The fower chiefyst offices belongyng to horsemanshippe that is to saye. The office of the breeder, of the rider, of the keper, and of the ferrer. In the firste parte wherof is declared the order of breding of horses. In the seconde howe to breake them, and to make theym horses of seruyce, conteyninge the whole art of ridynge lately set forth, and nowe newly corrected and amended of manye faultes escaped in the fyrste printynge, as well touchyng the bittes as other wyse. Thirdely howe to dyet them, aswell when they reste as when they trauell by the way. Fourthly to what diseases they be subiecte, together with the causes of such diseases, the sygnes howe to knowe them, and finally howe to cure the same. Whyche bookes are not onely paynfully collected out of a nomber of aucthours, but also orderly dysposed and applyed to the vse of thys oure cou[n]trey. By Tho. Blundeuill of Newton Flotman in Norff.
Blundeville, Thomas, fl. 1561., Grisone, Federico. Ordini di cavalcare.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

The fower chiefyst offices belongyng to Horsemanshippe, That is to saye. The office of the Breeder, Of the Rider, of the Keper, and of the Ferrer. In the firste parte wherof is declared the order of breding of hor∣ses. In the seconde howe to breake them, and to make theym horses of seruyce, Conteyninge the whole arte of Ridynge lately set forth, and nowe newly corrected and amended of manye faultes escaped in the fyrste printynge, as well touchyng the bittes as otherwyse. Thirdely howe to dyet them, aswell when they reste as when they trauell by the way. Fourthly to what diseases they be subiecte, together with the causes of such diseases, the sygnes howe to knowe them, and finally howe to cure the same. Whyche bookes are not onely paynfully collected out of a nomber of auc∣thours, but also orderly dysposed and applyed to the vse of thys oure coūtrey. By Tho. Blun∣deuill of Newton Flot∣man in Norff.

¶ Imprinted at London by VVyllyam Seres dwel∣lyng at the west ende of Paules churche, at the signe of the Hedgehogge. Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

TO THE RIGHTE HONORABLE AND HIS SINGVLER GOOD LORDE, THE Lorde Roberte Dudley, Erle of Leycester, Bar∣ron of Denbighe, Knight of the honorable order of the Garter, Maister of the Queenes ma∣iesties horses, and one of her highnes pryuie councell. Thomas Blundeuil wissheth perfect felicitie.

AFTER THAT I had put foorthe the Arte of Riding, and sawe how thāk¦fully it pleased not only your Honoure, but also the moste part of the Ientlemē of this Realme, to accept the same: I was so muche encoraged therby as I sought to make the saide boke more periecte, by addinge therevnto three other bookes, wherof the first should treate of the bree∣dynge of Horses, the seconde of their dyet, to preserue them longe in healthe, and the thirde of their diseases: declarynge therewithall the causes, sygnes, and cures of the same, whiche bokes how necessarye they be, and how meete they are to accompany the Arte of Riding, the matter it selfe (being well handled) would euident∣ly shewe. For then it should be a perfecte worke, compre∣hending the foure chiefyst Offices belonging to Horse∣manshyppe, that is to say: The office of the Breeder, of the Ryder or Breaker, of the Keeper, and of the Ferrer. For as towchinge the Bitmaker & Saddler their offi∣ces, the first is indifferently wel declared alredy in the Page  [unnumbered] Arte of Riding: & the Sadler his office, shalbe taught herafter in another litle boke of additions, which I en¦tende God wyllynge to ioyne to this volume, briefelye cōprehendyng all the good preceptes of a later Writer, nowe being your Honors most excellente Ryder, called maister Claudio Corte: Not onely touching that office, but also touchynge diuerse of the other Offices before recited. Whiche Booke shall supply to all the wants of suche necessarye thynges, as eyther Gryson in his boke or I perhappes haue neclygently omytted. And truely, your Honour deserueth no litle prayse, for procuryng so synguler a man into this Realme: For besydes his per∣fection in riding, he is so wel learned, wyse, courteouse, and modest withall, as his acquaintaunce, company, & frendship ought to be right deare vnto al ciuill Ientle∣men, and specially to those that delyght in Horseman∣shyppe. But now to retourne vnto my purpose, for that I sawe it lay not in me to perfourme this worke, so as it might answere euery mans expectacion, and special∣ly of such as are more readie to finde faultes, then to a∣mende them, I did almost repent me of mine enterprise and good desire: and the rather, for that I had no one certayne Author to followe, that eyther wrote of these matters to the full, or in suche order as did satisfye my minde, but should be driuen to deale wt a great nombre of Authors, whose sayinges and experiences, together with mine owne small knowledge gotten by traueling in forreine countreies: I must not onely orderly dispose: but also apply the same to the vse of this our countrey. Which thing being more laborious (thē some perhaps take it,) I had cleane geuen it ouer if your good Lord∣shyp had not ben, by whom I was so much harted, as Page  [unnumbered] I could not chose but to take the same in hand, and to go thoroughe withall so well as I coulde: And ther∣fore if any man receyueth any commodity therby (as I doubte not but he shall, if he wyll vouchsafe to rede al that I haue wrytten frō the beginning to the ending) he shall haue most cause to be thankefull to youre Ho∣nour for the same. And I beleeue your thankes and prayse shoulde be so muche the more, if it would please your Honour to be a meane that the Quenes highnes may not onely cause such statutes as were made in her noble Father and deare Brothers time, (bothe of good Memory) touchyng the breedinge of horses vpon com∣mons to be put in executiō: but also that all such parkes within this realme, as be in her highnesse handes, and mete for that purpose, might not wholly be imployed to the keping of Dere, (which is altogether a pleasure without profyt) but partly to the necessary breeding of Horses for seruice, wherof, this realme of all others at this instant hath greatest nede. The lacke of whiche, if any inuasion shuld chaunce (which God defend) wold quickly appere (I feare me) to the great perill & danger of this her highnes realme. And her Maiestye geuyng this good example, I doubt not but that the most part of the noble men and Ientlemen of this realm hauing parks or groūds impaled mete for such vse: wold folow the same. And to the intēt that no couetousnes might hinder so good an act: I wold wish the couetous mind & desyre of all men to be brideled by a lawe & discipline. Wherby it wold be prouided that not onely a sufficiēt nombre of able Horses maye be bred within this Re∣alme: but also that the same horses may be broken, kept mainteyned, and exercysed accordyngly. Monsieur de l' Page  [unnumbered] Angeay in his boke of war, wold haue no man to keepe a hackney or easye horse to ride on him selfe: vnlesse he kepte also a horse mete for seruice in the fielde. Whiche thing I feare me wold not please vs English men at al, which of late daies are more geuen to priuat ease & sin∣guler cōmoditie, then to a welth publique or cōmon pro¦fite. Notwithstanding, if a good law (as I said before) were made aswel for the breding, as exercising of great horses, and Gueldinges meete for seruice: and the same straightly executed by vncorrupted officers, whiche in mine opinion wold be skylful Surueiours for the bree∣des and expert muster masters for the horses of seruice. And also that such Surueies be made twise a yeare at the least, and that the Musters of the horses of seruice be taken throughout the whole realme foure times in a yere, that is to say quarterly, and al in one day, for the auoyding of false Musters: I beleue that in short space we shold not only haue plenty of good horses, but also that the Ientlemen of this realme would so farre passe the Frenchmen and al other nations in this exercise, as they now excel vs: wherby this realme shuld be of such force, as our enemies would alwayes be afrayde to at∣tempt any enterprise against vs. Wherfore me thinkes your honour cānot by any one way deserue more praise or better gratify al true English hartes, then by seking to bryng to passe so nedeful a thing as this is: whervn∣to because I know your Lordshyp to be of your owne good nature & disposicion so redy and prone, as no man more: I leaue therfore to trouble your Honour any fur∣ther, prayenge God long to prosper the same.

AlWayes prest to serue your Lordship. Th. Blundouill.

Page  1

¶A shorte Preamble declarynge in what poyntes the knowledge of a Horsebreder chiefely consisteth, wheron dependeth the order of this boke.

WHO so is desyrous, and therewith able to haue a good race or breede of Horses (for to haue skyll in this matter wythoute good wil, and abilitie, to execute the same, wold lyttle preuaile) oughte first to knowe, whe∣ther his grounde be meete for that purpose or not, and howe to seuer the same accordyngly. Secondlye it behoueth him to know the diuerse kindes of Horses & Mares, to the intente that he may prouide himselfe of suche as are moste worthy to be kepte, & wyll thriue best in his grounde. Thyrdly howe to vse them when he hathe them, as well at, and before the tyme of en∣gendrynge, as after that the Mares haue conceyued and foled. And also howe to vse their ofsprynge, as well durynge their foleage, as at their full age: so as they maye redownde to his moste commoditie, & with leaste laboure and charge. Of whiche thre generall poyntes, with what order I treate in this booke: the contents of the chapters hereafter folowyng, do plain∣lye declare.

¶The Contentes of the Chapiters.

WHyche groundes are meete for Races, and whiche bee not. Also howe suche groundes oughte to be deuyded or seuered, & to what ende suche deuision serueth.
Cap. i.
Page  [unnumbered]O the dyuers kyndes of Horses and Mares, accor∣dynge to the Countreyes from whence they come, and whiche be beste.
Cap. ii.
  • Of the Turky Horse.
  • Of the Horse of Barbary.
  • Of the Horses that come from the Isles of Sar∣dygnia and Corsica.
  • Of the Napolitan, or Courser of Naples.
  • Of the Iennet of Spayne.
  • Of the Hungarian.
  • Of the highe Almayne.
  • Of the Flaunders Horse.
  • Of the Frizelande Horse.
  • Of the Swiethlande Horse.
  • Of the Iryshe Hobbye.
A comparyson of the Races aboue rehersed, as tow∣chyng the Climates vnder whiche they be bredde, and whiche of them wyll thryue best here in Englande: and are most meete to serue euery Breders sundrye purpose or intent.
Cap. iii.
Howe to choose Stallions and Mares, meete for breede, and of what age they oughte to bee. And finallye howe the Studdes ought to be tame, and not wylde.
Cap. iiii.
At what time of the yeare it is beste for Horses and Mares to engender. And in what sorte they ought to be put together. And how to knowe when a Mare de∣syreth the Horse. Also how many Mares one Stallion is able to couer in one yeare. And fynallye when the stallions should be remoued from them.
Cap. v.
What order is to be obserued, towchinge the coue∣rynge Page  2 of Mares, when the Stallions do not run wyth theym in the pastures, but are kepte in the stable, and how the same stallions should be dieted. Also at what tyme of the day the Mares ought then to be couered. And fynally how to knowe whether they haue concei∣ued or not.
Cap. vi.
Howe to make your Mares to conceiue either horse foles, or Mare foles, and of what coloure you luste to haue your selfe.
Cap. vii.
Whether Mares should be forced to abide the horse, though they haue no luste, or not. And howe to make both horse and Mare, hauing no lust, to haue a luste to engender. Also how to abate their luste if nede requyre.
Cap. viii.
Whiche Mares shoulde be couered euerye yeare, and which not. And how to do, that those Mares whiche you would haue to beare euerye yeare, shal not go bar∣ren.
Cap. ix.
Howe mares should be vsed after they haue concey∣ued, and are with fole, and what causeth them to caste their foles before their tyme.
Cap. x.
Howe to helpe a Mare that is in daūger at the time of her foling. And howe you shall cause her to expell her secundine or Cleane.
Cap. xi.
How to make a mare to cast her fole that is not wor∣thy to be bred, or for some other nedefull cause.
Cap. xii.
Howe Mares shoulde be vsed after they haue foled. Also how longe the foles should sucke. And howe they ought to be vsed during their foleage. Also how to har∣den their houes.
Cap. xiii.
How to know of what stature, makynge, and disposi∣cion, Page  [unnumbered] the foles when they are newe foled, wyll be when they come to age.
Cap. xiiii.
Of the growth aswell of Marecoltes, as horsecoltes. And howe to knowe whiche wyll continue in goodnes, and lyue longest.
Cap. xv.
When, and how Coltes should be weaned frō their dāmes: and how they ought to be seuered accordyng to their kyndes and ages.
Cap. xvi.
Of the guelding of Coltes, and for what cause they be guelt, also at what age, and in what tyme of the yeare they ought to be guelt.
Cap. xvii.
At what age and in what tyme of the yeare it is best takyng vp of Coltes to breake them, & how they ought at their firste halteringe to be vsed.
Cap. xviii.
Howe, and at what age a Coltes mouthe shoulde be cutte, or certeyne of his teethe drawne, when the bitte for faulte thereof can not haue his true resting place.
Cap. xix.
Of the Culling out of refuse Mares and Coltes. And also of those that should be reserued for the maintenaūce of the Studde or Stocke.
Cap. xx
Thus endeth the contentes of the Chapters folowing.
Page  3

What thinges are to be considered in those groundes that should be appointed to the breedinge of hor∣ses. Also how such groundes ought to be de∣uided, and to what ende such deuision serueth Cap. i.

AND fyrst as towchinge the ground, twoo thinges are to be considered, that is, the quantitye and qualitye. The quantitye for twoo respectes. First to the intent it be not charged with more Cattell then it is able to beare, for the Cattell not being sufficiently fedde can not prosper. The seconde respect is, for that the greater the ground is, the more particions are nedefull, partlye for chaūge of pasture sake, for according to the olde pro∣uerbe, chaunge of pasture maketh fatte Calues. And such particions wolde be made with high pale, rayle, or els depe ditche, and verye thicke quicke set. For Horses, Mares, and wilde Coltes, are not so easelye kepte in as other cattel is. But chiefely such particions are nedeful, aswell for the stallions to run euery one seuerally by him selfe, together with his owne Mares, during the time of engendring, as also for the Coltes when weanynge time commes, to be seuered from their dammes, of whi∣che twoo pointes we shall speake hereafter in their due places more at large. Moreouer by suche particions, be∣sides the comoditie of the grasse and haye that shall be preserued thereby, for winter store, the grounde it selfe being parhaps before very ample, waste, and wilde, and thereby enclininge the Cattell to be of lyke nature, shal∣be brought to a more formality, and so the beastes them selues shall be made the more domesticall, and famylyar. Page  [unnumbered] And the rather yf they be handeled and made tame in their youth, whereof we shall talke hereafter more at large. Notwithstanding I would not haue the ground so straitened with particions, but so as they maye haue sufficyent scope to run & trauell to & fro therin for their lyuing. For as to much labour, leanes, & pouerty, depry∣ueth them of lust to engēder, euen so ouermuch rest & fat¦nes, letteth conception, & causeth a daungerous folyng. Wherefore I would wyshe the Mares to be kepte in a meane estate vntill they haue foled, and then to be best fedde, to the intent that they may haue aboundance of mylke in their dugges, whiche matter shalbe talked of hereafter more at full in his proper place. But now to appoynt howe many acres of ground will serue a mare and her ofspringe vntill they are mete to be broken: I thinke it not nedefull, sith the goodnesse of the ground must rule that matter, and partlye the discrecion of the owner, who by experiens ought to knowe his owne ground beste, for all groundes be not of like fertilitye. Neither do I thinke that any owner is so ignoraunt, but that he knoweth an Horse or a Mare to be a grea∣ter feader then any other kinde of Cattell, and therfore had nede to haue greater allowance. Yet consideringe that the Horse biteth nerer the ground then any other Cattell (the shepe, and the Cony onlye excepted) where∣by he gathereth more foode out of one acre of ground, then any other beast can do almost out of an acre and a halfe: Me thinkes that a thirde parte more then wyll serue a Cowe and her ofspringe, shoulde also feede a Mare and her ofspringe, so that they be well prouided for in winter season. For at hard meate they be to hard Page  4 for all other Cattell, by reason they haue sharper teth, and do bothe Chowe, and also swalowe downe their meate with more spede. And therefore of winter meate they had nede to haue double allowaunce. And suche wynter meate for Mares and Coltes wolde bee good sweete hay, and wel stacked vp in the dryeste & warmest places of those grounds where as they should be win∣tered. Nyghe vnto which stackes would be built how∣ses mete to harber as well the Mares with theyr foles as the weanlynges, (but seuerally by theim selues) in time of snowe and suche like stormy and colde weather, or elles to auoyde that coste and charge of buildynge, the hay maye be layde vpon houelles made with great forked postes and stronge rafters, in suche sorte as the cattell maye bothe stande, and lye drye vnderneath the same, wythin whych Houelles maye be placed eyther standynge or hangynge rackes at suche heyghte, as the foles together wyth their dāmes may reache vnto the haye, that shall be caste therein. And if suche Houelles were enclosed with hyghe hedge or hurdle, they should be so muche the warmer, and defende the Cattell the better from the colde wynde. Nygh vnto whyche Ho∣uelles, or howses, lette there be one pasture alwayes kepte vntowched, & not fedde on vntyll Shroweftide, betwyxte the whych tyme and the myddest of May is alwaies most daunger of hunger bayne. Thus hauing talked sufficientlye as towchyng the quantitie and de∣uisyon of the grounde, let vs also speake somewhat of the qualitye thereof. The qualitye chieflye consisteth in foure poyntes. The fyrst is to haue plenty of shorte and sweete grasse for common feade, and also of longe Page  [unnumbered] and rancke grasse as well for haye, as for the Mares that geue sucke. The seconde is to lacke no good wa∣ter and freshe sprynges. The thyrde to haue drye layer. The fourthe to haue shade and shelter, eyther of trees or of highe bushes, to defende the Sonne, the wynde, and stormye weather. And the dryer, the har∣der vnder foote, and the hygher that such grounde is, the better, yea, and it is as very nedefull that some part thereof myghte be craggye and stonnye, (so as it be not barren of grasse) and specially for the Coltes to ronne in when they be weaned from their dāmes. For to tra∣uel to, and fro, in suche groundes for their liuynge, shal make them to haue stronge legges, and harde houes.

By thys meanes you maye perceyue that neyther rancke, marryshe, colde, or wette groundes be mete for the purpose, for suche kyndes of groundes, partely for lacke of swete, and fyrme foode, the grasse therof being rancke, sower, and waterishe, and partly for lacke of dry layer, most cōmonly, do bryng forth no other but slowe, heauy, dulle, grosse hedded, syde bellied, and gouty leg∣ged Iades. And therefore I woulde wyshe hym that would haue a good race, to foresee that hys ground be endowed with suche properties as are before rehersed.

¶Of the diuers kyndes of Horses and Mares according to the countreies from whence they come, & which be best. Cap. ii.

I Meane not here to treate of all the kyndes of Horses, that be in the world, for that were an infynite worcke, and neuer attempted hereto∣fore by any writer that I could rede. For as OppianusPage  5 sayeth, there be as manye kyndes of Horses, as there be diuers countreys and nations. And to say the truth it wolde be to small purpose. For what wolde it auaile you to heare (onles it were for noueltyes sake) that in some contreys there be horses no bigger then Rāmes, and in some Countreis horses be made like Unicornes, in some Country agayne Mares to conceyue with the westerne wynde, without the helpe of any Stallion, whose Coltes do not liue aboue three yeares. Where∣fore leauing all such straunge kindes aparte, I will on∣lye talke of the moste worthye, and specially of suche as haue bene knowne of late dayes by good experience, to prosper verye well in this lande, and be not vnknowen to the most part of the Ientelmen of this Realme, whi¦che kindes be these here folowing. The Turke, The Barbarian, the Sardynian, the Napolitan, the Ien∣net of Spaine, the Hungarian, the high Almaine, the Frizeland Horse, the Flanders Horse, and the Iryshe Hobby. Of which kindes, whilest I speake, I must ne∣des also make some mention of the beste kyndes that haue bene either in Asia, Affricke, or Europe, from whence these be discended, though parhaps more bas∣tardly then I would wishe, and all for lacke of that in∣dustry and diligence which hath bene vsed by our fore∣fathers in tymes past in bredinge them, in somuche as we can assure our selues in this our age of no certayne race, yea it sufficeth now to beleue the seller that saith, the horse is of such a contrey▪ or race, and therwith be somewhat fayre to the eye, and then al is good inough, though he be neuer so starke a Iade.

Page  [unnumbered]

Of the Turkye Horse.

BUt now beginning first with the Turke, be¦cause he cometh fartheste of, me thynketh it were not amisse to cōsydre that as Turky it selfe is of longe tyme synce, become a greate Empyre extending very far into al the thre parts of the worlde abouesaid, comprehendyng diuers kyngdomes and countries, and yet altogyther, is cōmonly called by the name of Turky: Euen so, the horses that come from any of the Turks dominions, or frontiers of his nexte neighbours, be called Turky horses. & therfore I think it good here to declare vnto you the opiniōs of the olde writers, touching the races that haue ben in those coū∣tries, now subiect to the great Turke, or therabout, to lerne therby (yf it may be,) whether those that we call Turkye horses, be so in dede or not, & of whiche of those races, they seme moste lykely to discende. And fyrste we wyll begyn with the chiefe races of Asia, whiche be the Parthians, the Medes, the Armenians, the Cappa∣docians, and many others. The Parthians (saith Ab∣sirtus) be great of stature, bolde, couragious, and sure of footemanshyp. Vegetius also sayth, yt they be very wel rained, and haue an easie ambling pase. But the Medes do excell them in comlynesse of shape. The Armenians and Capadocians, do discend of the Parthians, and be lyke them in all poincts: sauyng that they are somwhat more heuy headed. The horses of Greece, as A sirtus sayth, haue good legges, great bodies, comely heades and be of an highe stature, and very wel made forward, but not backward, bycause they are pyn buttocked, not∣withstandynge Page  6 they be verye swifte, and of a bold cou∣rage. But of all the races in Greece, both the horses and Mares of Thessalia, for their bewtie, bygnes, bowntie, and courage, of all Aucthors are moste celebrated. For which cause Xerexes at his comyng in to Grece made a runninge of Horses in Chariottes to be proclaimed on∣ly in Thessalia, because he woulde haue his owne hor∣ses to runne wyth the beste Horses in Grece. Iulius Cesar also, beinge Dictatour of Rome, knowinge the courage of these Horses, was the first that ordeined thē as a spectacle before the people to fyghte wyth wylde bulles, & to kil them. The Pelleians and Magnesians are also verye well commended. The Pelleians be so named of a towne in Thessalia called Pella. And the Magnesians of Magnesia, a regiou of Macidonia next adioyninge to Thessalia. The Epirotes be froward & disobedient to the bit, notwithstanding Paulus Iouius makinge mencion of the laste greate warres which the Uenetians had, not onlye with the Turkes, but also in a maner with all Chrystendome, geueth the Epirotes great prayse for their swiftnesse and nimblenesse. In so much as the Uenetians (as he saith) estemed their hor∣ses more, and waged their riders better thē any other horsemen that serued them at that time. But the Hor∣ses of Tracia which is nowe the chefest part of Turky in the which Constantinople the head citie and seat of the great Turke standeth, be accompted worse then all the reste. For the most parte of the wryters do discryue them after thys sort. The Thracians be foule and e∣uill fashioned, hauing rough bodyes, great shoulders, and risinge backes lyke vnto Camelles, croked legges, Page  [unnumbered] and go roulinge and vnsemely, as well in their pace as runninge. Notwithstandinge, the Horses that I haue sene come from Turkie as well into Italy as hither in to Englande, be indifferent fayre to the eie, though not very great nor strongly made, yet very light and swyfte in their running and of gret courage, and therfore seme to discende of the Grecian race, before dyscribed by Ab∣sirtus, But their traueylinge pace is neyther Amble, Racke, nor Trotte, but a certayne kinde of easy trayne. Albeit for the most parte they be euill mouthed, by rea∣son that in Turky they be neuer ridden (as I haue ler∣ned) vntil they be x. or .xii. yere olde, wherby they waxe so hedde stronge, as they be not easely brought to make a good stoppe. yea, if when you will ronne him at hys setting forth, you say but this worde (Braye) vnto him he will neuer leaue runninge so longe as his breath wil serue him, shonnynge nothinge that shall stande in hys way, if he may goe ouer the same by any meanes possi∣ble, for they be of nature verye couragious, and wil do more by gentle meanes then by stripes or great threat∣ninges, for that maketh them more desperate, and brin¦geth them cleane out of order. Thus muche of the Turke.

¶Of the Horse of Barbary.

THe Barbaryan is a horse that commes out of Barbaria a Country in Affrycke, conteinyng vnder it the two Regions of Mauritania, li∣yng agaynst Spaine, whereof the one is cal∣led Mauritania Tingitana. And the other is called Mau¦ritania Cesariensis. It conteyneth also the countrey of Page  7 Numidia, and that part which is called Affrica Minor, that is to say, the lesser Affricke, so that Barbaria stret∣cheth very far. And there be many good Races within the same, & in the frontiers of the regions there about, as the Mauritanians, the Libians, Cireneyans, the Numidians, and many others. The Mauritanians be much cōmended of the writers, not only for their good shape and swiftnes in runninge, but also for that they be excellently well breathed, & therby are bothe able to mayntayne a very longe cariere, and also to abyde anye kind of laboure & trauayle, yea and beside that they wil abide the sight and rorynge of a Lion, wherof there is greate store and plentye in that countrey. Nexte vnto these are the Libians, which be of like goodnes and of lyke shape, sauinge that the Libians be stronger made, longer bodied, thicker rybbed, & broder brested, & of all Horses, as Aelianus sayth, they do requyre lesse tending and keping. For their maysters in that countrey when they trauaile by the way, do neither wipe their legges, courry them, nor litter them, nor pare their houes, & as sone as their iourney is done they tourne them forth to the pasture, and make no more a do. Againe the Mares of this kind or race, as the auctours write, be so deligh¦ted with Musicke, as the herdeman or keper, with the sounde of a pipe: may leade them whither he wyll hym selfe. The Cireneians (as Absirtus sayeth) be greate of stature, and haue small & gaunte bellies, they be swyft in running and sure of fotemanship, and in labour good at length, for which causes they were much vsed in the old time to runne for wagers in Chariottes. But those horses that we cōmonly call Barbarians, doe come out Page  [unnumbered] of the kyng of Tunnys lande, out of Massilia and Nu∣midia, which for the most parte be but little horses, but therewith verye swifte and able to make a verye longe Cariere, whiche is the cause why we esteme theym so muche. And it should seeme by Vigetius, that this race came firste from Spayne: who affirmeth theym to be very swyfte in runnynge, and meete for the saddle. Thus I ende with the races of Barbary.

¶Of the Horses of Sardygnia and Corsica.

THE Horses that come out of the Isles of Sardignia and Corsica, as Uolateranus sayth, haue short bodies, and be very bold and couragyous, & vnquyet in theyr pace, for they be of so fierse and whote colericke complexion: and therwith so muche vsed to running in their country, as they wil stand styl on no ground. And therefore this kinde of horse requirith a discrete and pa¦tient Ryder, who must not be ouer hasty in correctyng hym, for feare of marryng hym all together.

¶Of the Courser of Naples.

THE Napolitan which we commonly cal a Courser of Naples, is a trim horse, be∣yng both comely and strongly made, and of so much goodnes, of so ientle a nature, and of so high a courage as any horse is, of what coūtry so euer he be. He is easely knowen frō all other horses, by his no lesse cleane, then Page  8 stronge makinge, his lymmes are so well proportioned in euery point, and partly by his portlynes in his gate, but chiefly by his long slender heade, the neather parte whereof, that is to say from the eyes downewarde, for the most part is also somewhat bending lyke a haukes beake, whiche maketh hym to Reyne with the better grace, and yet the Italians do both write and say, that these Coursers be nothing so strong now as they haue bene in times past, partly parhaps for that like industry of late daies hath not bene vsed in breding them, as in tymes past, and partly for that nature doth decay eue∣rye day more and more, aswell in man as in beast. But howe so euer they be, in myne opinion, their Ientle na∣ture and docility, their comelye shappe, their strength, their Courage, their sure footemanshippe, their well reynyng, their loftye pace, their cleane trotting, theyr stronge galloppyng, and theyr swift running well con∣sidered (all whiche thynges they haue in maner by na∣ture) they excel numbers of other races, euen so farre as the faire greyhoundes the foule mastiffe Curres.

Of the Iennet of Spayne.

THe Iennet of Spaine is finely made both head, body, and legges, and verye seemely to the eye, sauinge that his buttockes bee somewhat slender, and for his fine making lightnes and swiftnes withall, he is very much estemed, and especially of noble men, as Camera∣rius sayth, which Oppianus also affirmeth, saying: that the Iennet in swiftnes passeth the Parthyans and all Page  [unnumbered] other Horses what soeuer they be, euen so farre as the Egle excedeth al the birdes in the aire, and as the Dol∣phin passeth all the fishes in the sea, but therewith he sayeth that they be but smal of stature, of smal strength and of smal courage, al which things seme to agre very well with those Iennets that be brought hyther into England, onlesse it be the last poynt. For I haue heard some of the Spaniards to set such praise on their Ien∣nets corage, as they haue not letted to report that they haue caried their ryders out of the field, I can not tell how many miles, after yt the Iennettes thēselues haue ben shotte cleane through the bodies wyth harquebus∣shes. Which reporte I haue harde to be true by diuers of our owne Souldiours, whych if it be true in dede, it doth the better counteruaile their small stature and lit¦tle strength, which is manifeste to al mennes eyes that do beholde them, and yet Absirtus semeth to be of a cō∣trary opinion: who writeth of them in this sorte. The horses of Spaine (sayth he) be great of stature, hauing fine heades, and righte vp bodies, verye wel compacte together in all partes, sauynge that their buttockes be somewhat to slender. They be strong & able to endure great laboure, and commonly they be neyther to fat nor yet to leane, & in their trauayle they nede not to be quic∣kened wyth the spurre, and yet they be nothinge mete to runne or to passe a cariere, because ther houes be not good. And as from their Foleage vnto their full age, they be very obedient and tractable, so from thēce forth they waxe to be curste and frowarde. All whiche thin∣ges parhappes myght be truly sayde of the Spanyshe horse, in Absirtus time, for the most parte of his sayings Page  9 are verefied by good experience euen in these our daies, onlesse it be as touchinge hys greatnesse of stature and strength, which maye be decayed sence his tyme. And perhappes those horses whereof he writeth were of a¦nother climate then ours, which may cause much alte∣ratiō, both in stature and strength. For Albertus saith, that those Horses whiche are bred betwixt the thirde clyme, and the ende of the sixt, are alwayes of greatest stature, & specially those that are bred in Spayne. Not¦withstanding those that be bred in the seuenth climate which is more towardes ye North, though they be not fully so great, yet they be stronger and also will endure much more laboure. The pace of the Iennet is neyther trotte nor amble, but a comelye kinde of goyng, like the Turke. Thus much of the Iennet.

¶Of the Hungaryan.

THe Hungarian by Vegetius is described thus, the Hungarian saith he, hath a great & hoked heade, and his eyes stand almost without his head, his nosetrilles are narrow, and his Iawes brode, his necke is long and rough, with a mane hanging downe beneth hys knees, he hath a large bulke, a right backe, a longe bushe taile, his legges be strong, his pastournes smal, & his houes ful and brode, his guttes are hollow, and al his body is full of empty corners, his buttockes are not halfe fylled wyth fatte, neither doe the brawnes or hys muscles appeare, of stature he is more in length then height, and therewith somewhat side bellyed, his bo∣nes are also great, he is rather leane then fatte, whiche Page  [unnumbered] leanesse is so answerable to the other partes of his bo∣dye, as the due proportion obserued in hys deformytye maketh the same to be a bewtye. And as towching his inward disposition, he is as Vigetius sayeth, both tem∣perate and wyse, and able to abyde great labour, colde and hunger, and therfore verye mete for the warre. Camerarius also sayth, that they be very swifte, and yf they be prouoked by some iniurye, they will both byte and stryke, otherwise not. Their pace is a hard trotte.

Of the Almayne Horse.

THe Almaine is cōmonly a great horse, & thoughe not finely, yet very strōgly made, & therfore more meete for the shocke then to passe a cariere, or to make a swyfte manege, because they be very grosse and heuy, yet by industry thei are made lighter behind then before, for their riders do vse in their maneging to mak them to turne alwayes with their hinder partes, and not with their fore partes: like Iacke anapes, when he is made to come ouer the cheyne, whereby they keepe their Horses heade alwayes vpon the ennemye. The disposition of this horse (his heuy moulde considered) is not euyll, for he is very tractable and will labour in∣differently well by the waye, but his pace for the moste part is a very harde trotte.

¶ Of the Flanders Horse.

THe Flaunders horse in his shape, disposition, and pace, differeth in a maner nothinge from the Al∣mayne horse: sauing that for the most parte he is Page  10 of a greater stature and more puissant. The Mares al∣so of Flaunders be of a great stature, stronge, longe, large, fayre and fruytefull, and besydes that, wyll en∣dure great labour, as is wel sene, for that the fleminges do vse none other drawght, but with those Mares in their wagons, in the whiche I haue sene twoo or three Mares to go lyghtly away with suche a burthen, as is almoste vncredible.

¶ Of the Fryzeland Horse.

THe Fryzelande Horse is no very great Horse, but rather of a meane stature, beinge there∣with strong and wel compacte together, and hath verye good legges. And Vigetius sayth that the Fryzelande horses be very swyfte in runnyng, and able to mainteyne a longe course. And in dede I haue sene of them my selfe that woulde make a good cariere, and manege very wel, and also do the Coruetti so truely as any Iennet of Spayne. But then the dys∣position of this horse is so deuelish, so stubborne, and so froward, as onles the Ryder which first breaketh hym be very bolde, and therwith circumspect to correct him in tyme, he shall neuer brynge him to anye good, for he will do nothinge without strypes, whiche also beinge geuen out of tyme, will make hym so restiefe, that ney∣ther fayre meanes nor foule meanes, wyl euer wynne hym from that vyce agayne. The pace of this horse is a good comely trotte.

¶ Of the Sweathland Horse.

Page  [unnumbered]THe Sweacian or Sweathland horse, so farre as I can coniecture, by those that the Kyng his Im∣bassadours haue of late dayes brought with thē into this Realme, whereof I am sure there be dyuers here yet remainyng, is no great or strong Horse, but of a meane stature and strength, and I feare me scante well condicioned. And I am induced to thinke so the rather, for that they be moste commonlye pyed, and of twoo sundrye colours: or their legges at the least be all white, euē vp to the belly, their bodies being of another colour, which as Gryson sayth, is a sygne of small force: al be it the ientilmen in that countrey delight muche to haue their Horses of dyuers coloures, & to weare as it were diuerse lyuereis. Besydes that, many of them be wal eyed, which is also a token of a shrewed and a stub∣burne disposition. Notwithstandinge I haue seene of them with good handling, to make an indifferent good manege, wherby I take them to be docible, and also be∣cause they come out of a colde Countrey, I beleue they will abyde much hardnesse.

¶ Of the Iryshe Hobby.

THe Iryshe Hobby is a pretye fyne horse, hauinge a good head, and a body indeferently wel propor∣cioned, sauing that many of them be slender & pin bottocked, they be tender mouthed, nimble, light, plea∣saunt, & apte to be taught, and for the most part thei be amblers, & therfore very mete for the saddle, & to trauel by the way, yea and the Iryshe men both with dartes & with lyght speares, do vse to skyrmishe with them in the fielde. And many of them do proue to that vse very Page  11 well, by meanes they be so lyght and swyfte, notwyth∣standing I take theym to be very neashe and tender to keepe, and also to be somewhat skyttishe and fearefull, partlye parhaps by nature, and partlie for lacke of good breakinge at the first.

A comparison of the races aboue rehersed as towching the Clymates vnder which they be bred, and which of theym wyll thryue best here in England, and are most mete to serue euery breders sundry purpose and intent. Cap. iii.

HYtherto we haue talked of dyuers kyndes of Horses and Mares, and therwith decla∣red to you their shapes, natures, and dispo¦sition. Now it resteth that we briefly com∣pare these kyndes together, that we maye not onely knowe those that be most meete to be bredde wythin thys Realme in generall, but also that the de∣syre and intent of euery breader in perticular may be sa∣tisfyed. For some man perchaunce woulde haue a brede of great trottinge horses mete for the war, and to serue in the field. Some other againe woulde haue a brede of ambling horses of a meane stature, for to Iourney and to trauayle by the way. Some againe would haue per∣haps a race of swift runners to runne for wagers, or to galloppe the bucke, or to serue for such lyke excercises of pleasure. But the plaine countriman would perchaunce haue a breede onelye for draughte or burden. And fyrst you shall vnderstande that generallye those horses and Mares will thryue best in this Realme that be bredde vnder a clymate, beynge of the lyke temperature, that this our clyme is, or at the leaste not muche differynge Page  [unnumbered] from the same. Wherefore naturallye me thinkes, the Turke, the Iennet of Spaine, the Barbaryan, and the Sardignian, being bred in far whotter countryes then this is, shoulde not be able to endure the colde of thys Country: nor to lyke here so well as there, from whence they come. For though I haue sene them to brede here, and their ofspryng to growe to a perfect stature, and to be like in shape to theyr Syres and Dammes, yet for the most part they be but neashe and tender, and do re∣quire more attendaunce and fine keping then others do. And yet I wyll not denye, but that in contynuance of tyme theyr natures may be altered, and such tendernes may weare away well ynough, and specially those that come out of Islande, soner then thothers, because they are more able to endure both heate and colde, and theyr nature doth agree the better with this Countrey, be∣yng also an Islande. The Napolitan although he be bredde vnder a hoter climate then ours is, yet that Re∣gion is very temperate of it selfe: and therwith so fruit∣full as it is called the gardeyn or paradise of Italy, and the Horses there bred be of so strong and healthful com∣plexion, as they will not quayle wheresoeuer they goe, and that they prosper so well here in this land, as in a∣nye other foraine Country: not only the Queenes Ma∣iesties race, but also other mens races, and specialy Sir Nicholas Arnoldes race doth wel testify, from whence I haue sene so farre coltes to come, and to proue so wel in their doinges as euer I sawe in the Realme of Na∣ples, who for his industry and diligence shewed in that behalfe, as he is worthye to be muche commended and praysed, so I wishe that all Ientlemen hauing abilitye Page  12 would do the lyke: So should they neyther lacke good Horses to serue their countrey in tyme of neade, nor yet to serue them selues in theyr owne affayres. Nowe as touchinge the rest of the races before mentioned, as the Hungarian, the high Almaine, the Flaunders horse, the Fryzeland Horse, and the Irishe Hobbye. Dayly expe∣ryence teacheth that they do proue verye well here, be∣cause either they come out of colder countreis then this is, or at the least not out of much whoter: yea and some of them do proue better here then at home, and special∣lye such as come from sower grasse and wet groundes, as the Flaunders horse and mare, both which do waxe here to be fyner limined, cleaner made, and therewyth lighter and more nymble, then they be at home. But nowe to aunswere the diuers intentes of the breaders, I would wishe hym that seketh to haue a race of good Horses, mete to serue in the fielde, to gette a Napolitan Stallion if it be possible, if not, let hym take the hyghe Almayne, the Hungarian, the Flaunders or the Fryze∣land horse: so that he be of a conuenient stature, wel pro¦porcioned, and mete for the porpose. What thynges are requisite in a Stallion shalbe declared hereafter in hys place, & let those Mares that shalbe put to suche stally∣ons be of an hygh stature, strongly made, large & fayre, and haue a trotting pace, as the mares of Flaunders & some of our own Mares be, for it is not mete for diuers respects that horses of seruice should amble. But if any man seke to haue a race of fyne amblinge Horses, to tra∣aile by the way: then I would wishe his stalliō eyther to be a fayre Iennet of Spayne, or at the least a bastard Iennet, or els a faire Irish ambling Hobby, & the mare Page  [unnumbered] to be also eyther a bastarde Iennet, bredde here within this realme, hauing an amblyng pace, or els some other of oure amblynge Mares, so that she be fayre and well proporcioned. And if any man desyre to haue swyft run∣ners, let hym chouse a Horse of Barbary, or a Turke to be his stallion, and let the Mares which he shal put vn∣to hym be lyke of stature, and making vnto him so nigh as may be: for moste commonlye such Syre and Dame, such Colte. And syth all wryters do so much prayse the Horse of Barbary, not only for his swiftnes in running, but also for his hardnesse, in that he neadeth small at∣tendaunce and kepinge, and wyll not surfet vpon euery lytle sweate or colde, as some others do: He therefore that delyghteth in huntyng and hawking, had nede as me thinkes, to chouse this Horse aboue al others to be his Stallion, to the intent he may haue such Coltes of hym as wyll be able to continue in such extreme exercy∣ses, as to gallop the bucke, or to folowe a longe winged Hauke. Eyther of whiche excercyses, killeth yerely in thys Realme many a good gueldyng. But now to con∣tent the Countryman hys desire, which seketh to brede horses for draught or burthen, where shoulde I wyshe him to prouide him selfe of Mares and Stallions, bet∣ter then here in England, whereas he may easely fynde a number of strong Iades, more mete for that purpose then for the saddle, and all for lacke of good order of bre∣ding, which if it might be ones obserued in this realme I beleue there wolde be so good and so faire horses bred here, as in any place in Christendome. But as for the Carte horse, so that he be great of stature, depe rybbed, side bellied, and haue stronge legges and good houes: & Page  13 therewith wyll stoupe to his worke, and lay sure holde on the grounde with his feete, and stoutelye pull at a pinch, it maketh no matter howe foule or euil fauoured he be. Notwithstanding I haue knowen som Carriars that go with Cartes, to be so exquisite in their choise of horses, as onles thei had ben as comely to ye eie as good in their worke they would not buy them, in somuch as I haue sene sometyme drawing in their Cartes better proporcioned horses then I haue knowen to be fynelye kept in stables, as iewels for the saddle. The horse that is mete for the Carte, may serue also for the burthen, be¦cause he is strong and able to beare much, but the pack∣man requireth besydes strength, three other thinges in his horse. First, that he be a good traueiler, secondlye, that his hoofes bee so good as he nede not to bee often shod, thirdlye that he be no vnreasonable feader, for the auoyding of exspences, for whiche cause I thinke oure packemen here in England, do most commonly go with gueldings, which lacking ye feruēt heat that stoned hor∣ses haue, cannot consume so much meate as they do, but chiefly perhaps because the gueldings are more easy to rule by the waye then horses. Thus hauing sufficiently talked of diuers kindes of Horses and Mares, and whi∣che be metest for this Realme, aswell in generall, as to serue diuers vses in perticuler, I will nowe shewe you how to chouse a stallion or mare mete for brede.

Howe to chouse Stallyons and Mares mete for generation, and of what age they ought to be. Also howe to know their ages aswell by their teth as other wise. Cap. iiii.

Page  [unnumbered]SYth it is naturally geuen to euery beast for the moste parte to engender hys lyke, as∣well in condicions as in shape of body, it is very requysite therefore for him that wold haue a good race, to be very circumspect in chosing the first Stallions and Mares, from whom he woulde haue his race to discend, to the intent he maye reape therof both pleasure and profit, & not bestow his cost & labour in vayne. In chousing then a stallyon, thre things (as me thinkes are chiefly to be considered) that is, his bewtye, his goodnes, and his age. And fyrste as towching his bewtye, yt consisteth onely in colour and shape, of which two thinges because I haue already ac∣cordyng to Grysons opinion sufficientlye treated in the booke of the arte of Rydinge, I shall not nede therefore nowe to trouble you with many wordes, but onelye to make as it were a briefe resital of the same. Of al colors then these be the best, the browne bay, the dapple gray, the bright bay, the rone, the white lyard, the pure black with a whyte starre in his foreheade. And in any wyse let the Stallion be al of one colour, and that very cleare and bright, and not pyed, or of diuers colours, albeit to haue some white or blacke marke in place conueniente, is very bewtifull, as to haue a white starre in his fore∣head, or the outermost partes of his body blacke, as the tippes of his eares, his mayne, or his tayle, or els some of his feete to be white, accordinge as his colour doeth most properly require, of which things we haue talked at large in the booke of ridyng. Now as towching hys shape it woulde be in this sort, let him haue a short and slender heade, a wyde mouth, & wyde nosethriels, slen∣der Page  14 Iawes, great eyes and blacke, boulting outwarde and not hollow inwarde, short eares and sharpe poyn∣ted like a mouse, a necke rather long then shorte, greate towardes his breast, slender towardes his heade, the creast wherof would be rysyng in the middes, and ther∣with neither to thick nor to thin, hauing a crispe main, and hanging naturally on the ryght syde, a brode brest, and full of apparaunt muscles or brawnes of fleshe, also brode shoulders, a large bulke, & gaunt belly, a straight and sharpe poynted wythers, a short and playne backe, great round buttockes, a long and busshye tayle, a yard and stones of a meane syse, one stone not hanging sider then another, but trussed vppe rounde together, large thighes, and long hawnches behynd, stronge legges, & great iointes, aswell befor as behind, short pastournes with longe fewterlockes, also rounde, smouth, blacke, harde, hollow, and sounding houes: and finally let hys whole body together, haue roundenes according to his length, and be in all pointes so well proporcioned, as he may seme both high of stature, stronge of lym, and also liuelye to the eye. Thus much of his shape, and now of his goodnes. Hys goodnes may be partly naturall, and partly artificiall, neither of which can be through∣ly knowen but by his doynges. His naturall goodnesse chiefly consisteth in his healthfulnes of body, in aboun∣daunce of good seade, in his strength, agilitie, swiftnes, good disposition, and aptenes to be taught, yea and in his pace, galloppinge, runninge, bearinge of his heade and eares, all which thinges may be also much holpen by art. But to reyne well, to beare his heade steaddely, to be ready of tourne, and lyght of stoppe, to handle his Page  [unnumbered] feete orderlye, to kepe his grounde, and to obey his Ri∣ders will at all assayes: proceadeth rather of art then of nature, which artificiall goodnes, whether he hath or not, the booke of rydinge doth playnely teach you how to iudge. Albeit for a Stallion whiche should chieflye serue to couer Mares, such artificiall goodnes is not so materiall as the naturall good thinges before mentio∣ned, amongest the which there is one chiefe point, and yet cannot perfectly be knowen, onles you might se him to couer a Mare, & that is to wete, whether his seade be good or not, which at that time maye verye well bee knowen in this sort. Take of it betwixte your thombe and your finger, or in a locke of woll, and if in your fea∣ling or towsyng of the woll it semeth to be fyrme, faste, and slymye, it is good, but if it be ouer lyquyd or wate∣rishe, it is naught, and if the horse be slowe in couering, or doth it not with a liuely spirite and courage, or hath but one stone, or gret wartes growing on his stones, or haue naturally any whyte specke in any of his eyes, he is not mete to be a Stallion, for all the Coltes that he shall begette will haue the lyke defectes. Wherefore so nigh as you can let your Stallion be without al faults Now as towching the age of the Stallion, althoughe most men in these oure dayes make no matter thereof: because he may get foles vntill he be .xx. or .xxx. yeares olde, yea and so long as he lyueth, so that he be holpen, and therefore in moste places of this Realme they ap∣poynt no horses to that vse but suche as be verye olde, and therwith parhaps both lame and blynde. Yet the men in the olde time made a great matter thereof, and allowed no Stallion to be very good, but from .v. yeres Page  15 to xiiii. affirming that as one perfect thing doth bryng forth another perfect, so that which is vnperfect bring∣eth forth his lyke. And as a Horse is accompted vnper∣fect vntil he be .v. yeares old, for that his iointes before that tyme be not throughly knitte, neyther is he grow∣en to his full strength, so at .xiiii yeares he beginneth a∣gaine to waxe vnperfect, because that nature in hym by that tyme is sore decaied, insomuch as decrepit age and death it selfe by nature doth then shortely folowe after. Albeit I wyll not denye, but that good kepynge and a stronge complexion may cause one horse to continue in lust and courage much longer then a nother. For Alber∣tus writeth that he knewe a Souldiour, which serued in the fielde on a horse that was .lxx. yeare olde, and yet was compted an able horse. Niphus also saieth that the Emperour Ferdynandus the fyrst, had in hys stable a horse that was .lxx yeares old. And I my self haue sene stallions that haue ben .xx. yeares old and aboue, that haue gotten vere fayre Coltes to the eye. And yet I be∣leue not lyke in perfection to those that the same Stal∣lion might haue gotten in his more lustye age, for the Coltes of olde stallions for the moste parte, be dull and slowe, and haue tender hofes, and are more subiecte to diseases and surfeites then others. Wherefore I would wishe al you that would haue a perfecte race, not to ad∣mitte any horse to be your Stallion, that is as I sayd before, vnder .v. or muche aboue .xiiii. onles he be verye lustye and stronge, and therewith be verie hayle of body and lym. And whilst I talke here of the horses age, it is mete yt I shew you also how to know the same. Some seke to knowe a horses age in this sorte, they pull hys Page  [unnumbered] skynne with their handes from his fleshe, holding it so a pretye while together, and then let it go againe, mar∣king whether the skinne retourneth imediately to hys place or not, withoute leauinge anye sygne or wrinkle where it was touched, for then they iudge the horse to be yong. But if the skynne wyll not fall downe quickly agayne of his owne accord, they take hym to be old, and to lacke that naturall heate and warme bloude, which shoulde nourishe his outwarde partes. But moste men vse to iudge a Horses age by hys teeth, takinge yt to be the most certaine way of knowledge, specially vntyll he be full seuen yeares olde and vpwarde, for euerye Horse when he is two yeares olde, doth caste his two former teeth, aswel aboue as beneath: and euery yeare after vn∣till he be vi. yeares olde he fayleth not to caste other .ii. in like maner. Then in the sixte yeare, those which he first cast be closed, but in the seuenth yeare all his teeth be full closed, so as the marke goeth cleane out, wherby a man shoulde iudge his age. Notwithstanding after the Horse beginneth to enter into olde age, his temples will waxe hollowe, and the heare of his browes hoare and whyte, his teeth also wilbe greater and thicker in substaunce, fowler in colour, and one standinge further out, or higher then another, which they do not so longe as the horse is yong, but stand euē and round together. Thus much of the Stallion. Now let vs speake some∣what of the Mare, which would be also good in her do¦ynges bewtifull and yong. For as Absirtus sayeth, the Mare that should be for brede, would be of a cōely sta∣ture, and brode set, aswell behynde as before, and well knitte together, hauing a slender heade, and a large bo∣dy, Page  16 so as she may be sightly to the eye, and not to be les then three yeres old, nor much more then ten. Notwith¦stāding some wryte yt it maketh no matter though she be couered and do conceyue imediatly after that she be two yeares old and vpward, so that she be ful thre yea∣res old at her foling. For the Female kind in al beasts, as they be colder of nature, so they come soner to theyr perfection then the Male kinde, and likewise decaye so∣ner, wherfore some holde opinion, that their foling af∣ter .x. yeres of age is vnprofitable, affirming such coltes to be naturally dull & slowe, albeit I haue sene Mares of .xx. yeares olde and aboue, that haue brought forthe very faire and liuely Coltes to the eye. yea Aristole say∣eth that a Mare may beare foles all her lyfe longe. And also that she doeth liue longer then a Horse, who as he sayeth, may liue vntill he be .xxxiii. but the Mare maye liue till she be .xl. Affirming her to be enclined to the act of generation asmuche as anye beast liuinge. Notwith∣standing I woulde wishe you to kepe for brede no mare that is much aboue ten yeares, onles you haue good ex∣perience of her Coltes, and be well assured of her conti∣nuance in courage and lustines. And in anye wyse lette your breding Mares whiche you keepe for studdes bee made so tame and domestical as may be, so shal you not onely easely driue them, and remoue them from place to place, but repe some comodity of their worke: whiche if it be moderate, it can not hurt their teaming, whereas if they shoulde be wilde, they would be very comberous to kepe, yea and manye tymes through their rashnesse destroy the foles in their bellyes: neyther can you bring them to the horse, nor take their foles from them, when Page  [unnumbered] you wold weane them without great trouble. At what age it is best to tame them we shall shewe you hereafter in his proper place.

¶At what tyme of the yere it is best for Horses and Mares to engender, and in what sorte they ought to be put together: And howe to knowe when a Mare desireth the Horse. Also howe many Mares one Stallion is able to co∣uer in one yere. Fynally when the stallions shulde be remoued from them. Cap. v.

AFter that we haue taught you howe to chouse both Stallion and Mare mete for brede, it is requisite that we shew you now in what time of the yeare it is best to put them together, that they maye engender, and what order is to be obserued therin. Most writers do affirme that the best tyme is the spring, or as Palla∣dius sayth, from the .xxii. of Marche, vntill the .xxii. of Iune. Because the mare goinge a full yeare, or at the least eleuen monethes, and .x. daies shal by this meanes fole in suche tyme of the yeare as grasse is most plente∣ful, whereby she shall haue the more aboundaunce of mylke, to feade her fole, and the ayre shalbe so tempe∣rate as the fole shall neither be perched with the hotte sonne, nor pinched with cold weather. But forasmuche as our mares for the most part here in England go not with fole aboue eleuen monethes, and also for that the coldenesse of the Countrey will not suffer the grasse to spring & growe so sone here as in Italy, or such like hot coūtreys. I would not wyshe the mares to be couered before the beginnyng of May, so shal the foles fal in A∣prill, Page  17 before whiche Moneth, there groweth but lyttle grasse. Againe the Mares of them selues before Maye wyll haue little luste to the horse, for faute of full bitte, and warme weather, which should engender lust. And yet as I saide before, according to Aristotle, there is no kinde of beast more enclyned to that act then the horse and mare, insomuch as if they maye not be suffered to engender when lust prouoketh them, they will runne mad. It is easye to know when they lust, by their inor∣dinate runnyng and flingyng here and there, and that as some wryte, not towardes the Easte or West, but most commonly towardes the south or north, settynge the tayle bolt vpright. Againe one mare wil wooe an∣other, and they wyll pysse often. The tyme then of the yere mete for generation, being come, it is requisite that these two beastes be put together which you may do diuerse maner of waies. The first and best way, and specially for him that hath many Mares and stallions, is to put euery one of his Stallions by him selfe (being before rested and well fedde for the purpose) into a seue∣ral pasture, full of grasse and well fenced with high pale or raile, as I sayde before in the firste Chapter, in whi∣che pastures woulde be eyther some good shade, and shealter to defende them from the sonne and rayne, or els some house or houel made of purpose, and so to lette them runne there from the beginning of May vntil the middest of Iune, during which time you may turne īto euery one of those Stallions so many Mares as he is well able to couer, which hability is to be measured by his youth, strength, & lustines. For if he be yonge & lusty he may couer ix. or, x. mares very wel & if he be old and Page  [unnumbered] feble, he had nede to couer the fewer, for to couer many is a great feblishing to the Horse: Albeit in Italy, to a yonge Horse they will not let to appoint .xii. or .xv Ma∣res. And Aristotle sayeth, that a Horse may Couer .xxx. Mares in one yeare. Also Herodotus writeth that the king of Babilon, hauing (besides his horses of seruice,) viii. hundreth Stallions, did appoinete euerye yeare vnto those stallions .xvi. thousand Mares, so that euery stallion had for his singulall share .xx Mares. Yea and some let not to write, that in Siria there was some ti∣mes a race of .xxx. thousand Mares, to whom were ap∣pointed but three hundred stallions: so that euery horse had to couer an hundred Mares. Whereby it seameth that horses in times paste haue bene of a farre stronger nature, then they be nowe in these our dayes. But in any wyse when ye let the stallion and the mares thus run together, haue alwayes a good eye to the fence, that it be strong & sure, for feare that none of your own stallions or straunge horses breake in, to disturbe any of them, for they will fyght together in suche tyme moste cruelly. Neyther is there any beast more Ielous of his mate then the horse of his wyues (if it be lawfull so to tearme them) insomuche as he wyll not suffer them to fede out of his sight, nor to stray one from another, but wyll kepe them alwayes together, and nygh vnto him selfe, whych runnynge and kepynge together breadeth such a mutuall loue betwixt them, as thereby they are on bothe sides the more enclyned to generation. And the Mares by thys meanes do more naturally, more spedely, & also more easely conceyue, then if they should be serued out of a stable, for there many times of tenne Page  18 that be serued, fyue do not take, of whych kynd of ser∣uyng I wyll speake in the next Chapter folowinge. Notwithstandyng so sone as the mares haue all con∣ceyued, whych you shall knowe by suche meanes as shalbe showed you hereafter. I would wyshe you to remoue the Stallions from theym and not to suffer them to runne wyth the Mares all the yere, as some do, for that is not good for ii. cōsyderations. For first you should lose the vse of your horse, which being af∣ter couering tyme somewhat rested and wel meated, may serue you in your other affayres: Secondlye it were very daungerous for the Mares that be with fole: For Arystotle sayth, there be three kindes of beastes more lecherous then all others: That is to saye, the Mare, the Sow, and the thirde I dare not name, for feare of offendinge, for where as all other beastes when they be with younge wil absteine from thact of generation, these .iii. kyndes (as he sayth) do not refuse it euē in that time. And though the mares do refuse it, as most commonly they wyl, whatsoeuer Aristotle sayth, yet the horse perhaps when prouan∣der prycketh him will force them, and so perchaunce by striuing with them make them to cast their foles: Wherfore I can in no wyse consent that they shoulde runne all the yeare together, but onelye vntyll suche tyme as the Mares haue conceyued. Thus much for great races, where as be many Mares and Stalli∣ons, for those that kepe but one Stallion and a fewe Mares do like better to haue their Mares seuerally serued one after another then to run al together with the stallion, affirming that by thys meanes the stal∣lion Page  [unnumbered] shall not beate him selfe so much, nor spend more sede vpon one Mare then vpon another, and for this purpose a very small portion of ground myght serue to kepe the stallion, so that it be a battlyng grounde, ful of grasse and wel fenced, with high pale or rayle, as some large orchard or pond yard, nighe vnto the mansion house, of which kind of groundes, as I haue sene diuerse, so dyd I neuer see anye that pleased me better then one which I saw in Darbishire, in a town nigh vnto Darby, called Marketon, wheras a very honest gentlemā & a good housholder, named master Mondey dwelleth, who kepeth a good strong stalli∣on and halfe a dosen faire mares, whose Coltes do proue very well, wherof your lordship hath one cal∣led Markhā, so named accordinge to the name of his old master, Master Thomas Markham of Olerton whiche horse as he is indifferent well proportioned, so was he once made by Abraham, master Astle is man as redy a horse in all poyntes, as any was then about the Court, the pece of grounde which I lyked so wel at this Gentlemans house, was a pond yard, enuironed about with a high and strong pale, and al∣so with a very thicke quickset without the pale, the quantitie of which grounde the pondes deducted, is skant .iii. acres, but the qualitye and goodnes therof is such, as it doth not only kepe his Stallion, al the Sommer, that is to saye, from the midst of April vn∣til hallontyde (before whiche tyme he doeth not take him in, onles it be betwixt whiles to woorke him, as in haruest time, and so to put him forth again) but al∣so .ii. milch kine, and .xx. sheepe (as he sayeth) all the Page  19 yeare long, besydes the feeding of his mares, whilst they tary with the Stallion to be couered, whereof euerye one comminge seuerallye, one after another, taryeth .iii. dayes with him at the least, and than be tourned into a parke whiche he hath harde by, the ground wherof is veri mete for that purpose, neither doth he bestow any prouander on his Stallion du∣ryng the couering time, for to say the trueth he is so full fed with swete grasse as he hath no nede thereof. And in mine opinion there lacketh nothing, but some litle houel or house to be placed in some mete corner, for the stallion to shrewde himselfe therin in the heat of the daye, and when it rayneth, for the hotte sonne, or percyng raine doth greatly feblish a horses backe. Thus much I thought good to wryte of this pece of ground, to thintent that euery man, mynding to haue a race, might enclose a lyke pece of grounde in quan∣titye at the least, though not altogether in qualitye, to kepe his stallion in the sommer season, the commo∣ditye whereof in shorte tyme will counteruayle the charges.

¶What order is to be obserued touching the couering of Mares, when the Stallions doth not runne with them in the pastures, but are kept in the stable. And how the same stallions shoulde be fedde. Also at what time of the day the Mares ought then to be couered, and fynally how to knowe whether they haue conceiued, or not. Cap. vi.

Page  [unnumbered]BUt if ye haue no such seueral ground as is both able to fede your Stallyon and Mares duringe the coueringe time, as also to kepe them from breakynge out. Then you may kepe your Stallion stil in the stable, & bring the mares thyther to be couered, which is a more chargeable and trou∣blous way of couering then ye other before mētioned. For first your stallion against that tyme must be wel fedde, with sweate haye and prouander, yea rather duringe the coueringe time with sweate grasse, if it maye be gotten, and his prouander as some wryte, would be eyther dryed wheate or dryed pease, myng∣led with wheat branne, or els fitches which be much praysed of all authours to be geuen in that tyme, and nowe and then he muste haue a good mashe made of water and wheate meale, and that shall be to make him lusty. Also he may not be laboured by the space of sixe wekes or twoo Monthes before: but suffered to rest, and yet I meane not to rest al to gether without any kind of excercise, but rather to be ridden now and then moderately, to get him a stomacke to his meate. For as ouer muche labour dryeth vp his moystnesse, and maketh his spirites and power feble: so ouermu∣che rest and fatnes bredeth superfluous humors, whi¦che on the other side will asmuche weaken hym, by quenching his naturall heate, and cause his seade to be colde and moyst, which seldome or neuer taketh, or if it take, it engendreth rather females then Males, but moderate exercise preserueth his naturall heate, and swete nourishing foode encreaseth good bloud, & Page  20 causeth his sead to be perfect, that is to say, hote and moyst, and in substaunce neither to much, nor to litle, to thicke, nor to thin, but in a meane, and that is best, and wil sonest take. The lesse he drinketh when he hath to couer any Mare, the better, for if he drinketh ouer much, it will put his winde in ieopardye. More ouer behinde your stable, or elles behinde some other house not far from your stable, woulde be some prety close yarde or court made of purpose, into the whiche the Mare would be first brought, and that very year lye in the morninge, when the sonne ryseth, or els in the Euening at the sonnes going downe. For those .ii tymes are thought by the wryters most mete for ge∣neration, and will do the horse lesse hurte then to co∣uer in the heat of the day. Albeit Aristotle sayeth that the mare for her part is more desirous to be couered about the mydday, because perhaps she being the col∣der beast of the twayne, heate doth then most chiefly prouoke her lust. Well, the Mare then beinge thus brought in, ye may cause your horse keper to brynge forth the Stallion, who if he hath bene well fed, and moderately exercised, as I sayde before, so sone as he seeth and smelleth the mare, he wil immediatly fetch iii. or iiii. faultes, and bound aloft with all foure for ioy, euen in your horse kepers hand, who must not be afrayd but rather redy to helpe the horse in his busy∣nes, so sone as he shal leape the Mare, by putting his yarde with hys hande into the right place, whereby the Mare shall be the more spedelye, the more ease∣lye, and also the more substauncially serued, by mea∣nes Page  [unnumbered] that the horse shall spend no labour in vaine, nor waste any part of his seade. And after that the mare hath bene couered once: let your horse keper lead the Stallion a little a side, and walke him a while faire and softlye behinde some house or wall cleane out of her sight to breathe hym. And when he is well brea∣thed, bring him in againe, and let him couer the mare the seconde tyme, and then lead hym out againe, and so the third tyme if ye will, continuing to do this eue∣rye Euening or morning the space of .ii. or .iii. dayes, vntill you thinke that she be sped. Betwixte whiche tymes, se that your horse be well rubbed and fed, and to the intent that the Mare cast not out the seed whi∣che she receyueth, it shall not be amisse in the ende of euery laste coueryng, imediately to bestowe one paile of water on the raynes of her backe, and to caste ano∣ther into her tayle, and that shall make her to holde. You shall knowe whether she hath conceyued or not, as Absirtus sayth, best within .x. daies next after folo∣wing. For if you offer the horse again at .x. daies end, & she refuseth, it is an euident signe of her conceptiō. Her coat also as Plinie sayth, of what colour so euer she be, wyll shewe more full and bryghte to the eye, imediately after conception, then it did before.

¶How to make your Mares to conceyue eyther Horse foles, or Mare foles, and of what colour you lyst to haue your selfe. Cap. vii.

Page  21BUT nowe whilst we are about the coue∣ring of Mares, me thinke it were not a∣misse, to shewe you what pretie meanes, and sleightes, men in the olde time vsed, to haue Coltes of suche kinde and colour as they them selues haue desired. And first as tou∣chinge the kinde, Democritus affirmeth that if ye tye the lefte stone of the stallion with a thredden late, or poynte, or such lyke thyng he shall beget a horse fole, and if ye teye the righte stone, he shall beget a Mare fole. And this rule (as he sayeth) is generall to all o∣ther beastes. Affricanus also sayth, that if ye cause your Horse to leape the mare, when the winde blow∣eth in the North, he shall beget a horse fole, and if in the South, a mare fole. Againe some write, that if the mare be couered the third day before the ful mone she shall bring forth a horse fole, and if the thirde day after the full mone, a mare fole. And I take this to be a very good rule, and seldome to faile, and specially if the mare at that tyme haue lately foled. Agayne some holde opinion, that if the Mare be couered with in v. or vi. dayes after her foling, and in the springe of the mone, that she shal bring forth a horse fole, and the rather if the horse be suffered to wooe her, and to stād in her sight sōewhat tofore he couer her, which order, maister Garret lieutenaunt of the Pentioners doth diligētly obserue, whē he causeth his mares to be couered, who affirmeth yt in obseruing this rule, he neuer fayled to haue a horse Colt at his pleasure, who I assure you is no lesse experte in bredinge then skylful in rydyng, and therwith so desirous to haue Page  [unnumbered] good horses, as he letteth not to hyer a great deale of ground, paying by the yeare fourty pence for the acre, to fede his mares and coltes, in which his do∣ing me thinkes, he deserueth much to be cōmended. But to knowe what kind the mare hath conceyued, the Authors wryte that if the horse after he hath co∣uered the Mare commeth downe from her backe on the right side, it is a signe that she is conceyued with a horse fole, and if on the lefte syde with a mare fole. Now as touching the colour, they wryte that if the stallion be clad with a couerynge of suche colour as you desire the fole to be, at such tyme as he doeth co∣uer the mare you shal haue your desire. Some again wryte that it is better to dye or stayne the heare of the Stallion wyth such colour as you lyke best and then to make him to continewe in the mares sighte whilst she burneth in lust, before he leape her, to thin∣tent (as I take it) that thimpression may be the more feruent. And as this saying is grounded of a good naturall reason, so it may be proued by a most true & vnfayned example, recited in the Byble, in the thirtie chapter of Genesis. Wheras you may rede how Ia∣cob after that Laban his master and father in lawe, had geuen him in recompence of his seruyce, all the blacke Lambes and speckeled kyddes, that shoulde come of the Ewes, and Goates, whiche he kept: By puttinge straked roddes in the sight and face of the Ewes, when they went to Ramme, and of the she Goates when they wente to bucke, made all the of∣sprynge of Labans flocke to be blacke and spotted: wherby in short space he became as ryche in cattell, Page  22 as Laban his father in lawe. For truelye at the tyme of concepcion, all the powers of the beast are so open, and the matter it selfe so tender, as it is apte to receyue eue∣rye light impression.

¶Whether Mares should be forced to abyd the Hor∣ses though they haue no lust or not, and howe to make both Horse and Mare, hauing no lust, to haue a lust to engender. Also howe to abate their lust if neede requyre. Cap. viii.

IF the mare wil not suffer the horse to leape her, some haue vsed (as both Varro & Plinie wryteth) to force her thereunto whether she will or not, by tyinge her to a poste, set vp in the myddest of suche a close yarde or Courte as is talked of before, which thing is vsed euen at this present day at Tutbery, whereas the Queenes maiestye hath a race. And though I knowe that some of them do conceyue, and prosper well nough after it, yet I can not prayse it, because it is both daungerous and also vnnaturall: for the acte of generation ought to be with pleasure, and not with payne, neyther doethe that whiche is peinfully conceyued, thryue for the most part, so wel as that which is conceiued with pleasure. Wherefore I woulde wyshe all men, rather to followe Camerarius aduice, whiche is not to force her: but to make her firste to desyre the Horse, by puttynge a lyttle stoned nagge vnto her, to wooe her foure or fyue daies before you would haue her couered, which nagge wold be so fettered, as he maye not couer her, thoughe shee Page  [unnumbered] would perchaunce enclyne vnto hym: which when you perceiue she dothe, remoue the nagge from her, and put the Stallion vnto her: so shal she stand stil of her owne accorde, and receyue the stallion the more wyllyngely. But the reddyest meanes to make a mare to desyre the horse, is (as Columella saith) to annointe her matrixe with the ioyce of a certaine herbe called of him Scilla, and of Palladius Squilla, whiche some of our phisiti∣ons do call a sea Oynion, because it groweth as well in the sea, as on the lande, and hath a head or roote lyke an oyniō. It is very good also to rub her matrixe with nettles, whiche as Russius saith, will not onely cause the mare to suffer the Horse to leape her, but also to en∣gender with him. Whiche otherwise many tymes per∣happes she cannot do, for want of naturall heate in her matrixe. That the nettle is a prouoker of venery, it is not vnknowen to the playne wyues of the countreye: whiche when their hennes wyll not laye, nor suffer to be troden, do vse to nettle their tayles, & that makethe them (as they say) to desyre the Cocke, and also to lay. Againe, Anatolius sayth, that to annoynte her matrixe with hennes dunge and turpentine mingled together, will marueilously prouoke her luste. But if you see that your horse hath no lust to engender, then make as tho∣ughe you woulde dryue the mare from hym, and that wyll make him the more desirouse of her. It is good al¦so to wipe the matrixe of that mare which desireth the horse, with a spunge, and to put that to the Stallions nose, the sauour wherof will prouoke his courage. Also the pyssill of a Stagge beinge bourned, and made into fyne pouder, and put into stronge wyne, wyll pro∣uoke Page  23 his courage, if his yarde & stones be washed ther∣with. But I haue ben taught by men of experiēce, that if a good quantitie of the powder aforesaide, together with these powders folowing, that is of Annisesedes, of a roote called Satyrion, and of Basyll, of eche lyke quantity, be giuen the horse to drink in a warme mashe made of water and wheaten meale, the nyghte before you woulde haue him to couer any mare: it wil not on∣ly prouoke his courage, but also make his seede of such force, as it will holde and not quaile. And the lesse that eyther horse or mare drynketh whylste they attende to generation, the better it shalbe for them: for ouer much drincke, wyll not onely make the seede thinne and wa∣tery, and so as it shall not holde, but also as I sayd be∣fore, make the horse pursye: yea, and put his wynde in ieoperdie. But if you see, that after the time of couering the stallion continueth still to full of luste and courage, then it shalbe good to annoynt his stones with a lyttle salet oyle, and that wyll abate his courage, and the so∣ner, if you stepe a lyttle lettise in the oyle somewhat be∣fore. The same medicine also wyll abate a Mares cou∣rage (if her matrixe be annoynted therwith. And some write, that the cuttynge of her maine dothe abate her courage. These medicines perhappes wyl offende the delycate eares of some persons, that are more nyce then wyse. But I trust, the discrete man wyll not be offen∣ded to heare theym: but rather learne discretely to vse them as nede shal require. For I assure you, they were no fooles that wrote them, but learned, wyse, and men of great experyence.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶ Whiche mares shoulde be couered euery yere & which not. And howe to do that those mares that you wolde haue to beare euer yere, shall not goe barraine. Cap. ix.

PAlladius and Columella wold haue those Mares that be very beawtyful and faire and therewyth haue not onlye bene well horsed, but also haue horse foles suckinge on them: not to be couered euery yeare, but euerye seconde yeare, or rather thirde yeare, to thintent that their foles may sucke the lenger time, & also be fed with the more pure milke. And as for all other mares, they wold haue them to beare euerye yeare, and to be couered againe so soone as their foles are .v. or .vi. dayes olde so that they be in good lust, and not to poore. And to the intent that none such shoulde go barren, it shalbe necessarye not only to enforce them, by such wayes as haue bene shewed you before, to the horse in the spring tyme, but also about Laminas or in the beginninge of August, and to suffer a Stallion to run with them thre wekes or a month to thintent that if any of them chaunced not to conceyue at the first co∣ueringe, they maye nowe be serued. But be sure that some one of the Mares be readye to be couered, when you turne the stallion into them, least perpaps he beate aswell those that be with fole as the others, and so do more harme then good. And by vsynge this order you shalbe sure to kepe no Mare barren all the yeare, onlesse that the Mare be barren by meanes of some sicknes. Wherof I shal treate hereafter when I come to the di∣seases of horses, & there shew you how to cure the same.

Page  24

Howe Mares shoulde be vsed after they haue concey∣ued and are with fole, and what causeth them to caste their foles before theyr tyme. Cap. x.

AFter that your Mares haue conceyued, you muste beware you labour theim not ouer much, and specially that they beare no heauye burdens, for feare of kyllynge their foles in their bellies. Also you must see that whilest Sommer lasteth, they go in a good pa∣sture, not hauing ouer rank grasse, but short and swete, & that they lacke no good water. And in winter when the grasse fayleth, that they be fedde with swete haye, and that they lye drye and warme in some busshy close, woode, or groue, or els vnder some houel, but so as they be not skanted of roume, nor thronged vp together, for that is daungerous, and maye cause aborsment, that is to saye, to cast their foles before theyr tyme. Anatolius also sayth that the chaunge of straunge pasture or wa∣ter will cause aborsement. Agayne Russius sayth that if they chaunce to eate the maste of Cerre trees, they shall be in daunger of aborsement. Or if any of them be coue∣red wyth an Asse after that shee hath conceyued by a horse, or chaūce to treade vpon a wolfe, or where a wolf hath troden it will cause her to caste her fole. Also all stinking sauours, as the snuffing of candles, or torches, or suche lyke, will cause aborsement, as some authours wryte, aswell in Mares, as in women. Wherefore all suche thinges woulde be foresene, and in anye case kepe your Mares whilest they go with fole, neither to leane nor yet to fat, but in good plight, for if they be to leane, Page  [unnumbered] they wil either cast their foles, or els bring forth starue∣linges. Agayne if they be to fat, euery place of their bo∣dyes will be so fylled, as the foles within their bellyes cannot haue roume sufficient to growe, and to prosper, by meanes whereof, eyther the foles shall be but little ones, or elles the Mares theim selues shall be in greate daunger, at the tyme of their folynge, by reason that their cundittes be ouermuch strayghtned with fatte. And therefore the Scythians which is a people of the North, vsed (as Aristotle wryteth) moderately to iour∣ney, and to trauel their Mares, after they were quicke∣ned, to the intente that they myght haue the easier fo∣lynge. For truely moderate labour and exercise, at that tyme muste nedes do theym muche good. But to trauell them imediately vppon conception, or when they be ve∣rye great and redy to fole, is daungerous. For the fruite of the wōbe in all beastes, maybe well compared to the fruyte of the Apple tree, which at the first blossominge, and also when it is through rype, and mellow, wyll be blowen downe with euery lyght wind, but in the mid∣dle time betwixt both, it cleueth so fast vnto the braun∣ches of the tree: as it wil scant be throwen downe with coudgelles.

¶How to helpe a Mare that is in daunger at the tyme of her folyng. And how you shall cause her to expell her secundyne or cleane. Cap. xi.

BUt if it so happen that a mare by any mys∣chaunce, be in daunger at the tyme of her fo∣lynge, then it is neadefull to helpe her, cau∣synge one to holde her nostrilles in a gentle Page  25 maner, close in his hande, and so to stoppe her breath, and it shal make her to fole with more ease, and also the soner, which is not very paynefull for any man to do, for somuch as the Mare foleth standing, whereby he shall not nede greatelye to stoupe. Agayne if the secundine, which is the skynne wherin the fole is wrapped, doth not come all out naturally of the owne accorde, then vse this remedy. Take a good handfull or twoo of Fenell, and boyle it in water, then take halfe a pynte of that, and another halfe pynte of olde wyne, and put therun∣to a fourth part of oyle, and mingle them altogether o∣uer the fyre, and beinge but luke warme, poure it into the mares nostrilles, and holde her nostrilles close with your hand, to kepe it in a prety while after. And that shall forse the secundine to come foorth, whiche for the most parte, both she and all other beastes do immedy∣ately eate, and swallowe vp agayne into their bellyes. Which thinge the plaine folkes of the countrey (if they can preuent it) will not suffer their milche kine to doe, in their time of cauluing, saying: that it will make them sicke and vnlustye. And trulye I beleue it doth the ma∣res no great good. Some Authours wryte, that when the mare doth eate vppe her secundyne or cleane, (for so the playne folkes tearme it) she snappeth awaye also with her teeth a certeyne peace of fleshe, growing lyke a fygge vpon the foles foreheade, called of the Grekes and Latins, Hippomanes. Of the vertue whereof, in matters of loue many monsterous tales, by many lear∣ned Authours are recyted. Wherof I think it not good to make the vnlearned partners. And therefore I leaue to speake of it any further.

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¶Howe to make a Mare to caste her fole that is not worthy to be bredde, or for some other nedefull cause. cap. xii.

YF a fayre mare in olde time had ben coue∣red with a foule Royle, or had ben wyth fole out of seasō, or at such time perhaps, as she must ronne for some greate wager, then they would vse meanes to make her caste her fole before her time, & that was done eyther by force of hande, or by medecine. For if the fole were so farre growen that it had heare, thei would cause one to thrust hys hande into the Mares wombe, and to take the fole by the hedde, and to crushe it in pe∣ces. And if it had no heare, then they would destroy it with medecines not nedefull here to be written. Not∣withstanding in myne opinion the surest waye (if grea∣ter cause do not otherwise requyre) were to tary till she hath foled of her owne kinde, and then to kyll the fole.

¶How Mares should be vsed after they haue foled. Also how long the foles shoulde sucke, and how they ought to be vsed during their foleage, also howe to harden their houes. Cap. xiii.

IT is nedeful immediatly after the mares haue foled, or rather a seuennight or a fortenight before they be redy to fole, to put them into the warmest, swetest, and rankest pasture that you haue, to the in∣tent they lyinge warme and drye, and fa∣ringe well, maye haue plentye of milke to feede their Page  26 foles. For nothing doth hinder the growth of the foles more then cold, and penury. Moreouer Anatolius saith, that it is very necessarye about two or three monethes after their folinge, to chase them about the grounde to and fro, or otherwise to exercise them with some mode∣rate labour, to make their milke come downe into their dugges. And to thintent that the foles maye be fayre and fatte, al the writers with one consent would haue them to sucke .ii. yeares, and speciallye if they be horse foles, yea some would haue them to sucke til thei offer to couer their dammes, and lesse then one yere though they be Mare foles, none that euer I coulde heare or reade of doth allowe. And yet here in Englande they will scant suffer them to sucke .vi. monethes, but wyl weane them before they be full halfe a yeare olde, whi∣che truly I cannot commend, for though many of them do proue to be great of bone and tall of stature, yet the pyth within is not firme nor sounde, neyther can they be so stronge, so healthful, or lyue so longe, as those most commonlye do, which sucke a longe tyme. For that sweete and moste naturall moysture and nutryment, wherof they be depriued in their youth, will neuer be gotten agayne so long as they liue. Wherfore I wysh those that seeke to haue stronge and healthful Coltes, to let them sucke one yeare at the least. In olde tyme as it appeareth by Varro and Columella, they vsed for warmeth sake to house bothe Mares and foles, vntill their foles were ten dayes old, and then to putte theim furth into the pasture. Also when the foles were fyue Monethes old, they vsed now and then to bring them into the house and there would geue them ground bar∣ley Page  [unnumbered] mingled with wheat branne, and suche other softe kynde of foode. And beinge a yeare olde, they wold geue them firmer prouander, as dried Barley, and Branne, contynuing so to do, vntill they were .ii. yeres olde. All which tyme the coltes also sucked, and chiefly they did this to make them domestical and familiar, and partly to make them fat and lustye, and partlye agayne to ac∣quaynt them with all kinde of meates, but therewith they would touch them or handle them so litle as was possible, for feare of hindering their groweth. And a∣mong the rest of their diligent cares, in bringing vppe this necessarye beast, they had a speciall regarde to hys houes, that they might be tough, firme and harde, and therfore whensoeuer they stode in the house, they wold suffer no dounge to remayne anye while by theym, for feare of burnynge their houes. And if they sawe they were anye thinge enclyned to haue tender houes, they would make an oyntmente of the eares of garlycke, of swynes greace, goates greace and brymstone, that had not bene tried in the fire, and so annointe their houes therwith, both without and within, which ointment did make their houes very toughe and harde, and to that intent they would strow stones vnder their feete, whereas they stoode. Moreouer when they fed abrode in the pasture, they would driue them vp to the highest and most stony groundes, which as Russius saith, doth not onelye harden their houes, but also make theym to haue stronge legges, and to treade suerlye vppon the ground. But as touching the hardening of houes, we shall talke more thereof when we come to treate of the diseases of horses.

Page  27

¶How to know of what stature, making, and dispo∣sition the foles when they are new foled will be, when they come to age. Cap. xiiii.

THe foles that haue verye long legges, euen from their birth, do proue most commonly to be tal of stature, for the legges of al iiii. fo¦ted beastes, be almost so longe at the firste day of their birth, as they wylbe euer after. Againe those will be both stronglye, and finelye made, which in their very youth haue great bodyes, and well knyt together, lytle heades, blacke eyes, shorte & sharpe eares, broade nosethrils, wyde mouthes, brode neckes, with good thicke creastes, brode breastes, plaine bac∣kes, gaunt bellies, brawnye thighes, nimble knees, that will easelye bowe in their goinge, stronge legges, short pastourns, rounde, harde, and hallow houes, so as they may sound again when they treade vpon the grounde, and the harder & the fuller they tread vpō the ground, the better houes they seme to haue. Now the signes of their disposition and courage as Varro sayth, be these, to be liuelye and sturringe, not to be afrayde of euerye noyse, or syght, to run wantonly before their fellowes, and to stryue to be foremost, also to offer to leape ouer euery hedge and dyke, or to go ouer a bridge, or to passe the water, agayne if they will be quicklye stirred, and therwith sone pacified, it is a sygne that they will be tractable, and easie to be broken in time to come.

¶Of the growth aswel of mare Coltes, as horse coltes, and how to know which wil continue in good∣nes, and lyue longest. Cap. xv.

Page  [unnumbered]I Thinke it good here also to let you vnder∣stād thopinions of ye writers, touching the growth aswel of mare foles, as horse foles, for thoughe that horse foles be fashioned in their dammes bellyes, sooner then the mare foles, yet the mare foles beinge once foled, do ar∣ryue to their full growth of height and length in .v. yeres, wheras the horse foles be not at their ful grouth of height and length, before they be ful sixe yeares olde, from which tyme furth as Arystotle sayth, tyll they be ten yeares old, they growe only in largenes and thick∣nes. And Absirtus sayth, that those which haue white or balde faces, do not waxe olde so sone as others. A∣gaine the same Author saieth, that those Coltes which haue tender houes, do not continue in their vigor and strength, aboue viii. yeares after that they be at their ful growth of height and length, neither are they mete any more to be Iourneyed. Because the Crownes of their houes will fall downe so lowe, as they shal skant be able to stande on their feete. But if they haue good houes, then they will continue in their vigor .x. yeares after their full growth and aboue. Moreouer the saide author saith, those horses which haue from their youth vpward harde houes, will liue vntill they be .xxviii. or xxix. yeres old, but they seldome arriue to .xxx. but those that haue softe houes do not lyue aboue .xxiiii. yeares. But as touchinge the lyues of horses we haue talked already sufficientlye before in the fourth chapter.

¶When and howe coltes should be weaned from their dammes. And howe they should be seuered accor∣ding to their kindes and ages. cap. xvi.

Page  28WHen your Coltes haue sucked .ii. yeres or one yere at the least. And specially if they be horse coltes, (for mare coltes may sucke a lesser time, accordinge as you youre selfe shal thinke it good to haue your mares co¦uered agayne the nexte yere folowynge or not,) then a∣bout shrouetide it is good (as some men write) iii. daies before the full of the mone to take thē early in the mor∣ning from their dammes, and to shut them vp all that day, and all that nighte withoute meate, in a house ap∣poyncted for that purpose, and standynge cleane out of their dammes hearinge. The next day in the morning to put them againe to their dammes, and to let theym sucke their bellies full, yea, euen vntill they swel againe, that done, take them away for all a doe, and to kepe thē in thaforesaide house the space of .xiiii. dayes, nigh vnto which house woulde be some prety swete pasture reser∣ued of purpose, to the intente that from the ende of the .xiiii. dayes vntill the moneth of Maye, (before whiche time there is little grasse growing) the coltes may fede and play themselues therin euery fayre day. But when Maye is once come, then put thē forth into some good pasture, wheras they may haue plenty of short & swete grasse, for ouer rancke grasse will hurt their reines, and make them thicke necked, and in any case see that ther∣with they lye warme and dry, and lacke no water, for if waynlinges suffer eyther hunger, thirste, or colde, and specially in the firste yere whyles they mourne for theyr dammes, they will neuer proue to be good, but wyll be small of stature, of small strength, and full of diseases. But after that the colts be two yeres olde and vpward Page  [unnumbered] and haue cleane forgotten their dāmes. I would wishe them to runne in a large, harde, and hungery grounde, but so as with their traueyling, and takinge paynes for their liuinge, they may fill them full once in the day at the least, for feare of hinderinge their growthe. Youre Coltes being thus weaned and kepte, shall proue to be light, nimble, hard, and strong horses, & to haue strong legges and hard houes, and not to surfet of euery lyttle colde, as those do whych be fedde in somer season with rancke grasse, and lye colde and weate in winter. More ouer to the intente there may be no dysorder amongest your coltes: see that ye seuer them, accordinge to theyr kindes and ages, that is to say, to put horse foles by thē¦selues in one pasture, and mare foles by them selues in a¦nother pasture. Agayne, put yerelinges, two yerelings, and thre yerelings, euery age by it selfe seuerally, so shal not the greater wronge the lesser, for amonge equalles is altogether loue and fellowshippe wythoute any dys∣corde. Wherfore you see that particions, as I saide in the begīning of this boke, are so nedeful in that ground which should be appointed for breding of horses, as no∣thinge more.

¶Of the gueldinge of Coltes, and for what cause they be guelt, and also at what age, and in what time of the yere they oughte to be guelt. cap. xvii.

THe Coltes that doe naturally amble, or maye easely be brought to it, eyther by trauerse, or elles by hande withoute trauerse (whiche in mine opinion is the better way) most men in this realme do more delyght to haue them guelte then Page  29 stoned, for thei loue not onely to ride easely by the way, but also very faste, and therewith to haue their horses so quiet, as they may be easely gouerned, which things are not commonly sene in stoned horses, for their aboū∣daunt heate will not suffer them to be so quyet, nor yet to labour so farre in a day as Gueldinges maye, because the guelding lacking his stones hath no suche hot blud in his body as he hadde before he loste them. Yea to be guelt (as some authoures write) is such a Cooler, as it tameth both man, and beast, in their greatest madnes, and cleane healeth them of that disease, when nothing elles will. Moreouer, gueldinges do not neygh so often nor so loude as stoned horses do. For the which cause, the Sarmatians in all their secrete enterprises and ex∣ploytes, do vse to serue vpon gueldinges and not vpon stoned horses. And also our light horsemē here in Eng∣land do in like maner serue vpon gueldings in the war∣res, and for that cause they do not only guelde ambling coltes, but also trotting coltes, which they thinke part∣ly mete for that purpose, and partely for their seruantes to ride on, and to cary their males and cloke bagges af∣ter them. Of bothe which sorte of gueldinges I beleue this realme hath so fayre and so many, as any one coū∣trey in all Christendome. Wherefore I thinke it good here to show you the age, and at what time of the yere and Moue it is beste to guelde such coltes. And fyrste as touching the age, it is beste doing when the Colt is almost .ii. yeres olde, for to guelde him yōger wil hinder his growth very much. Agayne if he be much elder his necke wyll waxe greate, and the strynges of his stones wil be so harde and stronge, as they wil not be broken, Page  [unnumbered] but must nedes be cut, which as Russius sayth, is verye daungerous. Albeit our gueldours here in England be so cunning and expert in that facultie, as they make no matter therof, for they will cutte both olde and young, at what age soeuer they be, and warraunt them to doe well inough. And some I assure you doe euill inoughe, and speciallye if the meetest tyme for that purpose, as well of the yeare, as of the moone be not dewlye obser∣ued. Wherfore I would wyshe you to suffer none of the guelders to take your Coltes in hande onles it be in the sprynge, as in May, or in the beginning of Iune, or els about the fall of the leafe, as also when the mone is in the wane. For those two seasons are most temperate, yt is to say, neither to hot nor to colde, the excesse of either of whiche qualities, is verye noysome to those that be newlye guelt, and causeth manye to peake oute of the waye. And therfore after that they be guelt, you muste see that they go in a warme pasture, and that they bee not ouermuch chased to and fro, or otherwyse dysquie∣ted, but moderatelye exercised vntill they be perfectlye whole.

¶At what age, in what tyme of the yeare it is best ta∣kynge vppe of Coltes to breake theym, and how they ought at theyr fyrst halte∣ring to be vsed. Cap. xviii.

THey vse in most partes to take vppe theyr Coltes when they are but .ii. yeres and the vantage, or .iii. yeres old at the most, wher∣by theyr iointes not beynge knytte, if they be not the more discretly vsed their backes Page  30 may be soone swayde or pinched, and besides that their legges will growe full of splentes and wyngalles, and become crooked and lame, before they be halfe olde. Wherfore I wish that according to Federico thempe∣perours order, no horse Colt might be taken vp to be broken, before he were .iiii. yeares old and the vantage, and that woulde be done in some colde season of the yeare, when they maye best endure to trauell, as about Octobre, to thintent that after they haue bene broken in the winter season, when extreame heat cannot anoy them, by driuing them into faint sweates, they may be suffered, when spring tyme comes, and plenty of grasse is vpon the ground, to rest in the stable certeine dayes, whilst they be scoured and fatted with grasse, and so to get vp their fleshe that they lost whilest they were in breakinge, of whiche scouringe and fattinge, we shall treat hereafter more at large, when we come to speake of the dieting of horses, for ye preseruing of their helth. In some places, as at Tutburye, ye Coltes are so wilde as after they be driuen into a house they are fayne to be snared with a snare made of a stronge halter, comming through a ring of Iron, and put vpon a long pole, and so cast about that Coltes necke, which should be taken vp, and strained so harde, as it may strangle him for the tyme, before they can fasten any halter or coller vppon his head, which wildnes partlye perhappes commeth for that the ground is wast and wylde, for lacke of per∣ticions, as I said before in the first Chapter. But chief∣lye for that they be neuer housed, handeled, nor made familier with man in theyr youth, which is verye nede∣ful, and was not omitted by the meane of olde time as Page  [unnumbered] I shewed you before in the .xiii. Chapter, and for lacke therof many a good colt at his first taking vp, through his owne stryuing is vtterly marred, and maymed for euer. Wherefore I wyshe them to be made domestical in their youth, in such sorte as is in the Chapter before declared, so shall they not nede to be forced by any such extremitye when they should be taken vp, and the first coller or halter that you put on a Coltes head, wold be made as Russius saith, of wollen yarne, or elles of horse heare, and that very grosse and brode brayded, to thin∣tent it may not cut his heade when he striueth withal. Moreouer vnto that halter wold be fastened .ii. strong reanes, on eche side one, that the Coltes head may be fast teied vnto the manger on bothe sides, whereby he shal not reare nor hurt his leggs. And vntil he be some what gentle and tame, it shalbe needfull also to set ano∣ther Colt by hym that is alreadye tamed, that hys ke∣per may haue the safer accesse vnto him, who must vse all gentle meanes possibly, to win him, and shewe him no maner of cruelty, vsing often to stroke his backe and necke with his hand, wherevnto he shall brynge hym the sooner, if he let him eate no meate, but that which he shalbe content gentlye to receiue at his hande, for hunger wyll tame the wylde tygre, and for .iii. or .iiii. dayes lette him not go out to drinke, but make hym to drinke in the stable, and when he will suffre to be tou∣ched, then stroke all the other partes of his body, and speciallye his legges, to thintent he maye suffre to be courried, and that his keper may lift vp his feete, and knocke him first fayre and softly with a stone vpon his hones, and then harder and harder, wherunto if he be Page  31 often vsed, it shal make him very easy to be shod, & also when his keper leadeth him to water, let that tamed Colt which standeth with him, alwayes accompanye him, going somwhat before him, to thintēt yt the other may folow, and so learne to be led in hand, which once had, then bringe him with faire meanes to suffre the Cauetsane or headstraine to be put on his head, and to be sadeled and guirded, and vse to leade him to water being so saddeled, to thintent it may not seme straunge vnto him, neither within the howse, nor abroade. And whan he is brought to this tamenesse, then it shall be good to put a payre of soft pastorns on his forefete, and also as Russius sayeth, to tye one of hys hinder feete wyth a wollen coard, so as he can not much sture anye waye, and that shall preserue his legges (as he saith.) Nigh vnto which, no doung must be suffered to lye, for feare of burning his houes, but see that he stand cleane, warme, and drie▪ and that he be wel meated, often cour∣ryed and clothed. And in any case let no shrewed boyes or vnruly persons come into the stable, to ticke or toye with him, or otherwyse to fraye him, for if he chaunce to get anie euil propertie at the first, it wilbe very hard euer after to bringe him from it. And after that he is brought to such passe, as he will suffer to be handeled, haltered, saddeled, shodde, and also to be ledde where a man wil, then let him be ridden, broken, and scholed, according to Grisons preceptes, declared vnto you in my last booke entytled the art of ridyng. But nowe as touching the mare Coltes, it were best to take theym vp, when they are .ii. yeares olde, and the vauntage, to thintent that they may be handled and broken, eyther Page  [unnumbered] by working thē, or els by riding them moderately, but rather by working them vntill they be .iii. yeares olde. At whiche age, as I haue haue saide before, they are moste mete to be couered, and being made tame before, you shall haue the lesse trouble with them, at such time as you would haue them to be couered.

¶ Howe and at what age a coltes mouth shoulde be cut, or certayne of his teeth drawen, when the bitte for fault thereof can not haue his true restinge place. Cap. xix.

OUr common breakers of horses, when they chaunce vpon a colte that hath so narrow a mouth, as it is not able to receiue a bitte high inough, thei vse to cut his mouth wi¦der in riding him, wt a veri sharpe square brake, made of purpose which is not good, for it maketh him euer after eyther to haue to tender or to harde a mouthe, and for the most part rather to hard then to tender, by meanes of the harde and cornye fleshe whych afterwardes gro∣weth on both sides of his mouth, wher he was so rag∣gedly torne, cut, and gawled. Wherfore it were muche better to cause an expert horse leache to slyt his mouth equally on bothe sydes wyth a sharpe knyfe or rasor so highe as shalbe nedeful, and then to seare it with a hot yron, and to heale it in such sort as the sides therof may growe no more together, but appeare to be a naturall mouth, and of that widenes euen from the coltes birth, & before his mouth be parfectly whole, I would wishe him not to be ridden with any maner of bitte at all, but onely with a hedde strayne. Yea, in mine opinion it wer Page  32 so much the better if his mouth were cut and healed vp againe before he were taken vp to be broken, for the so∣ner it is done, the lesser it shalbe sene, so that it be not done while he sucketh, for then perhappes the sorenes of his mouth woulde let his suckinge, and so hinder his growth. Nowe as touching the drawing of certayne teth which may also be a great impedimēt that the bit can not haue his true restinge place, you shall heare the verye wordes of Laurentius Russius, wrytinge in this sorte. Because it is very harde, yea, and almoste vnpos∣syble (sayth he) that a Horse can haue a parfecte good mouthe, vnles the .ii. tusshes, and also other ii, called of him the plaine teeth, & of vs the cheeke teeth, or wange teeth, be cleane pulled out: (for after that a horse is tho∣rowly warmed, if he hath the saide teeth, his rider shal hardly hold him.) It is very requisite therfore that the foresaide .iii. teeth, that is to say, on eche side of his ne∣ther Iawe .ii. after that the horse is .iii. yeres & a halfe olde, be cleane drawen out by an expert hand, with in∣strumentes mete for that purpose, so as his Iawe may not be hurt, and so soone as they be oute, lette the sore gumme be rubbed well with salt, somewhat brayed or broken before, that done, see that his mouth be not touched for iii. dais after, loke also that the stable wher he standeth be closse shut, so as the winde maye not an∣noy him, and vntill he be whole. Forget not euery day after that he hath dronke, first to clense the sore places from such fylth as there remayneth of his meate, and then to rubbe it a new, with salt as before, for such con∣tinuall rubbing with salt will suffer no euill flesh there to growe, and if any do growe, then firste scarifye the Page  [unnumbered] same with your nayles, and rubbe it againe with salt. Some vse to washe the sore place onlye with warme wine, and some adde therunto both honye and pepper, and rubbe it after with salt, some agayne washe it only with wine and hony, and put on no salt. But truly if it were firste washed with wine, and after rubbed with salt, it were so muche the better. Moreouer vntill the place be perfectlye whole, forget not when soeuer you put any bit in his mouth, to cleanse firste the sore place, faire & softly with your finger. Thus far Russius hath spoken, whose wordes do sound with good reason, and are confirmed by diuers learned Authors, albeit I my selfe neuer sawe horse teeth drawne in all my life, and yet I must nedes confesse that I haue sene some horses though not many, whiche haue had their tusshes stan∣ding so high, as it hath seemed vnto me verye necessa∣ry, eyther to draw them, or els to file them hard downe to the gummes, which some men take to be the surest way for sauing of the horses Iawe. Notwithstanding in mine opinion, the best way (if the horses mouth be not alreadye to wide) were to slit his wickes higher, and to make rome for the bitte that way, but to say the truth, fewe coltes or none being wel bred in this realme haue nede of eyther of thē both, neyther haue our colts for the most part, any tusshes come vp at that age wher¦of Russius talketh. And truly I can not but maruaile at that he apointeth two tusshes to be drawen on ech side of his nether iawe, (if I vnderstand him aright) wher∣as euery horse hath but one beneath, & a nother aboue, and I doe no lesse maruayle to rede in Aristotle, that a horse should haue in all .xliiii. teeth, sith, I could neuer se Page  33 any horse that had aboue .xvi. that is to saye, in the fore part of his mouth vi. beneath, and vi. aboue, and on ech side of his mouth .ii tusshes, one aboue and a nother be∣neath: neuerthelesse I thought good to let you vnder∣stand the writers opinions herein, cōmitting the execu∣tion of all thinges vnto your owne discretion.

¶Of the cullinge out of refuse mares and Coltes, and also of those that should be reserued for the maintenaunce of the stocke. Cap. xx.

ALthough a man haue neuer so fayre stalli∣ons and mares, yet by some euill aspecte of the planettes, or els by some other vnhap∣py by chaunce, or by the negligence of the kepers, the Coltes do not alwayes come to such proofe as a man would haue them, and therfore I would wysh the owner, though he dwell far of, twyse a yere at the least to suruey his ground, and al the cattel therein, to the intente that if ther be any not mete to be kept, either for barrennes, for age, or for deformity, they may be made away, and solde at those fayres & markets which best serue to such purposes, yea, and if the cattell be wel vsed, his encrease wilbe such, as once in .iii. or .iiii yeres after the first .iii. yeres be past, he shal be fayne ey∣ther to sell or to geue away of the fayreste that he hath, for otherwyse his groūd would be quickly surcharged, & not hable to fede them. Albeit I would wishe him to sell or geue so, as he nede not to buy hym selfe to mayn∣taine his stocke, vnto which he must haue alwaies a spe¦cial regarde, in chosing out from time to time the fairest and largest bodied coltes, as well of males as females, Page  [unnumbered] that he can fynde amongest the whole race, to be reser∣ued for the maintenaunce of his studde or brede. For as I saide in the beginning, onles the parents be wel cho∣sen, the ofspring can neuer be good. Moreouer, it is ne∣cessary that such suruey be often made for the shifting of the cattel, according as both kind and age of the cattel, and also the time of the yere requireth, least otherwyse perhappes they may be pynched, both with colde, and penury, which be the greatest enemyes that Coltes can haue. Againe, manye contagiouse sycknesses doe often chaunce amongest this kinde of cattell, at whiche time, if the infected be not remoued from the wholle: the one infecteth the other, and so they dye all.

For faut of which seuering sir Iohn Birron of Noting∣hamshire, a very good knight & a notable housekeper, tolde me this last sommer that not long since he lost in one yeare, as manye mares and Coltes as were worth a M. markes. But to say the truth in such a contagious tyme, it is not only necessary to seuer the sicke from the hole: but also very nedefull, that medicine be ministred aswel to the whole, as to those that be not to far gone, for the sauegard of their lyues, whereof I shall speake hereafter more at large, when I come to treate of the curing of their diseases, and in the meane tyme, I shall desyre you to take all that which I haue hitherto writ¦ten touching the breding of horses in good part, so shal I haue cause to thinke my labour well bestowed.

FINIS.
Page  [unnumbered]

THE ARTE of Rydynge.

Newly corrected and amended of many faultes escaped in the first Pryntynge: as well touchynge the matter, as the Bittes: Whereof manye were euyll drawen, and as euyl cut: but now made perfect through the dilygence of the first Author. Tho. Blun∣deuill of Newton Flotman in Norff.

¶ Imprinted at London by VVyllyam Seres dwel∣lyng at the west ende of Paules churche, at the signe of the Hedgehogge.

Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

TO THE RIGHTE HONORABLE AND HIS SINGVLER GOOD LORDE, THE Lorde Roberte Dudley, Erle of Leycester, Bar∣ron of Denbighe, Knight of the honorable order of the Garter, Maister of the Queenes ma∣iesties horses, and one of her highnes pryuie councell. Thomas Blundeuil wissheth perfect felicitie.

IT is nowe (my singuler good Lord) almost two yeres sithens I determyned with my selfe, to haue translated into our vulgare tounge, the foure bokes of Grison, treatinge in the Italion tounge, of the art of Rydinge & breaking great Horses, and to haue geuen the same vnto youre L. as M. Secretary Cicill can well testifye. Who I thanke him of his goodnes vouchsafed to peruse my first draught, and misliked not the same. But after that I hadde translated two bookes therof, and sawe to what inconueniēce I was bound: hauing to folowe so doubtfull phrases, & maners of speaking, and so confuse an order of writing, as in my iudgement he v∣seth, (being in dede a far better doer, then a writer) by meanes whereof he is constreyned to make manye repeticions of one thinge, and to vse more wordes then nede: I coulde not satisfy my selfe therwith. And therfore leauing to translate any fur∣ther. I sought howe to bring so good a matter as that is, into a new forme & better if it might be, and therby to make it the playner and also the briefer, in which my doinge I truste, if Grison him selfe were liuing, I should not offende him at all. For sith it was his intent to make other men partakers of his excellent knowledge in this art, so necessary to be lerned, and therfore of ryght to be published: it wolde not greue hym then to haue his meaning so playnly expressed in an other tong, as the readers might casely vnderstand the same. Which whe∣ther I haue so done or not, I refer that to your L. iudgement, who hath no small skill, not onely in both tunges, but also in the art selfe, wherein your H. is a chiefe mayster, aswell by knowledge as also by office, and therfore most mete to be both Page  [unnumbered] iudge and patrone of this booke. Which if it shall please your H. to receyue wyth a willynge hande, and seme to allowe my doyng therin, by encouraging the esquires and ryders of the stable in breakyng the Queenes Ma. horses, sometimes to fo∣low thinstructions therof (and the rather for that old Alexan∣der their firste mayster, was him selfe as I vnderstande, some∣tyme Grysons scholer) and so geue an example to all others in like maner to folowe the same: And specially now whilest the quenes Maiesty mindeth so graciously to prouide for ye breding and kepyng of great horses, whiche no doubt shoulde be to the greate profiting of this our cōmon weale: In the most partes wherof, partly for lacke of arte, and partly for lack of exercise, chiualry is sore decayed: I shal not only thinke my labour wel bestowed: but also to haue receiued ye greatest reward yt I could possible wish or desire. Yea, and shalbe encouraged therby, to attempt hereafter some other thyng of more weight. Wherin I may shewe my selfe thankefull to your L. for so courteously acceptynge this my labour & good wyll, whiche is and shal∣be alwayes bent to do your H. suche poore seruice as I can.

¶A Chapter to the Reader, towchynge the order obserued in this booke: verye necessarye to be read and well conside∣red before he enter anye further.

ENdeuoring my selfe gentle reader for your better vnderstandinge to reduce Grysons boke, whiche in the Italion tounge dothe treate of the arte of rydynge, and of breakynge greate Horses, in∣to a more briefe and compendious waye of tea∣chinge, then hee to my Iudgemente hathe ther∣in obserued: I soughte firste to what ende suche laboure was chiefly to be employed vpon great horses. And I founde that eyther it was to make them horses of seruice, or els horses of pleasure, called Stirers. Then I cōsidered what things were incident to an horse of seruice, and what to a horse of pleasure or Stirer. And of those thinges which were common to them both, and which were appertayning to eche one perticulerly. And firste I founde that to a horse of seruice belonged these chiefe poyntes here folowinge. That is to say, to trot cleane & Page  [unnumbered] lustely, to stop lightly, to turne on both handes redely, to gal∣loppe stronglye, to maneg with single turne surelye, and laste of all to passe a carire swiftly. And in all his doinges from the beginning to the ending, to reane well, and to beare his head steddely. Al which things are also cōmon to ye stirrer, but then it is requisite that the stirrer besides all this, learne to bounde alofte with all foure, & to yarke withall, to gallop the gallop galliarde, to fetch the Capriole, to doe the Coruetti, and such like kind of saltes. But yet this sufficeth not, vnles I mighte also know the nighest meanes for a horse to attayne to these feates, & what order was therin to be obserued, which whilest I sought, behold the riders office wholy discouered, wherby I mighte well perceiue that vnles the rider were first instructed in all those thinges that appertayned vnto his office: the horse coulde neuer be well broken. Wherefore minding to compre∣hende all thinges in iii. bokes, I thought it most mete to be∣gin with the ryder in teaching him first howe to know a good horse, and apt to be taught, aswell by hys coulour & markes, as shape, to thintent he bestowe not his laboure vpon a Iade, or Roile. Then howe to tame him, and to make him so gentle as he may suffer to be ridden. After that, how to sit him and to behaue him selfe in ye poynt like a horseman. Then I proceded further, declaring the iii. chiefe pointes, wherin the perfection of a horseman consisteth. That is to say, in knowing how to helpe, to correct, and to cherishe his horse, and with what in∣strumentes, and generally how and when to vse them, and so I ende the first boke. That done I come to the horses lessons, which he hath to learne for his parte, declaring what order is to be kepte therin: to which soeuer of those ii. endes beforesaid. he be broken. And to euery lesson I ioyne such helpes and cor∣rections, as are mete to be vsed for redresse of such faultes, as most cōmonly chaunce therin: whych faultes for the most part I call errors making a distinction betwene errors and vices, attributing errors to the lacke of knowledge, and vices to na¦ture, or euil custome. As these be vices, to be restif, to be ram∣mege, to lye downe in the water, to be skittishe, which for dis∣tinction sake I do otherwise cal general faultes, because they may chaūce in euery lesson. Of the most part, of which faults I do treat seuerally in the third boke, declaring therewith the Page  [unnumbered] corrections of the same. For otherwise I shoulbe be driuen to make many digressions, and to interrupte the tenoure of my talke which I loue not to do. And I say here of the most part, because ther be some vices so peculier & so incident to certayne of the horses lessons, as I am forced to myngle the correctiō of the same, euen amongst the errors, as occasion requireth, and yet therby no order broken at all, as any man of iudgemente, I am sure will easely confesse. Then the horse being through¦ly broken in all poyntes, mete for him to learne: be he horse of seruice or styrrer: I finallye teach you how to ryde him to the best shewe before a prince. And there endeth the second booke. In the third booke I treate onely of the corrections of the ge∣nerall vices aforesaid, and of the diuersity of bits, and to what purpose euery one serueth. The order of all which three boo∣kes shall more playnely appeare vnto you, by the contentes of ye chapters hereafter folowing. And though Gryson semeth to vse the like order, that I do in the very beginnyng: yet he doth not continew the same, but immediately maketh so many dy∣gressions, and interlaceth so many and dyuers matters toge∣ther, as were ynough to confounde the memory of a very dys∣crete reader. And yet Gryson not to be blamed, for not obser∣uing that order or Metheode in wrytynge, whiche perhaps he neuer had learned: But rather muche to be praysed and com∣mended of almen, for vttering in the best maner he could, that his assured knowledge which he had gotten with great labour and contynuall exercisyng him selfe in ryding, the space of xl. yeares and aboue. Of which knowledge what lacke we Eng∣lishmen haue had, & specially haue at this present, is best sene at a mustre, when the Queenes Maiesty hath nede of hors and horsemen, where ofttimes you shall see some that sit on their horses like winde shaken reedes, handlinge their handes and legs like weauers. Or if the horseman be good; then the horse for hys parte shall be so broken, as when he is suffred to go forwarde, he will go backewarde. And when hys ryder wolde haue him to turne on the right hand, he wil turne cleane con∣trary. And when he should stoppe, he will arme him selfe, and runne away, or els stoppe sooner then his ryder woulde haue hym or vse such lyke toyes. For redresse of which faultes, both in man and beast, this booke is chiefly set forthe, with the ru∣les. Page  [unnumbered] wherof, if you that lack knoweledge shall vouchsafe to ac∣quainte your selues, not onely by reading, but also by exercise of rydynge, I doubt not but by your spedye profityng therein, you shall haue iust occasion to be thankefull, both to Gryson for the first inuention of the matter, and also to me for dispo∣sing and reducing the same into a playne forme and order of teaching. And you shal haue very good cause also to be thank¦ful vnto my deare frende M. Iohn Asheley M. of the Queenes Maiesties Iewel house. For by ye dayly practising of the rules of Gryson his booke, I sawe him without the helpe of any o∣ther teacher, bryng two of hys horses, and specially that whi∣che he calleth his Balle, vnto such perfection, as I beleue few gentlemen in this realme haue the lyke. Which euident profe together with his encouraging me vnto it, made me the more willing to take the matter in hande. In hope that other men woulde with lyke diligence vse the lyke exercise, wishinge all gentelmen lackyng hys qualityes, to be his lyke indede. And that not onely in this exercise, but also in many other his ver∣tuous exercyses, as well of mynd as of bodye. To thintent they may deserue as he doth the loue, fauour, and com∣mendacion of all men, whereof I haue no doubte at all, because I my selfe do knowe a number of yonge gentlemen that be geuen in these oure dayes, to suche cyuill, and commendable exercyses, (as God geuinge theim grace to con∣tinue therin,) in tyme to come they will be no small ornament vnto this re∣alme. Whiche I pray God to graunte, and there I end bidding you well to fare.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

A Table declaring the contentes of the three bookes folowing. The first booke treateth of the riders offyce and is deuided into these Chapters.

OF the coloures of horses, and which be best
Cap. i.
Which horses be well marked, and which be not.
Cap. ii.
What shape a good horse ought to haue.
Cap. iii.
How to tame a wilde horse or Colte, at what age, how to make him come to a blocke, and what kynde of bri∣dle, or rather halter, and saddle, you shall first put vpon him.
Cap. iiii.
What the rider ought to doe, before he take his horse backe, and beinge mounted, how he ought to sit in his saddle.
Cap. v.
Of the three chiefe pointes wherin consisteth the per∣fection of a horseman, and how many kindes of helpes and corrections there be.
Cap. vi.
To what ende such helpes and corrections serue.
ca. vii.
Of the voyce, of the tounge, and sounde of the lyppes.
Cap. viii.
Of the rod.
Cap. ix.
Of the bridle and reanes.
Cap. x.
Of the Caulfes of the legges, and of the heles.
Cap. xi.
Of the stirruppe.
Cap. xii.
Of the Spurre.
Cap. xiii.
Of the musroll and the martingale.
Cap. xiiii.
Page  [unnumbered]
The second booke treateth of the horses lessons, and is deuided into these Chapters.
OF the horses lessons and order thereof in gene∣rall.
Cap. i.
Of treadinge the ringe, and to what ende it serueth.
Cap. ii.
The helpes and corrections mete to be vsed whilst he treadeth the ringes.
Cap. iii.
Of stoppinge.
Cap. iiii.
Of going backe, and wherto it serueth, and howe you shall teache your horse to doe it.
Cap. v.
Of aduauncinge before, whereto it serueth, and how, where and when you shall teach him to do it.
Cap. vi.
Corrections to be vsed when your horse aduaunceth to highe, and out of order, or when you woulde not haue him.
Cap. vii.
How to make him yarke, & to be light behind.
Ca. viii.
How to teache your horse to tourne redelye on bothe handes.
Cap. ix.
How to correct your horse, when he is harder to turne on the one side then on the other.
Cap. x.
Sixe other corrections for the same fault.
Of the whole tournes and double tournes, howe and when to teach your horse to make them.
Cap. xvii.
Helpes and corrections mete to be vsed for the redresse of such errours, as most commonly do hap in makinge the double tournes.
Cap. xviii.
Of the Chambetta, what it is, whereto it serueth, and how you shall teache your horse to do it.
Cap. xix.
Page  [unnumbered]Of maneginge, and howe manye kindes of maneges there be.
Cap. xx.
Thorder of maneging with haulfe rest, whole rest, and without rest, all three with single turne, or halfe turne
Cap. xxi.
Of maneging with double tournes.
Cap. xxii.
Of the helpes and corrections whiche are meete to be vsed for redresse of suche errours and faultes, as com∣monly chaunce in maneging.
Cap. xxiii.
How and when to teach your horse to passe a Cariere.
Cap xxiiii.
Of thorder of leaping and boundinge alofte, and howe and when you shall teache youre horse to leape, and yarke withal, and also to gallop the gallop gallyarde.
Cap. xxv.
How you shall teach your horse to do the Capriole, and to daunce the Coruetti, and also to go sidelinge, either with his whole body or with his rumpe only.
Ca. xxvi
How to ride a horse to the best shewe before a Prynce, and where best standing is for him to see.
Cap. xxvii.
¶The thirde booke treateth of the cor∣rections of vyces, and of the diuersitie of bittes and is deuided into these Chapters folowynge.
Of the corrections of vyces in generalll.
Cap. i.
OF the vices of the head and necke, and first howe to correct your horse when he beareth his head or neck awry.
Cap. ii.
How to correct your horse when he beareth not righte the lower part of his head, called of the Italions Mus∣tacchio, Page  [unnumbered] and may be called of vs, the mosell, which com∣prehendeth both nose and mouth.
Cap. iii.
Certaine causes, why it is better for a horse to beare his heade vnder then right out, or to cast it vp alofte. And then howe to correct him, if he will not bringe in hys heade, and reane as he ought to do.
Cap. iiii.
How to correct your horse when he ducketh downe his heade, and beareth to low.
Cap. v.
How to correct that horse which doeth ouer reache in his goinge, that is to saye, doeth smite his forefeete with his hinder feete.
Cap. vi.
How to correct that horse whiche when he is chastised for anye fault with the spur, vseth to shake his head, or eares, also how to knowe by the mouing of his eares when he is maliciouslye disposed, and howe to correct him for the same.
Cap. vii.
Howe to correct youre horse when he whyneth, inten∣ding to strike with his heles, or to doe some shrewdnes beinge in the companye of other horses.
Cap. viii.
Of restifnes, of the kindes and causes therof.
Cap. ix.
Remedies against restifnes, proceding of vile courage.
Cap. x.
Remedies against restifnes, procedinge of stubbornes, and stout courage.
Cap. xi.
Other corrections to be vsed against restifnes, when the ryder lacketh art, and knoweth not by order of ridyng, how to get the mastery of his horse, and to make hym to know his fault.
Cap. xii.
Of the contrarye vice vnto restifnes, whiche is to run away, of the causes therof, and how to correct the same
Cap. xiii.
Page  [unnumbered]How to correct that horse that will reare right vp whē he is corrected for anye fault wyth a sticke vppon the head.
Cap. xiiii.
How to correct that horse that will fall downe to the grounde, when he is a little werye or prouoked to do a∣ny thinge whiche he would not willingly do.
Cap. xv.
How to correct that horse which passing through anye water, wil lye downe in the same, & what is the cause of such vice.
Cap. xvi.
How to correct that horse which is skittish or fearefull and will start at euery thinge, and whereof suche vyce procedeth.
Cap. xvii.
How to embolden your horse, and to make him hardye against other horses.
Cap. xviii.
How to make your horse to abide both staffe, sworde, great noyse, gunshot, or any other thing.
Cap. xix.
OF the vices of the mouth, and causes therof in generall.
Cap. xx.
How to correct that horse which will eyther drawe vp the bitte with his toung, or defend the same with his neither lippe.
Cap. xxi.
How to correct that horse which wil mow or wry with his mouth, and the causes wherof suche vice doth pro∣cede.
Cap. xxii.
Of the kyndes of byttes, together with their names, and partes belonging to the same.
Cap. xxiii.
Of the chekes and eyes of bittes, and also of the kirble and how they ought to be made.
Cap. xxiiii.
Of closse bittes, and for what mouthes they are moste mete, and also what vices they do correct.
Ca. xxv.
Page  [unnumbered]Of open bittes in generall.
Cap. xxvi.
Of broken portes, and vpset mouthes, how they ought to be made, and what vyces they do correct.
Ca. xxviii.
Of whole portes, howe they ought to be made, and what vices they do correct.
Cap. xxviii.
Of whole portes with trenches aboue, howe they ought to be made, and for what mouthes they are most mete.
Cap. xxix.

EXAMPLES RECITED BY GRI∣son aswell in his preface, as in the latter ende of his booke, not only commending the aptnes of a horse to learne his stout courage, and longe continuance in his good∣nes, but also the worthines of the arte it selfe, whereunto is also adioyned, who first found out ridynge, and who in∣uented the bittes, and who first vsed the seruice of horses in the fielde.

Aptnes to learne.

THere is a city within the kingdome of Na∣ples, called Sibarye, in the which somtime horses did learne to daunce at the sounde of a Simhpan.

Stoute courage.

ALexander the great, had a horse called Bucephalus which being decked in royall ornamentes, woulde Page  [unnumbered] suffer no man to ride on him, but kinge Alexander him selfe. Whiche horse beinge sore hurte at the takinge of Thebes, would not suffer Alexander to leaue his back, for to mount vpon any other. Such was both his cou∣rage and also loue towardes his maister, who did not forget to recompence the same. For when the horse died the kinge caused him to be solemplye buried: and for a perpetuall memory therof, builded euen there, in steade of a sepulchre, a fayre city, and named it after the horses name, Bucephalia. Iulius Cesar also had a horse which would suffer no man to take his backe, but Cesar him selfe.

Longe continuaunce.

KInge Charles the viii. departing out of Italye, only with v. C. horsemen, encountered the duke of Millane, beinge vnited with the Venetians, with Ferara and with Mantua: And vntil he came vn∣to Furnouo, he knew none otherwise but that he was so strong as his enemies, which were in all a .M.v.C. horsemen, wherof thoughe the kynge was aduertised, and therewith hard all men saye, it was meete to geue place, and to saue himselfe: Yet he trusting in the great knowledge and valiantnes of his horsemen, and speci∣ally of his generall called Il Signior Giouanni, Giacomo Friulzi, a Gentleman of Millan, would not so doe, but said: he would through, whatsoeuer became of it. And therefore hauinge sente before his carriage (the spoyle wherof, brought many of the gredye Italions into dis∣order) he him selfe being mounted vpon a greate blacke Page  [unnumbered] Spanish horse, whiche had but one eye, and was .xxiiii yeares old, folowed with his band immediatly after, and gaue the onset, whereas both he and the horse did so valiauntlye, as in that conflict, there were slaine and taken on the contrary part .xvii. of the chiefest conduc∣tiers. Wherby his enemies being discomfited, he quiet∣lye frome thence passed on, in his iourney. And the king would afterward manye tymes saye that the valiaunt courage of his horse, was the occasion of that victorye. Which horse after that he came vnto the city of Molina besides that he was no more traueled, but well fed, and tenderly kept, so longe as he liued, he was also solemply buried, when he died, by the appointment of the Lady of Burbon, sister vnto the kynge.

Another example of continuance.

WHen the great Capitaine came to the Exployte of the kyngdome of Naples (the campe lyinge then at Cerignola) it chaunced that whilst the Vicerov of Fraunce, being there with manye barons, prepared him selfe to fight with the Spanyardes: The next day folowing, there came a knight of Naples called il signi∣or Giacomo Guindazzo, who not hauinge hys horses there, went to the Signior Troiano Carracciolo, prince of Melfe, praying him to lend him a horse, only to serue in the fild that day. To whom the prince, being of his own nature verye courteous, and liberall withall, gaue him leue to go into his stable, and to take his chose of all the horses ther. Wherupon the saide Giacomo went thither: And hauing vewd them al he chose out a great Page  [unnumbered] bay horse, which lately came frō the couering of mares, and was .xxvii. yeares old. And though the prynce per∣swaded him to take a yonger horse, yet he beynge ex∣pert in that facultye, and knowing which horses were best in dede, would not so do: neyther was he deceyued in his choyse. For the battel being fought the next day, the horse didde his parte notable well. In so much, as though he were sore hurt, & had many greuous woun∣des: yet he would neuer geue ouer, but continue to the ende, and thereby saued his riders lyfe: So as bothe horse and man, after many valiaunte actes shewed: de∣parted the fielde with the great admiracion of all men, that did behold them. And finallye Grison attributeth so much honor and praise to a horse, as he sayeth, that the worthye state of knighthoode, toke his first begin∣ning of this beaste, which in the Italian tounge is cal∣led Caualle: And therof commeth Caualiero, whiche is so muche to saye in Englishe, as a horseman or knight. Wherin I beleue, Gryson toke his example at the latin worde, hauing also like deriuation. For a horse in latin is called Equus, wherof is deriued this word Eques, yt is a horseman or knyght. But then most commonlye they ioyne this word auratus vnto it, saying: Eques auratus, that is a golden knight, for that he was wont to wear gylt spurres, as I take it. Or els Eques torquatus, that is a cheaned knight, for that he weareth a chean. With which kind of ornamentes, horsemen deseruynge well in the fielde were somtime rewarded in sygne of honor due to their vertue. And thoughe in these dayes re∣warding of vertue beginneth to cease: yet the selfe same names of honoure doe still remaine.

Page  [unnumbered]

The worthynes of the arte.

MOreouer to proue that the arte of rydynge and of breakyng great horses, is no vyle arte: Gryson vseth the aucthoritye of the noble Poet Virgill: Who in his Eneidos, calleth king Picus, for a more excel∣lencye and greater prayse, a tamer or breaker of horses. He geueth also the like tytle in dyuers places of hys booke to Mesaphus, the son of Neptune the god, of the sea, who as Poets faine, begot vpon Medusa the win∣ged horse, named Pegasus, which fleyng vp to the hea∣uens, was transformed into those sterres that be nowe called after his name. The poetes faine also that Belle∣rephons the sonne of kynge Glaucus, was vppon thys horse backe, when he slew the monstrous Chimera.

¶The first inuentours of Rydynge and of byttes, and also of the seruyng with horses in the fielde.

THis Bellerophons, as some men say, was the first that inuented Rydinge on horsebacke. And the Pellitrones a people of Lapithia, founde out af∣terwarde the maner of bridles, byttes, and rynges, to guide horses withall. But they of Thessalia were the firste that vsed the seruice of horses in the wars, which as Gryson sayth, proceded of a iudgement, no lesse pro∣fitable then deuine.

Thus endeth the examples of Gryson.
Page  [unnumbered]

Of the coloures of horses, and vvhich be best. Cap i.

A HORSE for the moste part is coloured according as he is complexioned, and as he is complexioned, so is he also well or euill condicioned. Again he is complexioned ac∣cording as he doth participat more or lesse of any of the .iiii. Elementes. For if he hath more of the earth then of the rest, he is melancholy, heauy, and faint harted, and of coulor a blacke, a russet, a bright or dark dunne. But if he hath more of the water, thē is he fleg∣matique, slowe, dull, and apt to lose fleshe, and of coulor most commonlye milke white. If of the aire, then he is a sanguine, and therfore pleasant, nimble, and of colour is most commonlye a baye. And if of the fier, then is he cholorique, and therefore lighte, whote, and fiery, a ste∣rer, and seldome of anye great strength, and is wont to be of Coulour a bright sorel. But when he doeth parti∣cipate of all the foure Elementes, equallye and in dewe proportion, then is he perfect, and most commonly shal be one of these coloures folowinge. That is to saye, a browne baye, a dapple graye, a blacke full of siluer hea∣res, a blacke lyke a moore, or a fayre rone, which kindes of horses, are most commendable, most most temperate, strongest, and of gentellest nature. And next to these are such as be most like in colour to them: as the bright bay, the darke baye, that hath neyther learinge looke, mealy nose, nor white flanke, The bright sorell, the flye∣bitten white, the white liard lyke syluer, hauinge hys outermost partes blacke, as the tippes of hys eares, his Page  [unnumbered] maine, his taile, or all fowre feete. And if he hath a lyste from his maine to hys tayle, he is so much the better. To these also may be added the ashye graye, hauing al his .iiii. feete striped. And note this, that as all well co∣loured horses, are so muche the better for hauing some signe of adustion, that is to say, some blacke marke, at the least in their nethermost partes: So of all euill co∣lored horses, those are best which haue theyr outermost partes blacke. But if he be a bright sorell, a browne bay with redde flankes, a perfect blacke, or of any other co∣lour, betokening Colour adust: Then to mittygate hys fiercenes, he had nede to haue some whyte marke. Wherefore syth good markes be as necessarye as good coulours, I will treate of them particularly in the next chapter folowinge.

¶Which horses be well marked and which be not. Cap. ii.

THe horse that hath any white marke, is called of the Italyons Balzano, but speciallye when he is white footed, And of white feted horses there be iiii. good, and .vii. bad.

¶The good be these.

The first is he that hath a white forefoote on the farre syde.

The seconde, that hathe a whyte hynderfoote, on the neare syde.

The third, that hath both his hinder feete white.

But note that suche whyte muste not mount aboue the pastorns, for that were an euill sygne, betokening debi∣lity, and such horses be not called Balzani, but Calzati, Page  2 which is so much to saye in englyshe, as hosed.

¶The seuen bad.

The first is he that hath a white forefote on the neare side.

The second, that hath a whyte hinderfoote on the far syde, and is called of the Italyons Arzeglio.

The thirde, that hath both hys forefeete whyte.

The fourth, that hathe his forefoote and hinderfoote both on the farside white, and is called of the Italions Trauato, that is to say, trauersed.

The .v. that hath his forefoote and hinderfoote bothe on the neare side white, and is likewyse called Trauato.

The syxt, that hath hys forefoote on the neareside, and his hinderfoote on the farsyde crossewyse both white, and is called of the Italions Trastrauato, crosse trauer∣sed.

The .vii. that hath hys foorefoote on the farreside, and his hinderfoote on the neareside crossewise both white, and is also called Trastrauato.

And note, that if any of the whyte fete betokenyng ey∣ther good or euil, be mingled or sprēt wyth blacke spot∣tes, it confirmeth so muche the more, the good or euill signification therof. It is an excellent good marke also for a horse to haue a white starre in his forheade, or a white lyst or fyllet, comming down on his heade, with∣out touchyng his browes, and not fully arriuing to his nose.

The horse that hath a whyte rumpe or tayle, is called of the Napolirans Rapicano, and is most commonlye a good horse, but if he haue any whyte therwyth before: that sygnifieth him to be of small force.

Page  [unnumbered]The horse that is flyebitten onlye on the shoulders, or on the flankes, can neyther be strong, nor able to endure anye hardnes. For suche a horse most commonlye is fo∣led in the heate of sommer, betwixt Iuly and August, when flyes are stirring, from the stinging wherof he is not able to defende him selfe, neyther with heade nor tayle, and therfore is called of the Italions Attaffanato that is, flyestong or fliebitten.

And besides that, his damme can haue no plentye of milke to fede him with, the grasse being burnt vp with heat. The white horse that is altogether blacke fliebit∣ten, or red fliebitten, is a good horse.

But if he be a Lyard and marked wyth a fewe redde or tawney flyebitinges, only on his chekes, or on his nose, that is a sygne of a stubborne Iade and headstronge. The whall eyed horse called of the Italyons Gazzo, is most commonlye wilye, and full of shrewde toyes.

The horse, whose balles of his eyes are whyte, seyth not well in tyme of snow.

The horse that hath no kind of white marke, is moste commonlye tractable, but then he is ramege, that is to saye, he wyll kepe no iust pace, in his going, but fareth as one that goth with .ii. mindes, twyxt going and not going.

And though to haue no white marke maye chaunce to all couloures: yet it chaunceth moste to the blacke and darke bay. And note that when suche blacknes procea∣deth of choler adust: the horse is furious, bolde and wi∣ly, and is called of the Italions Zaino. But if of melan∣choly naturall, then he is feareful, dull and slow, which thinges are more easye to be knowen by his doynges Page  3 then by his markes.

The horse that hath an Ostriche fether eyther on his forheade, on both sides of his maine, or on the one side, or els behinde on his buttockes, or in anye place where he himselfe can not see it, can neuer be euill horse.

But though the horse be neuer so well couloured and marked, yet is he lyttle worth, onles his shape be accor∣dinglye. And therefore I will shewe you what shape a good horse ought to haue, begynninge at his neyther partes, wheron a good horseman ought first to fyxe his eye and minde.

What shape a good horse ought to haue. Cap. iii.

A Good horse then would haue a black, smoth, drie, large, round, and hollowe houe, and if it be soft or tender, and brode about the hele, it is the greater signe of lightnes.

The reason is, for that the horse from the day of his fo∣ling, treadeth light vpon the grounde, for he is afrayde to truste to his houes, beynge as yet verye tender, and therfore straineth his forelegs, and his backe the more. The crownes aboue his houes would be smal & heary. His pastors short, and that neyther to lowe, nor yet to high, so shall he be strong beneth, & not apt to founder. His ioyntes great wyth long feawter lockes behinde, which is a sygne of force.

His legges straight and brode.

His knees great, leane and plaine.

His thighes full of sinewes, the bones whereof would be shorte, equall, iuste and well proportioned, and the Page  [unnumbered] brawnes therof when he standeth with hys legges to∣gether, must be much more distaunt one from another a∣boue towardes the breast, then beneath.

His shoulders, longe, large, and full of fleshe.

His breast, large and rounde.

His necke rather long then short, great towardes the breast, bending in the midst, and slender towardes the heade.

His eares smal or rather sharpe, and standing right vp, beynge of a iust length and largenes, accordyng to the stature of the horse.

His forehead, leane and large.

His eyes, blacke and great.

The hollownes of his browes well filled and shooting outwarde.

His iawes slender and leane.

His nostrels so open and puffed vp as you may see the reade within, apt to receyue ayre.

His mouth great.

And finally, his whole heade together woulde be lyke a sheapes heade.

His maine would be thinne and long, albeit I doe not mislike the opinion of those that woulde haue it to be thycke, so that it be not ouerthycke, for as the thynnesse betokeneth aptnesse to be taught, so doeth the indiffe∣rent thicknes betoken strength.

Hys wythers or walleys woulde not onely be sharpe pointed, but also ryght and straight, so as a man maye plainly see from thence the departure of hys shoulders.

His backe woulde be shorte, and that neyther rysinge nor fallynge, but euen and playne, so shall it be stronge. Page  4 Which you shal sone try, if you ryde him.

For the horse that hath a strong backe, either in his go∣ing, or gallopynge, wyll continuallye gather his bodye rounde together, aduauncyng himselfe behind, and lif∣tyng vp his rumpe, whych the Italyons call Aggrup∣piggiare: yea, and wil do the like when soeuer you shall require it, or at the least wyll not shrynke or distend hys backe, but wil kepe it alwaies at one stay. Wheras if he hath a feble backe, eyther he wyl go rollyng behynd, or els if he aduaunceth hym selfe for a whyle at the firste setting forth, yet he is not able to continue withal. His sides woulde be longe and large, with a small space be∣twyxt the hindermost rybbe, and the hucklebone. His belly long & great, but orderly hidden vnder his ribbs. His flankes not gawnte, but full, hauing naturall free∣zeled heares growynge on both sides, and the hygher that suche heares mount, the better.

His rumpe round and plain, with the fal of a little gut∣ter, and with a large space betwixt the .ii. hucklebones. Hys thyghes large and longe, wyth bones well fashy∣ned and full of flesh on eyther syde. The hammes wher∣of if they be leane, drye and straighte, and the houghes large and crooked like a Hart, it is a sygne of swyftnes. But if the hammes be croked, & the houghes straight, it is a signe that he is good for trauel.

Hys tayle woulde be full of heares, and longe downe to to the grounde, the tronchen wherof must be of a mea∣surable bygnes, and wel couched betwixt his thyghes, notwithstandynge, some doe saye that a thinne taile and cryspe is as good.

His stones & yard woulde be small. And finallye all hys Page  [unnumbered] members would be corespondent to the greatnes of his body, which altogether would be fashioned much like a stag, somwhat lower before, then behind, but not ouer∣muche, for that were daungerous in runnyng. And the greater and stronger the horse is, the meeter for the war, and the lyghter and more nymble he be, the meter to make a styrer.

Thus hauyng shewed you how to know a good horse and apt to be taught, aswel by his coulour & marks, as shape: It resteth now that I teach you how to breake him, and to handle him, and fyrste yf he be wylde or a Colte, how to tame him.

¶How to tame a wylde horse or Colte, at what age, how to make him to come to a blocke, and what bridle and saddle you shall fyrst put vpon hym. Cap. iiii.

ALthough you may begyn to handle your horse when he is full .ii. yeares olde, and vpward, yet it were better to tarye vntyl he be .iii. yeres and a halfe olde, so shal he be the better able to endure trauell, the ioyntes of his bodye and legges beynge then somewhat knyt together. For whiche cause the Emperour Federico, woulde not haue a horse to be rid∣den before he were full .iiii. yeares olde. And at the first handlynge of hym, you shall put on his heade a certayn Coller or halter, called of the Napolitans Cauazana, made in suche sorte as is hereafter expressed in the first figure of the thyrde boke, whiche I caused to be cut of purpose, because that Grison would in no wyse haue a Page  5 yonge horse to be ridden at the first with anye bitte, for feare of marryng his mouth. In steade of which Cauet∣sane, our Riders in Englande vse a Cheane not muche vnlyke in effect vnto the cauetsane, but yet in my iudge∣ment not so mete for a yonge horse, for that it strayneth the tender gristle of his nose to sore, whyche kynde of halter or Cauetsane, partly for shortnes of speache, and partlye for likenesse of sygnification, I will call from henceforth a headstraine. And in puttinge the heade straine on, you must vse your horse so gentlie, as he may not onlie be content to were it, but also to be quietly led therby. Whereunto, with gentle handlynge you shall quickly bryng him. Neyther must you vse anye other kinde of brydle than thys, or any other saddell for feare of hurting his backe, then a soft pad of strawe. Vntill your horse can trot cleane, kepe the ring, stop and tourne roundly on both handes. And in learnyng to syt close in the pad, you shall also sit close in your saddle, but what∣soeuer saddle you put vpon his backe, see that it stande alwayes more forward then backward, onles the horse be ouerlow before. For the more forwarde that the sad∣dle doth stand, the horseman shal sytte therin the more ryght vp, and wyth the better grace. The horse than beynge thus brideled and saddled: Cause him to be brought foorth to some blocke, whereas if he will not stand styll whylst you take his backe, then let him that bringeth hym make muche of hym, and somtyme threa∣ten him with hys voyce, & thrust him with his handes on the ryght side towards the block, whervpō you shal stand, continually cheryshing hym with your hande, to thintent he may suffer you to get vp. But if he be so fro∣warde Page  [unnumbered] and so stubborne, as he wyll not come nighe the blocke: Then al to rate hym wyth a terrible voyce, and beate him your selfe wyth a good stycke vpon the head betwyxt the eares, not leauinge hym vntyll you haue made him to come to the block, whether he wil or not. Remembrynge alwayes to make muche of hym when he sheweth himselfe obedient vnto you. Or if you wyll, you maye obserue thys maner followynge.

Leade hym into some newe plowed ground, and there take the reanes of the headestraine by the outermoste ende in your ryght hande, and cause some other manne to take a sticke in his hand, & by beating the horse ther∣with vpon the rumpe, to force hym to trot, or gallop, so fast as he may driue, tournynge styll rounde vppon the ryght hand, durynge which time, you shall not remoue forward your right fote from the place where you are. But onely go round with your left foote, towardes the horse, accompaniynge hym in euerye tourne, so as you your selfe maye remayne alwayes in the middest of the Circle, which the horse maketh. And immediatly after the horse hath bene wel tossed, and wearyed, wyth con∣tinuall tournynge on the ryght hand: you shal chaunge foote and hande, and kepyng styll your place, cause him to make as manie tournes on the left hande. And thus you may turne him and tosse him on both handes, vn∣till you haue gotten the mastrye, and whollye subdued him. But if the horse be so stubborne, and so frowarde, as one is not sufficient to make him to goe tournynge so ofte about: Then besydes the helpe of more persons, with wandes in their handes, you your selfe may haue also in your left hand, a lenger wand then any of theirs Page  6 and chaunging tournes, you shall also chaunge the rod into your ryght hand. By meanes wherof, it is possible that you youre selfe alone, by beatynge him sometyme with the one hande, and somtyme wyth the other, shal make hym wythout the helpe of any other, to go frelye about. For this kinde of correction is so greuous to any horse, of what age so euer he be, but specially to a Colt, that it wyll make him so gentle as a lambe, and to suf∣fer you to do wyth hym what you lyst. Thus hauynge taught you how to tame your horse in such sort, as he shal suffer you to take his backe: It is requisite that be¦fore you mount vpon him, I put you in remembraunce what you haue to do. And than beynge mounted, how to syt hym, and how to behaue your selfe in al pointes, like a horseman.

¶What the Ryder ought to doe, before he take hys horse backe, and beyng mounted, how he ought to sit in hys saddel. Ca. v.

FIrst than see that your horse be surely guir∣ded, and if he be come to weare a bytte, see that the kurble thereof be fastened as it ought to be. And when you are mounted, make the reanes of your bridell euen, and of a iuste lengthe, wythoute styrrynge youre horse, vntill you haue sattled your selfe and your clothes about you. That done, make him to goe forwarde about .ii. paces fayre and softlie, and then stay againe. After that, pace him or trot hym to the place where you mind to breake him. But after that he commeth to weare a bit, and is throughlye broken: then to keepe him in vre with the Page  [unnumbered] double tournes heareafter taughte: you shall in the ende of the foresayde twoo paces, geue hym also syxe whole tournes, that is to say first .ii. on the right hand then .ii. on the left, and last of all .ii. on the right. Or els if you wyll but .iii. whole tournes, that is for eche hand one, so as the first and last be on the ryght hande. And see that you do not onelye sit him boldly, and without feare, but also conceyue wyth your self that he and you do make as it were but one bodye. And that you both haue but one sence and one wyll. And accompanye him with your bodye in any mouinge that he maketh, al∣wayes beholding his heade right betwixt hys eares, so as youre nose maye directlye aunswere his foretop. Which shalbe a signe vnto you to know thereby, whe∣ther you sit right in youre saddle or not, and whether your horse beareth his head right or not. And lette the ridge bone of your backe be euen with his. And let your left hand holding the reanes of the bridle, be euen with his creast, and in any wise kepe your thighes and knees close to the saddel, holding downe your legges straight lyke as you do when you are on foote. And lette your feete rest vpon the stirruppes in their due places, bothe hele and toe standing in suche sorte, as when you shall tourne your head, as farre as you can on the one syde, wythout mouyng your body, and lookyng downward to your stirrup: you shall perceyue that your toe doth directlye aunswere the tip of your nose. And according as the saddle is made, so shall you ryde longe or shorte. But alwayes let your right stirrup be shorter then the other by halfe a hole, and kepe your stirrup leathers al∣wayes vnder youre knees: albeit to ride with the stir∣rup Page  7 leather aboue the knee, was thoughte by men of olde tyme, more comlye, beinge partlie then constrained thervnto, for that their horses were barded after suche a sort, as onlesse they did ride so, and that wyth verye longe spurres besydes, they coulde not reache their bel∣lies. Notwithstanding, to ride as we do nowe a dayes is a great deale more sure. But to sit a horse well, or to ride both sure and cleane is not sufficient to make a per∣fect horseman, and therfore it is necessarie that here I also declare vnto you, wherin the perfection of a horse∣man chiefely consisteth.

¶Whych be the thynges that make a perfect horseman. Cap. vi.

GRison sayeth, that besydes the helpe of a good Constellacion, enclining you to folow continually, wyth a feruent zeale the scoole of Mars: to make you a perfect horseman, three thinges be requisyte. Fyrst, to knowe howe and when to helpe your horse. Secondlye, howe and when to correct hym. And thyrdly, how and when to cheryshe him, and to make muche of hym.

Whiche iii. thynges beynge as generall kyndes, haue many specialties and particularities belongyng vnto them. And though they doe seeme whollye to apper∣tayne to the offyce of the Ryder, yet can I not make you throughlye to vnderstande them, vntill I come to entreate of the Lessons, whiche the horse for hys parte hath also to learne. Because in dede they must goe both together. Notwithstandynge to thintent I maye vse fewer wordes hereafter, (you beyng somwhat instruc∣ted Page  [unnumbered] before) I wyll treate of them here in so good order as I can. For though I can not shewe you, when and how to vse these thynges in time, vntyll I come to the horses lessons, yet I maye shewe you whyche they be, how many there be, to what end euery one serueth, and generally the vse of the same. And first you shall vnder∣stande, that you maye helpe youre horse .vii. maner of wayes. That is to saye, wyth your voyce, wyth youre toungue, with your rodde, with the brydell, with the caulfes of your legges, with your stirruppe, and wyth your spurs. Agayne you maye correct him vii. maner of waies, yt is to say, wyth your voyce, rod, calues of your leggs, bridle, stirrup, spurs, & with treading the ring, in such sort as shalbe hereafter expressed: but you can che∣rish or coye hym no more but .ii. maner of wayes, yt is to saye, eyther wyth your voice in speaking to him gently, or els by clawing him on the necke with your hand, or with the nether ende of your rod. And though that hel∣pes and corrections in the doinge, seme in a maner all one: yet are they diuerse, hauynge respecte to the tyme, for the one goth before error, and the other commeth after. For you helpe your horse to thintent he should not erre: But you correct him for that he hath alredy erred: But it is not so easy to know the due time and measure of helping him, as it is to know when and how to cor∣rect him. And therefore I woulde not wyshe you to be to busye in helpynge him, vntill you can kepe tyme and measure, with both hand and heele, lest youre horse not vnderstanding your mind, grow to some disorder. But rather vse for a whyle, onelye to correcte him, when he erreth, so shall he be afraide to do the like agayne. And Page  8 in the meane tyme, by exercise, you shall learne as well the time of helping, as of correcting, and so muche the sooner, for that you see the instrumentes wherewyth you helpe or correct, be all one.

¶To what ende suche helpes and corrections serue. Cap. vii.

THe voyce is that which anye horse feareth most, and is nedefull in all disorders. The wand or rod serueth to correct the dis∣ordering of his head, and to dryue shrewde toyes out of his minde.

The brydell correcteth bothe heade, necke, and mouth, and maketh hym to reane well, and doeth helpe muche to embolden, or to man him.

The caulfes of the legges, and likewise the stirrups, or∣dereth aswel the hinder parts, as foreparts the of horse The Spurres do not only make hym steddye and iust, but also subiecte and quicke to vnderstande his riders mind. The correction of treading the ring, maketh him iust, aswell in his manege, as in euery other feate.

¶Of the sounde of the voyce, toungue and lyppes. Cap. viii.

BUt first as touching the voyce, you shall vn∣derstande that according as the sygnificati∣on of the noyse or word is: So is it eyther a correction, a helpe, or a cherishing. For if you would correct him for anye shrewde toye or obstinacye, you must al to rate him with a terrible voyce, saying to Page  [unnumbered] him. Ah traitor, Ah villain, tourne here, stop there, and suche like. But yf you woulde helpe hym at anye time, then you must vse a more mylde and chearfull voyce, as when you run hym, to say hey, hey, or now now. Lyke∣wyse if you woulde haue him to go backe, you must say wyth a lowe voyce, backe boye, backe I say. Also if you woulde helpe hym to aduaunce at the stop, you must say cherfully hup, hup, likewise to make him light behind, you must saye darier, darier, or vse such tearmes as you shal thinke good. But if you would cherish youre horse or coy him for doing wel, then your voyce must be most milde of al. As when you saye, hola, hola, or so boye so, or vse such like coying words. And whilst we talke here of the voyce, it shal not be amysse also, to shew you that the sound of the tounge is a verye necessarye helpe, and meete to be vsed, aswell at the stop, as in the tournes, both single and double, I meane that sound which you commonly make, by turning vp the typ of your toung almost into the middle palat of your mouth, and then sodenly losing it againe from thence with a Chirke. There is also another sounde of the lyppes as necessa∣ry to be vsed as any of the rest, at such tymes as shall be hereafter taught, and that is made by closing your lips harde together, and then in openyng them agayn som∣what wide, pronouncing as it were, this word powgh.

¶Of the rod. Cap. ix.

THough some thinke that the correction and helpe of the rodde, or cogell, is not nedefull, and that it maketh the horse to fearefull, yet experience tea∣cheth Page  8 the contrary. And specially if it be vsed as it shuld be, that is to say, if you correct him not therwith, out of tyme, but euen in the selfe same instaunt that he erreth. And assure your selfe that to correct a stubborne horse, it hath no felowe. For if you beate him but once well, and surelie therwith betwixt his eares, and vpon anye part of his head, (hys eies excepted) you shall neede to geue him the lesse correction euer after. But touchinge the rod, diuerse thinges are to be considered. As firste, when to beare a rod, secondlye how to take it, when it is first offered: thirdlye, howe to beare it at all tymes: fourthlye, to what ende it cheiflye serueth: and finallye how and when to vse it as a helpe, correction, or chery∣shinge to your horse. And as touching the first .ii. poin∣tes, I say that if you breake a yonge horse whiche was neuer handled before, you shal beare no rod in any wise, vntill he come to be ridden with a byt, and then at the first time that the rod is offered you, you muste take it gentlie, for not makynge him afraide thereof: and ha∣uing receyued it, you must coye him on the necke there∣with, either by clawinge him on the withers with the nether ende therof, or els with the middle of the rod, li∣yng crosse vpon his maine, and that shall make him to abyde it the better euer after. Now to ye other .ii. poin∣tes. In learning how to beare your rod, as well when you pace or trot your horse, as also when you manege or runne him: you shall also learne therby how to han∣dle both speare, and sworde, to which ende the bearing of the rod chieflye serueth. Wherfore it shal not greue me here to shewe you the order thereof. And first when you do but pace or trot youre horse, you shall beare the Page  [unnumbered] rod in youre right hande, with the pointe right vp, to∣wardes your right shoulder, holdinge the neyther ende therof betwixt youre thombe and youre other fingers, distended and not clsosed. And when you woulde occu∣pye it, you shal let the point fal either on the left side, or on the right, according as occasion shall require.

But when you manege youre horse, you shall streatche out your arme towardes your right thighe, and couche your rod crosswise ouertwharte the horses necke, and when he hath made his first course, and turned on the right hande: Then a litle before the end of his second course, when he is in a maner ready to turne on the left hande, you shal lift your rodde from thence, and holde it with the point right forth, on the right side of his hed, not far from his eye, or els somwhat lower towardes the eye of the bit▪ and as he chaungeth tournes to and fro, so shall you chaunge the placing of your rod either of the one side, or of the other. Which be the .ii. cheife warding places of the sword.

Or if you will, you may holde your rod as you woulde doe a speare, when you runne, that is with the pointe vpward, and the nether end low towards your thigh, but not resting vpon your thigh, & a litle before that ye come to the place of tourning, you may let the point fal on that side, whiche is requisite, and so soone as youre horse hathe made his tourne, to holde it againe, with the point vp as before, wherby you shal lerne to charge and discharge a staffe.

Now as touching the vsage of your rod in helpinge or correcting your horse, (for the waye of cherishinge him therwith is before taught) bicause I cannot as I haue Page  10 heretofore saide, teache you the particularities thereof, vntil I come vnto the horses lessons: Let it suffice you therefore in the meane tyme, to learne these generall rules here folowing. First if your horse will not tourne on any syde that you would haue him, then beate him with your rod on the contrarye side. As for example, if you woulde haue him to tourne on the right side, then beat him on the lefte shoulder, and if you woulde haue him to tourne on the lefte side, then strike hym on the right shoulder. Likewise if he be harder or heauyer, or goe more disorderlye on the one side then on the other, beare your rodde for the most part on that side, to thin∣tent the sight therof may put him in remembraunce of his fault. Againe, when you would haue him light be∣fore, strike him on the forepartes, as on his shoulders, and forelegs, and when you woulde haue him light be∣hinde, strike him on the flankes, rompe and hanches. In what time, and how much, shal be taught you here∣after.

¶Of the Bridle and reanes. Cap. x.

GRison compareth the bridle vnto the stearn of a ship, for as the shippe is wholy guided by the stearne, so the horses head is onelye ruled by the bridle, and therfore this is an instrument which requireth many conside∣rations, not only for the diuers fashions of bittes, toge∣ther with the members therof, as the cheekes, kurbles, portes, trenches, and suche like, meete to serue diuerse mouthes, and to correct diuers vices, as heareafter shal Page  [unnumbered] be declared in the third booke at large, and set out with figures: but also for the knowyng how and when to vse the same. For it is the riders part, first to knowe when to ride his horse with a bit, then with what maner of bit, and how to vse the same, at the first putting of it in to the horses mouth, and in what part of his mouthe the bit hath to rest. Then howe to holde the reanes, when euen together, and when one shorter then ano∣ther, and what measure he shall kepe with his hande, in bearinge harde or loose, highe or lowe, when to vse false reanes and when to leaue them, when and howe to correct him with the bridle, and when to helpe him: of all whiche thinges I entende here to speake briefly, and so plainlie as I can. First therfore when your horse can trot cleane, and kepe the ringe, yea, and stoppe and tourne indifferently well on both handes.

Then take a plaine Cannon with right chekes, such a one as hath bene somwhat worne before, and put it on with the headstall ouer his headstraine, makinge him with the reanes therof by litle and litle to fele it in his mouth, and see that the bit lye vppon his nether gum∣mes a litle aboue his greate teeth or tushes, whiche is the due resting place therof. And if the bit were first an∣nointed with a little hony and salt, it would make him the more to delight in it, and to be alwayes champing theron, and to staye his mouth vpon it the more tempe∣ratly. For if his mouth be distempred at the beginning it is not afterward so easely holpen, whiche thinge is lytle considered of oure Englyshe horsemen, that vse to ride their yong horses euen at the first, with so rough a brake or bit as may be gotten, which is one of ye chiefest Page  10 causes why we haue so many headstrong Iades. Now as touching the holding of the reanes, you must holde them in your left hand, so as your litle finger and ringe finger may be betwixte the two reanes, and that your thombe may lie close vpon the reanes, with the brawne therof turned towardes the pomel of your sadell, and if you haue no rod when you manege him, or run him, thē you shall take the ouerplus of the reanes that hangeth downe, by the midst in your right hande, holdinge the same hard by your right thigh. And the more that you tourne the nether ende of your left fist inwarde and the the vpper ende outwarde, the more you shall bringe in your horses head, but therin you must vse discretion, ac∣cording as occasion shal serue. And in dede to saye the trueth, that point appertaineth not so much to the hol∣ding of the reanes, as to the bearing of your bridle hād wherof there be .iii. maner of waies. The first is to bear it low beneath the pomell of the saddel, euen vpon the wythers, and that is to correct him. The second is, to beare it somwhat higher about the middle of the pom∣mell, and that is to maintaine him. The thirde is to beare it vppon the vppermost edge of the pommell, and neuer much higher, and that is to be vsed onelye when you would manege him, or make him to do any thyng. For to beare the bridle hand ouer high, as the vnskilful Numidians in Affrike vse to doe, is disalowed for dy∣uers respectes. First for that it werieth the arme: Se∣condly, if nede were, you could not haue so much power to stop your horse when you woulde. Thirdly, being in the fielde against your enemie: the bearing of your hand so highe, woulde be a trouble vnto youre defence, and a Page  [unnumbered] commodity to your enemy, for that he might easely cut your reanes a sunder. Finallye, you can haue no stead∣dy hand vpon your horse, any time together, whereby your horse shall neuer reane well, nor yet haue a steddye head. For who so wil haue hys horse to beare his head stedily, and to reane well: let him beare his hand rather lowe then hyghe, so shall he be able to kepe it alwayes at one stay, which is one of the chiefest pointes of horse∣manship. Notwithstanding, if your horse be any thinge headstronge, then when you manege him, or otherwise handle him, beare not to stiffe a hand, but rather some∣what light and temperate, for the more you force him, the lesse he will yeald. But if he hath no such fault, then doe alwayes as I tolde you before. And remember al∣wayes when you tourne your horse, to drawe neyther your arme nor hand, more of one side then of another, but to kepe it euen with the horses creast, and onlye by tourninge your fist a litle inwarde, or outwarde, to sig∣nifie vnto him on what hande you would haue hym to turne. And note, that for a whyle it shal not be amysse, when you ride you ride your horse, to let him weare his bridle, and his headstraine both together, vntill he be somwhat acquainted with the bridle, for then you may take awaye his headstraine, and in steade thereof, put on a paire of false reanes, which are verye necessarie for a yonge horse in the beginning, to make him beare hys head right, for bearing the ordinarye reanes, alwayes iust and euen, you may shorten the false reanes, on any side at your pleasure. Whiche false reanes, when youre horse begin to waxe somewhat perfect in his doinges, you may also take away, & ride him only with the ordi∣narye Page  12 reanes, and if he happen afterwarde for lacke of them to hange more of one side then of another, or to beare his heade or necke awrye: you may correcte it by bearinge the contrarye reane shorter then the other, as for example: if he wrieth more on the lefte syde, then on the right, then holdynge the bridle, as I taught you before, pul in the right reane with your forefinger, and so holde it iust betwyxt youre forefynger and youre thombe, and if nede be, you maye also ioyne your long finger vnto your forefinger, to holde it the faster. But if he wryeth more on the right side, then on the left, then you shall shorten the lefte reane by puttinge .ii. or .iii. of your neythermost fingers betwixt the reanes. But as touching the true order of correcting, and helping your horse with the bridle, in time and measure. It shall be declared vnto you hereafter, as occasion shall serue: and therefore in the meane time let these generall rules suf∣fise you.

¶Of the caulfes of the legges, and of the heeles. Cap. xi.

I May well shewe you howe to correcte or helpe your horse, with the caulfes of your legges, and with your heles, and where to strike him, together with the diuersity of the strokes, and the names therof, and to what ende euerye one serueth. But to tell you exactly in what time, and with what measure, vntil I come vnto the horses lessons, I can not. But of one thinge I wil aduertise you in any wise at the first, Page  [unnumbered] not to be to rash, but to vse such temperance & modera∣ciō, as you may cause your horse, by litle & litle to vnder∣stand your meaning, without any disorder or confusiō. And therfore it were best doing wt him whilest he lear∣neth hys first lesson, which is to tread the ring, as shal∣be hereafter declared vnto you at large: in the whiche, according as you shall see occasion, you shall helpe hym, or correct him, by strykyng him somewhat behinde the foremer guirt, whiche is the right spurrynge place, ey∣ther with the one Caulfe alone, or wyth bothe toge∣ther, wyth the one heele alone, or with both euen toge∣ther, or together not euen, or els with one immediatly after another. For so manye kindes of strokes there be, seruing somtime to diuers purposes, and therfore haue diuers names accordingly. For the first is called the sin∣gle stroke of the contrary leg, wherwith you must helpe him to turne, on which side you woulde haue him. As for example, if you woulde haue him to tourne on the right hād, then you must touch him with your left leg. If on the left hand, then with your right leg. And like∣wise when he hangeth more on the one side in his go∣inge, then on the other, or be stiffer necked of anye side, or beare not his heade right, you muste correcte him for the most part with the single stroke on the contrarye side. The seconde is called the double stroke, or euen stroke, because you must strike him in the spurring place with both legges euen together, which properlye and chieflye is to make him to go forwarde. Notwithstan∣ding, it serueth also many tymes to make him to turne, to stop, to aduaunce, and for manye other purposes, as you shall preceyue hereafter. The thyrde may be verye Page  13 well called the closynge stroke, because it maketh the horse to close his turne, round and iust. And the order of it is thus. When you woulde haue your horse to close his tourne wel (as for example on the right hand) then in his turning, touche him with both legges together, but not euen, that is to say, with your left legge in the true spurring place, and with your right leg somwhat more behind, towardes the horses flanke, whiche ma∣ner of striking Grison calleth in his language Attonda∣re. The fourth serueth only as a correction for sundrye vyces hereafter to be declared, and then you must strike your horse in the spurring place .iii. or .iiii. times toge∣ther with one leg after another, so faste as your legges may walke, which kind of strokes Grison calleth Botti roris pondenti, but in our toung, methinke it were not amisse to cal it the bonching stroke, because your legges must goe like .ii. bonching betles. Or els the clinching stroke, fetchinge a similitude from the botewrightes, whose hammers when they clinche the nailes, do aun∣swere one another. In all which .iiii. kindes of strokes, yf you can learne to kepe time and measure, with youre legges and heeles, you shal be the better able to keepe tyme also with youre spurres, when you come to ride your horse with spurres. For there is none other dyffe∣rence betwixt them, but that the stroke of the one tou∣cheth the quicke, and the other not. Because the one is blont, and the other sharpe.

Of the stirrup. Cap. xii.

THoughe the correction or helpe of the stirruppe be seldome vsed, yet it is a good helpe to a yonge Page  [unnumbered] horse in the beginning, vntill he be somwhat broken. For if he carieth his heade or necke awrye, or hange of one side more then of another. By strykynge hym with the stirrup vnder the shoulder on the contrary side, you shal make him to amende his fault.

Of the Spurre. Cap. xiii.

HAuing declared vnto you in the beginninge (when I shewed you how many kindes of correctiōs & helps there wer) to what end ye spur serueth, & also now in a maner last of all, in speakyng of the vsyng of your legges and heeles, in what part of his bodye, you shoulde spur your horse, and how many kinds of strokes there were and when to be vsed: it resteth nowe that I shewe you when it is time to make youre horse both to abide the spur, and also to know the spur, and all the helpes ther∣of, and where, and how you shall do the same. And first you shall vnderstand that in old time men were so igno∣raunt, as they would neuer spurre their horses vntyll they were not only staide of head, but also perfect in al suche orders, as were vsed in those dayes. So that thoughe their horses were .vi. or .vii. yeares olde, yet could no man assure him self of their goodnes. For most commonly when they came afterwarde to be spurred, either they waxed so stubborne and so deuelish, as they woulde not abide the spur, but fal a leaping and fling∣ing, and tryinge of masteries to cast their riders: or els they became so restife, and so dull therewith, as they woulde abide it to well; and stande euen styll, not once Page  14 mouing for it, & the more they were spurred, the worse they woulde be. And although that those riders had extraordinarye meanes, to make a horse to abide the spur, whether he would or not, as by forcyng him whē they spurred him to plunge into some greate water or sea, or to behange him wyth spurres made of pourpose to molest him, or els perhaps as I haue seene some ry∣ders do, to behange him with a paire of stuffed bootes or with sande bagges, hauinge spurres or pryckes to greue him whilst they chase hym to and fro: And so to weary him that waye: yet they had no wayes to make him to know ye help of the spur, & therby to vnderstand the riders meaning, and all for lacke of knowledge and good consideration. They lacked knowledge, for that they would neuer almoste spurre theyr horse but when they ran him, so that the spur serued them in a manner to none other purpose. Againe, they lacked considerati∣on, in that they suffered their horses to go so longe be∣fore they spurred theym. For they might well thinke that it was not so easy to make a horse eyther to abide or to know the spur, whē he is growen in age, strength and lustie courage, as when he is yong, simple and fear∣full, and apt to rule, as a man will himselfe. And there∣fore▪ I would wysh you not to diffarre the time so long but after that your horse hath worne the bridle halfe a score of times, let him learne to know the spur, be he ne∣uer so younge, leane, or feble. Whych woulde be done, eyther whilest you cause him to trot the rynge in some newe depe plowed grounde, in helping him therewyth as hereafter shalbe taught, or els when you trotte him in the like grounde right out. And thoughe you maye Page  [unnumbered] geue him therewith a Cariere if you wyll: yet to auoyd all disorders that might therof ensue, the surest and re∣dyest way is onlye to trot him: for otherwyse you must tary vntill he can run a Cariere well, and stoppe as he ought to doe, which perhappes would be to long. And of whatsoeuer disposition or mettal the horse be, dul, or quicke: Forget not in any wyse, in the selfe same instant that you put spurres vnto him, to help him with your voyce, or els wyth the sound of your lips, and that shal put bye all shrewde toyes, whereof perhaps he might otherwyse shewe you some, as to leape, to flinge, to cast his head betwixt his legges, to lye downe, or such like. And if you see that the spur doeth make him to springe forward, and to amende his pace, then make muche of hym, & so by litle and litle, you shal bring him acquain∣ted with the spurre wel inough, and in tyme to knowe all the helpes and correctyons of the same.

But if you haue to spurre a horse that is somewhat in yeares, and of nature ramege or restyffe. Then see that in any wise you spurre him not at the first, eyther when you trot him, or runne him, but onelye whilest you pace him fayre and softlye, throughe some towne or Citye, and so goyng, sodenlye put spurres vnto him, helpynge hym in the selfe same instant, with your voyce, or wyth the sound of your lips, and force him therewyth to fall into a swyft trot, the length of .xx. or .xxx. paces, whych if he doth, make muche of hym, and for a while vse hym thus halfe a score tymes in a day, vntill he be perfect in that, whiche when you see he is: Then you maye go in∣to the field, and there whilst you trot him in some new plowed grounde, spurre him and helpe him as before, Page  15 makyng him to gallop as hard as he may driue, a prety way together, and then staye, makinge muche of him, if he did well: Thus procedynge from soft pace to trot, and from trot to gallop, by continuall exercise, you shal make him both to feare the spurre, and also to knowe the helpe therof. Notwithstanding there be some hor∣ses of nature verye liuelye and sensible, whiche through euill breaking at the first, and afterward by sufferance, haue bene so euill accustomed, as they will neuer yelde to the spurre, but so soone as they feele it, they wyll leape and flyng, and take on like Sprites. Wherfore if any such horse chaunce to come into your handes, fyrste for a whyle, ride him without spurres, and vse him to treade the ringes, vntill he hath learned to go quietlye in the same, and to kepe the true pathe. Whiche whan you see he doeth, then ride him both with spurres, and also with a good wande in youre hande. And whilest he treadeth the ring in some new plowed ground with depe forrowes, when time is, touche him wyth youre spurres at sundrie times thryse, and if he wyl then play his vagary, beat him forwith with your wande vppon the head on both sydes, and betwyxt the eares, and v∣pon hys forelegges, all to ratinge him at the selfe same present, with a terrible voyce, & neuer leaue hym vntyll you haue made him to yelde vnto the spurre, wythout makyng any resistaunce at al, and to thintent yt he may suffer the pryche of the spurre the better, it shalbe neces∣sary to weery him, sometime with continnall turninge & trotting him round, and ouertwhart the forrowes, and sometime by trotting and galloppinge him righte out, in one path to and fro. By meanes of whiche tra∣uell, Page  [unnumbered] and often spurring him together, he shall fall into such a sweate and heate, that the strokes shall greeue him the lesse. By meanes wherof, he shall not onelye be content to abide the spur, but also learne by the stroke therof, to know your will, and to obey the same, and so much the more, if you shal not forget when he doth wel, to make muche of him. But note by the way, that this last order belongeth to a horse of a greate courage, or yf you should in such sort molest or wearie a horse of a dull sprite, he would geue ouer, and for faintnes become re∣stiffe: and therfore a good consideration must be had as well to the horses strength, as to his vyce.

But now though I shewed you in the last Chapter before, howe manye kindes of strokes of the spur there were, and generally howe and when to be vsed, yet let it not greeue you that I repeat here some part thereof once againe with some litle addition not to be left out. First then when soeuer youre horse will not tourne, as you would haue him, or be stiffer necked of one side thē of an other, or will not carye his head right, nor cōtinue his trot, you shall correct him alwaies with the single stroke of the contrary spurre, but if he wexe slow in his trot, bearing his head and necke right, then you shall correct him with the euen stroke of both spurres toge∣ther, for that stroke properlye serueth to quicken hym, and to make him go forwarde, and vnproperly for tho∣ther purposes in the former chapter rehersed. It is re∣quisite also that I shewe you somewhat more plainlye how to correct your horse, with one spur after another, which I called before, the clinchinge stroke, the order wherof is thus. When your Horse committeth a fault Page  16 of any side, as for example on the left side, then geue him with one spur immediatly after another, three strokes. Wherof the first and last must be on the right syde, but if he erreth on the right side, then the first & last stroke must be on the left side. And note that after your horse wil abide the spur, and also knoweth the helpes therof it shall not be good to spur him often, but onelye when you see it very nedeful, as to direct his head and necke, when he raineth not well, or to helpe him in his single or double turnes, when you manege him, or els to giue him swiftnes when he passeth a Cariere, for ouermuch spurringe will make him swing tayled, and speciallye if he be a Gennet or Turkye horse, whose tayles be al∣wayes lose, and at libertye, and are not tyed as the Coursers be.

¶Of the musroll and the martingale. Cap. xiiii.

TO these foresayde kyndes of helpes and cor∣rections, I thinke that Grison woulde haue also added the musroll & the martingale, but that they semed perchaunce vnto him extra∣ordinarye thinges, and not meete to be vsed, but at cer∣taine times, and speciallye the Martingale. Whiche though it was first inuented by Euangelista, an excel∣lent rider, and a great horsemaister of Millan, not only to make the horse to haue a steddye heade, but also to make him light before in his aduauncyng, and in hys goyng to gather his bodye round together: yet Grison semeth not greatly to allow it: albeit he sayeth, it maye be vsed, when the horse is verye heauy before, and mar∣ueylouslye Page  [unnumbered] vnstaid of head, neyther would he haue the horse to weare it aboue .xv. dayes together at the most. Thinkyng it in dede, a great deale better, to bryng the horse from suche faultes, by such meanes, as are by him hereafter taught. But he praiseth much the musroll, saying that if the horse do naturallye keepe his mouthe close together, that then it can not hurt him: but if he holde it open, then it doth not only helpe him, but also cor∣rect him of that fault in suche sorte, as after that he hath bene vsed a litle thervn∣to, it wyll make him steddy, both of mouth, heade, and necke, and to reane as he should do.

Page  17

THE SECONDE BOOKE OF THE ARTE OF RIDYNG.

¶Of the horses lessons in general, and order therof, and in what tyme of the day he should be taught. Cap. i.

THus hauynge declared vnto you, wyth what instrumentes you shoulde helpe or correct your horse, and generallye howe, & when to vse them, & also howe and when to cherysh hym, as thynges onelye apper∣taynyng to the Riders office: I thinke it therfore now mete to shewe you what your horse hath to learne for his part, and also what order you shal kepe in breaking hym, for if a horse be taught vnorderlye, he shall neuer be perfect in any thinge. As for example, if you (as some men doe for lacke of skyll) woulde vse to galloppe your horse before he can stop well in his trotte, or to run him before he can stop well in his gallop, or to manege him with a swyft gallop, before he can stop, aduaunce, and tourne redilye on borh handes: you should mar him for euer. And therfore take hede that ye duelye folow thys order heare folowyng.

First you must vse greate diligence in makynge hym to treade loftely, to kepe one path, and to trot cleane, whi∣che is one of the chiefest pointes of al, bycause it is har∣der by nature, for a Colte to trotte wel, then to go soft∣ly, to runne, or to gallop.

Secondly, you must teach him to be light at stoppe.

Thirdely, to aduaunce before, and to yarke behind.

Fourthly, to turne redilye on both handes, with single Page  [unnumbered] tourne and double tourne.

Fiftly, to make a sure and redy manege.

Sixtlye, to passe a swift Cariere.

And finally if your horse be nimble, and apt thereto by nature, you maye make him a sterer, by teachinge hym to bounde aloft, & to yarke withal: to gallop the gallop galliarde, to featch the capriole, to do the Coruetti, and such like kinde of sawltes: and in all his doyinges from the beginning to the ending, you must see that he reane well, and beare his heade stedilye, which is the founda∣cion of all the rest.

And by obseruing this order, with all the rules ther∣to belonging, in suche sort as shalbe hereafter taught: ye shal within the space of foure or sixe monethes, make your horse perfect in all poyntes. Notwithstandinge there be some younge horses, so slowe of growth, as al∣though they can do their things orderly, yet they shew no strength or forse in their doynges, vntyll they be fyue or syxe yeres old, because their ioyntes before that time are not ful knit, nor their mouthes throwly steyed. And note that from sixe yeares to fiftene a horse beyng not maymed nor hurt, may very well continue in his good∣nesse: yea and some horses perhappes will continue vn∣till .xx. yeares and aboue as the examples before recy∣ted, do well testyfye.

Moreouer see that you teach your horse early in the mornyng, before you geue hym hys prouender, not fay∣lyng in the beginning of his breaking, vntyll he be som∣what perfecte, to ryde hym euery day once. And after∣warde to ryde him twyse in a weke shall suffise, onlesse you see that such rest doth cause him to forgette his les∣sons, Page  18 for then vntill he hath gotten that which he had lost, it shall be requisite to ryde hym agayne euerye day one houre at the least, or so long tyme as he is able wel to endure, leauyng him alwayes with a good mouth. For to take ouermuche of a horse at once, is the nexte waye to make him fainte harted, and restiffe.

¶The order of treading the rynge, and to what ende it serueth. Cap. ii.

TO thintent than that your horse may haue a lofty pace, trotte cleane, and learne to kepe one pathe, you shall firste cause him to bee brought into ye fyelde, nigh vnto some newe plowed groūd, and the deper the forrowes be, the better to make him lift his feete. Whereas after that you haue taken his backe, you shall trot him right out, about the length of a C. paces. That done, you shal enter a good way into one of the forrowes, in such part of the land, as you may haue space inoughe, and mould ynough, rounde about you, and there on the right hand ouerthwart the forrowes, make him to tread out twise together, a rounde rynge, conteyning in Circute aboute xxv. or .xxx. paces: and being come aboute at the seconde time to the place where he began: cause him to treade out the like rynge on the left hande. About the which, after that he hath also gone .ii. times, let him beginne agayne on the ryght hande, and so to shift from rynge to rynge, treadynge euery one styl twise about, vntil he hath gone about the left rynge foure times, and aboute the right ring syxe times, for as he must begin with the Page  [unnumbered] righte ringe, so muste he ende wyth the same. Whereby he shal alwayes make twoo tournes more on the right hand then on the left.

That done, trot him right out in the selfe same forrow where he beganne first, or in some other forrowe on the out side of the right ringe, the length of .xxx. paces, and there, by pullynge in youre bridle hande stop him, and staye a good whyle together, makynge hym to stande still, and to kepe his head and body right in the path. And when you haue so done, then tourne him fayre and softlye on the right hand, takyng rowme inoughe at the first, for feare of making hym soft necked▪ and be∣ynge come againe into the path: trot hym backe againe to the place from whence he came, and there you shall light of on his backe. And to encourage him the more agaynst the next tyme, you maye if you will, take of hys padde. Neither shall you vse him anye otherwyse than thus, for the space of eyght dayes together. But after that the eight dayes be expired: Let him go, increasing euery day his ring turnes, by .ii. & by .ii. vntil he come to xxii. that is to say .x. for the left ring, & .xii. for the right. Which nūbre as Grison sayth, maketh .v. large turnes and a halfe, appointinge foure goinges about, to euery suche tourne, and he calleth them large tournes, in res∣pect of the narrow turnes, wherof we shall speake here∣after in their place. Neyther would he haue this nūber of ryng turnes for a certain space, to be eyther augmen∣ted or diminished. But thoughe you see here, that the horse by this meanes learneth .iii. lessons at once, that is to saye, first to tread the ring, secondlie to stoppe, and thirdlye to tourne: yet to auoyde confusion, I will not Page  19 treate of them all at once, but of euery one particularly by him selfe. And first to thintent you should the better vnderstand, of what sorte the rynges oughte to be: be∣holde here this figure folowing, lyuely expressing both ringes together, with the forow, and place of stopping and tourning.

[illustration]

Page  [unnumbered]THere is also another fashion of a Ring, whiche by∣cause it serueth only as a correction whē your horse is harder to turne on the right hande then on the left, I will not therfore speake of it here, but reserue it vntil I come to treat of the correction of that fault.

If your horse be weake and feble, you maye cause the ringes to be trodden out before with some other horse, to thintent that he maye haue the better will to folow in a waye readye beaten to his hande, and also if he chaunce to swarue out of the path, he shall the sooner perceyue his erroure, & therby the quicklier returne in to the right path again. And though your horse be not weake: yet it shall be best at the first, not to treade oute the ringes with a trot, but rather with a soft pace, vn∣till the path be somwhat beaten, that he maye see hys waye where he goth, and then to folow on with an in∣different trot, yea and if your horse be ouerliuelye, or to quicke, you shall not suffer him to trotte the ringes at all. But onlye to pace them faire and softly for a certain dayes together, vntil he be somwat staid and acquain∣ted with them. For otherwise he will beare to hard v∣pon your hande, and seke to flee out.

And when the ringe pathes, throughe continuall trea∣ding wax somewhat harde: you may shift into a newe place, wher the grounde is newly eared with depe for∣rowes, and that as I saide before, shall make hym to lifte high. Albeit Gryson in hys fourth booke, doth not allowe often chaunginge in the beginninge, onlesse that necessitye so forceth, sayinge that the horse beinge continualy taught in one place, shall the better remem∣ber his lessons: yea and also his corrections, whereby Page  20 there shall be bredde in him as it were an habit of well doyng. Notwithstandyng when you come to manege your horse, or to passe a Carier, I would not wishe you to vse alwayes one place, or one length, lest he be to seke when you chaunge places, thinking that he shoulde not do it any other where, or if he do it, not to passe hys ac∣customed length, and so perchaunce stoppe before you woulde haue him.

But there be some which will not vse their horses to two ringes, but to one only, which is very euill for a yonge horse, bicause it will make him fainte harted and feareful, for when he commeth to the place where he is wonte to be turned, he will striue to go furth ryght, and so perhaps become restiffe, or at the least, not go in the ringe so euenly and so iustlye as he should do. Notwith¦standing to a horse of some yeares, & of a lyuely spryte, it may sometyme be very well allowed, and specially if he be styffe necked, and harde to turne: yea, and also to shewe, that though the forme of the rynges be thereby somewhat altered: yet he should alwayes keepe in one tewne. After that youre horse haue worne the brydle a whyle, and is well acquaynted therewyth, you may encrease your ringe turnes euerye day, by two for eche rynge, vntill ye come to .xlvi. whiche make a xi. large turnes and a halfe, that is xxii. for the left ringe, and .xxiiii. for the ryght, according as your horse shalbe in breath and hable to indure it, otherwise a lesse num∣ber may suffise, for ouermuche labour doeth weaken a yong horse, which weakenes doth not appeare in some, vntyll they be .iiii. or .v. yeares olde, for at the firste the feare that he hath of his rider, maketh him to vnite his Page  [unnumbered] force together, and to beare it out the more stoutelye. But after that he is wel acquaynted with his ryder, he will not shewe so muche force in his labour and trauell as he dydde before, but hys naturall weakenesse wyll than appeare, and so much the more, as he shall growe in greatnes, and be laden with flesh. Notwithstanding the number of turnes aboue sayde, is conuenient for a∣ny horse of an indifferent strength, for lxii. turnes maye suffice any horse, be he neuer so strong or good of breath onlesse he be to vnreasonablely strong, in age, euill bro∣ken before, and vsed to liberty: for than, to breake him of his stubburnnes it shall not onely be requysit to geue him .lxii. turnes, but also Cxxii. But that seldome for feare of weakeninge his backe, yea and perchaunce eue∣ry member besides. But most commonly after the wea∣ringe of his brydle, obserue the number of xlvi, whiche you shal not encrease, but vpon such occasion as is afore said, nor yet diminish the same, onles it be whē you trot him and turne him to and fro in manege wise, after that you be come out of the rynges, whereof we shall treate hereafter in his place.

¶The helpes and corrections mete to be vsed whilst he treadeth the ringes, also when you shal gallop the ringes, and to how manye pourposes it serueth.

IF your horse in treading the ring, trotteth not fast inough, or bee ramege, that is to saye, not kepinge a iust pace, but fareth as one that were in twoo Page  21 mindes, not caring whether he went on, or not: or if he will sodenly stop before his lesson bee ended, then quic∣ken him often with your voice, or with the sounde of your lips, before mencioned, and by litle and litle, make him to know the helpe of youre leg and heele, by stry∣king him sometime with one leg or heele, and sometime with both, according as his fault shall require. The or∣der wherof is before declared in the first boke the .xi. ch. & to make him go the iuster it shall be good for the most part to hold your contrary leg in his sight, and likewise your rod, when you come to beare one, as for example, if he be stiffer on the right side then on the left, then hold out your left leg, & lay your rod crosse ouer his left shoul¦der. But if he be harder on the lefte side, then holde out youre right legge, and hold youre rod right out, not far from the horses right eye, remembring alwares to hold the raines of your brydle, thone shorter then the other, in such sort as I taught you in the first boke the .x. cha∣pyter. But if he be ramege either by nature or by euill breaking, then make him to tread the ringes first with a swift trot, and than with so harde a gallop, as he can driue, helping him in due time with your voyce, rod, or spur, as occasion shal require, and that shal make him to forget toyes, and to attende his waye, but see that you gallop him not first, for feare of makinge him restiffe. And this way serueth to correct a great meanye of o∣ther faultes, as the lightnesse and playinge with his head, and when he draweth vp his toung, and wil not stay his mouth vpō the bit as he ought to do. Or if he go iumping without order, or slinging with his heles, likewise if he be to hasty or furious, this will stay him, Page  [unnumbered] and cause that he shall afterward stop the better in his Cariere, and not run awaye. Also if he vse to pysse al∣waies when he is handled, this taken in time wyll cor∣rect him. And finally if he be slowe and dull, this will quicken him. But if he be verye liuelye and quicke of himselfe: than you shall do cleane contrarie to this, that is to saye, you shall neyther geue him swift trot nor gal∣lop. And whensoeuer you gallop your horse, remember alwayes to helpe him more or lesse wyth youre voyce, rod, or spur, according as the qualitye of the horse shall require, and when he doeth wel, to cherishe him. But though the gallopping of the rynge, serueth to so many good purposes as you haue hard, yet for ye most part, let him tread the ringes with a good round trot, and not to gallop them at all, onlesse some of the foresaid occa∣sions do so require.

¶ Of stopping. Cap. iiii.

HItherto we haue spoken of treadynge the rynges only, now we will shewe you howe you shall teach youre horse to stop. I tolde you before, that hauing ended youre nūber of your ring turnes, you should trot youre horse right out in the middle forrowe betwixt the rin∣ges, vntill you come to the place of stoppe, and there to stay a good pretye while together, kepinge his bodye right in the path, which if he will not doe, but stande ouerthwartly, eyther with his forepartes, or hynder partes, or els perchaunce with his whole body, cleane out of the path: Then see that ye touch him at the first, Page  22 neyther with heele nor rod, least he not knowinge the one nor other, be distempred, and perchaunce fall a run∣nyng away. But you shall appoint a footeman to stand at the place of stop, who shal direct him into the ryght path, by thrusting him with his handes on that side, which standeth out of order. And this waye is not on∣ly good for a yonge horse, but also for anye other horse, that is in age, and by meanes of euill breakynge, hath bene accustomed to stop wrong, but than the footeman besides thrusting him with his handes, may also chas∣tise such a horse with a rod, by strikinge him therewith on that side that he erreth, or if you wyl not so do, you may cause your horse to go still in the same path a yard or .ii. further forward, and there stop him, holdinge the reane of his headstrain straiter on that side, wheron he most forceth your hand, then on the other, and that shal kepe him whether he will or not, in the right path.

And after that he beginneth to be somewhat obedient vnto you, you may direct him into the right path whē he stoppeth wrong, with the ouerplus of the reanes of his headstraine, by beating him therwith moderately, vpon that shoulder or romp that standeth farthest oute of order. But beware in anye wise that you strike him with no rod, before he come to weare a bridle.

It is verye good also to trot him to some hangynge grounde, called of the Italions Pendino, and there to stop him somwhat downe the hill, but therin you must vse good discretion in chosing such a ground as shalbe mete for the purpose. For a yong horse many times wil be afraide to stop down the hill, and speciallye if it be ouer steepe, yea, and it maye doe him more harme then Page  [unnumbered] good, being an occasion perchaunce that he shall neuer after be light of stop. Wherfore at the first it shalbe best to stop him in such a ground as shalbe neyther to stepe nor yet to plaine, but betwixt both, as that is, whiche somethinge falleth, and riseth immediatly againe. So shal not the horse be afraide of it. And afterward when he is growē in age, and hath more force & strength, you may be the bolder to stop him vppon a sleeper ground, according as you shall thinke it nedefull. And let thys suffyse you for this time, because we shall be forced to speake more of stopping in the chapters next folowing.

¶ Of goyng backe, and to what ende it serueth, and howe and when you shall teach your horse to do it. Cap. v.

AFter that your horse hath worne the bry∣dle, and knoweth the rod and spurre, you shall teach hym when he hath stopte, be it vpon a hanging ground, or otherwise, to go backeward iii. or .iiii. steppes, whi∣che will not onelye staye hys mouth, and make him light of heade, but also to lift his legges, and to be the more apte to aduaunce before. For the whi∣che cause it were necessary to talke of this before I pro∣ceade any further.

To teache your horse then to go backe: you muste so sone as he hath stopte, pull in your brydle hande mode∣rately, according as the horses resistaunce shal require, and so keepyng your hande steddye wythoute geuinge hym any libertye, stryke hym fayre and softlye vpon the bowing of his necke with your rodde, saying vnto him Page  23 wyth a soft voyce in that instaunt, backe, backe I saye, and solicite hym in that sort a prety whyle together: for the which yf he wyl not moue his legges, or doth make any resistance, then spurre hym in tyme, fyrste with one spurre, and then with another, but moste on that syde whereas you see his hynder partes to stande moste out of order, to the intent that he may go right in the path. And besydes thys, you maye haue a footeman to stande at the place of stoppe, with a rodde in his hand, who in the self same tyme, that you pul in the bridle, shal knock him fayre and softelye with his rodde vpon the knees, and seldome or neuer vpon the snowt. And sometyme lette hym onely threaten him without beatyng hym at all, but if this wyll not suffise, then lette the same man take the chekes of the bitte in hys hande, and so force hym to goe backe, not leauynge to molest hym, some∣tyme one way, and sometime another, vntill at the least he hath made him to pull backe one foote. And when soeuer he doth wel, be ready immediatly to cherish him for the same, and then lette him staye a while. That done, cause him to do the lyke agayne, by pulling in the bridle onely and none otherwyse. For the making much of hym before, will cause him to go backe of his owne accorde wyth both legges, if not, than by correctynge him in such sorte as is aforesayde, you shall force him to go backe whether he wyll or not.

Of aduauncyng, whereto it serueth, and where, how, and when, you shall teache him to do it. Cap. vi.

Page  [unnumbered]TO aduaunce, is a tearme vsed of our horse∣men, signifying that which the horse doth, when at the stoppe he lifteth vp both his forefeete, euen together somewhat aboue ground, and letteth them fall againe twise or thrise together, which the Italions cal Far le posate and it is so necessarye a thinge, as without it the horse can neuer manege well nor turne redelye, as hereafter you shall well perceyue, wherfore when your horse can stop well, and will also go backeward when you wolde haue him, it is mete to teache him to aduaunce.

And as it is not amisse to teache it hym, when you stop hym in the forrow betwixt the two ringes, so is it very good also to go into some longe sandye way, whiche is euen and playne, and there after that you haue trotted him right out with a very swyft trot, the length of .xl. foote, or theraboute, to stoppe him, helpyng him imme∣dyately with your voyce, and also with both spurres e∣uen together, and sometime with your rod, by stryking him therewith on the ryghte shoulder, but seldome on the left. And if he will not aduaunce for that, no not so much as with his ryght legge: Then kepyng styll a steddy hande vpon him, correct him immediatly twyse or thrise together with the euen stroke of your spurres, or els with one spurre after another, helpinge him al∣wayes with your voyce, as by saying vnto him huppe, hup, or such like word. And immediatly after, trot him out againe the like distaunce with a swift trot, and at the stop doe as you did before, continuing still the same, vntill you haue made him to lyfte his feete from the grounde, and to aduaunce thrise, or twise together at Page  24 the least, which whan he doth, though it be but mean∣lye, yet make much of him, and coye him with youre righte hande, or wyth youre sticke, by claweinge hym therwith on the necke, nigh vnto the withers, suffring him there to staye a whyle: That done, trot hym forth againe, and at the next stop, you shall see that so soone as he heareth your voyce, he wyl aduaunce of his own accorde, not onelye wyth one legge, but with both, yea, and so manye tymes together, as you wyll haue him. And in so doing, you shal seldome helpe him with your spurs, orrod, but only with the calues of your legs, and with your voice, which must alwaies be one. And if the ground where he stoppeth be somewhat hanginge, it shalbe so muche the more easy for him, but after that he can aduaunce, and doeth vnderstande the helpes of the voyce, rod, and spurre, beware that ye vse not to geue him suche short stops one after another, least he take a custome to stop sooner, and therwith to aduaūce higher then you would haue him: but rather trot him righte out the iust length of a Cariere, towardes the knoll of some hill, and there stop him vpon the browe thereof, or steper downe, accordinge as the qualitie of the horse shall require, helpinge him as is aforesayde. For assure your selfe, that a hanging ground is very necessary, and specially when the horse is not apt of himselfe to bowe his houghes behinde, for the horse that is naturallye light, hath not so muche nede of a hanging ground, be∣cause that he with a litle helpe in a plaine ground will learne to stop euen vpō his buttocks, which is the chie¦fest grace of the stop, for onles the horse in his stop doth bowe his houghes orderly, & run slyding on his hinder Page  [unnumbered] legs, neither stop, nor aduancing shalbe praise worthy.

When your horse can stop and aduaunce well in hys trot: then you may teache him in the like groundes to doe the same vpon a gallop, vsinge the selfe same order, helpes and corrections, that are aboue written. And forget not in any wise to make muche of hym when he doeth well, but for the most part let him continue the doyng thereof vppon a trot, for that shall make hym so light and so perfect, as when you come afterwarde to gallop hym, or to run him, he shal not be to seke therin.

¶Corrections to be vsed when your horse aduaun∣ceth to high, or out of order, or when you woulde not haue him. Cap. vii.

YF your horse aduaunceth to high, or lifteth not vp his feete euen together, and wyth such grace as he ought to doe, correct hym immediatlye with the euen stroke of youre spurs, & somtime with your rod also, stry∣king him therewyth vppon the flankes, that done, put him forwarde againe the length of a short maneginge course, and there stop, helpinge him to aduaunce with youre voyce, and if neede be, with the caulfes of youre legs, or with your spurs, or els with your rod vpon his right shoulder, and somtime with altogether, according as you shall see it nedefull. Or after that you haue cor∣rected him you maye if you will, without putting him forwarde, tourne him and go backe againe in the selfe same path a good prety way, and then to retourne from thence with a good round trot, and to stop hym vppon the same knoll, where he stopte before, and so to conty∣nue Page  25 retournyng styll to and fro, vntill he hath amended his faulte, and aduaunceth as you woulde haue him, which when he doeth, make much of him, and let him slaye a good while after, for the longer that you staye him the more perfect you shall make him.

If your horse hath gotten an euill custome to stop, and to aduaunce withall, sodenly, or oftner then you would haue him, which fault most commonlye is incident to yong horses. Then correct him immediatly with your voyce, and also wyth your rod vpon his flankes, and sometime vpon his forelegges, yea, and if nede be, with your spurres euerye maner of waye, forcinge hym to go forwarde, and not to aduaunce, but when you shal pro∣uoke him therunto, eyther with voice, spurres, legges, or rodde, or with all together, accordinge as the horses qualitie shall require, for some horse is so vyle of courage and so dull of vnderstandinge, as if you alwayes vse to helpe him with your spurres at the stop: Then so often as you shal spurre hym, to make him to goe forwarde, he will by and by stop and aduaunce, and the more you spurre him, the woorse he will be, and so perchaunce be∣come restiffe, wherfore you must vse great diligence, and good discretion, in makynge him to knowe by the hard or loose bearing your bridle hand, when you helpe him with your spurres to go forwarde, and when to stop. And vntill he be perfect therein, it shall be best to helpe him at the stop, onelye with your voyce, and not to vse your spurres or rod, but when you do correcte him els or when you woulde haue him to goe forwarde.

¶When and how to teach your horse to yarke, and to make him light behind. Cap. viii.

Page  [unnumbered]IF youre horse be of a conuenient age, and growen to his ful strength, and therwith haue a good backe, and hable to endure, (for otherwise it shoulde doe him more harme then good): Then hauing taught him to stoppe, and to aduaunce before, you may teach him also to yarke behind, by helping him in his aduauncyng, with youre voyce, and with your rod, beating him therwith behinde, sometime on the one side, and somtime on the other, and if nede be, you may also helpe him with the euen stroke of your spurres, not leauing to molest him in such sort, vntill you see that he beginneth to gather vp his rompe, and to lifte his hin∣der legges, which doinge, you shall leaue beatinge, and make muche of hym, and afterwarde you shall see that with a verye litle helpe, he wyll fall vnto it of his own accord, you may also if you wil, appoint a footman that hath some skill, to stand behind you, with a long rod in his hand, who at the stop whilst youre horse aduaun∣ceth, may help him with his voice, and by beating him on the haunches, and on the romp, cause him to yarke, which way is very good, so that your horse be not ouer liuelye, and therewyth also naturallye headstronge, for than perchaunce it will make him to spring forwarde, and to fal a runnyng, wherefore vntill he hath a staide mouth, it were better to vse the firste waye, or elles to bring him vnto it in the stable in this sort.

When you come into the stable, stande behinde hym with a long rod in your hand, and beat him therwith on the midde rompe, helpyng him in that instant with that voyce wherwith ye vse to make him light behind Page  26 not ceassyng to molest him in that sort vntyll he gather vp his rompe, and cast oute both his heeles euen toge∣ther, and that of a iust heigth twise or thrise together, which doing, you shal leaue beating, and make muche of him, suffring him to rest a good while after. Thus solicitynge hym twyse or thryse a daye, you shall make him so light and so redy of his heeles, that he wil yarke so soone as he shall but heare your voyce, or the whiske of your rodde, and when he can do it well in the stable, then to make him the more perfect therin abroade, you may when you ride him, cause a footman to stande be∣hind you with a long sticke in his hand, who by threat∣ninge hym, and beating him on the Rompe, may cause hym to yarke so often as you shall thinke it meete, and if youre horse be verye lyghte and nimble of hym selfe, you maye teache him also to leape at the stoppe, and to yarke withall, but sith that leapyng is more mete for a stirring horse, thē for a horse of seruice, and also for that there be diuers kindes of leapes, I will not therefore treate of that here, but diffarit, vntill I haue shewed you the order of tourning and maneging.

¶How to teach your horse to tourne redily on both handes. Cap. ix.

I Entende to speake here of the narrow and strait tournes, and not of the large tourns, otherwise called the ringe tournes, for we haue talked of them sufficiently before. And first you shall vnderstand, that of the narrow tournes, there be three kindes, that is to saye, Page  [unnumbered] halfe tourne, whole tourne, and double tourne. The halfe tourne is when the horse turneth on the one side, & that setteth his heade that way that his taile before stoode, and is called the halfe tourne, for the horse ma∣keth but halfe a circle, but if he doubleth the same, and setteth his heade that waye it stoode at the firste: then it is called a whole tourne, for in tourning round about he maketh a circle complet. And .ii. suche whole turnes make a double tourne, which Gryson calleth Voita rad doppiara who appointeth to euerye suche turne fowre halfe tournes, whiche maye be otherwise called single tournes. And note that in turning, diuerse thinges are to be obserued. First that he bringe in the contrarye leg vpon the other, and that he carie his legges neyther to high, nor to lowe, also that he kepe his ground, neither preassyng forward, nor yet reling backward in his tur∣ning, also that he kepe his bodye in one staye, wrything neither head, necke, nor any part of his body, but to cōe in whole and round together, and to close his courne in so narrow a rowme as may be. But first you shall teach him to make the single or halfe tournes in this sort and order here folowyng.

When you are come out of the ringes, trot your horse right out in the middle forrowe vnto the place of stop, and there, after that you haue stopt, tourne him faire and softlie on the right hand, taking rowme inough at the firste, as I shewed you before, for feare of makinge him soft necked, that done, geue him the like tourne on the left hande, and then tourne him again on the right hand, remembring alwayes to beginne with the right hand, and to ende with the same, and see that in euerye Page  27 turne he bring in the contrary forefoote, vpon the other forefoote, as for example, when you tourne him on the right hande, cause him to lyfte vp his left forefoote, and to bring it in ouer the right forefote, which you shal do by helping him with your voyce, or wyth the sound of youre tounge, before taught in the first booke the .viii. Chapter in saying to him, tourne here, and by strykinge him with your rod moderatly vpon the lefte shoulder. And when you tourne him on the left hand, helpe him with youre voyce or tounge, as before, and wyth youre rod on the right shoulder to bring in the right forefoote ouer the left forefoote. Which act Grison calleth Inca∣uallare, which is so muche to saye, as to lap one thynge ouer another.

And note that though your horse at the first doth not brynge in his contrary foote ouer the other orderly, but perchaunce vnder the other, yea, and that wyth knoc∣king his legges together: it maketh no matter, for the griefe therof shalbe a good correction vnto him, and in tyme shal make him to amende his owne fault. But if he be harder to tourne on the one hande then on the o∣ther, then you shall helpe him with the contrary leg or Spurre, or with your rod, by beatyng hym vppon the contrarye shoulder, and sometime to make him to close his tourne truely, it shalbe nedefull to helpe him wyth the closing stroke of your heeles or spurres. Which kind of helpe is necessarye for twoo causes: First, for that it will make him to tourne roundly as wel with his hin∣der partes, as wyth hys forepartes: Secondly, because some horse is so quicke and so liuely, as when he is tou∣ched, but onlye on the contrarye side, he will turne per∣happes Page  [unnumbered] with to stiffe a necke, loking the contrary way, or contrarywise, he will wry his heade or necke to mu∣che on that side that he hath to turne, or els tourne be∣yond the place, and out of the right path, in which he should close his turne. Albeit such helpe is not common¦lye to be vsed, but at certaine times, when some great necessitie requireth it, for the first helpes are more kind∣lye, and therfore ought to be more ordinarye. But if he bee so harde of any side, as the foresaide helpes can not make him to tourne when you woulde haue him: then you may vse these corrections here folowing.

¶How to correct your horse when he is harder to turne of the one syde then on the other, whiche fault is called of the Italyons Credenza. cap. .x.

BUt first I thinke it mete to shew you the causes of that fault, and then how to cor∣rect it, & you shall vnderstand, that there be diuers causes, wherof one, may be the naturall inclination whereby euery horse is more apt to turne on the left side then on the right. Secondlye, the hardnes of the bitte pyn∣chinge his mouthe on the one syde: may so greue him, as he dare not turne on that syde. Thirdlye, lacke of knowledge howe to handle hys legges, and to reane wyth hys necke, maye cause hym to turne so froward∣lye and so vnwillinglye, as he feelinge himselfe neuer so little wearye, wyll tourne no more at that tyme, for any thinge that ye can doe. But to say the truth, wea∣rines and lacke of breath, may cause any horse be he ne∣uer Page  28 so well broken, to do the same. Fourthlye the igno∣raunce of the Rider in helping him otherwise then he shoulde do, may make the horse so amased, as he know∣eth not what to do, vnderstanding not the Riders in∣tent. Fifthlye, the horse maye be euil broken, and ther∣by made harder of one syde, then of another, for than yf he be angred neuer so litle, he will not tourne perhaps on that side that you woulde haue him, and the worse, if he shall perceyue that you be afrayd of him, and that you will suffer him to haue his owne wil, and to turne which waye he list, for that shalbe an occasion to make him more stubborne, & to continue still in his fault. But now, though Grisō here according to euery one of these causes, could appoint proper correctiōs (which in dede were ye best order of teaching) yet to auoid confusion as he sayth, he wil not so do, but rather teach you such ge∣neral kindes of corrections as may amend that fault, of what cause so euer it procedeth. And because that eue∣rye horse, as I sayde before, is more apte by nature to turne on the left hande, then on the right, he sheweth you first howe to correct the hardnes of the right hand in this sort here folowing.

Make youre horse in some newe plowed ground to treade oute .ii. ringes, like vnto these here after figu∣red, which differ not so much from the .ii. ringes before described, in shape, as in the order of treading of theim. For wheras you were wont before to goe twise about in the right ringe, folowinge still the right hande, and then to go twyse about the left ringe, folowinge than the left hand: Now you shall go about eche ringe three times, folowing still the right hand, in both of them. Page  [unnumbered] And where as before .iiii. goinges aboute made a large turne, now syxe goinges about shall doe no more then make a large tourne, and the reason is this, for yf you should go out of the right ringe at the second turne for to enter into the left ringe, and woulde folowe still the right hand (as you must dooe) then you shoulde lacke a good deale of closing the second turne, as you may easly perceiue by a litle cosidering of the figure in the right ringe, whereof I haue marked the place where you shoulde go out, for to enter into the left ring, with this letter A, and the place of closing your turne with B, be∣twixt whiche twoo letters is conteyned that portion of the Circle, whiche shoulde bee wantinge, wherefore you must nedes go thrise about, to thintent the seconde turne may be fully ended, & as for the ouerplus, it shall make no matter. To these rynges is also added a middle forrowe with twoo places of stop∣ping and turning, mete to manege your horse therein, to and fro, where∣of we shall treate hereafter in his due place more at large.

Page  29

[illustration]

THus you may continue shifting from ring to ring, and folowyng still the right hande, vntill you see that he beginneth somewhat to yealde, which I Page  [unnumbered] beleue he wil do, by that time yt you haue trotted him a¦bout .xlv. times, which make .vii. large turnes & a halfe, that is to say .xxi. times about the left ring, & .xxiiii. ty∣mes about the right ringe, or if that suffiseth not you may trot him .xxvii. times about the left ringe, and .xxx. times about the right ringe, whiche maketh .ix. large turnes and a halfe, and that is a conuenient number for any horse hauinge that fault, though he be right good of breath. And when he hath ended his ringe tournes, you may trot him right out in the middle forrowe, the lēgth of a good Cariere, and there after that you haue made him to stoppe, and to aduaunce, you shall make muche of him, and suffer him to stay a good while, hol∣ding as well than, as at all other times (vntil he hath amēded hys fault) the right reane of his bridle shorter then the other, and after that he hath so pawsed and is quiet, you shall cause a footeman that hath some skill to stand right against him with a sticke in his hande, and whilst you moue your fist to turne youre horse on the right hand, the footeman in the same instaunt shal strike him with his sticke on the left side of his nose, and not leaue beatyng him vntill he tourne, not forgetting alwayes whilst he beate hym, to vse that sounde of the toung, which I taught you before. And to thintent that the horse at suche time reare not right vp, he may beat him somtime vpon the legs, by which so molesting him, doubt ye not, but that you shal make him to turne as he ought to do, and hauinge tourned, you shall first make muche of him, and then trotte him backe againe in the same path or forrowe, euen harde to the edge of the ringes, from whence ye came. Wheras you shall ap∣point Page  30 another footman to stād with a rod in his hand, to thintent that when you haue stopt your horse again there, and are ready to turne him (which must be stil on the right hand) the footeman may rate him by sayinge tourne villaine, or such like wordes, yea, and if nede be, also beat him in suche sort as the other man did before. But if your horse be verye hard to tourne, then to make him do it the more easely, you may at euerye end of the path after that he hath stopt and aduaunced, make him to goe backe about .ii. paces, and in his goinge backe, turne him, but after that he beginneth to fall somwhat vnto it, beware that ye vse not then to make hym goe backe, least he get an euill custome to make his tournes altogether abandonate, and to much vpon hys hynder loynes.

Thus by trotting him vp and downe and tourninge him to an fro .vi. or .vii. tymes together, when you come out of ye rings, you shal in the space of iii. daies through¦ly correct that fault, which fault, if it were not ouermu∣che, I would not wyshe you in his goyng to and fro, to turne him euery time on the right hand, but first on the right hand, and then on the left interchaungeably, but so as the first & last tourne may be always on the right hand, vsing alwaies such helpes and corrections as are abouesaid. But if your horse be harder to tourne on the left hand then on the right, then begin first with the left ring, obseruing order meare contrary in all thinges to the first, whiche I am sure that you can doe of youre selfe without anye more wordes.

¶Syre other Corrections for the fault abouesaid, wherof the first here foloweth.

Page  [unnumbered]YOu maye also correct that fault without ridinge him in any rynge, or otherwise in this sort.

First cause him to be brought into some long narrow way, enclosed on both sides with hedge, dike, or wal, and there after that you haue reaned vp his head, by staying the reanes of the bridle with the button vpon his necke, if he be hard to turne on the right hande, fasten the one ende of a good longe cord or thong to the middle of the bit on the right side, & tey the other end vnto his surcingle on the same side, straining it good and hard, for to make him bowe his necke: that done, let him so remaine alone in the midst betwyxt you and him that brought him, or some other whom you shall thinke mete, hauing ech of you a rod in your hand, with the whiche roddes you shal chase him betwixt you from one to another, by strykinge him al∣wayes when he commeth towardes eyther of you, vp∣pon the left side of the nose, and no wher els, & that shal make him turne on the right hande, not forgetting al∣wayes when you beat him, to help him with the sound of the toung before declared, and you shall see that in a veri litle while, the only sound of the toung & the sight of the rods, wil make him to turne of his owne accorde without any beating at all. Yea the soūd of the toung it selfe is so good a warning vnto hym, as if he be once accustomed therunto he will not tary the beating, and though sometime, he hap to fall downe in his turning, it maketh no matter, for he wyll ryse againe alone, yea, and that shalbe a very good correction vnto him. And when you see that he begynneth to waxe somewhat Page  31 weary, lousen the thong from the surcingle, but not frō the bit, and immediatly get vp on his backe, takynge the louse ende of the thong in your right hande, which shall serue in steade of a false reane, and trot him foorth the length of .x or .xii. paces, and there stop him, where as one must stand with a rod in his hand, ready first to threaten him, and then if nede be, to beat him therwith vpon the left side of the nose, for to make him tourne. And in the same instaunt, you shall not only helpe him with your toung, but also by straining a litle the thong which is in your right hand. And hauyng tourned, trot him backe agayne to the place from whence he came, wheras may stand also another footman to helpe him at the stop, as the former did, to tourne agayne on the same side: or for lacke of another man, you maye tourne him the second time on the left hande, and so trot hym forth towardes the first man.

Thus trotting and tourning him to and fro, you shal correct him quickly of that fault, neyther shall you nede to vse the helpe of straining the corde or thonge in hys turne aboue twise or thrise at the most. For the sounde of the toung, the feare of the footmans rod, & the hol∣ding of the right rean of his bridle, shorter then the o∣ther, shall suffise. And note that as the thong being put on the right side of the bit doth correct the horses hard¦nes on the same side: so likewise if it be put on ye left side it wil correct the horse that is hard to turne on the left side, for sides and places of correction only chaūged, the order is all one in both.

The second correction for the same fault.

Page  [unnumbered]YOu maye also correct that fault by teying a Corde vnto the headestraine on that side that the horse is harde to tourne, so as it maye run through the ring therof, to thin∣tent that when you pull the corde, it maye straine the horses head, and beinge let go, it may slacke agayne: the louse end of which corde, let some footman hold in his hande, and whylst you beynge on his backe do helpe him with your tongue to tourne, let the fote∣man pull the Corde, whereunto yf the horse be vsed a while, he will afterward turne of him selfe, so soone as he shall heare the sounde of the tongue wythout the helpe of the corde.

The third Correction for the same.

TAke a cord about a yard long, & tey the one end therof vnto the vppermost eye of the bridle on that side that ye horse is not hard to tourne, and let it come betwyxt his nea∣ther lip, and neyther goomes, and so passe through the vppermost eye of the bit on the other syde, beyng strayned so hard as the horse can well endure it, and there stay it by makyng a knot only vpon the cord, hard by the cheke of the bit, without casting the corde about the iron, so as it can not slyppe: the louse ende of which cord, when you ride your horse, you shall hold in your hande in steade of a false reane, and so often as you pull that corde, and helpe him with youre tongue, you shal force him to turne whether he wil or not. And least a Cord perhaps will gaule your hande, you may if you Page  32 will, make it all of leather, sauing that whiche must be in the horses mouth, for otherwise it woulde not greue him.

The fourth correction.

THe fourth correction is by putting the kir∣ble hooke on that side that the horse is most harde to tourne: on the backe side of which hooke next to the horses lip, wold be made .ii. litle sharpe pryckes, fashioned like cockes spurs. Which kinde of hooke, Grison calleth in his language, Guancietto, or if you wyl, you may set those prickes on the backe side of the linke, wheron the sayde hooke hangeth, whiche linke is made like an .s. in this sort .S. so shall they pricke him higher towardes the mouth. And though some horse is corrected by ha∣uing those pryckes placed on the contrary syde, yet it is more kindly to haue them placed where I haue shewed you before. Or in stead of both these wayes, you maye cause .iii. little nailes to be sette on the backe side of his portsmouth, and it shalbe as good. But beware in anye wise that ye seke not to correct this fault by putting a∣ny Iron engin within the horses mouth, as some men doe, which will cause a bit to be made of pourpose, ha∣uing the one side rougher then the other, which is the high way to distemper the horses mouth, and to make him so as he shal neuer staye well vpon any bitt. Not∣withanding a scache welted on the inside is very neces∣sarye somtime for such pourpose, as I wyll shewe you hereafter when I come to speake of the diuersytye of Page  [unnumbered] bittes, and whereto they serue.

The fift correction.

IF he wil not turne on that side that you wold haue him, then let him turne on thother side, as he wyll hym selfe: and after that he hath begun, let him not leaue. But beat him vpon the head betwixt the eares, and all to rate hym wyth your voyce, forcing him to tourne continuallye on that hand, so fast as he may driue, euen till he be almost out of breath, and redy to geue ouer for very wearines, and you shall see that with a lytle helpe, he will be easelye entreated to turne on thother side: which don, you shal make much of him, and being once well corrected after this sort, it is possible that he wil neuer haue that fault againe.

¶The sixt Correction.

GO into some soft ground newly plowed with depe forrowes, and there first pace him faire and softlye to and fro, the length of a mane∣ging course, then folow on with a good roūd trot, and when he will not tourne on that hande that you woulde haue him, all to rate hym with a terri∣ble voyce, and beat him with a Cogel vpon the heade, betwixt the eares, and vpon both sides of the head, and most vpō that side wherof he is most easy to turne, pro∣uokyng him to tourne thother waye, whiche if for all this, he will not doe, then without any respect, somtime run him, sometime trot him, and sometime gallop him, Page  33 as fast as he maye flynge, nowe right oute, nowe ouer∣thwart, and nowe round about, as you your selfe shall thinke it most nedeful, not leauyng to beat him, nor suf∣fring him to rest in any place, vntil you haue gotten the mastry. And though he chaunce to arme himself to run awaye with you, whether ye will or not, neuer care for it, but rather correct him so much the more wyth youre voyce in ratinge him and cryinge out vnto him, and af∣terwarde stop him, prouokinge him in that your anger once againe to tourne, whiche yf he wyll not doe, then renew againe the selfe same correction, not leauing him vntill you haue made him to tourne as he should do. And to thintent that in his tourning, he rere not right vp, you shal beat him with your rod, from time to time betwixt the forelegges, but if he turne frely about with out stop or stay, then make much of him, suffring him to pawse a while, that done, you may pace him to and fro faire and softlie, and so often as he will not turne order∣lye, vse such hasty correction as before. And in so doyng, I doubt not, but you shall breake him of that fault the first daye that you shall so ride him, yea, perchaunce in lesse then one howre. For there is no waie to be compa∣red vnto thys, but when you begin to take this waye, you must determine with your selfe, not to depart the field, though you tary there from morning vntil night, vntill you haue cleane broken him from that fault. For otherwise you shall confirme hym in his stubbornesse, and make his fault incurable. Thus we haue spoken hitherto of single turnes: it resteth now therefore that we talke somwhat of whole tournes and double tour∣nes, for we shall haue occasion to talke more of syngle Page  [unnumbered] tournes when we come to treate of the order of mane∣ginge.

Of the whole turnes and double turnes, howe and when to teach your horse to make them. Cap. xvii.

AFter that you be come out of the ringes, and that your horse hath stopt, aduaun∣ced, and pawsed a while, in suche place and order as is aforesaide: Then whilest he is quiet, and standeth euen with hys body, geue him .ii. whole tournes on the right hande, one immediatlye after another, helpynge him with your tounge, or with your rod vpon the con∣trarye shoulder, or els with the caulfe of youre left leg, and seldome with your spur. That done, geue hym o∣ther .ii. whole turnes on the left hand, vsynge lyke hel∣pes, and then .ii. tournes agayne on the right hand, and then staye a while, making much of him. And see that in his turning, he bring ouer the contrary legge order∣lye, and that in closing his tourne, he set his head euen where it stode at the first. And note here that you may begin the double turnes .ii. maner of waies, for you may chose whether you wil haue him to turne at the second or thirde bownde of his aduauncing, or els at the first bounde, which in dede requireth not so muche obser∣uaunce of time and measure as the other doth.

But if your horse be not very apt vnto the double tour∣nes, it shal not be amisse to ride him into some long lane or waye, and at the hither ende thereof, immediatly v∣pon his stop, to geue him one or .ii. whole tournes faire Page  34 and softlye on the right hande, that done, to put him gently forward about .ii. paces, and there to geue hym the like tournes on the left hand, and then to go .ii. pa∣ces further, and there to turne him again in lyke maner on the right hand, and so to folowe on in turninge him still at euery .ii. paces end, helpinge him alwayes with your tounge, with your rod, with the contrarye leg or spur, yea, and if nede be, with the closing stroke of both spurres. And when you are come to the farther end of the lane or way, geue him .iii. whole tournes, whereof the first and last must be on the right hand, and so leaue of for that time. But note this by the waye, that when soeuer he faileth, in so going, to turne well on any side, that than you must turne him againe, at the next .ii. pa∣ces end on the same side, and also correct him with the contrary spur, continuing still so to do, vntill he hath a∣mended his fault, which if he do, you shall make muche of hym. And yf the waye or lane be shorte where you breake him, than beynge come to the farthest end ther∣of, you may tourne backe againe in the selfe same path, vsing the former order in making him to turne at euery two opaces ende, so longe tyme together as you shall thinke mete. After this, you must seeke to make hym swift in his double turnes, for it is not inough to bring ouer the contrary leg orderly, and to tourne trulye and decently, but also he must turne swyftlye and roundlye, for whiche intent you shall vse this order folowinge. Make him to trotte or gallop the length of a short Ca∣riere, and there stoppe, causinge him to aduaunce once, twise, or thrise together: that done (helpinge him with your voice and left spur, yea, and if nede be, with the clo∣sing Page  [unnumbered] stroke) first turne him loftelye on the right hande, setting his head that way his taile stoode, which shall be halfe a turne, and there stay a while, then close it vp with another halfe turne on the same hand, setting his head and all his body in the same path, euen as it was at the firste, and then make him to doe as muche on the left hand, and so to chaunge from hand to hand, endyng alwayes on ye right. And by often soliciting him in this sort, you shal not onely make him to turne swiftly, but also loftelye, or of an indifferent height, euen as you list your selfe. And when you see him ready inowe in thys, then you may cause him to close the whole turne round∣lye together, without making anye stoppe or stay at the first halfe turne. If your horse know how to handle his forelegs, then geue him on eche hande .ii. hole tournes allowing two halfe tournes to one hole turne, and at the ende of euery thirde halfe tourne, helpe hym wyth your toung, rod, or contrarye spur, and if nede be, with the closyng stroke, so shall he close the last halfe turne, both quickly, roundlye, and comely: but as the .ii. laste halfe tournes woulde be done spedely, so would the .ii. first haulfe turnes be done leysurely. For in those it suf∣ficeth that the horse go orderly with his legs, and kepe the right path. And by obseruinge this order a whyle, you shal see he wil be so swift & redy in the first turnes, as in the last. Notwithstandinge for a good time you shal not vse to hasten him, but only at the closynge of e∣uery hole tourne. And when he can once make all the tournes in suche order and so swiftlye as they shoulde be done, then ordinarily, geue him on ech hand .iii. hole turnes, wherof let the first be so faire and softly as maye Page  35 be, so shal he cary his forelegs orderly, & be better able to kepe a swift tyme & measure, in accomplishing thother ii. turnes. And though that any of these .ii. waies here∣tofore prescribed, is maruelous good to make any horse be he neuer so dul, to be ready and nimble in the double tournes, yet must you be able to discerne by your owne discretion which of them is most mete for euery horse, & for what purpose. For if you would haue your horse to yarke in making the double turnes, this way is not so mete for that purpose as ye first, for in euery halfe turne, you muste helpe him to yarke once. So that in euerye whole turne he shal yarke twyse. That is to say, once forward, and once backeward, which he can not do, vn∣lesse he pause somwhat at euery halfe tourne, according to ye first order before taught. But if your horse be hard and dull of the spur, and vnapt to the double tournes, then if he can bring ouer the contrarye leg, ride him in∣to some straight waye, or els into the plaine fielde, and there make him to tourne so fast as he canne, and helpe him continually with your spurres, beating him there∣with in suche sort, as he may haue bloudye sides, by the girthes, and geue him on eche hand .vii. whole tournes or there about, obseruing alwaye that number where∣with you first began, helping him also with youre rod on the contrarye shoulder. And though he seemeth as then to care but litle for it, yet in riding him againe the next daye folowing, when his sides shalbe sore, by mea∣nes of the foremer prickes, being then colde and tender, and not whote, as they were the day before: you shal see that the spurre wil quicken him after another sort, and make him to remember wherfore he was last corrected. Page  [unnumbered] And so by vsinge afterwarde the ordinarye helpes, you shall make him so readye in the double tournes, as you will desire. And you may vse like order also, when the horse is verye liuelye and sensible of him selfe: sauinge then you shall not nede to ride him againe the next day folowing. For the first time shall suffise to make him o∣bedient to your will, and make him kepe suche measure and time in his turning, as he ought to do. It is good also if the horse be slow, somtime to trotte him out the length of a short maneging course, and when he cometh towarde the ende therof, to gallop him, and at the stop cause him to tourne the first halfe turne, and then imme∣diatly vpon the same, to close the other haulfe tourne on the same hand, and then make much of him suffering him to pawse a while, yea, and it is possible that with∣oute pawsing at all, you shall perceiue suche redines in the horse, as you maye folowe on with another whole turne, and so to geue him on ech hand .ii. whole turnes, remembring alwaye to hasten him with your tounge, so much as you possiblye maye, whiche shall not onelye make him ready in his tournes, but also to knowe the verye meanyng of the helpe, which after that he hath once obtained, you shal nede no more to geue him these maneging courses, for than he will tourne at any tyme that you will haue him.

¶Helpes and corrections meete to be vsed for the a∣mending of suche faultes, as most common∣lye happe in makyng the whole or double tournes. Cap. xviii.

Page  29YF your horse at the closynge of any turne v∣seth to swarue of any syde, then a little be∣fore he stoppe, or els in hys verye stopping, strike him with the Caulfe of youre legge, on the same side, and if nede be, with youre spur, pricking him more or lesse as you shal see it nede∣full, and that shall force him to make a iust stop, and to kepe the right path. So as afterward he shall nede no such helpe, beinge in dede than superfluous. But al∣though he can stop well, and be very redy of tourne: yet when soeuer he doubleth, helpe him always with your tunge, and somtime with your rod, and legge: and that shall hasten him, and make him to go swiftly about, and to close well.

If your horse foltereth with his legges in hys tour∣ninge, for fault of not bringing ouer the contrary leg, or lyfteth not his feete orderly, or turneth not fast inowe about, then euerye time that he hath ended his tourne: staye there, and so soone as he is stayed, if his tournes were not well made of any syde: first strike him once or twise with the spur on the cōtrary side, then geue him asmuche with the spur on the other side, and last of all, on the same side, that you stroke him first, and kepinge him still in the same pathe, tourne him agayne as you did before, & at the last you shall see by that this correc∣tion, he will amende his fault, and so doynge, you shall make muche of him.

But if your horse in his doublynge, maketh his tour∣nes to much forward, and you can by no ordinary mea∣nes bring him from it, then ride him with his head to∣ward some wall or tree, and when you are within a ve∣rye Page  [unnumbered] little of the sayde wall or tree, stop him, and tourne him, forcinge him alwayes to close hys laste tourne to∣wardes the wall or tree, so shall he be forced to kepe still one place in his turning. Or you may if you will, with∣out any wall or tree correct that fault by bearyng a stif∣fer hand on him then you were wont to doe, but so as you distemper not his mouth, and looke howe muche ground yt he incroched in closing of his turne forward, when he hath done, make him to goe asmuche againe backewarde. Or you may correct him thus: Ride hym into some were grounde, newe plowed with deepe for∣rowes, and there pase, trot, or gallop him the length of a maneging course, vntill such tyme as he hath made a playne path, and beaten out euident markes of stoppe, and there cause him to double,, and you shal see that af∣ter the first time, he wil not be so hasty in preassing for∣warde, because it will gryeue him to leaue the beaten path, to plunge into the mire. And looke as the making him to go bacward, will correct him of his stelyng for∣warde, so you may correct his reling backwarde in hys tourning, by making him in thende to goe asmuche for∣ward. You maye also correct both faultes thus: If he girde forwarde, then make hym to double in a playne ground, at the foote of some hill, and to close his tourne vpward toward the hill. And if he reele backward in his doubling, then cause him to close his last turne from the hillward.

Of the Chambetta. Cap. xix.

BUt besides all this, there is one other point belon∣ginge to the tournes, as well single as double, but Page  37 specially to the single turnes of a manege, which geueth a better grace vnto them then anye thing els. And that is when the horse holdeth vp his forefoote on that syde that he should tourne. Whilst he bringeth ouer the con∣trarye leg, and setteth it not downe agayne vntyll he hath closed his tourne: whiche acte Grison calleth, La ciambetta, for by this meanes he shall carye both his forefete cleane aboue the grounde, and tourne a greate deale better then when he trayleth his feete vppon the ground. For whiche feat, for that in oure toung we haue no proper name, I will therefore cal it from hence∣forth the Chambetta, and you shall teach your horse to do it in thys sort: Ride him into some narrow waye, or cause a dyke to be made of purpose, in maner and forme folowing, first let it be so long as a common maneginge course, not aboue .ix. ynches deepe, and in the bottome one foote and a halfe broade, from whiche bottome the two sides, and the two endes of the dike must rise sho∣ryng: So as it maye be a great deale broader aboue at the brynkes then beneath, hauing the very fashion of a Trow bote, or punt: Or if you wil, you may make it of a greater depth, but then it must haue breadth in the top accordingly: And the Rider must be the more circūspect aswel in bearyng his bridle hand, as in timelye helping of his horse. The dike then beyng thus made: Ride in∣to it, and there geue your horse on eche hande .ii. or .iii. tournes, wherof alwayes let the first be faire and softly to thintent that he maye close the others more spede∣ly, according to the order of doubling, as I taught you before, and you shall see that in closing his tournes, the narrownesse of the rowme shall so trouble him, as for Page  [unnumbered] feare of knocking his contrary leg agaynst the other, he shalbe gladde to lift vp the other leg, and so to come a∣loft with both legges together, aboue grounde. But you must beware that in steade of lyfting vp hys legs, he reeleth not backewarde, nor in his tourninge goeth cleane out of the dyke, for that were a foule faulte, and much agaynst your pourpose, and therefore you muste beare a temperate hande, and be redy to vse suche kinde of helpes, corrections and cheryshinges, as are meete and necessary in that behalfe, and haue bene heretofore taught. And to make him the more readye therein, you may often pase or trot him to and fro in the dike, and turne him at eche ende on both handes, or but on one hand only, chaunging handes at euerye ende. Yea and somtime it shalbe good to tourne him in the same dyke at euery .ii. paces end, as I taught you before, speaking of the double tournes: and hereby the horse wyll take such a custome, as he wyll do the lyke whensoeuer you shal prouoke him therunto, by helping him either with your toung, or contrarye spur, or with both spurs to∣gether. And in steade of this dike, you maye if you will, seeke out some narrowe golled waye by rage of water, whiche wilbe as good, so that it be neither to depe nor to shallow, the sides wherof would be somewhat sho∣ring, yea, both suche golled way, dike, and euerye other way, where you pace or trot your horse to & fro, should be the better, if the ground at the stopping place were somwhat hanging downe the hill: So shoulde it keepe him from going eyther forward or backewarde in his turning. Also if your horse haue bene somwhat broken before, and know what correction is (otherwise it wilbe Page  [unnumbered] to hard for you to do) you may teache hym the Cham∣betta standinge still in the Stable in this sort. Take a sticke in your hande, and go and stand on the right syde of the horse, hard by the maunger to the whiche he is tyed, and knock him with your sticke on the right fore∣leg, sometime vnder the knee, somtime in the middes of the shanke, somtime on the nether ioynt, and sometime behind on the bowyng of the ham of the same leg, hel∣pyng him continually with your toung or voice, in say∣ing vnto him, hup, hup, and neuer leaue him vntill you haue made hym to holde vp that leg, whiche when he doth, beat him no more, but only threaten him by wag∣ging the rod, to thintent he shoulde not set downe hys foote, but holde it vppe still, so longe as you shall thinke it good. And so often as he setteth it downe vnbidden: helpe him and correct him as before, neuer leauing vntil he holde it vp againe, which whilst he doeth, you shall do well to make muche of him, by clawynge him with your rod on the withers, for that shall encourage hym to do the like another time. And if you would haue him to do the like with the left legge, then stande on his left side, and vse the selfe same order. And when you see yt he wyl do it with both legges only for feare of the stycke: Then you maye also teach him to doe it for feare of the spur, in this sort: stande you on his right side with the rod in your hand, and cause another to stand on his left side with a spurre, naile, sharpe sticke or goade in hys hande, and in the same instaunt that you doe beat him with your rod on the leg: let the other prycke hym in the common spurring place, with his spur, helping him with the sound of his tongue, or with his voyce, as be∣fore, Page  [unnumbered] you holding youre peace, and so soone as the horse shal heare that sound or voyce, and feele the stroke both of rod and spur, he wil lift vp his right legge, whiche when he hath done, you shall chaunge sides, and in the same sort, make him to do as much with his left legge. And thus vsynge him a whyle, you shall make him to lift vp which you wil, so soone as he shall heare but the sound of your tongue or voyce, and feale the spur on the contrary side, without the helpe of any man to stand by him with a rod in his hand: yea, and to hold it vp stil a quarter of an houre together. And perhappes manye tymes he will do the same withoute the helpe of the spur, being afraide to set it downe, so longe as you are there present. But if (as it happeth many tymes) the horse when you pricke him so with the spur, wil not lift vp the contrarye leg, but only the legge of the same side that you spur him: then in the same instaunt that you spurre him, if he be not curste and shrewed, strike hym with your foote on the contrary legge, which warning will make him to remember himselfe. Or els for a more surety, you may haue a sticke in youre other hande, and knocke him therwith on thinside of his contrarye leg: and beside that, euery time that he so erreth, eyther in not liftinge vp the contrary leg: or els in lifting vp tho∣ther, remember alwais to double the stroke of the spur, and that shal so correct him, as afterward if you do but make an offer to touche him with the spur, it shall suf∣fise to make him to holde vp the contrary leg, so longe time together as you will your selfe. Neyther care you for the frowardnes of any horse, but the more froward he is, the more roughly correct him. But thoughe youre Page  39 horse in this sort may learne ye Chambetta in one day, yea, and perchaunce in lesse then .iii. howres: yet to kepe him in vre withall, & that he may do it afterward, the more redilye in his maneginge, it shalbe necessarye to spend euery day one howre with hym in the stable, in making him to holde vp first one leg, and then another. Thus when you haue taught youre horse to doe the Chambetta in the stable: You may also teach him to do it abrode, being vpon his backe, in this sort. When you are mounted, cause him to stand still a good prety while together, and beare a steady hand vpon him: makynge him to reane truly with hys head, and appoint a foote∣man to stande on youre right side, with a sticke in hys hande, and in the same instaunt that you helpe youre horse with your toung or voyce, let the footman beate him vpon the right leg with his sticke, not leauynge so to molest him vntill he lifteth vp his foote, whiche do∣yng, you shall make muche of him, by clawynge him on ye withers. That done, let the footeman chaunge sides, and make the horse to do asmuch with his left leg, and when the horse vnderstandeth those helpes, then besy∣des ye help of your tongue or voice, you may touch him also wyth your contrarye spur, whiche if it doth make him to holde vp the true leg, then spurre him no more, but make much of him, and when he knoweth once the helpe of the spur, you shall nede no more the helpe of the footman with his rod, for then if he erreth at any time, by helping him with your tongue or voice, and by dou∣blynge the stroke of the spurre, you shall quicklye make him to amend his fault. And besydes these helpes, for a more surety if nede be, you may haue a rodde in youre Page  [unnumbered] hande, and correct him therewith your selfe like as the footman did before, but I beleue that after a litle exer∣cise (if the horse be not to dul) the helpe of your tongue, and the mouing only of your contrary legge will suffise without anye more busines. And to kepe him in vre withall: remember alwayes whensoeuer you take his backe to make him hold vp first one leg, and then ano∣ther, so shall he afterward be perfect when he commeth to be maneged, either with single or double turne, but he shall do it the more redily in the double tourne, if he be vsed to do it first in the single turne. It shalbe verye necessary also to trot him or to gallop him, and to turne him to and fro in some such way as is before described, by meanes wherof if the horse be of any gentle nature, and therwith somwhat staid of head, he maye quicklye learne the Chambetta without the helpe of any of the former inuentions, which notwithstanding are necessa∣rye for shiftes sake, to aunswere the diuerse qualityes of horses: for all horses will not learne alike. Thus ha∣uing taught you the order of treading the ryng, of stop∣ping, of aduauncing before, of yarkinge behind, of tour∣ninge, with single tourne and double tourne, yea, and that with the Chambetta also: I thinke it mete nowe to shewe you the order of maneging, and howe manye kindes of maneges there be.

¶Of maneging, and how many kindes of ma∣neges there be. Cap. xx.

THis Italion word Maneggiare is as much to say in Englishe, as to handle with skill, as when we Page  40 saye, he can handle his horse or weapon verye well, and amongest the Italions it is taken as a generall word, comprehendinge foure especiall kindes of maneginge: wherof one is, when they make their horse to double his tournes, which they call Raddopiare: an other is, when they make him to gallop the fielde, goyng in and out, as they do in skirremishe: the thirde is, when they make him to leape a loft, and to fetch diuers saultes: the fourth is, when they pace, trot or galloppe him a good while to & fro in one selfe path, the length of .xx. or .xxx. paces, or there about, turning him at eche ende therof, eyther with single turne, whole turne, or double turne, which Grison calleth Maneggiare a Repolom, But we Englishe menne do only call this laste kinde a manege, and that absolutely without any other addicion. For amongst our horsemen this word manege or maneging signifieth none other thinge, but onlye that foresayde kinde of gallopping and turning to and fro in one selfe path. And therfore we vse commonly to say, this horse canne manege well, or make a good manege, whereof there be also thre kindes. That is to saye, manege with haulfe rest, manege with whole rest, and manege with∣out rest. Which Grison termeth thus, Manegio a mezzo tempo, a tempo, & contra tempo. The manege with halfe rest is when you cause your horse at the ende of euerye maneging path, after he hath stopt, to aduaunce twyse together, and at the seconde bounde to tourne. Wherby you rest alwayes one bound. The manege with whole reste is, when you turne him at the thyrde bounde, and so you reste two boundes. The manage without reste is, when you tourne hym immediatly vpon the stoppe, Page  [unnumbered] without any tarriaunce at all, whyche onelye kynde of manege our Englyshe Ryders most commonlie do vse, & not thother two. Notwithstanding, they be verye ne∣cessarye and mete to be vsed, accordinge as the horse is stronge or weake. For the verye strong horse requireth the manege wyth the hole rest. And the horse of an in∣different strength, the manege with the haulfe rest. And the weake horse the manege without rest. But the ma∣nege with the haulfe rest is most necessary of all, & the best meane to make a horse perfyght in thother two But note that in al .iii. kindes of maneges, you must ob∣serue well those generall preceptes that I gaue you be∣fore, touchinge the single and double tournes. That is, to see that your horse kepe alwayes one path, and one place of stoppe, and in his tourninge that he kepe hys ground and carie his head, necke, legs, and whole body orderly, without preasing forward, or reling backward, or swaruinge on either syde: and also that he close hys tourne roundly, and in so narrowe rowme as maye be. And finally, to see that aswel in his turnes, as courses, he kepe alwayes like time and measure, and that thone be not swifter then the other, and such like. All whiche thynges, by vsinge suche helpes and corrections as I haue partlye alreadye, and shall hereafter more at full declare: you shall easely make your horse to doe. Thus hauing shewed you howe manye kindes of Maneges there be, and which they be, and what you must gene∣rally obserue in teaching them: I will now declare vnto you the order of them al, beginning first with ye▪ manege the haulfe rest.

Of manege with halfe rest. Cap. xxi.

Page  41WHen your horse can stoppe well, aduaunce before, and tourne redilie on both handes, then beynge come oute of the rynges, trot him right out, either in the middle forrow vnto the common place of stoppe, or els in some other soft ground, the length of .xx. paces, or there about, and euen as he is ready to stop, helpe hym wyth your voyce, makyng him to aduaunce twyse together, and at the second bound, turne him on the right hand, helping hym with your tongue, wyth the rayne of his headstrain or false raine, with your rod, with the calues of your legs, or with your spurs, more or lesse, according as occasion shall require, & see that in his tourninge he moue his forepartes orderly, staying him selfe vpon hys hinder loynes, bowing his houghes decently, which is the bewtye and chyefest grace of his turne. That done, immediatlye trotte him backe againe in the selfe same path, vnto the place from whence you came. And there after stop at the second bound of his aduauncing, turne him on the left hand, & so folowe on obseruing lyke or∣der, vntill you haue gone to and fro, about .xii. tymes, chaunging handes at euerye tyme. And at the last stop of all, you shall cause him to aduaunce twyse together, and so depart: and this is the order of the manege with halfe rest. In the whych after that he hath bene some∣what exercised, you shall not neede to helpe him when he is ready to stop, but only to beare a steddy & straight hand, & to helpe him with your tongue or voyce in hys tourning. And you shal see that he of himselfe wil turne roundlye, and with a good grace withoute anye more helpe.

Page  [unnumbered]

Of manege with whole rest. Cap. xxii.

THEN after that he can make the manege with halfe rest well, if he be of muche force, and very light withall, you may teach him to make the manege with whole rest, cau∣sing him at euery stop to aduaunce thrise to¦gether, and at the .iii. bounde to tourne, and at the laste stop of all, to aduaunce againe thrise together, and so to depart. But vnlesse he be verye strong in dede: I would wyshe you to tourne him most commonly at the second bounde, rather then at the thirde, so shall he be able to turne the more redily, and to kepe the better tyme and measure in his turning.

Of manege wythout rest. Cap. xxiii.

BUt if your horse be of no force, or of a heuy mould, then you maye teache hym the manege wythout rest, by turnyng hym sodenly vpon the stop, wher∣in also he shal neuer be perfect, vnlesse he be first vsed to the manege with haulfe rest, but remember that in the manege without rest, you cause your horse at ye last stop to aduaunce once at the least. For it is none errour at al but a comely sighte in all .iii. kindes of maneges, at the last stop to aduaunce twyse or thryse. And note that in all these .iii. kyndes of Maneges, it is praise worthye, when the horse in his aduauncinge, bow hys houghes behind, and tourneth round with the Chambetta. For whiche pourpose it were not amysse to manege hym sometime in suche place whereas the grounde si at ech Page  42 ende of the manegynge path, somwhat hanging. Note also that in maneging youre horse, it is no small helpe vnto him in euery tourne that he maketh, to accompa∣ny him with your person in this sorte folowinge. Whē he turneth on the right hand, turne you your left shoul∣der towardes his left eare, more or lesse, as nede shal re∣quire, kepinge youre bodye for all that still right in the midst of the saddle, so as the raynes of your backe may directly aunswere the ridge bone of his backe. Neuer∣theles, when you fele him to bend his hinder houghes, then leane you somwhat backward, for that shall make him to close his turne the more roundlye and swiftlye. And when he tourneth on the left hande, accompanye him with your right shoulder, toward his right eare, obseruyng lyke order as before. If youre horse be verye weake or feeble, eyther by nature, or by ouermuche tra∣uell, then it shalbe good, somtime to manege hym with a soft pace, and not to trot him, vsing hym for the most part to that kind of manege whiche shalbe most meete for his strength, least by often chaūging, you cleane dis∣order him, and he neuer become pertect in any of them. When your horse can make all these three kindes of ma∣neges, both with soft pace & with trot: Then you may manege him in any of the said kindes with a gallop, ge¦uing him on eche hande but one single tourne, and see that the first and last be always of the right hand. And a litle before you turne him, remember to hold your rod on the contrarye side, wherby your horse shall know on what syde to tourne: and at the stop make him to ad∣uaunce, helping him with your voice, or with your rod, or with the euen stroke of your spurres, or of the calues Page  [unnumbered] of your legges. And in twoo of the foresaide kyndes of maneginge (if your horse be redye of his heeles, and light behind, you may also make him to yarke aswell at his stop, as in his turne. That is to say, in the manege with halfe rest, and in the manege with whole rest: for in the manege without rest, it cannot be decent. But in thother .ii. you may at the first, or second bound of his aduauncing, helpe him with your voice, rod or spurres, to yarke there once, and at the closing of his tourne to yarke againe. So as at euerye ende of the manegynge course, he shal yarke twise, once forward and once back∣ward. Or if you will, you may cause him to yarke at ech ende but once and that woulde be at the closing of hys turne, settinge his heade that waye, that his tayle be∣fore stoode. But before you gallop him, it were good to pace him and to tourne him faire and softlye in the same path to and fro, about .xii. times. Which shal make him the redier when he is afterward maneged wyth a gal∣lop, yea, and if you did the like, after that you haue ma∣neged him with a gallop, so that you first suffer him to breath a while, it shoulde do him no harme, as you shal well perceiue if you manege hym againe the next daye folowing. And beware that in maneging your horse, ye gallop him not at the first to swyftlye, for so shall he neuer be able to continue wyth one tyme and measure, neyther in his courses, nor yet in his tournes, for after a while euery one shall be slower then another, whiche shoulde be verye vnsemelye, and therefore good respect woulde be had to the quality of the horse, whether he be able to endure a swift manege or not. For if you per∣ceyue that he is naturallye stronge, and hath a good Page  43 mouth, and can tourne redily on both handes: then you may be ye bolder to geue him a swift manege. But if he be to liuelie, or els be laden with great cheekes, or hard of mouth, or if he be feble of backe and legs, then albeit he semeth to haue a gentle mouth, by meanes perhaps of good breakynge, yet you must gallop him with the more respect. Notwithstandinge if he hath strength in his backe and loynes, then thother defectes be not so much materiall, but that wyth good breakinge he may be maneged any maner of waye, but the surest way for all maner of horses is to manege him with a soft pace, or with a trot, and seldome with a gallop.

And note that if there be any stones in the maneging pathe, or on anye side of his stoppinge place, where he tourneth, it is not good to take theym awaye, for the feare thereof shall make him to lyft his feete the better, and to goe the more surelye, yea, if there be none at the place of turnyng, it were necessarye to put one or twoo great ones: for the feare of those stones woulde make him to tourne with the Chambetta. When your horse is perfight in all the thinges abouesayde. Then if you will: you may manege him somtime in, and out, like the writhing of a Serpent, thus figured.

[illustration]
But vse it not often, and specially with a young horse.

Hitherto we haue spoken of maneginge with single tournes. Now therfore we wil talke a litle of maneging wyth double tournes.

Maneging with double tournes. Cap. xxiiii.

ALthough maneging with the double tournes ap∣pertaineth rather to the sterrer, then to the horse Page  [unnumbered] of seruyce, yet it shall not be out of tyme to talke therof in thys place. And note that you may teach your horse to manege with ye double tournes two maner of waies, wherof the first is in this sort. Pace him or trot him right out the length of twenty or thirtye paces as you did before. And when you come to the place of stop, let him aduaunce once, twise, or thryse together, according as the kynde of manege which you woulde haue him to make, shall require, geuyng him there a double tourne, and halfe a turne on the right hand, whiche maketh in al .v. single turnes: or if he be very strong, you may geue him .ii. double tournes, and halfe a tourne on the right hand, which amounteth to .ix. single or halfe turnes. That done, trot him back againe in the self same path, and geue him the like nūber of turnes on the left hand, & so folow on still, continuing the same order so long as you thinke your horse can wel endure, & then at the last stop make him to aduaūce twise or thrise together, & so leaue. The second waye is thus. When you come to the place of stop, geue him at the first but halfe a tourne on the right hand, and sodenly chaunging handes, let him close the double turne on the leaft hand, that done, trot him backe againe in the selfe same path, vnto the other ende, and there likewise geue him halfe a tourne on the left hand, and immediatlye lette hym close the double turne on the right hand, and so to folowe on wyth dou∣ble turne and halfe tourne, mockt throughe out: and at¦thend let him stop and aduaunce, as before is sayd. And note that in both these waies of maneging, in the beginning, the tournes would be made faire and softly, to thintent the horse may cary his legges the more or∣derlye. Page  44 When youre horse can double, beinge maneged with a soft pace and trotte, then you maye make him to double after one of these twoo sortes, beinge maneged with a gallop, which must be more or lesse swift accor∣dinge as the horse may endure, and be able to kepe lyke time & measure, so wel in his courses, as in his turnes. For the double turnes, & specially two on eche hand do strayne a horse, his loynes and synewes very sore, if he be weke or not verye lyght of nature. Wherefore if your horse haue any such defect, and yet you wold haue him to double in his manege, then for a while, let him vse to make on eche hande but one double tourne: so shall he tourne the more roundlye, and close his tournes the better, yea and with the more strength of his backe, whiche wil not decaye so soone with that, as with ma∣king .ii. double tournes, and in processe of time it is pos∣sible that you shall make him to tourne so often toge∣ther, as you will youre selfe. But yf he be of so grosse a molde, as he is not apt to close his turne well, then vse him in no wyse to double, leaste that he neyther make double nor single turne as he ought to do.

¶Of the helpes and corrections whyche are mete to be vsed for the redresse of suche faultes as commonlye chaunce in mane∣gyng. Cap. xxv.

ANd first as touchinge the ordinarye hel∣pes, I saye, that if youre horse haue bene wel broken before, and taught to tourne redily on both hands (as he ought to be before you manege him) then he nedeth Page  [unnumbered] the lesse helpe. For so soone as he shall heare the sound of your tongue or voyce, and feele the staying of the bry∣dle, he will not tarye to be spurred, but turne roundlye of his owne accorde: notwythstanding, according as he is more or lesse sensible in the beginning of euery mane∣ging course that he maketh, it shal not be amisse to help him with the euen stroke of youre spurs, yea and also to do the like a litle before he commeth to the place of stop helpinge him also with your voyce, for that shall make him to close his tourne with the better grace. But if he be dull and heauy, then it shal not only be necessarye to helpe him in the beginning of eche course, but also in the midst, and likewise at the ende of the same, in suche order as is abouesaid. And in his tourninge, remember to helpe him when nede is, wyth ye contrary leg or spur & somtime with the closyng stroke of both spurres, as you haue bene hertofore taught. And when your horse goeth out of the way, and will not kepe the right path, then corect him with your rod, strikyng him vppon the flāke, or with your spur vppon that side ye he swarueth. If your horse be yong, & not growen to his ful strēgth, it is possible that somtyme for his owne ease, he beinge come to the place of stoppe, wyll tourne sooner then he should. Wherefore you shall do well at the stop to make him aduaunce twise or thrise together, & then to stand still a while, making muche of him: that done, help him wyth your voyce to tourne, wherein if he also make to much haste▪ and kepeth no time, stay him agayne vpon the same another while, and so you shall quickly bryng him from that faulte, and make him to manege with what time and measure you wyl your selfe. Also if your Page  45 horse haue that fault, by meanes yt he is ouerliuely, and to rash, there is no better meane to bring him from it, then by vsing him vnto the manege wyth whole rest, & to stay a prety while together, after yt he hath aduāced, making him alwayes to turne low by the ground, & to bring ouer the contrary leg, or to turne with ye Chābet∣ta. Agayne, there be some horses so froward, & so spight¦full, which by meanes of euill breakynge, and ouermuch beating, when they come to the turning place, they wil make eyther to large a turne, or elles wythout tyme or measure. For correction whereof vse to manege hym with a soft pace vntill he be almost within his length of the tourning place, & then trot him swiftly, or gallop him vnto thend, whereas after you haue geuen hym a turne truly closed on the right hand stay him a while, that done, pace him foorth fayre and softlye, vntill he be almost at thother ende, and then galloppe him to the place of stop, wheras after he hath turned, stay hym a∣gaine lyke as you did before, & so continue, maneging him still after that sort, vntyll you haue gone to and fro viii. times, & at the last stop make him to aduaunce, or if you wil, you may after his first turne, first pace him ii. or iii. steps, then trot hym swiftly vntil he come somwhat nigh to thend, & from thence gallop hym to the place of stop, obseruing ye order in euery course frō ye beginninge to thending, & afterward being sōwhat amended of his fault, you may after ye stay vpon his turne, vse to gallop him al ye way, for a certain seasō, vntil he be throughly perfect in his turne: which when he is, see that you stay him no more vpon hys turne, but immediatly put him forward. For to stay vpon the tourne, is vnsemelye, and Page  [unnumbered] not to be allowed, but only for corrections sake. There be manye horses which through euyll breakynge when they are maneged, will turne their rumpes and hinder loynes, before they turne their forepartes. For remedy of whiche fault, you shall vse these wayes folowing.

Trotte him right oute in the forrowe of some newe plowed ground, correcting him continuallye, and that not onelye in his goinge, but also when he is readye to stoppe, and likewise in his turning, sometime with the contrarye legge, and sometyme wyth the contrarye spurre, and if that wyll not suffyse to make hym leaue his fault, then manege him alongest by some wall or tylte, and ride so nigh vnto it as you can. Which wal or tilt in the first course woulde be on your left hande, and in the seconde on youre right hande: and so chaun∣ging from hand to hand, helpe him in eche turne, with the contrary leg, or spur, more or lesse accordyng as nede shall require. Or elles manege him in suche a fashioned dike, as I haue before descrybed, for to teach your horse therin the Chambetta: And by one of those wayes, you shall make him to amende his faulte, and to tourne or∣derly, as you woulde haue hym.

If your horse in his turnynge vse to wryth his body on that syde he tourneth, as thoughe he woulde fall downe, which is a very fowle fault, then manege hym ofte with a swyft trotte, eyther in the forrowe of some newe plowed ground, or elles in some path ouerthwart the forrowes: and at the first tourne him alwayes low by the ground, helping him with suche helpes and cor∣rections as are before taught, so shall you brynge hym to make a true turne, and iust in euery condicion.

Page  46You maye also correct him for the selfe same faulte, or for makinge to large a tourne, by geuinge him a chocke with the bridle on that syde of his mouth, that he so erreth. And for the most part such wrythinge tournes do chaunce in the manege without rest, wherin as they are vnsemely to manye mens iudgementes, so are they muche more vnsemely in the other twoo kindes of ma∣neges. Notwithstandinge, yf youre horse be weake and feble, then somewhat to ease hym, you maye suffer him whilst he boweth his houghes behind in his stopping to wrye his bodye a hande bredth on that side that he tourneth, so shall he close hys tourne the more redilye, but otherwise see that you vse it not.

But if your horse in any of the maneges make a faulse tourne, or tourneth higher or lower then you woulde haue hym, as for example on the ryght hande, then so sone as he hath turned euen in his goyng forward, cor∣rect him once or twise with your left spurre, yea, and if nede be, with both spurres at once, and beynge come to thother place, tourne him agayne on the right hande, and so folowe on with youre manege vnto the place where he tourned first on the right hand, & there turne him on the left hand, by whiche chaunging of handes, you shall alter the common order of tourning in mane∣ging: which altering somtime is very necessary not on∣ly for the correction of the faultes abouesaid, but also to knowe thobedience and redynes of your horse. For if he be vsed alwayes to one order of tourninge, it is possible that he will not tourne sometime on that hande, that you would haue hym. And if he make a false tourne on the left hande, then correct him by obseruynge the con∣trary Page  [unnumbered] order.

There is some kinde of horse, which when you haue maneged hym .x. courses to and fro, he wil in thende so∣denly force your hande, eyther by casting vp his heade aloft, or by chopping it downe, and so fal a running, not for that the bridle grieueth him, or for anye great desire he hath to run or to trauell, but onelye for that he thin∣keth so to escape youre handes, and that you shoulde trouble him no more, but suffre him to rest. Which fault so often as he vseth, see that you sharply correct him for it without shewyng him any fauour at all, not leauyng to beate him vppon the head betwyxt theares with a good sticke, and to rate hym wyth a terrible voice, she∣winge your selfe fierce and cruell vpon him, vntyll you haue brought hym vnto obedience, and made hym to know that running away will not helpe him. Whiche correction he should remember the better, if it were his hap to deserue it, being maneged vpon a ground newly plowed with depe forrowes, the trauell wherein toge∣ther with the correction, woulde be so paynefull vnto him, as he woulde beware euer after, how he ran away before his lesson were ended. And hauinge thus sub∣dued him, leaue him not so: but manege him a fresh, first with a round trot, and then wyth a gallop, accordinge as you shal see him in breath: and in thende make much of hym, by which so vsyng him, you shall see that after∣warde he wyll manege so longe tyme together as you wyl haue him, and lykewise be readye to stop at Com∣maundement, yea, and if nede be to stop in a Cariere, be¦inge run with an vnkerbled bridle.

Page  47

¶Howe and when to teach your horse to passe a swyft Cariere. Cap. xxvi.

VNtill youre horse be perfect in all poyntes before taught, and specially that he can stop well, and therwith aduaunce before, aswel in his trot as in his gallop: I woulde not wyshe you in any wyse to run hym, vnlesse it were in the very beginning of his breakinge, to geue him a Cariere, or two, only to know his swyftnes, and disposition, and so to leaue of, vntil he be better broken, and made mete to be run. Which whan he is, you shall vse this order folowinge: Ryde him into some fayre playne sandy way, voyde of al stumbling stones, and to acquaint him with the waye: Pace him faire and softly the length of a good Cariere, which must be measured, according as the horse is made. For if he be a mightye puissaunt horse, and great of stature: Then the Cariere would be the shorter. So likewise must it be when you wold haue him to bound aloft in his Cariere: But if he be made lyke a Iennet, or of a middle stature: then the Cariere path maye be the longer, yet not ouerlong. At thende whereof, let hym stop and aduaunce, and at the seconde bounde turne hym faire and softly on the right hand, & so stay a litle while. Then sodenly saying with a liuely voice Hey or Now, put him forward with both spurres at once, forcing him al the way to run so swift∣lye and so roundlye, as he can possiblye euen to thende, to thintent he may stop on his buttockes. That done, tourne him on the left hand, and pace him foorth faire and softlye vnto thother ende of the Cariere path, and Page  [unnumbered] there stop him and turne him again on the right hand, as you dyd before, and so leaue.

And note that the chiefest poyntes to be obserued in the running of a Cariere are these: first to see that the horse gather roundlye, and go smoothlye awaye, bea∣ryng his head stedely: Secondly, that he runne swift∣lye: and thirdlye, that he stop lightlye. Whereunto you shall bring him, by no meanes so wel, as by often vsyng him to tread the rynges with a very swyft trot, which shall make hym so nymble of his legges, so swyfte, and so staide of heade, as when he cometh afterward to bee run, it shalbe no griefe vnto hym: whiche was well ob∣serued by the great rider M. Cola Pagano. Who vntil he sawe his horse well stayde of heade, and throughlye broken, he woulde neuer run him. For after that he had spent foure monethes or halfe a yere, yea, & perchaunce a whole yeare in breaking him, in such order as I haue heretofore taught, he woulde teache him to run in lesse then .viii. dayes, and that so swyftlye, so smoothlye, so stronglye, and with such stedines of head, and lightnes at stoppe: as it could not be amended. Yea and when he woulde haue an horse texcell, and be verie fine in deede: he woulde teach him nothinge from the beginninge to thending, but that he shoulde do it first perfectlye well vpon a soft pace, and then vpon a trot, & seldome or ne∣uer vpon a gallop, vnlesse necessity so forced. And aboue al things he would be sure neuer to manege hym with a swift gallop, nor yet to make him passe a Cariere. But after that he sawe him perfect in the rest, he would ap∣point him to his Ryder, who coulde require nothing but the horse was redy to do it, were it to manege with Page  48 single tourne or double tourne, or runne as manye Ca∣rieres as the Rider woulde haue him, with suche order and tyme as it was marueylous to behold. And as I woulde not haue you to run youre horse before he bee throughly broken: so after that he can runne, I woulde not wysh you to exercise him therin aboue once in two monthes. Yea, and if it were more seldome, the better, and specially if he be naturally harde of mouth.

For nothing doth distemper an horses head and mouth so muche as often runninge, and it greatly diminisheth his strength, and if his hinder legges be weake, it ma∣keth him also to ouer reche, whiche is verye perillous.

¶The order of boundinge aloft, or leapinge, howe and when you shall teache youre horse to leape. Cap. xxvii.

ALthoughe the rules before taught, do suf∣fice to make a horse of seruice. Yet if youre horse be lighte, a Stirrer, and nimble of nature, you maye besydes these, for pleasures sake, teache him many other pro∣per feates. As to bounde aloft, and to yarke withall, to gallop the gallop gallyarde, to fetch the Capriole, to do the Coruetti, and suche like sautes, whereof I pourpose here somwhat to treate, thinkinge it nowe meete so to doe, and not before, because that vnlesse youre horse be first perfect in the foremer lessons, it were in vayne to teach him any of the lessons folowing. And first as tou¦chinge leapynge or boundinge alofte, you shall vnder∣stand, that to do it with a good grace, and as it ought to be done: The horse had not onelye nede to be made Page  [unnumbered] light by art, but also to be light by nature, for in his lea∣ping, he must aduaunce him selfe, gathering his bodye round together, and rise euen from the grounde, keping his head at one staye, and in his due place. And when he leapeth, he must yarke withall. Which if you would haue him to do at the stoppe: you shall helpe him in hys aduauncyng, and speciallye when he riseth aloft, at the second bounde, with theuen stroke of your spurres, and with your voice, yea and with your rod also, by striking him therwith, somtime behinde, on the midde rompe, and somtime on either side of his rompe, where he see∣meth most to hang, and if he rise not lightlye inowe be∣fore: then beate him therwith vpon the right shoulder, by meanes of which helpes, you shal see him immediat∣lye to bounde cleane aboue grounde, gathering his bo∣dye shorte together, and to yarke wythall. And note by the way, that the helpe of the caulfe of your legges, will make some horse to rise higher then the helpe of youre Spurres: therfore in suche cases your owne discretion must be vsed. But in the beginning, so soone as he hath made one true sault or leape, and yarked withall, forget not to make muche of him, suffringe him to stay vpon it a good while, wythout molestynge him anye more for that time, yea rather you shall do verye well to light of his backe euen there. And so cause him to be ledde from thence faire and softlye into the Stable, or at the least, if you will not light of, to depart with a soft pace: So shal you encourage him against the next time to do the like, or els better. For vntill youre horse vnderstandeth youre minde, and knoweth perfectlye the order of lea∣ping, and howe to gather vp his bodye short and round Page  49 together: it is not good to force him ouermuche, but on∣ly at thende of his pace, trot, gallop, or Cariere, to help him as I shewed you before, to make twoo, three, or fower leapes, and no more, so shall they be both loftye and semelye.

Whereas otherwise in makinge manye, he maye hap to do theym faintlye, layselye, and without anye good grace. Yea, and perchaunce not without daunger of rearing right vp, wherin a hanging grounde would do good seruice. But then at the first it woulde not be to muche enclininge, or ouer stepe downe. Notwithstan∣dinge, if your horse be light and a sterer by nature: you maye take the more of him, and encrease the number of his lessons as you shall thinke good. Hauing then only care that he kepe his grounde, that he springe oute on neither side, nor disorder his head, but beare it stedely. In whiche thinges he must be made perfect before, by often trottinge the ringes in suche order as is before taught. And then beinge staide of heade, you may by vsing the former helpes, cause him in a lusty strong gal∣lop at euerye twoo paces ende, to bounde aloft, once or more, as you list your selfe, but so as he may doe it well, keping one selfe time and measure from the beginning to thending, and that the last leap be with no lesse force then the first, but with more force, if it may be. And ther¦fore the number of hys leapes, and the lengthe of hys race woulde bee measured accordynge to the Horses strength, and as he is in breath, and able to endure. And this kinde of gallop, is called the gallop gallyard.

And when your horse is once perfect, you nede not to galloppe him but seldome, so shall he galloppe the more Page  [unnumbered] stronglye, which would be done when you come out of the ringes. In the which for that cause, you must trot him at that time the fewer times about. And so you shall see that at his comming out, he wil enter into his gallop with a lustye courage, and bounde all the waye of his owne accorde, at euery .ii. paces ende, euen vntyll he come to the place of stoppe, or at the least, if he doth not this, I am sure that helpinge him but onlye with youre voyce, he will not faile to fetche .ii. or .iii. leapes at the stop, without any more businesse.

¶Howe to teache your horse to do the Capriole or Goates leape, and the Coruetti, and also howe to make him goe side∣linge so well with hys whole body, as with hys rompe only. Cap. xxviii.

CApra in Lattin or Italion, is a beast, which we cal a goate. Which beast being disposed to playe, vseth in his running a pretie kind of iumping and doublyng with his legges aboue grounde, makynge a certayne sem∣blaūce of yarking & yet yarketh not in ded. Which kind of saulte or leape, bycause the Italions haue not onlye counterfeited in their dauncinge, but also haue taught their horses to immitate the same (for when the horse boundeth aloft, he must aduaunce his rompe, and make as though he would yarke, and yet doe not) it is called therfore by the name of Capriole, whiche if you will, in Englishe you maye terme the Goates leape: But for so muche as Goates be not euery where to represent that kinde of leape: I woulde wyshe you therfore for youre better vnderstandinge, sometime to beholde oure little Page  50 Lambes, whilest they run and playe together, and you shall see them liuelye to do the same.

The Coruetti is a certaine continual prauncing and dauncing vp and downe still in one place, lyke a beare at a stake, and somtime sideling to and fro, wherin the horse maketh as though he would faine runne, and can not be suffred. The name is deriued of thys Spanishe worde Corua. Whiche is as muche to saye as thelbowe or hynder heele of the horse, bycause in doyng thys feat he doth labour muche vpon his hinder legges. Whych kinde of prauncyng, the Spaniardes do vse most vpon their Iennettes, and specially when they ride short af∣ter the Turkye fashion. Because in that sort it maketh the better shewe, and they esteme it so muche, as they call the horse that can do it well, in their tongue Haze∣dor, that is to say, a doer.

Thus for your better vnderstanding, I haue thought good to interprete vnto you these two termes Capriole and Coruetti, which twoo feates, because they doe not muche differ (as Gryson sayeth) there is but one order in teachinge to be obserued in bothe, wherefore yf you woulde teach your horse to do the Capriole, vse to trot him for a certaine dayes vppon some longe hill, or han∣ging grounde, and stopping him vpon the knoll of the hill, make him to aduaunce twyse together: that done, immediatly helpe him with the sound of youre lyps, to trot two paces further, and to stop, and to aduaunce a∣gaine twyse, as he did before, and so to continue in stop∣ping and aduauncing twise together, at euery two pa∣ces end, al the length of the hill downward, and there staye. Thus vsinge him a while, you shall see that after¦warde Page  [unnumbered] in stede of those two trotting steppes at euerye time that he stoppeth and aduaunceth, if you helpe him with this worde hup, and with youre rod, he wyll ga∣ther vppe his rompe twise together, and so goe from stoppe to stoppe, aduauncinge bothe his forefeete and hinderloynes, with tyme and measure, cariying his fore∣legges orderlye, and so fetche the Capriole so oft tymes together, as you will, yea and by helpinge hym wyth youre rod a litle behinde, you maye make him at euerye tyme that he so aduaunceth with hys rumpe to yarke withall. But note that if your horse be weake and feble in his hinderpartes, it shalbe best for him to make those two trotting steppes lowe by the grounde. Or elles in his lifting to obserue alwayes one tyme and measure, aduauncing therwyth orderly, without gatheringe vp his rompe, which kind of Capriole is not to be dysprai∣sed. In this sort if your horse be very light, and you your selfe therwith accustomed to ride short vpon him, after the Turky fashion: You may teach him also ye Coruetti, but if he be great of stature & that you ride longe vpon him after our fashyō, then the Capriole is most mete for him, which Capriole beyng done lowe by the ground, doth not differ much from the Coruetti, sauing that in doing the Capriole, your horse must alwayes be goyng forwarde. But he may do the Coruetti not onlye in go∣ing forwarde, but also in keping stil one place, whilst he standeth aduauncing vp and downe vpon all .iiii. feete, yea, and somtime going backewarde, and sideling, and euerye waye. And to thintent he may do it the sooner, it were not amisse sometime to make him go sidelinge with his whole bodye, by helpynge him with the con∣trarye Page  51 spur: as for example, when you would haue him to drawe to the left side, then bearing your bridle hand euen and steddy, clap your right leg close to his belley, and holde it there still, making him to feale the spur on the right side, for the whiche if you see that he moueth his bodye suche waye as you would haue him, then so∣denlye pull away your leg from thence, and make much of him, that done, make him to do asmuch on the other side with your left legge, not leauing to molest him in that sort on eyther side, vntill you haue made him vn∣derstande the meaning therof. And so with a litle exer∣cise so sone as he shal feele you to stay your bridle hand, and to offer to touche him either with your leg or spur, on the contrarye side, he will goe sidelinge so muche or so little as you will haue him. But yf you woulde haue him go sidelinge with his Rompe onelye, and not to moue his forepartes, which in dede is very necessa∣ry, and specially for a horse of seruice, to make hym kepe his heade alwayes towardes the enemye in fightinge hand to hand: then besides the foresaid helpe of the con∣trarye legge or spur, you must also tourne youre bridle hande somwhat on that side that you touche him. And you may also helpe him with your rod, by striking him therewith on the contrarye flanke behind. Note also that you may make your horse to do the Capriole in ge∣uing him a lustye gallop, if you can helpe him at euerye two steppes to kepe tyme and measure. But as I sayd before, vnlesse your horse be naturally light of his body, and nimble of his legs, it is vnpossible by art to make hym to doe anye of these thynges well, and to saye the truth, they be things that may be very well spared, and Page  [unnumbered] specially in horses of seruice, whiche beinge once vsed to such delighting toyes, do forget in time of nede their ne¦cessary feates. For whē they are spurred to go forward or to passe a Cariere, they fall a hopping and dauncing vp and downe in one place, lykewise when in their ma∣nege they should make a spedy, round, and iust tourne, eyther single or double, they will not tourne but leysor∣lye with the Coruetti, and therefore I woulde wyshe none of the Quenes maiestyes horses to be vsed vnto the Coruetti, but suche as are onelye kept for pleasure, wherof it is sufficient to haue in her highnes stable .ii. or .iii. at the most.

Thus hauing declared vnto you what is necessarye as wel for the horse of seruice, as for the Sterer, and with what order to breake theym: I thinke it meete also to shewe you nowe in the ende, how to ride suche a horse, beinge once throughlye broken in all the feates aboue sayd, to the best shewe before a Prynce or noble man.

¶How to ryde a horse to the best shewe before a Prynce, and where best standynge is for hym to see. Cap. xxix.

SOme doe thynke it good for those that woulde see, to stand right before the stop∣ping place, and some woulde haue theym to stand on the right hand of the Ryder, euen with the stoppinge place, and some on the same hand, not euen with the stop∣pinge place, but lower downe towarde the middle Ca∣riere, distaunt from the stopping place the length of a maneging course. Of all whiche three standinges, that Page  52 right before the stoppinge place, in my iudgemente is worst, for twoo causes: First for that the rowme per∣haps maye be vnmete to receyue anye number of men: Secondly, it is perillous. For if ye horse be headstronge and shoulde chaunce to breake the kirble, the raynes, or porthe mouthes of his bridle, he might run headlonge vpon the lookers on. And therfore I would not wyshe a Prynce or noble man to take viewe of a horse in that place, vnlesse it were from a house, oute of a windowe, or from some skaffolde. But rather to stand on the one syde towarde the midde Cariere, and distaunt from the stopping place the length of a maneging course, so shall he stande without daunger, and see the beginning, the middle, and ending. And it should be so much the better if he stande on the right hande of the Ryder, for so the Ryder at both endes of the maneginge path, in mane∣ging his horse, shall tourne his face alwayes towardes the Prince, and not his backe. The place of standinge, then beinge thus appointed, and the Prince there rea∣dye to beholde what your horse can do.

Ride first faire and softlye toward the Prince, to doe your reuerence: that done, depart with a good rounde trotte towarde the farthest ende of the Cariere path, bearing your rod wyth the point vpwarde, towardes your right shoulder, accordinge as I haue taught you heretofore, and beynge come to thende, let the point of your rod fall towarde the left shoulder of youre horse, and make him to tourne an haulfe tourne on the right hand: & then to staye a litle whyle, that done, passe him forward, first three or foure steppes faire and softly, and immediatlye after, put spurres vnto him, geuinge hym Page  [unnumbered] a liuelie, swift, and lustye Cariere, and passe before the Prince vnto the place of stopp, whereas after that he hath stopt, euen vpon his buttockes, then at the first, seconde, or thirde bonnde of his aduauncing, according to that kinde of Manege that you will vse, or that the horse can doe most redily, and can best endure: You shal tourne him on the right hand, and so go backe agayne in the selfe same path, the length of a maneging course, and there stop him, and tourne him on the left hande, and so obseruinge alwayes one tyme and measure, ma∣nege him to and fro, as oft together, as you shal thinke meete, but let the last stop be at thend where the Prince standeth, who shalbe then harde by you, on youre lefte hande. Or if you will, when you passe the Cariere, you maye stoppe him somwhat shorte of the Prince. And after that he hath aduaunced, putte him forwarde the length of a maneging course, and there according to the manege that you woulde haue him to make, turne him on the right hand, and so come backe againe in the selfe same path, vnto the place where you did stoppe him be∣fore, at the ende of his Cariere, and there stop him, and tourne him on the lefte hande, and so geue him to and fro .iiii. maneginge courses. And if the horse be verye strong, you may geue him .vi. And by this meanes the first and last tourne shalbe on the right hande, and the last stop also before the Prince.

You maye also stop your horse when you first run hym euen right against the Prince, or els .ii. or .iii. yardes be∣yonde hym, and so without puttinge him anye further forwarde, in his aduauncing to turne him on the right hande, and then to folowe on wyth that kynde of ma∣nege Page  53 that he can most readelye make, not passinge the number of two or fower Courses at the most, stopping sodenly vpon the last turne which must be on the right hand where he stopt first, so shal the Prince be on your left hand. And after that you haue stopt youre horse, in whiche so euer of these places it be, make him to dou∣ble on eche hande once or twise together, and imme∣diatlye after, or elles before, intertaigne him with the Capriole and Coruetti. But he shoulde do the Capriole with a liuelier courage, if he were put vnto it, before he passe the Cariere and manege, beyng both done, you may make him to double againe as before. But mane∣ging and doubling after a Cariere, belongeth to a horse of great force. Which in dede should represent in all his doinges the verye order of fight obserued in the fielde, which is but litle vsed nowe a dayes, because of the ge∣nerall weakenes of oure horses: therefore I will teache you an other order of riding your horse, to the shewe in such sort, as he shal seme to haue more strength, then he hath in dede. Which is done onlye by obseruing cleane contrary order to ye first. For wheras you did first make him to passe a Cariere, now you shall first manege him, not geuinge aboue .vi. or .viii. courses if you will haue them to be swift or of like tyme, vnlesse the horse be the stronger, for then you may geue him ten or twelue cour¦ses, and vsing any of these foresayde numbers, you shall be alwayes driuen to make the last stop where you first began. And hauing aduaūced, geue him either sixe dou∣ble turnes, that is on the right hand .ii. on the left hād two, and on the right hand two, or if you will, but thre tournes in all, wherof the first and last must be on the Page  [unnumbered] right hand. And if he can do the Capriole wel, you may cause him to do it immediatly vpon the same: neuerthe∣lesse, it were more ease for him to do it before he double. That done, go to thende of the Cariere path, and geue him a liuelie Cariere, stopping him a little before you come at the prince, who shall stand then on youre right hand, and after that he hath aduaūced, let him double as before. For it is always more ease for a horse to dou∣ble in thende of a manege, or a Cariere, then at anye o∣ther tyme. You maye also after he hath run, stopt, and aduaunced, let him breath a whyle in the selfe same place, and then geue him what kinde of manege you shall thinke good, wherin good discreti∣on must be vsed to consider the quality, strength and condicion of the horse, to thintente that order, tyme, and measure, maye be kept according∣lye.

¶Here endeth the seconde booke.
Page  54

THE THIRDE BOOKE OF THE ARTE OF RIDINGE.

¶Of the corrections of vices in generall. Cap. i.

MIndinge to treate here of the corrections of such vyces, as horses haue either by na¦ture or euill custome: I think it most mete to begin first with those vyces, that bee incident to the chiefest partes and mem∣bers of the horse, that is say, the mouth, head and necke, vpon the ordering or disordering wher∣of, chieflye dependeth the making and marringe of the horse. But for so much as the most part of the vyces of the mouth, are corrected by the qualitye of the bitte: I pourpose therefore to reserue theym vntill I come to talke of the diuersities of bittes.

¶Of the vyces of the heade and necke, and first howe to correct youre horse, when he beareth hys heade or necke awry. Cap. ii.

I Wyll shewe you diuerse wayes, wyshing you when nede requireth to proue them all, and then to vse that as your ordinarye remedye, which you shall knowe by experience to doe your horse most good. First vse to correct him with the contrarye spur, as for example, if he beareth awrye on the left hande, strike him once or twyse with the right spur, turning inward your bridle hand somewhat to∣wardes the right side. And if he beareth awrye on the right hande, then vse the contrarye order. But if he be Page  [unnumbered] verye stiffe necked on the right side, and softe plying or bowinge on the left, then vse to holde the right reane shorter then the left, in such order as is taught you be∣fore in the Chapter of the bridle and reanes in the first booke: You may correct him also by geuing him soden∣lye a chocke with the bridle in his mouth, vpon his ne∣ther gummes on the contrarye side, and you may geue hym suche chocke twoo maner wayes, that is to saye eyther by choppinge downe your bridle hande on that syde that he erreth, geuinge him the chocke on the con∣trary syde, and so to pull vp youre hande againe imme∣diatlye into his due place: Or els by turning your hand onlye inwarde, and straininge the bit harde to hys ne∣ther gummes on the contrarye side without any chop∣ping downe of your hande at all, whiche kinde of cor∣rection if it be geuen with a temperate and staid hand, it is marueilous good to correct the foresaide vice in a∣nye horse of what sort soeuer he be. It is very good al∣so, and specially when he hangeth or boweth with his whole bodye more of one syde then of another, to holde the calfes of your leg alwayes close to his bellye, on the contrarye side, nigh vnto the fore guirt, to thintent you maye be redye from tyme to tyme, not onelye to prycke him a little, with the spurre of the same legge, but also when nede requireth, to touch him therwith well and surelye. Whereof when you perceiue that he beginneth to haue some feare, and therby to amend his fault, you shall do well sodenlye to remoue your legge from that place, and in that instaunt to make muche of him. So that afterwarde if he doth but feele the caulfe of youre leg comming towardes his bellye, he will immediatly Page  55 amend his fault, & beare his head on what side you wil haue him, you may also correct ye stiffnes of his neck by beating him with your stirrup vpon ye shoulder, or with your fote vnder the fore shoulder, vpon ye same side that his necke is so stiffe, which will make him to loke that waye, to see what is yt so greueth him which whilst he doth, let slacke the contrary reane, & sodenlye pull away your fote, & make much of him, & vsing him so a while, you shal make him both to know his fault, & also to a∣mend the same. It is good also to correct him with the rod by striking him therwith on ye contrary side, either in ye flanke or els more forward nygh vnto ye fore guirt. But the correction of the contrarye spurre is of a more efficacye, and muche more commendable, notwithstan∣ding for a nede you maye vse both, and in any wyse for∣get not whēsoeuer he hangeth more of thone side then of another, to holde alwayes the contrary reane shorter then the other, but otherwise let the reanes be always euen. And to the intent you may beare theym alwayes euen from the beginninge: Ride a younge horse at the first with false reanes, which you maye for the correcti∣on of your horse make short or long of anye syde at your pleasure, and yet hold your ordinarye reanes alwayes euen together, and of one length, as I tolde you before in the Chapter of the bridle and reanes, and note, that it is exceadinge good to vse these corrections, whilest you make your horse to tread the ringes, so often about on both handes as you shall thinke moste requisite for his strength. And yf he be verye harde of necke on the right side, it shall not bee amysse whilst he treadeth the right ringe to laye your right hande vpon the middest Page  [unnumbered] of the right reane, and by straininge it harder then the other, to make him to holde hys necke that way whe∣ther he will or not. And if he be harder on the left side then to do the like with your left hand, whilst he trea∣deth the left ring, making your right hād for that tyme the bridle hand: Notwithstanding it were more sight∣ly to shorten the left reane without shifting your hand, in suche order as I haue tolde you before in the first booke. And to thintent you maye force him the more to come wholye on that side that you would haue him, it were not amisse in some place where none may see you, to counterpayse him by bending downe your body and head on the selfe same side that the horse is stiffnecked, staying your legs so as ye fall not, beholdinge alwayes his eye on that side, wherewith also he wyll looke you in the face, and therby shalbe forced to correct his owne fault, in tourning his necke that waye that you would haue him, which kinde of counterpaising you maye vse somtime in riding him in and out, the length of a mile, yea, and also somtime when he treadeth the ringes, not forgetting to tourne your bridle hand also accordingly. But if you would haue him to be iust of body, head, and necke, quicklye then vse to trot or pace hym to & fro, the length of .v. yardes or there about, making him at eue∣ry ende to stop and to tourne, helpinge him with youre tongue, spurre, or caulfe of your legge, on the contrarye side and sometime with the closing stroke, bearynge al∣wayes a steddy hande, which woulde be moderatelye tourned towardes the same side. And if you see that he doth not bring ouer the contrary leg orderlye, bearynge hys head & necke, euen and iust, then neuer leaue correc∣tinge Page  56 of him with the contrarye spur all the way, vntill he come at the other ende, and there make him to turne agayne on the same hande, that he tourned on before, continuing still to trauell him on the same side, vntil he hath amēded his fault: which if he doth, then you may turne him on both handes interchaungeably, so as your first and last tourne be on the right hande. And trauell him in such sort to and fro to the number of thirtie cour¦ses, or so longe as you shall se him hable well to endure, to thintent you may leaue him with a good mouth, re∣membrynge alwayes to make muche of hym when he doeth well, and not to helpe him with the spurre, but when nede shal require, but onelye with youre tongue which must be alwais one.

¶How to correct youre horse when he beareth not right the lower part of his heade, called of the Italions Mustacchio, and may be called of vs the Mosel, whyche comprehendeth both nose and mouth. Cap. iii.

IF your horse then vse to carye his mosell a∣wrye: put three litle short nayles on the in∣side of his portsmouth, on the contrarye side, and ride him with a musroll, hauinge also .iii like nayles, yea, and if he carye his whole heade awrye out of all measure, then put .iii. like nailes also on his headstall on the contrarye cheke. For otherwise the first two corrections shall suffice. But if suche vyce hath bene long rooted in him, then all three corrections shalbe litle enough, And if the headstall and mosell, be made of double leather, you may so fasten the Page  [unnumbered] nailes betwixt the twoo leathers, as the prickes shalbe next vnto ye horses cheke, & the heades of them couered with the vpper lether. Or if you wil, you may put them in a thin plate of yron, made no broder then the leather whiche plate being fastened to the inside of the leather, shalbe the greater correction vnto him. But let him not weare those nailes aboue tenne dayes, for thoughe you take them away, yet the place wilbe so sore, where they stoode, as the horse wilbe afraide to beare his head any more awrye, thinkinge that the nailes be there still to pricke him. And note that such nayles will correct some horse if they be put on the selfe same side that he wrieth his head, so well as though they were put on the con∣trarye side: It is good also to putte suche nailes on the backe side of the linke, susteyninge the kurble hooke in suche order as I tolde you before, in the .xiiii. Chapter of the second booke. But to some horse whiche perhaps through the negligence of the rider hath accustomed to cary his nose, yea and also his necke cleane awrye, so as the muscle of his necke semeth to be naturally bent and crooked: it is requisite not onelye to vse the remedye a∣bouesaid: But also to tey the one ende of a thonge vnto the middle eye of his bitte, or to the ringe of his musrol on that side whereon he is so stiffe, and the other ende vnto his surcingle, in suche sort as I shewed you in the second booke in the first correction of the Credenza. And so to let him stand a long while together. And you maye also if you will, ride him for a certaine dayes tyed in that sort, but then the thong would be strayned som∣what straiter. Or in steade of the thonge, you may put on his headstraine, and tey the reanes of that vnto the Page  57 surcingle on his stiffe side, which shalbe of more force. And vntill he carie his head iust, let but one vse to ride hym, & such one as hath some skil, for al riders handes are not like. And therfore often variyng of handes, may make his fault incurable. Wherfore al the wayes aboue taught, are inuented to helpe him that lacketh knowe∣ledge, or hath not a staid hand. For assure your self that whoso euer hath a good iudgement, a temperate hand, and can obserue suche rules and preceptes of ridinge, as are before taught, he shall neuer neede anye of these in∣uentions, to correct either this vice or any other.

¶Certaine causes why it is better for a horse to beare his heade vnder then right out, or to caste it vp aloft, and then howe to correcte him, if he wyll not bring in his head and reane as he ought to do. Cap. iiii.

ALthoughe some do thinke it good that the horse shoulde haue his head alwayes at liberty, and not to be restrained of his naturall fiercenesse: yet I, in no wise can allowe it. For first you shall vnderstande that his foreheade is the strongest part of his head, and his nose or mosell is the weakest parte, and tenderest, the more he thrusteth out his mosell, the more he distendeth his backe, and hathe the lesse force therin. And therfore can neuer make good manege, ob∣serue time, kepe order, nor continue in breath any while together, whereas by bringinge in his mosell, and the thrustinge oute his foreheade, he aduaunceth himselfe, and gathereth strength in his backe, vnitinge his force Page  [unnumbered] together: and thereby also sheweth lightnesse and nim∣blenesse in all his doynges. Secondlye, he shall see his waye the better, and be in lesse daunger of falling when he runneth. And thoughe he shoulde fall: yet he shall be more hable to recouer him selfe agayne, then when he holdeth his mosell right out. Thirdly in runninge a∣gainst his enemye, he shall be hable to do or suffer more with his forehead, then with his mosell being the ten∣derest parte of him. Fourthlye he shall not be so apt to rere right vp vpon euerye light occasion, as otherwise he might doe. Finallye the horse that reaneth well, and bringeth in his mosell: shall alwayes be a great deale better stayd both of head and necke, and haue a better mouth, that he that beareth his mosel right out. Wher¦fore if youre horse will not bringe in his heade at anye time that you slaye him with the bridle hand, then hol∣dinge your hande still at that stay, correct him somtime with your right spur, and somtime with your left, and somtime with both spurres together. And in the selfe some instaunt, it shalbe good also somtime by thrusting him with your right hand vpon the necke, to force him to bring in his head, but if he will not yelde for all that, than by pullinge the bridle towardes you, make him to go backe about .iii. paces, and then to returne faire and softlye to his firste place, continuynge so to doe a good meanye of tymes together. And euerye tyme that he thrusteth out his nose, correct him in maner aboue said, neuer leauinge him vntil you haue made him to amend his fault. And if he be verye hard to be brought there∣vnto: it shalbe good to strike him somtime with youre stirrup vpon the shoulder, or with your foote vnder the Page  58 shoulder, holdinge it still there, to make him looke that way. But if ye se that the prycke of the spur doth cause him to bring in his head: then make much of him with∣out molesting him any more. And by thus vsynge him, you shall make him to reane as you woulde haue him, either going, or standing still.

¶ Howe to correcte youre horse when he ducketh downe hys heade, and beareth to lowe. Cap. v.

IF he ducketh downe his head whilst you stand still in anye place, then stay your bri∣dle hand, and sodenlye correct him with one spurre alone, or with both together, not sufferinge him to remoue from that place. And also if he vseth that toy going, then correct him in like maner, without making hym to alter his pace any whitte at all, Not failinge at euerye time that he so doeth, to vse like correction. And if in ducking downe his head, he beareth it more of one side then of another, correct him on the contrarye side, and not on that side whereon he hangeth. And if he be very hot and furious, then immediatlye after suche correcti∣on laye your hand vpon his necke or withers: in token of cherishinge hym, and that shall keepe him from run∣ninge awaye. And so by sufferinge, he shall learne to knowe his faulte, and to amend the same. But if youre horse vse to ducke downe his head when you stop him: then beside bearing a temperate & staid hand, you must geue him the chocke of the bridle with the right reane. And in that instaunt correcte him sometyme wyth one Page  [unnumbered] spur, and somtime with the other. That done, retourne from whence you came: And from thence trotte him, or gallop him to the selfe same place where you stopt be∣fore. And there stoppe him agayne, holdinge the right reane in the middest with your right hande, beyng al∣ways ready therwith to geue him the chocke vpon the right side of his mouth, and by mouinge the bitte faire and softly in his mouth, somtime with the same reane: make him to knowe that you holde the reane in that hande of purpose. Wherof the horse will be so muche a∣frayd, as he wyl no more cast downe his head. And vn∣till he leaueth his fault, neuer faile in this sorte, to cor∣rect him. And likewise when he doeth well, forget not to cherysh him. And though a false reane for thys pour∣pose woulde do well, and speciallye for a Colte, yet it is not so good a correction as to vse the ordinarye reane. But if to geue him the chocke with the right reane will not suffice to correct his vice, then geue him the chocke vppon both sides of his mouth with youre left hande, holding both reanes together. And by vsinge somtime the one correction, and sometyme the other, you shall make him to leaue that vice well inough.

¶How to correct that horse which doth ouerreache in his goynge, that is to saye, doeth smyte his forefeete with his hinder∣feete. Cap. vi.

THis fault is most commonlye incident to a yonge horse, and therfore besides making his shoes shor¦ter behinde then otherwise they ought to be, you must also fauour him whilst he treadeth the ringes, not Page  59 encreasyng the number of his tournes, nor quickeninge his pace, but according as his strength and breath shal require, whiche by often rydynge him a little at once, will encrease euery day more and more. And then yf he ouerreache, whilst he treadeth the ringes, correct him with the spurre on the contrary syde, to the turne whi∣che he maketh. But if he ouerreacheth in goynge right out, then correct him on that side of hys bely, whereon you see his necke to be most stiffe. And sometyme you may also correct him with your rod vpon the one or o∣other shoulder. It is good also to make him to trot or to gallop in some stony ground. Or els for want of such a grounde, to strowe the rynge pathes full of stones, of all sortes, that is to saye, bothe with great, meane, and small. And that will make him to lift his feete in suche sort as he shall seldome ouerreach. Notwithstandinge, if his houes be not very sounde and good: I would not wysh you to vse this way, for feare of riuing his houes, which of oure horseleches is called a false quarter. And of the Italions Halso quarto. But rather make hym to leaue this fault by well feding him, and by riding hym moderatelye without taking ouermuch of him at once, to thintente he maye encrease in strength and breath, whiche once had, then the gryefe of his ouerreaching, wilbe a good correction vnto him of it selfe. Moreouer if you caused the ringe path to be digged full of staires or degrees, it woulde kepe him from ouerreaching, and somtime it were not amisse to make him goe a swashe ouerthwhart the forrowes in some ground newly plo∣wed with depe forrowes. Thus hauinge shewed you dyuerse wayes of correcting this fault, I wish you now Page  [unnumbered] to vse youre owne discretion in chosynge that whyche shalbe most meete for youre horse, whose qualities you ought best to know.

¶Howe to correct that horse whiche when he is chastised for anye fault, wyth the spurre, vseth to shake hys heade or eares. Also how to know by the mo∣uing of his eares, when he is malicious∣lye disposed, and howe to correct him for the same. Cap. vii.

EUerye time that he so shaketh his heade, or eares, when he is corrected, double the strokes on the selfe same syde that you did correct him on before, neuer leauinge hym vntill you haue made him to holde his head stil, and pacientlye to suffer su∣che correction as you geue him. And in no wise let anye faulte escape vnpunished, but alwayes correct him im∣mediatlye for the same, somtime with the one spurre, and somtime with both together, and sometime with one after another. The order of all whiche strokes is taught before in the first boke in the .xi. and .xiii. Chap∣ters. If your horse in his going lifteth vp one eare, and holdeth downe the other, and fareth as though there were a fley in that eare: then I aduise you take heede to your selfe. For most commonly when he doth so, he mindeth to play you some shrewed toy, as to plunge a∣lofte, to run ouerthwart, or to fal downe, or to do some like desperate act. Wherfore sodenlye interrupt him of his purpose, by geuinge him two or three strokes with the contrarye spur, on the contrarye side to that eare, Page  60 whiche he most moueth. And serue him so, as often as he shall vse that toye: And if it be abrode in the playne fielde it shoulde not be amysse in the selfe same instaunt that you spur him: to chastice hym also wyth a terrible voyce: and by geuinge him a chocke with the bridle on the one side of his mouth. Yea and besides al this, if he be very frowarde and cursed, let not to correct him also with a good sticke by beating him therewith well and surelye vpon the heade betwixt the eares. Whych cor∣rection though he be neuer so proud and stubborne: yet being geuen but once in time, and as it should be, it wil so chastise him as he shalbe glad euer after to leue such fantasticall toyes, so long as you are on his backe. And so doyinge, forget not to make muche of him, leauynge him alwayes with a good mouth: But note that some time a flye entring in dede, into your horses eare: or the pricking of his hedstal, may cause him to shake his eare, or to hold it otherwise then he ought to do, meaning no shrewdnes at all. And then it▪ shall suffice to correcte him moderatelye with the contrary spur, only to make him that he thinke no more vpon the flye, whiche per∣haps stingeth him, or anye other thinge that grieueth him, but to forget it, and so to attende his waye.

¶Howe to correct youre horse when he whyneth, inten∣ding to strike with his heles, or to do some shrewd∣nesse, beinge in the companye of other horses. Cap. viii.

ALso if your horse when you are in the company of other horsemen chaunce to whyne, or if you per∣ceyue that he meaneth to do some shrewdnes, as Page  [unnumbered] to byte or stryke, correct him immediatly wyth the sin∣gle stroke of the contrary spur, doublyng the same accor∣dyng as occasion shal require, aswel in his going right out, as in his standinge stil. Albeit if he shew any signe of shrewdnesse towardes his felowes▪ in marching for∣ward, it were not amysse to correcte him with the clin∣ching stroke, and somtime by geuing him the chocke of the bridle, on the one or both sides of his mouth. And if that will not suffyse, then you maye all to rate him with a terrible voice, and correct him with your rod on the one or other flanke. Yea, and perchaunce it shalbe nedeful also to geue him therwith a stripe or two vpon the heade betwixt the eares.

¶Of restifnesse of the kindes and causes therof. Cap. ix.

YF a horse bee restyffe, it proceadeth for the most part through the fault of the rider, & of one of these two causes. For eyther the horse is to vyle, or elles to stout of courage. If he be vyle, then beinge ouer wearied, he will for faintnes geue ouer, and go no further. But if he be proud and stout, then felinge himselfe somwhat we∣ry and out of breath, he wil fal a leaping and yarkynge, thinking to be eased of his trauel that way or perhaps will do the like in the beginning immediatly after his rider bee mounted: And if he perceiue that his rider be afrayd of him, then he will take suche a stomacke vnto hym as he will sodenlye stay and stoppe there, inaugre his riders head. Of whiche twoo kindes of restifnes, that which proceadeth of vylenesse of courage is the Page  61 woorst▪ But there be some horses not onelye stoute and lustye of courage, but also ramege, that is to say hauing twoo mindes betwyxt going & not going, when they list. Whiche kinde of horses if they chaunce to become restyffe: they be woorse then any of the rest.

¶Remedyes agaynst restyfnes proceadyng of vile courage. Cap. x.

YF your horses restyfnes proceadeth of vyle courage, then ride him into some long way or lane closed in, on both sides with wall, dyke, quickset, or highe hedge. But at the one ende therof▪ cause certayne men to stand behind your horse with staues and stones in their han∣des. And if he will not go forwarde, then let theym so∣denlye stryke him with their staues vppon his hams, and legges behind, and likewise whorle their stones at the same places, al to ratinge him in that same instaunt with a terrible voyce. During whiche time you youre selfe must sit stil, keping silence. And let them not ceasse beatinge and cryinge oute vnto hym vntill they haue made him to go orderly forward as he should do. Whi∣che when he doeth, then immediatlye let theym staye both hand and voyce, and make you muche of hym, by clawyng him on the necke. That done, make him to go from the one ende of the lane to the other, to and fro, a∣bout eight times. And then light of his backe, or elles pace him faire and softly to the stable. And for a certain dayes, see that you vse none other order than this, vn∣till he be cleane rid of that vyce. Wherein so often as he Page  [unnumbered] doth offende, retourne you to the foresayde correction. For this is a proued and an infallible way to bring any horse from his restifnes. Whiche correction you might vse also in the plaine field, in some new plowed ground, but for werying of the footemen, whose trauell shoulde be greater there to folowe the horse euery way that he flieth out, then in a lane. And the more that your horse goeth backward whilst he is so corrected, let the foote∣men laye on the faster, and crye out the lowder. And be∣sides that, somtime it shall not be amisse to tourne hys head towardes that waye that he would so faine flee out. And so in your anger force him, by beatinge him all the waye vpon the head with a cogell, and by cryinge out vnto him, to gallop so hard as he cā driue, ye length of a good Cariere. And then turne him againe toward the way from whence you began to gallop him, & make him to go forward, correctinge him at that time, more with your voyce, then with your cogell. And if he goth quietlye, then leaue cryinge out, and make much of him. For I am sure he will be glad at length to yelde, rather then to be so beaten. But if he continue still in his fro∣wardnes, and wil not go forward, then you maye geue him halfe a turne, and immediatlye by pullinge in the bridle, make him to go backward about ten paces in so hasty wyse as you can. That done, tourne his heade a∣gaine towardes that way in the whyche he would not go forward, and then sodenlie put him forward. Which doing for the most part wil make him to take his way. And to thintent he maye be the sooner and the more throughlye corrected of this vice, you may besydes all this tey a good long corde vnto his tale, winding it a∣bout, Page  62 lyke as you do when you trym your horses taile with a ribbon or lace, the last knot whereof woulde be fastened together with some of the heares, for feare of slippinge, which knot if you can not make, then tey the vpper ende of the corde vnto the hynder buckle of the sadle, seruing the crooper, and so it shall not slip awaye. The nether ende of whyche corde must hange downe & traile after the horse vpon the ground. And when your horse will not go forward, or goth backewarde, let one of the footemen pull the corde harde vnto him, whiche when the horse feleth, the feare to be pulled and hayled will make him to spring forwarde. And so doinge the footman must in the selfe same instaunt let go the corde, and (to be sure) besides the pulling of the corde: Let the reste of the fotemen also al to rate the horse with their voyces, layinge on with their staues, and whorlynge their stones, And by vsinge him thus a while, you shall correct him of this vice well inough.

¶Remedies against restifnesse procedinge of stubbornes and stout courage. Cap. xi.

BUT if you perceyue that suche restifnes proceadeth of to muche courage and stub∣bornnesse whiche the horse hath gotten through the fearefulnes of his rider: then ryde hym into some plane fielde newlye plowed. And there if he (whilest you geue him his lesson) chaunce to stop in dede, or minde to stop, and so to become restiffe: then immediatlye all to rate him with a terrible voyce, beating him vpon the heade Page  [unnumbered] betwyxt the eares, and vpon the forelegs with a good sticke. And the more resistaunce that he maketh, in lea∣pyng, or goynge ouerthwart or sekynge to fall downe flat, or to lie downe on the one side, or to doe anye other shrewdnes, encrease you his correction so much ye more, aswell in rating him, as in beating him. And to molest him the more, geue him the ringe tournes on the one side, or on the other, or on that side wheron he himselfe doth most leane. By meanes wherof you shall so tame him, as he seinge his resistaunce not to preuaile, shall be content from thenceforth to goe quietlye and orderlye. And in so doinge, forget not to make much of him, both with your voyce, and also by clawynge him with youre hande vpon the necke. That done, trot him euen there, to and fro, about ten tymes. Then galloppe him, and last of all, pace him. Faylinge not to correct him in like sort so often as he shall offende in the lyke vyce. But note by the waye that when the horse once knoweth the correction of the sticke or cogell: it shal suffice to cor∣recte him with a terrible voyce. And speciallye yf he be ramege, and of two mindes. Against whiche fault, there is no correction of more efficacye. For the voice correc∣teth without disorder. And it maketh the horse afraid without puttinge him in despaire, whereas the cogell manye tymes maketh him desperate and faint harted. vnles he be corrected therewith in time. After whiche correction he must also be cherished, and much made of, to thintent he maye vnderstand that his vice was the cause of his correctiō. For the rod vsed in this sort hath no small vertue. And note that though the corrections taught aswell in the laste Chapter as in this, maye in∣differentlye Page  63 serue to correct this vice, proceadinge of a∣nye of the two causes aforesaid, yet they be more kindly vsed when eche vice is corrected with his proper cor∣rection according to the order aboue declared.

It is possible also that you maye correct this vyce, by holding a sharpe nayle in your hand, to prycke him con∣tinuallye behinde on the rumpe, neuer remouinge the nayle from thence, for anye resistaunce or striuinge that he maketh, vntill he hath left his stubbornnesse, and is content to go quietlye. Whiche done, take awaye youre hande, and claw him with the same immediatlye vpon the necke. That done, you may pace, trot, gallop, or ma∣nege him as you shall thinke good.

¶Other corrections to bee vsed agaynste restyuenesse when the ryder lacketh art, and knoweth not by order of ridynge, how to get the mastrye of his horse, and to make him to know his fault. Cap. xii.

LEt a footeman stande behinde you with a shrewed cat teyed at the one ende of a long pole with her belly vpward, so as she may haue her mouth and clawes at libertye. And when your horse doth stay or go back∣ward, let him thrust the Catte betwixt his thyes so as she may scratch and bite him, somtime by the thighes, somtime by the rompe, and often times by the stones. But let the footman and all the standers by, threaten the horse with a terrible noyse, and you shall see, it will Page  [unnumbered] make him to goe as you woulde haue him. And in so doyng, be redy to make muche of him.

Also the shirle crye of a hedgehog beyng strayt teyed by the foote vnder the horses tayle, is a remedye of like force, which was proued by Master Vincentio Respino, a Napolitan, who corrected by this meanes an olde re∣stiue horse of the kinges in suche sort as he had muche a do afterward to kepe him from the contrarye vice of runninge awaye.

The like correction also may be geuen with a whelpe, or some other loud criyng and biting beast beinge teied to the crooper, so as he may hang down vnder the hor∣ses taile, hauing a longe corde fastned vnto him Which cord passing betwene the horses thyes, ye rider shal hold in his right hand to molest the horse therwith, by pul∣ling it, & letting it go as he shal se it nedeful. Or in stede of such a beast, there may be teied a pece of iron of a fote in length, or more, and three fingers brode, made full of prickes like thornes, with a corde fastened therunto as before. But note that all these wayes rehersed: are not to be commonlye vsed but onelye in time of neede, and that with great discretion. For otherwise you shall but amase youre horse, and driue him into despare, so as he shall neuer vnderstand your meaninge. And to saye the truth, they are of litle importaunce in respect of the re∣medies taught before in the last chapter. And therfore I woulde wishe you chieflye to vse them beyng suffici∣ent alone. I warraunt you to correct anye maner of re∣stiuenes. Neither do I allow the waies that men were Page  64 wont to vse in olde time. To correcte a restyue horse by teying a cord with a riding knot vnto the horses stones which corde passed vnder the horses bellye vnto the ri∣ders right hand, holding the same, & straining it when nede did require. Whiche in dede is more hurtful then profitable: and therfore not mete to be vsed but in some extremetie, for the correction of a stubborne horse, accu∣stomed to fall downe in the water. Of which vice we shall treate hereafter at large.

¶Of the contrarye vice vnto restyuenesse, whych is to run awaye, of the causes thereof, and howe to correct the same. Cap. xiii.

THe vyce of running awaye, doeth not onlye procead of the hardnes & euilnes of the hor∣ses mouth, but also many times throughe the fault of the rider, not hauinge knowe∣ledge, nor stomacke, as I sayde before, to tame a horse that is of to liuely a courage, and therwith perhaps hard of mouth, wherby the horse getteth an euill custome, eyther not to stop at what time as the ry∣der would haue him, or els if he stop, to stoppe without order. For redresse of which vyce you maye vse these re∣medyes here folowinge.

If you chaunce then vpon an old horse accustomed to run away when he shoulde stoppe, you muste begin to ryde him with more respect then you woulde do a colt. And first ride him into some longe way or lane enclosed Page  [unnumbered] of both sides. And there teach him to stop, first vppon a soft pace, then vpon a trot, and afterwarde vpon a gal∣loppe. And when soeuer he stoppeth, make him to ad∣uaunce withall, by helpinge him in suche sorte as is be∣fore declared in the first booke. But because of his euill custome, see that ye run him not of a longe season. And to be sure that he shall not fall, or run awaye at the stop of him selfe, when you gallop him appoint a footeman to stande before him at the place of stoppinge, with a sticke or a cogell in his hande, wherewith, after youre horse hath stopped, and aduaunced, let the footeman by stryking him softly vpon the forelegges, but seldome v∣pon the snowte, make him to go .iii. or .iiii. steps backe∣ward. Wherunto if he be vsed a while, you shal see that afterwarde so soone as he hath stopt, he seyng the foot∣man standing there, and felinge the drawinge backe of your bridle hande, he will go backe of his owne accord, without any beatinge at all. And when he is once per∣fecte as well in his stoppinge, as in his goynge backe, then gentlye geue him a Cariere, forcinge hym in his runninge, neyther with voyce, spur, nor sticke. And one∣lye when ye come nigh vnto the place of stopping, helpe him with your voyce to stop. And for ye more assurance, let the footeman in the selfe same instaunte also helpe him with his voyce, and threaten him with hys cogell. Yea, and if he perceyue that the horse wyl needes passe forwarde, let him geue him a good blowe with his co∣gell vppon the snoute, whiche blowe I beleue shall not nede, if you obserue well the order before taught. For the helpe of your voice, the pulling in of the bridle, & the sight of the footman shall suffice to make him to stop as Page  65 he shoulde do. And in so doyng, see that you make much of him, suffring him to pause a while. That done, make him to go backward, euen as you did before, when you did pace, trot, or gallop him. And after that, pace him to and fro in the cariere path, about .vi. times, staying al¦waies at the accustomed stopping place, and so depart, & see that you run him no more of a good whyle after, but only vse the order aboue declared, vpon a soft pace, trot, or gallop, not forgetting alwayes to haue a foote∣man at the place of stop, whyche footeman besides his cogell, may also haue stones in hys hande, to whorle at the horses snout, when neede requireth, whiche I doe seldome or rather neuer allow, vnlesse he hathe the ste∣dier hande, or if you will, you may cause two footemen to stande before him, eche of them hauinge a good longe staffe in his hande: At the vpper ende wherof, would be teyed a litle boundell of strawe, whyche beynge kyn∣dled, let the footemen when the horse will not stoppe, thrust them into his nose, the feare of the flame wherof flashyng before his eyes, and the fire parching his skin, together with the smoke entringe into hys nose, will make him to stop. But though this correctiō for a nede, is verye good: yet I woulde wishe you to vse the order before declared, which is sufficient I warraunt you, to make him stop with the bridle onlye, without the helpe of anye such extreme remedye.

It hath bene seene manye tymes that some Ryder hath corrected his horse of this fault, by runnyng him in the plaine fielde out of breath, continually beatynge him and spurrynge him in hys angre, so as the horse Page  [unnumbered] hath bene glad to stoppe of him selfe, whiche correction hath taken so good effect, as the ryder geuinge him a iust Cariere the next daye folowyng, hath made him to stop with the least pullinge in of the bridle that might be. But this correction is verye perillous, and inoughe to kil a horse, and therfore is not mete to be vsed, but on∣ly when he beinge to stubborne doeth ouermuche force you, and wyll nedes run awaye with you whether you will or not.

Besides the first order aboue rehersed, for his better correction, you may also bitte him according to the qua∣litie of his mouth, wherof we shall treate herafter. And vnto that bit, or to anye other, you maye fasten a corde, which must passe betwene his gummes, and his nether lyp, in such sort as I shewed you before, in ye second boke in the third correction of the Credence. Of which corde when his mouth is once throughlye corrected, he shall haue no nede▪ nor yet of any other helpe, but of the bri∣dle onelye. But in anye wyse lette him continue in his ringe tournes, which beinge ended, vse hym to stoppe, and to aduaunce vppon the knoll of some hill downe∣warde.

And note this by the way as a general rule, that the correction of the footman with sticke or cogell is neuer to be vsed but when some great necessitie requireth it For it may make the horse to fearful, onles the foteman haue the more skill, and canne obserue in his correction both time and measure.

Page  66

¶Howe to correct that horse that wyll rere ryght vp when he is corrected for any fault wyth a stycke vppon the heade. Cap. xiiii.

AS often as he vseth thys vice, fayle not you in ye selfe same instant that he ryseth and hangeth aloft, to beat him well and surelye with a good long sticke vpon the forelegges somwhat beneth the knees, yea and if he be very much accustomed to this vice it shall not be amisse somwhat before he riseth to geue him one blowe vpon the legges at the lest. And for the more suretye, and to make him the more afraid, it shalbe nedeful to beare the rod with the point down∣warde right before his knees, alwayes in hys sight. And being corrected a while after this sort, you shall see that he shall leaue that fault well inough.

¶Howe to correct that horse that wyll fall downe to the grounde when he is a litle werye or prouoked to doe anye thynge whych he would not willingly do. Cap. xv.

CAuse some expert footeman hauinge a good cogell in his hand, to be somwhat nigh you, at such time as you ride your horse, to the intent that when he perceyueth the horse maketh anye offer to lye downe, he maye be readye with his cogell or staffe, to threaten him, and to fray him with a terrible voyce, gesture, coū, tenaunce, & by cruellie looking him alwayes in the face, more or lesse according as time & occasion shall require. Whiche wilbe suche a terrour vnto the horse, as whilst Page  [unnumbered] he looketh all amased on the footeman, he will haue no minde to lie downe, but stand styll, attending to his ri∣der: who in the meane while, must syt still in his saddel, without makinge anye noyse, or mouinge at all. After∣warde make him to trot the ringe turnes, wheras you may cause also more men to stande with staues in their handes, and to do as the footman did before. And if he will nedes fall downe there, then let theim holde hym vp whether he will or not, cruelly correctinge him, both with their voyces, and also with their staues, by bea∣tinge him vpon the heade betwixt the eares, or vpon a∣ny part of his bodye next to hande. And if this doe not correct his vice, truly the faulte is in the footemen, lac∣kinge perhaps suche terrible voyces, cruell lookes and gestures, or such order and time of correcting, as should serue the purpose. And therefore it were good for suche men to haue in their handes fiery staues made in suche sorte as is before declared in the last chapter saue one, the feare and smart wherof will kepe him from lyinge downe whether he will or not, which correction maye be vsed for a restiue horse, by fieringe hym behynde be∣twyxt the thyghes.

This vice also maye be corrected by the helpe of a footeman, hauinge in his hande a squirt full of water, which he must squirt in the horses eies, whē he offreth to lye downe, which is a good remedy also against the Credence. But these remedies last mencioned, are to be vsed by riders of small skill. For an expert Ryder will correct any vyce by true arte wythout the helpe of any such toyes.

Page  67

¶Howe to correct that horse whiche passynge through any water wyll lye downe in the same, and what is the cause of such vyce. Cap. xvi.

THys vyce vndoubtedly proceadeth of a na∣turall disposition, incident to that horse whiche is foled vnder the signe of Leo. Whiche is a hote and fierye signe. Albeit all horses foled vnder this signe haue not this faulte in dede: Neyther can it be knowen by the Ostriche feather in the horses necke, nor yet certainelye discerned at the chaunging of his teeth, what so euer other men say, but onely by his plaine lyinge downe in the water. For the whyche faulte there is no better re∣medy, then this here folowynge.

Cause a seruaunt to ride him into some riuer or wa∣ter, not ouer depe, and appoint three other footemen with cogels in their handes, to followe him harde at the heeles into the water, to thintente that when the horse begynneth to lye downe, they maye be readye to leape vpon him and with the helpe of the Rider to force him to ducke his heade downe vnder the water, so as the water may enter into his eares. Not suffrynge hym to lift vp his head agayne of a god whyle together, but make him by main force to kepe it still vnder, continual∣lye beating him all the while with their cogels, and ra∣ting him with loude and terrible voyces. That done, let him onlye lift vp his heade to take breath and aire. Duryng which time cease not also to beat him still vp∣pon the head, betwixt the eares, which done, ducke his heade with like violence once agayne, into the water. Page  [unnumbered] And then let hym rise vp vpon hys feete. And whilst he is passing through the water, let the men folowe after, beatinge him, and ratinge him all the waye vntill he be cleane oute of the water, and then leaue. For other∣wyse it were dysorder. Then the next daye folowynge, let him be ridden againe in the same water. And so sone as hys ryder seeth that the horse maketh anye offer to lie downe, yea and somtime before he perceyueth it, let him immediatlye preuent him of his pourpose, by tou∣chinge him with his spurres, and by beatynge hym v∣pon the heade betwixt the eares, and vppon the flanke wyth his stycke, thretninge him with a terrible voyce. And you shall see, it wyll make him to forget his lying downe, and to passe through quietly. Yea, and it is pos∣sible that this correction alone wythoute the helpe of the other before declared, will suffise to bring hym from this vice. And to both these corrections, you maye also if you wil adde the helpe of ye cord teyed with a ridinge knot, about the horses coddes, whyche corde the ryder may straine and let go, accordyng as he shall see occasi∣on as well to preuent the horse of hys lying downe, as also when hys head is kept vnder the water, the griefe whereof together with the other corrections wyll the sooner cause hym to leaue this vice.

¶How to correct that horse whych is skyttish or fearefull, and wyl start at euery thyng, and whereof suche vyce proceadeth. Cap. xvii.

A Horse maye be fearefull, for that he is yonge, and hath not bene rydden perhappes where sundrye syghtes are. And therfore yf you chaunce to ryde Page  68 him through some towne or fayre, he is afrayde of euerye thyng that he seeth. Lykewise if he hath bene skared before tyme with any thyng that hath offen∣ded hym. eyther wyth noyse, sighte, or otherwise, so often as he shall heare or see the same, he wyll be a∣fraid. And finally, fearfulnes may proceade for lacke of perfect syght, whyche is woorse then all the rest. Accordyng to all whyche causes, remedies do folow here orderlye. But fyrst as touching the yong horse, whych is afraide of suche thynges as he neuer sawe before. See that in no wyse ye doe beate hym for the same, least he take the thynge that he beholdeth and shonneth, to bee the cause of hys smarte, and so be∣come more fearfull then he was before: But rather staye there a whyle, and by gentle meanes make him by litle and litle, to go towardes the thing wherof he is afrayde, whiche doynge, make muche of hym. And you shall see that by standinge sometime styl to looke vpon it, and somtyme by goyng towardes it, he shall be so well acquainted therwyth, as he wyll not feare it. And when he commeth at it, let him staye there a prety whyle together, to thintent he may be the more assured therof. But if youre horse be afrayde of anye thyng whych hath offended him before time, so as he wil by no meanes passe by it: Then see that you your self molest him no maner of wayes, but appoint some footeman standinge byhinde you, to prouoke him for∣warde, with the sounde of his lyppes, and by threat∣ninge him with his voyce, and if nede be, by beatyng him wyth a staffe vpon the rompe, and vpon the hin∣der legges. And when he beginneth to go forwarde, Page  [unnumbered] make you muche of hym all the waye. For so a yonge horse must be handled. But if youre horse be through∣lye broken in all poyntes mete for him to learne, and knoweth what all maner of corrections and helpes meane: Then if he chaunce to be afrayd of any thing, and so, sodenlye stoppeth, goinge by the waye, let not immediatlye to put him forwarde, by helpinge hym with your voyce, legges, spurres, or rod, or all toge∣ther, wythout any stayinge to acquaint him with the thyng wherof he is afraid. And that shall make him to go alwayes forward as he ought to do.

But if your horse be afrayd of anye thyng for lacke of perfect syght, then beate hym not, but rather by makynge muche of hym, encourage him by litle and litle to goe forwarde, helpynge hym sometime wyth your voyce. And if you see that he standeth doubtfull, betwyxt goynge and not goynge, then sodenlye to put all doubtes and fearefull imaginations oute of his mynde, helpe hym not only wyth your voyce, but al∣so wyth your spurres: And it wyll make hym to passe foorth wythout anye staye.

Note also that to embolden a yonge horse, so as he maye abide anye thynge, it is very good to ryde him oft in the nyght season, and in the daye tyme in some towne amongst artificers, and especiallye amongst smithes, peuterers, armorers, brasiers, tinkers, and suche lyke. And lykewise amongst furriers where di∣uers colored skyns hange in sight, and also abroad in the fyeld where deade carcasses lye newe flayne, to thintent that no maner of syght or noyse maye seeme straunge vnto him. And when so euer he wil not come Page  69 nygh any such thing, then vse ye order before declared.

It is good for a certayne dayes to lette hym weare suche a whurleguig as children run withall agaynst the wynde, made lyke wyndmyll sayles, fastned to his headstall vpon hys foretop, or on the one syde of his head, vnder his eare. For besydes that, the swyft turnynge about thereof before his eyes, doeth helpe muche to assure hym. The whitenes also of the same, whylst it tourneth about, doth take awaye those im∣pressions of shadowes from hys syght, whych before were wont to fray hym. But though thys be a great helpe to embolden the most parte of horses: yet there be some horses of suche a nature, as after they haue worne it, they wyll be the woorse for it, and become more fearfull then they were before, whyche so soone as you perceyue, vse it no more, but rather vse the meanes and order before declared.

Note also that when you vse the foresayd whurle∣guygge, you may make it of what colour you wyll, as eyther blacke, red, yealow or blewe, accordyng as you shall thynke it most nedefull, for the assuryng of youre horse.

¶Howe to embolden youre horse, and to make hym hardy agaynste other horses. Cap. xviii.

USe to encounter vpon a soft pace or trot, with another horseman, face to face, in one selfe path so as youre horses dosse not one another, least your horse receyuyng some harme become more fear∣full Page  [unnumbered] then before, yea, rather when you are almost one vppon another, yf the other horse be not fearfull, nor wyll geue place of hym selfe, then cause his Ryder to make hym to recoyle backe, by pulling in hys heade with the bridle. And that shalbe a good encouraging to your horse, and make him the bolder alwayes to goe towardes anye other horse. Or yf you wyll, you may encounter one wyth the other, rydynge in twoo sundrye pathes, the one lyinge cheke by cheke wyth∣in a foote of the other, beyng both of one length, eche of them conteynyng about ten paces, to thintent that in manegynge your horses to and fro vpon a trot, you commynge one towardes another, from two contra∣rie endes may both mete ryght in the middest of your course. And so passe one hard by another. Whyche you shalbe sure to do, if both of your horses kepe like time and measure aswell in theyr trottyng as in their tur∣nynge. And loke on what hande so euer the one tour∣neth, the other must do the same, and in the selfe same instant. And lyke order must be obserued afterwarde, when you manege them also vpon a gallop. Thus by passynge and repassyng, and oft metynge wythout iu∣stlynge: your horses shall be so well acquaynted as the one wyll not be afrayde of the other. Hauyng the companye of an other horseman, you may also embol∣den your horse whylst you trot the rynges in this or∣der folowynge. Fyrste enter both together into the right rynge, and then turnyng tayle to tayle, folowe you the ryght hande, and let hym followe the left, in the selfe same rynge, enlargyng the ryng path so, as in your metyng, whylst you go about, you may touch Page  70 one another. And when you haue gone twyse aboute the ryght ryng, enter both together into the left ring, and there turnynge tayles obserue lyke order as be∣fore. And so shyft from rynge to rynge, treadinge the same fyrst wyth a good rounde trot, and then if you wyll, wyth a gallop. And thus by often meting, both horses shalbe well acquainted, and the one assured of the other, wherby with time, your horse shall waxe so hardye, as he shalbe afraid of no horse. It is very good also to stande still with youre horse hard by the ringe, lookinge on whilst an other horse trotteth and galloppeth the ringes, or to stande right at the stop∣ping place, when another horse passeth a Cariere, or on the one syde, so as the other horse in his running, may passe harde by youre horse, and to thintent that your horse for feare, turne not away, when the other horse commeth any thing nigh him, it shalbe good to haue the companye of some other horseman, beynge mounted vpon suche a horse as is bolde, and wil not be afraide, standing a litle of from you, whose ensam∣ple shoulde be a good encouraging vnto youre horse. And to go somtime in the companye of suche a horse, throughe some Citie or towne, would be also a good boldninge vnto him.

¶Howe to make youre horse to abyde both staffe, sworde, greate noyse, gunshot, or any other thynge Cap. xix.

USe first to acquaint hym throughlie with the rod, so as he may not be afrayd therof, by often coying him therwyth vpon the necke, and by Page  [unnumbered] holdinge the point right foorth, somtime betwixt hys eares, and sometime on the one or other syde of hys heade, so as it maye be alwayes in hys syght. And when he is throughly assured of the rod: then appoint some footman hauinge a staffe in his hand, to stande in youre waye, wheras you shoulde passe. And as you are comminge towardes him, let the footman by litle and litle, make signes as though he would laye your horse on the heade with his staffe. And then encou∣rage youre horse to goe forwarde towardes the footman, who in the same instaunt must retire backe∣warde, as though he would flee away. And by vsing him so a while, you shall see that he will not be afraid of the staffe at all. And after that he can abide the staffe, make him by ye like meanes to abide the sword. But let the footman beware that strike him neither with staffe nor sworde, least you vtterlye discourage him for euer. After this you may cause thre or fower, or a great number of footemen to stand in his waye, making a great howtinge and showting before him, threatninge him with loude voices, against whome encourage him to go forwarde, first with a soft pace, secondly with a trot, and thirdlye wyth a gallop. At which tyme let the footmen retire backe, faininge to runne awaye. And if suche footemen had staues and swordes in their handes, to threaten him withall, it shoulde make him so muche the bolder.

To make him abide gunshot, or any other like ter∣rible noise, let him go harde by another horse, or ra∣ther betwyxt twoo other horses that haue bene accu∣stomed to the lyke noyse before tyme, and are afrayd Page  71 of nothinge. And as you are rydinge together, cause three or fowre dagges or archabushes to be dischar∣ged. First a prety waye of, and then nigher hand, ac∣cording as your horse beginneth to abide them. Du∣ring which time cease not continually to make much of him so well wyth youre hande, by clawyng him on the necke, as also with your voice, and so by litle and litle, you shal bring him at lēgth to abide any thyng.

¶Of the vyces of the mouth, and cau∣ses therof in generall. Cap. xx.

BEynge now come to shewe you how to correct a horse that hath a naughty mouth as well by v∣singe diuers kindes of bittes, mete for that pur∣pose, as otherwyse: I thinke it first mete to tell you the causes wherof such euilnes of mouth proceadeth, and how many vyces theron dependeth: And finallye how to correct the same. And first you shal vnderstād that a horse may haue an euill mouth, eyther because his chinne or bearde, where the kurble shoulde lie, is to harde, or the places where the bit shoulde reste on both sides of his mouth, called of Grison Le barre be to hard, or his tongue is to hard. Or cōtrariwise, for yt al these foresaid places perhaps are to tender, so as he dare not stay his mouth as he shuld do, vpō ye bit. Againe his mouth may be to litle, or his iawes may be to great, & to thicke. Of which causes do proceade diuers vices, as to draw vp the bit, with his tongue, euen as though he would swalow it vp, not suffring it to rest vpon his gūmes or bars where it shuld rest. Page  [unnumbered] Whyche vyce Gryson calleth beuer la briglia, that is to drynke the bridle, likewise to beare his tounge al∣wayes out of his mouth. Also to beare to harde vpon the bit, which in Italion is as much to saye, as Titar di bocca. Also to wrye with hys mouth, holdinge the nether part therof one way, & the vpper part another way, which in Italion is to say Far forfici: That is to make sheares. There is also another vice like vnto this, but not so foule: And that is, to wrie a litle with his iawes aloft, but not so much beneth, which Grisō calleth Gangheggiare a worde deriued of this worde Gangha, signifying the iaw. Also to defend ye bit with his nether lip, so as it can not rest vpō his barres cal∣led in ye Italion Far Chiomazzuoli. Of some of whych vices, ther be also other particuler causes, which shal be declared herafter, when we come to ye correctiōs of ye same. But Grisō saith, that whilst some haue sought to correct these vices aforesaid, by often chaunginge of rough and sharpe bittes, they haue cleane marred their horses mouthes. And therefore he wisheth you in anye wise to abstaine from all suche kinde of bits. And to seeke rather to brynge youre horse to haue a good mouth, and speciallye whilst he is yonge, by ri∣dynge him with a gentle bit, and by bearinge a tem∣perate hande, vsinge suche helpes, corrections, and cherishīnges, as are taught before, whilst you teach him to treade the ringes, with trot, or gallop, to stop, to aduaunce, to tourne, to manege, or to passe a Ca∣riere, whiche Cariere, the more seldome it be vsed, and with the lesse furie, the better mouthe shall your horse haue. For assure youre selfe, it is arte and good Page  72 order of riding, which maketh the good mouth, and not the bit. Notwithstanding the qualitye of the byt is not vtterly to be reiected, yea, rather when the horse beginneth to waxe perfect in his doinges, and is well broken, and somwhat staid of head, it shalbe very necessarye to ride him with suche a bit, as shall be most mete to serue his mouth, be it hard or soft, to thintent he may beare the lighter, and with the more stay, and also be the more subiect to his rider. For the which cause Grison hath set forth in figures. L. sun∣dry bittes together with the names and vses of the same, as hereafter shalbe declared. But for so muche, as certaine vyces of the mouth, may be corrected as well by other meanes, as by the helpe of diuers bits. I will first declare those kindes of corrections, and then afterward, treate of the correcting with bittes, and therwith shew you al the kindes, names, partes, and properties of the same.

¶How to correct that horse which wyl eyther draw vp the bytte wyth hys tongue, or defende the same wyth hys neyther lyppe. Cap. xxi.

TAke a pece of whip corde, about a spanne long, and tey the one ende therof vnto the eye of the bit, vnder the kurble, that done, tourne downe the horses nether lyp, to thintent you may easely bringe the corde betwixt his said lip, and his nether gummes, vnto the other eye of the bit, and there to be tyed and fastened, and the more the corde bee streyned, the harder and Page  [unnumbered] stronger shal the bit be. And if the knots at both en∣des be handsomlye knyt, no man shall perceyue the misterye therof. Or if you wyl, in steade of the corde. you mai there put a litle cheane. And by this meanes not only the vyces aboue rehearsed, are throughlye corrected, but also mani times diuers other vices, as the putting out of his tongue, the bearing hard vpon the bit. And also the hardnes of his barres, so as he shalbe hable therewyth to make no resistaunce. And suche corde or cheane will doe as much, being put to a plaine Cannon or scache, as if it were put to a har∣der bytte.

¶Howe to correct that horse, which wyll mowe or wrye wyth hys mouth, and the causes wherof such vyces doth proceade. Cap. xxii.

THough this vice doeth chieflye proceade of the noughtines of the horses mouth, yet many times the ridinge him with to high a port bit, whyche perhaps the horse can not suffer, may be cause thereof, or the di∣stempred hand of hys ryder, not knowynge howe to handle him & to make him to suffer the bridle of what mouth so euer he be, harde or soft. But to remedye the same vyce proceadynge of the firste cause, vse to ryde hym wyth a musroll strait buckled to hys head. And so often as he moweth wt his mouth, correct him first with one spur, and then with another, but most with the spurre on the contrarye syde. And sometime also geue him the chocke with the bridle, vpon the one or other, or els vpon both sydes at once of hys mouth, Page  73 bearynge alwayes a steddye and a temperate hande. Yea, and for his more correction, you may also some∣time stryke hym with youre stirrup, or foote, vnder, or vpon the shoulder on the contrarye syde. Not fai∣ling to correct him somtime one waye, and sometime another, so often as he shal offend. And at length you shall bring him from that fault well inoughe. But if the port of his bit be the onely cause of this vice, then you shall not nede to vse these corrections, but onlye to ryde him wyth a close bitte, or not so open, beinge harde or softe, accoryng as the horses mouth shall re∣quyre, wherof we shall nowe immediatlye treate.

¶Of the kyndes of bittes together wyth their names and partes belonging to the same. Cap. xxiii.

OF byttes some be close, and some be open. The open bittes are otherwyse called of our bitmakers port byttes. Of whyche portes some are whole and some are bro∣ken. Again of the broken portes, some are fashyoned lyke geese neckes, and they be rounde. And some lyke Cattes fete: and they be square. Of which square portes so manye as are made with Oliues, peares, or campanelles, Grison calleth them Cattes fete. But oure bitmakers do call all kinde of square portes, vpset mouthes without anye difference, also some of the broken portes and vpset mouthes, are loc∣ked together with one plyght within another, some wyth a riuet nayle, and some with a pece. And accor∣dinge as euerye byt, as well of the close, as open, is fashioned, so is it named. And therfore some are caled Page  [unnumbered] Canon bittes, some scaches, some melon bittes, some peare bittes, some campanels or bel bittes, some ba∣stonets, and some Cattes feete. Of whych names, the first fower are all redye well knowen vnto our bit∣makers, through the helpe of old Alexander the Ita∣lion rider who taught them first, both the shapes and also the names of the same. And sins that time they haue also learned to make all the rest of the bittes, though they haue not so many proper names for thē, as Grison geueth them, wherefore suche names as they haue not, I trust it shal not greue them to learne now at Grisons hand. And specially I englishing thē so aptly as I can, vsyng therin I am sure for the most part their owne tearmes. For I haue not bene negli∣gent in learnyng at their handes, how to call euerye part of the byt by hys proper name, as the chekes & eies therof, the Ieiues, the rols, ringes, and buttons, the whole porte, broken porte, or vpset mouth, with one plight within another, or wyth pece, the trench, the flappe, the top roll, and the water cheyne, the ne∣ther cheines and the kurble, and diuers other termes belongyng to their art, not here nedeful to be rehear∣sed. Note also that of the broken portes and vpset mouthes, some be complete, and some be not. The cō∣plete be those, which haue both water cheines, & also trenches aboue. For ye others haue but the one or tho∣ther, only. And for that cause I thinke Grison calleth thē but halfe bits, as the half Canon, the halfe scach, the halfe Cats foote. &c. But besides all thys, he tea∣cheth you of what fashyon the Cheekes ought to be made, to serue diuers mouthes, eyther short or long, Page  74 right out, or compassed. Also of what heyght the vp∣per eyes of the chekes ought to stande, and how high the broken portes and vpset mouthes oughte to bee, and whyche kinde of closinge is beste, eyther with one plight wythin another, or wyth a riuet naile, or wyth pece, and also how the whole port ought to be made: And finally how the kurble ought to be made. But for so much as the chekes and eyes therof, and also the kurble are members common to both kindes of bittes, so well to the close as open, I wyl therfore first treat of them, and then of the rest in their places, because the shapes of the close byttes shalbe first pre∣sented vnto you. And next to them, the broken portes vpset mouthes, and Cattes feete. And last of all, the whole portes, as well wythout trenches, as wyth trenches aboue.

¶Of the chekes and eyes of byttes, and also of the kurble, and howe they ought to be made. Cap. xxiiii.

VNtyl your horse then be throughly stayd of heade, and specially if he beare to low, and bryng hys head in to muche, lette the cheekes of youre bridle be right out: and not compassed. For the ryghter they be, with the nether endes comming to the manward, the lesse the brydle shal force the horses head, yea rather it shall make hym to carye his head the hier, and his mosell the more outwarde. But the more compassed the chekes be, with the nether ende shootyng out for∣ward, Page  [unnumbered] the more they bring in hys heade. And therfore when the horse is once throughlye stayde, it shall be most mete to vse the compassed chekes, which besy∣des makyng the horse to reane kindly, doe also geue the better grace vnto the bitte in hys mouth, and doe make it the more comlye and sightlye. Agayne, suche chekes must be long or short, accordyng to the great∣nes of stature and strength of the horse. And also part¦lye according as he beareth hys heade. For if he be great of stature and weake of backe, or carieth hys heade lowe and not steddy, then the chekes would be somewhat longer then they be commonlye vsed, and that shal make him to beare high. Albeit such length must very seldome be aboue a span. For onles necessi∣tye so requireth, it is better that the chekes be short, then long, so that comelynes touchinge the stature of the horse be obserued. And note here by the way, that according to Grison, the cheke called of him La guar∣dia, is onely that part, whych extendeth from the ne∣thermost eye, susteyning the Ieyue downewardes. For al the rest vpward, he calleth Stanghetta. For the whyche oure bytmakers haue no propre name: And therfore from hencefoorth I will call it the heade of the cheke, which head conteineth the great eye, wher¦vnto the Ieyue is fastened, and a lyttle hole aboue that, for the water cheane, and also the vpper eye, wherunto the portesmouth is put, which heade toge∣ther with the vpper eye, if it mount hygh, it maketh the horse to beare hygh, both with necke and heade. But if the heade be shorte, so that the eye standeth low, then it causeth a contrary effect. But onles some Page  75 necessitye did otherwyse force, I woulde wyshe it al∣wayes to he in a meane, neyther to hygh nor to low, but aunswerable to the rest of the bitte.

¶Of the kurble.

NOw as touchyng the kurble, it would be good and strong, and made with round linkes, fashio¦ned in thys sort like an. S. Neither do I allow for the most part anye other fashion to be vsed than thys, how hard or tender, soeuer the horse be of chinne or beard. For the more that a harde chinne is broken with roughe kurbles, as those be whyche are made with square linkes and sharpe poynted, like diaman∣tes: the harder hys chyn wylbe, throughe the cornye fleshe whiche wyll growe theron, when it is whole. And so make the horse to care lesse for the brydle then he did before. And agayne on the other syde, thoughe the horse be neuer so tender of chyn, yea, and also ve∣rye tender of his barres or gummes, whych kinde of horse is very hard to fynde, yet I woulde haue ney∣ther his bit nor his kurble to be couered with cloth, as some men vse to do. For thoughe he be so tender in dede, yet it is not that whych wyll geue him boldnes to staye his mouth vpon the bitt as he should do, yea rather I woulde wyshe you for a certayne tyme to ride him without anye kurble at all. And when ye see that he begynneth to staye somewhat vpon the bry∣dle, then make him a kurble of double fillet lace, o∣therwyse called ynkle, of an inche brode, teying it no strayter, but so as it may kepe the bytte alwayes at Page  [unnumbered] one stay in hys mouth, whych fyllet, when he is once perfect, you may take away, and put in steade therof, the kurble before declared. Or if you wyll, you maye make him a kurble flat and smoothe, lyke a flaggon cheane, and that perhaps shall offende hym lesse.

¶ Of close byttes, for what mouthes they are most mete, and also what vyces they do correct, whych vyces you shall eas∣lye fynde by the tytles folowynge, and the fashions of the byttes, by the numbers set in the margent, answerynge the numbers of the fygures orderlye, set altogether in the lat∣ter ende of thys booke. Cap. xxv.

FIrst then you shall vnderstande that close bittes are onlye mete for horses of a good nature, at the leaste of not to frowarde a nature, whose mouthes suche byttes may easlye frame: yea, and some of theim are more meete to be vsed in the fyrst breaking of a horse, then anye other bytte, as I tolde you before in the first booke, wyllynge you to ryde youre horse firste wyth a Cannon bytte with right cheekes, of what mouth soeuer he be, yea, and vntil he be throughlye stayd of head, and perfect in all his doynges I would neuer haue you to chaunge it.

For a gentle mouth.

But afterward if your horse haue a gentle mouth, then you may ride hym wyth a Cannon, hauing com∣passed chekes.

For a mouth somethyng harde.

If his mouth be somwhat hard, then you may ride Page  76 hym wyth a scache.

For a tender mouth, and not great.

If his mouth be not greate, but tender and good, [unspec 3] then besydes the foresayde byttes, you may very wel vse a smooth melon byt, hauing onely a water cheane aboue. And such melons maye be made lyke oliues.

Agaynst defendyng wyth the lippe.

Take a melon bit, let the melons be somwhat roun∣der [unspec 4] and greater, hauynge on eche out syde a playing rynge, or els two rynges next vnto ye middle ioynt as [unspec 5] you may se in the .iiii. and .v. figure. But it were more to the pourpose to take a peare bytte or a round cam∣panell, otherwyse called a round bel byt or els a flat [unspec 6] campanell: I call it flat, because the endes therof are [unspec 7] not rysinge and embossed out as the other is. And let not the peares of the peare bit, or the belles of the bel [unspec 8] bit, be made wt manye edges or squares, for they are [unspec 9] naught, but let them be smooth & round. And if either of them haue a playing ring on the out side, it shal be [unspec 10] so muche the better to kepe hys lyppe away. Or els [unspec 11] twoo playinge rynges next to the middle ioynt, of all [unspec 12] whych fashions you haue example in the .6.7.8.9.10.11.12. fygure.

¶For the same fault, and for holdyng out his tongue.

You may also take for the same vice a scach wyth a [unspec 13] turninge rolle or button on eche side. And the greater suche rolles be, the harder shall the byt be. Albeit I would wyshe them to be of a meane bignes, yea ra∣ther to be small and not verye hygh rysinge. At then∣des wherof on eyther side next vnto the middle ioint, may be put twoo playing rynges, yea, and if the rols Page  [unnumbered] or buttons be not ouer broade, you may put thre plai∣ynge rynges on a syde. And suche kinde of bit is very good for a horse that wyll put out hys tongue.

¶Other bittes for the former fault of the lyp, but not to be vsed verye often.

[unspec 15] THoughe some for the same faulte vse to take a [unspec 16] double peare bit, or a double campanell, that is [unspec 17] to say, hauyng two peares, or twoo belles on a syde, or els a bastonet, whych may be otherwyse cal∣led a Ieyue bit with round buttons, or rough ringes made high like wheles, Yet I counsail you not to vse them but verye seldome, and speciallye the bastonet, with rough ringes.

And note that though round melon bittes, campa∣nelles, scaches and bastonets with buttons, be close byttes, yet they be somwhat lyke vnto the open bits, in that they partly geue liberty vnto the tongue. But beware that you make none of these bittes or anye other wyth a gagge or spoone in the midst, as was vsed in olde time, and yet is at these dayes, in some places of the worlde, for that is very naught. But if you woulde geue your horse some thynge to play on, then in steade of such gagge or spoone, you may place in euery one of these bits, a playinge ryng or two, on eche syde next vnto the middle ioynte. And thoughe there were none at all, it made no great matter.

¶Of open byttes in generall. Cap. xxvi.

HAuing sufficientlye spoken of close byttes, how they ought to be made, and whereto they serue: Page  77 I purpose now to speake of the open bits, otherwise called port byttes, whyche be of more value, because they set the tongue at more liberty, whych can make no resistaūce, the bit being out of his reach. Yea, these byts be so proper to correct any vice of the mouth, as by the helpe of them ioined wyth art, and good order of rydinge, anye horse maye be made to haue a good mouth. And fyrst beginning with the broken portes, & vpset mouthes I wyll shew you how suche portes and vpset mouthes ought to be made, and howe they may be locked, ioyned or fastned together, and which kynde of lockynge is best. And then what vices they do correct, obseruing for the finding of the vyces, and fashions of the bits, the order before declared & kept.

¶Of broken portes and vpset mouthes, how they ought to be made, and what vyces they do correct. Cap. xxvii.

YOu shal vnderstand then, that so wel brokē portes as vpset mouthes ought to be made all of one pece together wyth the Ieyues, and so to ryse vp with a rounde or square, meting onlye in the top, wheras they must be ioyned together with a riuet nayle, or with one plight with in another: or els wyth a pece, accordyng as shal be most meete to serue the horses mouthe. For a ryuet or pece doth make the bit harder, then when it is loc∣ked with one plight within another. And therefore such portes as are ioined with one plyght within an∣other are metest for most mouthes. And do best staye both heade and necke. And note that the square por∣tes, otherwise called vpsetmouthes, must not be fully so wyde in the top, as they are beneath, neyther must Page  [unnumbered] they or the round portes be to hygh or to lowe, for as ouer high forceth to sore, so ouerlowe geueth to little libertye. And therfore I woulde wyshe them to be in a meane, according as ye horses mouth shall require, but so as it may geue libertye vnto hys tongue, and not hurt the roofe of his mouth, for that were a foule fault, and yet litle considered in times past.

¶For a horse that hath tender barres, and doth swalow vp his tongue.

[unspec 1] TAke a halfe Canon with a broken port, without [unspec 2] any trenches aboue. And if you wil, such a broken [unspec 3] port, may be ioyned wyth a riuet naile. But it would [unspec 4] be better if it were ioyned with one plyght within an [unspec 5] other, hauinge onlye the water cheyne aboue, accor∣ding [unspec 6] as you may see in the first sixe figures of broken portes and vpset mouthes, whereof some be ioyned with riuettes, some with one plight within another, and some with peces.

¶For a horse that hath not tender bares, and yet swaloweth vp his tongue.

[unspec 7] TAke a Canon with an vpset mouth complete, ha∣uyng trenches aboue, full of litle playing ringes, [unspec 8] beades or buttons, and suche Canon may also be ioy∣ned [unspec 9] with a pece. Or els take a halfe Canon with an [unspec 10] vpset mouth, hauing trenches aboue, fastened in the [unspec 11] place of the water cheane, or if you will, for the same [unspec 12] vyce you may take a halfe scach with a broken port, [unspec 13] or vpset mouth, wrought lyke vnto the halfe Canon, [unspec 14] as before said. Of al which fashions you haue exam∣ples [unspec 15] in the .7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14. and .15. figures.

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¶For a horse that hath somwhat hard barres, and swalloweth vp hys tongue.

TAke a scache with an vpset mouth complete, and [unspec 16] such vpset mouth may be ioyned wyth one plyght [unspec 17] within another, or els with a pece, whyche pece, as it geueth the tongue more liberty, so it maketh the hor∣ses mouth more subiect.

For the same vice, and for defending wyth the lyp.

YOu may for the same vyce make both thys scach, & also the close scach with a round welt, about ye [unspec 18] bignes of a good big packe thread on ye inside, so well aboue as beneth, which pinchyng him on the barres in his mouth, wil not only make him ye more subiect, but also let him frō defending with the lip. The fashi∣on of whiche byt is playnly set forth in the .18. figure.

For a horse that will drawe vp the bit with his tongue.

TAke a halfe scache with an vpset mouth, hauing a [unspec 19] trenche aboue in the place of the water cheyne, as you may see in the .19. figure. A half Canon also made in like sorte doth correct the same vice, whereof you had an example before in the ninth fygure.

¶For a horse that hath a litle mouth and hard barres.

TAke a Cats foote or vpset mouth complete, made [unspec 20] wyth smooth melons or olyues. But if his mouth [unspec 21] be great and harde, let such byt be made with peares, [unspec 22] or els wyth belles, otherwyse called campanels. Of all which sortes you haue examlpes in the .20.21. and 22. fygures.

¶For a horse that hath a drye mouth and harde, and reaneth lowe, and perhaps defendeth wyth the lyps.

Page  [unnumbered] [unspec 23] TAke a halfe cats foote, made wyth smoth millons [unspec 24] or wyth peares, or els wyth campanels if he de∣fendeth [unspec 25] wyth the lyp, the fashyons of which bits doe folowe the rest orderlye. And to the water cheine you may also put, if you wyl .ii. or .iiii. litle flaps, or play∣ers, to make the byt the more pleasant, that the horse may haue some sauour and delyght therin.

¶Of whole portes, how they ought to be made, and what vyces they do correct. Cap. xxviii.

THoughe whole portes ought to be rounde, and made all of one pece, and not broken, or ioyned together in the top, as the others are, yet they must be broken beneath, and ioined on both sydes vn∣to the Ieyues, wheron the peares or belles are put. For those that run whole out with their armes, with out any breakyng at all, be to roughe, and therefore neuer good nor mete to be vsed. And on the top of such porte, must hange the flap or player. Note also that of whole portes, some are made without trenches, & some haue trenches aboue. But I will shew you first the vse of them wythout trenches.

¶For a horse that hath very harde barres.

TAke a whole port wyth olyues, or wyth smoothe [unspec 1] melons. And if such melons hadde on eche out side one playing ring, it were the better.

¶For a horse that hath a great mouth and hard barres.

[unspec 2] Take a scach with a whole port.

¶For a horse that is harde of mouth, and defendeth verye muche wyth hys nether lyppe.

Page  79TAke a whole port with peares, or els with cam∣panels, the shapes wherof are expressed in the .iii. and .iiii. figures. And you maye chose whether you wyll haue suche campanels embossed out, or els flat at the endes. Moreouer as wel the peares, as Cam∣panels, may haue on eche out side a playing rolle, and therby the bit shalbe of more sorte and efficacie.

¶ Of whole portes wyth trenches aboue, how they ought to be made, and for what mouthes they are most meete. Cap. xxix.

ALso you maye make euerye one of these foresayde whole portes wyth trenches aboue, full of little rynges, beades, or buttons, whyche trenches woulde be fastened as well to the porte, as to the holes, whereas the water cheane is wont to be placed, and not to the greate eye of the cheke, where the Ieyues are fastened. As they vsed in olde time, and do styll at these dayes in some pla∣ces. And the higher the holes be, whereas suche tren∣ches shoulde be fastened, the harder shall the bitte be. [unspec 5] And so shalbe any bit hauing trenches aboue in stead [unspec 6] of the water cheane, be it Canon, scach, or any other, wherof you had examples before in the .9 and 19. fy∣gures of the broken portes and vpset mouthes. But [unspec 7] forsomuche as these whole portes, hauing trenches [unspec 8] aboue, in steade of the water cheane are verye harde bits, they are not mete therfore to be vsed, but onelye for such horses as be of a very stubborn and froward nature, and be laden wyth greate cheekes or iawes, Page  [unnumbered] hauing hard barres, and hard mouth. The shapes of which bittes, you may see in the .5.6.7. and .8. last fi∣gures, but nowe to conclude although euerye one of the byttes before rehearsed from the begynninge to thendinge, may serue as you haue hard, to some good purpose (being vsed in time) and in dede be so sufficient to correct any vyce of the mouth, wythout doyng the horse any harme, as I woulde wyshe you to seeke no further, yet do they little preuayle, vnles the Ryder haue a good discretion, and be able to discerne one mouth from an other, and to knowe when and howe muche to encrease or to diminishe the qualitye of the bit, and how to applye the same, whych if he can doe, and hath besydes that, the true art of Ry∣ding, he shall not nede the helpe of so many bits, but only of these thre, that is the Cannon, the scach, and the whole port with smooth melons, or with oliues, which three bits wyth arte do suf∣fice to frame anie horses mouthe of what sort soeuer he be.

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[illustration]
¶The shape or figure of the head∣straine, to be made of good rownde coarde.

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[illustration]
A playne Canone.

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[illustration]
A playne Scach.

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[illustration]
A smoothe Melon byt.

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[illustration]
A smoothe Melon byt somewhat rounder then the other.

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[illustration]
A Melon byt, hauing on eche side two playing ringes next the middle ioynte.

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[illustration]
A Peare bytte.

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[illustration]
A peare byt, hauinge on eache out side one playing rynge.

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[illustration]
A Peare byt, hauinge on eche side two playing ringes next the middle ioynte.

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Page  [unnumbered]you shall see it nedefull. This medicine before re∣hersed, is called of the aunciente wryters Diapente, that is to say, a composition of fyue simples, and is praysed to be a soueraine medicine and preserua∣tiue against all inward diseases, and therfore they woulde haue suche as trauell by the way, to cary of this powder alwayes about with them. There be many other medicines which I leaue to wryte, by∣cause if I should rehearse euery mannes medicine, my booke would be infinite. I for my parte woulde vse no other than eyther that before expressed, or else Wine and Triacle onely.

Of the diseases in the heade. The .xvi. Chapter.

THe Heade is subiecte to dyuers diseases, according to the dyuers par∣tes thereof: for in the pannicles, or lit∣tle fyne skynnes, cleauyng to the bo∣nes, and couering the braine, doe most properlye breede headeache, and my∣gram. Againe, in the substaunce of the braine, (which in a horse is very little or none) doe breede the Frenzie, Madnesse, Sleping euill, the taking, and forgetfulnesse. Finally, in the ventricles or cel∣les of the brayne, and in those cunduyets throughe which the sprightes animall doe gyue feelyng, and mouyng to the bodye, doe breede the turnesicke, or staggers, the falling euill, the night mare, the Ap∣poplexye, the Palsie, and the convulsion or crampe. Page  12 the Catharr or Rheume, which in a horse is called the Glaunders, but firste of headeache.

Of Headeache. The .xvij. Chapter▪

THe headeache eyther commeth of some inward cause, as of some chole∣ricke humor, bred in the panicles of the braine, or els of some outward cause, as of extreme heate, or colde, of some blow or of some vyolent sauour. Eumelus sayth, that it cō∣meth of rawe disgestion, but Martin sayth, moste commonly of colde. The sygnes be these. The horse will hang downe his heade, and also hang downe his eares, his sight wil be dimme, his eyes swollen, and waterish, and he will forsake his meate. The cure. Let him bloude in the palat of his mouth. Al∣so pourge his heade with this perfume. Take of Garlicke stalkes a handefull, all to broken in short peces, and a good quantitye of Franconcense, and being put into a Chaufingdish of fresh coales, hold the Chaufingdishe vnder the horses nosetrilles, so as the fume may ascende vp into his heade, and in vsing him thus once or twice, it will make him to cast at the nose, and so purge his heade, of all filthe. Pelagonius sayth, yt it is good to poure into his nose∣trilles, wyne wherein hath bene sodden Euforbi∣um, Centuarye, and Franconcense.

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Of the Frenzy and Madnesse of a horse. The .xviij. Chapter.

THe learned Phisitians do make dyuers kindes, as well of Frenzye, as of Madnesse, whiche are not nedefull here to be recyted, sythe I coulde neuer read in any Authour, nor learne of any Ferrer, that a horse were subiect to the one halfe of them. Absirtus, Hierocles, Eumelius, Pelagonius, & Hipocra∣tes, doe wryte simply de furore & rabie, that is to say, of the madnesse of a horse. But in dede Vegetius in his seconde booke of horseleach crafte, semeth to make foure mad passions belonging to a horse, intituling his Chapters in this sorte, de Appioso, de Frenitico, de Cardiacis, de Rabioso, the effectes whereof thoughe I feare me it will be to no greate purpose, yet to con∣tente suche as perhaps haue reade the Authour as wel as I my selfe: I will here briefely rehearse the same. When some naughty bloude (sayth he) doth strike the fylme or pannicle of the brayne, in one part onely, and maketh the same grieuously to ake, then the beast becommeth Appiosum, that is to saye, as it semeth by his owne wordes nexte following, both dul of minde and of syght. This worde Appio∣sum, is a straunge word, and not to be found againe in any other Authour, and bycause in this passion, the one syde of the heade is onely grieued, the horse turneth rounde, as thoughe he wente in a Myll. But when the poyson of suche corrupt bloude doth Page  13 infecte the mid brayne, then the horse becommeth Frentike, and will leape and flyng, and runne a∣gainst the walles. And if such bloud filleth the vay∣nes of the stomacke, or breast, then it infecteth as well the heart, as the brayne, & causeth alienation of mind, & the body to sweat, and this disease is cal∣led of Vegetius, Passio cardiaca, whiche if Equus Appiosus, chaūce to haue▪ thē he becōmeth Rabiosus, yt is to say, starke madde. For (sayth he) by ouer much heate of the Lyuer, and of bloude, the vaynes and artiers of the heart, are choked vp, for griefe and payne wher∣of, the horse byteth him self, and gnaweth his owne flesh: thus farre Vegetius. Of two sortes of mad hor∣ses I (beleue) I haue seene my selfe here in this Realme. For I saw once a blacke Sweathlande horse (as I toke him to be) in my Lorde of Hunnis∣dons Stable at Hunnisdon, comming thither by chaunce with my lord Morlay, which horse would stand all day long bytyng of the Maunger, & eate little meate or none, suffring no man to approche vnto hym, by which his doynges, and partly by his colour and complexion. I iudged him to be vexed with a melancholy Madnesse, called of the Phisi∣tians Mauia, or rather Melancholia, which commeth of a corrupt Melancholy, and fylthy bloud or humor, sometyme spread throughout all the vaynes of the body, & sometyme perhaps remayning only in the heade, or else in the splen, or places next thervnto adioyning. The other mad horse was a Roane of Mayster Asheleys, Mayster of the Iewell house, which with his teeth crushed his Maysters ryghte Page  [unnumbered] forefinger in peces, whylest he offered him a little hay to eat, wherby he lost in a maner the vse of hys whole hande, to the great griefe of all his frendes, and also of all the Muses, whiche were wonte to be much delighted with such passing sweete Musicke as that his fine quauering hande coulde sometime make, vpon dyuerse Instrumentes, but speciallye vpon the Virginalles. This horse I say thoughe he coulde eate his meate, drinke his drinke, & slepe, yet if he were neuer so litle offended, he would take on lyke a spright, and both byte and stryke at anye man that came nygh hym▪ yea and would byte him selfe by the shoulders moste tirribly, pulling away lumpes of fleshe, so brode as a mannes hande, and when so euer he was rydden, he was fayne to bee musled with a mussell of Iron, made of purpose to kepe him from byting, eyther his Ryder or him self, whiche no doubt proceded of some kynde of frenzye or madnesse, wherevnto the horse was subiecte, by meanes that hote bloude (as I take it) abounded, ouer much in him. But now as touching the cau∣ses, sygnes, and cure of a horses madnesse, you shall heare the opinion of olde wryters, for Martin ne∣uer toke such cure in hande. Abfirtus, and the other Authors before mētioned say, that the madnesse of a horse cōmeth eyther by meanes of some extreme heate, taken by trauelyng, or long standing in hote sunne, or else by eating ouer manye Fitches, or by some hote bloude resorting to the pannycles of the braine, or thorow aboundaunce of Choler, remay∣ning in the vaynes, or else by drynking of some vn∣holsome Page  14 water. The sygnes be these, he will byte the Maunger, and hys owne body, and runne vpō euery man that commes nygh hym, he wyll conti∣nuallye shake hys eares, and stare with his eyes, and fome at the mouth, and also as Hypocrates sayth, he will forsake his meate, and pyne him selfe wyth hunger. The cure. Cause him to be let bloude in his legges aboundantly, which is done (as I take it) to conuert the bloude from his heade. Notwithstan∣ding it were not amisse, to lette him bloude in the necke & breast vaynes. Then giue him this drinke. Take the roote of wylde Coucumber, and boyle it in harse redde wyne, and put therevnto a little Ni∣tre, and giue it him with a horne luke warme, or if you can get no Coucumber, then take Rewe, and Mynts, and boyle that in the wyne. It were not a∣misse also, to adde therevnto a handefull of blacke Elleborus, for that is a verye good hearbe agaynst madnesse. Eumelius sayth, that if you giue him mans dong in wyne to drinke thre morninges together, it will heale him, also take of blacke Elleborus two or three handefull, and boile it in a sufficient quan∣titye of strong Vyneger, and therewith rubbe and chause both his head, and al his body once or twice in a day, for the oftner his heade is rubbed, the bet∣ter, and often excercyse is verye profitable to all his body. Some againe woulde haue the skinne of his heade to be pearced in dyuerse places with a hote Iron, to let out the euill humors, but if none of all this will preuayle, then the last remedy is, to gelde him of both hys stones, or else of one at the least, for Page  [unnumbered] eyther that wyll heale him, or else nothing. As tou∣chyng the dyet and vsage of a madde horse, the Au∣thors do not agre, for some would haue him kept in a close, darke, and quyet house, voyd from all noyse, which Absirtus saith, wil either make him madder, or else kyll him out of hande. His dyet would be thin, yt is to say, without any prouender, and that day that he is let bloud, & receyueth hys drynke, they would haue hym to faste vntyll Euen, and then to haue a warme washe of Barlye meale, yea me thynkes it were not amisse, to feede him onelye with warme mashes and hay, and that by little at once, vntill he be somewhat recouered.

Of the sleeping euill. The xix. Chapter.

THIS is a disease forcyng the beast continually to sleepe, whether he will or not, taking his memory and ap∣petyte cleane awaye, and therefore is called of the Phisitians, Lethargus: it procedeth of abundaunce of flegme, moysting the brayne ouer much. It is easy to knowe, by the con∣tinuall sleeping of the horse. The cure of this dis∣ease according to Pelagonius, Vegetius, and others, is in this sort. Let him bloude in the necke, and then giue him this drink. Take of Camomyl, & Mother∣wort, of eche two or thre handefull, & boyle them in a sufficient quantity of water, and put thervnto a little wheate branne, salte, and Uineger, and let Page  15 him drinke a pynte of that euerye day, the space of thre or foure dayes together. It is good also to per∣fume and chaufe his heade, wyth Tyme, and Peni∣ryail sodden together in Uinegar, or with Brym∣stone and Feathers burned vppon a chaufing dish of coales, vnder his nose, and to prouoke him to neese, by blowing Pepper, and Perithre, beaten to powder, vp into his nosetrils: yea and to annointe the palat of his mouth, with Hony and Mustarde mingled together, and in his drinke which woulde be alwayes warm water, to put Parsely sede, & Fe∣nel sede, to prouoke vrine. His legges also woulde be bathed, and his Houes filled with wheate bran, salte, and Uineger, sodden together, and layd to, so hote as he may endure it, and in any case suffer him nor to sleepe, but kepe him waking, and styrring, by continuall crying vnto him, or pricking him wyth some sharpe thing, that can not passe clene through the skinne, or else by beating hym with a whip, and thus doing he shall recouer.

Of a horse that is taken. The .xx. Chapter.

A Horse is said to be taken, when he is depryued of his feeling, and mo∣uing, so as he is able to sturre no ma∣ner of waye, but remayneth in suche state or fourme, as he was taken in. Whiche disease is called of the Phisitians by the Greeke name Catalepsis, and in Laten Deprehensio, Page  [unnumbered] or Congelatio, and of Vegetius, Sederatio, which also cal∣leth those beastes that haue this disease lumenta si∣deratitia. The Phisitians say, that it commeth of a∣bundance of Flegme, and Choler, mixte together, or else of Melancoly bloud, which is a colde dry hu∣mor oppressing the hynder partes of the brayne. But Vegetius sayth, that it cōmeth of some extreme outwarde colde, striking sodenlye into the emptye vaynes, or of some extreme heate, or of rawe disges∣tion, or else of some greate hunger, caused by long fasting. It is easy to knowe by the discription be∣fore mentioned. And as touching the cure, Vegetius sayth, that if it come of colde, then it is good to giue him to drinke, one ounce of Laserpitium, with wine and oyle mixt together, and made luke warme, if of heate, then to giue it him with water and hony, it of crudite, then to heale him by fasting, if of hunger, then by feeding him well with pease. But Martin sayth, that this disease is called of the Frenche men Surprius, and it commeth (as he sayth) most chiefly of colde, taken after a heate, and he wissheth a horse that is thus taken, to be cured in this sort. First to be let bloude on both sydes of the breast, and then to be put in a heate eyther by continuall sturring, and molesting hym, or else if he will sturre by no meanes, then to bury him all saue the heade, in a warme donghill, and there to let hym lye, vntill his lymmes haue some feeling. And before you so bury him, it shall be good to giue him this drinke. Take of Malinesy thre pyntes, and put thervnto a quar∣terne of Suger, and some Cynamon and Cloues, Page  16 and let him drinke it good and warme, and vntyll he be perfectly whole, let him be kepte warme, and often excercysed, and walked vp and downe in the stable, and thinlye dyeted. and drinke nothing but warme water, wherein if you put fome Fenell, and Perslye seede, to prouoke him to vryne, it shall bee the better. And if he cannot dong, let him be raked, and haue a glister made of the broth of Mallowes, and freshe butter.

Of the Staggers. The .xxi. Chapter.

THis is a doosinesse of the head, called of the Latens Vertigo, and of the Italians as I remember, Capi∣stura. It commeth of some corrupte bloude, or grosse and toughe humors▪ oppressing the braine, from whence proceedeth a vaporous sprighte, dissolued by a weake heate, which troubleth al the heade. The sygnes be these: dymnesse of fight, the reeling and staggering of the horse, who for very payne will thrust his heade a∣gaynst the walles, and forsake his meate. The cure according to Martin is thus. Let him bloude in the temple vaynes, and then with a knife, make a hole of an ynche long ouerthwarte his foreheade, hard vnderneath his foretoppe, and rayse the skyn with a cornette, thrusting it vpwarde towardes the headstal, a good handefull, and then put in a teynt dypt in Turpentyne, and Hogges greece molten to¦gether, Page  [unnumbered] renuing the taynte euery day once, vntill it be whole, and doe the lyke vppon the rydge of the rumpe, but me thinkes it were better to do the lyke in the powle of his heade, or nape of his necke, for so shoulde the euill humors haue both wayes the easyer and spedyer passage: And as touching hys dyet, let him haue continuallye warme drinke, and mashes, and once a day be walked vp and downe fayre and softly, to excercyse his body.

Of the Falling euill. The .xxii. Chapter.

THis is a kinde of convulsion or Crampe, called of the Latens by the Greke name, Epilepsia, in Italion, il mor∣bo caduco, depriuing the beast at certain tymes and for a certayne space, of the vse of feeling, hearing, and seyng, and of all the o∣ther senses. And though it be a disease, that hath bene seldom seene, to chaunce vnto horses, of thys cuntrey, yet it appeareth by Absirtus, and also by Ve∣getius, & dyuers others, that horses be subiect there∣vnto. For Absirtus wryting vnto his frende Tiberius Claudius, sayth, that vnto horses chaunceth manye tymes the falling sicknesse. The sygnes wherof are these. The horse wyll fall downe sodenlye, partlye through the resolution of his members, and partly through discention of his synewes, and all his body will quiuer and quake, and sometyme he wyll fome at the mouth. Vegetius agayne wryteth in this sort, Page  17 by a certain course of the Moone, horses and other beastes many tymes do fall, and dye for a tyme, as well as men. The sygnes whereof are these. Being fallen, their bodyes wyll quyuer and quake, and their mouthes wyll fome, and when a man woulde thinke that they woulde dye out of hande, they rise sodenly vp, and fall to their meate. And by feelyng the grystle of their nosetrilles with your finger, you shall know whether they will fall often or not, for the more colde the gristle be, the oftner, and the lesse colde it be, the seldomer they will fal. The cure. Let him bloude aboundantly in the necke vaynes, and within fiue dayes after, let him bloude agayne in the temple vaynes, and let him stande in a warme and darke stable, and annoynt all hys body, wyth comfortable oyntements, and his heade and eares with oyle de Bay, and lyquid Pitch or Tar, ming∣led together. And also put some thereof into his ea∣res, and then make a Biggin for him of some softe warme skinne, as of a shepes skinne, or else of Can∣uas, stuffed vnderneath with woll, and make him this purging drinke. Take of Radishe rootes two ounces, of the roote of the hearbe called in Laten Panax, or Panaces, & of Scammony, of ech one ounce, beate all these thinges together, and boyle them in a quarte of honye, and at sundry tymes, as you shall see it needefull, giue him a good sponefull or two of this in a quarte of Ale luke warme, whervn∣to would be put thre or foure sponefull of Oyle. It is good also to blow the powder of Motherwort, or of Pyrethrum, vp into his nosetrilles, and if the dis∣ease Page  [unnumbered] do continue stil for al this, then it shal be nede∣full to pearse the skynne of hys foreheade, in diuers places with a hote yron, and to let out the humors oppressing his brayne.

Of the night Mare. The .xxiii. Chapter.

THys is a disease oppressing ey∣ther man or beast, in the nighte season when he slepeth, so as he can not draw his breath, and is called of the Latens Incubus. It commeth of a continual cru∣dity, or raw disgestion of the stomack, from whence grosse vapors ascending vp into the head, doth op∣presse the brayne, and all the sensityue powers, so as they can not do their office, in giuing perfect fee∣ling and mouing to the bodye. And if this disease chaunsing often to a man, be not cured in time, it may perhappes growe to a worse mischiefe: as to the Falling euill. Madnesse, or Appoplexie. But I could neuer learne, that horses were subiect to this disease, neyther by relation, nor yet by reading, but onely in an olde English wryter, who sheweth nei∣ther cause nor sygnes how to knowe when a horse hath it, but onelye teacheth howe to cure it with a fonde folishe charme, which bicause it may perhap∣pes make you gentle reader to laugh, as well as it did me, for recreation sake I will here rehearse it. Take a Flynte stone that hath a hole of his owne kinde, and hang it ouer hym, and write in a bill. Page  18In nomine patris. &c.

Saint George our Ladyes knyght,
He walked day so did he night,
Untill he her founde,
He her beate and he her bounde,
Till truly her trouth she hym plyght,
That she woulde not come within the night,
There as Saynt George our Ladyes Knight
Named was three tymes, Saint George.

And hang this Scripture ouer him, and let him a∣lone. With suche proper charmes as this is, the false Fryers in tymes paste were wonte to charme the money out of playne folkes purses.

Of the Appoplexie, and Pawlsye. The .xxiiii. Chapter.

THe Appoplexye is a disease, de∣priuing all the whole body of sense, & mouing. And if it depriue but parte of the body, then it is called of the Latins by the Greeke name Paralisis, in oure tongue a Pawlsie. It procedes of colde, grosse, and tough humors, oppressing the brayne all at once, which may breede partly of crudites and rawe dis∣gestion, and partly by meanes of some hurte in the heade, taken by fall, strype, or otherwyse. As tou∣ching the Appoplexye, few or none writing of hors∣leach craft, do make any mention therof. But of the Pawlsye Vegetius wryteth in this maner. A horse (sayth he) may haue the Pawlsye as well as man, Page  [unnumbered] which is knowen by these signes. He wil go groue∣ling, and sydelyng like a Crabbe, carying his necke awry, as if it were broken, and goeth crokedly with his legges, beating his heade against the walles, and yet forsaketh not hys meate, nor drinke, and his prouender semeth moyst, and weate. The cure. let him bloude in the temple vayne, on the contrary syde of the wrying of his necke, and annoynte hys necke with comfortable oyntmentes, and splent it with splentes of wood, to make it stande right, and lette him stande in a warme stable, and giue hym such drinkes as are recyted in the next Chapter fo∣lowing. But if all this profiteth not, then drawe his neck with a hote yron, on the contrary side, that is to say on the whole syde, from the neyther parte of the eare downe to the shoulders, and drawe also a good long stryke on his temple, on that syde, and on the other temple, make a lytle starre in this sort * and from his raynes vnto his mid backe, drawe little lynes in this maner

[illustration]
& that will heale hym.

Of the Crampe or convulsion of the Synewes and Muskles. The .xxv. Chapter.

A Convulsion or Crampe, is a forcible and paynefull contraction or drawing together of the Synewes & Muskles, which doth happē somtimes throughout the whole body, and some∣tyme Page  19 but in one part, or member onely. And accor∣ding as the body may be dyuerslye drawen, so doe the Phisitians and also mine Authours, that write of horseleach crafte, giue it dyuers names. For if the bodye be drawen forwarde, then they call it in Greeke Emprosthotonos, in Laten Tensio ad anteriora. And if the body be drawen backewarde, it is called in Greeke Opisthotonos, in Laten Tensio ad posteriora. But if the body be starke, and strayte, bowing ney∣ther forwarde, nor backewarde, then it is called symplye in Greeke Tetanos, in Laten Distentio, or Ri∣gor. Which names also are applyed to the lyke con∣vulsions of the necke. Notwithstanding Vegetius wryting of this disease, intytuleth his Chapters de Roborosis, a straunge terme, and not to be founde a∣gain in any other Authour. A Convulsiō as I sayd before, may chaunce as well to one parte or mem∣ber of the body, as to the whole body, as to the eye, to the skinne of the foreheade, to the rootes of the tongue, to the Iawes, to the lips, to the arme, hand, or legge, that is to say, when so euer the Synewe or Muskle, seruing to the mouing of that parte, is euill affected, or grieued. Of which Convulsions, though there be manye diuers causes: yet Hipo∣crates bringeth them all into two, that is to say, in∣to fulnesse, and emptinesse: for when a Convul∣sion proceedes eyther of some inflamation, of su∣perfluous eating or drinking, or for lacke of due purgation, or of ouer much rest, and lacke of exer∣cyse, all such causes are to be referred to repletion, or fulnesse. But if a Convulsion come by meanes Page  [unnumbered] of ouer muche purging or bleeding, of muche wat∣ching, extreme labour, long fasting, or by woun∣ding, or pricking of the Synewes, then all suche causes are to be referred vnto emptynesse. And if the Convulsion procede of fulnesse, it chaunceth so∣denly, and all at once. But if of emptenesse, then it commeth by little and little, and laysurelye. Besy∣des these kinds of Convulsions, there is also chaū∣cing many times in a mannes fingers, legges, and toes, another kinde of Convulsion, whiche may be called a windye Convulsion, for that it procedes of some grosse, or toughe vapor, entred into the bran∣ches of the Sinewes, which maketh them to swel, like a Lute string, in moyst weather, which though it be very paynefull for the tyme, yet it may be sone dryuen away, by chaufyng, or rubbing the membre grieued, with a warme cloth. And this kinde of Convulsion or Crampe, chaunceth also manye ty∣mes to a horses hinder legges, standing in the sta∣ble. For I haue seene some my selfe, that haue had one of their hinder legges drawen vppe with the Crampe, almoste to the bellye, so styffe and hard as no man hath bene able to sturre it, neyther coulde the horse him selfe, set it downe to the grounde of a long season, whiche I thinke might be sone reme∣dyed. First by continuall chaufing and frotting his legge, with a good wispe, and then by teying vppe the other hinder legge, or else the forelegge on the sore syde, wherby he shoulde be forced to set downe the payned legge. Thus farre I haue discoursed of the Convulsion of Synewes, and of the causes Page  20 thereof, according to the opinions of the learned Phisitians. Nowe I will brieflye shewe you, the causes, signes, and cure therof, according to the doc∣trine of mine Authours that wryte of horseleache crafte. Absirtus sayth, that this disease doth come, ey∣ther by dryuing the horse into a sweate, when he halteth, for that he hath troden vpon some naile, or by taking colde after iourneying, and sweating in Winter season, whereby his lippes are clong togy∣ther, or by long lying & rest after sweating, wherby the Sinewes of his forelegges be nummed, or by hauing some stripe of his priuye mēbers, or by long trauelyng in the colde Mountaynes, where snowe and Ise doth abounde. For Theomnestus wryteth, that commyng out of Paeonia, with the king and his army, and passing ouer the mountaynes, to go into Italye, there fell suche abundance of Snowe, as not onelye many Souldyers dyed, sytting styll on their horses backes, with their weapons in their handes, being so starke and styffe, and cleauing so fast to their Saddelles, as they coulde not easelye bee pulled out of them: but also dyuers Horses in their going were so nūmed, as they could not bowe their legges, yea and some were found starke dead, standing still on their feete, and few horses or none escaped at that tyme, free from the Convulsion of Sinewes, in so much as Theomnestus his own horse which he loued dearlye, was sore vexed therewith. The sygnes to know whether a horse be troubled with the Cōvulsion of the synewes or not, be these. His head and necke will be so stiffe and starke, as Page  [unnumbered] he can bow it no maner of way, his eares wil stand right vp, and his eyes wyll be hollow in his heade, and the fleshye partes therof, in the great corners, will be turned backewarde, his lippes will be clong fast together, so as he can not open his mouth, and his tongue so nummed as he can neyther eate nor drinke, his backebone and tayle will be so stiffe, as he can not moue it one way nor other, and his leg∣ges so stiffe, as they wil not bowe, and being layde he is not able to ryse, and speciallye on his hinder legges, but falleth downe on his buttockes, lyke a dogge when he sitteth on the ground, and by mea∣nes of the Convulsion in his backe, his bladder al∣so for neighbourhode sake, suffereth, whereby the horse can not stale, but with great payne. The cure. Put him into a sweate, eyther by burying him all saue the heade in some warme dunghill, or if he be a horse of pryce, carye him into a hote house, where as is no smoke, and let him sweate there. Then an∣noynt all his body, heade, necke, legges, and all, with oyle of Cypres, and oyle de Baye mingled to¦gether. Or else with one of these oyntments. Take of Hogges greace two pound, of Terepenthin halfe a pounde, of Pepper beaten in powder one Dram, of newe Waxe one pounde, of olde oyle two pound, boyle all these together, & being made very warme, annoynt all his body therewith. Or else with this oyntment. Take of new waxe one pounde, of Tere∣penthin foure ounces, of oyle de Bay as muche, of Opoponax two ounces, of Deares sewet and of oile of Storax, of ech thre oūces, melt al these together, Page  21 and annoint all his body therewith. It is good al∣so, to bath his heade with the decoction of Fitches, or else of Lupins, and make him this drinke. Take xx. graynes of long Pepper, fynelye beaten into powder, of Cedre two ounces, of Nytre one ounce, of Lacerpitium as muche as a Beane, and mingle al these together, with a sufficient quātity of white wine, and giue him thereof to drinke a quart euery Morning & Euening, for the space of three or foure dayes, or else this drinke. Take of Opoponax two ounces, of Storax three ounces, of Gention three ounces, of Manna Succary, thre ounces, of Mirre one scrupple, of long Pepper two scrupples, and giue him this with olde wine, or make him a drinke of Lacerpitium, Cummin, Annis sedes, Fengreke, Bay buryes, and olde oyle. In olde time they were wonte to let hym bloude in the temples, which Ab∣sirtus doth not allowe, saying, that it will cause the Synewes of his lyppes to dry vppe, so as the horse not being able to moue them, shal pine for hunger. As touching his dyet, giue him at the first warme mashes, and such softe meate as he may easelye get downe, and wet hay, bringing him to harder foode by little and little. And in any case, let him be kepte very warme, and rydden or walked once a day to excercyse his legges, and lymmes. Theomnestus cu∣red his horse as he saith, by placing him in a warm stable, & by making a clere fyre without any smoke round aboute him, and the horse not being able to open his Iawes of him self, he caused his mouth to be opened, and put therein soppes dypt in a confer∣tion, Page  [unnumbered] called Entrigon Conditum, and also annointed al his body with a medicin, or oyntment called Acopū, (the making whereof hereafter foloweth) dissolued in Cypres oyle, which made him to fal into a sweat, and being before halfe deade and more, broughte him againe to his feeling, and mouing, so as he did rise and eate his meate.

The receyt of the medicine or oynt∣ment called Acopum.

TAke of Euforbium two ounces, of Castoreum foure ounces, of Adarces, half a pound, of Bdel∣lium thre ounces, of Pepper one pounde, of Foxe greece two ounces, of Opoponax foure ounces, of Lacerpitium three ounces, of Amoniacum halfe a pounde, of Pygions dong as much, of Galbanum two ounces, of Nitrum fiue ounces, of Spumani∣trie three ounces, of Ladanum one pounde, of Pe∣rethrum, and of Bay buryes, of eche thre ounces, of Cardamomum eyght ounces, of the seede of Rewe halfe a pounde, of the seede of Agnus Castus foure ounces, of Parslye two ounces, of the dryed rootes of Ireos, or Floure de Luce, fiue ounces, of Isoppe and of Carpobalsamū one pound, of oyle of Floure deluce, and oyle de Bay, of ech one pound & a halfe, of oyle of Spiconard three pound, of Oleum Cipri∣num, three pounde and halfe, of the oldest oyle O∣liue that you can possible get sixe pounde, of Pitche not smelling of the smoke, one pound eyght ounces, of Turpētine one pound, Melte euery one of these Page  22 that will melte, seuerally by them selues, and then myngle them together, with the rest of the simples beaten into fyne powder, and after that they haue bene a little boyled on the fyre, take it of, & straine it into a fayre vessell, and whensoeuer you will giue your horse any therof, giue it him with wine. And if with long kepyng it waxeth harde, then soften it with oyle of Cypres, so as it may be good & thicke. This confection is both a medicin, & also an ointe∣ment, & is called of the old wryters Acopum. Which if it be put into a horses nosetrilles, it will drawe out all noysome humors, and discharge his heade of all griefe, yea this medicine healeth all Convul∣sions, coldes, & drynesse, or withering of the body, and dryueth away all werynesse, and tyering.

Of colde in the heade. The .xxvi. Chapter.

ACcording as the colde whiche the horse hath taken is newe, or olde, greate, or small, and also according as humors do abounde in his heade, and as suche humors be thicke or thin, so is the disease more or lesse daungerous. For if the horse casteth lyttle or no matter out of his nose, nor hath no very great coughe, but is onelye heauy in his heade, and perhappes lightlye cougheth nowe & than, it is a sygne that he is stopped in the head, whiche we were wont to call the pose. But if his head be full of humors, congealed by some extreme Page  [unnumbered] tolde, taken of long tyme paste, and that he casteth foule, filthye, and stinking matter out at the nose, and cougheth grieuouslye: then it is a sygne, that he hath eyther the Glaunders, or Stranguyllion, Mourning of the Chayne, or Consumption of the Lungs. For all such diseases do breede for the most part of the Rheume, or distillation that commeth frō the head. Of the cures therof we leaue to speak, vntil we come to talke of the diseases in the throte, minding here to shewe you how to heale the Pose, or colde before mentioned. Martin sayth, it is good to pourge his head by perfuming him with Francon∣cense, and also to prouoke hym to neese, by thrus∣ting two Goose feathers dypt in oyle de Bay vp in∣to his nosetrilles, and then to trotte him vppe and down, the space of halfe an houre, for these feathers will make him to caste immedyately at the nose. Laurentius Russius woulde haue him to be perfumed, with wheate, Peniryall, and Sage, sodden well to¦gether, & put into a bagge so hote as may be, which bag would be so close fastned to his heade, that all the sauour thereof, maye ascende vp into his nose∣trilles, and his heade also woulde be couered and kept warme: and to prouoke him to neese he would haue you to binde a softe cloute, annoynted with Sope, or else wyth Butter, and oyle de Bay, vnto a stycke, and to thrust that vppe and downe into hys nostrilles so hye as you may conueniently go, & let him be kept warme, and drink no colde water. Yea it shall be good for three or foure dayes, to boyle in his water a lyttle Senegreke, Wheat meale, and a Page  23 fewe Annis seedes. And euery day after that you haue purged his head, by perfuming him, or by ma∣king him to neese, cause him to be trotted vppe and downe, eyther in the warme Sunne, or else in the house, halfe an houre, which woulde be done before you water him, and giue him his prouender.

Of the diseases in the eyes. The .xxvii. Chapter.

HOrses eyes be subiect to diuers griefes, as to be waterish, or bloudshot∣ten, to be dymme of syght, to haue the pyn and webbe, and the haw, whereof some commes of inwarde causes, as of humors resorting to the eyes, and some of outward causes, as of colde, heate, or strype.

Of weping or watering eyes. The .xxviii. Chapter.

THis as Laurentius Russius sayeth, may come sometyme by confluence of humors, and sometime by some stripe, whose cure I leaue to recite, bycause it doth not differ much, from Martins expe∣rience here folowing. Take of Pitche, Rosen, and Mastick, lyke quantity, melt them together. Then with a little sticke, hauing a cloute bounde to the ende thereof, and dipte therein: annoynt the tem∣ple vaynes on both sydes, a handefull aboue the Page  [unnumbered] eyes, as broade as a Testerne, and then clap vnto it immediatly, a fewe Flocks, of like colour to the horse, holding them close to his heade, with your hande, vntill they stycke faste vnto his heade, then let him bloude on both sydes (if both eyes be infec∣ted) a handfull vnder the eyes. Russius also thinketh it good, to washe his eyes once a day, wyth pure whyte wyne, and then to blowe therein a lyttle of Tartarum, and of Pomys stone, beaten into fyne powder.

Of bloudshotten eyes, for a blowe, or ytching, and rubbing in the eyes. The .xxix. Chapter.

MArtin neuer vsed any other me∣dicine, than this water here folowing wherewith he did alwayes heale the foresayde griefes. Take of pure rose water, of Malmesy, of Fenell water, of eche thre sponefull, of Tutia, as muche as you may easely take with your Thombe and Finger, of Clo∣ues a dosen beaten into fyne powder, mingle them well together, and being luke warme, or colde, if you will, washe the inwarde partes of the eye, with a fether dipt therin, twice a day, vntill he be whole. Russius sayth, that to bloude shotten eyes it is good to lay the whyte of an Egge, or to washe them with the iuyce of Selidony.

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Of dimnesse of syght, and also for the Pynne and webbe, or any other spot in the eye. The .xxx. Chapter.

IF the Horse be dimme of sight, or hath any pearle growing in his eie, or thin fylme couering the ball of hys eye, then Russius woulde haue you take of Pommis stone, of Tartarum, and of Sal Gemma, of eche lyke wayght, and being bea∣ten into very fyne powder, to blowe a lyttle of that into his eye, continuing so to do euery day once, or twice, vntil he be whole. Martin sayth that he always vsed to blow a little Sandyuoire into the eye once a day, which simple he affirmeth to be of such force, as it wil breake any pearle or webbe in short space, and make the eye very cleare and fayre. Russius a∣mongest a number of other medicins, prayseth most of all the powder of a blacke Flynte stone.

Of the Haw called of the Italians l'vnghia de gli occhi. The .xxxi. Chapter.

THis is a gristle couering some∣time more than the one halfe of the eye. It proceedes of grosse, and toughe hu∣mors, discending out of the head, which Haw, as Martin sayth, woulde be cut a∣waye in this sorte. Fyrst pull both the eye lyddes Page  [unnumbered] open with two seuerall threedes, stitched with a nedle to eyther of the lyddes. Then catch holde of the Hawe with the stych of another nedle & threde, and pul it out so farre as you may stay it vpon your fynger, to the intente that you may cutte it rounde the bredth of a penny, and leaue the black behinde. For by cutting away to much of the fatte, & blacke of the eye, the horse many tymes becommeth bleare eyed. And the Haw being clene taken away, squirt a little whyte wyne, or beere, into his eye.

Of Lunatike eyes. The .xxxii. Chapter.

VEgetius Wryteth de Oculo Lunatico, but he sheweth neyther cause nor syg∣nes thereof: but onelye sayth that the old men termed it so, bycause it maketh the eye sometyme to loke, as thoughe it were couered with white, and sometyme cleare. Martin sayth that the horse that hath this disease, is blinde at certaine tymes of the Moone, in so much as he seeth almost nothing at all during that time, and then his eyes will looke yealowishe, yea and somewhat reddyshe, whiche disease according to Martin is to be cured in this sorte. First vse the play∣ster mentioned before in the Chapter of wateryshe or weping eies, in such order as is there prescribed, and then with a sharpe knyfe make two slittes on both sydes of hys heade, an ynche long, somewhat towardes the nose, a handful beneath the eyes, not Page  25 touching the vayne: and with a cornet loosen the skinne vpwarde, the bredth of a grote, and thruste therein a rounde peece of Leather, as brode as a twopenny peece, with a hole in the middest, to kepe the hole open, & loke to it once a day, that the mat∣ter may not be stopped, but continuallye runne the space of ten dayes, then take the Leather out, and heale the wounde with a little Flaxe dypte in the salue here following. Take of Turpentyne, of Ho∣ny, of Waxe, of ech like quantity, and boyle them to∣gether, whiche being a lyttle warmed, will be ly∣quid to serue your purpose, and take not away the playsters from the temples, vntill they fall away of them selues, which being fallen, then with a small hote drawing yron, make a Starre in the middest of eche temple vayne, where the playster dyd lye. Which Starre woulde haue a hole in the middest, made with the button ende of your drawing yron in this sorte.

[illustration]

Of the Cancer in the eye. The .xxxiii. Chapter.

THis commeth of a ranke and corrupt bloud discēding from the head, into the eye. The sygnes. You shall see redde pymples, some small, and some greate, both within and without vp∣on the eye lyddes, and all the eye wyll loke redde, and be full of corrupte matter. The cure according to Martin is thus. First let him bloude on that syde Page  [unnumbered] the necke, that the eye is grieued, to the quantity of a Pottell. Then take of roche Alum, of greene Cor∣poras, of eche halfe a pounde, of whyte Corporas one ounce, and boyle them in three pyntes of run∣ning water, vntill the halfe be consumed, then take it from the fire, and once a day washe his eye with this water, being made luke warme, with a fyne linnen cloth, and clense the eye therewith, so as it may loke rawe, contynuing thus to doe euery day once vntill it be whole.

Of diseases incident to the eares, and powle of the heade, and first of an Impostume in the eare. The .xxxiiii. Chapter.

IMpostumes breede eyther by reason of some blowe, or brousing, or else of euyll humors congealed in the eare by some extreme colde. The syg∣nes be apparant, by ye burning & pain∣full swelling of the eare and parts therabout. The cure according to Martin, is in this sort. First ripe the Impostume with this playster. Take of Lynesede beaten into powder, of wheate flower, of eche halfe a pynte, of Hony a pinte, of Hogges greace, or Bar∣rows greace one pounde. Warme all these thinges together in an earthen potte, and sturre them con∣tinually with a flatte stycke, or sclyce, vntill they be thorowly myngled and incorporated together, and then spreade some of this plaister being warme vp∣on a peece of linnen cloth, or soft whyte Leather, so Page  26 broade as the swelling and no more, & lay it warm vnto it, and so lette it remayne one whole day, and then renewe it with freshe oyntment, continuing so to doe vntill it breake: then launce the sore so as the matter may haue passage downewarde, and taynt it to the bottom, with a taynt of Flaxe dipt in this oyntment. Take of Metrosatū, of oyle Oliue, & Turpentine, of ech two oūces: and mingle them together, and make hym a Byggen of Canuas to close in the sore, so as the taynte wyth the oynte∣ment may abyde within, renuing the taynt once a day, vntill it be whole. But if the horse haue payne in his eares without any great swelling or Impo∣stumation, then thrust in a little blacke woll dipte in oyle of Camamyll, and that will heale it.

Of the Powle euill. The .xxxv. Chapter.

THys is a disease lyke a Fistu∣la growing betwixte the eares and the Powle or nape of the necke, and proceedeth of euill humors, gathe∣red together in that place, or else of some blowe or brouse, for that is the weakest and tenderest parte of all the heade, and therefore sonest offended, whiche rude Carters doe little consyder, whylest in their fury they beat their horses vpon that place of the head, with their whip∣stockes, and therefore no horses be more subiecte to this disease, than Carte horses. And this disease Page  [unnumbered] commeth most in Winter season. The sygnes. You shal perceyue it by ye swelling of the place, which by continuance of tyme will breake of it selfe, rotting more inward than outward, and therefore is more perillous if it be not cured in tyme, and the soner it be taken in hand the better. The cure according to Martin is thus. If it be not broken, rype it with a playster of Hogges greace, layde vnto it so hote as maye be, and make a Byggyn for the powle of hys heade to kepe it from colde, which Biggen woulde haue two holes open, so as his eares may stande out: and renue the playster euery day once vntill it breake, keping the sore place as warme as may be. And if you see that it will not breake so sone as you woulde haue it, then there as it is softest, and moste metest to be opened: take a rounde hote yron as byg as your little fynger, and sharpe at the poynte, and two ynches beneath that soft place, thrust it in a good depenesse vpwarde, so as the poynte of the yron may come out at the rypest place, to the intent that the matter may discende downeward, & come out at the neather hole, whiche woulde be alwayes kepte open, and therefore taynt it with a taynt of Flaxe dypt in Hogges greace, and lay a playster of Hogges greace also vpon the same, renuing it eue∣ry day once, the space of foure dayes, which is done chiefly to kill the heat of the fyre. Then at the foure dayes ende, take of Turpintyne halfe a pounde, cleane washed in nine sundry waters, & after that thorowly dryed, by thrusting out the water wyth a felyce on the dyshes side, then put therevnto two Page  27 yolkes of Egges, and a little Saffron, and myngle them well together: that done, searche the depth of the hole with a wholle quill, and make a taynt of a peece of sponge, so long, as it may reache the bot∣tom, and so big as it may fill the wounde, and an∣noynt the taynt with the foresayde oyntment, and thrust it into the wounde, eyther with that quill, or else by winding it vp with your finger and thombe, by little and little, vntill you haue thrust it home: and then lay on the playster of Hogs greace made luke warme, renuing it euery day once or twice, vn∣till it be whole. But if the swelling ceasse, then you neede not to vse the playster, but onelye to taynt it, and as the matter decreaseth, so make your taynt euery day lesser and lesser, vntil the wounde be per∣fectly whole.

Of the Uyues. The .xxxvi. Chapter.

THe Uyues be certaine kirnels growing vnder the horses eare, pro∣ceding of some rank or corrupt bloud resorting to that place. which within are full of little whyte graynes, like whyte salte kirnelles. The Italians call them Viuole, which if they be suffered to growe, Laurētius Russius sayth, that they will grieuously pain the horse in his throte, so as he shall not be able to swallow his meat, nor to breath. They be easy to know, for that they may be felte, and also sene. The Page  [unnumbered] cure according to Martin, is in this sorte. Firste draw them ryghte downe in the mydst with a hote Iron, from the rote of the eare, so farre as the tippe of the eare wil reach, being pulled downe: and vn∣der the roote againe drawe two strykes on eche syde, lyke an arrowe heade in this forme

[illustration]
then in the midst of the first lyne, launce them with a launcet, and taking holde of the kirnelles with a payre of Pynsons, pull them so farre forwarde, as you may cut the kirnelles out, without hurting the vayne, that done, fill the hole with white salt. But Hierocles would haue them to be cured in this sorte. Take a piece of Sponge sowsed well in strong Uineger, & binde that to the sore, renuing it twice a day vntill it hath rotted the kirnelles, that done, launce it in the nethermoste parte where the mat∣ter lyeth, and let it out, and then fill it vp with salte finely brayed, and the nexte day washe all the filth away with warme water, and annoynte the place with Hony and Fytch flower myngled together. But beware you touche none of the kirnelles with your bare finger, for feare of venoming the place, which is very apt for a Fistula to breede in.

Of the cancorous Ulcer in the nose. The .xxxvii. Chapter.

THIS disease is a fretting hu∣mor, eating and consuming the fleshe, and making it all rawe within: and not being holpen in tyme, will eate Page  28 thorow the gristle of the nose. It commeth of a cor∣rupt bloude, or else of sharpe hunger, ingendred by meanes of some extreme cold. The signes be these. He will bleede at the nose, and all the fleshe within wil be rawe, and filthy stinking sauours, and mat∣ter will come out at his nose. The cure according to Martin, is thus. Take of grene Corporas, of Alom, of eche one pounde, of whyte Corporas one quar∣terne, and boyle these in a Pottell of running wa∣ter vntill a pynte be consumed, then take it of, and put thervnto halfe a pynte of hony: then cause his heade to be holden vp, with a drinking staffe, and squirt into his nosetrilles with a squirte of Brasse, or rather of Elder, some of this water being luke warme, thre or foure tymes one after another, but betwixt euery drinking, giue him libertye to holde downe his heade, and to blowe out the fylthy mat∣ter, for otherwyse perhappes you may choke hym. And after this, it shall be good also without hol∣ding vp his heade any more, to washe and rub hys nosetrilles with a fyne cloute bounde to a whyte stickes ende, and wet in the water aforesayde, and serue him thus once a day vntill he be whole.

Of bléeding at the nose. The .xxxviii. Chapter.

I Haue seene horses my selfe, that haue bledde at the nose, which haue had neyther sore nor Ulcer in their nose, and therfore I can not choose, but say wyth Page  [unnumbered] the Phisitians, that it commeth by meanes that the vayne which endeth in that place, is eyther o∣pened, broken, or fretted. It is opened many tymes by meanes that bloud aboundeth to muche, or for that it is to fyne or to subtill, and so pearceth tho∣row the vayne. Againe it may be broken by some vyolent strayne, cutte, or blowe. And finally it may be fretted, or gnawen through, by the sharpnesse of the bloude, or else of some other euyll humor con∣tayned therein. As touching the cure. Martin sayth, it is good to take a pynte of redde Wyne, and to put therein a quarterne of Bole Armeni, beaten into fine powder, and being made luke warme, to poure the one halfe thereof, the first day into his nosetril that bleedeth, causing his heade to be holden vp, so as the lyquor may not fall out: and the next day to giue him the other half. But if this preuayleth not, then I for my parte, woulde cause him to be lette, bloude in the breast vayne, on the same syde that he bledeth at seuerall tymes. Then take Francon∣cense one ounce, of Aloes halfe an ounce, and beate them into fyne powder, and mingle them thorow∣lye with the whytes of Egges, vntill it be so thicke as Honye, and wyth soft Hares hayre, thruste it vppe into his nosetrill, fylling the hole so full, as it can not fall out, or else fyll his nosetrilles full of As∣ses dong, or Hogges dong, for eyther of them is excellent good to restrayne any flux of bloude.

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Of the diseases in the mouth, and first of bloody ryftes or Choppes in the palat of the mouth. The .xxxix. Chapter.

THis disease is called of the Ita∣lians, Palatina, which as Laurentius Russius sayth, commeth by eating hay or pro∣uender, that is full of pricking seedes, which by continual pricking, and fret∣ting the forrowes of the mouth, doe cause them to rancle, and to blede corrupte and stinking matter, which you shall quickly remedye as Martin sayth, by washing first the sore places with Uinegar & salte, and then by annoynting the same with Hony.

Of the Bladders in a Horses mouth which our olde Ferrers were wont to call the Gigges. The Italians call them Floncelle. The .xl. Chapter.

THese be little softe swellinges or rather postules with black heades▪ growing in the insyde of his lyppes next vnto the great Iaw teeth, which are so paynefull vnto the horse, as they make hym to let his meate fall out of his mouth, or at the least to kepe it in his mouth vnchowed, wher∣by the horse prospereth not. Russius sayth, that they come eyther by eating to muche colde grasse, or else of pricking, dusty, and filthy prouender. The cure wherof according to Martin, is in this sort. Slytte Page  [unnumbered] them with a launcet, and thrust out all the corrup∣tion, & then wash the sore places, with a little Uine∣ger and salt, or else with Alom water.

Of the Lampasse. The .xli. Chapter.

THe Lampasse, called of the I∣talians Lampastus, proceedeth of the a∣boundance of bloude, resorting to the firste forrowe of the mouth, I meane that which is next vnto the vpper fore∣teeth, causing the sayd sorrow to swell so hye as the horses teeth, so as he can not chowe his meate, but is forced to let it fall out of his mouth. The remedy is to cut all the superfluous fleshe away, with a cro∣ked hote Iron, made of purpose, which euery smyth can doe.

Of the canker in the mouth. The .xlii. Chapter.

THis disease as Martin sayth, is a rawnesse of the mouth & tongue, which is full of blisters, so as he can not eate his meat. Which proceedes of some vnnaturall heate, comming from the stomacke. For the cure wherof. Take of Alom halfe a pounde, of Honye a quarterne of a pint, of Colombine leaues, of Sage leaues, of ech a handefull. Boyle all these together Page  30 in thre pintes of water, vntil a pinte be consumed, and washe the sore places therwith, so as it maye bleede, continuing so to do euery day once vntill it be whole.

Of the heate in the mouth and lippes. The .xliii. Chapter.

SOmetime the heate that com∣meth out of the stomacke, breedeth no canker, but maketh the mouth hote, & causeth the horse to forsake his meate. The cure whereof as Martin sayth, is in this sorte. First turne vp his vpper lippe, and iagge it lightlye with a Launcet, so as it may blede, and then washe both that and all his mouth & tongue, with vineger and salte.

Of the tongue being hurt with the Bytte, or otherwise. The .xliiii. Chapter.

IF the tongue be cut or hurt any maner of way, Martin sayth, it is good first to washe it with Alom water, and then to take the leaues of blacke Brimble, & to chop them together small with a little Larde, that done to bynde it within a lit∣tle cloute, making it round lyke a ball, then hauing dypt the rounde ende in hony, to rubbe the tongue Page  [unnumbered] therewith: continuing so to doe once a day, vntyll it be whole.

Of the Barbles, or Pappes vn∣derneath the tongue. The .xlv. Chapter.

THese be two little Pappes called of the Italians Barbole, growing naturally (as I thinke,) in euery horses mouth, vn∣derneath the tongue, in the neather Iaw∣es, whiche if they shoote out of any length: Russius sayth that they will hinder the horses feeding, and therefore he and Martin also, would haue them to be clipt away, with a payre of sheeres, and that done, the horses mouth to be washed with Uineger and Salte.

Of the payne in the téeth, and gummes, of the Wolfes téeth, and Iaw téeth. The .xlvi. Chapter.

A Horse may haue payne in hys teeth, partly by discent of humors from his heade, downe into his teeth and gummes, which is to be perceyued by the ranknesse & swelling of the gum∣mes, & partly by hauing two extraordinary teeth, called the Wolfes teeth, whiche he two little teeth growing in the vpper Iawes, nexte vnto the great grinding teeth, which are so paynefull to the horse, Page  31 as he can not indure to chowe his meate, but is for∣ced eyther to lette it fall out of his mouth, or else to kepe it still halfe chowed, wherby the horse prospe∣reth not, but waxeth leane and poore: and he will do the like also, when his vpper Iawe teeth be so farre growen, as they ouerhang the neather Iawe teeth, and therwith be so sharpe, as in mouing his Iawes they cut and race the insydes of his chekes, euen as they were raced with a knife. And first as touching the cure of the payne in the teeth, that cō∣meth by meanes of some distillation: Vegetius sayth, it is good to rubbe all the outsyde of his gummes with fine Chaulke, & strong Uineger mingled to∣gether, or else after that you haue washed the gum∣mes with Uineger, to strow on them the powder of Pomegranate pilles. But me thinkes that besydes this, it were not amisse to stop the temple vaynes, with the playster before mentioned, in the Chapter of weping and waterish eyes. The cure of the wol∣fes teeth, and of the Iaw teeth according to Martin, is in this sorte. First cause the horse heade to be tyed vp to some Rafter or Poste, and his mouth to be opened with a corde, so wide as you may easelye see euery part therof. Then take a rounde strong Iron toole, halfe a yearde long, and made at the one ende in all poyntes lyke vnto the Carpenters Gouge, wherewith he pearceth his holes to be bo∣red with a Wimble, or Awgor, and with your lefte hande sette the edge of your toole at the foote of the Wolfes teeth, on the outsyde of the Iawe, turnyng the hollow syde of the toole downewarde, holding Page  [unnumbered] your hand steadely, so as the toole may not slippe, nor swarue from the foresayde tooth: then hauing a mallet in your right hande, stryke vpon the head of the toole one prety blow, and therwith you shall loosen the tooth, and cause it to bend inward: then staying the middest of your toole vppon the horses neather Iaw, wrinch the tooth outwarde, with the insyde, or hollow syde of the toole, & thrust it cleane out of his heade, that done, serue the other Wolfes tooth on the other syde in lyke maner, and fyll vp the empty places with salte finelye brayed. But if his vpper Iawe teeth, doe also ouerhang the nea∣ther teeth, and so cutte the insyde of his mouth, as is aforesayd, then keping his mouth still open, take your toole and Mallet, & pare all those teeth shor∣ter, running alongst them euen from the first vnto the laste, turning the hollow syde of your toole to∣wards the teeth, so shal not the toole cut the insides of his cheekes, the backe or rounde syde being tur∣ned towarde the foresayde cheekes, and that done washe all his mouth with Uineger and salte, and let him goe.

Why the diseases in the necke, wythers, and backe, be declared here, before the diseases in the throte. The .xlvii. Chapter.

HAuing hytherto spoken of the dis∣eases incident to a horses heade, and to all the partes therof. Naturall order requireth Page  32 that we should now discend into ye throte, as a parte next adiacent to the mouth. But for so much as the diseases in the throte haue not onely affinity with the heade, but also with the Lunges and other in∣warde partes, whiche are many tymes grieued by meanes of distillation comming from the head, and through the throte: I will first speake of the disea∣ses incident to the necke, wythers, and backe of a horse, to the intent that when I come to talke of diseases, as Rheumes and distillations doe cause: I may discourse of them orderlye, without inter∣ruption

Of the Crycke in the necke. The .xlviii. Chapter.

BYcause a Crycke is no other thing, but a kinde of Convulsion, and for that we haue spoken sufficientlye before, of all the kindes thereof in the Chapter of Convulsion: I purpose not here therfore to trouble you with many wordes. But onely shew you Russius opinion, and also Martins experience therein. The Crycke then called of the Italians Scima, or Lucerdo: accor∣ding to Russius, yea and according to Martin is, when the horse can not tourne his necke anye maner of way, but holde it still right forth, in so muche as he can not take his meate from the grounde, but by tymes, and that very slowlye. Russius sayth it com∣meth by meanes of some great wayght layd on the Page  [unnumbered] horses shoulders, or else by ouer much drying vp of the Synewes in the necke. The cure wherof accor∣ding to Martin, is in this sorte. Drawe him with a hote iron from the roote of the eare, on both sydes of the necke, through the middest of the same, euen downe to the breast, a strawe depe, so as both endes may meete vpon the breast. Then make a hole in his forheade, hard vnder the foretoppe, and thruste in a cornette vpwarde, betwixt the skinne and the fleshe, a handfull deepe, then put in a goose feather doubled in the midest, and annoynted with Hogs greace, to kepe the hole open, to the intent the mat∣ter may runne out the space of ten dayes. But eue∣ry day during that tyme, the hole muste be clensed once, and the Feather also clensed, and freshe an∣noynted and so put in agayne. And once a day let him stande vppon the bitte, one houre or two, or be ridden two or thre Myles abrode, by such a one as will beare his heade, and make him to bring it in. But if the Crycke be such, as the horse can not hold his necke strayght, but clene awry, as I haue sene dyuers my selfe: then I thinke it not good, that the horse be drawen with a hote Iron, on both sy∣des of the necke, but onely on the contrary syde. As for example, if he bende his heade toward the right syde, then to drawe him as is aforesayde, onely on the left syde, and to vse the rest of the cure as is a∣boue sayde, and if nede be you may splent hym also with handesome staues meete for the purpose, to make his necke stand ryght.

Page  33

Of Wennes in the necke. The .xlix. Chapter.

A Wen, is a certayne kyrnell like tumor or swelling, the insyde whereof is harde lyke a grystell, and spongious lyke a skinne full of Wrettes. Of Wens some be great, & some be small. Againe some be very paynefull, and some not paynefull at all. The Phisitians say, that they procede of grosse and vicious humors, but Vegetius sayth that they chaunce to a horse, by taking colde, or by drinking of waters that be extreme colde. The cure accor∣ding to Martin is thus. Take of Mallowes, Sage, and redde Netels, of eche one handfull, boyle them in running water, and put thervnto a little butter, and hony, and when the hearbes be soft, take them out and all to brouse them, and put thervnto of oile of Bay two ounces, and two ounces of Hogges greace, and warme them together ouer the fire, mingling them well together, that done, playster it vpon a pece of Leather, so bygge as the Wen, and lay it to so hote as the horse may indure it, renuing it euery day, in such sort, the space of eyght dayes, and if you perceyue that it will come to no heade, then launce it from the middest of the Wen downe∣warde, so depe as the matter in the bottom may be discouered and lette out, that done, heale it vp with this salue. Take of Turpentyne a quarterne, and washe it nine tymes in fayre newe water, then put Page  [unnumbered] therevnto the yolke of an Egge, and a little Eng∣lishe Saffron beaten in powder, and make a taynt or rowle of Flax, and dippe it in that oyntment, and lay it vnto the sore, renuing the same euerye day once, vntill it be whole

Of swelling in the necke after bloud letting. The .l. Chapter.

THis may come of the Flegme being rustye, and so causing the vayne to rancle, or else by meanes of some colde winde striking sodenlye into the hole. The cure according to Martin, is thus. First annoynt it with oyle of Camomill war∣med, and then lay vpon it a lyttle hay wet in colde water, and binde it about with a cloth, renuing it euery day, the space of fiue or syx dayes, to see whe∣ther it will grow to a heade, or else vanishe away. If it growe to a heade, then giue it a slytte wyth a Launcet, and open it with a Cornet, that the mat∣ter may come out. Then heale it vp, by taynting it with Flaxe dypt in Turpentine, and Hogs greace, molten together, dressing it so once a day, vntill it be whole.

Howe to staunch bloude. The .li. Chapter.

IF a horse be lette bloude, when the sygne is in the necke, the vayne perhaps will Page  34 not leaue bleeding so sone as a man would haue it, which if any such thing chaunce, then Russius sayth, it is good to binde therevnto, a little newe horse∣dong, tempred with chaulke, and strong Uineger, and not to remoue it from thence, the space of three dayes, or else to lay thervnto, burnt Sylke, Felt, or Cloth, for all such thinges will staunch bloud.

Of the falling of the Crest. The .lii. Chapter.

THis commeth for the most part of pouertye, and specially when a fatte horse falleth away sodenlye. The cure according to Martin, is thus. Drawe his Creast the depenesse of a strawe, on the contrary syde, with a hote yron, the edge of whiche yron, would be halfe an ynch brode, and make your beginning, and ending, somewhat beyond the fall, so as the first draught may go all the way hard vp∣on the edge of the mayne, euen vnderneath the ro∣tes of the same, bearing your hande righte downe∣warde, into the neckewarde, then aunswere that with an other draught beneath, & so farre dystante from the first, as the fall is brode, compassing as it were all the fall: but styll on the contrary side: and betwixt those two draughtes right in the middest, draw a thirde draught, then with a button yron of an ynche about, burne at eche ende a hole, and also in the spaces betwixt the draughtes, make dyuers holes distant thre fingers brode one from an other, Page  [unnumbered] as this figure doth shew you:

[illustration]
that done, to slake the fire, an∣noynt it euerye day once, for the space of nine dayes, with a Feather dipt in fresh butter molten. Then take of Mallowes and of Sage, of eche one handful: boyle them wel in run∣ning water, and washe the burning away, vntill it be rawe fleshe. Then dry it vp with this powder. Take of Hony halfe a pynte, & so muche slect Lyme as will make that hony thycke, lyke paast. Then holde it in a fyre pan ouer the fyre, vntyll it be ba∣ken so harde, as it may be made in powder, & sprin∣cle that vpon the sore places.

Of the maunginesse in the Mayne. The .liii. Chapter.

THe Maungynesse procedes of rancknesse of bloude, or of pouertye, of lowsynesse, or else of rubbing where a Maungy horse hath rubbed, and of fil∣thy dust lying in the Mayne, for lacke of good dressing. The sygnes be aparaunt by the ytching and rubbing of the horse, and the scabbes. fretting both flesh, and skinne. The cure according to Martin, is thus. Take of fresh greace one pounde, of Quicksyluer halfe an ounce, of Brimstone one ounce, of Rape Oyle halfe a pynte, mingle them to∣gyther, and sturre them continually in a pot wyth a sclyce, vntill the Quicksyluer be so wrought with the rest, as you shall perceyue no Quicksyluer ther∣in. Page  35 That done, take a blunt knyfe, or an olde horse∣combe, and scratch all the maungy places therwith vntill it be rawe, and bloudy, and then annoynt it with this oyntment, in the sunne shine, if it may be, to the intente the oyntment maye sinke in: or else holde before it a fyre pan, or some brode barre of I∣ron made hote, to make the oyntment to melte into the flesh. And if you se that within the space of thre dayes after, with this once annointing, he leaue not rubbing: then mark in what place he rubbeth, and dresse that place agayne, and you shall see it heale quicklye.

Of the falling of the haire of the Mayne. The .liiii. Chapter.

IT falleth for the most part, by∣cause it is eaten with little wormes, fretting the rootes in sunder, whiche according to Martin, you shall remedye in this sorte. Annoynt the mayne, and creast with Sope, then make strong Lye, & washe all the mayne and creast withall, and that will kill the wormes within twice, or thrice washing.

Of griefes in the Wythers. The .lv. Chapter.

TO a horses Wythers, and backe, doe chaunce manye griefes and sorances, whiche as Russius sayth, doe sometyme pro∣cede Page  [unnumbered] of inwarde causes, as of the corruption of hu∣mors, and somtime of outward causes, as through the galling and pinching of some naughty saddle, or by some heauy burthen, layd on the horses back, or such like. And of such griefes, some be but super∣ficiall blisters, swellinges, lyghte galles, or brou∣singes: and be easelye cured. Some againe doe pearce to the verye bone, and be daungerous, and specially if they be nigh the backe bone: let vs first then shewe you the cure of the smaller griefes, and then of the greater.

Of Blystringes, or small swellinges in the wy∣thers or backe, and of gallings. The .lvi. Chapter.

WHen so euer you se any swel∣ling ryse, then Martin woulde haue you to bind a little hote horse dong vnto it, and that will asswage it. If not, then to prycke it rounde about the swelling, eyther with a fleame, or else with a sharpe poynted knife, not to deepe, but so as it may pearce the skinne, and make the bloud to issue forth. That done. Take of Mallowes, or else of Smallage, two or thre hand∣full, and boyle them in running water, vntill they be so soft as pappe. Then strayne the water softlye from it, and brose the hearbes in a Treane dishe, putting thervnto a lyttle Hogs greace, or else Sa∣let oyle, or shepes Sewet, or any other fresh greace, Page  36 boyle them and stur them together, not frying them harde, but so as it may be softe and souple, and then with a clout lay it warme vpon the sore, renuing it euery day once, vntill the swelling be gone. For this will eyther dryue it away, or else bring it to a head, which lyghtly chaunceth not, vnlesse there be some gristle or bone perished. Russius biddeth you, so sone as you see any swelling rise, to shaue the place with a Rasor, and to lay therevnto this playster. Take a little wheate floure, and the whyte of an Egge beaten together, and spread it on a Linnen cloute, whiche being layd vnto the swelling, two or three dayes, and not remoued, wyll bryng it to a heade, and when you come to take it of, pul it away so soft∣ly as you can possibly, and where as you se the cor∣ruption gathered together, then in the lowest place thereof, pearce it vpwarde with a sharp yron some∣what hote, that the corruption may come out, and annoynt the sore place euery day once, with freshe butter, or Hogges greace. But if the skinne be only chaufed of, without any swelling, then washe the place with water and salte, or else wyth warme wyne, and sprincle this powder theron. Take of vnsleyet Lyme▪ a quantitye beaten in to fyne pow∣der, and mingle it with hony, vntill it be so thick as Paast, and make rolles or balles therof, and bake them in a fyre panne ouer the fyre, vntill they be so hard, as they may be brought to powder, for this is a very good powder to dry vp any galling or sore. The powder of Mirre or burnt Silk Felt or cloth, or of any olde post, is also good for suche purposes, Page  [unnumbered] but when so euer you vse this powder of Lyme and Hony, let the place he first washed as is aforesaid.

Of greate swellinges and inflama∣tions in a horses Wythers. The .lvii. Chapter.

IF the swelling be very greate, then ye cure according to Martin is thus. First draw rounde about the swelling, with a hote yron, and then crosse hym him with the same yron in this maner

[illustration]
then take a rounde hote yron ha∣uing a sharpe poynte, and thrust it into the swelling place on ech side vpwarde toward the poynt of the Wythers, to the intente that the matter may issue downewarde, at both the holes. That done, taynt both the holes, firste with a taint dipt in Hogges greace, to kyll the fyre, and also annoynt all the o∣ther burnt places therewith, continuing so to doe, vntill the swelling be aswaged, renuing the taints euery day once, vntill the fiery matter be fallen a∣way, and then taint him againe with washed Tur∣pentyne, mingled with yolkes of Egges, and Saf∣fron, in such maner, as haue bene beforesayd renu∣ing the taynte euery day once, vntil it be whole. If you see that the swelling, for all this go not away, then it is a sygne of some impostumation within, & therefore it shall be necessarye to launce it, and to let out the corruptiō, then take of hony halfe a pint, Page  37 of Uerdigreace two ounces beaten to powder, and mingle it together with the hony, then boyle them in a pot vntill it looke red, then being luke warme, make eyther a taynt, or playster, according as the wounde shall requyre, renuing the same euery day once vntill it be whole. But the sore may be so ve∣hemente, that for lacke of loking to in tyme, it will pearse downewarde betwixte both shoulders, to∣wardes the intrayles, which is very daungerous, yea and as Russius sayth, mortall, bycause the cor∣ruption of the sore, infecting the Lungs, and heart (which be the vitall partes, and chiefe preseruers of life) the body must nedes decay. And therfore, Martin would haue you to fyll the hole with the salue laste mentioned, & to thrust in after it a pece of sponge, aswel to kepe the hole open, as also to sucke out the corruption, renuing it euery day once, vntyll it be whole.

Of the hornes or harde bones, growing vnder the Saddle syde. The .lviii. Chapter.

THis is a dead skinne like a pece of leather, called of the Italyans Corno, that is to say a horne, for that it is hard vnder hande, and commeth by meanes of some strayt saddle, pinching the horse more on the one syde than on the other: or else on both sydes equally. The cure whereof according to Martin, is in this sort. Annoynt them with fresh but∣ter, Page  [unnumbered] or Hogges greace, vntill they be mollifyed and made so softe, as you may eyther cutte them, or pull them away, and then wash the wound with mans stale, or with whyte wine, and dry it vp with pow∣der of vnslect Lyme.

Of Wennes or knobbes, growing about the Saddle skyrtes. The .lix. Chapter.

THese be great harde knobbes, growing most commonly betwixt two ribbes, aparaunt to the eye, which by their hardnesse, seme to come of some old broose, and are called of the Itali∣ans le Curte. The cure whereof according to Martin, is thus. First mollifye them, by annointing them with hote Hogges greace, euery day once or twice, the space of eyght dayes, and if you perceyue that it wil come to no head with this, then launce it from the middle downeward, that the matter may come out: then taint it wyth washed Turpentine, yolkes of egges, & saffrō mingled together, as is aforesaid, renuing the taint euery day once vntil it be whole.

Of the Nauill gall. The .lx. Chapter.

THe Nauill gall is a broose on the backe behinde the Saddle, ryght agaynst the Nauel of the horse, and therof it taketh Page  38 his name. It commeth eyther by splytting of the Saddle behinde, or for lacke of stuffing, or by mea∣nes of the hynder buckle, fretting that place, or else by some greate wayght layd on his backe: you shal perceyue it by the puffed vp, & spongy fleshe, loking like rotten lightes or lungs, and therefore is called of the Italyans Pulmone or Pulmoncello. The cure wherof according to Martin, is thus. Cut it round a∣bout with a sharpe knife or rasor, euen to the bone, leauing no rotten fleshe behinde: that done. Take the whyte of an Egge, and salte beaten together, and lay that playsterwyse vnto the sore, vpon a lit∣tle toawe, renuing it once a day, the space of two dayes. Then take of hony a quarter of a pynte, and of Uerdigreace one ounce, beaten into powder, & boyle them together in a potte, stirring it styll vntil it loke red, and being luke warme, make a playster with toawe, and clappe it to the wounde, washing and clensing well the wounde firste, with a lyttle warme vineger, or whyte wyne, continuing so to do once a day, vntill it begin to heale, and to skin, then dry it vppe, by sprincling thereon this powder folowing. Take of Hony a quarterne, and as much of slect Lyme as will thicken the honye lyke vnto paast, and in a fyre pan ouer the fyre sturre it styll vntill it be harde baked, so as it may be beaten into powder, but before you throw on the powder, wash the wound first, with warme Ueneger, contynuing so to doe, vntyll it bee perfectelye skynned and whole.

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Of the swaying of the backe. The .lxi. Chapter.

THis is called of the Italians Mal feruto, and according to Russius, and Martins opinions, commeth eyther by some greate strayne, or else by heauye burdens. You shall perceyue it, by the reeling and rowling of the horses hinder partes, in his going, whiche will folter many tymes, and sway, sometyme backewarde, and sometyme syde∣lyng, and be ready to fall euen to the grounde, and the horse being layde, is scante able to gette vppe. The cure according to Martin is thus. Couer his backe with a sheepes skin, comming hote from the sheepes backe, laying the fleshye syde next vnto his backe, and laye a warme howsyng cloth vpon the same, to keepe his backe as warme as may be, and so let it continue, vntill it begin to smell: then take the olde skinne away, and lay a newe vnto it, conti∣nuing so to do the space of thre weekes, and if he a∣mende not with this, then drawe his backe with a hote yron ryghte out on both sydes of the rydge of his backe, from the pitche of the buttocke, vnto a handefull within the Saddle, and then agayne o∣uerthwart, in this sorte. And

[illustration]
let euery line be an ynch dys∣taunt, one from another, and let not suche strykes be very depe, but so burned as euery one may loke yellow, then lay vpon the bur∣ning Page  39 this charge here folowing. Take of Pitch one pounde, of Rosen halfe a pounde, of bole Armonie halfe a pound made in powder, and halfe a pinte of Carre, and boyle all these together in a potte, stir∣ring it vntill euery thing be molten, and thorowly mingled together, then being luke warme, dawbe all the burning therwith very thycke, and thervpon clap as many Flockes of the horses colour, as you can make to byde on, and remoue it not before it fall away of it selfe, and if it be in Sommer, you may turne him to grasse.

Of weakenesse in the backe. The .lxii. Chapter.

IT doth appeare by Laurentius Russius, that there is an other kinde of weakenesse in the backe, called in Italion le gotte, or morsecatura, de le reni, that is to saye, the fretting or byting of the raynes, whiche as the sayde Russius sayth, procedeth of abundaunce of humors, resorting to that place, whereby all the hinder par∣tes of the horse do lose their feeling and strength, and the horse falleth downe to the grounde: yea & such humors manye tymes resorting to the heart, doe suffocate the same, and in two or three houres do cause the horse to dye. The remedy according to Russius, is in this sorte. Let him bloude abundantly in the necke, and drawe his backe with a hote iron, in such sorte as is declared in the last Chapter. He Page  [unnumbered] sayth also, it is good to make him swim thorowe a Ryuer, and to rowle him vpon the haunches, nigh the huckle bones: and to make the haire to growe agayne, it is good as he sayth, to annoint the place with Hogs greace, and thre leaued grasse stamped together.

Of Hyde bownd. The .lxiii. Chapter.

HYde bound is when the skinne cleaueth so faste to the horses backe, that a man can not pull it from the fleshe with his hand, which Ruellius cal∣leth Coriago, it commeth for the moste parte of pouerty, or else when the horse after some greate heat, hath bene suffered to stand long in the rayne or wette weather, for that wil cause the skin to shrinke, and to cling to his rybbes. It is knowen by the leannesse of the horse, and gauntnesse of his belly, and by the fast sticking of the skinne vnto his ribbes, when you pull at it with your hande. The cure according to Martin, is thus. Let him bloud on both sydes the bellye, in the flanke vaynes betwixt the flanke, and the girding place, that done, gyue him this drinke. Take a quart of good white wine, or else of good Ale, and put therevnto thre ounces of good Salet oyle, of Comen one ounce, of Annis seedes two ounces, of Lycoras two ounces, beaten all into fyne powder, and giue it him luke warme with a horne. And when he hath dronke, lette one Page  40 standing at his huckle bone, rubbe him hard with his hande alongst the backe, and ouerthwart the rybbes the space of halfe an houre, that done sette him in a warme stable, and let him stande in litter vp to the belly, and couer all his backe and rybbes with a sacke, first thorowly soked in a Tub of colde water, and then well and harde wrong, and ouer that cast an other cloth, and girde it fast with a sur∣single, stuffing him well about the backe with fresh strawe, continuing thus to doe euery day once the space of a weeke, during whiche tyme giue him no colde water, but luke warme, and put therein a lit∣tle ground mault. The wette sacke will cause the backe to gather heate of it selfe, and the skin to lo∣sen from the flesh, and if you will bestow more cost, you may annoynt all his body, with wine and oyle, mingled together, according to the opinions of the olde wryters, whiche no doubte is a verye comfor∣table thing, and must nedes supple the skinne, and losen it from the flesh.

Of the diseases in the throte and lungs, and why the griefes of the shoulders and hippes be be not mentioned before amongst the griefes of the withers and backe. The .lxiiii. Chapter.

SOme perhappes would loke here that for so muche as I haue declared the diseases of the necke, wythers, and backe, that I should also follow on now, with the Page  [unnumbered] griefes of the shoulders and hippes. But syth that such griefes, for the moste parte doe cause a horse to halt, and that it requireth some skill to know when a horse halteth, whether the fault be in his shoulder, hippe, legge, ioynte, or foote, I thinke it not good to seperate those partes a sunder, specially syth na∣ture hath ioyned them together, that is to say, the shoulders to the forelegges, and the hippes to the hinder legges. And therfore according to natures order, I will treate of them in their proper place, that is to say, after that I haue shewed you all the diseases that be in the inwarde partes of a horses body, not onely aboue the midriffe, as the diseases of the throte, lungs, breast, and heart, but also vn∣der the Midriffe, as those of the stomacke, Lyuer, Guttes, and of all the rest. And first as touching the diseases of the throte, the Glaunders, and Stran∣guyllion, to all horses is most common.

Of the Glaunders, and Stranguyllion, so called according to the Italion name Stranguijlione. The .lxv. Chapter.

MOst Ferrers do take the Glaun∣ders and Stranguylion to be all one disease, but it is not so, for the Glaun∣ders is that which the Phisitians call Tonsille, and the Stranguylion is that which they call in Laten Angina, in Greeke Synanchi, and we commonly cal it in English, the Squinācy, Page  41 or Quinzie Toncille is interpreted by them to be in∣flamations of the kirnelles called in Laten Glandes, in Italion glandule, whiche lye on eche syde of the throte, vnderneath the rote of the tongue, nigh vn∣to the swallowing place, of whiche worde glandes or glandule, I think we borrow this name Glaunders, for when the horse is troubled with this disease, he hath greate kyrnelles vnderneath his Iawes, easy to be seene or fealte, payning him so, as he can not easily swallow downe his meate, whiche commeth firste of colde distillation out of the heade. But if such kirnels be not inflamed, they will perhaps go away of them selues, or else by laying a little hote horse dong & straw vnto them, the warmth wher∣of will dissolue them, and make them to vanishe a∣way. But if they be inflamed, they will not go a∣way, but increase and waxe greater and greater, and be more paynefull euerye day than other, and cause the horse to caste continually filthy and stin∣king matter, out at his nose. The cure whereof ac∣cording to Martin, is thus. First rype the kyrnelles with this playster. Take of Branne two handefull, or as much as will thicken a quart of wyne, or Ale: then putte therevnto halfe a pounde of Hogges greace, and boyle them together, and lay it hote to the sore with a clothe, renuing it euery day vntill it be ready to breake: then launce it and let out al the matter, and taynt it with a taynt of Flaxe, dipte in this salue. Take of Turpentyne, of Hogs greace, of eche like quantity, and a little waxe, and melt them together, and renue the taynt euery day vntill it be Page  [unnumbered] whole. Laurentius Russius sayth, that this disease is ve∣ry cōmon to Coltes, bycause in them doth abounde fluxible moysture, apt to to be dissolued with euery little heate, and so turne to putrifaction, and there∣fore if the horse be not ouer yong, he woulde haue you first to let him bloude in the necke vayne, and then to lay vnto the sore a ryping playster, made of Mallowes, Linseede, Rewe, Wormewood, ground Iue, oyle of Bayes, and Dyalthea, and to annoynt his throte also, and al the sore place, with fresh but∣ter. And the sore being rype, to launce it, or else to rowle it, that the matter may come forth. But if the kirnelles will not decrease with this, then pull them away by the rootes, & to dry vp the vlcerous place with an oyntmente, made of vnslect Lyme, Pepper, Brymstone, Nitrum, and oyle Oliue. It shall be good also to purge his heade by perfuming him euery day once, in suche sorte as haue bene be∣fore declared. And let the horse be kept warme a∣bout the heade, and stande in a warme stable, and let him drinke no colde water. But if you see that after you haue taken away the kirnelles, the horse doth not for all that leaue casting fylthy matter at the nose, then it is to be feared, yt he hath some spice of the mourning of the Chyne, for both diseases doe procede of one cause, and therefore I thinke good to speake of it here presentlye.

Of the mourning of the Chyne. The .lxvi. Chapter.

Page  42THys word mourning of the Chyne, is a corrupt name, borrow∣ed of the Frenche tongue, wherein it is called Mort deschyen, that is to say, the death of the backe. Bycause many doe holde opinion, that thys disease doth consume the marye of of the backe, for remedy wherof, they vse straunge kinds of cures. For some taking it to be a Rheume, go aboute to stoppe it, by laying Astrictyue, or byn∣dyng charges, vnto the nape of the necke. Some agayne do twyne out the pyth of the backe with a long wyar, thrust vp into the horses heade, and so into his necke & backe, with what reason I knowe not. Well I knowe, that few horses do recouer that haue this disease. Some agayne thinke that the Lungs of the horse be rotten, and that the horse doth caste them out at his nose. But Martin sayth, that he hath cut vp dyuers horses which hath bene iudged to haue died of the mourning of the Chyne, but he coulde neuer finde eyther backe or Lungs to be peryshed, but onely the Lyuer, and most com∣monly that syde of the Lyuer, whiche aunswereth the nosetrill whereat he casteth, whereof we wyll talke in his proper place, when we come to speake of the diseases in the Lyuer. The Italians doe call this disease Ciamorro, the olde Authours do cal it the moyst Maladye, whereof Theomnestus maketh two differences. For in the one, the matter whiche he doth cast at the nose is whyte, and doth not smell at Page  [unnumbered] all, and in the other, that whiche he casteth is a fil∣thy and stinking corruption. They procede both of colde humors, congealed in the heade, but more a∣bounding in the one, than in the other: by reason perhappes, that the horse was not cured in tyme: for of colde, first commeth the Pose, and the Cough, then the Glaunders, and laste of all the mourning of the Chyne. When the horse casteth matter at the nose, that is not stinking, he maye be easely cured, by such remedyes as haue bene before declared in the Chapter of the Pose. But if the matter be very filthye and stinking, then it is verye harde to cure. Notwithstanding it shall not grieue me to wryte vnto you here, the experience of Theomnestus, and of Laurentius Russius. Theomnestus cure is thus. Take of water and hony called of the Phisitians Hedromel, a quart, and put therevnto thre ounces of oyle, and poure that into his nosetril euery morning, ye space of thre dayes, and if that doe not profite him, then let him drinke euerye day, or once in two dayes, a quarte of olde wyne, mingled with some of the me∣dicine, or rather the precious meat, called of the old wryters Tetrapharmacum, and that will restore him to his former estate. Laurentius Russius sayth, that of all diseases there is none more perillous, nor more to be suspected, than the Rhewine whiche commeth of colde, for horses haue large Cunduits, and are full of moysture, and therfore if colde once enter, it findeth matter inough to worke on, to breede con∣tinuall distillation, as well outwardlye at the nose, as inwardly, discending downe to the vital parts▪ Page  43 in such sorte, as it doth suffocat the same. The syg∣nes according to the sayde Russius be these. The horse doth cast matter continually at the nose some tyme thin, and sometime thicke, his nosetrils, eares, and all his outwarde partes, will be colde to the feeling, his eyes, head, and all his body heauy, and he will coughe, and haue smal appitite to his meat, and lesse to his drinke, and sometyme he will trem∣ble and shake. His cure is in this sorte. Purge his heade, partly by perfuming him, and partly by making him to neese in such sort, as hath bene be∣fore taughte in the Chapter of the Pose, whiche waies of perfuming & purging the head, as they be good, so doth Russius praise these two here folowing to be most excellent. The first is this. Take of the stalkes of vitis Alba otherwyse called Brioni, or wilde Uine, two or three good handfull, and broose them betwixt two stones, and being so brosed, put them into a Linnen bagge, and fasten the bagge to the horses heade, so as he may receyue the scent vp into his nosetrilles, without touching the hearbe with his mouth, and this will cause the humors to come downe abundantlye. The seconde medicine. Take of Euforbiū beaten into fyne powder thre ounces, of the iuyce of Betes one pounde, of Swines bloud halfe a pounde. Boyle all these together vntill they be thorowly myngled, & lyquid lyke an oyntment, and then take it from the fire, and put thervnto one ounce more of Euforbium, and mingle them again thorowly together, and preserue the same in a boxe to vse at nedefull tymes, in this sort. Make two Page  [unnumbered] styffe long rowles, or tampins, of linnen cloutes, or such lyke stuffe, sharpe poynted lyke Suger loues, which tampins are called of the Phisitians in La∣ten Pessi, and being annoynted with the oyntment aforesayde, thruste them vppe into the horses nose∣trilles, and let them abyde therein a prety while, then pull them out, & you shall see such abundaunce of matter, come forth at his nose, as is maruellous to behold. Russius also prayseth very much this me∣dicine here folowing. Take as much of the middle barke of an Elder tree, growing on the water side, as wil fil a newe earthen pot, of a meane syse, put∣ting therevnto as much cleare water, as the potte wyll holde, and let it boyle vntill the one halfe be consumed: & then to be fylled vp againe with fresh water, continuing so to do thre tymes, one after an other, and at the last time, that the one halfe is con∣sumed, take it from the fyre, and strayne it thorow a lynnen cloth. Then take two partes of that de∣coction, and one part of Hogges greace, or butter, and being warmed agayne together, gyue the horse to drinke thereof one horne full, and poure an other hornefull into his nosetrill that casteth, and when so euer you giue him this medicine, lette the horse be empty and fasting, and kepe him without meate also. two or three houres after. For this is a very good drinke for any sicknesse, that commeth of colde. Moreouer open the skinne of his foreheade, and of his temples, & also of his tayle, with a sharpe hote yron, that the corrupt humors may issue out∣ward. That done. Take hote Bricks, or else a pan Page  44 freshe burning coales, and holde it nighe vnto hys bellye, and flankes, to the intent they may be tho∣rowly warmed, & being so warmed, annoynt them all ouer, with oyle de Bay, or Dialthea, to defende his body from the colde, and let his head be well co∣uered, and all his bellye kepte warme. Yea and it were good to bathe his heade sometime as Russius sayth with a bathe made of Rhewe, Wormewood, Sage, Ieneper, Bay leaues, and Hysop. And lette his drynke be warme water myngled with wheat meale, yea and to make it the more comfortable, it were good as Russius sayth, to put therevnto some Cynamon, Gynger, Galingale, and such hote spy∣ces. And his meat in Winter season would be none other but sodden corne, or warme mashes, made of ground Mault and wheate Branne: in Sommer season if he wente to grasse, I thinke it woulde doe him most good, so that he go in a dry warm groūd, for by feding alwayes downeward, he shal purge his heade the better as Russius sayth. Thus muche of the Glaunders, & mourning of the Chyne. Nowe we will speake somewhat of the Stranguylion, ac∣cording to the opinion of the old Authours, though not to the satisfaction perhappes of our Englishe Ferrers.

Of the Stranguylion or Squynancye. The .lxvii. Chapter.

THe Stranguylion called of the La∣tens Angina, according to the Phisitians, is Page  [unnumbered] an inflamation of the inwarde parts of the throte, and as I sayde before, is called of the Greekes Si∣nanchi, whiche is as muche to say in Englishe as a strangling, wherof this name Stranguylion as I thinke is deryued, for this disease doth strangle ey∣ther man or beast, & therefore is numbred amongst the perillous and sharpe diseases, called of the La∣tens Morbi acuti, of which strangling the Phisitians in mannes body make foure differences. The first and worst is, when no part within the mouth, nor without, appeareth manifestly to be inflamed, and yet the pacient is in great perill of strangling. The second is, when the inward partes of the throte on∣lye be inflamed. The thirde is when the inwarde and outward parts of the throte be both inflamed. The fourth is, when the Muskles of the necke are inflamed, or the inwarde ioyntes therof so losened, as they strayten therby, both the throte, or wesand, or windpipe, for shorte breath is incident to all the foure kindes before recyted, and they procede all of one cause, that is to say, of some Colorick or bloudy fluxion, which commes out of the braunches of the throte vaynes into those partes, and there bredeth some hote inflamation. But nowe to proue that a horse is subiecte to this disease, you shall heare what Absirtus, Hierocles, and Vegetius and others doe say. Absirtus wryting to his frende, a certayne Fer∣rer or Horsleache, called Aistoricus, speaketh in this maner. When a horse hath the strāguylion, it quick∣ly killeth him, the sygnes wherof be these. His tem∣ples will be hollowe, his tongue will swell, & hang Page  45 out of his mouth, his heade and eyes also will be swollē, and the passage of his throte stopt, so as he can neyther eate nor drinke. All these sygnes be al∣so confirmed by Hierocles. Moreouer Vegetius ren∣dereth the cause of this disease, affirming, that it proceedes of aboundaunce of subtill bloude, whiche after long trauell, wil inflame the inwarde or out∣warde muskels of the throte or wesand, or suche af∣fluence of bloude may come, by vse of hote meates after great trauel, being so alteratiue, as they cause those partes to swell in such sorte, as the horse can neyther eate nor drinke, nor drawe his breath. The cure according to Vegetius, is in this sort. First bath his mouth and tongue well with hote water, and then annoynte it with the gall of a Bull, that done, giue him this drinke. Take of olde oyle two pounde, of olde wyne a quarte, nine Figges, and nine Leekes heades, well stampte and brayed to∣gether. And after you haue boyled these a whyle, before you strayne them, put therevnto a little Ni∣trum Alexandrinum, and giue him a quarte of this euery morning, and euening. Absirtus and Hierocles, woulde haue you to let him bloude in the palat of his mouth, and to poure wyne & oyle into his nose∣trilles, and also to giue him to drink this decoction of Fygges and Nitrum, sodden together, or else to annoynt his throte within with Nitre oyle, and hony, or else with hony and Hogs dong myngled together, which differeth not much from Galen his medicine, to be giuen vnto man. For he sayth, that hony mingled with the powder of Dogges dong Page  [unnumbered] that is whyte, and swalowed downe, doth remedy the Squinancye presentlye. Absirtus also prayseth the oyntmente made of Bdellinum, and when the inflamation beginneth somewhat to decrease, he sayth it is good to purge the horse, by giuing hym wylde Concumbre, and Nitre to drinke. Let hys meate be grasse, if it may be gotten, or else wet hay, and sprinkled with Nitre. Let his drinke also be luke warme water, with some Barly meale in it.

Of the Cough. The .lxviii. Chapter.

OF Coughes some be outward, and some be inwarde. Those be out∣warde whiche doe come of outwarde causes, as by eating a feather, or by ea∣ting dusty or sharpe bearded straw, and such lyke things: which tycling his throte, causeth him to Coughe. You shall perceyue it by wagging and wrying his heade in his choughing, & by stam∣ping sometyme with his foote, labouring to get out the thing that grieueth him, and can not. The cure according to Martin is thus. Take a Willow wand, rowled throughout with a fyne Linnen clout, and then annoynte it all ouer with hony, and thrust it downe his throte, drawing your hande to and fro, to the intente it may eyther dryue downe the thing that grieueth him, or else bring it vp, and doe thys twice or thrice, annoynting at euery tyme the sticke with fresh hony.

Page  46

Of the inwarde and wet Coughe. The .lxix. Chapter.

OF inwarde Coughes some be wet and some be dry. The wet cough is that, which commeth of colde, taken after some greate heate giuen to the horse, dissoluing humors, which being afterwarde congealed, doe cause obstruction and stopping in the lungs. And I cal it the wet coughe, bycause the horse in his coughing, will voyde moys∣tye matter at his mouth, after that it is once bro∣ken. The sygnes be these. The horse will be heauy, and his eyes will run a water, and he will forsake his meate, and when he cougheth, he thrusteth out his head, and reacheth with great paine at the first, as though he had a dry cough, vntill the Flegme be broken, and then he will cough more hollow, which is a sygne of amendment. And therfore according to Martins experience, to the intent the Flegme may breake the soner, it shall be necessarye to kepe hym warme, by clothing him with a double cloth, and by litteryng him vp to the bellye with freshe strawe, & then to giue him this drinke. Take of Barlye one Pecke, and boyle it in two or thre Gallons of faire water, vntill the Barlye begin to bruste, and boyle therewith of broused Lycoras, of Annis seedes, of Raysins, of eche one pounde, then strayne it, and to that lyquor, put of hony a pynte, and a quarterne of Sugercandy, and keepe it close in a potte to serue Page  [unnumbered] the horse therewith foure seuerall morninges, and cast not away the sodden Barly with the rest of the strayninges, but make it hote euery day to perfume the horse withall, being put into a bagge, and tyed to his heade, and if the horse will eate of it, it shall doe him the more good. And this perfuming in Winter seasō would be vsed about ten of the clocke in the morning, when the sunne is of some heyght, to the intent the horse may be walked abrode, if the sunne shyne, to excercyse hym moderately. And vn∣till hys coughe weare awaye, faile not to giue him warme water, with a little ground Maulte. And as his cough breaketh more and more, so lette his water euery day be lesse warmed, than other.

Of the dry Coughe. The .lxx. Chapter.

THis semeth to come of some grosse and tough humor, cleauing harde to the hollowe places of the lungs which stoppeth the wind pi∣pes, so as ye horse cā not easly draw his breath, & if it continue, it wyll eyther grow to the Pursick, or else breake his winde altogether. The sygnes be these. He wil cough both often, dryly, and also vehement∣lye, without voyding at the nose or mouth. The cure according to Martin, is in this sort. Take a close earthen potte and put therin, thre pyntes of strong Uineger, and foure Egges, shelles and all vnbro∣ken, Page  47 and foure Garlick heades clene pilled & brou∣sed, and set the pot being very close couered, in some warme donghill, and there lette it stande a whole night: and the next morning with your hand take out the Egges, which will be so soft as sylke, & lay them by, vntil you haue strayned the Garlycke and Uineger thorow a fayre cloth, then put to that ly∣quor, a quarterne of hony, and halfe a quarterne of Sugercandye, and two ounces of Lycoras, & two ounces of Annis seedes, beaten all into fyne pow∣der. And then the horse hauing fasted all the night before, in the morning betwixte seuen and eyght of the clock, open his mouth with a corde, and whorle therein one of the Egges, so as he may swallow it downe, and then immediatelye poure in after it a horne full of the foresayde drynke, being first made luke warme, and then cast in an other Egge, with an other horne ful of drinke, and so continue to do, vntill he hath swallowed vppe all the Egges, and dronke vp all the drinke: and then brydle him, and couer him with warmer clothes thā he had before, and bring him into the stable, and there lette him stande on the bitte, at the bare racke, well littered vp to the bellye, the space of two houres. Then vn∣bitte him, and if it be in Winter, offer him a hande∣ful of Wheaten straw, if in Sōmer, giue him grasse, and let him eate no hay, vnlesse it be very well dus∣ted, and sprinckled with water, and giue him not much thereof. And therfore you shall neede to giue hym the more prouender, whiche also must be well clensed of all filthe, and dust, and giue him no colde Page  [unnumbered] water, the space of nine dayes. And if you perceyue that the cough doth not weare away, then if it be in Winter, purge him with these pilles. Take of larde two pounde layde in water two houres, then take nothing but the cleene fatte thereof, and stampe it in a morter, and thereto put of Lycoras, of Annis seedes, of Fenegreke, of eche beaten into powder three ounces, of Aloes in powder two ounces, of A∣garice one ounce. Knede these together lyke paast, make thereof sixe balles, as big as an Egge. Then the horse hauing fasted ouer nighte, giue him the nexte morning these pilles, one after another, an∣nointed with hony and oyle mingled together, in a Platter, and to the intente he may swallowe them downe whyther he will or not, when you haue ope∣ned his mouth, catch holde of his tongue, and holde it faste whilest you whorle in one of the pilles, that done, thrust it into his throte with a rowling pinne, and then let his tongue go vntill he hath swalow∣ed it downe: then giue hym in like maner all the rest of the pilles, & let him stande on the bit warme clothed, and littered the space of thre houres at the least, and after that giue him a little wette hay, and warme water with a little grounde Maulte in it, to drinke, and lette him drinke no other but warme water, the space of a weke. And now and then in a fayre sunnye day, it shall be good to trotte him one houre abroade, to breath him.

Of the fretized, broken, and rotten lungs. The .lxxi. Chapter.

Page  48THis procedes as Absirtus and Theomnestus sayth, eyther of an ex∣treeme coughe, or of vehement run∣ning, or leaping, or of ouer greadye drinking after greate thrist, for the lungs be inclosed in a very thin film or skinne, and therefore easy to be broken, which if it bee not cured in tyme, doth growe to appostu∣mation, and to corruption, oppressing al the lungs, which of the olde Authors is called Vomica, and Sup∣putatio. But Theomnestus sayth, that broken lungs, & rotten lungs, be two dyuers diseases, and haue dy∣uers sygnes, & dyuers cures. The sygnes of broken lungs be these. The horse draweth his wind short, and by little at once, he will turne his heade often toward the place grieued, and groneth in his brea∣thing, he is afrayde to coughe, and yet cougheth as though he had eaten small bones. The same The∣omnestus healed a frendes horse of his, whose lungs were fretyzed or rather broken as he sayth, by con∣tinual eating of salte, with this maner of cure here folowing. Let the horse haue quiet and rest, & then let him bloude in the haunches, where the vaynes appeare most: and giue him to drinke the space of seuen dayes, Barlye or rather Otes, soden in Goa∣tes mylke, or if you can get no milke, boyle it in wa∣ter, and put therein some thicke Collops of Larde, and of Deares sewet, and let him drinke that: and let his common drinke in winter season, be the de∣coction of wheat meale, and in Sommer tyme, the Page  [unnumbered] decoction of Barly, and this as he sayth will binde his lungs agayne together. Vegetius vtterlye disa∣loweth letting of bloude in any such disease as this is, and also all maner of sharpe medicins, for feare of prouoking the coughe, by meanes whereof the broken places can neuer heale perfectly. And ther∣fore neyther his medicins nor meate woulde bee harshe, but smouth, gentle, and cooling. The best medicine that may be gyuen him at all tymes is this. Take of Fengreke, and of Lynsede, of ech half a pounde, of Gum dragant, of Masticke, of Mirre, of Suger, of Fytch floure, of eche one ounce. Let all these things be beaten into fyne powder, and then infused one whole night in a sufficient quantity of warme water, and the next day giue him a quart of this luke warme, putting therevnto two or three ounces of oyle of Roses, continuing so to doe many dayes together, and if the disease be new, this will heale him. Yea and it will ease him verye muche though the disease be olde, whiche then is thought vncurable. And in winter season so long as he stā∣deth in the stable, let him drinke no colde water, & let his meate be cleene without dust, but in Som∣mer season it were best to let him run to grasse. For so long as he eateth grasse, a man shall scantly per∣ceyue this disease: thus much of broken lungs.

Of putryfied or rotten lungs. The .lxxii. Chapter.

Page  49THe sygnes to knowe whether a horses lungs be putrifyed or rottē, ac∣cording to Theomnestus, are these. The horse wil both eate & drink more gredi∣ly than he was wont to do, and he shall be oftner vexed with a dry cough, and in coughing he wil cast little lumps of matter out at his mouth. The cure wherof, according to Theomnestus, is thus. Giue him to drinke euery morning, the space of se∣uen dayes, the iuyce of Purslen mingled with oyle of Roses, and adde thervnto a little Tragagantū, that hath bene layde before in steepe in Goates mylke, or else in barlye or oten milke, strayned out of the corne. When the Apostume is broken, then a verye strong and euill sauour will come out at his nosetrilles. For remedy whereof, it shall be good to giue him the space of seuen dayes this drinke here folowing. Take of the roote called Costus two ounces, and of Casia, or else of Cynamon thre oun∣ces, beaten into fyne powder, and a fewe Raysins, and giue it him to drinke with wyne. But Vegetius woulde haue him to be cured in this sort, and with lesse cost, I assure you. Take of Franconcense, and of Aristoloch, of eche two ounces, beaten into fyne powder, and giue him that with wine, or else take of vnburnt Brimstone two ounces, and of Aristo∣loch one ounce and a half beaten into powder, and giue him that with wyne. And he would haue you also to draw his breast with a hote yron, to the in∣tent that the humors may issue forth outwardly.

Page  [unnumbered]

Of shortnesse of breath. The .lxxiii. Chapter.

A Horse may haue shortenesse of breath, by hastye running after drin∣king, or vpon a full stomacke, or by the discending of humors vnto his throte or lungs, after some extreme heate dis∣soluing the sayd humors, which so long, as there is nothing broken, maye in the beginning be easilye holpen. The sygnes be these. The horse will conti∣nually pant, and fetch his breath shorte, which wil come very hote out at his nose, & in his breathing he will squese in the nose, and his flankes will beat thicke, yea and some can not fetch their breath vn∣lesse they holde their neckes right out, and straigth, whiche disease is called of the olde wryters by the Greeke name Orthopnoea. The cure. Let him bloude in the necke, and giue him this drinke. Take of wyne, and of oyle, of eche a pynte, of Franconcense, halfe an ounce, and of the iuyce of Horehound halfe a pynte. It is good also to poure into his throte ho∣nye, butter, and Hogges greace molten together, & made luke warme. Tiberius sayth, it is good to giue him whole Egges, shelles and al, steeped and made soft in Uineger: that is to say, the first day thre, the seconde day fyue, and the thirde day seuen, and to poure oyle and wine into his nosetrilles. I for my part would take nothing but Annis seedes, Lyco∣ras and Sugercandy, beaten al into fyne powder, Page  50 giue him that to drinke, with wine and oyle, ming∣led together.

Of the Pursicke. The .lxxiiii. Chapter.

THis is a shortenesse of breath, and the horse that is so diseased, is cal∣led of the Italians, Cauallo pulsino, or Bolso, whiche I thinke is deriued of the Laten worde Vulsus, by chaunging V. into B. and I thinke differeth not muche from him that hath brokē lungs, called of Vegetius and other olde wryters Vulsus, for suche shortenesse of breath commes eyther of the same causes, or else muche lyke, as of abundaunce of grosse humors cleauing harde to the hollowe places of the lungs, and stop∣ping the winde pipes. And the winde beyng kepte in, doth resort downeward as Russius sayth, into the horses guttes, and so causeth his flankes to beate cōtinually without order, that is to say, more swift∣lye, and hyer vp to the backe, than the flankes of a∣ny horse that is sounde of wynde. And if this dys∣ease be olde it is seldom or neuer cured, and though I finde many medicins prescribed by dyuers Au∣thours, fewe or none doe contente me, vnlesse it be that of Vegetius, recyted before in the chapter of bro∣ken lungs. And if that preuaileth not, thē I thinke it were not amisse according to Russius to pourge him with this drinke here following. Take of may∣den haire, of Ireos, of Ashe, of Lycoras, of Fēgreke, Page  [unnumbered] of Raysins, of ech halfe an ounce, of Cardamum, of Pepper, of bytter Almonds, of Baurach, of ech two ounces, of Nettle seede, and of Aristoloche, of eche two ounces, boyle them all together in a sufficiente quantitie of water, and in that decoction dissolue halfe an ounce of Agaricke, and two ounces of Co∣loquintida, together with two pounde of hony, and giue him of this a pinte or a quart at dyuers times, and if it bee to thicke, make it thinner, by putting thervnto water, wherin Lycoras hath bene soddē, and if nede be, you may also draw both his flanks crossewyse with a hote Iron, to restrayne the bea∣ting of them, and also slytte his nosetrilles, to giue him more ayre. And if it be in Sommer, turne him to grasse, if in Winter, lette him be kept warme, and giue hym now and then a little sodden wheate. Russius woulde haue it to be giuen him three dayes together, and also newe sweete wyne to drinke, or else other good wine, mingled with Licoras water.

Of a Consumption. The .lxxv. Chapter.

A Consumption is none other thyng but an exulceration of the lungs, proceding of some fretting or gnawing humor, discending out of the head into the lungs. And I take it to be that disease whiche the olde wryters are wonte to call the dry malady. Whiche perhappes some woulde rather interprete to be the Page  51 mourning of the Chyne, with whom I intend not to stryue. But thus much I muste nedes say, that e∣uerye horse hauing the mourning of the Chyne, doth continually cast at the nose, but in the dry ma∣ladye it is cleane contrary. For all the Authours that wryte therof affyrme, that the horse auoydeth nothing at the nose. And the sygnes to knowe the dry maladye according to their doctryne, be these. Hys fleshe doth cleene consume away, his bellye is gaunt, and the skin therof so hard stretched, or ra∣ther shronk vp, as if you strike on it with your hand it will sounde lyke a Tabor, and he wyll be hollowe backt, and forsake his meate, and though he eateth it, (as Absirtus sayth) yet he doth not disgest it, nor prospereth not withall, he woulde coughe and can not but hickingly, as though he had eaten smal bo∣nes. And this disease is iudged of al the Authours to be incureable. Notwithstanding, they say all, that it is good to purge his heade with such perfu∣mes as haue bene shewed you before, in the Chap∣ter of the Glaunders, & also to gyue him alwayes Coleworts, small chopt wyth his prouender. Some woulde haue hym to drinke the warme bloude of sucking Pigges newe slayne, and some the iuyce of Leekes, together with oyle and wyne myngled to∣gether. Others prayse wyne and Franconcense, some oyle and Rhew, some woulde haue hys bodye to be purged, and sente to grasse.

Of the Consumption of the flesh, and howe to make a leane horse fatte. Page  [unnumbered] The .lxxvi. Chapter.

MArtin sayth that if a horse take a great colde after a heat: it will cause his fleshe to waste, & his skin to waxe hard & dry, & to cleaue fast to his sides, and he shall haue no appetite vnto his meate, and the fillettes of his backe will fall away, and all the fleshe of his buttockes, and of his shoul∣ders, will be consumed. The cure whereof is thus. Take two sheepes heades vnfleaed, boyle them in thre gallons of Ale, or fayre running water, vntyll the fleshe be consumed from the bones, that done, strayne it through a fine cloth, and then put there∣vnto of Suger one pounde, of Cynamon two oun∣ces, of conserue of Roses, of Barbaries, and of Che∣ries, of ech two ounces, and mingle them together, & giue the horse euery day in the morning, a quarte thereof luke warme, vntill all be spent: and after euery tyme he drinketh, let him be walked vp and downe in the stable, or else abrode if the weather be warme, and not wyndye, and let him neyther eate nor drinke in two houres after, and let him drinke no colde water, but luke warme the space of fiftene dayes, and let him be fedde by little and little, with such meate as the horse hath moste appetyte vnto. But if a horse be neshe & tender, and so waxe leane without anye apparant griefe or disease, then the olde wryters woulde haue him to be fed now and then with partched wheate, & also to drinke wyne with his water, and to eate continuallye wheate Page  52 branne mingled with his prouender, vntill he wax strong, and he must be often dressed and trymmed, and laye soft, without the which thinges his meate will doe him but little good. And his meate must be fyne and cleane, and giuen him often, and by little at once. Russius sayth, that if a horse eating his meat with a good appetite, doth not for all that prosper, but is stil leane: then it is good to giue him Sage, Sauyn, Bay buryes, Earth nuttes, and Boares greace, to drinke with wyne: or to giue him the in∣trayles of a Barble or Tench, with whyte wyne. He sayth also that sodden Beanes mingled wyth bran and salte, will make a leane horse fatte in ve∣ry shorte space.

Of griefe in the breast. The .lxxvii. Chapter.

LAurentius Russius wryteth of a disease called in Italian Granezza di petto, whiche hath not bene in experi∣ence amongst our Ferrers, that I can learne. It commes as Russius sayth, of the superfluity of bloud, or other humors dissolued by some extreme heate, and resorting downe to the breast, payning the horse so as he can not well goe. The cure wherof according to Russius is thus. Let him bloud on both sydes of the breast, in ye accuste∣med vaynes, and rowel them vnder the breast, and twice a day turne the rowelles with your hande, to moue the humors that they may issue forth, and let Page  [unnumbered] hym go so rowelled the space of .xv. dayes.

Of the payne at the harte called Anticor, that is to say contrary to the heart. The .lxxviii. Chapter.

THis procedes of abundaunce of ranke bloud bredde with good feeding and ouer much rest. Which bloud resor∣ting to the inwarde partes, doth suffo∣cate the hart, and many tymes causeth swellings to appeare before the breast, whiche wil grow vpwarde to the necke, and then it killeth the horse. The sygnes. The horse will hang downe his heade in the maunger, for saking his meate, and is not able to lifte vp his heade. The cure according to Martin, is thus. Let him bloude on both sydes a∣bundantlye in the plat vaynes, and then giue him this drinke. Take a quarte of Malmesy, and put therevnto halfe a quarterne of Suger, & two oun∣ces of Cynamō, and giue it him luke warme. Then kepe him warme in the stable, stuffing him well a∣boute the stomacke, that the winde offende him no maner of way, and gyue him warme water wyth mault alwayes to drinke, and giue him such meate as he wil eate. And if the swelling do appeare, then besydes letting hym bloude, strike the swelling in dyuers places wyth your fleame, that the corrup∣tion may go foorth: and annoynt the place wyth warme Hogges greace, and that will eyther make it to weare away, or else to grow to a heade, if it be Page  53 couered and kept warme.

Of tyered horses. The .lxxix. Chapter.

BYcause we are in hande here with the vitall partes, and that when horses be tyered with ouer muche la∣bour, their vitall sprightes wax feble, I thinke it best to speak of them euen here, not with suche long discoursing as Vegetius vseth, but brieflye to shewe you howe to refresh the poore horse, hauing nede thereof, which is done chieflye by geuing him rest, warmth, and good feeding, as with warme mashes and plentye of prouender. And to quicken his sprightes, it shall be good to poure a little oyle and Uineger into his nosetrilles, and to giue him the drinke of shepes heades, recyted before in the Chapter of the con∣sumption of the flesh, yea and also to bath his legs with this bath. Take of Mallowes, of Sage, of eche two or thre handfull, and a rose Cake. Boyle these thinges together, and beyng boyled, then put vnto it a good quantity of butter, or of Sallet oyle. Or else make him this charge. Take of bole Armo∣nye, and of wheate flower, of eche halfe a pounde, and a little Rosen beaten into powder, and a quart of strong vineger: and mingle them together, and couer all his legges therwith, and if it be in Som∣mer turne him to grasse.

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Of the diseased partes vnder the mydriffe, and first of the stomacke. The .lxxx. Chapter.

THe olde Authours make mention of many diseases incidente to a horses sto∣macke, as lothing of meate, spuyng vp his drinke, surfetting of prouēder, the hungry euyll, and such lyke, which fewe of our Ferrers haue obserued: and therefore I will briefly speake, of as many as I think necessary to be knowen, and first of the lothing of meate.

Of the lothing of meate. The .lxxxi. Chapter.

A Horse maye lothe hys meate through the intemperature of his sto∣macke, as for that, it is to hote or to colde. If his stomacke be to hote, then most commonlye it will eyther inflame his mouth, and make it to break out in blisters, yea and perhappes cause some canker to breede there. The cure of all whiche thinges haue bene taught before. But if he forsake his meate onely for verye heate, whiche you shall perceyue by the hotenesse of his breath and mouth, then coole his stomacke by giuing him colde water mingled with a little vine∣ger and oyle to drinke, or else giue him this drinke. Take of milke, and of wyne, of eche one pynte, and Page  54 put therevnto three ounces of Mel Rosatum, and wash all his mouth with Uineger and salte. If his stomacke be to colde, chen his haire will stare and stande right vp, which Absirtus & others were wonte to cure, by giuing the horse good wyne and oyle to drynke, and some woulde seeth in the wyne, Rhew, or Sage, some would adde thervnto, white Pepper and Myrre, some woulde giue him Onyons and Roket seede to drinke with wyne, some the bloude of a yong Sowe with wyne. Absirtus would haue the horse to eate the greene blades of wheate, if the tyme of the yeare will serue for it. Columella sayth, that if a horse or any other beast doe loth his meat, it is good to giue hym wyne, and the seede of Gith, or else wyne and stampt Garlicke.

Of casting out his drinke. The .lxxxii. Chapter.

VEgetius sayth that the Horse may haue such a Pawlsy proceeding of colde in his stomacke, as he is not able to kepe his drinke, but many ty∣mes do cast it out again at his mouth. The remedye whereof is to lette him bloud in the necke, and to giue him cordiall drinks, that is to say, made of hote and comfortable spyces, and also to annoynte all his breast and vnder hys shoulders with hote oyles, & to purge his heade, by blowyng vp into his nosetrils, powders that pro∣uoke nesing, such as haue bene taught you before.

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Of surfetting with glut of Prouender. The .lxxxiii. Chapter.

THe Glut of Prouender or other meate not digested, doth cause a Horse to haue great payne in his body, so as he is not able to stande on his fete, but lyeth downe, & waltereth, as thoughe he had the Bottes. The cure whereof according to Martins experience is in this sorte. Let him bloude in the necke, then trotte him vp and downe for the space of an houre, and if he can not stale, drawe out his yarde, and washe it with a little white Wine luke warme, and thrust into his yard eyther a broo∣sed Cloue of Garlicke, or else a little oyle of Cama∣mill, with a wax Candle. If he can not doung, then rake his fundament, & giue him this glistre. Take of Mallowes two or three handful, and boyle them in a pottell of fayre running water, and when the Mallowes be soden, then straine it, and put there∣vnto a quarte of freshe Butter, and halfe a pinte of oyle Oliue, and hauing receyued this glister, leade him vp and downe, vntill he hath emptyed his bel∣lye. Then set him vp and kepe him hūgry, the space of three or foure dayes, and the Hay that he eateth, let it be sprinckeled with water, and let him drinke warme water, wherein would be put a lyttle bran, and whē he hath dronke, giue him the bran to eat, and giue him little or no prouender at all, for the space of eight or tenne dayes.

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Of an other kinde of surfetting with meate or drinke, called of vs foundering in the body. The .lxxxiiij. Chapter.

THis disease is called of the olde writers in Greeke Crithiasis, in Latine Hordiatio, it cōmeth as they say by eating of much Prouender, sodenlye after labour whylest the Horse is hote and panting, where∣by his meate not being digested, bredeth euill hu∣mors, which by little and little do spreade throughe his members, and at length do oppresse all his bo∣dy, and doe cleane take away his strength, & make him in such case as he can neyther go, nor bow his ioynts, nor being layde is able to rise againe, ney∣ther can he stale but with great pain. It may come also as they say, of drinking to much in trauelling by the way when the horse is hote, but then it is not so daungerous, as when it commeth of eating to much. But how so euer it commeth, they say all, that the humors will immediatelye resort downe into the horses legs, & feete, & will make him to cast his houes: and therfore I must nedes iudgeit to be no other thing but a plaine foūdering, which word foūdering is borowed as I take it of ye Frēch word Fundu, yt is to say moltē. For foūdering is a melting or dissolutiō of humors, which the Italians cal in∣fusione. Martin maketh diuers kinds of foundering, as foundering in the body, which the Frenche men Page  [unnumbered] call most commonlye morfundu, and foundering in the legges, and feete, also foundering before, and foundering behinde, which some Autours do deny, as Magister Maurus, and Laurentius Russius, affirming that there are fewer humors behinde than before, and that they can not easelye be dissolued or mol∣ten, being so farre distante from the hearte, and the other vital partes. Whervnto a man might aunswere, that the naturall heate of the heart doth not cause dissolution of humors, but some vnnatu∣rall and accidentall heate, spred throughout all the members, whiche is dayly proued by good experi∣ence. For we see horses to be foundered not only be∣fore or behinde, but also of all foure legges at once, which most commonly chaunceth, either, by taking colde sodenlye after a great heate, as by standyng still vpon some colde pauemente, or abrode in the colde winde, or else for that perhaps the horse tra∣ueling by the way, and being in a sweate, was suf∣fered to stande in some showld water whilest he did drinke, which was worse than his drinking, for in the meane time the colde entring at his fete, ascen∣ded vpward, and congealed the humors which the heate before had dissolued, and therby when he cō∣meth once to rest, he waxeth stiffe and lame of all his legges. But leauing to speake of foundering in the legges, as well before as behind, vntil we come to the griefes in the legges and feete, we intende to talke here onely of foundering in the body accor∣ding to Martins experience. The signes to knowe if a horse be foundered in his body bee these. Hys Page  56 haire will stare, & he will be chill and shrugge for colde, and forsake his meate hanging downe the heade, and quiuer after colde water, and after two or three dayes he will begin to coughe. The cure according to Martin is thus. First scoure his bellye with the glistre last mentioned, and then gyue him a comfortable drinke made in this sorte. Take of Malmesey a quarte, of Suger halfe a quartern, of hony half a quartern, of Cynamom halfe an ounce, of Lyckoras and Annis seedes of ech two sponeful, beaten into fine powder, which being put into the Malmesey, warme them togither at the fire so as the hony may be molten, and then giue it him luke warme. That done walke him vp and downe in the warme stable the space of halfe an houre, and then let him stand on the bitte two or three houres without meate, but let him be warme couered & wel littered, and giue him hay sprinckeled with a little water, and cleane sifted prouender by little at once, and let his water be warmed with a little grounde Mault therin. And if you se him somewhat chered, then let him bloude in the necke, and also perfume him once a day, with a little Frankencense, and vse to walk him abrode when the weather is fayre and not windye, or else in the house if the weather bee foule, and by thus vsing him you shall quickly reco∣uer him.

Of the hungry euill. The .lxxxv. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]THis is a gredy desire to eate folowing some great emptinesse, or lacke of meate, and is called of the olde authours by the Greeke name. Bulimos, which is as much to say, as a greate hunger proceeding as the Phisitians say at the first of some extreme outward colde, taken by long traueling in colde barren pla∣ces, and specially where snowe aboundeth, whiche outwarde colde causeth the stomacke to be colde, & the inwarde powers to be feeble. The cure accor∣ding to Absirtus and Hierocles, is in the beginning to comfort the horses stomacke, by giuing hym bread sopte in wyne, and if you be in a place of rest, to giue him wheate flower, and wyne to drinke, or to make him Cakes or Bailes of flower and wine kneded together, and to feede him with that, or with wine and Nuttes of pyne trees. Hierocles sayth, if anye such thing chaunce by the way whereas no flower is to be had, than it shall be best to giue him wine and earth wrought together, eyther to drinke or else to eate in Balles.

Of the diseases in the Liuer. The .lxxxvi. Chapter.

AL the old Authours speake much of the payne in the Lyuer, but none of them doe declare wherof it cōmeth, or by what menes, Page  57 sauing that Hipocrates sayth, that some horses do get it by violent running vppon some stony or harde ground. I for my parte thinke that the Lyuer of a Horse is subiect to as many diseases, as the Lyuer of a man, and therefore may be payned dyuerslye. As sometime by the intemperatenesse of the same, as for that it is perhaps to hote or to colde, to moyst or to dry: sometime by meanes of euill humors, as Cholor, or Flegme, abounding in the same, accor∣ding as the Lyuer is eyther hote or colde: for heate breedeth Cholor, and colde Flegme. By meanes of which intemperature proceedeth all the weaknesse of the Lyuer. It may be payned also sometime by obstruction and stopping, and sometime by harde knobbes, inflamation, appostume, or vlcer bredde therein, sometime by consumption of the substance thereof. The sygnes of heate and hote humors be these, lothing of meate, great thirst and losenesse of belly, voyding dong of strong scent, & leanenesse of body. The sygnes of colde, and colde humors be these: appetite to meate without thirst, belly neither continually loose, nor stipticke, but betwene times, no strong scent of dong, nor leanenesse of body, by which kind of signes, both fyrst and last mentioned and such like, the weakenesse of the Lyuer is also to be learned and sought out. Obstruction or stop∣ping moste commonly chaunceth by trauelling or labouring vpon a full stomacke, whereby the meate not being perfectlye digested, breedeth grosse and tough humors, which humors by vehemence of the labour, are also driuen violently into the small vay∣nes Page  [unnumbered] wherby the Lyuer shoulde receyue good nutri∣ment, and so breedeth obstructiō and stopping. The signes whereof in mannes body is heauinesse, and distentiō, or swelling, with some griefe in the right syde, vnder the short ribbes, and specially when he labourech immediately after meate, which sygnes I beleue if it were diligently obserued, were easye inoughe to finde in a horse by his heauy going at his setting forth, & often turning his heade to the side grieued. Of an olde obstruction, and speciallye if he humors be Choloricke, breedeth many times a harde knob on the Lyuer, called of the Phisitians Scirrhus, which in mans body may be felt, if the body be not ouer fatte, and it is more casye for him to lye on the righte side, than on the lefte, bycause that ly∣ing on the left side, the waight of the knob woulde oppresse the stomacke, and vitall partes very sore, by which sygnes me thinkes, a diligent ferrer may learne, whither a horse hath any suche disease or not. The inflamation of the Lyuer commeth by meanes that the bloude eyther through the abun∣dance, thinnesse, boyling heate, or sharpnesse there∣of, or else throughe the violence of some outwarde cause, breaketh out of the vaynes, and floweth into the bodye of the Lyuer, and there being out of his proper vessels, doth immediatelye putrifye, and is inflamed, and therewith corrupteth so muche fles∣shye substance of the Lyuer as is imbrued withall, and therefore for the most parte the hollow side of the Lyuer is consumed, yea and sometime the full syde. This hote bloudye matter then, is properlye Page  58 called an inflamation, which by naturall heate, is afterwarde turned into a plaine corruptiō, and thē it is called an impostume, which if it break out & rū, thē it is called an vlcer, or filthy sore. Thus you se, yt of one euil foūtaine may spring dyuers griefes, requyring dyuers cures. And though none of mine Authours, nor any other Ferrer that I know, haue waded thus farre, yet I thought good by wryting thus much, to giue such Ferrers as be wise, discrete, and diligent, occasion to seeke for more knowledge and vnderstanding than is taught them, and mee thinkes that it is a great shame, that the Ferrers of this age should not know much more, than the Fer∣rers of old time, sith that besides that, the old mens knowledge is not hidden from them, they haue al∣so their owne experience, and time also bringeth e∣uery day newe things to light. But now to procede in discoursing of the Lyuer according to the Phisi∣tians doctrine as I haue begon, I say then of an inflamation in the hollow side of the Lyuer. The sygnes be these. Lothing of meate, great thirste, losenes of belly, easy lying on the right side, & pain∣full lying on the left. But if the inflamation be on the full syde or swelling syde of the Lyuer, then the Patient is troubled with difficultye of breathing, with a dry Coughe, and grieuous paine, pulling & twitching the winde Pipe, and to lye on the right syde is more painefull than on the lefte, & the swel∣ling also may be felt with a mans hand. But you must vnderstand by the way, yt all these things last mentioned, be the signes of some great inflamatiō for smal inflamations haue no such sygnes but are Page  [unnumbered] to be iudged only by griefe vnder the short ribbes, and long featching of the breath. The sygnes of Appostumation is painefull, and great heate. The sygnes of Ulceration is decrease of the heate, with feablenesse & fainting. For the filthy matter flow∣ing abrode with euil vapours, corrupteth the heart and many tymes causeth death. The sygnes of the consumption of the Lyuer, shall be declared in the next Chapter, and as for the curing of all the other diseases before mentioned, experience muste firste teach it ere I can write it. Notwithstanding I can not thinke, but that suche things as are good to heale the like diseases in mans body, are also good for a horse, for his Lyuer is lyke in substaunce and shape to a mans Lyuer, differing in nothing but onely in greatnesse. And therefore I would wishe you to learne at the Phisitians handes, whiche I am sure first as touching the weakenesse of the Ly∣uer proceding of the vntemperatenesse therof, wyll bid you to heale euery suche vntemperatenesse by his contrary, that is to say, heate by colde, and drynesse by moysture, and so contrary. And there∣fore it shall be very necessarye for you to learne the qualities, natures, and vertues of hearbes, drugs, and all other simples, and howe to applye them in time. And for to heale the obstruction of the Lyuer, they will councel you perhaps to make to the horse, drinkes of such simples, as these be, Agrimony, Fu∣mitory, Camamill, Wormewoode, Lycoras, Annis seedes, Smallage, Perslye, Spicknard, Gentian, Succory, Endiue, Sperage, Lupius, the vertues Page  59 wherof you shal learne in the Herbals: but amōgst all simples, there is none more praysed than the Lyuer of a Wolfe beaten into pouder, & mingled in any medicine that is made for any disease in the Lyuer. The cure of an inflamation consisteth in let∣ting bloude, and in bathing, or fomenting the sore place with such hearbes & oyles, as may mollifie & disperse humors abrode, wherewith some simples that be astringent, would be alwayes mingled, yea and in all other medicins that be applyed to the Lyuer, for any maner of disease. Simples that mol¦lify and disperse be these. Linesede, Fengreke, Ca∣mamill, Annis seedes, Melilot & such like things. Simples astringent be these. Redde Rose leaues, Brimble leaues, Wormewode, Plantayne, Myrrh, Masticke, Styrax, and suche like. Appostumes are to be ryped and voyded. Ulcers must be clensed, & scowred downewarde, eyther by the belly, or by v∣rine, and therefore the vse of suche simples as pro∣uoke vrine in such cases is necessary. The old wry∣ters of Horseleach crafte do saye, that when a horse is grieued in his lyuer, he will forsake his meate, & his body will wast, his mouth will be dry, his tong rough and harshe, yea and it wyll swell, and he wil refuse to lye on that side where his griefe is. The cure whereof according to Absirtus is in this sorte. Let him drinke stampt Ireos with wine allayed with water. He prayseth also an hearbe much like vnto Calamynt called of Plinie Polimonia, or let him drinke Sauery with wine and oyle, I thinke that Agrimony or Lyuer wort is as good as the best of Page  [unnumbered] them. Absirtus woulde haue his body to be chaufed with wine and oyle mixte together, and to be well littered that he may lye softe, and his prouender that should be giuen him, to be styped first in warm water, and nowe and then some Nytrum to be put in his drinke.

Of the consumption of the Lyuer. The .lxxxvij. Chapter.

I Beleue that no inward mem∣ber of a Horse doth suffer so muche, as the Lungs and Lyuer, and that not so much by continuall, as by vnordinate, and vntimely trauell, labor and exer∣cise, whereby eyther the Horses Lungs or his Ly∣uer doe moste commonly perishe, and is consumed, yea and sometyme both. Of the consumption of the Lungs, we haue talked sufficientlye before. Therefore let vs shewe you here the causes wherof the consumption of the Lyuer procedeth. The Phi∣sitians say, that it maye come of anye humor, but chiefly and most commonlye of Choloricke matter, shead thorowout the substance of the Liuer, which putrifying by little and little, and laysurely doth at length corrupt, and perishe all the substance of the Lyuer, which thing in mannes body doth first pro∣ceede as the Phisitians say, eyther by eating cor∣rupt meates, or else by continual drinking of swete wynes. But me thinkes that the consumption of a horses Lyuer shoulde come by some extreme heate, Page  60 inflaming the bloud, which afterwarde being pu∣trifyed, doth corrupte and exulcerate the substance of the Lyuer. For after inflamation, as I sayde be∣fore commeth appostumation, and then exulcerati∣on which is very hard to cure, bycause the substāce of the Lyuer is spongious lyke vnto the Lungs, & whylest the Lyuer is so corrupted, there can be no good digestion, for lacke whereof the body recey∣ueth no good nutriment, and therefore must nedes also languish and consume. The sygnes according to Martin be these. The horse wil forsake his meate, and will stande stretching him selfe in length, and neuer couet to lye downe, and his breath wyll be so strong as no man can abide it, and he will conti∣nually cast yealowishe matter at the one nosetrill, or else at both, according as one or both sides of the Lyuer is corrputed, and on that syde that he casteth he will haue vnder hys iawe, euen about the midst thereof a knob or kirnell as muche as a Walnut, which when Martin findeth, he committeth his car∣casse to the Crowes, taking him to be past cure. But if he were let bloude in time and had such drinkes giuen him, as are good to comfort and strengthen the Lyuer, he thinketh that the horse might be re∣couered. I neuer red any medicine for the wasting of the Lyuer as I remember, but this onelye dyet, which I founde in an olde English booke. Let him drinke for the space of three dayes no other thing but warme wort, and let him eate no other meate but Otes baked in an Ouen, and let him stande meatelesse the firste night before you giue him the Page  [unnumbered] wort. But I thinke it were not amisse to put into the worte that he drinketh, euery morning some good confection or pouder made of Agrimony, red Rose leaues, Saccharū Rosaceum, Diarchadon, Abbatis, Di∣asantalon, Lycoras, and of the Lyuer of a Woulfe, and such other simples as doe comfort & strengthen the Lyuer or else to giue him ye same things with Goa∣tes milke luke warme.

Of the diseases in the Gall. The .lxxxviij. Chapter.

IN my opinion the Gall of a Horse is subiect to dyuers diseases as well as the Gall of a man, as to obstruction whereof commeth ful∣nesse and emptynesse of the Blad∣der therof, and also the stone in the Gal. But obstruction may chaunce two maner of wayes. First, when the way wherby the Cholor should proceede, from the Lyuer vnto the Bladder of the Gall, as vnto his proper recep∣tacle, is stopped, & thereby the Bladder remayneth empty, whereof may spring dyuers euill accidents, as vomiting, the laxe or bloudy Flyx. Secondlye when the way wherby such Cholor should issu forth of the Bladder of the Gall, downe into the Guttes, is shutte vp, whereby the Bladder is ouer full, and aboundeth with to muche Cholor, whiche causeth heauinesse, suffocatiō, belking, heate, thirst, and dis∣position to angrynesse. The signes of both kindes Page  61 of obstruction in the Gall is costluenesse, and yea∣lowishnesse of the skinne infected with the yeallow Iaundis. The stone in the gal which is somewhat blackishe, proceedeth of the obstruction of the cun∣duyts of the Bladder, whereby the Cholor being long kept in, waxeth dry, and turneth at length to harde grauell, or stones, whereof bycause there is neyther sygnes, nor any grieuous accident knowē to the Phisitians, I leaue to talk any further ther∣of, and the rather for that none of my Authours do make any mention of the Gall at all. Notwithstā∣ding to giue some lighte vnto the vnlearned Fer∣rers, and that they may the better vnderstande the inwarde parts of a horse, I thought good to write thus much, thinking it no tyme loste whyle I may profite them any way.

Of the diseases in the Splene. The .lxxxix. Chapter.

THe splene as I said before in the kepers office, is the receptacle of Melā∣choly and of the dregges of the bloude, and is subiecte to the like diseases that the Lyuer is, that is to say to swelling obstruction, harde knob, and inflamation, for the substaunce of the splene is spongious, and therfore apt to sucke in all filth, and to delate it selfe, where∣fore being full, it must nedes swell, which will ap∣peare in the left syde vnder the short rybbes, & such swelling causeth also shortnesse of breath, and spe∣cially Page  [unnumbered] when the body doth labour or trauayle. It is painefull also to lye on the ryghte syde, bycause the splen being so swollen oppresseth the midriffe, and speciallye when the stomacke is full of meate, and the Pacient hath worse digestion than appetyte, & is troubled with muche winde, both vpwarde and downewarde. Moreouer the vapour of the humor doth offende the harte making it faint, and causeth all the body to be heauy and dull, and if such swel∣ling be suffered to go vncured, then if it be a Melā∣choly humor and abounding ouermuche, it waxeth euery day thicker and thicker, causing obstruction not onely in the vaynes, and artires, which is to be perceyued by heauinesse and griefe on the left syde, but also in the splen it selfe, whereas by vertue of the heate it is hardned euery day more and more, and so by little and little waxeth to a harde knob, which doth not onely occupye all the substance of the splen, but also many tymes all the lefte syde of the wombe, and thereby maketh all the euill accy∣dentes or griefes before recited, muche worse than they were. Now as touching the inflamatiō of the splen whith chaunceth very seldom, for so much as euery inflamation procedeth of pure bloude, which seldome entreth into the splen: I shall not nede to make many words, but refer you ouer to the Chap∣ter of the Lyuer, for in suche case they differ not, but proceeding of like cause haue also lyke sygnes, and do requyre lyke cure. The olde wryters say, that horses be often grieued with griefe in the splen, and specially in Sommer season wyth gredy eatyng of Page  62 sweete greene meates, and they call those horses Lienosos, that is to say splenticke. The signes wher∣of (say they) are these, hard swelling on the left side, short breath, often groning, and gredy appetite to meate. The remedy whereof according to Absirtus, is to make the horse to sweate once a day during a certaine tyme, by ryding him or otherwyse traue∣ling hym, and to poure into his lefte nosetrill euery day the iuyce of Mirabolaus mingled with wyne, and water, amounting in all, to the quantitye of a pynte. But me thinkes it would do him more good if he dranke it as Hierocles would haue him to do. Eu∣melius prayseth this drinke. Take of Cumyn seede, and of hony, of ech sixe ounces, and of Lacerpitium as much as a beane, of Uineger a pinte, and put al these into three quartes of water, and let it stande so all night, and the next morning giue the horse to drinke thereof, being kept ouernight fasting. The∣omnestus prayseth the decoction of Capers, specially if the barke of the roote thereof may be gotten sodē in water to a Syrop, or else make him a drinke of Garlycke, Nytrum, Horehounde, and wormewode soden in harshe wine, and he would haue the lefte syde to be bathed with warme water, & to be harde rubbed. And if all this will not helpe, then to giue hym the fyre, which Absirtus doth not allowe, saying that the splen lyeth so, as it can not be easly fyered, to doe him any good. But for so much as the Lyuer and splen are members much occupyed in the ingē∣dring and seperating of humors, many euill accy∣dents and griefes doe take their first beginning of Page  [unnumbered] them, as the Iaūdis called in a horse, the yealows, drynesse of body, and consumption of the flesh, with out any apparaunt cause why, whiche the Phisiti∣ans call Atrophia, also euill habit of the body called of them Cachexia, and the Dropsy. But first we wyll speake of the Iaundis or yealows.

Of the yealows. The .xc. Chapter.

THe Phisitians in mans bo∣dy do make two kinds of Iaundis, that is to say, the yeallow procee∣ding of Cholor, dispersed thorowe out the whole body, and dying the skin yeallow, and the blacke proce∣ding of Melancholy dispersed like wise thorowout the whole bodye, and making all the skinne blacke. And as the yeallow Iaundis commeth for the most parte eyther by obstruction or stopping of the conduits, belonging to the blad∣der of the Gall, which (as I sayde before) is the re∣ceptacle of Cholour, or by some inflamation of the Lyuer whereby the bloude is conuerted into Cho∣lour, and so spreadeth thorowout the body: euen so the blacke Iaundis commeth by meanes of some obstruction in the Lyuer vayne, that goeth to the splene, not suffering ye splene to do his office, in re∣ceyuing the dregges of the bloude from the Lyuer wherein they abounde to much, or else for that the splen is already to full of suche dregs, and so shea∣deth Page  63 them backe agaime into the vaynes. But as for the blacke Iaundis they haue not bene obser∣ued to be in horses as in men, by any of our Ferrers in these dayes that I can learne. And yet the olde writers of horseleach crafte, doe seme to make two kindes of Iaundis called of them Cholera, that is to say the dry Cholor, and also moyst Cholor. The sig∣nes of the dry Cholor as Absirtus sayth is great heat in the body, and costiuenesse of the belly, whereof it is sayde to be dry. Moreouer the horse will not co∣uet to lye downe, bycause he is so payned in his body, and his mouth will be hote and dry. It com∣meth as he sayth by obstruction of ye conduit, wher∣by the Cholor should resorte into the bladder of the Gall, and by obstruction also of the vrine vessels, so as he can not stale. The cure according to his expe∣rience is to giue him a glister made of Oyle, water and Nytrum, and to giue him no prouender before that you haue raked his fundament, and to poure, the decoction of Mallowes mingled with sweete wyne into his nosetrels, & let hys meate be grasse, or else sweete hay sprinckled with Nytre and wa∣ter, and he must rest from labor & be often rubbed. Hierocles would haue him to drinke the decoction of wilde Coleworts sodden in wine. Againe of the moist Cholor or Iaundis, these are the signes. The horses eyes will looke yeallow, and his nosetrilles wil open wyde, his eares and his flanks wil sweat, and his stale will be yeallow and Choloricke, and he will grone when he lyeth downe, which disease the sayde Absirtus was wonte to heale as he sayth, Page  [unnumbered] by giuing the horse a drinke made of Tyme & Co∣min of ech lyke quantity stampt together, & ming∣led with wyne, hony and water, and also by letting him bloude in the pastornes. This last disease see∣meth to differ nothing at all from that which our Ferrers call the yeallows. The signes wherof ac∣cording to Martin be these. The horse will be faint, and sweat as he standeth in the stable, and forsake his meate, and his eyes, and the inside of his lippes and all his mouth within wil be yeallow. The cure whereof according to him, is in this sorte. Let him bloud in the necke vayne, a good quantity, and thē giue him this drinke. Take of white wyne, or of Ale, a quart, & put thervnto of Saffron, of Turme∣rike, of eche halfe an ounce, and the iuyce yt is wrōg out of a great handefull of Selondine, and being luke warme giue it the horse to drinke, and kepe him warme the space of thre or foure dayes, giuing him warme water with a little branne in it.

Of the euill habit of the body and of the Dropsie. The .xci. Chapter.

AS touching the drynesse and consumption of the fleshe without a∣ny apparant cause why, called of the Phisitians as I sayd before Atrophia, I know not what to say more than I haue done already before in the Chapter of Consumption of the flesh, and therefore resorte thyther, and as for the euill habitte of the Page  64 body which is to be euill coloured, heauy, dull, and of no force, strength, nor lyuelinesse, commeth not for lacke of nutryment, but for lacke of good nutri∣ment, for that the bloud is corrupted with Flegme, Cholor or Melancholy, proceding eyther from the splene, or else through weakenesse of the stomacke, or Lyuer, causing euill digestion, or it may come by fowle feding, yea and also for lacke of moderate ex∣ercyse. The euill habit of the body is nexte cosyn to the Dropsye, wherof though our Ferrers haue had no experience, yet bycause mine olde Authors wry∣ting of horse leache craft do speake much therof: I thinke it good here briefly to shewe you their expe∣rience therein, that is to say, howe to knowe it, and also howe to cure it. But sith none of them do shew the cause wherof it procedes, I thinke it mete firste therefore to declare vnto you the causes thereof, ac∣cording to the doctrine of the learned Phisitians, which in mans body do make thre kinds of Drop∣syes, calling the first Anasarca, the second Ascites, and the thirde Timpanias. Anasarca is an vniuersall swel∣ling of the body throughe the aboundaunce of wa∣ter, lying betwixt the skin and the fleshe, and diffe∣reth not from the disease last mentioned called Ca∣chexia, that is to say euyll habit of the body, sauing that the bodye is more swollen in this than in the Cachexia, albeit they procede both of like causes, as of coldenesse & weakenesse of the Lyuer, or by mea∣nes that the heart, splen, stomacke, and other mē∣bers seruing to digestiō, be grieued or diseased. As∣cites is a swelling in the couering of the belly called Page  [unnumbered] of the Phisitians Abdomen, cōprehending both the skin, the fat, eyght Muscles, and the fylme or pani∣cle called Peretoneum, throughe the aboundaunce of some wayish humor entred into the same, which be sydes the causes before alleaged, proceedeth moste chieflye by meanes that some of the vessels within be brokē or rather cracked, out of the which though the bloud being somwhat grosse can not issue forth, yet the wayish humor being subtill may run out in∣to the belly, lyke water distilling through a cracked potte. Timpanias called of vs moste commonly the Timpany, is a swelling of the foresayde couering of the belly, through the aboundance of winde entred into the same, whiche winde is ingendred of cru∣dity and euill digestion, and whylest it aboundeth in the stomacke, or other intrayles, finding no issue out, it breaketh in violently through the small con∣duits amongst the pannicles of the sayd couering, not without great paine to the pacient, & so by tos∣sing to and fro, windeth at length into the space of the couering it selfe. But surely such winde can not be altogether voyd of moysture. Notwithstanding, the body swelleth not so muche with this kinde of Dropsye, as in the other kinde called Ascites. The sygnes of the Dropsye is shortnesse of breath, swel∣ling of the body, euill Colour, lothing of meate, and great desire to drinke, and specially in the Dropsye called Ascites, in which also the belly will sound like a Bottle halfe full of water, but in the Timpany, it will sounde lyke a Tabor. But nowe though mine Authours make not so many kindes of Dropsyes, Page  65 yet they say all generally that a horse is much sub∣iect to the Dropsye. The sygnes according to Absir∣tus and Hierocles be these. His belly legges and sto∣nes, will be swollen, but his backe, buttockes, and flankes, will be dryed and shronke vp to the verye bones. Moreouer the vaynes of his face and tem∣ples, and also the vaynes vnder his tongue will be so hidden, as you can not see them, and if you thrust your finger harde against his body, you shall leaue the printe therof behinde, for the fleshe lacking na∣turall heate, will not returne againe to his place, and when the horse lyeth downe he spreadeth him selfe abrode not being able to lye rounde togyther on his belly, and the haire of his backe by rubbing will fall away. Pelagonius in shewing the signes of the Dropsye, not much differing from the sygnes of the Phisitians firste recited, seemeth to make two kindes therof, calling the one the Timpany whiche for difference sake may be called in Englishe the winde Dropsye, and the other the water Dropsye. Notwithstanding both haue one cure so farre as I can perceyue, whiche is in this sorte. Let him be warme couered and walked a good while together in the sunne to prouoke sweate, and let all his body be well and often rubbed alongst the haire, and let him fede often on Colewortes, Smallage, and El∣ming bowes, and of all other things, that may loo∣sen the belly, or prouoke vrine, and let his common meate be grasse if it may be gotten, if not, then hay sprinckled with water and Nitrum. It is good al∣so to giue him a kinde of pulse called Cyche, steeped Page  [unnumbered] a day and a night in water, and then takē out, and layde so as the water may drop away from it. Pela∣gonius woulde haue him to drinke Parslye stampte with wine, or the roote of the hearb called in Latin Panax, with wine. But if the swelling of the belly wil not decrease for all this, then slitte a little hole vn∣der his belly a handfull behind the Nauill, and put into that hole a hollow Reede or some other Pype, that the water or wind may go out, not all at once, but by little and little, and at dyuers times, and be∣ware that you make not ye hole ouerwide, least the Caule of the belly fall downe therevnto, and when all the water is cleane runne out, then heale vp the wounde as you doe all other woundes, and let the Horse drinke as little as is possible.

Of the diseases in the guttes of a Horse, and first of the Cholycke. The .xcij. Chapter.

THe Guts of a horse may be dis∣eased with dyuers griefes, as with the Cholicke, with Costiuenesse, with the Laxe, with the bloudy Flixe, and wor∣mes. The Cholick is a grieuous paine in the great Gutte, called of the Physitians Colon, whereof this disease taketh his name, which gut bi∣cause it is very large, and ample, and ful of corners it is apt to receyue dyuers matters, and so becom∣meth subiect to dyuers griefes. For sometime it is tormented with the abundance of grosse humors, Page  66 gotten betwixt the panycle of the sayde Gutte, and sometime with winde hauing no issue oute, some∣time with inflamation, and sometime with sharpe fretting humors. But so farre as I can learne, a horse is most commonly troubled with the Cholick, that commeth of winde, and therof oure ferrers doe terme it the winde Cholyck. The sygnes wherof be these. The horse wil forsake his meate, & lye downe and wallow, and walter vpon the groūd, and stan∣ding on his fete he will stampe for very payne with his forefete, and strike at his belly with his hinder foote, and looke often towardes his belly, which al∣so towards the flankes will swell, and seeme grea∣ter to the eie, than it is wont to be. The cure wherof according to Martin is in this sorte. Take a quart of Malmesye, of Cloues, Pepper, Cynamom, of eche halfe an ounce, of Suger halfe a quarter, and giue it the horse luke warme, and annoynt his flankes with oyle of Bay, and then brydle him, and trotte him immediately vppe and downe, the space of an houre vntill he dong, and if he will not dong, then rake him, and if nede be, prouoke him to dong, by putting into his fundament an Onyon pilled and iagged with a knife, crossewise, so as the iuyce ther∣of maye tickle his fundament, and for the space of three or foure dayes let him drinke no colde water, and let him be kepte warme. Russius was wonte to vse this kinde of cure. Take a good bygge Reede a spanne long or more, and being annointed with Oyle, thrust it into the horses fundament, fastning the outwarde ende thereof, vnto his tayle, so as it Page  [unnumbered] can not slippe out, and then hauing first annointed and chaufed all ye horses belly, with some hote oyle, cause him to be ridden somewhat hastely, vppe and downe some hilly ground, and that will make him to void the wind out of his belly, through the Rede, which done, let hym be kepte warme, and fed with good prouender & warme mashes made of wheat meale, and Fenell sede, and let him drinke no colde water, vntill he be whole. Absirtus would haue you to giue him a glister made of wilde Coucumber, or or else of hennes dong, Nytrum, and strong wyne.

Of Costiuenesse, or belly bounde. The .xciij. Chapter.

COstiuenesse is when a horse is bounde in the belly and cannot dong, which may come by glut of prouender, or ouer much feeding and rest, wherof we haue talked sufficiently before, also by winde, grosse humors, or colde causyng obstruc∣tion, and stopping in the Guttes. The cure wherof according to Martin is in this sorte. Take of the de∣coction of Mallowes a quarte, and put therevnto halfe a pinte of oyle, or in stede thereof, halfe a pint of freshe Butter, and one ounce of Benedicte laxatuae, and poure that into his fundamente with a little horne mete for the purpose, that done clap his taile to his fundament, holding it so stil with your hand, whylest an other doth leade him in his hande, and trotte him vppe and downe, that the medicine may Page  67 worke the better, and hauing voyded all that in his belly, bring him into the Stable, and there let him stande a while on the bitte well couered, & warme littered, and then giue him a little hay, and let his drinke be warmed, it shal not be amisse also to giue him that night a warme mashe.

Of the Laxe. The .xciiij. Chapter.

THe Italians cal this disease Ragiatura, and the horse that hath this disease Cauallo arragiato, or Sfora∣to. It may come through the abū∣daunce of Choloricke humors dis∣cending from the Lyuer, or Gall, downe to the Guttes. But Russius sayth, that it commeth most commonly, by drinking ouer muche colde water immediatelye after pro∣uender, or by sodayne traueling vpon a full sto∣macke, before his meat be digested, or by hasty run∣ning, or gallopping immediatly after water. If this disease continue long it wil make the horse ve∣ry weake, & feble, so as he shall not be able to stande on his legges. Notwithstanding sith nature feling hir self oppressed, endeuoureth thus to ease hir selfe by expelling those humors that grieue hir, I would not wishe you sodaynely to stop it, least some worse inconuenience grow thereof. But if you see that the horse loseth his fleshe, and waxeth more dull and feble than he was wonte to be, then giue him this drinke often experimented by Martin, and that shall Page  [unnumbered] stoppe hym. Take of Bene flower, and of bole Ar∣meny or eche a quarterne, mingle these things to∣gither in a quart of red wine, and giue it him luke warme, and let the horse rest and be kept warme, and let him drink no colde drinke but luke warme, and put therein a little Beane flower, and let him not drinke but once a daye, and then not ouer much for the space of three or foure dayes.

Of the bloudy Flixe. The .xcv. Chapter.

IT seemeth by the olde wry∣ters that a horse is also subiecte to the bloudy Flixe. For Absirtus, Hie∣rocles, and Democritus say al with one voyce, that the Guttes of a horse may be so exulcerated that he will voyde bloudy matter at his fundament, yea and that his fundament therewith will fall out, whiche disease they call Disenteria, which is as much to say, as a painefull exulceration of the Guttes, vnder the which the olde men, as it seemeth by the wordes of Hierocles and Absirtus, woulde comprehende the dis∣ease called of the Phisitians Tenesmus, that is to say a desire to dong often, and can doe but little, and that with great paine: And also an other disease called Procidentia ani, that is to say the falling out of the fundament, which the Phisitians do accoumpt as seuerall diseases. Notwithstanding for somuch as Disenteria and Tenasmus doth spring both of lyke Page  68 causes, yea and also for that the falling out of the fundament hath some affinity with them, I wil fo∣lowe myne Authours, in ioyning them all together in this one Chapter. The Phisitians make diuers kinds of bloudy flix. For sometime ye fat of the slimy filthe whiche is voyded, is sprinkled with a little bloude, sometyme the matter tha voydeth is mixte with the scrapings of the guts, and sometime it is waterishe bloude, like water wherein bloudy fleshe hath bene washed, and sometime bloud myxt with Melancholy, and sometime pure bloud, and by the mixture of the matter you shall knowe in mans bo∣dy whether the vlceratiō be in the inner small gut∣tes, or in the thicke outwarde guttes, for if it be in the inner guttes, then the matter and bloude wyll be perfectly mixt together. But if it be in the out∣warde guttes, then they be not mingled together, but come out seuerally, the bloude most commonly following the matter. Of this kinde is that disease called before Tenasmus, for yt is an vlcer in the right gutte seruing the fundament, and doth procede e∣uen as the Flix, doth of some sharpe humors which being violently driuen, and hauing to passe thorow many croked and narrow wayes, doe cleaue to the guttes, and with their sharpenesse frette them, cau∣sing exulceration and grieuous paine. The Flyxe may come also of some extreme colde, heate, or moystnesse, or by meane of receyuing some violent purgation, hauing therin ouer much Scamonie, or such like vyolent simple, or through weakenesse of the Lyuer, or other members seruing to digestion. Page  [unnumbered] Nowe as touching the falling out of the funda∣ment, the Phisitians say, that it commeth through the resolution, or weakenesse of the Muskles ser∣uing to drawe vp the fundament which resolution may come partly by ouer much straining, and part∣ly they may be losened, by ouer much moysture, for whiche cause, children being full of moysture are more subiect to this disease than men. And for the selfe same cause I thinke that horses hauing verye moyst bodyes be subiect therevnto. Thus hauing shewed you the causes of the diseases before recited, I wil shewe you the cure prescribed by the old wri∣ters. Absirtus would haue the fundament on the out side to be cutte rounde about, but so as the inwarde ring thereof be not touched, for that were daunge∣rous and would kill the horse, for so muche, as his fundament woulde neuer abide within his body, & that done he would haue you to giue him to drinke the pouder of vnripe Pomgranet shelles, called in Latine Malicorium, together with wine and water, whiche in dede bycause it is astringent is not to be mislyked, but as for cutting of the fundament I as∣sure you I can not iudge what he shoulde meane thereby, vnlesse it be to wyden the fundament, by giuing it long slittes or cuttes on the out side, but wel I know that it may cause more payne, & grea∣ter inflamation. And therefore me thinkes it were better in this case to follow the Phisitians precep∣tes, which is first to consider whither the fundamēt being fallen out, be inflamed or not, for if it be not inflamed, then it shall be good to annoint it firste Page  69 with oyle of Roses somewhat warmed, or else to washe it with warme redde wyne. But if it be in∣flamed, then to bath it well, first with a sponge dipt in the decoctiō of Mallowes, Camamil, Linescede, and Fengreke, and also to annoint it wel with oile of Camomill & Dill, mingled together, to asswage the swelling, and then to thrust it in againe faire and softly, with a softe linnen cloth. That done, it shall bee good to bath all the place about with red wine, wherin hath bene sodden Acatiū, Galles, Ac∣corne cuppes, parings of Quinces, and suche lyke simples as be astringent, & then to throw on some astringent powder made of bole Armenye, Fran∣kencense, Sanguis Draconis, Myrrh, Acatium, and such like. Yea and also to giue the horse this drink much praysed of all the olde wryters. Take of Saffran one ounce, of Myrrh two ounces, of the hearbe cal∣led in Latin Abrotanum, named in some of our Eng∣lish Herbals Sothernwod, thre ounces, of Parslie one ounce, of Garden Rhew otherwise called herbe grace, thre ounces, of Pirethum, otherwise called of some spittlewort, and of Isop, of eche two ounces, of Cassia which is like Cinamom, one ounce. Let all these things be beaten into fine powder, & then mingled with Chaulk, & strong Uineger wrought into a paste, of which paste make little Cakes, and dry them in the shadow, and being dryed, dissolue some of thē in a sufficient quantity of Barly milke, or iuyce, called of the olde wryters, and also of the Phisitians Cremor Ptisanae, & giue the horse to drinke thereof with a horne: for this medicine, as the Au∣thours Page  [unnumbered] write doth not onely heale the bloudy Flix▪ and the other two diseases before recited, but also if it be giuen with a quarte of warme water, it will heale all griefe and payne in the belly, and also of the Bladder, that cōmeth for lacke of staling. And being giuen with sweete wine, it will heale the by∣ting of any Serpent or mad dogge.

Of the Wormes. The .xcvi. Chapter.

IN a Horses guttes doe breede thre kinds of Wormes, euen as there doth in mans body, though they be not altogether lyke in shape. The first are long and rounde, euen lyke to those that children do most com∣monly voyde, and are called by the generall name wormes. The seconde are lyttle wormes hauing great heades, and small long tayles lyke an Edle, and be called Bottes. The third be shorte & thicke lyke the ende of a mans little finger, and therefore be called Troncheons: And though they haue dy∣uers shapes, according to the diuersity of the place perhappes wher they brede, or else according to the figure of the putrifyed matter whereof they brede, yet no doubt they procede all of one cause, that is to say of a rawe grosse and flegmatike matter apt to putrification, ingendred most commonly by fowle feeding, and as they proceede of one selfe cause, so also haue they like signes, & like cure. The signes Page  70 be these. The horse will forsake his meate, for the Tronchons and the Boltes will couet alwayes to the Maw & payne him sore. He will also lye downe and wallow, and standing he will stampe & strike at his belly with his hinder foote, and loke often towarde his belly. The cure according to Martin is thus. Take of swete milke a quarte, of hony a quar∣terne, and giue it him luke warme, and walke him vp and downe for the space of an houre, and so lette him rest for that day, with as little meate or drinke as may be, and suffer him not to lye downe. Then the next day giue him this drinke. Take of herbe grace a handefull, of Sauine as muche, and being well stampt, put therevnto a little Brimstone, and a little soote of a Chimney beatē into fyne powder, and put all these things together in a quarte of worte or newe Ale, and there lette them lye in steepe the space of an houre or twoo, then strayne it well through a fayre cloth, and giue it the horse to drinke luke warme, then brydle him, and walke him vp and downe the space of an houre, that done bryng him into the Stable, and let him stande on the bitte two or three houres, and then giue him a little hay. Laurentius Russius sayth, that it is good to giue the horse the warme guttes of a yong Henne, with a little salte three dayes together in the mor∣ning, and not to let him drinke vntill it be Noone. Some say that it is good to ryde him hauing hys byt first annointed with dong, comming hote from the man. Some agayne vse to gyue him a quantity of Brimstone, and halfe as much Rosen beaten in∣to Page  [unnumbered] powder & mingled together with his prouender, which he must eat a good while before he drinketh.

Of the payne in the kidneyes. The .xcvij. Chapter.

ME thinkes that the kidneys of a horse shoulde be subiecte to as many griefes as the kydneys of a man, as to inflamation, obstructiō, Appostumes, and Ulcers, and spe∣cially to obstruction, that commeth by meanes of some stone or grauel gathered together in the kidneys, wherby the horse cannot stale but with payne, for I haue sene diuers horses my selfe that haue voyded much grauell in their stale, which without doubt did come from the kidneys, but my Authours doe referre such griefes to the bladder, & vrine, and write of no disease but onelye of the inflamation of the kidneys, whiche is called of them Nephritis, and so is it also called of the Phisitians. It commeth as they say by some great straine in leaping ouer some ditch, or else by bea∣ring some great burthen. The sygnes whereof be these. The horse will go rolling behinde and stag∣gering, his stones will shrinke vp, and his stale wil be blackishe and thicke. I thinke this disease diffe∣reth not from that which we called before the swa∣ing of the backe, when we talked of the griefes in the backe and loynes, and therfore resorte thither. The cure of this disease according to the best of the Page  71 olde wryters is in this sorte. Bath his backe and loynes, with wyne, oyle, and Nytrum, warmed to∣gether, and after that you haue so bathed him, let him be couered with warme clothes, and stand lit∣tered vp to the belly with strawe, so as he may lye softe, and giue him such drinkes as may prouoke v∣rine, as those that be made with Dil, Fenell, Annis, Smallage, Perslie, Spicknard, Myrrh, & Cassia. Some say it is good to giue him a kinde of pulse called Cyche, with wine. Some againe do prayse Ewes milke, or else Oyle and Deres sewet molten together to be giuen him to drinke, or the roote of the herbe called Asphodelus englyshed by some Daf∣fadill sodden in wine.

Of the diseases belonging to the Bladder and vrine of a horse. The .xcviij. Chapter.

HIerocles sayth that a horse is sub∣iect to three kindes of diseases incident to the bladder or vrine, the first is called Stranguria, the seconde Disuria, the thirde Ischuria. Stranguria otherwise called in La∣tine Stillicidium, and of our olde Ferrers according to the French name Chovvdepis, is when the horse is prouoked to stale often, and voydeth nothing but a fewe droppes, whiche commeth as the Phisitians say eyther through the sharpnes of the vrine, or by some exulceration of the bladder, or else by meanes of some Appostume in the Lyuer or kidneys, which Page  [unnumbered] Appostume being brokē, the matter resorteth down into the bladder, and with the sharpenesse thereof causeth a continuall prouocation of pissing. Disuria is when the horse can not pisse but with great la∣bour and paine, which for difference sake I wil call from henceforth the paynepisse. It may come some time through the weakenesse of the bladder, & colde intemperature thereof, and sometime through the abundaunce of Flegmaticke, and grosse humors, stopping the necke of the bladder. Ischuria is when the horse can not pisse at all, and therefore may be called the pissupprest, or suppression of vrine whe∣ther you will: me thinkes alwayes the shorter a proper name be, the better, and more easy to pro∣nounce. It may come as the Phisitians say, by weakenesse of the bladder, or for that the water cō∣duit is stopte with grosse humors, or with matter discending from the Lyuer or kidneys, or with the stone, yea and sometymes by meanes of some infla∣mation, or hard knob growing at the mouth of the Conduit, or for that the sinewes of the bladder is nummed, so as the bladder is without feeling: or it may come by retention, and long holding of the water, most of whiche causes Hierocles also reciteth, adding thervnto, that it may chaunce to a Horse through ouer much rest and Idlenesse, and also by meanes of some extreme cold, and specially in win∣ter season, for the which the warmth of fire is a pre∣sent remedy. But now mine Authours do not shew for euery one of these three kindes of diseases seue∣rall signes, but onely say that when a horse can not Page  72 stale, he will stande as though he woulde stale, and thrust out his yarde a little, and also for very paine stande beating his taile betwixt his thighes. Ney∣ther do they seeme to appoint seuerall cures, but do make a hochepot mingling them al together, some of them praysing one thing, and some an other, for some saye it is good to mingle the iuyce of Lee∣kes with sweete smelling wine and oyle together, and to poure that into his right nosetryll, and then to walke him vp and downe vpon it, and that will make him to stale. Some say it is good to giue him smallage sede, or else the roote of wilde Fenell, sod∣den with wine to drinke, or to put fiue sharpe O∣nyons, cleane pilled, and somewhat broused into his fundament, and to chaufe him immediatelye vpon it, eyther by ryding him or other wyse, & that shall cause him to stale presently. It is good also to bath al his backe and Loynes wyth warme water. The scrapinges of the inwarde parts of his owne houes beatē into powder, and mingled with wine, and poured into his ryght nosetryll will make him to stale if you chaufe him vpon it, and the rather as Hierocles saith, if you carry him to some shepes coate, or other place where sheepe are wont to stande, the smell of whose dong and pisse, without any other medicine as he sayth, will prouoke him to stale. Some will gyue the horse white dogs dong dryed and mingled with salt, wine, & Amoniacum to drinke, some Hogs dong onely with wine, & some the dreg∣ges of horsepisse with wine, and many other medi∣cins whiche I leaue to reherse for feare of being to Page  [unnumbered] tedious, and specially, sith Martins experience folow∣eth here at hande, agreing in all pointes with Lau∣rentius Russius cure which is in this sorte. First drawe out his yarde and wash it well in white wyne, and scoure it well, bycause it will be many tymes stop∣ped with dirt, and other baggage together, & hard∣ned like a stone, and then put a little oyle of Camo∣mill into the Cunduit with a waxe Candle and a broused cloue of Garlicke, and that will prouoke hym to stale. And if that will not helpe, then gyue him this drinke. Take of Persly two handefull, of Coriandre one handfull, stampe them and strayne them with a quarte of whyte wyne, & dissolue ther∣in one ounce of cake sope, and gyue it luke warme vnto the horse to drinke, and kepe him as warme as may be, and let him drinke no colde water for the space of fiue or sixe dayes, and when you would haue him to stale, lette it be eyther vpon plentye of strawe, or vpon some grene plotte, or else in a sheps coate, the sauor whereof will greatly prouoke hym to stale as hath bene aforesayde.

Of pissing bloude. The .xcix. Chapter.

PElagonius sayth, that if a horse be ouer much laboured, or ouer char∣ged with heauy burthen, or ouer fat, he will many tymes pisse bloude, and the rather as I thinke, for that some vayne is broken within the horses Page  73 body, and then clere bloude will come forth many tymes, as the Phisitians say, without any pisse at all. But if the bloud be perfectly mingled together with his stale, then it is a sygne that it commeth from the kidneys, hauing some stone therin, which through vehement labour, doth fret the kydneys & vaynes thereof, & so causeth them to blede, through which whylest the vrine passeth muste nedes be in¦fected, & dyed with the bloud. It may come also by some strype, or from the muscle that incloseth the necke of the bladder. The cure according to Pela∣gonius, Absirtus, Hierocles, and the rest, is thus. Let the horse bloud in ye Palat of the mouth, to conuert the bloud ye cōtrary way. Then take of Tragagāt that haue bene steeped in wyne, halfe an ounce, and of Popy seede one dram and one scruple, and of Sty∣rax as muche, and .xij. Pyneaple kyrnels. Let all these things be beaten and mingled well together, and giue the horse therof euery morning the space of seuen dayes, the quantity of a Hasell nut distem∣pered in a quart of wyne, me thinks that the quan∣titye of a Walnut were to little for so muche wine. Some write that it is good to make him a drinke with the roote of the hearbe Asphodelus, which some call Daffadyll mingled with wheat flower, & Su∣mach sodden long in water, and so to be giuen the horse with some wyne added therevnto, or make him a drinke of Goates milke and Oyle, strayning therevnto a little Fromenty. Anatolius sayth, that it is good to giue the Horse three dayes together, sodden Beanes cleane pilled, wherevnto would be Page  [unnumbered] added some Deres sewet and a little wyne.

Of the Colt euill. The .C. Chapter.

THis name Colt euill in my iudgement, doth properly sygnifye that disease which the Phisitians call Priapismus, which is a continu∣all standing together, with an vn∣naturall swelling of the yard pro∣ceeding of some winde, filling the artiers, and hollow synewe or pype of the yarde, or else through the abūdance of sede, which do chaūce oft tymes to man, and I thinke sometime to stoned horses. Notwithstāding Martin sayth, that the Colt euill is a swelling of the sheathe of the yarde, and the part of the belly there about, caused of corrupte seede, comming oute of the yarde, and remayning within the sheath where it putrifyeth. And Gel∣dings moste commonly are subiect to this disease, not being able for lacke of naturall heate, to expell their seede any further. For horses as Martin sayth, are seldome troubled with this disease bycause of their heate, vnlesse it be when they haue bene ouer trauayled, or otherwise weakened. The cure accor∣ding to him is thus. Washe the sheath cleane with∣in with luke warme Uineger, then drawe out his yarde, and washe that also. That done, ryde him in∣to some running streame vppe to the belly, tossing him therein to and fro to allay the heate of the mē∣bers, Page  74 and vse him thus two or three dayes and he shalbe whole.

Of the mattering of the yarde. The .Ci. Chapter.

IT commethe at couering tyme when the Horse & Mare both are ouer hote, and so perhaps burn them selues. The cure according to Martin is thus. Take a pinte of whyte wyne, and boyle therein a a quarterne of roche Alome, and squirt thereof into his yearde three or foure squirtfull, one after an o∣ther, and thrust the squyrt so farre in as the lyquor may perce to the bottom to scoure away the bloudy matter, continuing thus to doe once a day vntyll he be whole.

Of the sheading of séede. The .Cij. Chapter.

THis disease is called of the Phi∣sitians Gonorrhea, which may come some tyme through abundaunce and ranck∣nesse of seede, & sometyme by the weak∣nesse of the stones, and seede vessels not able to retayne the seede, vntill it be digested, and thickned. Vegetius sayth that this disease wil make the horse very faint and weake, & specially in som∣mer season for cure wherof the sayd Vegetius would Page  [unnumbered] haue the horse to be ridden into some colde water, euen vp to the belly, so as his stones may be coue∣red with water, and then his fundament being first bathed with warme water or oyle, he woulde haue you to thruste in your hande and arme euen to the very bladder, and softly to rubbe and clawe ye same, and the partes there aboutes whiche be the seede Uessels. That done to couer him warme that he take no colde, and euery day he woulde haue you to giue the horse Hogges dong to drinke with red wyne, vntil he be whole. I for my part, if I thought that it came of weakenesse as is afore sayde, which I would iudge by the waterishnesse of the seede, & vnlustinesse of the horse, would giue him red wine to drinke, and put therein a little Acatium, the iuyce of Plantain, and a little Mastick, & bath his backe with red wine, & oyle of Roses mingled together.

Of the falling of the Yarde. The .Ciij. Chapter.

IT commeth as I take it tho∣row the weakenesse of the member, by meanes of some resolution in the mus∣cles & synewes seruing the same, cau∣sed at the first (perhaps) by some great strayne or strype on the backe. It may come also by wearynesse and tyering. For remedy whereof Ab∣sirtus was wonte to washe the yarde with salte wa∣ter from the Sea if it might be gotten, if not, wyth water and salt, and if that preuayled not, he would Page  75 all to pricke the outmost skinne of the yarde wyth a sharpe nedle, but not deepe, and then washe all the prickes with strong Uineger, and that did make the horse as he sayeth to draw vp his yarde againe immediately, yea and this also will remedy the fal∣ling out of the fundament. Pelagonius would haue you to put into the pype of his yarde, hony and salte boyled together and made lyquid, or else a quicke Flye, or a graine of Franconsence, or else a cloue of Garlicke clene pilled, and somewhat broused, and also to poure on his backe Oyle, Wyne, and Nytre, made warme & mingled together. But Martins ex∣perience is in this sort. First wash the yarde with warme whyte wyne, & then annoynt it with oyle of Roses, & hony mingled together, and put it vp into the sheath, and make him a Codpiece of Canuas to kepe it still vp, and dresse him thus euery day once, vntill he be whole. And in any case let his backe be kept warm, eyther wyth a double cloth, or else with a charge made of bole Armeny, Egges, wheate flower, Sanguis Draconis, Turpentyne, and Uineger, or else lay on a wet sack, which being couered with an other dry cloth wil kepe his backe very warme.

Of the swelling of the Codde and stones. The .Ciiij. Chapter.

ABsirtus sayth that the inflamatiō and swelling of the Cod and stones, commeth by meanes of some wound, or by the stinging of some Serpent, or by fighting one horse with an o∣ther. Page  [unnumbered] For remedy whereof, he was wonte to bath the Cod with water, wherein had bene sodden the rootes of wilde Coucumber and salte, and then to annoynt it with an oyntmente made of Cerusa, oyle, Goates greace, and the whyte of an Egge. Some againe would haue the Cod to be bathed in warme water, Nytrum, and Uineger mingled together, and also to be annoynted with an oyntment made of Chaulke, or of potters earth, Oxe dong, Cumyn, water and vineger, mingled together, or else to be annoynted with the iuyce of the hearb Solanum, cal∣led of some nighte shade, or with the iuyce of hum∣blocke growing on dong hilles, yea & also to be let bloude in the flankes. But Martin sayth, that ye swel∣ling of the Coddes commeth for the most part, after some sicknesse, or surfeyting with colde, and then it is a sygne of amendment. The cure according to his experience is in this sorte. First let him bloude on both sydes the flanke vaynes. Then take of oyle of Roses, of Uineger, of eche halfe a pinte, and halfe a quarterne of bole Armonie, beaten into pouder. Mingle them together in a Cruse, and being luke warme, annoynt the Coddes therewith with two or three feathers bound together, and the next day ryde him into the water, so as his Coddes may be within the water, giuing him two or three tur∣nes therein, and so returne fayre and softely to the stable, and when he is dry annoynt hym againe as before, continuing thus to do euery day once vntill he be whole. The sayde Martin sayth also that the Coddes may be swollen by meanes of some hurt or Page  76 euil humors resorting vnto the Codde, and then he would haue you to couer the Coddes, with a charge made of bole Armeny and vineger wrought toge∣ther, renuing it euery day once vntill the swelling go away, or that it breake of it selfe, and if it breake, then taint it with Mel Rosatum, & make him a breche of Canuas to kepe it in, renuing ye taint euery day once vntill it be whole.

Of incording or brusting. The .Cv. Chapter.

THis tearme incording is bo∣rowed of the Italion worde Incorda∣to, whiche in playne Englyshe is as much to say as brusten, and myght be more rightly termed of vs incod∣ded. For when a horse is bursten, his Gutte falleth downe into the Codde making it to swell. The Italians as I take it did call it Incordato bycause the gutte followes the string of the stone called of them Il cordone, or Lachorda, whereof incordato semes to be deryued with some reason. According to which reason we should call it rather instringed than incorded. Notwithstanding syth that incor∣ding is alredy receyued in the stable. I for my part am very well content therewith, minding not to contend against it. But now you haue to note, that eyther man or beast may be bursten dyuerslye, and according to the names of the partes grieued. The Phisitians doe giue it diuers names, for you shall Page  [unnumbered] vnderstand, that next vnto the thicke outwarde skin of the belly, there is also an other inward thin skin couering all the Muskles, the Caule, and the guts of the belly, called of the Anotomists, Peritoneum, which skin commeth from both sydes of the backe, and is fastened to the midryffe aboue, and also to the bot∣tom of the belly beneath, to kepe in all the conten∣tes of the neather belly. And therefore if this skin be broken, or ouer sore strayned or stretched, then eyther some parte of the Caule or Guttes slippeth downe, sometime into the Codde, sometyme not so farre. If the gut slippe downe into the Cod, then it is called of the Phisitians by the Greke name Ente∣rocele, that is to say Gutte bursten. But if the Caule fall downe into the Codde, then it is called of the Phisitians Epiplocele, that is to say Caule bursten. But eyther of these diseases is moste properly inci∣dent to the male kinde, for the Femall kind hath no Cod. Notwithstanding, they may be so bursten, as eyther Gut or Caule may fall downe into their na∣tures, hanging there lyke a bagge. But if it fal not downe so lowe, but remayneth aboue nygh vnto the priuy members or flankes, which place is cal∣led of the Latins Inguen, then of that place the bur∣sting is called of the Phisitians Bubonocele, where∣vnto I knowe not what English name to giue, vn∣lesse I shoulde call it flanke bursten. Moreouer the Codde or flanke may be sometime swollen, by mea∣nes of some waterish humor, gathered together in the same, which is called of the Phisitians Hydro∣cele, that is to say water bursten, and sometyme the Page  77 Cod may be swollen, by meanes of some hard piece of fleshe cleauing to the thin skinnes or panicles of the stones, and then it is called of the Phisitians Sarcocele, that is to say flesh bursten. But for asmuch as none of mine Authours, Martin, nor any other Ferrer in these dayes that I know, haue intermed∣led with any kinde of bursting, but onely with that wherin the gutte falleth downe into the Cod: lea∣uing all the rest aparte, I will onely talke of this. And that according to Martins experience whiche I assure you differeth not much from the precepts of the olde wryters. But first you shall vnderstande, that the gut bursten, and flanke bursten, doth pro∣ceede both of one cause, that is to say, by meanes that the skin called before Peritoneum, is eyther sore strayned, or else broken, eyther of which things doe most commonly chaunce to horses, eyther by some strype of an other horse, or else by some strayne in leaping ouer a hedge, ditch, or pale, or otherwise, yea and many tymes in passing a caryer, throughe the vndiscretenesse of the Ryder, stopping the horse sodenly without giuing him any warning, wherby the horse is forced to cast his hinder legges abrode, and so strayneth or bursteth the skin aforesayde, by meanes whereof the gutte falleth downe into hys Codde. The signes be these. The horse will forsake his meat, and stand shoring and leaning alwayes on that syde that he is hurt, and on that syde if you searche with your hande, betwixt the stone and the thyghe vpwarde to the body, and somewhat aboue the stone, you shal finde the gutte it selfe bigge and Page  [unnumbered] harde in the feeling, whereas on the other side you shall finde no suche thing. The cure according to Martin is thus. Bring the horse into some house or place that hath ouer head a strong bawk, or beame going ouertwhart, and strow that place thick with strawe. Then put on foure pastornes with foure rynges on his feete, and fastning the one ende of a long rope to one of those rynges, threde all the o∣ther rings with the lose ende of the rope, & so draw all his forefete together, and cast him on the straw. That done, caste the rope ouer the bawlke, & hoyse the horse so as he may lye flatte on his backe, wyth his legges vpward without strugling. Then bath his stones wel with warme water and butter mol∣ten together, & the stones being somewhat warme, and wel molified, raise them vp from the body with both your handes being closed by the fingers faste together, and holding the stones in your handes in such maner, worke downe the gut into the body of the horse, by stryking it downewarde continuallye wyth your two thombs, one labouring immediate∣lye after an other, vntyll you perceyue that syde of the stone to be so small as the other, and hauing so discorded, that is to say returned the gutte into his right place. Take a liste of two fingers brode tho∣rowly annointed with fresh butter, & tye his stones both together with the same so nighe the body as may be, not ouer harde, but so as you may put your finger betwixt. That done, take the horse quietlye downe, and leade him fayre and softly into the sta∣ble, wheras he must stande warme, & not be sturred Page  78 for the space of three weekes. But forget not the nexte day after hys discording to vnlosen the liste, and to take it away, and as well at that time, as e∣uery day once or twice after, to caste a dishe or two of colde water vppe into his Coddes, and that will make hym to shrinke vp his stones, and therby re∣straine the gut from falling downe, and at the thre wekes ende to be sure: it were not amisse to gelde the stone on that syde away, so shall he neuer be in∣corded againe on that syde. But let him not eate much, nor drinke muche, and let his drinke be al∣wayes warme.

Of the botch in the graynes of a horse. The .Cvi. Chapter.

IF a horse be full of humors, and then sodenly laboured, the humors will resort into the weakest parts, and theyr gather together, and brede a botch, and specially in the hinder partes, betwixte the thighes not farre from the Coddes. The signes be these, The hinder legges wil be all swollen, and specially from the houghes vpward, and if you fele with your hād, you shal find a great knob or swel∣ling, & if it be round & hard, it wil gather to a head. The cure according to Martin is thus. First ripe it wt this playster. Take of wheat flower, of Turpen∣tine, & of hony, of ech like quātity, styrring it toge∣ther to make a stiffe plaister, & with a cloth lay it vn¦to ye sore, renuing it euery day once, vntil it breake Page  [unnumbered] or waxe softe, and then launce it so as the matter may runne downewarde. Then taint it with Tur∣pentyne, and Hogs grease molten together, renu∣ing it euery day once vntill it be whole.

Of the diseases incident to the wombe of a Mare, and specially of barrennesse. The .Cvij. Chapter.

IT seemeth by some writers that the wombe of a Mare is sub∣iect to certaine diseases, thoughe not so many as the womb of a wo∣man, as to ascent, discent, falling out, convulsion, barrēnesse, aborse∣ment, yea Aristotle and others doe not let to write, that menstruall bloude doth natu∣rallye voyde from the Mare, as from the woman, though it be so little in quātity, as it can not be wel perceyued. But sith none of mine Authours haue writtē therof to any purpose, nor any Ferrer of this time that I know, haue had any experience in such matters, I wil passe them al ouer wt silence, sauing barrēnesse wherof I promised in the breders office to declare vnto you ye causes, & such kind of cure for ye same, as ye old wryters haue taught. A Mare thē may be barren through the vntemperatnesse of the womb or matrix, as for yt it is to hote & fyery, or else to colde & moyst, or to dry, or else to short, or to nar∣row, or hauing ye necke thereof turned awry, or by meanes of some obstruction or stopping in the ma∣trix, Page  79 or for that the Mare is to fatte, or to leane, and many tymes Mares go barren, for that they be not well horsed. Well, the cure of barrennesse that cō∣meth through the faulte of the Matrix or wombe, according to the old wryters is thus. Take a good handeful of Leekes, stampe them in a morter, with halfe a Glasse full of wine. Then put therevnto .xij. flyes called of the Appoticaries, Cantharides, of diuers coulours if they may be gotten, then strayne al to∣gyther, with a sufficient quantitie of water to serue the Mare therewith two dayes together, by pou∣ring the same into hir nature with a horne or glis∣ter pype made of purpose, and at the ende of three dayes next following, offer the horse vnto hir that shoulde couer hir, and immediately after that she is couered, wash hir nature twice together with colde water.

An other receyte for the same purpose.

TAke of Nytrum, of sparrows dong, and of Tur∣pentyne, of ech lyke quantity, well wrought to∣gether and made like a suppository, and put that into hir nature, and it will cause hir to desire the horse, and also to conceyue. Hipocrates sayth, that it is good also to put a Nettle into the horses mouth that shoulde couer hir.

Of the Itche, Scabbe, and Maunginesse in the tayle, and falling of the tayle. The .Cviij. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]IN spring tyme horses be many tymes troubled with the tronchons in their fundament, and then they will rubbe their tayle, and breake the haire thereof, and yet in his tayle perhaps, shall be neyther ytche, scurffe, nor scabbe, wherfore if you rake the horse well with your hand, annoin∣ted with Sope, and searche for those tronchons, and pull them cleane oute, you shall cause hym to leaue rubbing: and if you see that the haire doe fall away of it selfe, then it is a signe, yt it is eyther eaten with wormes, or that there is some scurffe or scabbe fretting the haire, and causing such an ytche in his tayle, as the horse is alwayes rubbing the same. As touching the wormes, scurffe, or scabbe, it shall be good to annoynt all the tayle with sope, & then to washe it cleane euen to the ground with strong lye, & that will kill the wormes, and make the haire to grow againe. And if much of the tayle be worne away, if shall be nedefull to kepe the tayle continu∣ally wette, with a sponge dipte in faire water, and that will make the haire to growe very fast. But if the horses taile be maungy, then heale that like as you doe the maungynesse of the Mayne before rehearsed. Againe if there breede any Canker in the tayle, (whiche will consume both the fleshe and bone, and as Laurentius Russius sayth, make the ioyntes to fall away one by one.) It shall be good as Martin sayth to washe all his tayle with Aqua for∣tis or strong water, made in this sort. Take of grene Page  80 Corporas, of Atom, of eche one pounde, of whyte Corporas a quartern. Boyle all these things toge∣ther in thre quarts of rūning water, in a very strōg earthen pot, vntyll the one halfe be consumed, and then with a little of this water being made luke warme, washe his tayle with a little clout, or Flaxe bounde to the ende of a sticke, continuing so to doe euery day once, vntil it be whole.

How to know when a horse halteth before, in what parte his griefe is. The .Cix. Chapter.

BEing nowe come to talk of the griefes in the shoulders, legges, hips, houghes, ioyntes, and houes, causing the horse moste commonly to halte: I thinke it good first to shewe you ye way how to finde in what part of his legges, the horse is grieued when he halteth eyther before or behinde. And firste you haue to consider that if a horse hal∣teth before, it must be eyther in his shoulders, in his legges, or in his feete. If it be in his shoulders, and new hurt, the horse wil not lift that legge, but traile it nighe the grounde. If it be olde hurte, he wil cast that legge further from him in his going, than the other, and if he be turned on the sore syde, then he will halte so much the more. If a horse halteth in the legge, it is eyther in the knee, in the shanke, or in the pastorne ioynt, if it be eyther in the knee, or pastorne ioynt, he will not bowe that in his goyng Page  [unnumbered] like the other, but goe very stifly vpon it. If he hal∣teth in the shanke, then it is by meanes of some splent, wingall, or suche apparant griefe, apt to be sene, or felt. If he halt in the foote, it is eyther in the cronet, hele, in the toe, in the quarters, or sole of the foote. If it be in the cronet, the griefe will be appa∣rant, the skin being broken or swollen some maner of way: If in the hele, as by ouer reache or other∣wise, then he will treade most on the toe: if vpon a∣ny of the quarters, thē going on the edge of a bank or hilly ground, he will halt more, than on ye plaine ground, and by the horses comming towardes you, and going from you vpon suche edge or banke, you shal easely perceyue whether his griefe be in the in∣warde quarter or outward quarter. The quarter is to be vnderstande, from the mid houe to the hele. If he halte in the toe which is not commonly sene, then he will tread more vpon the hele. If his griefe be in the sole of the foote, then he will halte all after one sort vpon any ground, vnlesse it be vpon the sto∣nes. And to be sure in what parte of the foote the griefe is, it shall be good first to make him go vpon the plaine ground, and then vpon a harde and sto∣ny ground, yea and also banky ground. Thus ha∣uing declared vnto you in generall, howe to knowe in what parte a horse is grieued when he halteth before: I thinke it mete first to shew you orderly al the particuler griefes and sorances, whervnto the fore partes of a horse are subiect, together with the causes, sygnes and cure thereof. That done, I will speake of halting behinde, and shew you first gene∣rally Page  81 where the griefe is, and then perticulerly de∣clare vnto you euery griefe incident to the hinder partes of a horse. And lastely I will speake of such griefes and sorances as are commō to both parts, that is to say, as well to the forelegges, and fore∣fete, as to the hinder legges and hinder fete.

Of the griefe and pinching in the shoulder. The .Cx. Chapter.

THis commeth eyther by la∣bouring and strayning the horse to yong, or else by some great burthē. You shall perceyue it by the nar∣rownesse of the brest, and by con∣suming of the fleshe of the shoul∣ders, in so much as the fore part of the shoulder bone will sticke out, & be a great deale higher then the fleshe. And if it be of long continu∣ance, he will be very hollow vpō the brisket towar∣des the armeholes, and he will go wyder beneath at the feete, then aboue at the knees. The cure ac∣cording to Martin is thus. Giue him a slit of an inch long with a sharpe knife or Rasor vpon both sydes an ynche vnder the shoulder bones. Then with a Swannes quill put into the slitte, blowe vp firste the one shoulder, and then the other, as bigge as you can possibly, euen vp to the wythers, and with your hand stryke the wind equally into euery place of the shoulders. And when they be both full, then beat all the windy places with a good hasell wand Page  [unnumbered] ouer all the shoulder. Then with a flatte sclise of y∣ron, loosen the skinne within from the fleshe. That done rowell the two slits or cuttes with two round rowels made of the vpper leather of an olde shooe with a hole in the middest, that the matter may issu forth, and let such rowels be thre inches brode, and so put in as they may lye playne and flatte within the cut. Then make a charge to lay vpon the same in this sorte. Take of Pytch, of Rosen, of eche one pounde, of Tarre halfe a pinte, boyle these things all together in a pot, and when it is somewhat coo∣led, take a sticke with a wollen clout bound faste to the one ende thereof, and dippe it into this charge, and couer or daube all the shoulders therewith. That done, clappe therevnto a pounde of Floxe of such colour as the horse is, or as nighe vnto ye same as may be, & euery other day clense both the woun∣des and rowels, & put them in againe, continuing thus to doe, the space of .xv. dayes. Then take them out & heale vp the wounds with two taynts of Flax dipt in Turpentine, and Hogs grease molten toge∣ther, renuing the same euery day once, vntill the wounds be whole. But let the charge lye still, vntill it fall away of it selfe, and let the horse runne to grasse vntill he hath had a frost or two.

Of wrinching the shoulder. The .Cxi. Chapter.

THis commeth sometyme by a fall. and sometime by turning to sodenly in some vneuen ground, or by to rashe running out Page  82 at some dore, or by some strype of an other horse, or by some sodayne stoppe in passing a Carrier. You shall perceyue it in his going, by trayling his legge vppon the ground, so close vnto him selfe as he can possible. The cure according to Martin is thus. Let him bloude, the quantity of thre pintes on the brest in the plat vaine, receyuing the bloud in a pot, and thervnto put first a quart of strōg Uineger, & halfe a dosen brokē egges, shelles & al, & so much wheate flower as will thicken all that lyquor. That done, put thervnto of bole Armeny beaten into fine pou∣der one pounde, of Sanguis Draconis two ounces, and mingle them all together, so as the flower may not be perceyued, and if it be to stiffe, you may make it more lyquid or softe, with a little Uineger. Then with your hande daube all the shoulder from the mayne downewarde, and betwixt the forebowels, all against the haire, and let not the horse departe out of that place, vntill the charge be surely fastned vnto the skinne. That done, cary him into the sta∣ble, and tye him vp to the racke, and suffer him not to lye downe all that day, & giue him a little meate, dyeting him moderately the space of .xv. dayes, du∣ring which time, he may not sturre out of his place, but onely to lye downe, and euery day once refresh the shoulder point with this charge, laying stil new vpō the old, & at the .xv. dayes end, lead him abrode to see how he goeth, and if he be somewhat amen∣ded, then let him rest without trauayling, the space of one month, and that shall bring his shoulder to perfection. But if he be neuer the better for all this Page  [unnumbered] that is done: then it shall be nedefull, to rowel him with a leather rowell vpon the shoulder poynt, and to kepe him rowelled the space of .xv. dayes, renn∣ing the rowell, and clensing the wound euery other day, and then walke him vp and downe fayre and softly, and turne him alwayes on the contrary syde to the sore, and when he goeth vpright, pull out the rowell, and heale the wound with a taynt of Flaxe dipt in Turpētyne, and Hogges grease molten to∣gether. And if all this will not serue, then it shal be nedefull to drawe him chequorwise with a hote y∣ron ouer all the shoulder poynte and also to make him to drawe in a plough euery day two houres at the least, to settle his ioyntes for the space of three weekes or a month, and if any thing wil helpe him these two laste remedies will helpe him, and make him to go right vp agayne.

Of splayting of the shoulder. The .Cxij. Chapter.

THis commeth by some daunge∣rous slyding or slipping, wherby the shoul∣der parteth from the breast, and so leaues an open rift not in the skin, but in the flesh and filme next vnder the skinne, and so he halteth, and is not able to go, you shall perceyue it by tray∣ling his legge after him in his going. The cure ac∣cording to Martin is thus. First put a payre of strait pastornes on his forefete, keping him still in the sta∣ble, without disquieting him. Thē take of Dialthea Page  83 one pounde, of Sallet Oyle one pynte, of Oyle de Bays halfe a pounde, of freshe butter halfe a pound. Melte all these things together in a Pipkin, and annoynt the grieued place therwith, and also roūd about the insyde of the shoulder, and within two or thre dayes after, both that place and all the shoul∣der besydes will swell. Then eyther pricke him with a launcet, or fleame, in al the swelling places, or els with a lyttle sharpe hote yron made in this sorte, the heade whereof would

[illustration]
be an ynch long, to the intente that the corruption may runne out, and vse to annoynt it still with the oyntment a∣foresayde. But if you see that it will not goe away, but swell still, and gather to a heade, then launce it where ye swelling doth gather most, & is softe vnder the finger & then taint it with flax dipt in this oint∣ment. Take of Turpentine, and of Hogges grease, of ech two ounces, and melt them together, renuing the taynt twyce a day vntill it be whole.

Of the shoulder pight. The .Cxiij. Chapter.

THat is when the shoulder poynt or pitch of the shoulder is displaced, which grief is called of the Italians Spallato, & it cōmeth by reason of some great fal forwarde, rush, or strain. The sygnes be these. That shoulder point wil stick out further then his fellow, and the horse will halte right downe. The cure according to Martin is thus. Page  [unnumbered] First make him to swime in a depe water, vppe and and downe a dosen turnes, and that shall make the ioynt to returne to his place. Then make two tough pinnes of Asshen woode, as much as your little fin∣ger, sharpe at the poyntes, eche one fiue ynches lōg. That done, slitte the skin, an ynch aboue the point, and an inche beneath the point of the shoulder, and thrust in one of the pinnes from aboue downward, so as both endes may equallye sticke without the skin. And if the pin of woode will not easely passe through, you may make it way, firste with an yron pin. That done, make other two holes crosse to the first holes, so as the other pin may crosse ye first pyn, right in the midst, with a right crosse, and the firste pyn woulde be somewhat flatte in the midst, to the intente that the other being rounde, may passe the better without stoppe, and close the iuster together. Then take a piece of a little lyne somewhat bigger then a whipcorde, and at one ende make a loope, which being put ouer one of the pins endes, winde the reast of the Lyne good and strait about the pin∣nes endes, so as it may lye betwixt the pins endes and the skin, and fasten the laste ende with a packe nedle, and a packe threede, vnto the rest of the cord, so as it may not slippe, and to do well, both the pric∣kes and the corde woulde be first annointed with a little Hogges greace. Then bring him into the sta∣ble, and let him rest the space of nine dayes, but let him lye downe as lyttle as may be, and putte on a pastorne on the sore legge, so as it may be bounde with a corde, vnto the foote of the maunger, to kepe Page  84 that leg alwayes whilst he standeth in the stable more forwarde then the other. And at the .ix▪ dayes ende, take out the prickes, and annoint the sore pla∣ces with a little Dialthea, or with Hogs greace, and then turne him to grasse.

Of the swelling of the forelegs after great labour. The .Cxiiij. Chapter.

GReat labour and heat causeth humors to resort down into the legs, making them to swel. The cure wher∣of according to Martin is thus. Bathe them with buttered beere, or else with this bath here folowing. Take of mal∣lowes three handeful, a Rose Cake, of Sage one handefull. Boyle them together in a sufficient quā∣tity of water, and when the Mallows be soft put in halfe a pound of butter, and halfe a pinte of Sallet oyle, and then being somewhat warme, washe the swelling therewith euery day once, the space of thre or foure dayes. And if the swelling will not goe a∣way with this, then take wyne lyes, and Cumin, & boyle them together, & put thervnto a little wheate flower, and charge all the swelling therewith, and walke him often, and if all will not serue, then take vp the great vayne aboue the knee on the insyde, suffering him not to bleede from aboue, but al from beneath.

Of foundering in the forelegges. Page  [unnumbered] The .Cxv. Chapter.

THe cause of this griefe is declared before in the chapter of foūdering in the bo∣dy whereas I shewed you that if a horse be foundered in the body, the humors wyl immediate∣ly resort downe into his legges. Martin sayth with∣in the space of .xxiiij. houres, and then the horse wil goe crowching al vpon the hinder legges, his fore∣legges being so stiffe, as he is not able to bowe thē. The cure whereof according to Martin is in this sorte. Garter eche legge immediately one hande∣full aboue the knee, with a list good and harde, and then walke him to chafe him, and to put him in a heate, and being somewhat warmed, let him bloud in both the breast vaynes, reseruing the bloude to make a charge withall in this maner. Take of that bloud two quartes and of wheate flower halfe a Pecke, and sixe egges, shelles and al, of bole Arme∣ny halfe a pound, of Sanguis Draconis half a quartern, and a quarte of strong Uineger. Mingle them all together, and charge al his shoulders, breast, back, loynes, and forelegges therewith, and walke him vpon some hard ground suffering him not to stand still, and when the charge is dry refreshe it againe. And hauing walked him three or foure houres to∣gether, leade him into the stable, and giue hym a little warme water with ground mault in it, & then a litte hay and prouender, and then walke him a∣gaine eyther in the house, or else abrode, and conti∣nue Page  85 thus to doe the space of foure dayes, and when all the charge is spent, couer him well with a hou∣sing cloth, and let him both stande and lye warme, and eate but little meate during the foure dayes. But if you see yt at the foure dayes end he mendeth not a whit, then it is a sygne that the humors lye in the foote, for the which you muste search with your butter, paryng all the soles of the fore feete so thin, as you shall see the water yssue throughe the sole. That done, with your butter let him bloud at both the toes, and let him blede well. Then stoppe the vayne with a little hogs grease, and Turpentyne molten together, and layde vpon a little Flaxe, and then tack on the shooes, and cram the place where you did let him bloude harde with toawe, to the in∣tent it may be surely stopt. Then fill both his feete with Hogges grease and bran fryed together in a stopping pan, so hote as is possible. And vpon that stopping clap a piece of leather, or else two splents to kepe in the stopping. And immediatly after this, Take two Egges, beate them in a dishe, and putte thervnto as much bole Armeny and Beane flower as will thicken the same, and mingle them well to∣gether, & make thereof two playsters, suche as may close eche foote round about, somewhat aboue the cronette, and binde it fast with a lyst, or rowler, that it may not fall away nor be remoued for the space of two dayes, but let the sole be clensed, and newe stopped euery day once, and the cronets to be remo∣ued euery two dayes, continuing so to do vntil he be whole. During which tyme, let hym reast vnwal∣ked, Page  [unnumbered] for feare of losening his houes. But if you see that he begin to amende, you may walke him fayre and softly once a day vpon some soft ground, to ex∣ercyse his legs and fete, and let him not eate much, nor drinke colde water. But if this foundering break out aboue the houe, which you shall perceiue by the losenesse of the coffin, aboue by the cronette, thē when you pare ye soole, you must take al the fore part of ye sole cleane away, leauing the heeles hole, to the intente the humors may haue the freer pas∣sage downewarde, and then stoppe him, and dresse him about the cronet, as is before sayde.

Of the splent as well in the insyde or outside of the knée, as other where in the legge. The .Cxvi. Chapter.

THis soraunce to any mannes feeling is a very gristle, sometime as bigge as a walnut, and sometime no more than a Hasell nut, which is cal∣led of the Italians Spinella, and it cō∣meth as Laurentius Russius sayth, by traueyling the horse to yong, or by oppressing hym with heauy burthen, offending his tender synews, and so causeth him to halt. It is easye to know by∣cause it is apparant to the eye, and if you pinche it with your thombe and finger, the horse wil shrinke vp his legge. The cure whereof according to Martin is in this sorte. Washe it well with warme water, and shaue of the haire, and lightlye scarifye all the Page  86 sore place with the point of a Rasor, so as the bloud may issue forth. Then take of Cantharides halfe a sponefull, and of Euforbium, as muche beaten into fine powder, & mingle them together with a spone full of oyle de Bay, and then melte them in a little pan, stirring them wel together, so as they may not boyle ouer, and beyng so boyling hote, take two or three feathers, and annoint all the sore place there∣with. That done, let not the horse sturre from the place where you so dresse him for one houre after, to the intent he shake not of the oyntment. Then cary hym fayre and softly into the stable, and tye hym so as he may not reache with his heade beneath the manger, for otherwyse he will couet to byte awaye the smarting & pricking medicine, which if it should touch his lippes, would quickly fetch of the skinne. And also let him stande without lytter all that day and night. The nexte day annoynt the sore place with fresh butter, cōtinuing so to do euery day once for the space of nine dayes, for this shall allay the heate of the medicine, and cause both that, and the crust to fall away of it selfe, and therewith eyther clene take away the splent, or at the least remoue it out of the knee into the leg, and so much dyminishe it, as the horse shall go right vp, and halte no more through occasiō therof. Laurentius Russius would haue the splent to be cured by fyering it longst wyse and ouertwhart. Some againe do make it soft by bea∣ting it with a Hasell sticke, and then do sucke it out with a piece of new leather and a hote yron which many tymes diminisheth the splent, and increaseth Page  [unnumbered] the halting. For if a splent be not very well drest, the horse will halte halfe a yeare after, yea and per∣happes all his lyfe long.

Of a Malander. The .Cxvij. Chapter.

A Malander is a kind of scabbe growing in the form of lines, or stre∣kes, ouerthwart the bent of the knee, and hath lōg hayres with stubborne rootes, lyke the brystles of a Boare, which corrupteth and cankereth the flesh, lyke the rootes of a childes scabbed head, and if it be greate, it will make the horse to goe stiffe at the setting forth and also to halt. This disease pro∣cedes sometyme of a corrupt bloude, but most com∣monly, for lack of cleane keping, and good rubbing. The cure according to Martin is thus. Fyrst washe it well with warme water, then shaue both haire & scabbe cleane away, leauing nothing but the bare fleshe, wherevnto lay this playster. Take a spone full of Sope, and as much Lyme. Mingle them to∣gether, that it may be lyke Paast, and spreade as much on a clowt as will couer the sore, and binde it fast on with a list, renuing it euery day once ye space of two or three dayes, and at the three dayes ende, take away the playster, and annoynt the sore with Oyle of Roses made luke warme, & that shall fetch away the crust or scurfe, bredde by meanes of the playster, which scurfe being taken away, washe the Page  87 sore place well euery day once with his owne stale, or else with mans vrine, & then immediatly strowe vpon it the powder of burnt Oyster shelles, conti∣nuing thus to do euery day once vntill it be whole.

Of an vpper attaynt or ouer reach vpon the backe synewe of the shanke somewhat aboue the ioynt. The .Cxviij. Chapter.

THe Italians cal this sorance Attincto, which is a paynefull swel∣ling of the master synewe, by mea∣nes that the horse doth sometime ouerreach, and strike that synewe, with the toe of his hinder foote, which causeth him to halte. The sygnes be apparant by the swelling of the place, & by the horses halting. The cure according to Martin is thus. Washe the place with warme water, and shaue of al the haire so farre as the swelling goeth, and scarify euery part of the sore place lightly with the point of a Rasor, that the bloud may issue sorth. Then take of Cantharides, and of Euforbium, of eche halfe an ounce, mingle them together with halfe a quarterne of Sope, and with a sclice spread some of this oyntment ouer all the sore, suffering hym to rest there as you dresse him, for one half houre after, and then you may carry him into the stable, and there let him stand without litter and tyed as hath bene sayde before in the Chapter of the splent, and Page  [unnumbered] the nexte day dresse him with the same oyntment once againe, euen as you did before. And the third day annoynt the place with freshe butter, continu∣ing so to do the space of .ix. dayes, & at the .ix. dayes, ende make him this bathe. Take of Mallowes three handfull, a Rose Cake, of Sage a handefull. Boyle thē together, in a sufficient quantity of wa∣ter. And when the Mallows be soft, put in halfe a pound of butter & halfe a pint of Sallet Oyle, and then being somewhat warme, washe the sore place therewith euery day once, the space of three or foure dayes.

Of a neather taynt. The .Cxix. Chapter.

THis is a little bladder ful of Iel∣ly much lyke vnto a windgal, not appa∣rant to the eye, but to the feling, grow∣ing in the midst of the pastorne, some∣what aboue the frushe. It commeth by a strain, or else by some wrinch, or by an ouer reach, and maketh the horse to halte. The signes be these. The neather ioynt towarde the fewterlock will be hote in the feeling, and somewhat swollen. The cure according to Martin is in this sorte. Tye him a∣boue the ioynt with a list somewhat harde, and that will cause the bladder to appeare to the eye. Then launce it with a sharpe poynted knife, and thruste out all the Ielly. That done, lay vnto it the whyte of an Egge, and a little Salt beaten together, and Page  88 layd vpon flaxe or toawe, and binde it fast vnto the sore, renuing it once a day the space of foure or fiue dayes, during which time let him rest, and then you may boldely labour him.

Of an ouer reach vpon the heele. The .Cxx. Chapter.

THys is a cutte so as the skin hangs downe at the heele, made with the toe of the hinder fote, and is apparant to the eye, and it will cause the horse somewhat to halte. The cure whereof according to Martin is thus. Cut away the skin that hangeth downe, and binde vnto it a little flaxe dipte in the whyte of an Egge, mingled with a little bole Armeny, renuing it euery day once, the space of three or foure dayes, and that will heale it.

Of false quarters. The .Cxxi. Chapter.

THis is a rifte sometyme in the out∣syde, but most commonly in the insyde of the houe, bycause the insyde is euer the weaker parte, which sydes are commonly called quarters, and therof this sorance taketh his name, and is cal∣led a false quarter, that is to say a crased or vnsoūd quarter, which name in dede is borowed of the I∣talians, calling it in their tong Falso quarto. It com∣meth by euill shooing, and partly by euill paring. The sygnes be these. The horse will for the moste Page  [unnumbered] part halt, and the rifte will bleede, and is apparant to the eye. The cure according to Martin is thus. If the horse halte, then pull of the shooe, and cut so much away on that syde of the shooe where ye grief is, as the shooe being immediately put on againe, the rift may be vncouered. Then open the rift with a rosenette or drawer, & fill all the rift with a rowle of toawe, dipte in Turpentyne, Waxe, and sheepes sewet molten together, renuing it euery day once vntill it be whole. And the rifte being closed in the toppe, drawe him betwixte the haire and the houe with a hote Iron ouerthwart that place, to the in∣tent that the houe may shote al whole downeward, and when the horse goeth vprighte, ryde him wyth no other shooe, vntill his houe be thorowly harde∣ned again. But as touching shooes for false quar∣ters, you shall haue the order of making of them de∣clared vnto you hereafter in the end of this booke.

Of halting behinde, and where the griefe is. The .Cxxij. Chapter.

IF a horse halte behynde the griefe must eyther be in the hyppe, in the stiffle, in the houghe, in the hamme, in the legge, in the neather ioynt, pastorne, or foote, if he halte in the hip of a newe hurt, the horse will goe sydeling, and not follow so well with that legge as with the other. But if it be olde hurte, the sore hippe wil shrinke and be lower then the other, Page  89 and is best seene when he goeth vp a hill, or vpō the edge of some banke so as the worste legge may goe on the higher syde, for then he will halt so much the more, bycause it is paynefull vnto hym to go so vn∣euenly wrinching his legge. If the griefe be in the stiffle, then the horse in his going will cast the stiffle ioynt outwarde, and the bone on the inside wyll be farre bigger than the other. If the griefe be in the hough, then it is by meanes of some spauen, or some other hurte apparant to the eye. And the lyke may be sayd of the hamme, wherein may be seene the se∣landre, or such lyke apparant sorance, causing the horse to halte. If the griefe be eyther in the legge, pastorne, or foote, then you shal finde it by such syg∣nes as haue bene taught you before. And therfore let vs nowe speake of those sorances, that are pro∣perly incident to the hinder legges.

Of a horse that is hipped, or hurt in the hippes. The .Cxxiij. Chapter.

THe horse is sayde to be hipte, whē the hip bone is remoued out of his right place, which griefe is called of the Italians Mal del aucha It cōmeth most cōmonly by some great stripe or strain, slypping, slyding, or falling. The signes be these. The horse wyll halte, and in his going he will goe sydeling, and the sore hyp will fall lower than the other, and the flesh in proces of time wyll consume cleane away. And if it be suffred to runne so long, it Page  [unnumbered] will neuer be restored vnto his pristine estate. The best way as Martin sayth, to make him go vpright: is, to charge his hip & back with pitch & rosen moltē together, and layd on warme, & then some flockes of his own colour to be clapped vpon the same, and so to let him runne to grasse vntill he goe vpright. But the sore hip wil neuer rise agayne so hyghe as the other. If the horse be not hipped but only hurt in the hip, and that newly. Then fyrst take of oyle de Bay, of Dialthea, of Nerual, of swines grease, of ech halfe a pounde, melt them all together stirring thē continually, vntil they be throughly mingled toge∣ther, and annoynt the sore place against the haire, wyth this oyntment, euery day once, the space of a fortenight, and make the oyntment to synke well into the flesh, by holding a hote brode barre of iron ouer the place annoynted, weauing your hande to and fro, vntil the ointment be entred into ye skinne. And if at the fortenightes ende, you see that the horse amendeth no whitte for this, then slyt a hole downewarde in his skinne, an ynch beneath ye hyp bone, making the hole so wyde, as you may easely thrust in a rowel with your finger, and then with a little brode sclice of yron, losen the skin frō ye flesh a∣boue the bone, & roūd about ye same, so brode as the rowel may lie flat & playne betwixt the skin & the flesh, which rowell would be made of

[illustration]
soft calues leather, wt a hole in ye midst like a ring, hauing a threde tyed vnto it, to pul it out when you would clense the hole, in this sort, & if the rowell be Page  90 rowled aboute with flaxe faste tyed on, and an∣noynted wyth the oyntmente vnder wrytten, it will drawe so much the more. And thruste in the rowell fyrst double, and then spread it abrode with your fynger. That done, taynt it with a good long taint of flax or toawe dipt in a little Turpentine & hogges greace moltē together, and made warme, and cleanse the hole and the rowel euery day once, & also renew the taynt for the space of a fortenight. And before you dresse him, cause him euery day to be ledde vp and downe a foote pace a quarter of an houre, to make the humours come downe, and at the fortenights ende pull out the rowell, and heale vp the wound with the same salue, making ye taint euery day lesser and lesser, vntill it be whole. And so sone as it is whole, draw with a hote yron crosse lynes of eyght or nine ynches long righte ouer the hyppe bone, so as the rowelled place may be in the very mydst thereof, and burne him no deeper, but so as the skinne may looke yeallow, & then charge all that place, and ouer all his buttocke with thys charge. Take of pytch one pounde, of Rosen halfe a pound, of Tarre halfe a pynte. Boyle them toge∣ther, and then being good and warme, spred it on with a clout tied in a riuen sticke. And then clappe on a fewe flockes of the horses colour, and if it be in Sommer, let the horse runne to grasse a while, for the more he trauayleth at his owne wyll, the better it is for him.

Of stiffling and hurtes in the stiffle. The .Cxxiiij. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]THe Horse is sayd to be styffled, when the styffling bone is remoned from his right place. But if it be not re¦moued nor losened, and yet the Horse halteth by meanes of some grief ther, then we say that the horse is hurt in the stiffle, and not styffled. The styffle cōmeth by meanes of some syde blowe▪ or some greate strayne flypping or sly∣ding. The signes be these. If he be stiffled the one bone wyll sticke out further than the other, and is apparant to the eye. Martin would haue you to cure the styffle in al poynts like vnto the shoulder pight sauing that the pinnes neede not to be so long by∣cause the stifling place is not so brode as the shoul∣der, and standing in the stable, let him haue a pa∣storne wyth a ring vpon his sore legge, and there∣vnto fasten a corde, which corde must go about his necke, & let it be so much strayned, as it may bring hys sore leg more forwarde than the other, to kepe the bone from starting out. But if the Horse be but hurt in the styffle wyth some strype, or strayne, then the bone will not stand out, but perhaps the place may be swollen. The cure according to Martin is thus. Fyrst annoynt the place with the oyntment mentioned in the laste Chapter before, euery day once the space of a fortenight, and if the Horse a∣mend not wyth this▪ then rowel him with a hearen rowell, or else wyth a quyll, and lette the neather hole be somewhat beneath the sore place, & cleanse the hole euery day, by turning the rowell, continu∣ing styll to annoynt the place with the oyntmente Page  91 aforesayde, and that shall make him whole.

Of foundering behinde. The .Cxxv. Chapter.

THys haps moste commonly when a horse is very fat, and hath his grease molten wtin him, which is sone done with euery litle heat. You shall perceyue it by his going, for he wyll be afrayde to sette his hinder feete to the grounde, and he wyll be so weake behinde, as he wil stande quiue∣ring and shaking, and couet alwayes to lie downe. The cure according to Martin is thus. Firste garter him aboue the houghes, and then force him to goe a while to put him in a heate, and being somewhat warme, let him bloud in the thigh vaynes, reser∣uing of that bloude a pottle, to make him a charge in this sorte. Put vnto that bloude, of wheate flo∣wer & of beane flower, of eche a quarter of a pecke, of Bole Armenie one pounde, of Sanguis Draconis two ounces, syxe egges, shelles and all, of Turpentine halfe a pounde, of Uinegre a quarte. Mingle all these things together, and therewith charge both his hinder legges, raynes, and flankes, al against the haire. And if the horse can not dung, lette him be raked, and giue him this glister. Take of Mal∣lowes three handfuls, boyle them well in faire wa∣ter from a pottle to a quarte. Then strayne it, and put therevnto halfe a pound of butter, and of Sal∣let Page  [unnumbered] oyle a quarter of a pinte, and hauing emptied his belly, gyue him also this drinke to comfort him. Take of Malmesy a quarte, and putte therevnto a little Synamom, Mace, and Pepper, beaten in∣to fine pouder, and of oyle a quarter of a pinte, and giue the horse to drinke of that luke warme with a horne. That done, let him be walked vp & downe a good while together, if he be able to goe: if not, then tye him vp to the rack, and let him be hanged with canuas and ropes, so as he may stande vpon the grounde with his feete. For the lesse he lie, the better, and pare his hinder feete thinne, vntyll the deawe come out, and tacking on the shoes agayne stoppe the houes with branne and hogges greace boyled together, and let both his feete hauing this geare in it, be wrapped vppe in a cloth euen to his pastornes, and there tye the cloute fast. Let his diet be thinne, and let him drinke no colde water, and gyue him in winter wet hay, and in sōmer grasse.

Of the drie Spauen. The .Cxxvi. Chapter.

THe drye spauen called of the Italians Spauano, or Sparauagno, is a great harde knobbe, as bygge as a Walnut, growing in the insyde of the hough, harde vnder the ioynte, nighe vnto the mayster vayne, and causeth the horse to halte, which sorance commeth sometime by kinde, bicause the horses parents per∣haps Page  92 had the like disease at the time of his genera∣tion, & somtime by extreme labor, & heat dissoluing humors, which do discend through ye master vaine, continually feding that place with euil nutrimēt, & causeth yt place to swell. Which swelling in cōtinu∣ance of time, becōmeth so hard as a bone, and ther∣fore is called of some ye bone Spauē. It nedeth no signes to know it, bicause it is apparant to the eye, & most Ferrers do take it to be incurable. Notwith∣stāding Martin sayth, that it may be made lesse with these remedies here following. Wash it with warm water, and shaue of the haire so far as the swelling extendeth, and scarifie the place, so as it may blede. Then take of Cantharides one dosen, and of Euforbi∣um halfe a sponefull, breake them in pouder, and boyle them together wyth a little oyle de Bay, and wyth two or three feathers bounde together, put it boyling hote vpon the sore, and let his taile be tide vp for wyping away the medicine: and then within halfe an houre after, sette him vp in the stable, and tie him so as he may not lie downe all that nyghte, for feare of rubbing of the medicine, and the nexte day annoynt it wyth fresh butter, continuing thus to doe euery day once the space of fyue or syx dayes, and when the haire is growen agayne, drawe the sore place with a hote yron, in this sort. Then

[illustration]
take another hote sharpe yron like a bodkyn, somewhat bowing at the poynt, & thrust yt in at the neather ende of the middle line, and so vp∣warde betwixte the skinne and the fleshe an ynch and a halfe. And then taynte it wyth a little Page  [unnumbered] Turpentine and hogs grease molten togither and made warme, renuing it euery day once, the space of nine dayes. But remember fyrst immediatly af∣ter his burning to take vp the mayster vayne, suf∣fring him to bleede a little from aboue, and tye vp the vpper ende of the vaine, and leaue the neather ende open, to the intent that he may bleede frō be∣neath, vntill it ceasse of it selfe, and that shall dimi∣nish the Spauen, or else nothing wyll do it.

Of the wette Spauen, or through Spauen: The .Cxxvij. Chapter.

THis is a softe swelling gro∣wing on both sydes of the hough, and seemes to goe cleane through the hough, and therefore may be well called a throughe Spauen. But for the most part the swelling on the in side bicause it is cōtinually fed of the mai∣ster vaine, is greater than the swelling on the out∣syde. The Italians call this sorance La ierda, or gi∣erdone, which semeth to come of a more fluxible hu∣mour, & not so viscouse or slimy as the other Spa∣uen doth, and therefore this waxeth not so harde, nor groweth to the nature of a bone, as the other doth, and this is more curable than the other. It neede no sygnes, bycause it is apparant to the eye, and easy to knowe, by the discription therof before made. The cure according to Martin is thus. Firste wash, shaue, and scarifie the place, as before. Thē Page  93 take of Cantharides, halfe an ounce, of Euforbium one ounce broken to pouder, and of oyle de Bay one ounce. Myngle them well together colde, wythout boyling them, and dresse the sore therewyth two dayes together, and euery day after vntil the haire be growen agayne, annoynt it wyth freshe butter. Then fire him both without and within, as before, wythout taynting him, and immediately take vp the master vayne as before. And then for the space of nine dayes, annoynte him euery day once wyth butter, vntill the fyered place beginne to skale, and then wash it with this bath. Take of Mallowes three handfuls, of Sage one handfull, & as much of redde nettels, boyle them in water, vntill they be softe, and put thervnto a little fresh butter, and bath the place euery day once, for the space of three or foure dayes, and vntil the burning be whole, let the horse come in no wette.

Of the Selander. The .Cxxviij. Chapter.

THis is a kinde of Scabbe breeding in the ham, which is the bente of the hough, and is lyke in all poyntes to the Malandre, proceeding of lyke causes, and requireth like cure, and therefore resorte to the Chapter of the Ma∣lander.

Of the Hough bonny. The .Cxxix. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]THis is a round swelling bonny, like a Paris ball, growing vpon the very typpe or elbowe of the Hough, & therefore I thought good to cal it the Hough bonny. This sorance com∣meth of some strype or bruse, and as Martin sayth, is cured thus. Take a rounde yron somewhat sharpe at the ende like a good bygge bodkyn, and let it be somewhat bending at the poynt. Then holding ye sore wyth your left hande, pulling it somewhat frō the synnewes, pearce it with the yron, being fyrste made red hote, thrusting it beneath in the bottom, and so vpward into the ielly, to the intent that the same ielly may issue downewarde out at the hole, and hauing thrust out all the ielly, taynte the hole wyth a taynt of flax dypt in Turpentine, & hogges grease molten together, and also annoynt the out∣syde wyth hogs grease made warme, renuing it e∣uery day once, vntyll the hole be ready to shutte vp, making the taint euery day lesser and lesser, to the intent it may heale vp.

Of the Curbe. The .Cxxx. Chapter.

THis is a long swelling beneath the elbow of the hough, in the great synewe be∣hinde, & causeth the horse to halte after that he hath bene a while laboured, and thereby some∣what heated. For the more the synew is strayned, the greater griefe which agayne by rest is eased. Page  94 This cōmeth by bearing some great wayght whē the horse is yong, or else by some straine or wrinch, wherby the tender synewes are grieued, or rather bowed (as Russius sayth) whereof it is called in I∣talian Curba a Curuando, that is to say of bowing, for anguish whereof it doth swel, and such swelling is apparant to the eye, and maketh that leg to shewe bygger than the other. The cure according to Mar∣tin is thus. Take of wine lees a pinte, and a por∣ringer ful of wheate flowre, of Comin half an oūce and stir them well together, & being made warme, charge the sore place therewith, renuing it euery day once the space of three or foure dayes, and whē the swelling is almoste gone, then drawe it with a hote yron in this sort, and couer the burning

[illustration]
wyth Pytch & Rosen molten together, and layde on good & warme, and clappe there∣on some flocks of his owne colour, or so nigh as may be gotten, and remoue them not, vntil they fall away of themselues. And for the space of nyne dayes let the horse rest and come in no wette.

Of the Paynes. The .Cxxxi. Chapter.

THis is a kinde of Scab called in I∣talian Grappe, which is ful of fretting matte∣rish water, and it breedeth in the pastornes for lacke of cleane keping and good rubbing after the horse hath bene iourneyed, by meanes wherof the sande and dirte remayning in the haire, fret∣teth Page  [unnumbered] the skinne and flesh, and so breedeth to a scab. And therefore those horses that haue long haire, & are rough about the feete, are sonest troubled with this dysease, if they be not the cleanlier kept. The sygnes be these. His legges will be swollen & hote, and water wyll yssue out of the Scab, which water is so hote and fretting, as it wil scalde of the haire and breede Scabbes, so farre as it goeth. The cure according to Martin is thus. First wash well all the pastornes with beere and butter warmed together, and his legs being somewhat dried with a cloth: clyp away all the haire, sauing the fewterlockes. Then take of Turpentine, of hogs grease, of hony, of eche like quantitie, mingle them together in a pot, and put therevnto a little Bole Armenie, the yelkes of two egges, and as muche wheate flower as wyll thicken the thinges aforesayde, and make it playster like, and for that cause, it had neede to be very wel wrought and stirred together. Then with a slyce strike some of the playster vpon suche a piece of linnen cloth as will serue to go rounde about the pastorne, and binde it faste on with a rowler, renu∣ing it once a day vntill it be whole, and let not the horse be trauayled nor stand wet.

Of Mules, or Kybed héeles, called of the Italians Mule. The .Cxxxij. Chapter.

THis is a kinde of Scabbe breeding behinde, somewhat aboue the nether ioynte, growing ouertwhart the fewterlocke, which Page  95 commeth most commonly for being bredde in cold ground, or else for lack of good dressing, after that he hath bene laboured in foule mire, & dirty wayes, which dirt lying styll in his legges, fretteth ye skin, and maketh scabbie riftes which are sone bredde, but not so sone gotten away. The anguish where∣of maketh the legs sometyme to swell, and special∣ly in winter, and springtime, and then the Horse goeth very styffely, and wyth greate payne. Thys sorance is apparant to the eye, and is cured accor∣ding to Martin in this sorte. Take a piece of lynnen cloth, and with the salue recyted in the last chapter make such a playster as may couer all ye sore place, and binde it fast on, that it fal not of, renuing it e∣uery day once vntill the sore leaue running, & be∣ginneth to waxe dry, then wash it euery day once with strong water, vntill it be cleane dried vp, but if this sorance be but in breeding, and that there is no rawe flesh, then it shal suffise to annoynt it with Sope two or three dayes, and at the three dayes ende to wash them wyth a lyttle beefe broth or dish water.

Of sorances or griefes that be commen to all foure féete. The .Cxxxiij. Chapter.

HYtherto we haue declared vnto you the causes, sygnes, and cure of all such griefes as are porperlye incident, eyther to the fore∣legges, or hinder legges, nowe therefore we wyll Page  [unnumbered] speake of those griefes that be commō to them both, and first of windegalles.

Of windgalles. The .Cxxxiiij. Chapter.

THe Windegall called of the Italians Galla, is a bladder full of corruptielly, wherof some be great and some be small, and do grow on ech syde of the ioynt, & is so paynful, and specially in Sommer season when the weather is hote, and the wayes harde, as the horse is not able to trauel, but halteth right downe. They come for the most part through extreme labour and heate, whereby the humors being dissolued, doe flowe and resorte into the hollowe places about the neather ioyntes, and their be congeled, and couered with a thin skin like a bladder. They be apparant to the eye, and there∣fore nede no other sygnes to know them. The cure whereof according to Martin is thus. Washe them with warme water, and shaue of the haire, and sca∣rify them with the point of a Rasor, and dresse them with Cantharides in ye selfe same maner, as the splent in the knee was taught before, and annoint them afterward with butter, vntil the skin be whole. And if this will not heale it, then draw them with a hote yron in this maner. That done slitte the

[illustration]
middle lyne, whiche passeth right downe, through the windegall with a sharpe knyfe, begin∣ning Page  96 beneath, and so vpward the length of halfe an ynche, to the intent you may thrust the ielly out at that hole, and then lay vnto it a litle pitch, and Ro∣sen molten together, and made luke warme, and put a fewe floxe on it, and that wil heale him.

Of wrinching the neather ioynt. The .Cxxxv. Chapter.

THis commeth many times by trea∣ding awry in some Cart roote or otherwyse. The sygnes be these. The ioynt will be swol∣len & sore, and the horse will halt. The cure where∣of according to Martin is thus. Take of Dialthea halfe a pound, and as much of Neruall. Mingle them to∣gether, and annoint the sore place therewith, cha∣fing it well with both your hands, that the oynt∣ment may enter, cōtinuing so to do euery day once, vntill the oyntment be all spent, and let the horse rest. But if this will not preuayle, then washe it wel with warme water, and shaue away all the haire sauing the fewterlocke. Scarifye it, and lay vnto it Cantharides, and heale it as you doe the splent in the knee.

Of enterfering. The .Cxxxvi. Chapter.

BIcause interfering is to be holpen by shooyng, we purpose not to speake of it, vn∣till we come to talke of the order of paring & Page  [unnumbered] shooing all maner of houes, and therefore resorte thither.

Of the shakell gall. The .Cxxxvij. Chapter.

IF a Horse be galled in the pas∣tornes, with shakell, locke, pastorne, or halter annoynt the sore place, wyth a little hony and verdegrease boyled to∣gether, vntill it loke redde, whiche is a good oyntment for all gallings on the wythers, & immediately strowe vpon the oyntment, being first layde vpon the legge, a little chopt flaxe, or toawe, and that will sticke fast, continuing so to do euerye day once, vntill it be whole.

Of hurtes in the legges, that commeth by casting in the Halter, or Coller. The .Cxxxviij. Chapter.

IT chaunceth many times that a horse hauing some ytche vnder his eares, is desyrous to scratch the same with his hinder foote, which whilest he reacheth to and fro, doth fasten in the Coller or halter, wherwith the more that he stry∣ueth, the more he galleth his legges, and many ty∣mes it chaūceth for that he is tyed so long, by mea∣nes whereof, he being layd, and the halter slacke a∣bout his feete, in his rysing perpaps or turning he Page  97 snarleth him selfe, so as he is not able to get vp, but hangeth either by the necke, or legges, which some∣tymes are galled euen to the harde bone. Russius calleth suche kinde of galling Capistratura, whiche he was wont to heale with this ointment here folow∣ing, praysing it to be excellent good, for the Crat∣ches or any scabbe, broose, or wounde. Take of oyle Oliue one ounce, of Turpētine two or thre ounces, melte them together ouer the fyre, & then put ther∣vnto a little waxe, and worke them well together, and annoint the sore place therwith. Martin sayth it is good to annoynt the sore place with the white of an egge, and Sallet oyle beaten together, and when it commeth to a scabbe, annoynt it with but∣ter being molten vntyll it looke browne.

Of the Cratches or Rattes tayles called of the Italians Crepaccie. The .Cxxxix. Chapter.

THis is a kinde of long scabby riftes growing right vp and downe in the hinder parte from the fewterlocke vp to the Curbe, and cōmeth for lacke of cleane keping, and is easly sene yf you take vp the horses foote, and lift vp the heare. The cure according to Martin is thus. Take of Turpentine halfe a pounde of Hony halfe a pynt of Hogges greace a quarterne, and three yolkes of egges, and of bole armeny a quartern beatyn into powder, of Beane flower halfe a pynt. Myngle all these well together, and make a salue thereof, and Page  [unnumbered] with your fynger annoint all the sore places, shea∣ding the haire as you goe, to the intente you may the easlyer fynde them, and also to make the salue enter into the skinne, and lette the horse come in no wet, vntill he be whole.

Of the Ring bone. The .Cxl. Chapter.

THis is a hard grystle growyng vpon the cronette, and sometyme goeth round about the cronet, and is called in Italyan Soprosso. Laurentius Russius sayth, that it may growe in any other place of the legge, but then we cal it not a Ringbone, but a knot or knob. It cōmeth at the first eyther by some blow of an other horse, or by stryking his owne fote agaynst some stub, or stone, or such lyke casualtye. The payne whereof bredeth a viscouse and slymye humor, whiche resorting to the bones, that are of their owne nature, colde and dry, waxeth hard, and cleaueth to some bone, and in proces of tyme becō∣meth a bone. The sygnes be these. The horse wyll halt, and the hard swelling is apparant to the eye, being higher then any place of the crownet. The cure according to Martin is thus. Fyrst washe it wel with warme water, and shaue awaye all the haire, so as the sore place maye be all discouered. Then scarify it lightly with the poynt of a Rasor, so as the bloude may issue forth. Then if the sore be brode, take of Euforbium one ounce, of Cantharides halfe an Page  98 ounce, broken both into fyne powder, and of Oyle de Bay one ounce, and if the sore be but little, the one half of this may serue. Boile these things toge∣ther, styrring them continually least it runne ouer, and with two or three feathers, lay it boyling hote vnto the sore, and let not the horse sturre from that place for halfe an houre after. Then cary him into the stable, and both vse him & cure him for the space of nine dayes, in such order as hath bene sayde be∣fore in the Chapter of the splent. But when the haire beginneth to grow agayne, then fyre the sore place with right lynes from the pastorne downe to the coffin of the houe in this maner, and let

[illustration]
the edge of the drawing yron be as thicke, as the backe of a meate knyfe, and burne him so depe as the skinne may loke yeallowe, that done, couer the burning with Pitche, & Rosen mol∣ten together, and clappe thereon floxe of the horses owne colour, or somewhat nighe the same, and a∣bout three dayes after, lay againe some of the laste mentioned playster, or oyntment, and also new flox vpon the olde, and there lette them remayne vntill they fall awaye of them selues. But if these ring∣bones, or knobbes brede in any other place than in the cronette, you shall cure them as is before sayde wythout fyering them.

Of the Crowne scabbe. The .Cxli. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]THis is a kind of filthy and stinking scabbe, breeding round about the feete vpon the cronettes, and is an eluyshe and painfull disease, called in Italian Grisaria. It semeth to come by meanes that the horse hath bene bredde in some colde wet soyle, stryking corrupt humors vp to hys feete, and therefore the horse that hath this griefe is worse troubled in winter, than in sommer. The sygnes be these. The haire of the cronettes will be thinne, and staryng lyke bristles, and the cronets wil be alwayes mattering, and runne on a water. The cure according to Martin is thus. Take of Sope, of Hogges grease, of eche halfe a pounde, of bole Armeny a little, of Turpentyne a quarterne, and mingle them well together, and make a play∣ster, and binde it fast on, renuing it euery day once, vntil it leaue rūning, and then wash it with strong vineger being luke warme euery day once, vntyll the sore be cleane dryed vp, and let him come in no wette vntill he be whole.

Of hurtes vpon the cronet by crossing one foote ouer an other, which the Italians call Supraposte. The .Cxlij. Chapter.

MArtin. Washe it well with whyte wine, or with a little stale, and then lay vn∣to it the whyte of an egge mingled with a little Chimney soote and salte, and that will dry it vp in three or foure dayes, if it be renued euery day once.

Page  99

Of the quitterbone. The .Cxliij. Chapter.

THis is a harde rounde swelling vp∣pon the cronette, betwixt the heele and the quarter, and groweth most cōmonly on the insyde of the foote, and is called of the Italians Se∣tula, or Seta. It commeth by meanes of grauell ga∣thered vnderneath ye shoe, which fretteth the heele, or else by the cloying or pricking of some nayle euill dryuen, the anguishe whereof loseneth the gristle, and so breedeth euill humors, whereof the quitter∣bone springeth. The sygnes be these. The horse will halte, and the swelling is apparant to the eye, which in foure or fyue dayes commeth to a heade, wil breake out with matter at a little depe hole like a fistula. The cure according to Martin is thus. First burne about the quitterbone with a hote yron, in maner of a halfe circle, and then with the same yron draw an other right strike through the midst ther∣of in this sorte. Then take of Arsenicke the

[illustration]
quantitye of a Beane beatē into fine pou∣der, and putte it into the hole thrusting it downe to the bottom with a quill, & stop the mouth of the hole with a little toawe, and binde it so faste with a cloth, and corde, as the horse may not come at it with his mouth, and so let it rest for that day. And the next day, if you see that ye sore loketh blacke within, then it is a sygne that the Arsenicke hath wrought well, and done his part. Then to allay Page  [unnumbered] the burning thereof, taynt the hole with flaxe dipte in Hogs grease, and Turpentyne, molten & ming∣led together, and couer the taynt with a bolster of toawe dipt also in the oyntment aforesayde, conti∣nuing so to doe euery day once vntil you haue got∣ten out the core. Then shall you see whether the lose gristle in the bottome be vncouered or not, and if it be not vncouered, then feele with your finger, or with a quill, whither you be nighe it or not. And if you be, then rayse the gristle with a little croked in∣strumēt, and pul it cleane out with a payre of small Nyppers meete for the purpose. That done, taynt it againe with a full taynte dipte in the foresayde Oyntment, to asswage the anguishe of the last dres∣sing, and stoppe it harde, to the intent that the hole may not shrinke together or close vp, and the nexte day take out that taint, and taynt it a new with the salue or oyntement taughte in the Chapter of the shakell gall, renuing it euery day once vntill it be hole, keeping alwayes the mouth of the sore as o∣pen as you may, to the intent that it heale not vp to fast, and let not the horse come in any wet, nor tra∣uell, vntill he be perfectly whole.

Of the Graueling. The .Cxliiij. Chapter.

THis is a fretting vnder the foote, most commonly in the insyde, and sometime in the outsyde, and sometyme in both sydes together of the heele. It commeth by meanes of Page  100 little grauell stones getting betwixt the houe, and calkin, or sponge of the shoe, which by continual la∣bor & treading of the horse, doth eate into the quick, and the rather, if his heele be softe and weake, or that the shoe lye to flatte to his foote, so as the gra∣uell being once gotten in, can not get out againe. The sygnes be these. The horse will halte, and co∣uet to treade all vpon the toe, to fauour his heele. The cure according to Martin is thus. First pare the houe, and get out the grauell with a cornette or drawer, leauing none behinde, for if you do, it wil brede to a quitterbone. That done, stoppe him with Turpentyne and Hogges grease molten together, and layde on with a little toawe or flaxe, and then clappe on the shoe to keepe in the stopping, renuing it euery day once vntill it be whole. And suffer the Horse to come in no wette, vntill he be throughlye hole. If a grauelling be not well stopt to keepe downe the fleshe, it will ryse higher then the houe, and not onely require more busynesse in bolstering it, but also put the horse to more payne.

Of Surbating. The .Cxlv. Chapter.

THis is a beating of the houe a∣gaynst the grounde, called of the Ita∣lians Sobatitura, it commeth sometyme by meanes of euil shooing lying to flat to his foote, or by going long barefote, and sometyme by the hardenesse of the ground, and Page  [unnumbered] highe lifting of the horse. And those horses that be flat footed, the coffins whereof are tender & weake, be most commonly subiect to this sorance. The sig∣nes be these. The horse will halte on both his fore legges, and goe stifly, and creeping as thoughe he were halfe foundered. The cure according to Martin is thus. Take off his shooes, pare hym as little as may be, and if the shooes be not easy, that is to say, long, large, and hollow inough, then make them so, and tack them on againe with foure or fiue nailes. That done, stoppe his feete with bran, and Hogges grease boyled together, so hote as may be, and also couer all the coffin rounde about with the same, bin∣ding all in together with a cloth, and a list fastened about the ioynt, renuing it euery day once, vntill it be whole, & giue the horse during that while warm water, and let him stande dry and warme, and not be trauayled vntill he be whole.

Of a pricke in the sole of the foote, eyther by trea∣ding on a nayle, or any other sharpe thing that doth enter into the foote. The .Cxlvi. Chapter.

THe sygnes be these. If a man be on his back whē he treadeth on any such thing, he shall feele that the horse will lift vppe his foote, and couet to stand still to haue helpe. And if it chaunce at any other tyme, the halting of ye horse, and the hurt it selfe will shewe. The cure according to Martin is thus. Pul of the shoe, and pare the foote, Page  101 and with a drawer vncouer the hole, making the mouth so brode as a two penny piece, then tack on the shoe againe. That done, stoppe it, by pouring into the hole Turpentine and hogges grease mol∣ten together, and lay some flaxe, or toawe vpon it, and then stoppe all the horses foote with horsdong, or rather with Cowe dong, if you can get it, & splent it eyther with stickes, or else with an olde shoe sole, so as the stopping may abyde in, renuing it euerye day once vntill it be whole, and let the horse come in no wette. If this be not well cured, or loked to in tyme, it will cause the houe to breake aboue, and to loosen rounde aboute, and perhaps to fal cleane a∣way. But it you see that it begin to breake aboue, then make a greater issue beneath, by opening the hole wyder, and taking more of the sole away, that the fleshe may haue the more liberty. Then take of bole Armeny halfe a quarterne, & of Beane flower, and two egges. Beate them, and mingle them wel together, and make a playster therof vpon toaw, & lay it rounde about the cronet, binde it fast on, & so let it remayne the space of two dayes, & then renew it again, not fayling so to do euery two dayes, vntil you see it wax hard & firme aboue. For this playster being restrictiue, will force the humors to resort all downward, which must be drawē out with Turpē∣tyne and Hogges grease as before, vntill it leaue mattering, and then dry it vppe with burnt Allom, beaten in powder, and strowed vppon it, with a little flaxe layde againe vpon that, continuing so to do euery day once vntill it be hardened, & let not the horse come in any wet vntil he be whole.

Page  [unnumbered]

Of the Figg. The .Cxlvij. Chapter.

IF a horse hauing receyued a∣ny hurt, as before is sayde by canel, nayle, bone, splent, or stone, or o∣therwise in the sole of his foote, and be not wel dressed and perfectly cu∣red: there wyll growe in that place a certayne superfluous piece of flesh, lyke a Figge, yea and it wil haue little graynes in it lyke a Fig, and therefore is rightly called of the Italians Vn¦fico, that is to say, a Figge. The cure whereof accor∣ding to Martin is thus. Cut it cleane awaye with a hote yron, and keepe the fleshe downe with Tur∣pentine, Hogges greace, and a little Wax layed on with tow or flax, and stop the hole harde, that the flesh rise not, renuing it once a day vntil it be whole.

Of a Retreate. The .Cxlviij. Chapter.

THis is the pricking of a nayle, not well driuen in the shooing, and therfore pulled out agayne by ye smith, and is called of the Italians Tratta mes∣sa. The cause of the pricking maye be partly, the rashe dryuing of the Smith, and partly the weakenesse of the nayle, or the hollownesse of the nayle in the shanke. For if it be to weake, the Page  102 point many tymes bendeth awrye into the quicke, when it should go right forth, agayne, if the shanke be hollow, it slattereth and shiuereth in the driuing, into two partes, whereof, one part raceth the quick in pulling out, or else perhaps breaketh cleane a sunder, and so remayneth still behinde, and this kinde of pricking is worse then a cloying, bicause it will rancle worse, by reason of the flaw, remayning in the fleshe. The signes be these. If the Smith that dryueth such a nayle be so leude, as he wil not looke vnto it, before the horse departe, then there is no way to knowe it, but by the halting of the horse, & searching the houe firste with a hammer by knoc∣king vpon euery clinging. For when you knock vp∣pon that nayle, where the griefe is, the horse will shrinke vp his foote. And if that will not serue, then grope the houe with a payre of Pinsons rounde a∣bout, vntil you haue founde the place grieued. The cure according to Martin is thus. First, pull of the shooe, and then open the place grieued with a but∣ter, or drawer, so as you may perceyue by feeling or seing, whether there be any piece of nayle or not, if there be, to pull it cleane out, and to stoppe the hole with Turpentyne, Waxe, and sheepes suet molten together, and so poured hote into the hole, and then laye a little tow vpon it, and clappe on the shoe a∣gayne, renuing it thus euery day vntil it be whole, during which tyme, let not the horse come in any wette, and it muste be so stopped, though it be but prickt without any piece of naile remayning. And if for lacke of looking to in tyme, this Retreate cau∣seth Page  [unnumbered] the houe to breake aboue, then cure it with the playster restryctiue in suche order as is mentioned in the last chapter, sauing one before this.

Of Cloying. The .Cxlix.

CLoying is the pricking of a whole nayle called of ye Italians Inchiodatura, passing through the quicke and remayning still in the same, and is clenchid as other nayles be, and so causeth the horse to halte. The grieued place is knowne, by searching with the hammer and Pin∣sons as is before sayde. If the horse halte immedi∣atly, then pull of his shoe, and open the hole, vntil it beginne to bleede, and stoppe it with the oyntment aforesayde in the chapter of the Retreate, and clap on the shoe agayne, and the houe maye be so good, and the harme so little, as you maye trauaile him immediatly vpō it. But if it be rancled, then renew the stopping euerye daye once, and let him come in no wette vntill it be whole.

Of lousening the houe. The .Cl. Chapter.

THis is a parting of the houe frō the cronet, called of the Italians, Disso∣latura del vnghia, which if it be rounde a∣bout, it commeth by meanes of founde∣ring, if in part, then by the anguish, cau∣sed Page  103 by ye pricking of some canel naile pearching the soale of the foote, or by some quitterbone, retreate graueling, or cloying, or suche lyke thing. The signes be these. When it is lousened by foundering then it will breake first in the fore parte of the cro∣net, right against the Toes, bicause the humor doth couet alwayes to discend towards the toe. Againe, when the pricking of a canell nayle or suche lyke cankered thing is the cause, then the houe wil losen round about, equally euen at the first. But when it procedes of any of the other hurtes last mentioned, thē the houe will breake right aboue the place that is offended, & most commonly will proceede no fur∣ther. The cure according to Martin is thus. Fyrst, of which soeuer of these causes it proceedes, be sure to open the houe in the soale of the foote, so as the humor maye haue free passage downewarde, and then restrayne it aboue with the playster restrictiue before mentioned, & in suche order as is there writ∣ten, & also heale vp the wound, as is before taught in the chapter of a pricke in the soale of the foote.

Of casting the houe. The .Cli. Chapter.

THis is when the coffin falleth cleane away from the foote, which cometh by such causes as were last rehersed, and is so appa∣raunt to the eye, as it needeth no signes to knowe it. The cure according to Martin is thus. Take of Turpentine one pounde, of Tarre, halfe a pynt of Page  [unnumbered] vnwrought Waxe, halfe a pounde of sheepes suet, halfe a pounde, of salet Oyle halfe a pynt. Boyle al these things together, and sturre them continual∣ly vntill they be throughly mingled, and compact together. Thē make a boote of leather with a good strong sole meete for the horses foote, to be laced or buckled about the pastorne, & dresse his foote with the salue aforesayde layde vpon flaxe or toaw, and bolster or stuffe his foote with softe flaxe, so as the boote may grieue him no manner of way, renuing it euery daye once vntill it be whole, and then put him to grasse.

Of the houe bounde. The .Clij. Chapter.

THis is a shrinking of all the whole houe. It cōmeth by drought, for that the houes perhaps are kept to drye, when the horse standeth in the stable, & sometyme by meanes of heat, or of ouer straight shooing. The Italians call the horse thus grieued Incastellado. The signes be these. The horse will halte, and the houes will be hote, and if you knocke on them with a hammer, they will sounde hollowe lyke an empty bottell, and if both the feete be not houe bounde, the sore foote will be lesser then the other, in deede, and appeare so to the eye. The cure according to Martin is thus. Pul of his shooes, & shoe him with halfe Mone shooes, called Lunette, Page  104 the order and shape, whereof you shall fynde here∣after among the other shooes, and rase both the quarters of the houe with a drawer, frō the corow∣net vnto the sole of the foote, so deepe as you shall see the dew come forth. And if you make two rases on eche syde, it shall be so muche the better, and in∣large the houe the more. That done, annoynt all the houe aboue, next vnto the corownet rounde a∣bout, with the oyntment prescribed before, in the Chapter of casting the houe, continuing so to doe euerye day once vntill he beginne to amende, and lette him be ridden vpon some softe wette grounde an houre or two, euery daye once, for the space of a Moneth, and if he goeth not well at the Monethes ende, than take off the halfe shooes, and pare al the soles, frusshes and all, so thinne as you may see the dew come forth, and tacke on a whole shoe and stop all the foote within with Hogges grease, and bran boyled together, and layd hote to the foote, renuing it euery day once, the space of .ix. dayes, to the intent the sole may rise. But if this wil do no good. Then take awaye the sole cleane, and clapp one a whole shoe, and stoppe the foote with nettles, and Salte brayed together, renuing it once a day, but not ouer harde, to the intent the sole may haue liberty to rise, and being growen agayne, let him be shodde with the lunettes, and so sent to grasse.

Of the running Frushe. The .Cliij. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]THe Frushe is the tenderest parte of the houe towards the heele, called of the I∣lians Fettone, and bicause it is fashyoned lyke a forked head, the French men cal it Furchette, which worde our ferrers, eyther, for not knowing rightly howe to pronounce it, or else perhaps for easinesse sake of pronuntiatiō do make it a monasillable, and doe shortly pronounce it the frushe, in which frush breedeth many tymes a rottennesse or corruption proceding of humors that cōmeth out of the legge, wherby the legge is kept cleane from wynegalles, and all other tumors and swellings, by meanes that the humors haue passage that way. Notwith∣standing the discomoditie of this soraunce is grea∣ter then the commodytie, bicause it maketh the hor∣ses foote so weake and tender, as he is not able to treade vpon any hard ground. The signes be these. The horse wil halt, and specially when the passage of the humor is stopt with any grauel gathered in∣to the Frushe, and not being stopt, it will continu∣ally runne, the sauoure whereof will be so strong as a man is not able to abide it, and in some places it will looke rawe. The cure according to Martin is thus. First take off the shoe, and pare awaye all the corrupt places, and make them rawe, so as you may see the water issue out of the raw places. Then tack on the shoe agayne, being first made wyde, & large ynoughe. That done, take of soote one handefull, of salte as muche. Broose them well together in a dishe and put thereunto the whyte of three egges, and temper them altogither, and with a litle toaw Page  105 dipt therin, stoppe all the foote, and speciallye the frushe, and splent it so, as it maye not fall out, renu∣ing it once a daye, the space of seuen dayes, and then he will be whole. During which tyme, let the horse reast, and come in no wette, at the .vij. dayes ende, leaue stopping him, and ryde him abroade, and alwayes when he cōmeth in, let his sore foote be cleane washed, that no grauel remayne therin, without doing any more vnto him.

Of diseases or griefes indifferently incident to any part of the body, but first of the Leprosie or vniuersall maunginesse called of the olde wryters Elephantia. The .Cliiij. Chapter.

THis is a cankred maunginesse spre∣ding ouer all the body, which commeth of a∣bundance of Melancholye, corrupt, and fil∣thy bloude. The sygnes be these. The horse will be all maungye, and scuruye full of scabbes, and rawe plots about the necke, & euill fauoured to loke on, & alwayes rubbing & scratching. The cure according to Martin is thus. Let him bloude ye first day in the one side of the necke, & within two dayes after on ye other side of the neck, & wtin two dayes after that, in the flank vaynes, & last of al in ye vain vnder ye taile. Then wash al the sore places with salt brine, & rub∣bing them hard, with a wispe of strawe hard twys∣ted, so as they may blede well, and be all raw. That done, annoynt the places with this oyntmēt. Take of quicke siluer one ounce, of Hogges grease one Page  [unnumbered] pounde, of brimstone beaten into powder a quar∣terne, of Rape oyle a pinte. Mingle these things well together vntil the quicke siluer be throughlye incorporated with the rest, and hauing annoynted all the rawe places with this oyntment, make it to sinke into the flesh, by holding and weauing vp & downe ouer it, a hote brode bar of yron, & then touch him no more againe, the space of two or thre dayes, during which tyme, if you se that he rubbeth still in any place, then rub that place againe with an olde horsecombe, to make it rawe, and annoint it with freshe oyntment. But if all this will not helpe, then with a hote yron rounde and blunt at the poynt, so bigge as a mans little finger. Burne all the maū∣gye places, making rounde holes passing onelye through the skin, and no further. For which intent it shall be nedefull, to pull the skinne first from the fleshe, with your left hande, holding it stil vntil you haue thrust the hote yron throughe it, and let euery hole be a span one from an other, and if nede be, you may annoynt those holes with a little Sope, and let the horse be thinne dyeted, during this curing tyme.

Of the Farcyn, called in Italian of some, il verme, and of some Farcina. The .Clv. Chapter.

THis is a kind of creping vlcer grow∣ing in knots folowing alongst some vaine, and it procedeth of corrupt bloud ingendred Page  106 in the bodye, or else of some outwarde hurte, as of spurgallyng, or of the byting of some other horse, or of the biting of tickes, or of Hogges lice, or such like casualtyes. Or if it be in the legge, it may come by enterfering. It is easely knowen, partly by the for∣mer discription, and also it is apparant to the eye. The cure according to Martin is thus. Lette him bloud in that vayne where it commeth, as nigh the sore place as may be, & let him bleede well. Then fyre euery knot one by one, taking the knot in your left hande, and pulling it so harde as you can from his body, to the intent you may the better pearce the knot, with a round, blunt, hote yron, of the big∣nesse of a mans fore finger, without doing the body any hurt, and let the matter out, leauing none vn∣burned, be it little or much. That done, annoynt e∣uery knot so burned with Hogges grease warmed euery day once, vntill the cores be redy to fal away, and in the meane tyme prepare a good quantity of olde vrine, and when you see that the cores are redy to fall: boyle the vrine, and put therin a little Cor∣poras, and salt, and a few strong Nettles, and with that water, being warme, washe out all the cores, and all the corruption. That done, fil euery hole immediately with the powder of sleict Lyme, conti∣nuing thus to do, euery day once, vntil the holes be closed vp, and if any be more ranker then others, fill those with Uerdygrease, and during this cure, lette the horse be thinlye dyeted, that is to say, with straw and water onely: vnlesse it be now and then to giue him a lofe of bread. For the lower he be kept Page  [unnumbered] the soner he will be whole. And in any wyse let his necke be yoked in an olde bottomlesse payle, or else with shorte staues to kepe him from licking the so∣res, and the lesse rest he hath, the better.

Of the Canker called of the Italians il Cancro. The .Clvi. Chapter.

A Canker is a filthy creping Ul∣cer, fretting and gnawing the fleshe in great breadth. In the beginning it is knotty, much lyke a Farcyne, and spre∣deth it selfe into dyuers places, and be∣ing exulcerated, gathereth together at length into one wounde or sore. This proceedes of a Melan∣choly and filthy bloud ingendred in the body, which if it be mixte with sharpe and salte humors, it cau∣seth the more painefull and grieuous exulceration, and sometyme it commeth of some filthy wounde, that is not clenly kept, the corrupt matter whereof cankreth other cleane partes of the body. It is easy to be knowen by the discription before writtē. The cure whereof according to Martin is thus. First lette him bloude in those vaynes that be nexte vnto the sore, and take inough of him. Then take of Alom, halfe a pound, of grene Corporas as much, of white Corporas one quarterne, and a good handefull of salte. Boyle all these things together, in fayre run∣ning water from a pottell to a quart, and thys wa∣ter being warme, washe the sore therwith, with a clout, & then sprincle theron the powder of sleyked Page  107 Lyme, continuing so to do euery day once, the space of .xv. dayes, and if you see that the Lyme doe not mortify the ranke flesh, and kepe it from spreading any further, then take of Sope halfe a pounde, of quick siluer half an ounce, and beate them together in a pot, vntill the quick siluer be so well mingled with the Sope, as you can perceyue none of the quick siluer in it. And with an yron sclyce, after that you haue washed the sore with the strong water a∣foresayde, couer the wound with this oyntment, cō∣tinuing thus to do euery day once, vntill the canker leaue spreading abrode. And if it leaue spreading, and that you see the ranke fleshe is mortifyed, and that the edges beginne to gather a skin. Then af∣ter the washing, dresse it with the Lyme as before, continuing so to do vntill he be whole. And in the dressing suffer no filthe that cōmeth out of the sore, to remaine vpon any whole place about, but wype it cleane away, or else washe it away with warme water. And let the Horse during this cure, be as thinly dieted as may be, and throughly exercised.

Of the Fistula, called of the Italians Fistula. The .Clvij. Chapter.

A Fistula is a deepe hollowe crooking Ulcer, & for the most parte springs of maligne humors, ingen∣dred in some wound, sore, or canker, not throughly healed. It is easy to know by the discriptiō before made. Page  [unnumbered] The cure according to Martin is thus. First search ye depth of it with a quil, or with some other instrumēt of Leade, that may be bowed euery way, meete for the purpose. For vnlesse you finde the bottom of it, it wil be very hard to cure. And hauing found the bottom, if it be in such place as you may boldely cut, and make the way open with a Launcet, or Rasor, then make a slit right against the bottom, so wide as you may thruste in your finger, to feele whether there be any bone or gristle perished, or spongye, or loose fleshe, which must be gotten out, & then taynt it with a taint of flaxe, dipt in this oyntment. Take of hony a quarterne, and of Uerdigrease one ounce beaten in powder. Boyle them together vntill it looke-redde, sturring it continually, least it runne o∣uer, and being luke warme, dresse the taynt there∣with, and bolster the taynt with a bolster of flaxe. And if it be in such a place, as the taynt can not cō∣ueniently be kepte in with a bande, then fasten on eche syde of the hole, two endes of a shoemakers threde right ouer the bolster, to kepe in the taynte, whiche endes may hang there as two laces to tye, and vntye at your pleasure, renuing the taynt eue∣ry day once, vntill the sore leaue mattering. And then make the taynt euery day lesser and lesser, vn∣till it be whole. And close it vp, in the end, by sprinc∣ling thereon a little sleict Lyme. But if the Fistula be in suche a place, as a man can neyther cut ryght against the bottome, nor nyghe the same: then there is no remedy but to poure in some strong wa∣ter, throughe some quil, or suche like thing, so as it Page  108 may goe to the bottome, and drye vp the filthy mat∣ter, dressing him so twise a day, vntil the horse be whole.

Of an Anburye. The .Clviij. Chapter.

THis is a great spongy wert full of bloud, called of the Italians Moro, or Selso, which may growe in any place of the body, and it hath a roote like a Cockes stone. The cure according to Martin is thus. Tye it about with a threde, so harde as you can pull it, and the threde will eate in, by little and little, in suche sorte as within seuen or eyght dayes, it will fall away by it selfe. And if it be so flat as you can binde nothing about it, then take it a∣way with a sharp hote yron, cutting it round about, and so depe as you leaue none of the roote behinde, and dry it vp with Uerdygrease. Russius sayth, that if it growe in a place full of sinewes, so as it can not be conueniently cut away with a hote yron, then it is good to eate out the core with the powder of Re∣salgar, and then to stoppe the hole with flaxe dipt in the white of an egge, for a day or two, and lastly, to dry it vp with the powder of vnsleict Lyme, and ho∣nye as before is taught.

Of woundes. The .Clix. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]WOunds commeth by meanes of some strype or pricke, and they are pro∣perly called wounds, when some whole parte is cutte, or broken. For a wounde according to the Phisitians is defyned to be a solution, dyuision, or parting of the hole. For if there be no such solution or parting, then me thinks, it ought rather to be called a brouse, then a wounde. And therfore wounds are most commonly made, with sharp, or pearcing weapons, and brou∣ses, with blount weapons. Notwithstanding, if by such blount weapons, any parte of the hole be eui∣dently broken, then it ought to be called a wounde as well as the other. Of wounds some be shallow, and some be deepe, & hollow. Againe, some chaunce in the fleshye partes, and some in the bonye, and sinewe places. And those that chaunce in the fleshy partes, though they be very deepe, yet they be not so daungerous, as the others, and therfore we will speake fyrst of the moste daungerous. If a horse haue a wounde newely made, eyther in his heade or in any other place, that is full of sinews, bones, or gristles. First Martin would haue you to washe the wound wel with whyte wine warmed. That done, to search the bottome of the wounde with some in∣strument, meete for the purpose, suffering it to take as little wynd in the meane while as may be. Thē hauing founde the depth, stop the hole close with a clout, vntill your saluebe readye. Then take of Turpētine, of Mel Rosatum, of Oyle of Roses, of ech Page  109 a quarterne and a little vnwrought waxe, and melt them together, stirring them continually that they maye be well mingled together, and if it be a cutte, make a handesome roule of cleane picked toaw, so long, and so bigge as maye fill the bottome of the wounde, which for the moste parte is not so wyde, as the mouth of the wounde, then make an other roule greater then that, to fill vppe the reast of the wounde, euen to the harde mouthe, and let bothe these roules be annointed with the ointment afore∣sayde luke warme. But if the hurte be lyke a hole made with some pricke. Then make a stiffe-taynt, suche a one as may reache the bottome, annoynted with the foresayde oyntment, and bolster the same with a little toaw. And if the mouth be not wyde ynough, so as the matter may easely runne forth, if it be in such place, as you maye doe it without hur∣ting any sinew, then gyue it a pretye slitte, from the mouth downewarde, that the matter may haue the freer passage. And in anye wise haue a speciall re∣garde, that the taynt maye be continually kept in, by one meanes or other, as by binding or staying the same, with the endes of a shoemakers threede, as is aforesayde. And if the hole be deepe, and in such place, as you may not cutte it, then make your taynt of a sponge, and so long as it may reache the bottome, and the taynt being made some what ful, with continuall turning and wrying of it, you shal easely gette it downe, and then dresse the wounde with this, twise a daye, clensyng the wounde e∣uerye tyme with a little whyte Wyne luke warme. For this sponge annoynted with the oyntment a∣foresayde Page  [unnumbered] will both drawe, and sucke vp all the fil∣thy matter, and make it so fayre within as is possi∣ble, & as it beginneth to heale, so make your taynt euery day lesser and lesser, vntill it be ready to close vp, and neuer leaue taynting it, so long as it wyll receyue a taynt, be it neuer so short. For hasty hea∣ling of woundes bredeth fistulas, which properly be olde woundes, and therefore muste be cured lyke Fystulas.

Of woundes in the fleshy partes. The .Clx. Chapter.

VSe the same oyntmente, and maner of proceeding as before, & if the wounde be very large, then to kepe in the taynt or roules, you shall be fayne to put two or three shoemakers endes on eche side of the sore, leauing them so long as you may tye them together, and lousen them when you wyll, lyke laces.

Of a Hurt with an arrowe. The .Clxi. Chapter.

YF the horse be hurt with an ar∣rowe, taynt the hole with Hogs grease, and Turpentine molten together, re∣nuing it euerye daye once vntyll it be whole.

Page  110

Of pulling out shyuers or thornes. The .Clxij. Chapter.

MArtin sayth, that if it be not very deepe, Sope being layde vnto it all night, wil make it to appeare, so as you maye pull it oute with a payre of nippers. But if it be verye deepe, then you must open the place with a knife or Launcet, and gette it out, and afterward heale vp the wound, as haue bene taught you before. Russius sayth, ye the rootes of reed being stampt and mingled with honny will draw out any thorne, or sheuer, and so will snayles. as he sayth being stampt and wrought with freshe butter, and if the place be swollen, he sayth it is good to mollyfie it, with a playster made of worme∣wood, Paretory, Beares foote, Hogges grease, and Honny, which wyll asswage anye newe swelling, that commeth by stripe, or otherwise.

Of Brusings or swellings. The .Clxiij. Chapter.

MArtin. First pricke it with a fleame. Then take of wyne Lees a pynt, as much wheat floure as will thicken it, and an ounce of Comyn. Boyle them together, & laye this somewhat warme vnto it, renuing it euery daye once vn∣till Page  [unnumbered] the swelling eyther departe, or else come to a heade. And if it doe, then launce it, and heale it vp, as a wounde.

Of sinewes cut, prickt, or broosed. The .Clxiiij. Chapter.

TAke of Tarre and beane floure, and a little Oyle of Roses, and laye it hote vnto the place, and if this doe no good, then take wormes and sallet Oyle fryed together, or else the oyntment of Wormes, which you shall haue at the Poticaries, and one of these will knit it agayne, if it be not cleane a sunder.

How to cure a wounde made with Hargabush shotte. The .Clxv. Chapter.

MArtin. First seeke with an in∣strument whether ye pellet remaine within or not, and if it do, you must get it out with an instrument meet for the purpose. Then to kil the fire. Take a little vernishe, and thrust it into the wounde with a feather, an∣noynting it well within with the feather, and after that, stoppe the mouth fayre and softly with a little soft flaxe, to keepe the winde out, and on the outside charge all the swelling with this charge. Take of bole Armenie a quarterne, of Lyneseede beaten in∣to Page  111 pouder, halfe a pounde, of beane floure as much, and thre or foure egges, shelles and al, and of Tur∣pentine a quarterne, and a quart of Uineger, and mingle them wel together ouer the fyre, and being somewhat warme charge all the sore place with parte therof, and immediatly clap a cloth or a piece of leather vpon it, to kepe the wound from the colde ayre, continuing both to annoynt the hole within with vernish, and also to charge the swelling with∣out, the space of foure or fiue dayes, and at the fiue dayes ende, leaue annoynting of it, and taynt it with a taynt reaching to the bottom of the wound, and dipped in Turpentyne and Hogges grease molten together, renuing it euery day twise, vntill the fyre be throughly killed, which you shal perceiue by the mattering of the wounde, and by falling of the swelling, for so long as the fyre hath the vpper hande, no thicke matter will issue out, but onely a thinne yellowishe water, neyther will the swelling asswage. And then take of Turpentine, washed in nine seuerall waters, halfe a pounde, and put ther∣vnto three yolkes of egges, and a little saffron, and taynt it with this oyntment, renuing it euery daye once, vntill the wounde be whole.

Of burning with Lyme, or any other fyrie thing. The .Clxvi. Chapter.

MArtin. First wash away the Lyme if there be any with warme water. Then kill the fyre, with oyle & water beaten together, Page  [unnumbered] dressing him so euery day vntill it be all rawe, and then annoynt it with Hogges grease, and strowe thereupon the pouder of sleykid lyme dressing him so euery day once, vntil it be whole.

Of the byting of a madde dogge. The .Clxvij. Chapter.

IF a horse be bitten with a mad dog, the venim of his teeth will not on∣ly paine hym extremely, but also infect all his bloud, & make him to dye mad. The cure according to the old wryters is thus. Take of Goats dong, of flesh that hath laid long in salte, and of the herbe Ebulus, called of some Danewort, of eche halfe a pound, and .xl. Walnuts. Stampe all these things together, & lay some ther∣of vnto the sore, and this will sucke out the venim, and heale the wounde. It is good also to giue the Horse Treacle, and wyne to drinke, yea, and some would haue the sore place to be fyered wyth a hote yron.

Of hurtes by the Tuskes of a Boare. The .Clxviij. Chapter.

IF a horse be hurt with the tuske of a Boare, laye Vitriol and Corporas thervnto, and the powder of a Dogges heade, being burned, but let the tongue be first pulled out and cast away.

Page  112

To heale the byting or stinging of Serpents. The .Clxix. Chapter.

LAurentius Russius. Take a good quā∣tity of the hearbe called Sanicula, stampe it, and distemper it with the milke of a Cow, that is all of one colour, and giue him that to drinke, and that will heale him.

An other medicine for the same purpose.

MAke a playster of Onions, Hony, & salt, stampt, and mingled together, and lay that to the sore place, and giue the horse wine, & Treacle to drinke. Absirtus would haue you to giue him white Pepper, Rhewe, and Tyme, to drinke with wyne.

Of drinking of Horse leaches. The .Clxx. Chapter.

IF a horse chaunce to drinke Horse leaches, they will continually suck his bloud, and kill him. The remedy according to Absir∣tus, is to poure Oyle into the horses mouth, whiche will make them to fall away and kill them.

Of swalowing downe hennes dong. The .Clxxi. Chapter.

IF a horse swallow downe hen∣nes dong in his hay, it wil fret his gut∣tes, and make him to voyde filthy mat∣ter at the fundament. For remedye wherof, Absirtus would haue you to giue Page  [unnumbered] him a drinke made of Smalladge seede, wine, and hony, and to walke him throughly vpon it, that he may empty his belly.

Of Lyce, how to kill them. The .Clxxij. Chapter.

THey be like Geese Lice, but som∣what bigger, they will brede moste a∣bout the eares, necke, and tayle, and o∣uer all the body. They come of pouerty, and the horse will be alwayes rubbing, and scratching, and will eate his meate, and not prosper withall, and with rubbing he will breake all his Mayne, and tayle. The cure according to Martin is thus. Annoynt the place with Sope and quick siluer, well mingled together, and to a pound of Sope, put halfe an ounce of quicke siluer.

How to saue horses, from the stinging of Flyes in Sommer. The .Clxxiij. Chapter.

ANnoynt the horses coate with Oyle, and Bay buryes, mingled toge∣ther, or tye to the headestall of his col∣lor a sponge dipt in strong Uineger, or sprinkle the stable with water, wherin hearbe grace hath bene layde in stepe. Or perfume the stable with Iuye, or with Calaminte, or with Gith, burned in a panne of coles.

Page  113

Of bones being broken or out of ioynt. The .Clxxiiij. Chapter.

FEwe or none of our Ferrers do intermeddle with any such grie∣fes, but doe referre it ouer vnto the bone setter, whose practised hand, I must nedes confesse, to be nede∣ful in such businesse. Notwithstan∣ding, for that it belongeth to the Ferrers arte, and also for that the olde wryters do make some mention thereof, I thought good not to passe it ouer altogether with silence. Albeit, they speake onely of fractures, in the legges beneathe the knee. For they make little mention or none, of bones aboue the knee, taking them to be vncura∣ble, vnlesse it be a rybbe or such lyke. If any bone then be broken in the legge, it is easye to perceyue, by feeling the roughnesse & inequality of the place grieued, one part being higher then an other. The cure whereof, according to Absirtus, and Hierocles, is in this sort. First, put the bone againe into his right place. That done, wrappe it aboute with vnwasht woll, binding it fast to the legge with a smoth lin∣nen rowler, soked before in oyle & Uineger ming∣led together. And let that rowler be laide on, as e∣uen as is possible, and vpon that, lay agayne more woll, dipte in oyle and Uineger, and then splent it with thre splents, binding them fast at both endes with a thong, & let the horses leg be kepte straight, Page  [unnumbered] and ryght out, the space of .xl. dayes, and let not the bondes be lousened aboue thre tymes in .xx. dayes, vnlesse it shrinke, & so require to be newe drest, and bounde againe. But fayle not euery daye once, to poure on the sore place, throughe the splents, oyle and Uineger, mingled together, & at the .xl. dayes ende, if you perceiue that the broken place be sow∣dered together, againe with some harde knobbe or gristle: Then lousen the bondes, so as the Horse may goe fayre and softly, vsing from that time forth to annoynt the place with some soft grease or oynt∣ment.

Of bones out of ioynt. The .Clxxv. Chapter.

IF a Horses knee, or shoulder be cleane out of ioynt, and no bone broken. Martin sayth the readyest way is, to bind al the foure legges together, in such sorte as haue bene taught before, in the Chapter of Incording, and then to hoyse the horse somewhat from the ground, with his heeles vpwarde, so shall the wayght and payse of his body, cause the ioynt to shoote in agayne, into his ryghte place, for by thys meanes, he pleasured not long synce a friende, and neyghbour of his, who goyng with his Carte from Saint Albons, towards his house, his Thyller fell, and putte his shoulder cleane out of ioynt, so as he was neither able to ryse, nor being holpen vp, could Page  114 stande on his legges. To which mischaunce, Martin being called, made no more a doe, but taking hys frendes Carte rope, bounde the horses legges all foure together, and with a leauer thruste betwixte his legges and body, and the one end of the leauer being stayed vppon the Carte whele, they puttyng their shoulders to the other end, hoysed vp the horse cleane from the grounde, the payse of whose bodye, made the bone to returne into his ryght place, with such a loud knack, as it mought be harde a greate way of, and the Horse immediatelye had the vse of of his legge, so as he drewe in the Carte, and went safe home, without complayning therof euer after.

Certayne receytes of playsters, very good for bro∣ken bones, taken out of the olde Authours, wryting of horse leache crafte. The .Clxxvi. Chapter.

TAke of Spuma argenti, of Uineger, of eche one pound, of Sallet oyle, halfe a pound, of Amoniacum, and of Turpen∣tine, of eche three ounces, of waxe, of Rosen, of ech two ounces, of Bitumen, of Pitch, and of Uerdygrease, of eche halfe a pound. Boyle the vineger, oyle, and Spuma argenti together, vntill it wax thicke, then put therevnto the pytche, which being molten, take the pot from the fyre, and put in the Bitumen, without sturring it at all, and that being also molten, put in then all the rest, & set the potte againe to the fyre, and let them boyle all Page  [unnumbered] together, vntil they be al vnited in one. That done, straine it, and make it in playster forme, and this is called Hierocles playster.

A nother receyte for broken bones, The .Clxxvij. Chapter.

TAke of liquid Pitch one pound, of wax two ounces, of the purest and fi∣neh part of Frankencense one ounce, of Amoniacum foure ounces, of dry Rosen, & of Galuanum of eche one ounce, of Uine∣ger two pyntes. Boyle first the Uineger and pitch together, then put in the Amoniacum, dissolued first in vineger, & after yt al the reast of the foresayd drugs, and after they haue boyled all together, & be vnited in one, straine it, and make it playster wyse, & this is called Emplastrū slauū, that is to say, ye yealow plaister▪

An oyntment for broken bones. The .Clxxviij. Chapter.

TAke of olde sallet oyle a quart, and put thervnto of Hogs grease, of Spuma nitri, of eche one pound, and let them boile together, vntill it begin to bubble aboue, and let this oynte∣ment be very warme, when you vse it.

HItherto of al the diseases belonging to a horse. Nowe therefore my promise made vnto you, in the beginning of this boke, to speak of those things Page  115 wherein the cure of all diseases do consist, that is to say, in letting bloude, in taking vppe of vaynes, in purging, and in giuing the fyre, yea, and also order it selfe bindeth me to treate of the sayde things pre∣sently, and first of letting bloud.

In howe many vaynes a Horse may be let bloude in, and to what ende. The .Clxxix. Chapter.

AS touching the order, time of the yere, Moone & day and other circumstaunces be∣longing to letting of bloud, we haue sufficiently spoken alre∣dy in the kepers office, in the xxij. Chapter. It resteth ther∣fore here to shewe you what vaynes should be opened whē the horse is sick of any disease, according to Vegetius opinion. But first, I will rehearse vnto you once a∣gayne, in howe many vaynes a horse maye be let bloude in, and the rather for that in following Ve∣getius, I lefte out in the .vij. Chapter of the kepers office, the two temple vaynes, which be the two first and principal vaines of the head. A horse then may be let bloud in the two temple vaynes. Item, in the two eye vaynes, which are easie to finde in the face of the horse, somewhat beneath the eyes. Item, in the two pallat vaynes, of the mouthe. Item, in the Page  [unnumbered] two necke vaynes. Item, in the two platte vaynes which be in the breast. Item, in the two forthyghe vaynes. Item, in the foure shakle vaynes before. Item, in the two toe vaynes before. Item, in the two side vaynes, which maye be otherwise called flanck vaynes. Item, in the taile vayn. Item, in the two haunch vaynes. Item, in ye two hough vaines. Item, in the foure shakle vaynes behinde. Item, in the two toe vaynes behind, so that by this accompt a horse may be let bloude in .xxxi. vaynes. Al which vaynes are easie ynough to knowe, bicause that e∣uerye one lyeth in a little gutter, which by feeling softly with your finger, you shall finde immediatly. And Vegetius sayth, that if a horse be payned with a∣ny griefe in his heade, ache, heauinesse, frensie, fal∣ling euill, or suche lyke, then it is good to lette him bloude in the temple vaynes with a fleame. If his eyes be waterishe, bloude shotten, or grieued, with pinne, webbe, or hawe, then it is good to strike the eye vayne with a fleame. If he haue any heaui∣nesse or wearinesse of bodye, or be diseased in the throte with the stranguillon, quynzy, or swelling of the arters, eyther within or without, then it is good to let him bloude in the mouthe, in the palat vaynes with a cornette. If he be vexed with an a∣gue, or with any other disease, vniuersally hurting his body, then let him bloude in the necke vaynes. If his griefe be in the lungs, liuer, or in anye other inwarde member, then let him bloude in the breast vaynes, which we called before the platte vaynes. If he be grieued in the shoulder, then let him bloud Page  116 in the forethighe vaynes, aboue the knee with a launcet, and that very warely, bicause that place is ful of sinewes, and if he be grieued in his ioints, thē let him bloude in the shakle vaynes, and that ware∣ly, bicause that place is also full of sinewes. And if he be foyled on his forefeete by foundering or o∣therwise, then let him bloud in the toe vaynes, ma∣king waye first with your drawer, or ronet in the houe to come to the vayne. If he be diseased in the kydneys, raynes, backe, or belly, then let him bloud in the flanke vaynes, and in his tayle, if he hath a∣ny griefe in his hippes, or houghes, then let hym bloude in the hippe, or houghe vaynes, and if his hynder legges, ioynts, or feete, be grieued, then let him bloude in the shakle vaynes, and toe vaynes, as is before sayde.

The order of taking vp vaynes, and where∣fore it is good. The .Clxxx. Chapter.

THe order obserued by Martin is in this sort. First, if the horse be very curst and shrewd, then cast him vpon a dounghill, or some strawe, then ha∣uing found the vayne, yt you woulde take vp, marke well that parte of the skinne which couereth the vayne, & pull that some∣what aside from the vayne, with your leaft them be, to the intent you may slitte it with a rasor, without touching the vayne. And cut no deeper then onely Page  [unnumbered] through the skinne, and that longstwise, as the vayne goeth, and not aboue an ynche long. That done, take away your thombe, and the skinne will returne agayne into his place, right ouer the vaine, as it was before. Then with a cornet vncouer the vayne and make it bare, and being bare thrust the cornet vnderneath it, and rayse it vp, so as you may put a shoemakers threede vnderneath, somewhat higher then the coronet, to knitte the vayne when tyme is, and if your cornet had a hole in the small ende thereof to put in the threade, it shoulde be the easelier done. Then the cornet standing so stil, slitte the vayne longstwayes that it may bleede, and ha∣uing bled somewhat from aboue, then knitte it vp with a sure knot, somewhat aboue the slitte suffe∣ring it to bleede onely from beneath, and hauing bled sufficiently, then knitte vp the vayne also be∣neath the slitte with a sure knot, and fill the hole of the vayne, with salt, and then heale vp the wounde of the skinne with Turpentine, and Hogs grease molten together, and layd on with a little flax. The taking vp of vaynes is verye necessary, and doth ease manye griefes in the legges, for the taking vp of the forethighe vaynes easeth Farcyns, and swellings of the legges, the taking vp of the shakel vaynes before, easeth the quitterbone, and swel∣ling of the ioyntes, scabbes, & cratches. The taking vp of the hinder vaynes, helpeth the farcyn, swel∣lings, & both the spauens. The taking vp of the sha∣kle vaynes behinde, helpeth swelling of the ioints, the paines, and kibed heeles and such like diseases.

Page  117

Of purging with purgation or Glyster. The .Clxxxiij. Chapter.

PUrgation is defyned by the Phisi∣ans to be the emptying or voyding of super∣fluous humors annoying the bodye with their euill qualitie. For suche humors breede euill iuyce and nutrimēt called of the Phisitians Cacho∣chimia, which, when it wil not be corrected or holpen with good dyet, alteration, nor by the benefite of nature and kindly heate, then it must nedes be ta∣ken away by purgation, vomit, or glister. But for so muche, as horses are not wonte to be purged by vomit as mē be, I wil speake here only of glisters, and purgatiōs. And first bicause a horse is grieued with manye diseases in his guttes, and that no∣thing can purge the guttes so well as a glister, and specially the thicke guttes, I wishe that our ferrers woulde learne to know, the diuersitie of glisters, to what ende they serue, and with what drugges or simples they shoulde be made, for as the disease re∣quireth, so muste the glister be made, some to ease griefes, & to alley the sharpenesse of humors, some to binde, some to lousen, some to purge euil humors, some to clense vlcers, but our ferrers do vse glisters, onlye to lousen the belly, and for no other purpose, yea few or none doe that, vnlesse it be Martin, and such as he hath taught, who is not ignoraunt that a glister is the beginning of purgatiō, for a glister by clensing the guttes, refresheth the vitall partes, and prepareth the way before. And therfore, when∣soeuer Page  [unnumbered] a horse is surfeted, and full of euill humors needing to be purged, and specially being paynted in the guttes, I woulde wyshe you to beginne fyrst with a glister, lest by purging him with medicine vpon the sodaine, you sturre vp a multitude of euill humors, which finding no passage downeward, bi∣cause the guttes be stopte, with winde and dregs, doe strike vpwardes, and so perhaps put the horse in great daunger. But now you shall vnderstande that glisters be made of foure things, that is to say, of decoctions, of drugges, of oyles, or such lyke vnc∣tuous matters, as butter or soft grease, and fourth∣ly, of dyuers kindes of salte to prouoke the vertue expulsiue. A decoction is as muche to say, as the broth of certayne hearbes or simples boyled toge∣ther in water, vntill the thirde parte be consumed, and sometyme in steede of such decoction, it shall be nedefull perhappes to vse some fatte broth, as the broth of Beefe, or of a sheepes heade, or milke, or whay, or some other such lyke lyquor, and that per∣haps mingled with hony and suger, according as the disease shall require, the glister to be eyther leni∣tiue, that is to say, easing payne, or glutinatiue, that is ioyning together, or else abstersiue, that is to say, clensyng, or wyping away filthy matter, of which decoction or broth being strayned, you shal nede to take three pintes, or a quart at the least. And then into that, you may put such drugs, as shall be nede∣full, to the wayght of three or foure ounces, accor∣ding as the simples shall be more or lesse vyolent. Of oyle at the least halfe a pinte, and of salte two Page  118 or three Dragmes, and then to be ministred luke warme with a horne, or pipe made of purpose, when the horse is not altogether full paunched, but ra∣ther emptye, be it in the fore noone or after noone. And as touching the tyme of keping glisters in the body, you shall vnderstand, that to glisters abster∣syue, halfe an houre or lesse may suffise, to glisters lenitiue a longer time, if it may be, & to glisters glu∣tinatyue, the longest tyme of all is most nedefull.

Of Purgations. The .Clxxxiiij. Chapter.

PUrgations for men may be made in dyuers sortes and formes, but horses are wonte to be purged onelye with pilles, or else with pur∣ging powders, put into Ale, wyne, or some other lyquor. But the sim∣ples wherof such pilles or powders be made, would be chosen with iudgement, and aptly applyed, so as you may purge away the hurteful humors, and not the good. Learne first therfore to know with what humor or humors the Horse is grieued, be it Cho∣lor, Fleame, or melancholy, and in what part of the body, such humors do abound, then what simples are best to purge such humors, and with what pro∣pertye, qualitye, and temperament they be indued. For some be vyolent, and next cosins to poyson, as Scamony, or Coloquintida. Some againe are gentle, & rather meate than medicines, as Manna, Page  [unnumbered] Cassia, Whay, Prunes, and such lyke. And some a∣gaine be neyther to vyolent, nor to gentle, but in a meane, as Rhewbarb, Agaricke, sene Aloes. The olde men did vse muche to purge Horses with the pulpe of Coloquintida, sometyme with the rootes of wylde Coucumbre, and somtyme wyth the broth of a sodden whelpe mingled with Nitrum, and dy∣uers other things, wherof I am sure I haue made mentiō before in the curing of horses diseases. Not∣withstanding, I would not wyshe you to be to rash in purging a horse, after the olde mennes example. For as their simples many tymes be very violent, so the quantityes therof by them prescribed are verye much, & daungerous for any horse to take in these dayes, in the whiche neyther man nor beast as it seemeth, is of suche force or strength, as they haue bene in tymes past. And therfore whensoeuer you would purge a horse of any valew, I woulde coun∣cell you to purge hym with suche kindes of pur∣gations as Martin vseth, whereof you haue had ex∣amples before in dyuers places. And whensoeuer you lift for knowledge sake, to deale with other sim∣ples, to proue them first vpon suche Iades, as may be wel spared. For who so mindeth to purge a horse well, that is to doe him good, and no hurt, had nede to consider many things, as the nature of the hor∣ses disease, and the horses strēgth. Also the nature, strength, and quantity of the medicine, that he mi∣nistreth, the Region, or Countrey tyme of the dys∣ease, the tyme of the yeare, and the day. For as the diseases, and euill humors causing such diseases be Page  119 dyuers, so doe they requyre to be purged with dy∣uers medicines, diuersly compounded, wherin con∣sisteth a point of art to be learned at the Phisitians handes, and not at mine. Againe, weake, delicate, and tender horses, may not be purged in such sort, as those that be of a strong sturdye nature. And therefore in such cases, the qualitie, and quantity of the simples is not a little to be considered, neyther is the hotenesse, or coldenesse of the Region to be neglected, nor the tyme of the disease. For some re∣quire to be purged in the very beginning, some not vntil the matter be throughly digested. And though the disease procede perhaps of colde, and colde hu∣mors, yet a man may not minister such hote things in Sōmer, as he would do in Winter, nor in ye con∣trary case, such colde things in Winter, as he would do in Sommer. And therefore the tyme and season of the yere is also to be obserued, yea, & the day, and time of the day. For the more temperate the day be, the better, not an extreme hote day, for making the horse to faynt, nor yet when the wind bloweth cold in the North, for that wil stop and hinder the wor∣king of the medicine, but rather in a tēperate moist day, when the winde is in the South, if it may be, for that will further and helpe the working of the medicine, and make the body louse, and soluble. A∣gayne, for a horse whither you purge him with pil∣les or drink, it is best for him as Martin sayth, to take them in the Morning, after that he hath fasted from meate and drinke all the nighte before. And hauing receiued his medicine, let him be walked vp Page  [unnumbered] and downe, one houre at the least, and then set vp, and suffered to stande on the bit, two or thre houres without any meate, but in the meane tyme see that he be well littered, and warme couered, and at the thre houres end, offer hym a little of a warme mash made with wheate meale, or with bran, or else with ground mault. Gyue him little meate or none, vn∣til he be purged, al which things haue bene shewed you before in diuers places, and therefore I thinke it not good to be tedious vnto you with often reci∣tall thereof.

Of Cauterization, or gyuing the fyre aswell actuall as potentiall. The .Clxxxv. Chapter.

FOr so muche as the fyre is iudged of all the olde wryters to be the chiefest remedy, and as it were the last refuge in al diseases almost wherevnto a horse is subiecte. I thought good therefore, to talke of it in thys place, and the rather for that fewe or none of our Ferrers, vnlesse it be Martin or suche as he hath taught, doe knowe howe to gyue the fyre or to what ende it serueth. But fyrst you shall vnderstande, that according to the learned Chirur∣gians, yea also according to my olde Authours there be two kindes of Cautery, the one actuall and the other potential. The Cautery actuall is that which is done onely by fyering of the grieued place with Page  120 a hote yron. The potential Cautery is done by ap∣plying vnto ye grieued place, some medicin corosiue, putrifactiue or caustique. But we wyl speake first of the actual cautery shewing you wherfore it is good then of what metall and fashion your instruments shoulde be made, and finally, how, and when to vse them. Auicen sayth, that an actuall Cautery mode∣ratly vsed, is a noble remedy to stoppe corruption of members, to rectifie the complexion of the same, and also to staunch bloud. Howe be it you must be∣ware (sayth he) that you touche not the sinewes chordes, or lygamentes, least the member be wea∣kened, or that the cramp ensueth. Vegetius also wri∣ting of horseleach craft prayseth the actual cautery very much, speaking in this sort. The actuall cau∣tery (sayth he) byndeth together partes loosened. It doth attenuate parts blowen, & puffed vp, it dry∣eth vp superfluous moysture, it looseneth, disperseth and deuideth euill matter gathered together into knots, it asswageth olde griefes. It rectifyeth those partes of the bodye that are corrupted by anye ma∣ner of waye reducing them to their pristine estate, and suffereth no superfluitie to growe or encrease, for the skin being opened with a hote yron, al kynd of corruption by vertue of the fyre is fyrst digested, and rypened, and then dissolued so as the matter doth issue out at the holes, whereby the member or parte before offended, is nowe healed, and eased of all payne and griefe. Yea, the holes being once clo∣sed, and cleane shutte vp, that place is stronger and better knitte together, and couered with a tougher Page  [unnumbered] skin then euer it was before. Now as touching the instruments wherof, & of what fashion they should be made. You shall vnderstande, that Vegetius and the other old wryters would haue them to be made of Copper, praysing that metall to be farre better to burne with then yron. The Chirurgians for mannes body doe prayse Golde and Siluer, but as for the fashion of the yrons, it is to be referred to the kind of sore, and place grieued, wherewith you haue to deale, according to the diuersitie wherof, the instru∣ments are to be made of dyuers fashions, as some lyke searing yrons with sharpe edges, and some with blount & broad edges, some lyke right, & some lyke croked bodkyns, some lyke hookes or sicles, and some with a great button, & some with a small button at the one ende, in making whereof the fer∣rers iudgement is most needefull, who ought to be so skilfull, as he maye be able to make all maner of yrons that he should occupie, & to alter them accor∣ding as nede shal require. And therfore I thought good onely here to set forth the shape of the commō drawing yron, and of the button yron, like in forme to those that Martin vseth, referring all the rest to your owne iudgement and specially, sith you haue bene fully instructed before, of what sort they shuld be made meete to serue your tourne in any disease. Nowe as touching the vse of the instruments two things are speciallye to be considered, that is, the heating of the yron, and the bearing of the hande. For the back of the yron may not be redde hote, but onely the edge, for feare of yeelding to much heate, Page  105 And therefore though it be made redde hote at the fyrst, yet it shall be good before you doe occupy it, to coole the backe of the instrument in water, and as touching the bearing of the hand, the more euenly and lyghtly it be done, the better, and that accor∣ding as the fynenesse or thicknesse of the skin shall requyre, which is to be iudged by the haire. For if the haire be shorte and fine, then it is a signe of a fine skin, if long and rough, then it betokeneth a thicke skin. The fine skinne requyreth the lyghter hande, and not to be burned so deepe as the thicke skin, yet both must be burned vntil they loke yellow. But the fyne skin will loke yellow with lesser bur∣ning than the thicke skin. For the thicke skin with his long haire doth choke the fyre, and therefore re∣quyreth a more heauy hande, yea, and more often heating of the instrument than the thinne skinne doth, and be sure to drawe alwayes with the haire, and not against the haire, in what forme, and with what maner of lynes hath bene taught you before, for those must be made either long, short, deepe, sha∣low, right, croked, or ouertwhart, according as the disease doth require. You haue learned also how to allay the heate of the fyre, after such drawing. And therefore I haue no more to say here, but onely to admonishe you according to Vegetius precepts, not to fyre any sinewe place, nor bone, that is broken, or out of ioint, for feare of weakning ye whole mem∣ber, nor to beare so heauie or vneuen hand, as you shoulde thereby deforme, or misfashion any part of the horse, nor to be to hasty in giuing the fyre, but Page  [unnumbered] to attempt first all other conuenyent remedies, and when nothing else will helpe, to make the fyre your laste refuge, and

[illustration]
yet not so muche to neglect it, and abhorre it, lyke ye ignoraunt sort, as you wyll not vse it when nede requireth, for lack whereof, manye horses goe lame, and vncured of dyuers dyseases. Practyse youre selues therefore in giuing the fire at nedeful times with iudgement and discreatyon, so shall you doe it to the Horses benefite, and to your owne great prayse and pro∣fite.

Page  121

Of Cauteris Potentiall. The .Clxxxvi. Chapter.

CAuteris Potentiall as Io∣hannes vigo saith, are medicines co∣rosyue, putrefactiue, & causticke. This worde corosyue, is deryued of the latten word Corrodo, which is as muche to saye, as to gnawe and frette, and of such coresyues, some be simple and some compound. The simple as Vigo saith, be such as these, Roch alom. as wel burnt as not burnte, sponge of the sea somewhat burnt, Lyme, red Corall, pouder of Mercury. Compound Corosyues be these Vnguentum apostolorum, Vnguentiū aegiptiacum, Vnguentum Ceraceū. Medicines putrefac∣tiue, called of the learned sort Septica, according to Auicen, be those that haue strength to corrupt the complexiō of the member, and to enduce an escharr lyke dead fleshe, causing great payne, yea and fe∣uers, and therefore ought not to be ministred, but to strong bodyes and in strong diseases, as in Car∣buncles, cancrous, vlcers, and such lyke, and they be these. Arsnike sublimat, resalgar, and other medicines compound therewith. Siluius also addeth therevnto Sandaracha chrysocolla, and Aconitum, but he doth not agree with Auicen in the discription of the putrefac∣tiue medicynes. For he sayth that they cause little payne or none, neyther be they so hote and drye, as those that are called Escharotica, yt is to say Crustiue, Page  [unnumbered] which be hot in the fourth degre, & do brede a crust and scar and cause great payne, as vnslect lime and the burned dregs of wyne: wherfore it semeth that Auicens discription belongeth rather to the crustiue, than to the putryfactyue medicines. Not with∣standing I must needes say that our Chirurgiās, and also ferrers, doe fynde both Arsenik, and Resalgar, to be so sharpe, hot, and burning things, as when they mynister the same to any parte of the bodye, they are forced to allay the sharpenesse thereof, the Chirurgians with the iuyce of Plantan, or Daffadyll, or else of Houseleeke, the ferrers with hogs grease.

Medycynes Caustike that is to say burning, are those whose operation is moste strong, and incly∣neth to the nature of fire, and yet more easily allay∣ed as Vigo wryteth, than the medicines putrifac∣tyue, and therefore may be more safely vsed. They be made as he sayth of strong lye, called Capitellum, or Magistra, of Vitriol Romane, Sal vitre, Aqua fortis, of this sort be all those which Vigo calleth the blistring me∣dicines, as Apium, Cantharides, Ciclamine, Onions, strōg Garlicke, Melanacardinum, the stones or graines of vi∣tis Alba, otherwyse called Brionye. Moreouer Vigo maketh euery one of these Cauteris potentiall, to excell one an other, as it were by certayne degrees, saying that Corosiues be weaker than Putrifacti∣ues, and Putrifactiues weaker than Caustick, and therfore Corosiues worke in the vpper part, and in softe fleshe. Putrifactiues in harde fleshe and depe. But Caustickes haue power to breake the skin in harde flesh, and doe enter most deepely. The vse of Page  107 the most parte of whiche things, hath bene taught you before, in sundry places according to Martins ex∣perience. And therefore I leaue to trouble you any further, wishing you that are desirous to know any more of these matters, to reade Taugantius wryting, De piroticis the .xi. Chapter, in his first boke of Sur∣gery. And Siluius de medicament. comp. ratione. And Iohn Vigo wryting of Surgery englyshed but fewe yea∣res synce. But the olde wryters so farre as I can iudge by the words of Absirtus, Pelagonius, and others that write of Horseleach craft, do apply this worde Causticke, to suche medicins as are astrictiue and bynding, called of Martin and other Ferrers in these dayes, bynding charges, as may well appeare by the composition and vse thereof here following, re∣cyted by Vegetius in this sorte.

The receyte of a Causticke vsed by Chiron to dry vp superfluous moysture, and to bind parts loos∣ned, and to strengthen parts weakned. The .Clxxxvij. Chapter.

TAke of Bitumē Iudaicū, two pound of Bitumen Apolonii two pounde, of the purest part of Frankencēse sixe ounces, of Bdelliū Arabitū ij. oūces, of deares suet ij. pound, of Propuleū two ounces, of Gal∣banū two ounces, of the drops of Storax two ounces, of cōmon wax two pound, of Resin Cabial one pound, of Viscus Italicus thre ounces, of Apoxima two ounces, of the iuyce of Hysop two ounces, of the droppes of Page  [unnumbered] Armoniacke two ounces, of Pytch one pounde.

A nother Caustick vsed by Pelagonius, to dry vp swellings, bladders, wingals, and splents, in the legges and ioyntes. The .Clxxxviij. Chapter.

TAke of virgin wax one pounde, of Rosen two pounde and a halfe, of Galbanum three ounces, of Asphaltum Iu∣daicū two pound, of Myrrhe secundary two pounde, of Bitumen one pounde, of Armoniacke syxe ounces, of Costus syxe ounces. Boyle all these things together in an earthen pot, sauing the Asphaltum, Armoniack, and Costū, which being first ground like fine flower, muste be added vnto the other thinges, after that they haue bene boyled and cooled, and then boyled altogether a∣gaine, and well sturred, so as they may be incorpo∣rated together, and made all one substance. These kindes of emplaysters or oyntmentes, ought in my iudgement, to be called as I sayde before, rather binding charges, then Causticke medicines, bicause there be no suche extreme corosiue or burning sym∣ples in these, as are before recyted. Notwithstan∣ding, I referre my iudgement to those that be bet∣ter learned, and so ende, for feare of being ouer tedi∣ous. For if I woulde, I could take very good occa∣sion here to speake of diuers other medicines wher∣of some are called Anodiua, that is, easing paine and griefe. Martin calleth them Lynoges, which are Page  123 made of Lynseede, Camomile, softe grease, & suche lyke things, as are hote in the first degree. Some agayne are called Narcotica, that is to say, astonying or bringing to slepe, as those that are made of Opiū, Mandragora, Popye, and suche lyke colde and grosse things. And some are called Sarcotica, that is bree∣ding flesh, as Barlye flower, & Frankencense. And many other kinds of emplaisters, oint∣mēts, waters, and salues, which would occupye a Booke of no small vo∣lume, to be written hereafter by some other perhappes, if not by my selfe. And in the meane tyme, let this that I haue alredy written suffice.

Here endeth the order of curing of Horses diseases, and here follovveth the true Art of paring, and sho∣ing all maner of houes.
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The true Arte of Paring, and shooyng all maner of Houes together, with the shapes and fygures of dyuers shooes, very neces∣sarye for dyuers Houes.

¶ In what poyntes the Arte of shooyng doth consist. The first Chapter.

THe Art of shoyng consisteth in these poyntes, that is to say, in paryng the houe well, in making the shoe of good stuffe, in well fa∣shioning the webbe thereof, & well pearring the same, in fitting the shooe vnto the horses foote, in ma∣king nayles of good stuffe, and well fashioning of the same, and finally, in well dryuing of the sayde nayles, and clenching of the same. But sith neyther paring nor shooing is no absolute thing of it selfe, but hath respect vnto the foote, or houe, (for the shoe is to be fitted to the foote, and not the foote to the shoe) and that there be dyuers kinds of houes both good and badde, requiring great diuersitie as well of paring, as shooing: It is meete therefore that we talke firste of the diuersitie of houes, and then shewe you how they ought to be pared and shodde.

Of Houes, and dyuers kinds thereof. Page  [unnumbered] The seconde Chapter.

OF Houes some be perfecte, and some vnperfect. The perfecte Houe is that which is round, smoth, tough, and short, so as the horse may treade more on the toe than on the heele, and also righte, and somewhat hollow within, but not ouer hollow, hauing a narrowe frush, and brode heeles. The vnperfect houe, is that whiche lacketh any of these propertyes beforesayde, belonging to a per∣fect houe.* For as touching the first poynt. If the Houe be not rounde but broade, and spreading out of the sides or quarters, that horse for the most part hath narrow heeles, and in continuance of tyme will be flatte footed, which is a weake foote, & wyll not cary a shoe long nor trauell farre, but sone sur∣bate, and by treading more on his heeles, than on his toes, will goe lowe on his pastornes, and suche feete through their weakenesse be much subiecte to false quarters, and to grauelling, which is most cō∣monly seene in Flaunders horses, and such as are bredde in moyst grounde.

*Secondly, if the houe be not smoth, but rugged, and full of circles, lyke Rammes hornes, then it is not only vnseemely to the eye, but also it is a sygne that the foote is in no good temper, but to hote and dry, and thereby perhappes maketh the houe to be brittle, which defect is often seene in our Englishe Horses.

Page  2Thirdely if it be long,* then it will cause the horse to treade all vpon the heeles, and to goe low on his pastornes, and therby to breede windgalles, wher∣vnto the Iennettes of Spaine be much subiect, by reason of their long Houes.

Fourthlye,* if the Houe be not right, but crooked, that is to say, broade without, and narrow within, whereby the Horse is splay footed, then it will cause the Horse to treade more inwarde, than outwarde, and to goe so close with his ioyntes together, as he can not wel trauel without enterfering, or perhaps stryketh one legge so harde against an other, as he becommeth lame. But if he be broade within, and narrow without, that is not so hurtfull. Notwith∣standing, it will cause him to grauell soner on the outsyde than on the insyde.

Fifthly if the Houe be flat and not hollow with∣in,* which is moste commonly seene in Frezous and Flaunders horses, then it bredeth, such inconueni∣ences, as are before declared in the firste vnperfect houe. And againe if it be ouer hollow, then it wyll dry the faster,* and cause the horse to be houebound. For ye ouer hollow houe is a straight narrow houe, and groweth vpryght, whereby thoughe the horse treadeth vpright, and not on his heeles, yet suche kinde of houes will dry ouer fast, vnlesse they be cō∣tinually stopt, and cause the horse to be houe bound, which lameth them, making them to halte, where∣vnto the Iennets and Barbarye horses are muche subiect.

Syxtly,* if the frush be broade, then the heeles be Page  [unnumbered] weake, and so softe as you may almost bende them together, and then the horse wil neuer treade bold∣lye on the stones, or harde ground.

*Seuenthly and lastlye▪ if the heeles be narrow, they be tender, and the horse will growe to be houe bounde, to which defect the Iennets are most com∣monly subiect.

Of paring the perfect Houe and fore foote. The thirde Chapter.

FIrst pare the seat of the shoe, so euen and playne as maye be, to the intente that the shoe may sytte close, and not beare in one place more then in an other, & take more of the toe then of the heele, to the intente that the heeles bee higher then the toe, because all the waight of ye horses fore∣body lyeth vpō the quarters and heeles of the fore∣feete. And therefore those partes shoulde be moste maintayned, and taken off with the butter as little as may be. For the paryng of the heeles, being na∣turally thinner, and more tender than the toe, doth greatly weaken them: but the toe being naturally thicke and harde, woulde be pared so thinne almost as the edge of a knife. But in paring the hinder feete, cleane contrarye order is to be obserued, as shall be sayde hereafter in his proper place, where∣of the French Ferrers haue a prouerbe, which saith Deuant dariar, dariar deuant, in English, before behinde, Page  3 behinde before, that is to say, spare the fore foote be∣hind, and the hinder foote before, as wel in paring, as in pearcing the shoe.

Of shooing the perfect houe and foreféete, and how the shooe, pearcing, and nayle, should be made. The fourth Chapter.

MAke your shoe of spruse or spanishe yron, with a broad web, fitting it to the foote, and let the sponges be thicker, & more sub∣stantiall then any other parte of shooe, yea, and also somewhat broad, so as the quarters on both sides may disbord, that is to say, appere without the houe a strawes bredth, to garde the coffin, which is the strength of the houe, and only beareth the shoe, and when you come to the pearcing thereof, spare not to pearce it from the quarter to the harde toe, but not backwardes towarde the heele, and pearce it so, as the holes may be wider on the outside then on the inside, & that the cyrcle of the pearcing maye be more dystant from the edge of the toe, then from the edge of the quarter, whereas it beginneth, be∣cause the houe is thicker foreward then backward, and therefore more holde to be taken. And as tou∣ching the nayles make them also of the same yron beforesayde, the heades whereof woulde be souare and not fully so broad beneath as is aboue, but an∣swerable Page  [unnumbered] to ye pearcing holes, so as the head of the nayles maye enter in and fyll the same, appearing aboue the shoe no more than ye breadth of the backe of a knife, so shal they stand sure without shogging, and endure longer, and to that end the stamp that fyrst maketh the holes, and the preschell that pear∣ceth them, and also the neckes of the nayles, woulde be of one square fashion and bignesse, that is to say, great aboue and small beneath▪ which our common Smithes doe little regarde▪ for when they pearce a shoe, they make the holes as wyde on the inside, as on the outsyde, and their nayles with so great a showldering by dryuing them ouer harde vpon the nayle toole, as the heades or rather neckes of the sayde nayles, can not enter into the holes, for to say the truth, a good nayle would haue no shouldering at all, but be made with a playne and square neck, so as it maye iusty fytte and fill the pearcing hole of the shoe. For otherwise the head of ye nayle stan∣ding high, and the necke thereof being weake, ey∣ther it breaketh off, or else bendeth vpon euery light occasion, so as the shoe thereby standeth loose from the houe and is quickly lost. Moreouer ye shankes of the nayles woulde be somewhat flatte, and the poynts sharpe without hollownesse or flawe, and stiffer towards the head aboue, than beneath. And when you dryue, dryue at the first with soft strokes, and with a light hammer, vntill the nayle be some∣what entred, and in shooing fyne delycate horses, it shall not be amisse to grease the poyntes of the nayles with a little soft grease, that the nailes may Page  4 enter the more easely, and dryue the two talon nayles fyrst. Then looke whether the shoe standeth right or not, which you shall perceyue in beholding the frush, for if the sponges on both sydes, be equal∣ly distaunt from the frush, then it standeth right, if not, then amend it and set the shoe right, and stan∣ding right, dryue in another nayle, that done, lette the horse set downe his fote agayne, & looke rounde about it, to see whether it fitteth the horses foote in all places, and whether the horse treadeth euē and iust on it or not. And if you see that the shoe doth not furnish euery parte equally, but perhappes ap∣peareth more of one syde than of an other. Then make the horses other fote to be lifted vp, to the in∣tent he may stand the more stedely vpon that foote, and so standing strike him on the houe with youre hammer on that side that the shoe is scant, and that shal make the shoe to come that way. The shoe thē standing straight and iust, dryue in the rest of al the nayles to the number of eyght, that is to saye foure on one syde and foure on another, so as the poynts of the nayles may seeme to stande in the outsyde of the houe euē and iust one by an other, as it were in a cyrculer lyne, and not out of order lyke the teethe of a sawe whereof one is bent one waye and an o∣ther an other way. That done, cut them off & clinch them so as the clinches may be hidden in the houe, which by cutting the houe with the point of a knife, a little beneath ye appearing of the nayle you maye easely doe. That done with a rape, pare the houe round, so as the edge of the shoe may be sene round Page  [unnumbered] aboute.

Of paring the vnperfect houes euery one according to their kindes, and first of the broad houe. The fifte Chapter.

ABroade houe not being as yet growen to be flat, may be greatly hol∣pen and kept frō being flat, by the skil and dyligence of the ferrer, in wel pa∣ring and shooing it. And therfore to pare it well, let him take as muche off the toe with his butter, as he can possibly, keeping it alwayes vnder, but let him not touche the quarters nor the heeles at al, vnlesse it be to make the seat of the shoe playne, & let that be done so superficially or ouerly as maye be, so shall the houes remayne alwayes strong.

Of shooing the broade houe. The .vi. Chapter.

MAke a good stronge shooe with a broad web, and broad spon∣ges, and pearced as is aforesayde, fitting it to the foote, being first pa∣red as is aboue sayde, and from the talon naile towardes the heele, let the shoe appere a strawes bredth without the houe, and set it on in suche order and with such nayles as Page  5 apperteyneth to the perfecte houe, sauing that you shal set fyue nayles on the outside of this houe, and foure on the inside, bicause he weareth more with∣out than within.

Of paring the rough and brittle houe. The .vij. Chapter.

THys kinde of houe is moste commonlye weaker without than within, and bicause it is for ye moste parte hotter than the other houes be, the heeles thereof may be some∣what more opened than the other, to the intent it may be more easely stopt with cow dong, or other oyntment to keepe it moyst, & also the raggednesse on the outside of the coffin woulde be fyled away with a rape, and made smoth, and also more often annoynted than other houes with the houe ointmēt hereafter discrybed in the end of this treatise, & as for the rest of the houe, it must be pared as the perfect houe.

Of shooing the rough and brittell houe. The .viij. Chapter.

MAke his shoe neyther to lyght, but so as it maye well beare the horse, nor yet to heauy, for then the houe being weake will sone cast it, and pearce this shooe to be set on with nine nayles, fyue without and foure within.

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Of paring the long houe. The .ix. Chapter.

THe long houe maye be holpen by cutting awaye the toe with his but∣ter, for the shorter foote a weake and slender legge hath, the better. And to saye the truth, it is the shorte foote that maketh the strong legge, and ye long foote maketh the weake legge, being forced thereby, to treade al vpon the heele, and on the pastorne, and let the rest of the houe be pared lyke the perfect houe.

Of shooing a long houe. The .x. Chapter.

MAke thys shoe as rounde as you can at the toe, that the breadth may take away the euil sight of the length, and if the foote be very nar∣row, then let the shoe disborde with out the houe, & pearce the shooe the deeper, and set the shoe backwarde ynough, bicause suche kynde of feete doe treade most on the heeles, and set the shoe on with eyght nayles lyke the per∣fect houe.

Of paring the crooked houe. The .xi. Chapter.

Page  6FIrst looke on what side the houe is hyghest and least worne, then pare all that away and make it equal with the lower side which is most worne, without touching the worne side at all, vnlesse it be to make the seate of the shoe playne, and as for the rest, pare it lyke the perfect houe.

Of shooing the crooked houe. The .xij. Chapter.

MAke an indifferent strong shoe with a broad web, fitting it to the fote, and pearce it not vntill you haue layde the shooe vnto the foote, to the intent you maye pearce it to the horses moste commoditie, which shall be done if you pearce the scante syde (which moste commonly is the insyde) more towardes the toe, than the fuller or stronger syde. And where as the houe is weakest, there al∣wayes make the shoe strongest, and set on this shoe with nyne nayles, that is to saye, fyue on the stron∣ger syde, and foure on the weaker syde.

Of paring the flat houe, otherwise called the pomised houe. The .xiij. Chapter.

MAke the seate of the shooe playne, and take somwhat off the toe, but touch not the heele nor the ball of the foote, but leaue Page  [unnumbered] both them so strong as you can.

Of shooing the flat houe, or pomised houe. The .xiiij. Chapter.

MAke this shoe with a verye broad web, for the more it couer the weake sole, the better, and let the midde parte of the web that couers the ball of the foote be muche thic∣ker, than the outsydes where the pearcings be, and let it be so hollow as it touch no part of the ball of the foote, and let it be large and long ynough in all places, so as the horse maye goe at ease, and let it be pearced rounde about the toe, to fauoure the heeles, and make ten holes for ten nailes, that is to say, fiue on eche side.

Of paring the ouer hollowe houe. The .xv. Chapter.

PAre this houe rounde aboute, and specially the seate of the shoe, that is to say round about by the edges, to the intent that the concauite or hol∣lownesse of the houe within maye not be so deepe, but more shallow than it was before, and let it be alwayes kepte moyst with stopping it, for feare of houe binding, obseruing in your paring so euen a hande as may be, in all poynts lyke vnto the perfect houe.

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Of shooing the ouer hollow houe. The .xvi. Chapter.

MAke a lyght shooe in suche order and forme as was sayde before to serue the perfect houe.

Of paring a houe that hath a broad frush. The .xvij. Chapter.

BRoade Frushes do cause weake heeles, and therefore had neede of little or no paring at all, & for that cause pare only the toe, and also the seat of the shoe, so much as shall be needefull to the euen standing of the shoe, leauing the heeles so strong as may be.

Of shooing the Houe that hath a broade frushe. The .xviij. Chapter.

MAke this shoe stronger towar∣des the heele thā towards the toe, and also let the web be somewhat broade towards the heeles to saue them from the ground, and set on this shoe wyth nine nayles, bycause moste commonly it is a greate foote, and in all other pointes make it like the shoe for the perfect Houe.

Of paring the houe that hath narrow heeles. The .xix. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]PAre the toe short, and make the seate of the shoe faire & plaine, and open only so much, as there may be some little space betwixte the frushe and the heele. For the lesse you take off the heele, the better.

Of shooing the houe that hath narrow héeles. The .xx. Chapter.

MAke a trim lyght shooe, with a broade webbe, and let the sponges be so brode as they may almost mete together, to defende the heele from the ground, and pearce it all towardes the toe, sparing the heele so much as you can, and let the shoe be long inoughe towards the heeles, and sette it on with eight nay∣les, lyke the shoe that fytteth the perfect houe.

Of paring and shooing the hinder féete. The .xxi. Chapter.

HYtherto we haue spoken of the paring and shoing of the forefeete, now therefore, let vs speake somewhat of pa∣ring and shooing the hinder feete. For the paring of the hinder feete is clene contrary vn∣to the forefeete, for the weakest parte of the hinder foote is the toe, and therefore in paring the hinder foote, the toe must be alwayes more spared thā the heeles, but in al other poyntes, obserue the order of Page  8 paring, according to the perfection or imperfection of the houes before declared.

Of shooing the hinder féete. The .xxij. Chapter.

MAke the shoe fitte for the houe in such sorte as is before sayde, sauyng that it would be alwayes strongest to∣wardes the toe, and it must be pearced nigher the heele than the toe, bycause as I haue sayde before, that the toe is alwayes the weakest parte of the hinder foote. Also let the out∣syde of the hinder shoe be made with a Calkyn, not ouer high, but let the other sponge be agreable vn∣to the Calkin, that is to say as highe in a maner as the Calkin, which Calkin is to kepe the horse from slyding. But then it may not be sharpe poynted, but rather flatte and handsomlye turned vpwarde, as is presented in the fygure of hinder shoes here∣after folowing, which kinde of Calkin is named by Cesar Fiaschi in his booke of Ryding, Rampone alla Rago∣nesa, who vtterly reiecteth al other kinds of Calkins as thinges hurtefull and vnprofitable, as we shall shewe you hereafter when we come to speake of shoes with Calkins, rings, and such lyke engins.

Of shooing the houe that hath a false quarter. The .xxiij. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]IF the horse halt, then make him a shoe fitted to his foote, lacking one quarter on that syde that his false quar∣ter is, in suche forme as you shall see in the ende of thys booke. If he doe not halte, then make him a shoe with a button, or shouldering on the inside of the shoe, and next to the sole of the foote, somewhat distant from the false quarter towards the toe, in such forme as you shall haue in the ende of this booke, and that shall defende the sore place, so as the shoe shall not touch it. And let it be pearced lyke vnto the fygure hereafter expressed, and with this kinde of shoe, you may boldely trauell your horse where you will.

Of paring and shooing for enterfering. The .xxiiij. Chapter.

THose Houes that enterfere, are most commonly higher on the outsyde, than on the insyde, and therefore the outsyde woulde be the more taken off with the butter, to the intente that the insyde may be somewhat hygher (if it will be) than the outsyde, & then make him a shoe fit for his foote, which woulde be thicker on the insyde than on the outsyde, and let that shoe neuer haue any Calkin, for that will make the Horse to treade awry, and the soner to enterfere, and let it be pearced in suche sorte, as you see the figure hereafter expressed. But to be sure. First cause the horse to be ridden before Page  9 you, and marke well where he toucheth moste, and there remedy the shoe, by making it the straighter in that place.

Of paring and shooing the foote that is houebound. The .xxv. Chapter.

FIrst pare his toe so short as maye be, and pare the sole somewhat thin, and open the heeles wel, and make him a halfe shoe like a halfe Mone, fashioning & pear∣cing it lyke vnto the fygure hereafter expressed.

Of making the planch shoe, or pauncelet. The .xxvi. Chapter.

THe planch maketh a good fote, and euill legge, bycause it maketh the foote to grow beyonde the measure of the leg. Notwithstanding for a weake heele, it is maruellous good, and it wil last longer than any shoe, and it is borowed from the Moyle, that hath weake heeles and frushes, to kepe the foote from stones and grauell. Notwith∣standing, woe be vnto that horse that hath neede of such a shoe. The fygure of this shoe is also in the ende of this booke.

Of shoes with Calkins, rings, welts, and tur∣ning vyces, and of the Paten shoe. The .xxvij. Chapter.

Page  [unnumbered]BEsydes all these kinds of shoes before recyted, there be dyuers others, whereof some are made with hye Cal∣kins, some with Ringes, some with welts or borders about, and some with vyces. Some with the toes turned vpwarde, some with the heeles turned vpward, and of many other fashions, which though they be not so nedefull, yet I thought good to speake somewhat of them, and also to set forth some of their shapes. And first, as touching shoes with Calkins, Cesar Fiaschi sayth, that though suche Calkins be made to kepe the horse from slyding. Yet they doe the horse more harme than good, in that the horse by meanes thereof can not treade euenly vpon the ground, wherby he ma∣ny tymes wryncheth his foote, or strayneth some synew, and specially when he trauelleth in stonye places, and on the mountaynes, whereas the hard∣nesse of the stones perhaps not suffering the Cal∣kins to catch sure holde, the foote slippeth with the more violent stresse, and so taketh harme, and spe∣cially the heele if it be weake. And therefore to tra∣uell on the Moūtaynes he prayseth much the Tur∣kye maner of shooing, which for that purpose make their horses shoes with the heeles turned vpward, in such sorte as you see the plaunche made, setting them on with nayles hauing heades lyke little buttons, but not standing, so highe aboue the shoe as our froste nayles commonlye doe, whereby the Horse treadeth euenlye and surely, so shall he not doe hauing Calkins, which besydes the discommo∣dityes Page  10 before alleaged, be very daungerous at any tyme that you would manage your horse. For by crossing in his turning, one foote perhappes maye hurt an other with the Calkin, so as it may make the horse to halte, yea, & perhaps lame him for euer▪ And besydes that, the Calkins being high behind, the houe can not be pared so much before at the toe, as it ought to be, whereby the horse treadeth lower on his heeles, than he should doe, being well pared and shod without Calkins, & so becommeth weake heeled. Notwithstanding, some neuer thinke their horses to be well shod, vnlesse all the shoes be made with Calkins, eyther syngle or double. Yet of two euils double is the lesse. For the Horse shall treade euener with double, than with single Calkins. But then such Calkins would not be ouer lōg, or sharpe poynted, but rather shorte and flatte, as hath bene before taught, and is expressed in the fygure of hin∣der shoes hereafter folowing, which as I sayde be∣fore Cesar Fiaschi calleth Ramponi alla Ragonesa. Thus much of shoes with Calkins.

Of shoes with Ryngs. The .xxviij. Chapter

SHoes with Rings were first in∣uented, to make a horse lifte his feete highe, but Cesar Fiaschi sayth, that suche shoes be more paynefull than helpefull to the horse, and in wearing such shoes he lifteth more for payne and griefe, and speciallye Page  [unnumbered] being trotted vppon a harde ground, than for anye pleasure or good that they doe him, which thing is incident to many horses, yt haue not sound Houes. For though they be wel shodde, and haue no rings at all, yet being trotted vpon a harde ground, they will lift higher than vpon a soft ground, for hauing tender houes, they be afeard to touch ye hard groūd, euen like a man that hath some griefe in the sole of his foote, which will rather twitch vp his leg, than offend the sore place, by settyng it to the groūd. And if that man should also weare a strait shoe, it would grieue him the worse. Euē so it fareth with ye horse, which perhaps hauing naturally tēder heles, some for lacke of discretion doe adde therevnto also hye Calkins, or else rings, and therby cause him to haue weaker heeles, than he had before. Wherefore lea∣uing aside such vnprofitable deuises, I would wish you make all your shoes, & specially your foreshoes with sponges, in suche order as hath bene before taught. And as for making the Horse to lifte his feete, that is to be holpen chiefly by the Art and skill of the Ryder. And whylest the horse is in scooling, I thinke it were not amisse, to let him weare conti∣nually verye heauy shoes, to the intent that being afterward shod with lighter shoes, when he should be maneged to the shoawe, or otherwyse trauelled, he maye feele his feete to be lighter, and thereby he shall lift the higher, and moue his legs and shoul∣ders with the more pleasure and better grace.

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Of shoes with swelling welts, or borders about, The .xxix. Chapter.

IN Germany and highe Al∣many, the Smythes do make their shoes with a swelling wealt round about the shoe, which being as hye as the heades of the nayles or ra∣ther higher, do saue the nayles frō wearing, which kinde of shoe for lasting, I must ne∣des prayse. For I my selfe haue trauelled, my horse being shodde with those shoes, in those Countreys aboue fyue hundreth myles ryght out, vpon verye stony ground, yea, and vpon the mountaines, with∣out remouing shoe, or dryuing nayle. For the shoe being made of wel tempered stuffe, weareth equal∣lye in all parts, and the horse also treadeth euenlye vpon them, and specially his feete being before well pared. Cesar Fiaschi prayseth also this shoe very much, to be vsed when a horse should runne for a wager, to kepe him from slyding. But then he would haue the welt to be indēted▪ hauing sharpe poynted teeth lyke a Sawe, and that the sponges behinde be as thicke as the welt. And that the welt be of a tough harde temper, for feare of wearing ouer fast. And if you list to hollow the sayde shoe in the midst, yet let not the imbossed syde ryse so hyghe as the welt, but lye somewhat lower. With these kinde of shoes they vse in Italy to shoe such Barbary horses, Ien∣nets, and Turkes, as are appointed to runne for the Page  [unnumbered] best game at some publique triumph, or for any o∣ther priuate wager. And therefore syth this kinde of shoe is so good to kepe a horse from slyding, Cesar Fiaschi thinks it best to be vsed to that ende, vtterlye disalowing both Calkins, frost nayles, crests, spur∣res and all suche lyke deuyses, as are often vsed by the ignoraunt sorte, to kepe their horses from sly∣ding, not considering the great discommoditye and hurt, that may redound therof to the horse, by mea∣nes that he can not treade euen vpon the ground. Or in stede of this shoe, they may vse the Turkye shoe, and button nayles before mentioned, and that shal kepe their horses from slyding better than any of the other deuyses, and wyth lesse harme to the horse.

Of shoes with turning vices, and also of ioynt shoes. The .xxx. Chapter.

SOme that vse to passe the moū∣taynes where smythes are not redely to be founde, to shoe a horse if nede be, doe carry aboute with them certayne shoes made with vyces, wherewith they make the shoe fast to the horses foote without helpe of hammer or nayle, the shape wherof is hereafter expressed. Not∣withstāding such shoes, are more for the show than for any good vse or commodity. For though it saue the horses foote from stones, yet it so pincheth hys houe, as he goeth with paine, and perhaps doth his houe more hurte than the stones would doe. And Page  12 therefore it were better in suche nedefull tymes to vse the ioint shoe, which is made of two pieces, with a flatte ryuet nayle ioyning them together in the toe, so as you may make it both wyde and narrow, as you will your selfe, to serue any foote, but this shoe must be set on with nayles, and therefore it is nedeful that the ryder learn to driue a nayle if nede be, whereof he must haue alwayes store about hym together with Hammer, Pynsons, & Butter, hand∣somelye made, and mete for caryage, without the which the horsemen of Almany do neuer trauayle, neither is ther any gentlemā that loueth his horse, but can vse those instruments for that purpose, as well as any Smith. Cesar Fiaschi calleth these kinds of shoes Disferre praysing them very much to be vsed to such purpose as is before sayd, and so doth Martin. And therfore I thought good to set out the shape therof amongst the rest of the fygures of shoes.

Of the Paten shoe. The .xxxi. Chapter.

BYcause euery Smyth knoweth the vse of this shoe, and howe to make it, I shal not neede to vse many words, but onely shew you that it is a necessary shoe for a horse that is hurt in the hip, or stiffle, to be put on vpon the contrarye foote, to the intent that the sore legge may hang, and not touch the ground.

How to kepe the houes of a horse moyst in the stable. Page  [unnumbered] The .xxxij. Chapter.

AS horses houes doe many ty∣mes take harme through the negly∣gence or vnskilfulnesse of the Ferrer, in euill paring or shoing the same, e∣uen so they take no lesse harme ma∣ny tymes through the negligence of the keper for lacke of stopping, and keping the fore∣feete moyst, for the hinder feete most commonly are kept to moyst, by meanes that the dong and stale is suffered to lye continually at their heeles. But the forefeete stande continually drye, whereby the horse becommeth brittle houed, yea, and many ty∣mes houebounde, which a good keper will not suf∣fer, but be mindefull to stoppe them often, eyther with horse dong or Cow dong, yea, & also to washe them cleane without with water, and then to an∣noynt them with some good suppling oyntment as this here following prescribed by Martin, which wil not onely supple the houes, and make them tough, but also cause them to shyne and glistre, whiche is counted a beautifull thing amongst the Spany∣ards, Italians, and such as loue to haue their hor∣ses finelye kept.

The receyte of the oyntment. The .xxxiij. Chapter.

Page  13TAke of Turpentyne, of sheepes suet, of ech halfe a pound, of vnwrought waxe halfe a quarterne, and of Sallet oyle halfe a pynt. Boyle al these things together in a pot, sturring them conti∣nually vntyll they be throughly mingled together. Then take it from the fyre and let it coole, and be∣ing colde, preserue it in the same potte, or else in some other, to the intent that you may haue it ready euery seconde day, to annoynt all the coffins of the horses Houes round about, but first wash their houes fayre and cleane, and suffer no durt to remaine vppon them, then be∣ing dryed with a cloth annoint them.

Thus endeth the treatise of Paring and shooing all maner of Houes.
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Dyuers shapes of Shoes.

[illustration]

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[illustration]

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Imprinted at London, by Wylliam Seres, dwelling at the Weast ende of Poules, at the sygne of the Hedgehogge, and are to be solde at his shoppe.

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