The posing of the parts. Or, A most plaine and easie way of examining the accidence and grammar, by questions and answeres, arising directly out of the words of the rules Whereby all schollars may attaine most speedily to the perfect learning, full vnderstanding, and right vse thereof; for their happy proceeding in the Latine tongue. Gathered purposely for the benefit of schooles, and for the vse and delight of maisters and schollars.
Brinsley, John, fl. 1581-1624.
Page  44

THE POSING OF THE Rules, called Propria quae Maribus.

Generall rules of proper Names, and first of proper Masculines.

Q. HOW can you knowe what Gender a Noune is of?

A. I haue certaine rules at Propria quae maribus, which teach mee the Genders of Nounes.

Q. How can you know by these rules?

A. First, I must looke according to the order of my Acci∣dence, whether it be a Substantiue or an Adjectiue: If it be a Substantiue, I haue my rule betweene Propria quae maribus, and Adiectiua vnam, &c.

Q. If it be a Substantiue, what must you looke for next?

A. Whether it be a Proper name, or a Common called an Appellatiue.

Q. If it be a proper name, what must you looke for then?

A. Whether it belong to the male kinde or female; that is, to the he, or she.

Q. If it be a proper name belonging to the male kinde, what Gender is it?

A. The Masculine.

Q. Where is your rule?

A. Propria quae maribus tribuuntur, &c.

Q What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. All proper names belonging to the male kinde, [or vvhich were wont to goe vnder the names of hees] are Page  [unnumbered] the Masculine Gender.

Q. How many kindes of proper Masculines haue you be∣longing to that Rule?

A. Fiue: Names of heathenish Gods, men, ** flouds, mo∣neths, winds.

Proper Feminines.

Q. IF it be a proper name, belonging to the female kind, or shees; what Gender must it be?

A. The Feminine.

Q. Where is your Rule?

A. Propria foemineum.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. All proper names belonging to the female kinde, [or going vnder the names of shees] are the feminine Gender.

Q. How many kindes of proper Feminines haue you be∣longing to that rule?

A. Fiue: Names of Goddesses, women, cities, countries, Ilands.

Q. Are all names of Cities the Feminine Gender?

A. Yea, all; except two of the Masculine: as, aSulmo & Agragas. Three of the Neuter: as, Argos, Tybur, Praeneste: And one both Masculine and Neuter; as, Anxur.

Q. Where is your rule for those which are excepted?

A. Excipienda tamen quaedam.

Generall rules of Appellatiues.

Q BVt if your Noune be none of these proper names, but some Appellatiue or common name: hovv must you finde the Rule?

A. It is then either the name of a tree, or of some bird, beast, Page  45 or fish, or some other more common name; all which haue their speciall rules.

Q. Where is the rule for names of trees?

A. Appellatiua arborum erunt, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. All names of trees are of the feminine Gender: except spinus and olcaster of the Masculine; and Siler, suber, thus, ro∣bur and acer of the Neuter Gender.

Epicens.

Q. WHere is the Rule for birds, beasts and fishes?

A. Sunt etiam vluerum.

Q. What is the meaning?

A. The names of birds, beasts, and fishes, are the Epicene Gender.

Q. What is the common exception from all Nounes?

A. Omne quod exit in um.

Q. What is the meaning of that?

A. That all Nounes Substantiues proper or common, en∣ding in um, are the a Neuter Gender: so is euery Substantiue vndeclined.

* Q. Are all Substantiues ending in um, the Neut. Gender?

A. All, but names of men & (b) women: according to that rule of Despauterias; Vm neutrū pones, hominū si propria tolles.

Q. But how shall the Gender be knowne in Epicens, and so in all other Appellatiues?

A. By the Genitiue case.

Q. By what rules?

A. Dicta Epicoena quibus, &c. And, Nam genus hîc semper dignoscitur ex Genitiuo.

Q. How by the Genitiue case?

A. By considering vvhether it increase or no; and if it in∣crease, whether it increase sharp or flat; or as we may tearme it more easily, long, or short.

Q. When is a Noune said to increase?

A. When it hath moe syllables in the Genitiue case, then Page  [unnumbered] in the Nominatiue: as, virtus virtutis.

Q. How many special rules haue you to know the Gender; by the increasing, or not increasing of the Genitiue case?

A. Three.

Q. Which be they?

A. The first is, Nomen non crescens Genitiuo.

Q. The Second: Nomen crescentis penultima si Genitiui syllaba acuta sonet, &c.

The Third: Nomen crescentis penultima si Genitiui sit gra∣uis, &c.

The first speciall Rule.

Q. WHat is the meaning of your first special Rule? Nomen non crescens?

A. Euery Noune Substantiue common, not (a) increasing in the Genitiue case b singular, is the feminine Gender; ex∣cept those excepted in the rules following.

Q. How many sorts haue you excepted?

A. Some of the Masculine Gender, some of the Neuter, some of the Doubtfull, some of the Common of two.

Q. How many Rules haue you of Masculines excepted, not increasing?

A. Four: 1. Mascula nomina in a, &c. 2. Mascula Graecorū, &c. 3. Masculaitem verres. 4. Mascula in er seu venter.

Q. What meane you by Mascula nomina in a dicuntur, &c?

A. Many names of offices of men ending in a, are the Mas∣culine Gender; as, Hic Scriba, ae, a scribe or a scriuener.

Q. What is the meaning of the second Rule? Mascula Graecorum, &c?

A. All Nounes of the c first declension in Greeke beeing made Latine Nounes, and ending in as, es, or a, are the Mas∣culine Gender: as, Hc Saetrapas, ae, hic Athletes, ae, or athleta, ae, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of the third Rule? Masculaite verres?

Page  46A. These words are also the Masculine Gender; verres, na∣talis, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of Mascula in er, seu venter, &c?

A. Nounes Substantiues ending in er, os, or us, no increa∣sing in the Genitiue case, are the Masculine Gender: as, hic venter ventris, hic logos gi, hic annus i.

Q. Is there no exception from that rule?

A. Yes: Foemine Generis sunt mater, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. That these words ending in er, os & (d)us, are the femi∣nine Gender, excepted from Masculain er, &c. as Haec ma∣ter matris, &c. so ficus of the fourth declension put for a fig. And words ending in us, comming of Greek words in os: as, papyrus, &c. with sundry other of the same kind, us cōming of feminines in Greek.

Q. Where is your rule of Neuters not increasing?

A. Neutrum nomen in e, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Euery Noune ending in e, hauing is in the Genitiue case; and euery Noune ending in on, or in um,(e) not increa∣sing; also hippomanes, cacoëthes, virus, pelagus, are the Neuter Gender: Vulgus is the Masculine and Neuter.

Q. Where is your rule for Doubtfuls not increasing?

A. Incerti generis sunt talpa, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words are of the doubtfull Gender; tapa, dama, &c. so ficus for a disease, making fici in the Genitiue ease, &c.

Q. Where is your rule for Commons not increasing?

A. Compositum à verbo dans a, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Euery compound Noune ending in a, being deriued of a Verbe, and not increasing, is the Common of two Gen∣ders: as, Graiugena, beeing deriued of the Verbe Gigno, &c. so are senex, auriga, and the rest of that rule.

Page  [unnumbered]

The second speciall Rule.

Q. WHat is your second speciall Rule?

A. Nomen crescentis penultima si Genitiui syllaba acuta sonet, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. Euery Noune Substantiue common, increasing sharp or long in the Genitiue case, is the feminine Gender; except those excepted in the rules following.

Q. What meane you by that, To increase sharp or long?

A. To haue the last syllable, but one, of the Genitiue case increasing, to be lifted vp in pronouncing, or to be pronoū∣ced long:* as, Virtus virtütis.

Q. How many chiefe exceptions haue you from this Rule?

A. Foure: some wordes of the Masculine, some of the Neuter, some of the Doubtfull, some of the Common, are excepted?

Q. How many rules haue you of acute, or long Mascu∣lines excepted?

A. Three: 1. Mascula dicuntur monosyllaba, &c. 2. Mas∣cula sunt etiam polysyllaba in n. 3. Mascula, in er, or, & os.

Q. What is the meaning of the first rule, Mascula dicun∣tur, &c?

A. These Nounes of one syllable increasing acute or long, are the Masculine Gender▪ as, Sal, sol, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of Mascula sunt etiam polysylla∣ba in n, &c?

A. All Nounes ending in n, beeing of moe syllables then one, and increasing long in the Genitiue case, are the Mascu∣line Gender: as, Hic Acarnan, ânis. So all such wordes en∣ding in o, signifying a body, or bodily thing: as, Leo, curcu∣lio. So also senio, ternio, sermo, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of the third rule, Mascula in er, or, & os, &c?

A. All Nounes ending in er, or, and os, increasing sharp or long, are the Masculine Gender; as, crater, conditor, heros, oisPage  47 So all other words in that rule, and many ending in de••,s,*bidens, with words compounded of As, asi: as Dodrans, se∣mis, semissis, &c.

Q. Haue you no exception from these two last rules?

A. Yes: there are foure word except, which are of the fe∣minine Gender (as, Syren, mulier, sorr, vxr) by Sunt mulie∣bre genus syren, &c.

Q. Where is your rule for Neuters increasing sharpe or long?

A. Sut Neutralia & haec monosyllaba, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words of one syllable increasing sharpe or long, are the Neuter Gender: as, Mel, fel. Also all wordes of moe syllables ending in al, or in ar, increasing long: as Capital, âlis, laquear, &c. Onely Halc is of the Neuter and Feminine Gender: as, Haec vel hoc halec.

Q. Where is your rule for long Doubtfuls?

A. Sunt dubia haec, python, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. These words increasing sharp are the Doubtfull Gen∣der: as, Python, scrobs, &c. So stirps for a stump of a tree, and calx for a heele. Also dies a day; except that dies is onely the Masculine Gender, in the Plurall Number.

Q. Where is the rule of sharpe or long Commons?

A. Sunt commune paens, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words increasing sharp, are the Common of two Genders: as, Parens, author, &c. And so the compounds of frons, as bifrons; with custs and the rest of the rule.

The third and last speciall Rule.

Q. GIue me your third speciall Rule.

A. Nomen crescentis penultima si Genitiui sit gra∣uis, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. Euery Noune Substantiue Common, increasing flatte Page  [unnumbered] or short in the Genitiue case, is the Masculine Gender.

Q. What meane you by that, To increase flat?

A. To haue the last syllable, but one, pressed downe flat in the pronouncing: as, Snguis▪ anguinis.

Q. How many exceptions haue you from this Rule▪

A. Foure: some Feminines are excepted, some Neuters, some Doubtfuls, some Commons.

Q. How many rules haue you of Feminines encreasing short?

Two: Foeminei Generis sit hyperdissyllabon in do; And Grae∣cula in as, vel in is, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of the first rule, Foeminei generis si hyperdisyllabn, &c?

A. Euery Noune of moe syllables then two, ending in (a)〈◊〉, and making dinis in the Genitiue case (as, Dulcedo, dulce∣dinis) and in go, making ginis (as, compago, compaginis) if they increase short, are the Feminine Gender: so are virgo, gran∣do, and the rest of that rule.

Q. What is the meaning of the second rule, Graecula in as, vl in is, &c.

A. That Latine words ending in as, or in is, if they be made of Greek words, & increasing short in the Genitiue case, are the feminine Gender: as, Lampas lampadis, iaspis iaspidis. So pecus, udis, forfex, cis, supellex ilis,(b) and the rest of that rule.

Q. Where is your rule of short Neuters?

A. Est neutral genus, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. All Nounes ending in a, signifying a thing without life, if they increase short are the Neuter Gender.] So all such Nounes ending in n, as omen, in ar, as iubar, in ur, as iecur, in us, as onus, in put, as occiput: Except pecten and furfur; which are the Masculine. And so all the rest of that rule are the Neu∣ter Gender: as Cadauer, verber,(c)iter, &c. and pecus, ma∣king pecoris.

Q. Giue the rule of short Doubtfuls.

A. Sunt dubij generis cardo, margo, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of it?

A. These words increasing short are the Doubtfull Gen∣der: Page  48 as, cardo, margo, &c.

Q. Giue the rule of short Commons.

A. Communis generis sunt ista, &c.

Q. What is the meaning?

A. These words are the Common of two, increasing short as, (d)vigil vigilis, &c.

The generall Rule of Adjectiues.

Q. WHere begins your rule for Adjectiues?

A. Adiectiua vnam, &c.

Q. How many rules are there of them?

A. Fiue. 1. For all Adjectiues of one termination like foe∣lix. 2. for all of two terminations like Tristis. 3. for all of three terminations like bonus. 4. for Adiectiues declined but with two Articles like Substantiues. 5. for Adiectiues of proper declining.

Q. Giue your rule for all Adiectiues of one termination like Foelix.

A. Adiectiua vnam duntaxat, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. In Adiectiues hauing but onely one word or termina∣tion in the Nominatiue case, that one word is of all three Genders: as, Nom. Hic, haec & hoc foelix.

Q. Giue your rule for all Adiectiues of two termination like Tristis.

A. Sub gemina si voce, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that Rule?

A. If Adiectiues haue two wordes or terminations in the Nominatiue case, as omnis and omne; the first word as omnis, is the Common of two Genders, or the Masculine & the Fe∣minine, the second as omne is the Neuter: as, hic & haec omnis & hoc omne.

Q. What is your rule for all Adiectiues of three termina∣tions, like bonus, a, um?

Page  [unnumbered]A. At si tres variant voces, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. If Adiectiues haue three words or terminations in the Nominatiue case, as Sacer, sacra, sacrum; the first as Sacer is the Masculine, the second as sacra is the Feminine, the third as sacrum is the Neuter.

Q. Where is your rule for those Adiectiues, which are de∣clined like Substantiues, with two Articles onely?

A. At sunt, quae flexu, &c.

Q. Giue me the meaning of that rule.

A. These Adiectiues are almost Substantiues by decli∣ning, yet Adiectiues by nature and vse: as, Hic et haec pauper, Gen. huius pauperis: so puber, and the rest.

Q. But may not some of these bee found in the Neuter Gender?

A. Yes: * sometimes; but more seldome.

Q. Giue your rule for those vvhich haue a speciall kinde of declining.

A. Haec proprium quendam, &c.

Q. What is the meaning of that rule?

A. These words haue a speciall declining differing some∣what from all examples in the Accidence.

Q. Shew me how.

A. Thus: Hic campester, haec campestris, hoc campestre: or hic & haec campestris, & hoc campestre. Gen. huius campestris. In the rest of the cases they are declined like tristis.

Q. What is the meaning of the last rule, Sut quae defici∣unt, &c?

A. That there are certain other Adiectiues which are De∣fectiues: which shall be spoken of in an other place, with some others.

Q. Where is that?

A. In the Heteroclits.