Then of thy sight thou shalt be sure.
*Colour of bright gold or gile,
Is health of liuer, heart and milte.
*Red as chery▪ or saffion drie,
Excesse of meat in him I spie.
Colour greene, or like darke red wine,
Or esembling the liuer of a swyne,
Is adustion with fiery heate
*Burning the liuer and stinking sweate
*Leaddy colour or blacke as inke,
Death draweth neare as I doe thinke.
Except the terms which women haue,
Or purging blacke choller, which many do saue
Colour grey as horne, or cleare water,
*Is lacke of disgestion saith mine auther.
*Vrine like flesh broth is verie good▪
Beginneth disgestion and norish blood.
Subcitrine and yellow be vrine next best,
Bread and flesh will wel disgest.
*The vrine that is white and thick
Is euer called flegmatick.
Melancholy water is white and thin,
The redde and grosse is sanguin.
Yellow and thin spring from the gall,
Wherein holler ruleth all.
The swelling and braynes bloudy,
Page  32Causes circles thicke with colour ruddy,
But when circles be thin and red,
Choler greene the right side of the hed,*
If leaden circles swim on the brinke,
It is falling sicknesse as I do thinke.
When Oyle in vrine doth vppeare,
Resolutio pinguis draweth neare.
When Oyle appeare in feuers hot,*
Dissoluing the body, causeth a blot.
But of Periotides, thou feelst no paines,
This Oyle Pronogstick, consuming raines▪*
The grauell red declareth for euer,
In drie backed men duble tertian feuer.
When golden grauell appeareth alone,
It hurt the raines but is no stone:
When grauel is of colour white,
Stone in the bladder worketh spite.
Contentes like small threeds or hears,
Through heat, & drienesse the bodie wears.
Consumtion, scabbe small sport and lust,*
Is when many haires be mingled with dust.
In the bottom of veins, or vessels great,
Lieth stopping matter like bran of wheat,
Wherein contentes are, like skales of fish,
As appeareth in the chamber dish.
These signifie feuers, and ethickes olde.
Or scabbes, which the bladder do infolde.
White froth swimming, commeth of wine▪
Page  [unnumbered]The yelow froth, is of Iaundise kinde▪
Thus of vrines I do conclude,
With wordes of truth, but meeter rude.

Here is also a litle of the signes of the excrementes of the belly.

OVr filthy dung, and fex most vile.
*The dregges of natures food,
When they be diuers coloured made
The signes bee neuer good.
If the siege be like vnto the meat,
Newe drawen into the mawe,
*Or fleeting with fleame or burbles great.
The bodie is windy and rawe.
*The yelowe doth from choller come,
The green is burnt adust
The black and leady be deadly signes,
The flesh will turne to dust.
*The excrement that is in the iakes cast.
If it haue oyle or fat,
Consumption of body then begin.
The chiefest signe is that.
The priuie soft well compact,
Page  37Made in the accustomed time,
Is euer good, and the hard is ill,
And thus I ende my rime.
Ioh.

Once I fel into a great sicknes, and hitherto I am skant recouered of it, the surfit was so great, but counsell was giuen me, that I should not staie my selfe vpon the opinion of any one phisicion, but rather vpon three: then said I, to retaine three at once, requireth great charge, for those men to whome liues be committed, ought liberall re∣ward to be giuen. Then said my frend, they are good gentlemen and no great takers. What be their names said I? he aunswered saying: The first was called doctor Diet, the second doctor Quiet: * the third doctor Meriman. I did writ their names, but yet I could not speake with them.

Hum.

Hitherunto I haue said some thing that shall well suffice for thee to know doctor Diat, as for Quiet, and Mery man, they lie in no phisicions handes to giue, but only in Gods.* For small it helpeth to any man, to haue honour, riches, fame, cunning, &c. Page  [unnumbered] And in the meane time, to want quiet∣nesse, and myrth, which bee the chiefe friendes. Tenderest nourses wholsomest phisitions, most pleasant musitions, and friendliest companions to nature, pleasant birds singing in the branches, be more happier than raue∣ning cormorants, and gréedie haukes, which with paines inchaseth their preyes. The quiet lambs be euer hap∣pier in their kinde,* than the gréedie ra∣uening foxes, wolues and lions, which neuer cease vexing themselues, to kill liuing thinges for their foode. The poore Oister, lurking vnder the rocke, or sande, which is neuer remooued of strong ebbes nor flouddes, is farder from trauell and continuall paines, than the horrible whale, most fearefull to fishes. The low shrubs, or bushes growing neare to the ground, be euer in more sauegarde than the lustie high flourishing trées, spredde with plea∣sant braunches, which bee subiect to euerie strong winde. The poore boats in harbour, bee in lesse perill than the rich fickle ships, tossed vp and downe on the cruell flouds.

Page  38What shall I say but this, that the miserable ragged begger called Irus, was more happier in his pouertie with quietnes and mirth, than was the gluttonous beast, & monstrous man king Sardanapalus, with all his golden glorie, court of ruffians, and curtizans which came to a shamefull ende. Dio∣genes, I warrant you was not inferi∣our to Alexander, in the state of hap∣pines, & haue left as great a fame be∣hind him, sauing that Alexāder was a more cruell murtherer than Diogenes a chast liuer. In déed ye poore silly shep∣heard,* doeth pleasantly pipe with his sheepe, when mighty princes doe fight among their subiects, & breake many sléepes in golden beds, when bakers in bags, & brewers in bottels, do snort vp∣on hard straw, fearing no sodaine mis∣hap. The great paines and secrete griefes that disquieted mindes doe dayly sustaine, bee not much vnlike vnto the infernall tormentes that the wicked doe feele:* Phisicke vn∣to an extreame troubled minde (say what they list:) helpeth as little, as to apply a playster to the breast, Page  [unnumbered] or head of a dead body, to reuocate the spirites of life or soule againe. The sicknes of the body must haue medi∣cine, the passions of the minde must haue good counsel. * What pleasure hath a condemned man in musicke, or a dead man in phisicke? Nothing at all God knoweth. Oh how many men haue béen cast away by thought, and most for losse of estimation, and some of other affections of the minde, as in∣ordinate loue, or coueting thinges that they cannot gette, or obtayning those thinges that they cannot kéepe, or ire of other mens prosperitie or good hap! as Tully saith: *Ouid, as fine in poetry, as Apelles was in painting, discribeth this vile passiō of ire, with a pale face, lean body, scouling look, gnashing téeth, venom toung, cholericke stomacke, toung ful of poison, ingrateful, seldom smiling but at mischief outwardly ap∣pearing as it were quiet, inwardly the serpēt gnaweth, fretteth & deuoureth, &c. * These men be deuils incarnat, be∣ginning hel in this life, most enemies to themselues, and if they did behold thēselues in a glasse in ye time of their Page  39 tempests, shoulde not their counte∣nances bée more fearefull to them∣selues than their Ire hurtfull to others? yes, and perhaps make them staring mad, in seeing such a diuels image, therefore let wise men be of this minde: First to thinke that they would haue no man be irefull against them, or disdaine them, euen so let them do to others: Secondly, let them thinke, * it is better to be spited, than pittied, for euery prosperous felicitie, hath his enemie waiting vpon him: The fole hateth the wise. The wise man, pittieth the foole: wel, coet ra∣ther to be spited than pitied, the wrech enuieth the worthie man, and so forth: Only except aduersitie, and extreme misery, all prosperous men haue e∣nemies, let this suffice, and consider what Galen saith, * that immoderat ire∣ful motions, cast the bodie into a cho∣lericke heate, wherof commeth feuers, and all hot diseases dangerous to the bodie, of this writeth Petrus de ebano.* The passion of the mind called dreade, or feare, is when the bloud and sprites be drawen inwardly, and maketh the Page  [unnumbered] outward partes pale and trembling to this, be sides pitiful experience, Hali∣abas,*Galen, and Aristotle do witnes the same. The suddayne passion of ioy, or gladnes, is cleane contrary to feare. For the hearte sendeth fourth the spi∣rituall, bloud, which in weake persons, the heart can neuer recouer againe, but death incontinent, as Galen saith, and as we may see by experience: As in the meeting of men, and their wiues, Children and their parentes, which either by prison, or banishment, were without all hope, euer to sée each other, and in ioy of meeting the delating, and spreding of the heart bloud, haue cast the bodie into sown∣ing. And thus my frend Iohn I do con∣clude vpon certein effections of the mind, wishing doctor Diet, Quiet and Merie man to helpe, when thou shalt néede. For mirth is beloued of musici∣ons,* plesant birdes and fishes as the dolphins. What is mirth honestly v∣sed? an image of heauen. A great lord∣ship to a poore man, & preseruer of na∣ture, & Salomon saith, Non est oblecta∣tio super cordis gaudiū,*&c. & yet I say.

Page  38
The irefull man is euer a thrall,
The ioyfull minde is happiest of all.
Zeale burne like flames of fire,
When honest mirth hath his desire,
Loue well mirth, but wrath despise:
This is the counsell of all the wise.

Ioh.

I would verie faine know the natures of sorts of simples, & first what is worme wood?

Hum.

A common knowne hearbe, it is of diuerse kinds, as Ponticum Ro∣manum, &c. It is hot in the first, and drie in the second degrée, and it is ve∣rie bitter, and being dried, kéepeth clothes from wormes and mothes, and the sirop thereof, eaten before wine,* preserueth men from drunkennesse, if it bee sodden in vineger, it will helpe the sores that bréedes in the eares, be∣ing laid warme vpon it, is good to be drunke agaynst Appoplexia and Op∣thalmia. Which is a sicknes of the eye,* is greatly helped with the wormwood, if it be stamped and made luke warme with rosewater, and laid vpon the eie, and couered with a cleane pyked wal∣nut shell, the syrop helpeth the bloodie flixe, it doeth helpe a colde stomacke, Page  [unnumbered] if it be drunke ten dayes togither, eue∣rie morning two spoonefull of the sy∣rop is good against the dropsie, euerie day drunke two ounces fasting, and thus saith Auicen, figges, cocle, worm∣wood, nitre stamped togither, & made in a plaister, is good against the disease of the splene, and also killeth wormes in the bellie, vsed in the foresayde ma∣ner, one dram of the powder may bee drunke at once in wine, it hath manie mo goodly vertues.

Iohn.

What is the properties of An∣nis seedes.

Hum.

It is much like vnto fennell séede, and is called Roman fennel, that is warme and swéete, and hote in the second, and drie in the third degrée, the new séedes are the best. * It ingendereth vitall séede, openeth the stopping of the reines and matrix, being drunke with Tysants, or cleane temperate wine.

Iohn.

What thinkest thou of Mous∣eare?

Hum.

An hearb commonly knowne, colde and moist in the first degrée, as Galen saith, the decoction of this hearb soddē in water wt suger, is good against Page  41 the falling sickenes, beeing oftentimes drunke, and put a lease thereof into the nose it will prouoke sternutation, or nee∣sing which wonderfully doeth clense the veines.

Ioh.

I woulde faine knowe what is Chiken weede?

Hum.

Almost euery ignorant wontan doth know this hearbe, but there bee of diuers kindes, * they be very good to keepe woundes from impostumations, stam∣ped and applied vnto them, and draw∣eth corruption out of woundes: and sod∣den with vineger, doth draw fleugme out of the head, if it bee often warme put into the mouth and spit it out againe. In this same maner it helpeth the teeth, and sod∣den in wine and so drunke, it will clense the reignes of the backe.

Ioh.

What is Sorrell, might I know of thee, and the property thereof?

Hum.

Thy Cooke doeth right well knowe it, * and all they that make greene sauce, but the description I leaue to Di∣oscorides, and Leonard Futchius, not only in this hearbe, but in all other, and to tell thee the vertue, I will, it is colde and drie in the seconde degree, it also Page  [unnumbered] stoppeth: it is like endiue in propertie, because it ouercommeth choller▪ and is much commended, it helpeth the yellow iaundies, if it bee drunke with small wine or ale, also quencheth burning feuers: to eate of the laaues euery morning, in a pestilence time is most holesome, if they bee eaten fasting▪ This hearbe doth Di∣oscorides, Galen, and Auicen, greatly commende, besides the great learned men of this time.

Ioh.

What is Planten, or Waybreed?

Hum.

The greater Planter is the better,* it hath seuen great veines, it is colde and drie, the seede of it, drunke with reade wine, stoppeth the bloudy flix: the rootes sodden and drunke in wine, stop∣peth the bloudy flix: the rootes and leaues beeing sodden with sweete water, and with suger or borage water, and giuen to him that hath an ague, either tertian or quartaine, two howres before his fit: proue this, for thus haue I helped many, it is very comfortable for children that haue great flixes & agues and is a friend vnto the liuer, this hearbe is greatly prai∣sed of the Doctours.

Ioh.

What is Camomill, and the o∣peration Page  42 thereof?

Hum.

This hearbe is very hoat, it is drunke against colde windes, and rawe matter being in the guttes, the Egypti∣ans did suppose it would helpe all colde Agues, and did consecrate it to the sunne, s Galen saith: Also if it bee tempered and streined into white wine,* and drunke of wmen, hauing the childe dead within the body, it will cause present deliue∣rance, it doeth mightely clense the blad∣der, and is excellent to be sodden in water to wash the feete: the oile is precious as is declared hereafter.

Ioh.

Hoppes be welbeloued of the beere brewers, how doe the Phisicions say to them?

Hum.

There bee which doth coole, be called Lupilum, those that wee haue be hote and drie, bitter, sower, hote, saieth olde herbals. And Fucchius saith:* they clense fleugme and choller, and the water betweene the skinne and flesh, the sirupes will clense grosse rawe fleugme from the guttes, and is good against obstructions sodden. If the iuice be dropped in the eare it taketh the stinke away of rotten sores, the roots wil helpe the liuer and spleene, Page  [unnumbered] beeing sodden, and drunke: the beere is very good for fleugmaticke men.

Io.

What is Sage, for that I loue wel?

Hum.

There be two kindes of sage: they be hearbes of health,* and therefore they be called Saluia, this hearbe is hote and dry, and prouoketh vrine, clenseth the matrix, stoppeth the bloud in a wound. If it be put in a pigge, it dryeth the hu∣mours, that would engender fleugme, it is good against the paulsie: oftentimes eaten, or sodden in wine, it will helpe and clense itch, scabs, and filth from the pu∣dent and secret members. Aetius doeth greatly commend this hearbe, and the excellent regiment of Salern, where it saith, Cur moritur homo, cui saluia cres∣cit in horto, enquiring why men doe die that haue Sage growing in gardens. But truely, neither Phisicke hearbe, nor cunning,* can make man immortall: but assuredly Sage is holsome for old folkes to be put into their meates, for it clenseth fleugme from the sinews, which fleugme will relax the sinewes: The wine of sage drunke vpon an emptie stomake, is hole∣some for fleugmaticke persons, or them which haue the falling sicknes or dropsie.

Page  43
Ioh.

What is Polopodie, that grow∣eth vpon the Oke tree.

Hum.

If this hearbe bee sodden with Beetes and Mallowes,* in the broth of a henne, and drunke, it will loose the belly, and clense fleugme: the roote of this hearbe beeing drie, and beaten into fine powder, and drawen into the nostrilles, helpeth a disease called Polipus.

Ioh.

I haue hearde talke of Hoore∣hound, I would faine heare of his wor∣king.

Hum.

It is a hearbe hote and drie,* if it be sodden with faire water▪ suger or hony, and streine it, this drinke doeth clense the stomake from stinking fleugme, it is an excellent hearbe for women, to clense their moneth tearmes, the water of this is good to helpe them which haue a moist rewme falling from the head, vpon the lunges, beeing often drunke: but it is hurtefull to the bladder and reines, the sirope thereof doeth clense the kings euil: and also put into the eares, doeth greatly comforte the hearing if the eares be trou∣bled: and stamped with hony, and appli∣ed into the eies, it clenseth the sight.

Ioh.

What is Verben?

Page  [unnumbered]
Hum.

*It is called the holy hearbe, it dryeth and bindeth, if it bee sodden with vineger, it helpeth a disease called saint Anthonies fier, oftentimes wahing the pained place, the leaues of Uerben and Roses, and fresh swines grease stamped togither, will seace paine and griefe in e∣uery wounde, and will keepe woundes from corruption: it is good for people, that haue the tertian, or quartaine Agues, and thus saith Dioscorides:* moreouer, he saith the weight of a dram of this hearb, with three halpenies weight of Olibbu∣lom, and put in nine ounces of olde wine, tempered togither, and drunke fortie daies of this quantity fasting, it wil helpe a disease, called the kings euill, or paine in the throate.

Ioh.

What is Rew, or hearbe Grace?

Hum.

I tell thee, this hearbe is verie hote and bitter, and doth burne because of his hotenes in the third degree: if a lit∣tie of this Rew be stamped, and sodden with wine, and drunke, it is an excellent medicine, against poyson and pestilence, with Roses and vineger, and Rew stam∣ped togither,* and put in forred cloth or biggen, applied vnto the temples of the Page  44 head or forehead, doe cease grieuous paines itn the head. And in like maner it healedh the bitings of serpentes or dogs stamped with vineger: many nice peo∣ple cannot abide it, crying fie, it stinkes: The seede of this hearbe beaten in pow∣der, and put in fresh clarified butter, and pitch melted togither, is good for them to drinke that are brused.

Ioh.

What is burnet?

Hum.

It is of the nuture of fiue fin∣ger, drie and binding, and not moist,* as many saith: stampe it and put it to the eies, doeth take away the dropping and pricking, and doth heale woundes, and is good to drinke for the tercian Ague.

Ioh.

What is Dandilion?

Hum.

It is trmperate, colde and drie:* with Roses and vineger, tempered togi∣ther, it helpeth the head in hote diseases. The sowthistle called Soncus, hath the same vertue, and so hath Suckery: if they be sodden, they lose the belly, and quen∣cheth heat which burneth in the stomake, and defendeth the heade from hote smo∣king vapours, and purgeth yellow chol∣ler, and rebateth venerous ad fleshly heat, and is good to be sodden and drunke Page  [unnumbered] in hoate burning Agues, though this hearbe be commonly knowen, and coun∣ted of many as a vile weede: yet it is re∣ported of Dioscorides, to be an excellent hearbe.

Ioh.

What is Spynnage?

Hum.

An hearbe much vsed in meate, colde and moist, in the first degree, it mol∣lifieth and maketh softe the belly, it is good for them that be hote and drie, and ill for fleugmatike men.

Ioh.

What is Cucumbers?

Hum.

They be truely in the seconde degree, very moist and colde: The seedes be good to be giuen in hote sickenesses: the powder of the said seedes,* drunke in cleane wine, is good against diuers pas∣sions of the heart: this fruit wil cause one to make water well, the roote dried in powder, therof drunken in water and ho∣ny prouoketh vomite: if they be mode∣rately eaten, they bring good blood, tem∣pered with hony, and annointe the eies, that helpeth a disease called Epinictidas, which troubleth men with strange sightes in the nightes:* the best of this fruit is, which beareth the best seedes the sauour of that is not holsome: mellons, citrons, Page  45 pompons, and this kinde of pepons or great apples be much vsed in England, and are more common than profitable, be∣cause they vse to eate them raw. English men being borne in a temperate region, inclining to colde, may not without hurt eate rawe herbs, rootes and frutes plenti∣full, as many men, which be borne far in the South partes of the world, which bee most hote of stomacke, therefore let them eate these fruites boiled or baked with ho∣ny and pepper, and fennell seedes or such like, there be an other hote kind of bitter cucumers which do purge.

Ioh.

What is garlike?

Hum.

Garlike is very hote and drie in the fourth degree:* it troubleth the sto∣macke, it is hurtfull to the eies and head, it encreaseth drienesse, but it will pro∣uoke vrine and is good to be laied vppon the biting of a snake, or adder, it is good for the emeroids applied to the sore place, being first stamped, if it be sodden, the stinke is taken from it, but the vertue re∣maineth to be eaten against the coughes and paines in the lungs, it cutteth and consumeth corrupt fleugme, and bring∣eth Page  [unnumbered] sleepe. It is not good for hote men, nor women with childe, or nurces, giuing milke to children: but Galen calleth it the common peoples treacle, if sanguine men do eate much of it, it will make them to haue red faces, but it is a speciall reme∣dy against poison.

Ioh.

What is onions?

Hum.

*They doe make thin the blood, and bring sleepe, they be not good for chollericke men, the long onion is more vehementer than the round, and the red more than the white, the drie more than the greene, and the rawe more ve∣hementer than the sodden, or preserued in salt, although they doe cause steepe, very painefull and troublous hoate in the third degree, and warme in the stomacke, clen∣seth the stomacke, and bringeth good co∣lour vnto the face, and helpeth the greene sickenesse, prouoketh vrine, openeth the emeroides. If they bee sodden in vineger, and laide warme to them: peele off the rinde, and cutte it at both the endes, and cast it into a faire warme water, and let it lie an houre or two, and then slice it, this Page  45 taketh away the vehement sharpenesse of of it. Rew, Salt, Hony, and one oni∣on stamped together, is a goodly plai∣ster to lay vppon the biting of a dogge: leekes doe purge the blood in March, and paine the head, and be not greatly praised for their ill iuyce. A doge saieth Diosco∣rides, the head being annoynted with the iuyce thereof keepeth haire from falling: there is much varietie of this onion a∣mongest writers, saieth Plinie, but this shall suffise.

Iohn.

What is Lettice?

Humfrey.

It doth mightily encrease milke in womens breasts,* and therefore is called Lettice (as Martiall saieth, first shall be giuen to the vertue and power to encrease milke in the breastes euery houre, Lettice is a hearb colde and moist, and is comfortable for a hote stomacke, bringeth sleepe, mollifieth the belly: the drier it be eaten the better it is: I meane if it be not much washed in water, adding thereunto some cleane Salle Oyle, Sugar, and Uineger, it abateth car∣nall lust: and much vse of it dulleth the sight, the seede of it is very precious 〈2 pages missing〉Page  [unnumbered] There is an hearbe called Rocked gen∣tle, which partely smelleth like a Foxe, the which is very hote, an encreaser of seede, which hearb must alwayes be ea∣ten with Lettis. The roote thereof sod∣den in water, will drawe broken bones, and will helpe the cough in yoong chil∣dren.

Iohn.

What be mintes?

Humfrey.

*Mintes be of two kindes, garden and wilde mintes, they be hote vnto the third, and doe drie in the second degree. Garden mint is best: the poulder of this with the iuice of Pomegranates, stoppeth vomites, helpeth sighing, clean∣seth hote choller: Three branches of this sodden with wine, doeth helpe repletion drunke fasting. This iuice tempered with good triacle, and eaten of children in mornings, will kill wormes, and stam∣ped with salt, applie it to the biting of a dogge, and it will heale it: It is whole∣some sodden with windy meates, and sod∣den in posset ale with fennell, it helpeth the collicke, it encreaseth vitall seede. It is not best for chollericke complexions, but good for fleugmatike, and indiffe∣rent Page  47 for melancholy: and it will stoppe blood, stamped and applied to the place. The iuyce of mintes is best to mingle in medicine against poison: the poulder of Mintes is good in pottage, to helpe dis∣gestion, and to make sweete breath.

Iohn.

What is fennell?

Humfrey.

It hath power to warme in the third degree, and drie,* and maketh sweete the breath: the seede eaten, often∣times vpon an empty stomacke, doeth helpe the eie sight: the rootes cleane wa∣shed be very wholesome in pottage, and are good in tisants: the greene or redde tufts growing vpon the stalkes, sodden in wine, pottage, or ale, helpeth the blad∣der, the reines, and breaketh the stone, encreaseth milke in womens breastes, and seede of generation: It is good for to vse Endiue or such like with it, because it is very hote and good in Barbars bahs, washing water, and with balme, sauerie: It is good to wash ones feete to bedward: the sirrope is very wholsome, it helpeth a fleugmatike stomacke.

Iohn.

What is Hisope?

Page  [unnumbered]
Hum.

An hearb commonly knowen growing in gardens, and hote in the third degree: it hath vertues to make humors thinne and warme: sodden with figges, rew and hony, in cleane water and drunk, it greatly helpeth the sickenesse in the lungs, olde cough, and rotten humours, dropping vpon the lungs: sodden with erius and graines of paradise called the Cardamon, it mightily purgeth and brin∣geth good colour. Figges, salt, Nitrum, and Isope, stamped together, and appli∣ed to the splene, helpeth it much, and ta∣keth away the water that runnes between the skinne and the flesh, sodden with O∣ximel, it cleanseth fleugme.

Iohn.

What is Sention?

Hum.

It is of a mixt temperament, it cooleth and partly clenseth if it be chop∣ped and sodden in water, and drinke it with your pottage, it will heale the griefe of the stomacke, and purge it from hote choller: his downe with saffron and colde water, stamped and put in the eies, it will dry the running droppes, and stam∣ped plaister wise, it helpeth many gree∣uous woundes.

Page  47
Ioh.

What is Pursleine?

Hum.

Colde in the third,* and moist in the second, if it be stamped with steeped barly, it maketh a goodly plaister to coole the head, eies, and liuer, in agues burn∣ing heate. To eate of it, stoppeth flixes, and quencheth burning choller, and ex∣tinguish venerous lust, and greatly help∣eth the reines and bladder, and will kill round wormes in the belly, and comfort the matrixe against much fleugme. And the iuice is good to drinke in hote feuers, it may be preserued with salt, and then it is very good with rosted meates. Plinie saieth, it is supposed to make the sight blunt and weake, further hee saieth, that in Spaine a great noble man, whome hee did knowe, did hang this pursleine roote in a threede commonly about his necke, which was much troubled, of a long sick∣nesse, and was healed.

Ioh.

What is mugwort?

Hum.

Mugwoort, and fetherfoy,* and tansey be very hote and drie in the second degree: Muggewoorte, Spurge and the oyle of Almondes, tempered plai∣sier-wise, and applied colde vnto the Page  [unnumbered] sicke pained stomacke, will bring health. It is good in baths saieth Galen: it is wholsome for women, it cleanseth and warmeth, and comforteth, and breaketh the stone. Plinie saieth: It is good a∣gainst serpents, and wholesome for tra∣uailing men, if they carry it, it comfort∣eth them from wormes. Tansey doeth mightily cast woormes from children, drunke with wine: A colde plaister stam∣ped and laied vppon the belly of a woman whose childe is dead within her, it will separate the dead childe from the liuing mother, causing her to neese with betony leaues.

Iohn.

There is an hearbe common∣ly vsed to the great reliefe of very ma∣ny called Cabbage, is it so good as it is reported of?

Humfrey.

Cabage is of two proper∣ties,* of binding the belly, and making la∣xatiue: the iuyce of cabages lightly boi∣led in fresh beefe broth, is laxatiue, but the substance of this hearb is hard of disgesti∣on, but if it be twise sodden, the broth of it will also binde the belly, if it be tempe∣red with allum. This herb hath vertue to cleanse a new red leprosie laid on the sore Page  33 place in the maner of a plaister. But to conclude of this hearbe, the broth of it hath vertue to preserue from drun∣kenes, as Aristotle, Rasis, and Auicen,* do report, eaten before drinking time.*

Ioh.

What is Philopendula?

Hum.

It is an hearbe hot and drie, if it be sodden in white wine & drunk. It drieth vp windy places in the guttes,* and clenseth the raines in the backe and bladder.

Ioh.

What is Agremonie?

Hum.

Dioscorides saieth: that if this hearbe with swynes greace be stamped together & laied vpon an olde rotten sore being hot,* it hath vertue to heale it: the seed of this hearbe drunke with wine, is good against the beeing of Serpentes, stopping of the liuer, and bloudy flix.

Ioh.

Some say that the hearbe dra∣gon is of great vertue.

Hum.

The iuice of it saith Dios∣corides: dropped into the eie,* doth clense it, and giueth much might vnto the eies of them which haue darke sightes, the water of this hearbe hath vertue against the pestilence. If it be Page  [unnumbered] drunke blood warm, with Uenice tria∣cle, the sauor of this hearbe is hurtfull to a woman newly conceyued with child. Plinie saith, that who so beareth this hearbe vpon them, no venemous serpent will doe them harme. This hearbe is hot and drie.

Ioh.

There is a very sweete flower called a Violet, is it so profitable, as it is pleasant?

Hum.

Simeon Sethi reporteth, that it doth helpe against hote inflamati∣ons of the guts,* head, and stomacke, if the cause be of burning choler. Either the water, sirop, or conserue of the said Uiolets, either eaten or drunke, in the time of any hot passion. But vndoubt∣tedly, it offendeth the heart, because of the coldnesse, the sauour of the flowers be pleasant, the oile that is made of this hearbe, hath vertue to bring quiet sléepes to them which haue grieuous hot paine in the head.

Ioh.

What is the vertu of the plea∣sant white lillie?

Hum.

*Dioscorides saith, that the oyle of Lillies doeth mollifie the Sy∣newes and the mouth of the matrixe, Page  50 the iuice of Lillies, Uineger and Ho∣nie sodden in a brasen vessell, doeth make an oyntment to heale both new and olde wounds. If the roote bée ro∣sted and stamped with roses, it ma∣keth a healing plaister agaynst bur∣ning of fire: the same roote rosted, hath vertue to breake a pestilent sore, applyed hote vnto the sore place, and is drie in the first degrée. The Oyle of water Lillies bee moyst, sufferent a∣gaynst all hote diseases, to annoint the ardent places, and doth reconcile quiet sleepe, if the forehead be anointed ther∣with.

Ioh.

In the time of the pestilence, my wife maketh me a medicin, of an hearb called Centauri, doth she well or not?

Hum.

Plini saieth, that the sirop of this hearbe drunke with a little vine∣ger, and salt, doeth cleanse the bodie:* the leaues and flowers be of great ver∣tue, to be sodden and drunke against al raw humors of grosse fleugme, watry or windy: it doth clense ruent or bloody matter within the bodies of men or women. The powder of this hearbe is good in pessaries, for women causing Page  [unnumbered] the dead childe to depart from the mo∣ther, and is wholsome against the pe∣stilence, in the time of winter, and is hote and drie.

Ioh.

Wee beautifie and make plea∣sant our windowes with Rosemarie, v∣sing it for small other purposes.

Hum.

*Rosemarie is an hearbe of great vertue, hote and drie, sodden in Wine, and drunken before meate, it doeth heale the kings euill, or paines in the throate, as Dioscorides and Ga∣len, sayth: the sauour of it doth comfort the braine and heart: the flowers of Rosemarie is an excellent cordiall cal∣led Anthos.

Ioh.

Is Puliol royal, an hearb of any value, or a weed of contemption?

Hum.

*It is an hearbe of much ver∣tue and profite: hote and drie in the thirde degrée. Dioscorides saith, if this hearbe be sodden with honie & Aloes, and drunke, it will cleanse the liuer, and purge the bloud: most chiefly it helpeth the lungs. Simeon Sethi saith, if women drinke it with white wine, it will prouoke and cleanse the termes menstrual, and is a very wholesome Page  51 pot hearbe.

Ioh.

What saist thou vnto mustard?

Hum.

Plinius doth greatly laud it,* saying, that there is nothing, that doth pearse more swiftlier into the braine than it doth. Honie, vineger, and mu∣stard, tempered together, is an excel∣lent Gargarisma, to purge the heade, téeth, and throate. Mustarde is good a∣gainst all the diseases of the stomacke or lunges, winde, fleugme, or rawnes of the guts, and conduceth meate into the bodie: prouoketh vrine, helpeth the palsie, wasteth the quartane, dry∣eth vp moist rheumes: applied plaister wise vnto the head. Honie, and Mu∣stard helpeth the cough, and is good for them that haue the falling sickenesse, notwithstanding the common vse of Mustard is an enemie to the eye. Ma∣ny more vertues haue I read of Mu∣stard, but the occasion of time hath vn∣happily preuented, not onely my large discription in this, but also in many o∣ther simples, which hereafter, I in∣tend largely to write vpō it, if it please God to permit me.

Ioh.

They say that Buglos is verie Page  [unnumbered] whole∣some.

Hum.

It is an hearbe most tempe∣rate betwéene hote and colde,* of an ex∣cellent vertue, a comforter of the heart, a purger of melancholy, a quieter of the frenzie, a purger of the vrine, hol∣some to be drunk in wine, but most ef∣fectual in sirup. Dioscorides and Galen doth greatly commend this hearb, and that doth dayly experience well proue.

Iohn.

What is thy minde of sweete Basill?

Hum.

This hearbe is warme in the second degree,* hauing the vertue of moystnesse, and if it be sodden in wine with Spicknard, and drunke, it is good agaynst dropsies, windes, fleugme, coldnesse of the heart, hardnesse of the stomacke: the sauour of Basill, doeth comfort the braine, and heart, the vse of this hearbe in meates, doeth decay the sight.

Ioh.

The plaine people of the coun∣trey will say, that those flowers which bee pleasant in smelling, bee often∣times vnwholsom in working, the rose is pleasant in sense, what is it in vertue?

Page  52
Hum.

It hath an odour most plea∣sant, and hath vertue to coole and bind.* The water is good to make Manus Christi, and many other goodly cordi∣als, Roses and vineger applied vnto the forehead, doe bring sléepe: conserue of Roses, haue vertue to quench bur∣ning choler, and to stay the rage of a hote feuer, Oyle of Roses, Uineger, and the white of an egge beaten toge∣ther, doth not onely quench sacra ignis, but also bring a madde man into qui∣etnesse, if his foreheade bee well an∣noynted therewith, after the re∣cept of Pilles of Chochi, in the time of the Pestilence, there is nothing more comfortable than the sauour of roses.

Ioh.

What saiest thou of Sauerie?

Hum.

It is hote and drie in the third degrée,* if the gréene hearbe bee sodden in water or white wine and drunke, these be his vertues to make the liuer sort, to cleanse dropsies, colde coughes, cleanseth womens diseases, and separateth the dead child from the mother▪ as Dioscorides & Galen saith. Also Germander is not much vnlike Page  [unnumbered] the vertue of this hearbe.

Ioh.

But for troubling of you, I would be glad to know your minde of Time, and of a few other hearbes.

Hum.

It is vehement of heat with drinesse in the third degrée.*Dios∣corides saith, if it be drunk with vine∣ger and salt, it purgeth fleugme, sod∣den with hony or meide, it hath ver∣tue to cleanse the lunges, breast, ma∣trix, reynes, and bladder, and killeth wormes.

Ioh.

What saiest thou of Parsly and Saxifrage?

Hum.

They haue vertue to breake the stone. Parslie is hote in the second dgree,* and drie in the middest of the third. The seede drunke with white wine, prouoketh ye menstrual termes, as Dioscorides saith: also Smallage hath the like vertue.

Ioh.

What is thy iudgement of Li∣uerwort?

Hum.

It hath vertue to cleanse and coole.*Dioscorides sayth, it doth heale the wounds of the liuer, & quencheth the extreme heat therof, tempred with honie, and eaten, doeth helpe a disease Page  53 called regius morbus, and paines of the thraote and lungs.

Ioh.

What is Betonie?

Hum.

They be of diuerse kindes.*Leonardus Futchius doth call the swéet Gilliflowers by the names of Beto∣nie, but the one séemeth to talke of that which is commonly knowne of the people, called the lande Betonie, which hath the vertue to kill wormes within the bellie, and helpeth the quartaine, cleanseth the matrixe, and hath the vertue to heale the bodie within. If it bée brused, it is of great effect, if it bée sodden with worme∣wood in white wine to purge fleugme, and is hot in the first degrée, drie in the second.

Ioh.

I haue heard small commenda∣tions of Beetes.

Hum.

They be of two kindes,* and bée both prayse worthie. Simeon Sethy, wryteth, that they be hote and drie in the thirde degrée, the white Béete is the best, they haue vertue to cleanse, as Niter hath, but hath euill iuice. The iuice of this hearbe with honie applyed into the Nose, doe purge Page  [unnumbered] the head, it is a wholesome hearbe in pottage, if it bee well sodden, or else it is noysome to the stomacke. If it be perboyled and eaten with vineger, it is good against the stopping of the li∣uer. Notwithstanding, the iuyce of this hearbe doe stop the belly, béeing simply taken.

Ioh.

What is Maidenhaire?

Hum.

It is an hearbe betwéene hote and drie,* if it be sodden in wine, it breaketh the stone, it cleanseth the Matrix, bringeth downe the secondes, as Dioscorides and Galen saith, the best doth grow vpon hard rocks.

Ioh.

What is Melilot?

Hum.

It hath vertue to ripe, and is more hoter than colde,* Mellilot, flax séede, Rose leaues, Campher, and wo∣mans milke tempered together, doth make a goodly medicine agaynst the hote inflamation of the eyes. If this hearbe bée drunke with Wine, it doeth mollifie the hardnesse of the sto∣macke and liuer, the most excellent plaister against the pains of the splene doth Mesue describe, which is made of Melilot.

Page  54
Ioh.

Be pease and beanes any thing beneficiall to nature?

Hum.

Beanes be more groser and fuller of winde then pease be,* and ma∣keth euill matter, except they bee well sodden and buttred, and so eaten, with the whitest and swéetest Onions that may be gotten. Because they bee hard of digestion: howbéeit, they do make fatte, and partly cleanse, yet they are not to bee compared with tender white peason well sodden and butte∣red, or else made in pottage with gar∣den mints, and grosse pepper, which haue vertue to cleanse the reynes of the backe and bladder. Lentilles bee of the same vertue.* Barlie being clean hulled and sodden with milke cleaue water and suger, maketh a verie com∣fortable and wholsome pottage for hot cholericke persons or young people. And of this is much vsed in the north parts of Englande, and is called bigge kele.

Ioh.

What be the vertues of Leekes and rootes of Radish, Turneps, Pers∣neps, Rapes or naues?

Hum.

Léekes bee euill, engender Page  [unnumbered] painfull sléepe:* but eaten with honie, then they purge bloud: but rootes ea∣ten rawe, bréedeth ill iuice, therefore being first sodden, and the water cast away, and then sodden with fat mut∣ton,* or tender fatte biefe, those rootes nourisheth much. Rapes and Naues be windie: Turneps, causeth one to spitte easilie that haue corrupt sto∣mackes, but maketh rawe iuice. Ca∣rets doe expurse winde: Radish rootes prouoketh vrine, but be verie euill for fleugmaticke persons, hauing griefe in their bones or ioynts, and must bée eaten in the beginning of the meale, as Galen sayeth,* but many doe vse them in the ende of meales, and finde ease, as sir Thomas Eliot that worthy knight and learned man reporteth, in his booke called The Castell of health. And thus I conclude of those hearbes and rootes that I haue written vpon.* Admonishing thée, that hearbes, pulse and rootes be all windie, engenderers of Melancholie, and ingrossers of the bloud, except Lettis, Bourage, and Purslain. Therefore the grosse bin∣ding together, and séething of hearbes Page  55 in brothes and pottage, be more hol∣somer than the fine chopping of them.

Thus Iohn I haue declared vnto thée, the vertues of certaine hearbes, which if thou wilt follow, and obserue my rules in them, I doubt not but thou shalt receiue much profite thereby. I would haue also taught thée some pre∣ty waies for distillation of waters, but am preuented therein, and I am glad thereof, forasmuch as thou shalt sée ve∣rie shortly,* both Thesaurus Euonomi and Vlstadius, which be excellent lear∣ned men in the science, wherein I am sure thou wilt much delite. For I en∣sure thée, the like bookes neuer were set foorth in our mother tongue, with the liuely fashion of the furnasses, and also of the Stillatories.

Page  [unnumbered]
Ioh.

What will digest or purge cho∣ler, fleugme & melacholie, prouoke sternutation, and stop flixes, tell me?

Hum.

    Things to digest choler.
  • Endiue
  • Purslein
  • Poppie
  • Sorrell
  • Mercurie
  • Liuerwort
  • Whey
  • Tesants
  • Tarmerindes
  • The foure cold séeds of gourds and cucumbers
  • Sanders
  • Buttermilk or the milk which commeth of the pressing of chées
    To purge choler.
  • Māna 6 drams
  • Rubarbe two drams or 3, but put into infusiō from v. to vii.
  • Pilles of aloes
  • Wilde hops
  • Syrrop of wormewood
  • Syrrop of fu∣mitorie
  • Diprunes.
    The digester of flegm.
  • Puliall
  • Mints
  • Bettonie
  • Egrimonie
  • Mugwort
  • Honie
  • Pepper
  • Hysop
  • Pimpernel
  • Ieniper beries
  • Neppe
  • Finkle
  • Persely rootes
  • Smallage.
    Purgers of fleugme.
  • Agaricke infu∣sed from two to Page  56 fiue drams.
  • Sticaus
  • The myrabo∣lanes of all the kinds
  • Polipody of the oke
  • Centorie
  • Horehound
  • Maiden haire.
    Good purgers of melancholy.
  • Eleberus
  • Niger
  • Capers
  • Lapis Lazule
  • Sene of Alex∣ander
  • Borage
  • Harts tongue
  • Hony sodden in swéete wine
  • Sauorie
  • Time
  • Trosses of ca∣pers, of Colo∣quintida, and of wormwood.
    Good things to pro∣uoke vrine.
  • Perslie
  • Time
  • Saxifrage
  • Cassa Fistula
  • Rammes
  • Radix
  • The flesh of an Hare
  • Pilles of Ty∣cibenthen
  • Mayden haire
  • The berries of the Eglentine
  • Broomeseede.
    Comforters for the braine to smell vpon.
  • Roses
  • Uiolets
  • Gilloflowers in Sommer, but in Winter
  • Cloues
  • Spike
  • Muske
  • Amber grace.
    Page  [unnumbered] Things good to stop flixe.
  • Sinaber called dragons blood.
  • Sloes or their decoction.
  • Sinamom
  • Bolearmoniak
  • Red wine
  • Planton
  • Olibanum
  • Hard egges.
  • Hard chéese scra¦ped into redde wine, & drinke.
    Things good to pro∣uoke sternutation or neesing.
  • Betony leaues
  • Primrose roots moderatelye v∣sed
  • Eleborus albus and Ginger.
    Good comforters for the heart.
  • Muske
  • Ambergrece
  • Roses
  • Pearles
  • maces
  • Diamuschi dul∣cis diambra.
  • The flowers of Rosemarie and Nutmegs.
  • Spikenard
  • Galanga.

Ioh.

What bee the vertue of Dates and Figs?

Hum.

Seraphio saith, that the dates which be preserued with sugar be good.* The crude rawe Date doth califie the bodie, and doth conuert quickely into Page  57 choler it is not good for the heades of the hot people, ill for the throte,* and stoppeth the liuer, & maketh the téeth rotten, but if they be cleane pilled and the inward rinde taken away, they doe greatly nourish and restore, being sod∣den in stewed brath they be of diuerse kinds in quantitie and qualitie, but generally hote and moist in the second degrée.* Figs (as Hipocrates saith) the best be white, the second bee red, the third be blacke, the ripest be the best, and amongst all fruits doth most nou∣rish, prouoketh sweat, because it doeth purge ye superfluitie of humors throgh the skin, it doth ingender lice, they be hot in the first degrée, and the new figs be moist in the second, the séedes & the skin of the fig, be not greatly commen∣ded: Figges and Almonds eaten of a fasting stomacke, be very wholsome to make the way of good digestion, but best if they be eaten with nuts. Figs, and hearbe grace stamped together, be verie wholsome to bee eaten against the pestilence: Rosted figges beaten together, and hote applied vpon the pestilent sore, doth draw, mollifie, and Page  [unnumbered] make ripe the sore. And to the lungs, liuer and stomacke, figs be verie com∣fortable,* as Galen saith.

Ioh.

What be peares?

Hum.

They bee of diuerse kindes, heauier than Apples, not good vntill they be verie ripe, vnlesse they be ten∣derly rosted or baked,* and eaten after meales. There is a kinde of Peares growing in the citie of Norwich, cal∣led the blacke friers peare, verie deli∣cious and pleasant, and no lesse profi∣table vnto a hote stomacke, as I heard it reported by a right worshipfull phi∣sition of the same citie, called doctour Manfield, which said he thought those Peares without all comparison, were the best that grew in any part of Eng∣land.

Ioh.

What sayest thou of Apples?

Hum.

Apples be very cold and win∣die,* hard to digest ingenderers of euill bloud, hurtfull to fleugmaticke peo∣ple, good to cholericke stomackes, if they bée through ripe, but best if they bée rosted or baked, and eaten with grosse Pepper to bedwarde, they be of many kindes, as the Costarde, Page  58 the Gréene-coate, the Pippen, the Quéene apple, and so foorth. The di∣stilled water of Apples, Campher, Ui∣neger, and Milke, is a good medicine to annoynt the faces of children that haue the small pockes: when the said pockes bée ripe, to kéepe their faces from eres: prouided that the said chil∣dren haue giuen them in their milke, saffron, or Methridatum, to expell the venim and keepe them from the aire during the said sicknes.*

Ioh.

What be Peaches?

Hum.

The leaues be hote, for if they be stamped playsterwise, and ap∣plied vnto the bellie, they kill worms:* The fruit is colde, and very good vnto the stomacke, they be good to be eaten of them that haue stinking breathes of hot causes: eaten of an emptie sto∣mack which is Galens counsell, which saith: if they be eaten after meate, they doe corrupt both in themselues and in the meats lately eaten: and they bée binders of the belly. But Quinces be most comfortable after meate, for they do enclose the stomacke, and doe let vapours to ascende into the braine, Page  [unnumbered] and stoppeth vomets: they be whole∣some for sicke folkes that bee swelled in the bodies. Eaten with the grosse pouders of Gallanga, Spickanarde, Calamus, and Ginger, and may bee eaten before meate of the sayd sicke patients, as well as after meate. But much vse of them, be not so pro∣fitable as delectable to the eaters of them.

Ioh.

What be Quinces?

Hum.

*If thy stomacke be very hote or moyst, or thy belly laxatiue, then Quinces be good to bee eaten before meate, being rosted or eaten colde, and in this case the tarter bee the better, and Pomgranets bee of the same ver∣tue,* as Isaac sayeth: but eaten after meate they doe enclose the stomacke, and moist the belly: they ought not to be vsed in common meats, the custome of them hurteth the sinewes, but in the way of medicine they bee excellent, and the kores béeing taken out and preserued in Honie, or kept theyr musse lege, then they may long conti∣nue to the vse of rosting or baking, for they bée perillous to the stomacke Page  59 eaten rawe. But preserued, they doe mightily pruaile against drunkennes, they be cold in the first degree, and drie in the beginning of the second.

Ioh.

What be Cherries?

Hum.

The tarte Cherries vndoub∣tedly bee more wholesome than the swéet, and eaten before meat,* do molli∣fy the belly, prepare digestion, & they be most excellent against hot burning choler, they be good also after meate, and bee of manie kindes, as blacke, red, and pale. The red Cherrie partly tarte, is best. Galen and Rasis, greatly commend this fruit.* In the country of Kent be growing great plentie of this fruit, So are there in a towne neare vnto Norwich called Ketreinham, this fruite is colde and moyst in the first degrée.

Ioh.

What be the vertues of grapes, rasins, prunes, barberies, oringes, and medlers.

Hum.

Hippocrates saith,* that the white Grapes bee better than the blacke, and wholsomer when they are two or thée dayes gathered from the vine, then presently pulled from it: and Page  [unnumbered] if they be swéete,* they be partly nutra∣tiue, & warme the bodie. And vnto this agréeth Galen & Rasis, séeming to com∣mend swéete grapes aboue dates, say∣ing: although they be not so warme, yet they doe not stop the bodie, or make opilation as dates do. They be whol∣some to be eaten before meate, euen as nuttes be good after fish. Toward the South, and Southeast partes of the world, there be many growing in di∣uers regions, whereof the wines bée made. The farther from vs, the hoter wine: There be very good grapes gro∣wing here in England in many pla∣ces, as partly I haue séene at Blax∣hall in Suffolke,* where sometime I was néere kinsman vnto the chiefest house of that towne. Raisins of the sun be very wholsome, and comfort dige∣stion, but the stones and rindes would be refused, and then they be good for the splene and liuer.* So be aligants. Rasis doth much cōmend them, but vndoub∣tedly the smal rasins be hurtfull to the splene. Prunes or damasens haue ver∣tue to relaxe the belly if they be swéete and ripe, but they do norish very litle, Page  60 but quench choler, Grapes, rasins and prunes, plumbs, and sies, if they bée sower, be all binders of the belly, and so is the barberie called Oxiacantha,* and Oringes, except the said Oringes be condited with suger, and then they bee good coolers against hote choler, whose rindes be hote and drie of na∣ture. The fruit called the Medler,* is vsed for medicin and not for meat, and must be taken before meat, prouoketh vrine, and of nature is stipticke.

Ioh.

What be Capers and Oliues?

Hum.

Fresh Capers be hot and dry in the second degrée,* and eaten before meates doe greatly comfort digestion, and be the best things for the splene, or to cleanse melancholy that can be ta∣ken. Preserued olifes in salt eaten at the beginning of meales, doe greatly fortifie the stomacke, and relaxe the belly, cleanse the liuer, and are hote and dry in the second degrée.

Ioh.

I beseech thee shew thy opinion of the natures of some kind of flesh, and first of the properties of beefe.

Hum.

I will not vndertake to shew mine opinion to thy request, but I wil Page  [unnumbered] declare the mindes of some wise and learned men: & first of Simeon Sethi, which sayth,* that the flesh of oxen that be yong, doe much nourish and make them strong that be fed with them▪ but it bringeth melancholy, and melan∣cholious diseases, it is colde and drie of nature, and hard to digest, except it bée of cholericke persons: but béeing tenderly sodden, it nourisheth much. Much béefe customably eaten of idle persons, and nice folkes that labour not, bringeth many diseases, as Rasis saith.* And as Auicen saieth, that the flesh of Oxen or Kine, be verie grosse, ingendring ill iuise in ye body. Where∣of oftentimes come to scabs, cankers, biles, but vnto hot, strong, cholericke stomackes it is tollerable, and may be vsed as wee haue the dayly experi∣ence thereof. The broath wherin béefe hath béene sodden,* is good to be supped halfe a pint euery morning agaynst the flixe of the bellie, and running foorth of yellowe choler, if the sayde broth be tempered with salt: mustard, Ueneger, or Garlicke, &c. bée com∣monly vsed for the sawces to digest Page  61 béefe withall, for the saide sawces doe not onely helpe disgestion, but also de∣fendeth the bodie from sundrie incon∣ueniences and diuerse sicknesses, as dropsies, quartains, leprosies, and such like. The gall of an Oxe or a Cowe,* distilled in the Month of Iune, and kept in a close Glasse, doeth helpe to cleanse the eyes from spots, if you put a droppe of this water with a fether into your eies, when ye go to bed. The mylt of a Bull dryed, and the powder thereof drunke with red wine, will stoppe the bloudie flixe. Light powde∣red yong béefe, is better than either fresh or much powdered. In specially those Cattell that be fedde in faire and drie Pastures, and not in stinking fennes.

The great learned man Gesnerus,* in his description of beastes, doeth write more of the vertues of Bulles, Oxen, Kine, and Calues, than anie other hath done. And thus to con∣clude, the flesh of the male beastes, is more better than the Female, and the gelded beastes be more commodi∣ous to nature, than any of them. Page  [unnumbered] And the yong flesh more commendable than the olde, for it is more moyst, and a friend to the bloud,* as Haliabas saith, Rosted flesh doeth nourish the bodie much, for it is warme and moyst. Ba∣ked meates be very drie: Cleane boi∣led meates, with wholsom hearbs and fruits, be excellent to comfort the bo∣die, if they bee nutramentall flesh. Calues flesh doe greatly nourish and make good blood.

Ioh.

Thou hast said well of beefe, but what goodnesse may bee reported of porke? I thinke verie little or no∣thing.

Hum.

There be many goodly com∣modities in the flesh of Bores, gelded swine and pigges, for they be good for mans nature.

Ioh.

For mans nature? that is mar∣uell: * For how can those bee good for mans nature, which bee so vile of their owne nature? Their foule feeding of most stinking filth and carion. The noysome wallowing in the myre and durt, the eating of their owne pigges, and oftentimes pulling children out of the cradle for their dinners, if the good Page  62 wife be not at home. Who is able to beholde such noysome spirites or hel∣hounds? Did not almightie God com∣maund the Iewes to eate none of them? and the Mahomets at this day will kill that man that eateth of their flesh, why should we then commend them? for they are most vile.

Hum.

All the ancient and wisest phi∣sitions that euer were in this world,* did all consent, that of al flesh, the flesh of yong gelded swine, partly salted or powdered, was euer a meate of the best nourishing moysture, and colder than other flesh, for Isaack sayeth, it is flesh verie moyst,* except it bee the flesh of lambes, as Galen repor∣teth. Yet it is not good to euerie com∣plexion, nor euerie age, but vnto youth and middle age. Whereas thou hast spoken agaynst the vile nature of swine, calling them vnreasonable, thou dost vse more words than wit: for there is no beast that may bee called reasonable but man only.* And wheras God did prohibite the Iewes to eate swines flesh, it was a figure to abstain from vncleane things: which I leaue Page  [unnumbered] to the Theologians. The Mahumites abhorre swines flesh, because their drunken false prophet, and Psewdo Apostle was torne and rent in péeces with swine, being drunken and fallen in the myre. So the one must giue credence to time, and to learned Phy∣sitions. The bloud of swine doeth nourish much, as it is séene in Pud∣dings made with great Otemeale,* swéete sewet, and Fennell or Annis séedes. Pigges be verie moyst, there∣fore Sage, Pepper and Salt doe drie vp the superfluous humours of them, when they bee rosted. They bée not wholsome to be eaten before they be thrée wéekes olde. The Tripes and Guts bee wholsomer,* and doe nou∣rish better than any other beasts guts, or in-meates. Bacon is verie hard of digestion, and much discommended, and is hurtfull. Onelie vnto a hote cholericke labouring bodie, the fleshe of a Bore is more wholesomer than the flesh of any Sow. The braines of a Bore, and his stones, or any part of them stamped together, and laide warme vpon a pestilente sore, in the Page  63 maner of a plaister,* it will breake it incontinent. Swines grease is ve∣rie colde, and good to annoynt bur∣ning hote places of the bodie, or a dis∣ease called saint An tonies fire: and thus much haue I spoken of swine.

Ioh.

I pray you tell me of the flesh of the Rammes, Weathers, and Lambs, and how profitable they are to mans nature.

Hum.

Simeon Sethi sayth, Lambes flesh is partly warme,* but superfluous moist, and euill for fleugmaticke per∣sons, and doeth much harme to them that haue the dropsie, boneache, or a disease called Epiolus, which is spi∣ting of fleugme like glasse. Therefore if lambes flesh were sodden, as it is rosted, it would bring many diseases vnto the bodie, without it were sodden with wine, and some hote Groceries, hearbes, or rootes. When a Wether is two yeares olde, which is fed vpon a good ground, the flesh thereof shall bée temperate and nourish much. Hippo∣crates sayth,* that the lambe of a yeare olde doth nourish much. Galen séemeth not greatlie to commende Mutton, Page  [unnumbered] but that which is tender, swéete and not olde, is verie profitable, as experi∣ence and custome doth dayly teach vs. The dung, tallow and wooll, be ve∣rie profitable in medicines, as Plini sayeth: And Conradus Gesnerus, de a∣nimalibus,* and Galen in his third booke de alimentis.

Io.

What is the flesh of goats or kids?

Hum.

They be beasts verie hurtful vnto yong trées and plants: but Si∣meon Sethi saieth, that kids flesh is of easie digestion, in health and sick∣nesse, they be verie good meate. They bée drie of nature. Hippocrates saith It behoneth that the conseruers and kéepers of health,* doe studie that his meate bee such as the flesh of kids, yong calues that bee sucking, and lambs of one yeare olde. For they bée good for them that be sike, or haue euill complexions.*Haliabas doeth say, that the flesh of Kiddes doe engen∣der good bloud, and is not so fleugma∣ticke, waterie, and moyst, as the flesh of Lambes. They remaine Kiddes for sixe Moneths, and afterwarde come into a grosser and hotter na∣ture, Page  64 and be called Goates. The flesh of them that be geldd is wholsome to eate, the lungs of them eaten before a man doe drinke, doeth defende him that day from drunkennesse, as I haue read in the reportes of learned men. But the flesh of the olde hée or male Goates bée ill, and ingender the Agues or Feuers. If the vrine of Goates be distilled in May with Sor∣rell,* the water distilled is not hurtfull nor noysome, but whom soeuer vse to drinke thereof two drammes morning and euening, it will preserue him from the pestilence. The milke of Goates I will describe in the place of milke.

Ioh.

What is the flesh of red and fallow Deere?

Hum.

More pleasant to some, than profitable to many, as appeareth once a yeare in the corne fieldes, the more it is to be lamented.*Hipocrates and Simeon Sethi, doe plainely affyrme the flesh of them to engender euil iuise and Melancholie, colde diseases, and quartaines, the fleshe of Winter Déere, doe lesse hurt the bodie,* than Page  [unnumbered] that which is eaten in Summer. For in Winter mans digestion is more stronger, and the inwarde partes of the bodie warmer, and may easilier consume grosse meates than in Sum∣mer, as we see by experience. In colde weather and frostes healthfull people bée most hungriest. The lungs of a Déere sodden in Barlie water, and ta∣ken forth and stamped with Penedice and Honnie, of equall quantitie to the sayde lunges, and eaten in mor∣ninges, doeth greatlye helpe olde coughes, and drynesse in the lunges. There bee many goodly vertues of their hornes, bones, bloud, and tal∣lowe.

Ioh.

* What is the properties of hares and conies flesh?

Hum.

Auicen saieth, the flesh of Hares bée hote and drie,* ingenderers of Melancholie, not praysed in Phy∣sicke for meate, but rather for medi∣cine. For in déede, if a hare be dried in the Moneth of March in an O∣uen or Furnace, and beaten into pow∣der, and kept close & drunken in mor∣nings in Beare, Ale, or white Wine: Page  65 it will breake the stone in the bladder, if the paciente be not olde. If childrens gummes be annointed with the braines of an Hare, their teeth will easily come forth and grow.* The gall of an Hare mingled with cleane hony, doth cleanse waterie eies, or redde bloudie eies. The flesh of Hares must be tenderly rosted, and well larded and spiced, because of the gros∣nesse, but it is better sodden. The flesh of Conies are better than hares flesh and easier of disgestion. But rabbets be hol∣somer. And thus to conclude of Conneis, experience teacheth vs that they are good, they be colde and drie of nature, and small •••tion is made of them, among the ancient phisitions, as Galen saith.* I need not to speake long of euerie kind of beasts as some of the beastes that be in Hiberia like little Hares which be called conies.

Ioh.

If the olde and ignorant men of Connyes, which were seene in the nature of manie other beastes, that had dwelte in diuers places of England they should haue knowen them right wel: and perhaps receiued of them as small pleasure, as many husband men haue found profite by them in their Corne. Page  [unnumbered] Now thou hast well satisfied me of the foure footed beasts, which commonlie English men fedeth vpon. Now I pray thee tell mee, some of the vertues of foules and first of Cockes, Capons and Hennes.

Hum.

* Chickens of Hennes, saieth A∣uenzoar, is most commended, and most laudable of any flesh, and nourisheth good bloud. It is light of disgestion, and doeth comfort the appetite, cocke chic∣kens: be better then the hennes the capon is better than the Cocke, they doe aug∣ment good bloud and seede, as Rafis re∣porteth, * and experience proueth in men, both whole and sicke. An old Cocke which is well beaten after his fethers be pulled off vntill he be all bloudy, and then cut off his head and draw him, and seethe him in a close potte with fayre water, and whyte wine, Fenill rootes, Burrage rootes, Violet, Planten, Succory, and Buglos leaues, Dates, Prunes, great Raysins, Maces, and suger, and put in the marow of a Calfe, and sanders. This is a most excellent broth to them that be sicke, weake, or consumed. The braines of hennes, capons or chickins, be holsome to Page  66 eate, to comfort the braine and memory. And thus to conclude these foresaide foules, be better for idle folkes that labour not, then for them that vse exercise or trauel, to whome grosse meates are more profitable.

Iohn.

What are the properties of Geese?

Hum.

Wild geese and tame, their flesh be verie grosse and hard of digestion, as Auicen saieth: * The flesh of great foules and of geese, be slowe and hard of disgestion: for their humiditie, they do breade feuers quickly, but their goslings or yong geese, being fatte, are good and much commended in meates. And Ga∣len saieth: that the flesh of foules be better then the flesh of beastes.*

Of great foule
But vndoubtedly goose, malard, pecocke, swanne, and euerie foule haueing a long necke, be all hard of disgestion, and of no good complexions. But if geese be well rosted and stopped with salte, sage, pepper, and onions, they will not hurt the eaters thereof. There be great geese in Scotland, which breedeth vpon place called the Basse. There be also Bernacles, which haue a strange genera∣tion Page  [unnumbered] as Gesnerus saith:* and as the people of the North partes of Scotland know∣eth, and bicause it should seeme incredible to manie I will giue no occasion to any, either to mocke or to meruaile. And thus I giue warning to them which loue their health, to haue these foresaid foules som∣what poudred or stopped with salte, all the night, before they be rosted.

Ioh.

I pray thee tel me of the flesh of Duckes?

Hum.

They be the hotest of all do∣mistical, or yard foules, and vncleane of feeding: notwithstanding, though it be ard of disgestion and maruelous hot, yet it doth greatly norrish the bodie and mak∣eth it fatte. Hipocrates saith: they that be fedde in puddels and foule places,* be hrtfull: but they that be fedde in houses, pennes or coopes,* be nutratiue, but yet grose, as Isack saith.

Ioh.

What be Pigions, Turtles, or Doues?

Hum.

The flesh of Turtles be mer∣uailous good,* and equall to the best as Auicen saith: They be best when they be yong and holsome for flegmaticke people. Simeon Sithy saith: the house doue is Page  67 hoter then the field doue, and doth engen∣der grose bloud. The common eating of them is ill for chollericke persons with red faces, for feare of Leprosie: there∣fore cut off the feete, wings, and head, of your Pigions or Doues, for their bloud is that which is so venemous they be best in the spring time, and haruest. And Isack saith because they are so lyghtly conuer∣ted into choller:* they did commaunde in the old time, that they should be eaten with sharp Uineger, Prslein, Coucom∣bers, or Sitron, Roosted Pigions be best.* The bloud that commeth out of the right wing, dropped into ones eye, doth migh∣tely help the eie, if it swelleth or pricketh. And thus much haue I spoken of Pigions or Doues.

Ioh.

What is the flesh of Pecockes?

Hum.

Simon Sithy saieth: it is raw flesh, and hard of disgestion vnles it be verie fat. But if it be fatte,* it helpeth the plurisie. Haliabas saith▪ that both swans. Cranes, Pecockes 〈◊〉 any great foules, must after they be killed, be hanged vp by the necks, two or three daies, with a stone weying at their feete, as the weather will serue, and then dressed and eaten. Proui∣ded Page  [unnumbered] that good Wine bee drunken after them.

Iohn.

What is the flesh of cranes?

Humfrey

*Simeon Sethi saieth: their flesh is hote and drie, the young are good, but the olde doeth encrease melancholy, they doe ingender seede of generation, and being tenderly rosted, doth help to cleare the voice, and cleanse the pipe of the lungs.

Iohn.

What is swanne?

Hum.

Euery grose fowle is cholle∣ricke, hard of disgestion: the signets bee better than the old swans, if their galan∣tines be well made, it helpeth to disgest their flesh.

Iohn

What is the flesh of herons, bittors, and shouellers?

Humfrey

These fowles bee fishers, and be very rawe, and fleugmaticke, like vnto the meate whereof they are fedde: the young be best, and ought to bee eaten with pepper, synnamom, sugar and gin∣ger, and drinke wine after them for good digestion: and thus do for al water foules.

Iohn

What bee partriches, fesants, quailes, larkes, sparrowes, plouer, and blacke birds.

Page  68
Hum.

Partriches doth binde the bel∣ly, and doth nourish much.* The cockes be better than the hen birds, they doe drie vp fleugme and corruption in the sto∣macke: a fesant is the best of all flesh, for his sweetenes is equall vnto the capon or partrich, but he is somewhat drier. And Rasis saieth fesants flesh is good for them that haue the feuer ethike,* for it is not on∣ly a meate, but a medicine, and doeth cleanse corrupt humors in the stomacke. Quailes although they be eaten of many, yet they are not to bee commended, for they do ingender agues, and bee euill for the falling sickenesse. For as Concilia∣tur saieth: of all foules that bee vsed for meates it is the worst. Dioscorides saith that larkes rosted, bee wholesome to bee eaten of them that bee troubled with the chollicke. Blacke birds taken in the time of frost,* be wholesome and good of disge∣stion: the dung of blacke birdes tempered with vineger, and applied vnto any place that hath the blacke morphew, or blacke leprosie, ofttimes anointed with a spunge helps them. The flesh of plouers ingen∣ders melancholy: sparrowes be hote, and prouoketh lust: Plinie doth describe their Page  [unnumbered] properties the braines be the best parte of them. Woodcockes be of good disgestion and temperate to feede vpon. All small birdes of the field, as Robbin redbre••, Liettes, Finches, red Sparrowes, Gold wnges, and such like, if they be fat, they be maruellous good, and doe greatly comfort nature, either rosted or boiled, and thus do I conclude with thee of birdes.

Ioh▪

I Hartely thanke thee, gentle maister Humfrey: for thy paines tak∣ing in these thy rules vnto me, concern∣ing the proper vse of beastes, and foules in meates. I would be glad to know the vertues of some fishes.

Hum.

In many Ilandes of this worlde, nere adiacent vnto the Oient seas, the people liue there, most chiefly by fishes, and be right strong and sound people of complexion, as Aristotle saieth: Consuetudo est tanquam altera natura,* Custome is like vnto another nature: but because I speake of fish, I will diuide them in thre partes. First of the fishes of the sea, secondly the fish of fresh running riuers,* thirdly of the fishes in pooles and standing waters. The Sea Page  69 hath many grose and fatte fishes, which be noysome to the stomacke, but the smaller kind of fi••es that feede about rockes and cleare stony places, be more drier and lesse of moistnes, then the fresh water fishes, and doth engender lesse flegme and wind, by the reason of their salt feeding as Galen saith:* they be the best fishes that feede in the pure Sea: and chiefest of all fishes for the vse of mankinde. But Ha∣liabas saieth: new fishes lately taken, are colde and moist, and flegmaticke, but least of all the sea fish. Fishes that swimme in fresh cleare Riuers, or stony places, where as the water is sweete, being fishes that beare scales, bee meruailous good. If they feede neare vnto places where much filth is daily cast out, there the fish is verie corrupt and vnholsome, as the said Haliabas saieth: Fishes that do feede in fennes, marishes, diches, & muddy pooles be very vnholsome, and do corrupt the bloud they be grosse and slymy, corrupt and windie. But those fishes that be fed in faire ponds, wherein two running waters may insue, & wheras sweet herbs, roots, weeds that growe about the bankes,* doth feed the fishes those fishes be holsom. Ga∣lenPage  [unnumbered] saieth: Fish that is white scaled, hard, as pearches, cheuens, ruffes, carpes, breames, roches, troutes, &c. be all good. But vnscaled fishes, as eeles, tenches, lampries, and such like be dangerous, vnlesse they be well ba∣ked or rosted, and eaten with pepper, ginger and vineger:* And note this, that it is not wholesome trauelling, or labou∣ring, immediately after the eating of fish, for it doeth greatly corrupt the sto∣macke, and as Galen saieth: the nou∣rishments of flesh is better than the nou∣rishments of fish. And thus much gene∣rally I haue spoken of fish.

Iohn.

And thus it seemeth by thy words, that great fish that bee deuou∣rers in sea, * as Seale and Porpois, & such like, bee vnwholesome, and that the smaller fishes, as codlings, whitings, plaices, smeltes, buttes, solles, pike, pearch, breame, roch, carpe, and such as doe feede in cleane stonie waters: thou sayest they be wholesome: Eeles, lampries, and other muddy fishes, thou doest not greatly commend. There be some kinds of fish soft and hard, which be the best?

Page  70
Humfrey.

If fish be soft, the eldest fish is the best: If fish be hard, the yon∣gest is best, for it is either soft or hard.* Of hard fish take the smallest, of softe fish take the greatest: prouided that your fish be not very slimy:* thus saith Auicen in his booke of fishes.

Iohn.

I pray thee tel me some thing of shell fishes.

Hum.

Crauises and crabbes be very good fishes,* the meate of them doth helpe the lungs, but they be hurtfull for the bladder, yet they will ingender seede. If crabbes of the fresh water bee sodden in pure greene oile oliue: this oile dropped into the eare luke warme, doeth heale hote burning obstructions, and stopping matter that hindereth the hearing. As for lempetes, cockles, scallaps,* as Galen saieth: they bee hard of disgestion, mu∣scles and oisters would bee well boyled, rosted, or baked with onions, wine, but∣ter, sugar, ginger, and pepper, or else they bee verie windie and fleugmatike. Chollericke stomackes may well disgest raw oisters, but they haue cast many a one away.

Iohn.

What is the vertue of oile?

Page  [unnumbered]
Hum.

Greene oile of oliues, is the mother of all oiles, which doeth drawe in∣to her owne nature the vertues of hearbs, buddes, floures, fruites, and rootes. Sweete sallet oile is wholsome to disgest cold hearbs, and sallets, tempered with sharpe vineger and sugar. New oile doth moyst, and warme the stomacke, but olde oile corrupteth the stomacke, and cleau∣eth to the lungs, and maketh one hoarse. Oile of roses and sharpe vineger, tempe∣red together, is good to annoint the fore∣heades of them that are troubled wyth extreme heate or fransie, so that Buglos be sodden in their posset ale, or else drinke the sirops of Endiue or Buglosse. There be many goodly vertues in compounded oiles, both to callisie and make hote. And also to coole the body when it is extreame hote, as the great learned man Iohn Me∣iua, hath described in his Antidotarii.

Iohn.

Wilt thou be so good as to tel me the properties of water?

Hum.

Water is one of the foure ele∣mentes, more lighter than earth, heauier than fire and aire.* But this water the which is heere amongest vs in Riuers, pondes, springs, flouds, and seas be no Page  71 pure waters,* for they be mingled with sundry aires, corruptions, grosenesse, and saltnes, notwithstanding in all our meats and drinkes water is vsed, and amon∣gest all liuing creatures can not be sor∣borne, both man, beast, fish, foule, hearb, and grasse.* And (as Auicen saieth) the clay water is pure, for clay cleanseth the water, and is better than water that run∣neth ouer grauell, or stones, so that it bee pure clay, voyde of corruption. Also wa∣ters running toward the east, be pure, comming out of hard stony rockes, and a pinte of that water is lighter than a pint of the standing water of welles or pooles. The lighter the water, the better it is. Also waters that are put in wine, &c. ought first to bee sodden ere it be occupied colde, and so the fire doth cleanse it from corruption. Standing waters, and wa∣ter running neare vnto cities and towns, or marish ground, woods, and fennes bee euer full of corruption, because there is so much filth in them of carrions and rotten dung, &c. Ice and snowe waters be very grose, and bee hurtefull to the bodies of men and beasts. To drinke colde water is euill, for it will stoppe the body, and Page  [unnumbered] engender melancholy. Salt water help∣eth a man from scabbes, itch, and moist humours, it killeth lice, and wasteth bloud betweene the skinne and the flesh, but it is most hurtful to the stomacke, but the vapour and smoake of it is good for them that haue the dropsie.

Ioh.

What is Vineger?

Hum.

Uineger is colde and drie, and is hurtfull for them that be melancholy,* but when it is drunke, or poured vpon an outward wound stoppeth the bloud: it al∣so killeth hot apostumations of erisipilus, it is an enemie to the sinewes, Uineger and brimstone sodden together, is good for the Gout to wash it withall. Uineger tempered with oyle Oliue, or oyle of Roses, and sodden with vnwashed woll, helpeth a disease called Soda in the head, applied warme vnto the place, it doth helpe hot diseases in the head called Soda, it is good in sauce for all warme and moist men. Uineger with cleane clarified hony penidies and faire water sodden together, doth greatly helpe the paine in the throte or lunges, or stopping of the winde, and quencheth hot diseases. And sharpe vine∣gar mingled with salt, and put vpon the Page  72 biting of a dog, doth heale it: and against poyson it is excellent, chiefly to drinke a little thereof against the pestilence in a morning.

Iohn

What vertue hath our com∣mon salt?

Hum.

Rasis saith, salt is hot and drie,*Dioscorides saith, salt hath vertu to stop, to scour, and mundifie, and of that mind is Oribasius saying: salt is compounded of matter ab••ersiue and stiptik, which mat∣ters be both binding and driyng moist humours, and is good to powder fatte flesh, both biefe and porke, and other fatte meate: for it hath vertue to drie vp super∣fluous humours, as water and bloud, &c. But it is not good for leane bodies, or hot complexioned people, for the much vse of it maketh the body cholericke, appeare aged, and to be angry. The verie vse of it is onely to season meates, but not to be meate. Much good salt is made here in England, as at Witch. Hallond in Lin∣colneshire and in the Shires neere vnto Newcastel.

Ioh.

What is honie, or the vertue thereof?

Page  [unnumbered]
Hum.

*Auerrois sayeth, honie is hot and drie in the second degree, and dooeth cleanse verie much, and is a medicinable meat most chiefliest for olde men and women. * For it doth warme them and conuert them into good bloud. It is not good for cholericke persons because of the heat and drinesse. They do greatly erre that say hony is hot and moist: but if it be clarified from the wax and drosse and kept in a close vessel, there is nothing that is liquid vpon the earth that remaineth lon∣ger. And this precious iewel hony, hath beene euermore praysed aboue suger, for it will conserue and keepe any frute, herb, rote, or any other thing that is put into it an exceeding long time. Marueilous is the worke of God in honie, being a hea∣uenly dewe, that falleth vppon flowers and leaues as Auicen saith, * & is neither the iuice of leaues nor fruit, but onely the heauenlie dewe. Wherevnto the Bees come in due time, and doe gather the said hony, and lay it vp in store in their curious builded houses, * whereas they dwell to∣gether in most goodly order. O Bees bees, how much happier are you then any wretched man, which dwelleth neuer to∣gether Page  73 in vnitie and peace, but in conti∣nuall discord and disquietnesse, as Vir∣gil* saith, En quo discordia ciues pro∣duxerit miseros{is}: Behold what discord wretched citizens haue brought foorth. But now to make an end of the most ex∣cellent vertues of hony, it is good in the meates of them which be fleugmaticke. Hony newly taken out of their combes, bee partely laxatiue, but clarified hony doth binde and dry vp fleugme, and kee∣peth the bodies of fleugmaticke and olde persons from corruption. The best hony is gathered in the Spring time, the se∣cond in Summer: but that which is ga∣thered in Winter is ill and hurtfull. One part of hony, and some part of water sod∣den together vntill the froth bee all scum∣med off, and when it is colde kept in a close stone pot, this drinke (saith Galen* is wholesome for Summer, cleanseth the lungs, and preserueth the bodie in health. Oximel simplex and compositum are made with hony, and so are many moe things which are of great vertue. Su∣ger the which is called mel canne, hon∣ny of the reede, beeing cleane, and not full of grosse pannell, doeth cleanse, and Page  [unnumbered] is not so hote as Bees hony, and doeth a∣gree with the stomackes of cholerike per∣sons. *Haliabas saith it mooueth not the stomacke to drienesse, and that the cleane white sugar not adulbrated, doeth nou∣rish more than honny. Of Rosewater, Pearles, and Sugar is made a goodlie comforter for the heart, called manus Christi.

Iohn.

What is the propertie of milke?

Humfrey

*Simeon Sethi saieth, that milke is of three partes: whey, curdes, and creame. Whey is wholesome for to drinke in Summer, specially of cholerike persons, it cleanseth the body. Milke of fatte beastes doeth nourish more than the leane beastes, and the milke of yoong beastes is better than of the olde. And the new milke is wholesomer than that the which hath stoode in the aire, * as Rafis saieth. And also those beasts that are fed in drie pastures amongest hearbes, grasse and flowers, hauing conuenient water, their milke is very good. Milke in the beginning of Summer is very whole∣some. Page  74* In Winter it is vnwholesome for fleugmaticke persons, or them which haue corrupt and foule stomackes. For if the milke be sower, it doeth ingender the stone in the reines or bladder. * Cowes milke is the thickest milke, and vnctious or full of butter. But the best milke that helpeth against consumptions, is wo∣mans milke: the next is goates milke, which goates milke rather nourisheth too much, if it be taken commonly. Sheepes milke is not very pleasant vnto the sto∣macke. And note this, that Milke is not wholesome to them which haue paines in the head or teeth. But the people that bee brought vp with milke, be faire coloured, and healthfull bodies.

Isaac sayeth, if honny and a little salte bee sodden in the milke, then it is very wholesome, and is not windie nor fleg∣matike. If mintes, bourage leaues, rosemary flowers, honny suckles, and a∣little Suar be layed in a bason, and co∣uered with a faire linnen cloth, and milke the saide bason full through the cloth, and then let it stand all the night. This is pleasant to drinke in the morning vppon an empty stomacke, two houres before a∣ny Page  [unnumbered] other meate,* it cleanseth the rage of hote burning choler: and thus I leaue off milke.

Iohn

What is butter?

Humfrey

*Butter is hote and moist: fresh butter is vsed in many medicines. New made butter meanly salted, is good with breade, flesh and fish, it helpeth the lungs, and purgeth the drienesse of the throate, and helpeth coughes most chief∣liest if it be mingled with hony or sugar. It is good for yoong children when their teeth doth growe or ake. Butter milke if you crumme newe white breade into it, and suppe it off, there is no milke nou∣risheth so much, goates milke excepted. Cheese if it be new it is indifferently well commended, but hard salt cheese doth drie the bodie, and engendereth the stone, as Isaac and Auicene doe say,* and manie o∣ther Doctours more doe rather discom∣mend it than praise it. When as pottes or stones bee broken, if hard cheese bee steeped in water and made softe, and grownd vppon a Painters stone, it will ioyne the broken pottes or stones toge∣ther Page  75 againe. By this I gather, that cheese will engender the stone before any other meates. Therefore cheese shoulde bee made in Summer when the creame is not taken from the milke. And Bitto∣nie, Saxifrage, and Parcely chopped to∣gether, be wholesome for to be mingled amongest the curdes. And thus I doe conclude with Haliabas, that old cheese is vnwholesome.

Iohn

What be egges?

Humfrey

Galen sayeth in his booke of Simples, that egges are no parte of the fowles, but a portion of the thing from whence it came. Simeon Sethi writing of the diuersitie of egges saieth the first propertie is in their substaunce, and the second is in their time, eyther newe layed or olde. The third is in the manner of their rosting, potching, or see∣thing. New laide egges of hennes pot∣ched and supped vppon an emptie sto∣macke, doeth cleanse the lungs and the raines of the backe. Harde egges are greately discommended, vnlesse it bee to stoppe flixes, but it were better for Page  [unnumbered] to seethe egges hard in vinegar, and then vndoubtedly it will drie vp the flixe of the belly. Fried egges be very hurtfull for chollericke people, and them which haue the stone. Duckes and geese egges bee grose and noysome, but partrich, fea∣sants and hennes egges, ingendreth good blood.

Iohn.

VVhat is the propertie of wine?

Humfrey

*Hipocrates saieth of a cu∣stomable thing commeth lesse hurt, wher∣of I gather, that they that drinke Wine customably with measure, it doeth profit them much, and maketh good disgestion. those people that vse to drinke wine sel∣dome times, be di••••perated. * White wine if it be cleare, 〈◊〉 wholesome to be drunke before mea•••, for it pearseth quickely to the blader: but and if it bee drunke vpon a full stomacke, it will ra∣ther make opilation and stopping of the meserates, because it doeth swiftly driue foode downe, before nature hath of him∣selfe disgested it. And the nature of the white wine is of least warmenesse. The Page  76 second wine is pure Claret, of a cleare Iacinct or yellowe colour. This wine doeth greatly nourish and warme the bo∣dy, and it is a wholesome Wine with meate, and is good for flegmatike folke, but very vnwholesome for yong children, or them which haue hote liuers, or paines in their head, occasioned of hote vapours or smoakes, for it is like vnto fier, and flaxe. The third is blacke or deepe red wine, which is thicke, a stopper of the belly, a corrupter of the bloud, a bree∣der of the stone, hurtfull vnto olde men, and profitable to few men, except they haue the flixe.

And for the election of wine (saieth Auicen) that Wine is best that is be∣tweene new and olde, cleare, declining somewhat to red of good odour, * neither sharpe nor sweete, but equall betweene two, for it hath vertue not onely to make humours temperate, warme, and moiste, but also to expell euill matter, the which corrupted the stomacke and bloud. In the Summer it ought to be delayed with pure cleare water, as Aristotle saieth in his Problemes. And note this, that in drie yeeres Wines are best and most Page  [unnumbered] wholesome, but in watery yeares, the grapes be corrupted, which wine doth bring to the body many euill diseases, as dropsies, timpanes, flixes, reumes, windes and such like,* as Galen saieth. And thus to conclude of wyne, almightie God did ordaine it for the great comfort of mankind, to bee taken moderatly, but to be drunken with excesse,* it is a poyson most venemous, it relaxeth the sinewes, bringeth palsey, falling sicknesse in cold persons, hote feuers, fransies, fighting, lecherie, and a consuming of the liuer, to chollerycke persons. And generally there is no credence to be giuen to drun∣kards, although they be mightie men. It maketh men like to monsters, with coun∣tinaunces, like vnto burning coales: It dishonoureth noble men, and beggereth poore men: and generally killeth as many as be slaine in cruell battelles, the more it is to be lamented.

Ioh.

What is beere or ale?

Hum.

Ale doth engendre grosse hu∣mors in the body, but if it be made of good barly mualt, and of wholsone Page  77 water, and verie well sodden, and stand fiue or sixe daies, vntill it be cleare. It is verie wholesome, especially for hot cho∣lericke folkes, hauing hote burning fe∣uers. But if Ale bee very sweete and not well sodden in the brewing, it bring∣eth inflammation of winde and choller into the belly: If it be very sower, it fret∣teth and nippeth the guts, and is euill for the eies. To them that be verie fleg∣maticke, ale is verie grosse, but to tem∣perat bodies it encreaseth bloud: It is partely laxatiue, and prouoketh vrine. Cleane brewed beere if it be not very strong, brewed with good hops, clenseth the body from corruption, and is very wholsome for the liuer, it is an vsuall or common drinke in most places of Eng∣land, which indeede is hurt and made worse with many rotten hops, or hoppes dried like dust which commeth from be∣yond the sea. But although there com∣meth manie good hoppes from thence, yet it is knowen that the goodly stilles, and fruitfull grounds of England, do bring forth to mans vse, as good hops as groweth in any place of this world, as by proofe I know in many places of Page  [unnumbered] the countrey of Suffolke: Whereas they brewe their beere with the hoppes that groweth vpon their owne grounds: And thus to conclude of ale and beere, they haue no such vertue nor goodnes as wyne hath, and the sur fetes which be taken of them, through drunkennes, be worse then the surfetes taken of wyne. Knowe this, that to drinke ale or beere of an empty stomacke moderatly hurteth not, but dooeth good. But if one be fast∣ing,* hungry, or empty, and drinke much wine, it will hurt the sinewes, and bring∣eth crampe, sharpe agues, and palsies, as Auicen. Auerois and Rasis saie.

Ioh.

What is bread?

Hum.

The best Bread is made of cleane sweete wheate which groweth in claie ground, and maketh but little branne when it is ground, light leauened, meanely salted, and the bread to be baked in an ouen not extremely hot, for burning of the bread, nor les then meane ht, for causing the bread to be heauie and rawe, the lighter the bread is, and the more full of holes,* it is the wholsomer, as Auerrois and Rasis saieth. And also Page  78 bread must neither be eaten new baked, nor verie stale or old,* for the one causeth drinesse, thirst, and smoking into the head, troubling the braines and eies through the heate thereof: The other drieth the body and bringeth melancholy, humours, hurting memory. The best bread is that which is of a day olde, and the loues or manchets may neither be great nor little, but meane, for the fier in small loues drieth vp the moistnes or vertue of the bread, and in great loues it leaueth raw∣nesse and grosnesse. Reade Galen in the properties of bread: Sodden bread,* which be called simnels or cracknelles, bee verie vnwholsome, and hurteth many one: Rie bread is windy and hurtfull to manie, therefore it shoulde be well salted and baked with Annis seedes, and commonly crustes of bread be verie drie and burneth, they doe engen∣der melancholy humours. Therefore in great mens houses the bread is chipped and largelye pared and ordy∣narily is made in brewesse, and sosse for dogges, which will helpe to feede a great number of poore people, but that many be more affectionate to dogges Page  [unnumbered] then men: Barly bread doth clense, coole and make the body leane.

Ioh.

What is rise?

Hum.

There be many opinions in the vertue thereof, but I shall stay my selfe with the iudgement of Auicen:* Rise saith he, is hot and drie and hath vertue to stop the belly, it doth nourish much, if it bee sodden with milke, but it ought to be steeped in water a whole night before: if blanched Almondes be stamped and with Rosewater streined into them, and sodden with cowes milke, it is verie nutrimen∣tall.

Ioh.

What be almondes?

Hum.

The bitter Almondes be hotter then the sweete Almondes. Drie Al∣mondes be hurtfull, the milke of moist Almonds, wherein burning steele is quenched, stoppeth the flix: To eate al∣mondes before meate, preserueth against drunkenes.* Walnuts be wholsome when they be new, to bee eaten after fish, for they hinder engendring of fleugme. Simeon Sethi saith they are hote in the first, and drie in the second degree, not wholsome before meate,*Plinie speak∣ing of Metridatis the great king that Page  79Pompius, found of his owne hand writ∣ing, that two nuttes and two figges, and twenty rewe leaues stamped together with a little salt, and eaten fasting, doth defend a man both from poison and pesti∣lence that daie.* Filberdes and hazle nuttes, be hard of disgestion, ill before meate, hurtfull to the head and lunges, if they be rosted and eaten with a little pep∣per, they will helpe the running and di∣stillation of rumes.* Chesnuttes if they bee rosted and eaten with a little hony fast∣ing, they helpe the cough, if they be eaten raw, although they greatly nourrish the brdy, yet they be hurtfull for the splene and fill the belly, full of winde.* Nut∣megges be very good for colde persons, comforteth the sight and memory,* as A∣uicen saieth: but without doubt Nut∣megges doe combust or burne sanguine men, and drie vp their bloud: and thus much haue I spoken shortly of the vertue of nuttes.

Ioh.

What be cloues, galangell, and Pepper?

Hum.

They be hote and drie, and as Rasis saieth:* doe comfort colde sto∣mackes: Page  [unnumbered] and make sweete breath, and is good in the meates of them that haue ill disgestion. Blacke pepper is hoter then long pepper, and doth mightily warme the bodie, the grosser it is eaten with fish or frute,* the better it prouoketh vrine, it is hot and drie, in the fourth degree, there∣fore they doe erre that saie pepper is hot in the mouth and colde in the stomacke. Although pepper be good to them that vse it well, yet vnto artificiall women that haue more beastlines then beuty and cannot be content with their natural com∣plexions, but would faine be fayre: they eate pepper, dried corne, and drinke vine∣ger, with such like bagage, to drie vp their bloud,* and this is the verie cause that a great, number though not all, fall into weakenes, greene sickenesse, slink∣ing breathes, and oftentimes sodaine death.

Iohn.

What is sweete Callamus odoratus?

Hum.

An excellent sweete roote and profitable for men, if the poticaries keepe it not vntill it bee rotten, it is hote and drie in the beginning to the mides Page  80 of the second degree, it hath power to clense, to dry to waste al winds within the body without hurt. Galen doth greatly commend the sauour of it. They that drinke of this roote sodden in wine, shall haue remedie of the white morphew, and recouer good collours. And this haue I proued, it helpeth crampes and sickenesse in the sinewes, being drunke in wyne, sodden with sage, it helpeth the splene, the liuer and raines, and will clense the secret termes of women, and augmenteth na∣turall seede.

Ioh.

What is ginger?

Hum.

It is hot in the third degree and moist in the end of the first if it be vncollered.* White and not rotten it is verie good, most chiefly if it be conserued, and greene as Mesua saith: it maketh warme a colde stomacke, and consu∣meth windes, helpeth euill disgestion, and maketh meate goe easely downe into the stomacke.

Ioh.

What is Setwall?

Hum.

Hot and drie in the second de∣gree, and is good,* if the pouder there∣of be drunke, is most of effect against the pestilence, except Methridatum: It is Page  [unnumbered] good against poison, winde chollericke, and colde passions of the heart, and doeth restraine vomites. The weight of eight graines doth suffice to be drunke in ale or wine vpon an empty stomacke.

Iohn

What is sinamon?

Humf.

Dioscorides saieth there bee many kindes of sinamon, but generally their vertue is this, to helpe dropsies, windes, or stopping of the liuer, and is hote and drie in the third degree.

Iohn

What is Cassia Fistula, Sene∣ca, and Rewbarb?

Humfrey

Cassia Fistula, if the cane be heauie, and the Cassia within blacke and shining, that is good Cassia, if this bee drawen newe out of the cane halfe an ounce or more at one time, and mingled with suger, and eaten of a fasting sto∣macke in the morning it hath power to purge choller, to cleanse the raines of the backe it will fret and consume the stone, it purgeth very easily, and is pleasant in taking, and may bee taken of children, weake women, and sicke men, in the time of their feuers, the accesse of their fittes excepted. Reubarbe doeth purge yellow choler by himselfe, two or three drammes Page  81 may be taken or a little more, so that there be a dram of Spikenard or Si∣namon put vnto it. In Summer to drinke it with whey, in Winter with white wine: but the cleane yellowe rubarbe sliced, and put into infusion al the night with whey, white wine, or endiue water, and streyne it in the morning, doth greatly purge the blood and liuer: thrée or foure drams with Spikenard a dram or more. Séeny A∣lexandria, if it be sodden in the broath of a cocke or a henne, doeth purge the bloud and melancholie, verie gentlie and comfort the heart. One ounce of the cleane small leaues of séeny with∣out cods or stalkes, halfe a quarter of one ounce of ginger, twelue cloues, finkle séede two drammes, or else two drams of Sinamon, tartar, halfe a dram, beaten al together in powder: these do purge the head mightily to be taken before supper, the weight of one dram in a little white wine.

Ioh.

I would bee glad to learne the vertue of Aloes.

Hum.

There be two kinds of Aloes, one is named Succo trina, which is Page  [unnumbered] like a liuer, cleare, brittle, bitter, colou∣red betwéene red and yellow, this is best for medicines. A little of this be∣ing tempered with Rose water, being put vnto the eies, helpeth the dropping and watery eyes. Also it is put in ma∣ny excellent medicines laxatiue, as saffron, myrrhe, aloes, mingled toge∣ther. In the forme of pilles, is the most excellent medicine against the pesti∣lence, as it is written in this booke fo∣lowing. Honie and aloes mingled to∣gither, doe take away the markes of stripes and also doth mundifie sores & vlcers, it doeth cleanse the abundance of choler & fleugme from the stomacke. It is not good to be taken in Winter, for Auicen doeth forbid it,* but in the spring time or haruest, the powder thereof. The weight of a french crown mingled with the water of honie or mead,* and so drunke in the morning, it doth cleanse both choler and fleugme. There is another grosse aloes which is good for horse tempred with ale, and ministred aswell to other great beasts as horses, the weight of half an ounce: and thus much haue I sayd of aloes: Page  82 but if aloes be cleane washed, it is the wholsomer, many vnwashed aloes wil cause emerodes.

Ioh.

Is the saffron that groweth in England as good as that, that come from the other side of the sea?

Hum.

Our English hony, & saffron is btter than any that commeth from any other strange or forrein land. But to thy question of saffron, it hath ver∣tue either in bread or pottage, to make the heart glad, it warmeth the body, it preserueth from drūkennes, drunke in ale or wine prouoketh acts venerous, iuduceth sléepe, purgeth vrine. Myrre,* aloes & saffron, make an excellent pill against the pestilence, 2. peny weight of saffron pouder, rosted with the yolk of an egge very hard, & the said yolke beaten in powder, 12 graines drinke in mornings is good against the pesti∣lence: saffron, planten, and iuory sod∣den. The decoction drinke helpeth the yellow iaundeys, it is drie in the first degrée, and hath vertue to restraine.

Ioh.

We plaine men in the country dwel farre from great cities, our wiues and children be often sick▪ and at deaths Page  [unnumbered] doore, wee can not tell what shift to make wee haue no acquaintance with the apothecaries, cōmonly we send for aqua vitae or malmesey whatsoeuer our diseases be, these be our common me∣dicines, or else we send for a box of tria∣cle: and when these medicins faile vs, we cause a great posset to be made, and drink vp the drink: thinkest thou these medicines to be good?

Hum.

For lacke of medicine God helpeth the people oftentimes by my∣racle, or else a great number of men should perish. But because the almigh∣tie God hath couered the whole face of the earth with many precious simples, whereof rich copositions bee made, therefore bee neither so rude nor bar∣barous to thinke these medicines good that thou hast rehearsed, for all disea∣ses, although not hurtfull to some: but because many doe receyue more mis∣chiefe than medicine in counterfeite triacles, I shall rehearse vnto thee what Valerius Cordus and others doe write vpon the vertue of the precious triacle called Methridatum.

Ioh.

I would be glad to heare of that Page  83 precious triacle and his vertues.

Hum.

This excellent triacle Me∣thridatum is next in qualitie and ver∣tue to Theriaca, and so differ but little, but onely Theriacha is a little hotter and stronger against venom of snakes, adders, and serpents. It helpeth all paines of the head of men or women if it be come of cold, most chiefly of melā∣cholie and feare. It helpeth megrime, falling sicknes, and all paines of the forehead, dropping of eyes. It helpeth toothake, paines of the mouth, chéekes, if it be put in maner of a plaister, or else annoint the pained place. It hel∣peth paines of the throte called Squi∣nancie, and also cough, appoplexia, and passion of the lunges, and manie grieuous dolors and pains within the bodie, drunke with the decoction of the flowers of Pomgranats or Plan∣tine, it helpeth and stoppeth flixes in the Ilias and long guts winds or col∣licke. The extention or cramps be hel∣ped very much with this Methridatū, drunken with stilled waters, palsies, sickenesses in the midriffe, the liuer, reines and bladder be cleansed therby Page  [unnumbered] it prouoketh the menstrual termes in womē, being drunk with posset ale. If Isop or Germander bee sodden in the said ale, it is excellent against the pe∣stilence or poison, if it be drunke but a little quantitie thereof, according to the disease, strength or age of the per∣son. It is very good against the stone, or for womē which haue a new disease peraccidents called the gréene sicknes, there is nothing better against the bi∣ting of a mad dogge, than to drinke of this, and to annoint the wound. If it be giuen in drinke to any sicke bodie a little before the accesse or comming of the olde fittes of quotidians, tercians, or quarteins, so that it be drunke with wine temperately warmed.* This Me∣thridatum is a medicine of no small price: Democrates hath a goodly com∣position of it: an other excellent com∣position is of Cleopatre, as Galen wri∣teth. An other, and the most excellent is the description of Andromachus, phisition vnto king Nero, but the chief father of this act, was king Mithrida∣tus, the noble king of Ponthus, after whose name it is called.

Page  84
Ioh.

Indeed this is an excellent me∣dicine, but I pray thee where shall I buy it?

Hum.

The blind (fellow Iohn) doe eate many a flie, and the plaine mea∣ning man is oft deceyued. There is no trust in some of the Apothecaries, for although the vsurpation of quid pro quo is tollerable, for their Succi∣danes, yet to abuse their simples or compounds, it is not onely theft to rob simple men, but also murther to kill the hurtlesse.

Ioh.

Of late time we haue beene so afflicted with sundrie sickenesses and strange diseases, that in many places we could get no physitions to helpe vs, and when men be sodainly sicke, 200. miles from London, Cambridge, or Oxford▪ it is too late for the patient to sende for helpe, being infected with the pesti∣lence. I pray thee tel me some good re∣giment for me & my family, if it please God that it may take place.

Hum.

I shall be glad forasmuch as thou hast taken paines to heare me all this while, to teach thée a pretie regi∣ment for the pestilence.

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Ioh.

Reade it faire and softly, and I will take my pen and write it.

Hum.

Certainly the occasion of this most feareful sicknesse commeth many waies, as the change of the aire from a good vnto an euill qualitie, taking his venemous effect of the vital spirits which incontinent with all spéede cor∣rupteth the spirituall blood. And soden∣ly (as it were) an vnmercifull fire, it quickly consumeth the whole bodie o∣uen vnto death, vnlesse the wholsome medicine doe preuent and come to the heart, before the pestilent humor. And because it is a very strong sicknes, it is requisite to haue a strong curing medi∣cine. For weake things will not pre∣uail against so strong a matter. Ther∣fore I pray you note these six sayings, as aire, diet, sléepe, or watch, quietnes, or trouble, and finally medicine. First, walk not in stinking mists,* nor by cor∣rupt marrish ground, nor in extreme hot weather, but in fair cleare aire vp∣on high ground in swéet fields or gar∣dens, hauing fire in your chāber, with swéet perfumes of the smoke of Oliba∣num, or Beniamen Frankensence, being Page  85 cold weather. And in hote weather, ro∣ses, willow branches sprinkled with vineger, & often shifting the chamber is wholsom, fléeing the South winde. Secondly, diet, moderate eating meate of good digestion, as all that haue pure white flesh, both of beasts, and foules, good bread of wheate, partly leauened. Eate no raw hearbs, purslein, Lettise,* yong Lettish, or sorrel, except with vi∣neger. Drinke of cleare thin wine, not chaunged and vse often times vineger with your meates, and mingle not fish and flesh together in your stomacke, & to drinke a tisant of barly water, rose water, & sorrell water, betwene meals is good, eight spoonfuls at once. Third∣ly, beware you sléepe not at noone, it bringeth many sicknesses,* and giueth place to the pestilence, and abateth memory. For as the marigold is spred by the day, and closed by the night: euen so is man of nature disposed, al∣though through custome otherwise al∣tered vnto great domage and hurt of body. Eight hours sléepe suffiseth well to nature,* but euery complexion hath his proper qualities, to sléepe vpon the Page  [unnumbered] right side is best, euill vpon the left, and worse vpon the backe. Fourthly, vse moderate exercise and labor for the euacuation of the excrements,* as swift going vp hilles, stretching forth armes and legges, lifting weightes not ve∣rie ponderous, for by labour the first and second digestion is made perfite, and the bodie strengthened, and this is a mightie defence agaynst the pesti∣lence, and many mo infirmities, wher∣as through idlenesse be engendered all diseases both of the soule and bodie, whereof man is compounded & made. Fifthly, aboue all earthly thinges, mirth is most excellent,* and the best companion of life, putter away of all diseases: the contrarie in plague time bringeth on the pestilence, through painefull melancholie, which maketh the body heauy & earthly. Company, musicke, honest gaming, or any other vertuous exercise doeth helpe agaynst heauinesse of mind. Sixtly, medicine, the partie being chaunged in nature and condition, trembling or burning, vomiting with extreame paine in the day,* colde in the night, and strange Page  86 imaginations, &c. Apt to sléepe, when these signes doe appeare, giue him me∣dicine before xij. houres, or else it will be his death. Take therefore with all spéed, sorrel, one handful stamped with Rew, Enulacampana, Oringe rindes, Citron seedes, the great thistlerootes, Geneper berries, walnuts, cleane pic∣ked, of each one ounce, stampe them all together, then take pure sharpe vi∣neger, a quarter of a pynt, as much buglesse water, as much white wine, and temper your sayde receytes with these licours. Then put in two oun∣ces of pure Methridatum and romachi, which is an excellent triacle,* and two drams weight of the powder of pure Bolearmein, mingle them all togither in a verie close vessell, and giue the pacient a spoonefull▪ or more next his heart, and etfsoones asmuch more, & let them that take this, not sléepe during twētie hours: or else take pure triacle and setwel mingled in posset ale, made with white wine, wherein sorrel hath boyled a good draught, and let an ex∣pert Chirurgion let the pacient bloud vpon the middle veine called Mediana,*Page  [unnumbered] or the heart veine: Basilica a good quan∣titie according to the strength and age of the pacient, except women with childe, and children. For the retaining the said bloud, would all turne to ve∣nom and incurable poison: And note this, that blood bee lette vpon the same side that the sore doth appeare. If any appeare for many causes, and sléep not viij. houres after, and vse this most ex∣cellent pill oftentimes.* Take pure a∣loes epatik, and myrre, well washed in cleane water, or rose water, of each 2. drams, and one dram of the powder of saffron, mingled with a little swéete wine, & tempered in a very small ves∣sell vpon the coles vntill it be partlie thicke, or els incorporate altogither in a morter, then roll them vp in small round pils, vse to swallow half a dram of these pils two times a wéeke in the pestilēce time a mornings, thrée hours before meate. Another medicine: tor∣mentill gentian, setwell, of each one dram, spikenarde drams 2. nasticke drams 3. bole armin drams 8. giue 2. drams to the patient, or any that feare the plague in the water of Scabeas, or Page  87Carduus Benedictus, then drinke the broath of a chicken, or pure wine to ripe the sore, rost a great onion, take out the core, put in triacle, and warme apply it to the place, thrée or four times renued warme: and oyle Oliue, blacke sope, sowre leauen, lillie rootes, of each like quantitie boyled together, put in the inice of Rew, and make a plaister, this will breake the said sore: Capons grease, yolkes of egs, swines grease, barlie floure, inséede in powder, incor∣porated together wil make a good hea∣ling playster. Emplastrum diachilon, magnum descriptione filij Zacharia doth resolue and quench the hot vlcer. But in the time of the plague trust not vrines.

FINIS.
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The Epilogue.

HEre I haue presented vnto thee (gentle reader) a sim∣ple Gouernment of health, beseeching thee most heartily for to accept it as an argument of my good will, as one vnfeynedly that greatly doe couet the good estate, and happie health of man∣kinde, which by dayly casualties, sur∣fets and age do decay, and fall into ma∣ny grieuous and painfull sicknesses. For which cause, although perhaps I cannot in all points answer to thy request, in this little Regiment: yet I shall desire thee to accept mee among the fellow∣ship of the botchers, which do helpe to repaire things that fall into ruine or decay: Euen so bee the practitioners of phisicke, no makers of men, but when men doe decay through sicknesse, then the counsell of the Phisition, and the vertue of medicin is not to bee refused, but most louingly to bee embraced, as a chiefe friend in the time of aduersi∣tie: if thou readest this little booke, and obserue it, I trust it will pay as Page  [unnumbered] much as it doth promise. And because I am a yong man, I would not presume to take such a matter in hand, although the wordes bee fewe, but did consiliate and gather things together, which of my selfe I haue practised, and also read and noted in the workes of Hippocrates, Galen, Auicen, Plinie, Haliabas, Auen∣zoer, Rasis, Dioscorides, Leonhardus Fut∣chius, Conradus Gesnerus, &c. And thus I leaue thee to the companie of this my little booke, wishing thee health, and all them that shall reade it.

William Bullein.