1. The Argument and Method.
THis Chapter, which conteineth the comforts and consolations ministred vnto Da∣niel is deuided into three parts. 1. the conference of the Angel with Daniel, to v. 5. 2. of one of the Angels with Christ, v. 5. to v. 8. 3. of Christ himselfe with Da∣niel, thence to the ende of the chapter.
1. In the first part there are 4. comforts giuen vnto Daniel. 1. one is taken from the effi∣cient cause and author of their deliuerance, Michael shall stand vp for his people, v. 1. 2. in the second place of comfort, first the time of trouble is set forth by way of comparison, then the comfort is taken from the issue of their trouble: they which are found written in the booke of life, shall be deliuered, v. 1. 3. the third comfort is from the hope of the resur∣rection: they which are not temporally deliuered, shall rise vp in the ende vnto life euerla∣sting. Here the resurrection is set forth. 1. in generall, many, that is all shall awake out of the dust. 2. in particular: there shall be two sorts, some shall rise to life, some to shame, v. 2. 3. of those which rise to life, some shall shine among the rest, as the brightnesse of the fir∣mament, and as the starres, v. 3.
4. The fourth comfort is, that notwithstanding those troublesome times, yet the Church of God shall continue, and many shall seeke for the vnderstanding of this booke, which to that ende Daniel is bid to seale vp, v. 4.
2. In the second part is described. 1. the vision, that Daniel sawe, both the number, he sawe two, and the site or place of them, v. 5. 2. their speach. 1. the question mooued, vn∣to whom, namely, to Christ, and what, concerning the ende. 2. the answer. 1. by whom, by him that stood vpon the waters. 2. in what manner, by an oath with the lifting vp of both his hands. 3. what he answereth, both for the cōtinuance of the time, & for the end, v. 7.
3. In the third part, there is 1. Daniels question, with the occasion thereof, his not vn∣derstanding, v. 8. 2. the answer of Christ, partly denying Daniels request, the things were secret, and sealed vp, v. 9. partly giuing him satisfaction: 1. concerning the Church, wherein is shewed the ende and fruit of their afflictions, set forth by the contrarie, the frowardnes of the wicked, v. 10. and the tearme, first 1290. daies, then a 1335. v. 11. 12. 2. concerning Daniel himselfe, that he should be content: with a double promise made vnto him, that he should presently after his death, rest from all his labours: and afterward stand vp in his lot in the resurrection.
2. The text with the diuers readings.
1. And at that time shall stand vp Michael the great Prince, which standeth for the chil∣dren of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as neuer was since there began to be a nation vnto this time: and at that time the people shall be deliuered, euery one that is found written in that booke. (in the booke. B. G. but the article is prefixed, which noteth some speciall booke)
2 And many of them which sleepe in the dustie earth (V. I. earth of dust. H. not dust of the earth. B. G.) shall awake, some to euerlasting life, and some to shame and perpetuall con∣tempt (not to contempt, that they may see alwaies)
3 And they which instruct (cause to vnderstand. H. are teachers. V. are wise. G. B. are taught or learned. L. but the word is in the active) shall shine as the brightnes of the firma∣ment: and they which bring many (turne many. B. G.) to righteousnes (iustifie many. H.) as the starres for euer and euer.
4 But thou, O Daniel, shut vp the words, and seale the booke vntil the time determined: (I. L. vntill the last time. V. time of the ende. H. B. not end of time. G.) many shall runne to and fro (or here and there. B. not, passe through. L. or wander vp and downe. V.) and knowledge shal be encreased. (see qu. 15.
5 ¶Then I Daniel looked, and beheld other two standing, the one on this side of the brinke of the riuer, and the other on that side of the brinke of the riuer.
6 And one said (not, I said. L.) to the man clothed in linen, which was vpon the waters of the riuer, (aboue at the waters of the riuer. V.) How long vnto the ende of these wonders? (not, when shall be the ende of these wonders?)
7 And I heard the man cloathed in linen, which was vpon the waters of the riuer, when he held vp his right hand, and his left hand vnto heauen (the heauens) and sware by him that Page 465 liueth for euer, that at the appointed time, times, and a part, I. (or halfe, caeter. for cheizi, signifieth both. I. not vnto the appointed time, whether long or short. V. he expresseth not the words) and when he hath accomplished to disperse the power (hand. H.) of the holy peo∣ple, all these things shall be finished.
8. And I heard, but vnderstood not: and I said Lord, what shall be the ende of these things?: (not what shall be in the ende of these things. A. P. or what shall be after this. L. aca∣rith, here signifieth the last ende.
9. And he said, goe thy way Daniel, for the words are cloased vp and sealed, vnto the time determined (L. I. time of the ende. H. S. B. not ende of time. G).
10. Many shall be purged (chosen. L. S. barar, signifieth both, but the first here) and made white and tried (as fire. L. S. ad.) but the wicked shall doe wickedly, neither shall any of the wicked vnderstand, but they which instruct (I. V. cause to vnderstand. H. the wise. B. G.) shall vnderstand (obserue, marke. I.)
11. And from the time that the daily. sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abhominati∣on bringing desolation (making desolate. H. not the abhomination for desolation. L. or abho∣minable desolation. B. G. for (shamem) making desolate, is here a Participle) set vp, there shall be a thousand two hundreth and ninetie dayes.
12. Blessed is he that waiteth and commeth (shall come. H.) to the thousand three hun∣dreth and fiue and thirtie dayes.
13. But goe thou thy way to the ende, (not thou Daniel to the appointed or defined time. L.) for thou shalt rest and stand vp in thy lot at the ende of dayes: the Septuag. here adde many words, there are yetdayes and houres to the fulfilling of perfection.)
3. The questions and doubts discussed.
Quest. 1. What time is here meant, and in that time shall Michael stand vp, ver. 1.
1. Some referre it vnto the last time of world, after that great Antichrist shall haue raged against the Church of Christ, which shall continue three yeares and an halfe, Lyran. Perer. Pintus, with other writers of that side: But we hold that to be a dreame, that any such sin∣gular Antichrist shall come in the ende of the world: see more c. 11. controv. 2.
2. Bullinger vnderstandeth it of the comming of Christ to iudgement, when there shall be such great tribulation, as neuer was in the world before: and this may seeme as an argu∣ment hereof: because afterward v. 2. mention is made of the resurrection: But that is added as a consolation: they which were not temporally deliuered in those troublesome times, yet should be sure to rife vnto life euerlasting.
3. Some doe expound this prophesie of the persecution in the last times vnder the Turke, Melancth. and the Romane Antichrist, as Osiand. Pappus.
4. M. Calvin referreth it to the time of Christs comming in the flesh.
5. M. Iunius in his commentarie interpreteth it of all the time of the gospell, the be∣ginning whereof is in his first comming, and the end in his second.
6. But it is most properly referred to that time, when Antiochus left halfe his armie with Lysias, while he went vnto Elymais in Persia: for about the same time did Iudas Maccha∣beus, by the asistance of the great Prince of the Church Michael, which is Christ Iesus, reco∣uer Ierusalem, and purge the Temple, which had beene defiled, 2. Macchab. 10. Iun. in his annot. the reasons why this place is thus to be vnderstood, are these: 1. because the time here spoken of hath relation to the former storie: in that time, that is, the same time where∣in the former things should be done: non post multa annorum millia, not after so many thou∣sand of yeares, Pellican. 2. the Angel saith, thy people, the people of the Iewes must be vn∣derstood, who, and not the Christians among the Gentiles, should be persecuted for religi∣on, H. Br. 3. the euent also confirmeth this exposition: for if Michael the great Prince had not then indeed stood vp for his Church, it had perished.
But thus it is obiected against this interpretation: 1. that Porphyrius in hatred to Chri∣stian religion, to obscure the truth hath deuised this sense, Perer. 2. the rest Porphyrius cannot make to hang together; how in Antiochus time some should awake out of the dust: which Porphyrius vnderstandeth of those which were shut vp in caues and rockes, and af∣terward came out againe, Hierome.
Page 466Ans. 1. Though Porphyrie were an enemie to the Christian faith, yet he might in some particular hit vpon the truth: neither herein is the light obscured, but rather more manife∣sted: and though his hatred were great against the Christian religion, yet this is no impedi∣ment to faith, though euerie point of faith be not prooued out of euerie place of Scripture: the article of the comming of Christ to iudgement, is sufficiently prooued out of other pla∣ces of Scripture, though it be not directly concluded here. Pellican here thus writeth, I giue thankes to Hierome, qui tam diligenter adnotauit Phorphyrij expositionem, who hath so diligently noted Porphyrie his exposition, which he holdeth to be most reasonable. 2. though he faile in some one point in his exposition, yet it followeth not, but that he may come neere the truth in the rest.
Quest. 2. Who is vnderstood here to be Michael the great Prince.
1. Some take Michael here for a created Angel, who as he had the protection before of the Iewes vnder the lawe, shall afterward protect the people of God vnder the Gospel: An∣christ by him shall be destroyed executiue, in execution, by Christ imperatiue, by his com∣mandement and authoritie, Lyran. Perer. Pintus.
2. Bullinger taketh this Michael to be that Arkeangel, which S. Paul speaketh of, 1. Thess. 4. 16. that the Lord shall descend from heauen with a shoot, and with the voice of the Arkeangel.
3. Osiander thinketh that Christ is here called Michael the Arkeangel, in respect of his office; as in the prophesie of Ezekiel he is called Dauid, yet was he not Michael the Arke∣angel.
4. M. Calvin leaueth it as indifferent, whether we vnderstand Christ the Mediator, or a created Angel.
5. But that this Michael was none other but Christ, the Prince of the Angels, may be made plaine by these reasons:
1. By the name Michael, which is compounded of these three particles, mi, cha, ell, which signifie, which is as God, noting both the distinction of his person, and the identitie of his nature, that he in power is equall vnto God: as the Apostle saith of Christ, Phil. 2. 6. who be∣ing in the forme of God, thought it no robberie to be equall vnto God, and Heb. 1. 3. he is said to be the brightnesse of his glorie, and the engraued forme of his person. This annotation of the word is well vrged by Melancthon, vpon this place, Oecolampad. Iun. in comment, Polanus, M. Br. in Daniel.
2. This Michael is here called shar hagadol, the great Prince: there are principalities and dominions so called both among Angels and men: but this Michael is called prince in the superlatiue and highest degree, and in this respect the Apostle saith, Ephe. 1. 21. that God hath set Christ aboue all principalities and powers, &c. and euery name that is named: And hereunto may be applyed that saying of the Apostle, that Christ is made so much the more excellent then the Angels, as he hath obtained a more excellent name then they, namely, to be called, a great Prince, Iun. this name or title shar hagadol, a great Prince, is translated by the Apostle 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, an Arkangel, which signifieth the chiefe or Prince of Angels. And though it be there said, 1. Thess. 4. 16. that the Lord shall descend with the voice of an Arkangel, it followeth not that Christ is not that Arkangel, no more then it followeth, be∣cause it is said also in the same place, with the trumpet of god, that Christ should not be God. Polan. And the trumpet of God, is the voice of God, as Psal. 47. 6. God is gone vp with triumph, euen the Lord with the sound of a trumpet: God shall then descend in the voice of a trumpet, as in the giuing of the lawe. So is this voice interpreted to be the voice of the Sonne of God, which the dead shall heare and liue, Ioh. 5. 25. Polan. M. Br.
3. Further this is shewed by the office of this Michael, which is to stand for the people of God: whose protector and captaine is Christ Iesus, called therefore, Iosua 5. 15. captaine of the Lords host: which place Iustin. Martyr dialog. cum Tryphon. vnderstandeth of Christ: for who else is captaine of the Lords host, and protector of his Church?
4. This great Prince here mentioned, is the same, who had written vpon his thigh, the king of Kings, and the Lord of Lords, Apocal. 17. 16. who sate vpon a white horse, his eyes were as a flame of fire, and the wariers of heauen followed him vpon white horses: who was called the word of God. This was no other but Christ: for to no other but vnto him, doe all these glorious titles agree, Oecolampad.
5. This Michael is said to haue Angels, Apocal. 12. 17. but the blessed spirits cannot Page 467 be said to be any others Angels saue Christs, Fulke annot. By these and other reasons it is e∣uident, that this Michael is no other but Christ: see more hereof, c. 10. quest. 22.
But it will be obiected, that Michael is not alwayes taken for Christ, as epist. Iude 9. that Michael the Arkeangel striuing with the deuill about the bodie of Moses, durst not blame him with cursed speaking, but said, the Lord rebuke thee: Answ. Christ so speaketh as the Mediator of his Church, referring all to the glorie of his father: as the like we reade, Zach. 3. 2. where it is said, Iehouah said vnto Satan, Iehouah rebuke thee Sathan. Polan.
Quest. 3. What time of trouble the Angel here speaketh of.
v. 1. There shall be a time of trouble, such as neuer was since there beganne to be a nation vnto that same time. 1. This time of trouble, such as neuer was any before, some referre vnto the last persecution vnder Antichrist, whome they suppose shall be one particular man: that whereas the Church hath beene persecuted by fiue seuerall enemies, the Iewes, the Gentiles, by heretikes, schismatikes, and euill liuers: this last persecution shall exceede all o∣ther: for both it shall be corporall, in tormenting the bodie, and spirituall, in abrogating the seruice of God, burning the bookes of Scripture, abolishing the vse of the sacraments. Perer. This is true, that there shall be a most grieuous persecution vnder Antichrist: but that is not signified here: for the accomplishment of this prophesie must not be deferred so long: and beside, that is but a groundlesse conceit, that Antichrist shall be one particular person.
2. Iunius in his commentarie thinketh this time of such trouble, to be that when Christ was borne: for the Iewes were neuer in any such slauerie, both corporally, beeing diuers waies afflicted, oppressed, and kept vnder by the Romanes, and spiritually by the superstiti∣ous traditions, and corrupt doctrines of the Scribes and Pharisies: But at that time Christ the Messiah came in great humilitie, he did not then shew himselfe as the great Prince, in triumphing ouer his enemies.
3. M. Calvin vnderstandeth the great persecution of the Christians vnder the Romane Empire: but the Angel still speaketh of Daniels people, that is the Iewes, how they should be deliuered: this text then concerneth not the beleeuing Gentiles.
4. Osiander thus interpreteth, haec non de corporalibus afflictionibus, sed de carnificina conscientiarum, &c. these things must not be vnderstood of corporall afflictions, but of the tormenting of the conscience vnder the Pope of Rome by his superstitious traditions, whereby mens consciences were snared and entangled: as the doctrine of merits, Purga∣torie, and such like: But the Angel speaketh here of such troubles, as should befall the Iewes.
5. Bullinger doth take these for the last times, when Christ at his comming shall iudge the world: whose iudgement shall be more terrible vnto the wicked, then was either the destruction of the old world by water, or of Sodome by fire: the elect onely shall be deliue∣red: But the Angel speaketh here of troubles which should fall vpon the elect, out of the which they should escape: Now the terrors of the last day of iudgement shall not touch the righteous; who shall stand forth, and appeare before Christ with boldnes.
6. These daies of trouble then, are those which came vpon the Iewes in the time of An∣tiochus Epiphanes: which are said to be the greatest troubles, that fell vpon that nation, be∣cause their other captiuities in Egypt, and in Chaldea, were but corporall; but this was both corporall, in tormenting their bodies, and spirituall, in foreing them by torments to forsake the law. And whereas before time some particular men were tried for their conscience, as Daniel and the three children, Dan. c. 1. c. 3. yet there was neuer an vniuersall persecution before for religion among the Iewes. H. Br. in Daniel.
But Lyranus obiecteth, so also Pererius and Pintus, that there were greater persecuti∣ons before, then this vnder Antiochus, both intensive & extensive, in the intending and extending thereof, in the greatnes, and in the continuance: the persecution by Nebuchad∣nezzer was both greater, for the citie and Temple was destroied, and many carried away captiue, and many slaine: it was also longer, for it continued full 70. yeares.
Contra. It is true, that the captiuitie of Babylon continued longer then this persecution, but it was not greater: for beside, that all these outward calamities, of the sword, captiuitie, spoiling of citie and Temple here concurred, they were generally persecuted for their con∣science and religion, which triall they were neuer put vnto before: so that in this respect, these may be said to be the greatest troubles, which euer that nation had.
4. Quest. What deliuerance the Angel speaketh of, and of whome.
v. 1. At that time shall thy people be deliuered, euery one that shall be written in that booke, &c. 1. Bullinger vnderstandeth this deliuerance not in this life, but at the comming of Christ, which time is called the day of refreshing: But then this clause should be confoun∣ded with the next, v. 2. where he speaketh of those that shall rise and awake out of the dust vnto eternall life: he therefore speaketh of an other deliuerance here.
2. Some referre it to the spirituall deliuerance of the faithfull from the persecution of Antichrist in the end of the world, isti vere salvabuntur de tribulationibus Antichristi, these shall truly be deliuered from the tribulation of Antichrist, Lyran. so Calvine vnderstandeth it of the spirituall victorie and conquest, whereby the faithfull are conquerors euen in the middes of death: Osiander of the spirituall deliuerance of the faithfull from Antichrists su∣perstitions, by the preaching of the Gospel. But Daniel doubted not, but that all the elect should be spiritually deliuered: therefore some other deliuerance is spoken of from those ex∣ternall troubles.
3. Iunius in his commentarie applieth it to the vocation of the faithfull by Christ, that although many should be called in common to the knowledge of Christ, at his comming; yet the Elect onely should be effectually called vnto life eternall. But some externall deliue∣rance is here signified, as the Angel spake before of an outward troublesome time.
4. Iunius in his annotations followeth an other sense: that euery one should be tempo∣rally deliuered from those troubles, euen euery one whome it seemed good vnto God in his immutable decree to preserue: but by the booke here is vnderstood the booke of life, where∣in they were written, which were ordained to euerlasting life, not any such knowledge or decree of God for a particular deliuerance.
5. Some giue this sense: that all the Elect of the Iewes should by these afflictions be brought vnto life eternall: God would sanctifie their afflictions vnto them, that thereby they should be consecrate vnto God, and so obtaine euerlasting life according ro their ele∣ction: M. H. Br. But in this sense is excluded the temporall deliuerance, which is promised for the comfort of the people.
6. Pellican doth expound it altogether of their temporall deliuerance, that they which then stood for the law, obtinuerunt claram Deo auxiliante victoriam, obtained a most glori∣ous victorie by the helpe of God: But euery one of the Elect in that time of persecution were not deliuered: and all that temporally escaped, it is hard to say, whether they were all elected.
7. Wherefore both these the spirituall and temporall deliuerance must be ioyned toge∣ther: that euery one of Gods elect should be deliuered: some both in bodie and soule: if any of the elect were slaine and put to death in that persecution, though their bodie suffered, yet their soule should be deliuered, and afterward in the resurrection, both soule and bodie should be saued: as it followeth v. 2.
5. Quest. Whether all the Iewes shall be called before the comming of Christ.
Because some vnderstand this deliuerance of the people of the Iewes, of their last conuer∣sion and calling in the ende of the world, as Lyran. Perer. it shall not be amisse by the way to touch somewhat of that matter.
1. Theodoret vpon this place, and Gregor. hom. 12. in Ezech. doe deliuer their opinion, that not all the nation of the Iewes, but onely so many, as shall by the preaching of Henoch and Elias be conuerted to the knowledge of Christ, shall be saued: the rest which shall cleaue vnto Antichrist, who shall most of all deceiue the Iewes, they shall be damned: as it is said, Apoc. 14. 9. If any man worship the beast, and his image, &c. he shall drinke of the wine of the wrath of God. But 1. if none els of the Iewes shall be called, saue such as shall be conuer∣ted by the preaching of Henoch and Elias, none are like to be called at all: for that is a meere fable of the returne of Henoch and Elias in their owne persons, to preach vnto the world, as is afterward shewed, Controv. 2. 2. this opinion includeth a contradiction, for if at the comming of Antichrist, whome the Iewes suppose to be their Messiah, he shall most of all seduce them: then is it like that very few of the Iewes shall be conuerted, but rather more hardened, their hoped for Messiah (as they thinke) beeing come.
2. An other opinion is, that vniuersally all the Iewes shall be called, as Chrysostome in∣ferreth Page 469 vpon those words, Rom. 11. 13. if the diminishing of them be the riches of the Gen∣tiles, how much more, shall their abundance or fulnesse be: which fulnesse Chrysostome thus ex∣poundeth, quando vniuersi ad fidem accessuri sunt, when all of them shall come vnto the faith, hom. 19. in epist. ad Romanos.
3. But the safer opinion is, betweene both these, that neither vniuersally the whole nati∣on is like to be called: for in their best times, when as the worship of God most flourished among them, there were many carnall men and vngodly persons among them: neither yet shall so fewe of them be conuerted, because of the generalitie of the Apostles words v. 26. and so all Israel shall be saued: as here in these troublesome times euerie one of the elect was preserued: But it is euident by S. Pauls prophesie of the calling of the whole nation, that the greater part shall be conuerted and beleeue: so that the other part of those which shall remaine in their blindnesse and hardnesse of heart still, shall be but small in respect of the other: And thus the Scripture vseth to take (all) for the most and greatest part. Now that there shall be before the comming of Christ, such a generall calling of the Iewes, the Apo∣stle prooueth out of Isay, 59. 20. the deliuerer shall come out of Zion, and shall turne vngod∣linesse from Iakob: this prophesie is not yet fulfilled, for though some of the Iewes in euerie age haue beene called, yet the nation hath remained in vnbeleefe still. Perer.
Quest. 6. What kind of booke Daniel here spea∣keth of.
1. Theodoret taketh this booke for the knowledge of God: but there is great difference betweene Gods prescience, and the decree of predestination: the one is an act of his all-see∣ing knowledge, the other of his will: as the Apostle saith, Rom. 8. 29. those whom he knewe before, he also predestinate to be made like the image of his sonne.
2. Iunius seemeth to vnderstand it of Gods immutable decree concerning their preser∣uation from those troubles: but this booke is else where called the booke of life, that is, of e∣ternall life, not in respect of any temporall deliuerance in this life.
3. Osiander by this booke meaneth the preaching of the gospell: so also Pappus of the booke of the Scriptures: that euerie one which beleeueth them shal be saued and deliuered: other secret booke of Gods decree, Pappus acknowledgeth none, non fingendi sunt aliqui occulti libri, qui nomina saluandorum conteneant, we must not imagine, that there are any se∣cret bookes which doe containe the names of such as should be saued: But this is a verie corrupt opinion. 1. though God neede not any materiall books, yet that he hath set downe in his euerlasting decree the number of such as shall be saued, and that whosoeuer is not so written in that booke, that is appointed of God vnto saluation, shall be damned, it is eui∣dent out of Scripture: as S. Paul speaketh of certaine his fellowe labourers, Philip. 4. 3. whose names are in the booke of life: and Apocal. 20. 15. Whosoeuer was not found written in the booke of life, was cast into the lake of fire. 2. And that this is in an other booke beside the booke of the Scriptures, is also euident: for neither in the Scriptures is any mans particu∣lar election set downe: and the Scriptures are offred vnto all, both the elect, and not elect: but in the booke of life onely are the elect written.
4. Euthymius in Psal. 68. & 138. saith, that there is a threefold booke of the diuine knowledge, vnus est vniuersalis, &c. one is a generall or vniuersall booke, wherein all both righteous and sinners are witten, which come into this world: of which booke speaketh the Prophet Dauid, Ps. 139. 16. in thy booke were all things written: there is another booke magis privatus, more private, wherein the righteous onely are written: whereof the Prophet Dauid speaketh, 69. 28. Let them be put out of the booke of life, neither let them be written with the righteous: the third booke is that, wherein the sinners onely are written, as Dan. 7. 10. the iudgement was set, and the bookes were opened. This tripartite diuision may safely be recei∣ued, sauing that the sinners are not said to be written in any booke, but not to be written: as Apoc. 17. 8. Whose names are not written in the booke of life from the foundation of the world: these bookes here opened, are bookes of euery ones conscience, wherein all mens workes both good and bad are written: which bookes are diuers from the booke of life, Apoc. 20. 15. See more hereof c. 7. qu. 36.
5. This booke then here mentioned is Gods immutable decree of predestination, where∣by they are ordained vnto euerlasting saluation, whom the lord hath freely elected in Christ: Lyranus saith well, that this booke is conscriptio electorum in mente diuina, the writing of the elect in the diuine minde or knowledge. God needeth not any materiall booke: but this Page 470 is a figuratiue phrase taken from the custome of men, who vse to write into a booke all that are made free of a citie or corporation: as Augustine saith, non liber iste Deum commemorat, ne obliuione fallatur, this booke serueth not to put God in minde, least he should be decei∣ued through forgetfulnesse: but this booke is, ipsa Dei praescientia, &c. the prescience of God concerning the elect, which cannot be deceiued, lib. 20. de ciuitat. Dei, c. 15. So also Euthymius, liber Dei est summa eius scientia, scriptura perpetua memoria, the booke of God is his high knowledge, and the writing is his perpetuall memorie, in Psal. 68.
Sometime it is called the booke of God, simply without any addition, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, be∣cause of the excellencie, as in this place: sometime the booke of life, Philip. 4. 3. and the booke of the liuing, Psal. 69. 29. the booke which god hath written, Exod. 32. the booke of heauen, as Luk. 10. 20. your names are written in heauen: and in the Reuelation, the lambes booke of life, c. 21. 27. It is also called the writing or catalogue of the house of Israel, Ezech. 13. 9. So three things are obserued out of these places concerning this booke. 1. that God is the writer. 2. that the faithfull onely are there written. 3. that it is the Lambes booke: all there written shall be brought by the Lambe vnto euerlasting life.
Quest. 7. Why this mysterie of the resurrection is here reuealed plainely to Daniel.
1. True it is, that the mysterie of the resurrection was shadowed forth, and yet darkely in the lawe: for the translation of Henoch, was an euident proofe thereof: and our blessed Sauiour inferreth as much, because the Lord is said in the Lawe, to be the God of Abraham, Izaak▪ and Iacob, he is not the God of the dead, but of the liuing: by which necessarie col∣lection, Christ prooueth the resurrection of the dead against the Sadduces, Matth. 22. The Apostle also Hebr. 12. 13. sheweth that these mysteries were knowne to the Fathers, because they confessed themselues to be strangers and pilgrimes in the earth: for they that say such things, declare plainely that they seeke a countrey. 2. But these deepe mysteries were but obscurely opened in former times to the Israelites, the reasons whereof the Hebrewes yeeld to be these two specially: 1. because in Moses time, when the lawe was giuen, there were many which did not beleeue that God created the world and gouerned the same by his pro∣uidence; and if Moses had spoken vnto them of the higher misteries, they in their weake∣nesse not being able to receiue such mysticall doctrines, would haue reiected them as fables. 2. beside then the people were fedde and allured with temporall promises, for as yet they had hope of such things, to enioy great externall happinesse in the land of Canaan: But now when all hope of temporall blessings is cut off, and that euen in the land of Canaan such troublesome times are foreshewed to come vpon them, now it was verie seasonable, to com∣fort them with the hope of eternall life, H. Br. in Daniel.
Quest. 8: Of the coherence of this comfortable mention made of the resurrection with the former prophesie.
1. Porphyrius and Polychronius, continuing their interpretation of this prophesie concer∣ning Antiochus, by those that sleepe in the dust, vnderstand such as fledde into the rockes and caues in the persecution of Antiochus: and after the citie was recouered they returned againe as out of their sepulchers: And by the writing in the book, they meane such as faith∣fully stood in the defence of the lawe: this exposition also followeth Pellican.
But Theodoret confuteth this interpretation by two sufficient reasons. 1. they which fled away, and hid themselues in the caues, were all faithful men, they fledde because they would not be forced to forsake the lawe: but these that awake out of the dust, arise some to life, some vnto shame: so it would follow in their sense, eosdem fuisse pios & impios, that the same men were both godly and vngodly. 2. these doe rise vp to eternall life: but they which so returned from their dennes and caues died againe. 3. wherefore though hitherto Porphyrie hath followed the sense of this prophesie well in applying it vnto Antiochus, yet here he fai∣leth. 4. But it is no maruell that he beeing an enemie to the Christian faith, doth obscure by his gloases so cleare a place for the resurrection of the dead: it may seeme strange that Pel∣lican a Christian interpreter, should approoue that sense: This was the heresie of Philetus and Hymeneus, which said that the resurrection was past alreadie, 2. Timath. 2. 17. as Por∣phyrie here affirmeth the same, vnderstanding this so euident a place for the resurrection, me∣taphorically.
2. Some thinke that mention is made here of the resurrection, because it shall followe Page 471 immediately after those troublesome times before spoken of: of this opinion are all they which doe applie the times of trouble before spoken of, to the last persecution vnder Anti∣christ, as Lyranus, Perer. Pintus, with the rest of that side: likewise Melancthon statim post haec certamina fiet resurrectio mortuorum, streight after these combates shall be the resurre∣ction of the dead: so also Osiander, huic postremae reformationi Ecclesiae sinis mundi imminet, streight after this last reformation of the Church, the ende of the world shall be at hand: But it is at large shewed before, quest. 3. that the times of trouble before spoken of, were those which fell out vnder Antiochus Epiphanes.
3. Iunius in his commentarie maketh this to be the coherence: that the Angel hauing spoken of the first comming of Christ before, doth now ioyne thereunto his second com∣ming, declared by the effects, the resurrection of the dead: so also M. Calvin: But it hath beene shewed before likewise, that Christs first comming in the flesh is not here intended by the Angel.
4. This then is the reason of the connexion: that whereas before the Angel spake of the deliuerance of the people of God, so many as were written in the booke of life: because ma∣ny of the Saints should be put to death, the Angel addeth an other comfort, that they should rest in the hope of the resurrection, Polan. And that place Heb. 11. 35. may serue fitly to expound this: some were racked, and would not be deliuered, that they might receiue a better resurrection: this also is further shewed by the example of such as suffred then, how they comforted themselues in the hope of the resurrection: as Razis when he pulled out his owne bowels (which act of his cannot be commended) called vpon the Lord of life and spirit, that he would restore them againe vnto him, 2. Macchab. 14. 46.
Quest. 9. Why it is said, many of them that sleepe, &c. shall awake, and not all.
1. Lyranus thinketh the reason to be this, because of infants which shall rise againe; but they cannot be said properly to awake; because they shal neither haue sensum poenae, vel glo∣ria, sense of paine or of glorie: But this is an idle conceit: for in the resurrection our bodies shall rise in perfection: corruption shall put on incorruption, 1. Cor 15. 53. then if our bo∣die shall rise perfect and incorruptible, they shall haue perfect sense, and other qualities of the bodie.
2. Some thinke it is said many, and not all, in respect of the wicked, of whom it is said, non resurgent impij in iudicio, Psal. 1. the wicked shall not rise in iudgement: because they shall not rise vnto life, Pintus. But the vulgar Latine translateth not that place well, the true rea∣ding is, non consistent in iudicio, the wicked shall not stand in iudgement. And againe in this place, the wicked are a part of this many, some shall awake vnto shame.
3. Wherefore these answeares may better serue: 1. Augustine saith, ponit aliquando scriptura pro omnibus vocabulum (multis.) the Scripture putteth sometime for (all) this word many: and he giueth instance of Abraham, of whom the Lord saith in one place, I haue made thee a father of many nations, Gen. 17. and yet in another he saith, in thy seede shall all nations be blessed, Gen. 22. But this example is not so fit, for in the one place the Lord spea∣keth of Abrahams carnall generation, in the other of his spirituall seede, namely Christ, in whom all the nations of the world should be blessed: that other instance giuen by Theodo∣ret is more to the purpose, Rom. 5. 18. by the offence of one, the fault came on all men to condemnation: and after in the next verse following, the Apostle saith, by one mans disobedi∣ence many were made sinners. Here it is euident that many is taken for all. 2. An other an∣swer is, that many are saide to rise, because all indeede shall not rise againe, because all shall not sleepe, but they shall all be changed, 1. Cor. 15. 51. Bulling. Vatab. and againe in another place the Apostle saith; we which liue, and are remayning in the comming of the Lord, shall not preuent those which sleepe, Osiander. 3. And otherwise it may be yet answe∣red, that this word rabbim, many, as it appeareth by the accent Zakeph ghadol, is taken distributiuely; that many should awake vnto life, and many vnto shame, Iun. in commentar. Polan.
Quest. 10. A description of the resurrection of both good and bad, vers. 2.
The resurrection of the dead is here described▪ 1. in generall, that many that sleepe in the dust of the earth shall awake. 2. the particular euents are shewed, that some shall awake vn∣to life, some vnto shame.
Page 472 In the first part. 1. in that they are said to sleepe, the beeing and remaining of the soule after death is signified: as the soule liueth when the bodie is layd a sleepe. 2. and by this phrase is also noted, the naturall affection which the soule hath to the bodie, that although they be sundred and separated a while by death, yet they both make but one man, as the soule and bodie are vnited together in naturall sleepe: for the vnion of the soule and bodie is essentiall, but the dissolution by death is accidentall, by reason of sinne, and therefore cannot hinder for euer the naturall and essentiall vnion, Iun. 3. in that mention is made of the dust of the earth, it putteth vs in minde of the first creation of man, which was out of the dust of the earth; out of the which the Lord shall raise our bodies againe, Bulling.
Secondly, in that both good and bad are raised▪ 1. we must consider that all are raised both the one and the other, by the power of Christ in common: but the righteous are raised vnto life, by the peculiar operation of Christ as he is the head of the faithfull. 2. the wicked also shall be awaked vp vnto a kind of life, for they shall neuer die, but liue in continuall tor∣ment: but eternall life is to be considered two wayes, simply and essentially in respect of the creature it selfe, as it liueth by the power of the creator; so the wicked shall liue: and in re∣spect of the habite and affection which the creature hath vnto God, the author of life; and so the faithfull onely shall liue for euer. So euerlasting death is not so called essentially, which consisteth in the finall dissolution of humane nature: but 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, habitually and respectiue∣ly, because though they liue, they haue no communion with the life of grace, Iun. in com∣mentar. 3. they shall awake to shame and contempt, not as the vulgar Latine, that they may see alwaies, for the word is deraon, which signifieth contempt, loathsomenesse, as it is taken, Isay. 66. 24. they shall goe forth, and looke vpon the carkases of those, which haue trans∣gressed, &c. and they shall be an abhorring to all flesh: like as a stinking carkase is abhorred of all; so the wicked then shall be an abomination to God, to Angels and men.
Quest. 11. Of the great glorie, which shall be giuen vnto those which instruct others to saluation, v. 3.
v. 3. They that cause (others) to vnderstand, (that is, teach others) shall shine as the bright∣nesse of the firmament: and they that iustifie many, shall shine as the starres. These words are diuersely expounded: whereas here a reward is promised, and they are described also to whom this reward shall be giuen:
1. Some doe make the first and the second clause all one in sense, but set forth with vari∣etie of words: as Pererius thinketh that both the same excellencie of glorie is set forth by the brightnesse of the heauens and of the starres: and they are the same, which first are said to be wise and vnderstanding, and afterward, to iustifie many: But it is not like, that in this prophetiall narration, beeing so concise and compendious, there should be such a multiply∣ing of words, without insinuation of some further sense.
2. An other sort doe make a difference both in the reward, and in them which shall ob∣taine it: and here 1. by the wise hearted or vnderstanding, Carthusianus thinketh to be meant those onely, which are sanctified by the spirit of grace, neither hauing gifts, nor cal∣ling to teach others: and they onely shall be like the brightnesse of the firmament: but they which iustifie others by their doctrine, and bring them vnto Christ, shall shine as the starres: which are the brighter parts of the firmament: this sense also followe Osiander, and Pap∣pus, that doe conclude from hence the diuerse degrees of glorie in the kingdome of heauen. 2. Some contrariwise, by the first vnderstand those which are teachers of others, by the se∣cond, those that are onely righteous in themselues: so Lyranus, and the interlinearie glosse, & before them Theodoret following the Septuag. who read, and many iust, whereas it is in the originall, matzedike harabbim, iustifying many: and these make the brightnesse of the firma∣ment a greater degree of glorie, then the light of the starres.
3. Some doe distinguish here the persons which shall be rewarded, but take the simili∣tude expressing the reward, the bright heauens and the starres to expresse the same thing, the great glorie of the next life: the righteous are likened for their great glorie vnto the cleare azure skie in the day, and to the bright shining starres in the night: But here also, 1. Some by the first vnderstand such as teach and instruct others, as preachers and ministers; by the o∣ther that iustifie, such as by discipline and good order are the meanes of the saluation of o∣thers, as godly magistrates, Parents, Schoole-masters, Bullinger. 2. some by the first doe vnderstand the faithfull, by the second ministers and teachers, Calv. Genevens.
4. Some distinguish not the persons, but diuerse parts of their office, for they are said to Page 473 teach, or cause others to vnderstand (for the word is maschill in hiphil) which signifieth to cause to vnderstand, in respect of the administration of their office: in setting forth the truth, and making them to vnderstand it: and they are said to iustifie others in regard of the worke and effect, because by their ministerie faith is wrought in them, whereby they are iustified, Iun. in commentar.
5. But Polanus doth more fitly apply this text vnto martyrs (for to their consolation this is specially ministred that should suffer in those troublesome times vnder Antiochus.) And them he maketh of two sorts: some that by the constant confession of the truth, and suffe∣ring for the same, therein by their example did teach others: and some beside their constant suffering, had by their godly instructions also edified many: and this commeth neerest vnto the true sense, because as is said, this consolation is specially intended for the comfort of the holy martyrs: Now further although in this verse, the diuerse degrees of glorie are not de∣scribed: yet in comparing it with the former verse, the diuersitie is expressed: for all the faith∣full and righteous, as is before said, shall rise vnto life: but among these faithfull, these holy teachers, and instructors of others, shall shine as the cleare heauens, and as the bright stars.
Quest. 12. How the faithfull teachers are said to iustifie others.
That this may be the better vnderstood, we must consider the causes of our iustification, which are these. 1. the efficient and principall cause is God himselfe, Rom. 8. 33. it is God that iustifieth, who shall condemne? and the moouing cause was onely the mercie and loue of God toward vs, 1. Iohn. 4. 10. herein is loue, not that we loued God, but he loued vs.
2. The materiall and meritorious cause is the perfect obedience of Christ, which was ei∣ther actiue or passiue, actiue either the originall and natiue righteousnesse of Christ, who knewe no sinne, he was without all spot: or his actuall obedience through his life in keeping the whole lawe, and the commandements of God for vs: so that which was impossible to the lawe in vs, was fulfilled in Christ, as the Apostle sheweth, Rom. 8. 2. his passiue obedi∣ence was in suffring the most ignominious death of the crosse for vs, Philip. 2. 8. he became obedient vnto death, euen the death of the crosse: and so did beare the curse of the law which was due vnto vs, Galat. 3. 13.
3. The instrumentall cause on Gods behalfe is the preaching of the Gospell, whereby faith is wrought in vs: for faith commeth by hearing, Rom. 10. 17. on our behalfe the in∣strument of our iustification is faith, whereby we apprehend the righteousnesse of Christ.
4. The ministring and vnder working or helping causes, are the teachers and preachers, who are as ministeriall causes of our iustification, in setting forth the gospel of Christ, and declaring the way vnto saluation: in which respect they are said to iustifie: And in this sense also they are said to saue others: as S. Paul thus writeth to Timothie, 1. epist. c. 4. 16. take heede vnto thy selfe and vnto doctrine, &c. for in doing this thou shalt saue thy selfe, and them that heare thee: so also S. Iames saith, 5. 20. he that conuerteth a sinner, shall saue a soule from death, &c.
Quest. 13. Why Daniel is commanded to seale the booke, and what is the meaning thereof.
1. Some giue this sense, praecepit vt involuat sermones, & signet librum, vt legant plurimi, he biddeth, that he should fould vp this prophesie in darke speech, and signe the booke, that many may read it, and seeke the truth of the historie, Hierome. But not onely the speach is folded vp, but the booke was also kept secret: because if it had come to the hands of the pro∣phane sort, they would haue made a scorne of it.
2. Seale it vp as a perfect and absolute prophesie, cui nihil sit amplius adijciendum, to the which nothing is to be added, Bullinger. But S. Iohn is bid, that he should not seale vp the prophesie of the Reuelation, c. 22. 10. and yet it was perfect, nothing was to be added thereto, v. 18. 19. this then is not the meaning.
3. Some say he is bid to seale it vp, because it should not be accomplished till toward the ende of the world: and till this prophesie beganne to take effect, it should not be vnder∣stood, Pap. But this prophesie was fulfilled before the first comming of Christ, it was not therefore sealed vp to that ende.
4. Wherefore by sealing vp the booke of this prophesie, 1. it is insinuated, that he should commit it to writing, consigna librum, make a booke. 2. efferas aenigmatice, he must set forth this prophesie in obscure tearmes and words, Vatab. As Daniel vseth many strange words Page 474 and phrases in this prophesie: as c. 8. 3. Palmon•, c. 11. 38. Mauzzim, v. 45. aphadno, M. Brought. 3. maneat apud te instar theasauri, let it remaine, and lay it vp with thee as a treasure: though others make small account of it, yet doe thou keepe it as a treasure for the Church in time to come, Calvin. 4. seale it vp, impart it not generally to all: ne si in manibus prostaret omnium, ludibrio esset, least if it should come to euerie ones hands, it might be made but a laughing game by the prophane and wicked, Iun. in commentar. so al∣so Lyranus, divina secreta non sunt omnibus reuelanda, the diuine secrets must not be reuea∣led vnto all: As our Blessed Sauiour faith. Matth. 7. giue not that which is holy vnto dogges: so our Sauiour spake vnto others in parables, but vnto his disciples he expounded them a∣part: as here these mysteries are reuealed vnto Daniel, though they must be as a sealed book vnto others. And hereof two reasons may be yeelded, vt maligni non habeant materiam de∣ridendi, & studiosi materiam se exercendi, that both the euill and malicious should haue no matter to laugh at, and the studious might haue matter wherein to exercise themselues.
5. And further the sealing vp sheweth, that there were many yeares yet to come before this prophesie should be fulfilled: for it was 300. yeares from this time, vnto Antiochus: and for the same reason Iohn is bid not to seale vp that prophesie, because some part thereof was presently to take place, Apocal. 22. 10. see before c. 8. quest. 36.
Quest. 14. Vntill the time defined or appointed, v. 4. what time this was here limited.
1. Some vnderstand the ende of the world, when these things should be fulfilled, Bulling. Osiand. and so Pagnin readeth, vsque ad tempus finis, vnto the time of the ende: But it hath beene shewed before that this prophesie contained in the 11. chapter, was fulfilled in the dayes of Antiochus, and much of it before. 2. Some vnderstand the time of Christs com∣ming, who opened the seales of the booke, Apocal. 5. and reuealed the mysteries which were hid before: whereof this was a signe, that in his passion the vaile of the Temple was rent: Christ tooke away the vaile and the couering, which hid from vs the mysteries and high things of God: so Theodoret, Pintus, Pererius: But in this sense Christ opened not onely the secrets of this prophesie, but of all other in the old Testament. 3. he meaneth then the time, which was appointed of God when this prophesie should be fulfilled: as Calvin, Deus probabit ipso euentu se non frustra locutum, &c. God shall prooue by the euent that he hath not foreshewed these things in vaine; & est hic terminus non vnus, sed multiplex, and this tearme was not one, but diuerse: as the prophesies of this booke are diuerse, and so were to haue their diuerse times of fulfilling, Iun. So in the time of the Macchabees, when diuerse of these things were fulfilled, the Iewes did then beginne to looke into this prophesie, as the storie of the Macchabees sheweth, M. Br. And at the comming of Christ, there was great expectation of the fulfilling of that prophesie, Dan. 9.
Quest. 15. Of these words, many shall runne thorough, and knowledge shall be encreased.
1. Bullinger thus interpreteth, that toward the end of the world, men shall runne to and fro, beeing certaine of nothing, but distracted in opinion, varijs se adiungent sectis, they shall ioyne themselues vnto diuerse sects: but the last words, knowledge shall be multiplied, are against this sense, for where such vncertaintie is, there knowledge cannot be encreased.
2. Some reade thus: oberrabunt multi, many shall goe to and fro to get knowledge, Vat. Genevens. B. but knowledge is not had by wandring from place to place: that sheweth ra∣ther ignorance, Amos. 8. 12.
3. Some expound thus, many shall runne thorough this booke, and they shall diuersely expound it: Lyran. gloss. Hugo. because the Scripture admitteth diuerse senses, Perer. But thus opinions are multiplied, not knowledge.
4. Hierome well by running thorough vnderstandeth the diligent perusing of this book: that though now it were not regarded, yet many in time to come should giue their minde vnto it: so also Iun. Polan. and so M. Calvin expoundeth the word shuth, investigabunt, they shall search: multi se ad scripta tua legenda conferent, many shall settle themselues to read thy writings, Osiand. And withall here is signified, that Deus sibi multos discipulos col∣liget, God shall raise vp vnto him many disciples, Calvin. So that in the great persecution vnder Antiochus, many shall be found faithfull, who shall cleaue vnto this prophesie, Polanus.
16. Quest. What two they were, whome Daniel saw by the brinke of the riuer, v. 5.
1. This is not a new vision, as Bullinger maketh it in number the fift, so also Oecolampad. but it is the same vision continued: as both the circumstance of the place sheweth, it was by the same riuer Tigris, mentioned before c. 10. 5. and of the person, the man clothed in linen before also described: and the question demanded is concerning the continuance of those wonders and strange things before spoken of.
2. These two Angels Hierome thinketh to haue beene the one the Angel that stood for Persia, the other that was President of Grecia, which did hinder the deliuerance of the He∣brewes: But it is euident, that these Angels stand for the people of God: for as affected with the troubles which here are prophesied to come vpon Gods people, they desire to know the time of the beginning and ende of them.
3. Oecolampadius thinketh, that here were not three in all▪ but one more came vnto him that had talked with Daniel all this while: and they are said to be two other, because a∣lio modo, &c. they appeared in an other manner: But it is euident by their site and standing, that they were three: for two stood by the brinke of the riuer, one on the one side, and one on the other, and the third was vpon the waters.
4. R. Levi thinketh that one of these two was Gabriel: but Gabriel was he, which had this communication with Daniel all this while, and now two other appeare: they had not beene other two, if there had beene but one beside Gabriel. Polan.
5. Hyppolitus by these two Angels standing by the brinke of the riuer, vnderstandeth the law and the Prophets: but Daniel saw some reall thing, for he saith, I Daniel looked. Pereri∣us out of Hierome by these two Angels standing vpon the riuers banke, interpreteth the flourishing and standing of the Persian and Greeke Monarchie: and by the third vpon the waters of the riuer, the troublesome state of the Church: for so in Scripture afflictions are signified by waters. But hereby rather is signified, in that the Angels stand on this side and on that side, the readie administration of the Angels, which are alwaies at hand to expedite the commandement of God. Polan.
17. Quest. Who it was that inquired of the man that was clothed in linen, v. 6.
1. The Latine translator readeth, & dixi, and I said, referring it to Daniel: but in the o∣riginall the word is vaiomer, and he said, in the third person: not Daniel, but one of the An∣gels.
2. Some Greeke copies read in the plurall, and they said: but in the originall it is in the singular, and he said: one Angel might aske in the name of the other. Oecolampad.
3. Like vnto this place is that in the Revelation, where the soules vnder the altar, that is, which yet were not glorified with their bodies, did aske the like question, which the An∣gels doe here, How long, Lord, holy and true, doest thou not iudge and auenge our blood, &c. Rev. 6. 10.
18. Quest. Who the man was clothed in linen, of whome the question was asked.
1. The most generall and receiued opinion here is, that this third Angel of whome the question is asked, was Gabriel: Lyran. Pint. Perer. Bulling. with others: But how could one Angel aske and learne of an other? seeing they are all ministring spirits, and doe all fetch their light and knowledge from the same fountaine Christ Iesus the reuealer of secrets. M. Calvin here answereth, Est aliquod discrimen inter Angelos, sed non perpetuum, that there is some difference betweene the Angels, but not perpetuall, onely for a time: his meaning is, that God may at some time giue greater illumination to one Angel then to an other, and so one Angel may receiue direction of an other. But the Angels rather receiue their direction from Christ, who is that Palmoni, one that hath secrets in account, and number: of whome an Angel likewise enquireth, c. 8. 13.
2. Pintus thinketh that these three Angels doe signifie the Trinitie, the two Angels that stood by the riuer, represent the Father and the holy•Ghost, and the third vpon the waters the Sonne of God: as the three Angels which appeared to Abraham, Gen. 18. did likewise represent the Trinitie. But 1. in that one of the two Angels asketh of the third as his supe∣riour, Page 476 they can not signifie the Trinitie, for this would argue an inequalitie in those most glorious persons. 2. One of those three, which appeared to Abraham, was Christ him∣selfe, whome Abraham there praieth vnto, and calleth him Iehovah: the other two were in∣deede ministring Angels, which afterward went to Sodome, and were receiued into Lots house.
3. But this man which was cloathed in linen, was none other then Christ himselfe: 1. because he is the same, which so appeared before, c. 10. 4. which was Christ, as in that place hath beene shewed. 2. he is the reuealer of secrets, and of him the Angel asked the like question before, c. 8. 13. 3. this vision is interpreted by the like, Apoc. 10. 1. where a migh∣tie Angel came downe from heauen, with a rainbow about his head, and his face was as the Sunne, he stood vpon the land and the Sea, signifying his power ouer both, and lift vp his hand to heauen; as this Angel here standeth vpon the waters, and lifteth vp both his hands to heauen: but that great Angel was Christ: the similitude of the vision argueth the identitie of the same person. 4. and beside his standing vpon the water doth signifie, quod olim super Iordanem testimonium accepturus, that in time to come he should receiue testimonie from heauen vpon the waters of Iordan.
But it will be obiected, that this was not Christ, because he lifteth vp his hand, and swea∣reth by God: but he that one sweareth by, is greater. Answ. 1. Christ appearing as a man, is here to be considered both as God and man, and so as man is inferiour vnto God, and sweareth by a greater. 2. or rather Christ as God sweareth by himselfe, as one euerliuing God with his father, but a distinct person: so that this oath is the same in effect with that, Deut. 32. 40. I lift vp my hand to heauen, and sweare for euer: sic vides quod iurat per seip∣sum, &c. so you see that he sweareth by himselfe, touching the heauens with his hand, and setting his feete vpon the water and land, shewing his dominion therein: Oecolampad.
And in that he lifteth vp both his hands, whereas vsually in taking an oath one hand is lifted vp, Gen. 14. 22. Deut. 32. 40. hoc ad plenissimam pertinet rerum confirmationem, this is for the more full confirmation of these things, Bulling. & voluit hoc modo exponere rei magnitudinem, he would hereby shewe the greatnesse of this thing, Calvin. And because, an Angel stood vpon each side of his hands, he lifteth them both vp, that each of them might haue a signe of the certaintie of this thing, Iun. Polan.
Quest. 19. What is meant by a time, two times, and an halfe. v. 7.
Some doe take this for an vncertaine and indefinite time: Some for a certaine and limited tearme: and of both sorts there are sundrie opinions.
Of the first sort: 1. some doe thinke, that the time of the afflictions of the people of God, certissimum esse apud Deum, sed nobis incognitum, is certaine with God, but to vs vnknowne, Bulling. B. so that the meaning is no more but this, these things shall most certainely come to passe, but whether, post modica, vel multa temporis intervalla, after a long or short time, it is not knowne to vs: Bulling.
2. Some because the time is here halued, doe thinke, that thereby is signified, modicum tempus, a short time, a little while: and doe expound it by that place, Apoc. 6. 11. They should rest for a little season, vntill their fellow seruants, &c. were fulfilled. Oecolampad. Pappus.
3. But some contrariwise here vnderstand a long time, tempus hic ponitur pro longo tra∣ctu, tempora, pro longiore tractu, here (time) is put for a long tract or continuance, (times) for a longer. M. Calv. Genevens.
Now all these opinions are confuted by these reasons. 1. because the same phrase of a time, two times, and a part of time, are taken before, c. 7. 25. for a certaine and definite tearme, therefore it is like to be so taken here. 2. this time is diuided, a part of time, there∣fore it is a certaine and definite number: for that which is vncertaine and indefinite vseth not to be deuided into parts. 3. And what comfort had there beene in this prescription and na∣ming of time, if there were giuen no certaine direction, how long this troublesome time should continue.
4. Of the second sort: some take this for a certaine number of yeares, whereof some vn∣derstand by daies yeares, some so many daies literally: by a time, two times, and an halfe, which make yeares three, and an halfe or a part, that is, daies 1225. or thereabout, are signi∣fied so many yeares 1200. and odde: which Melancthon beginneth from Daniels time, Page 477 whereof 600. yeares were expired vnto Christ, and about 600. yeares after the sect of the Mahumentans did spring in the East, and religion beganne to be corrupted in the West, by the Bishops of Rome.
5. Osiander beginneth this tearme, where Melancthon endeth it, and continueth it vnto the destruction of the Romane Antichrist, and of his tyrannicall kingdome: But all these things here must be accomplished, while the Church of the Iewes yet continued, which are here called the holy people.
6. They which vnderstand by a time, two times, and an halfe, a yeare, two yeares, and an halfe (as indeede they signifie, as c. 4. seuen times during the humiliation of Nebuchadnez∣zer, are vnderstood to be feuen yeares) some doe referre it vnto the time of Antichrists ty∣rannie, who shall rage again•t the Church of Christ three yeares and an halfe, as Christ prea∣ched three yeares and an halfe, Hierome, Lyran. Hugo. Pintus, with others. But they thinke that their Antichrist shall beare sway longer in the whole: yet the heate of his most cruell and outragious persecution shall continue but 3. yeares and an halfe. But this interpretation is refused vpon the former reason, because this prophesie concerned the holy people of God, that then was: and beside, that imagination of some one singular person to rise vp to be Antichrist, is but a fabulous and phantasticall conceit, as is before shewed, c. 11. Con∣trov. 2.
7. This time then here prescribed and limited, precisely signifieth three yeares, and an halfe, or rather part of time: for so long continued the desolation of the Sanctuarie vnder Antiochus: which beganne in the 145. yeare, the 15. day of the moneth Casteu, 1. Mac∣chab. 1. 57. and ended in the 148. yeare on the 25. day of the same moneth, 1. Macchab. 4. 52. so that the euent of the historie doth very fitly explane this prophesie, Iun. Polan.
But against this exposition, which Porphyrius also did hit vpon, Hierome thus obiecteth: 1. if the time, two times, and an halfe, that is, three yeares and an halfe, must be referred vn∣to Antiochus, whereof mention is made before, c. 7. 25. then that which followeth also in the same place, v. 27. The kingdome vnder the whole heauen shall be giuen vnto the holy peo∣ple of the most high, &c. and all Princes shall serue him, must be applied either to Antiochus, or to the people of the Iewes: which is manifestly false. 2. the defolation of the Temple continued but three yeares, as Iosephus writeth, l. 12. c. 10. but this tearme is of three yeares and an halfe. 3. Lyranus obiecteth, that the persecution vnder Antiochus continued sixe yeares, from the yeare 143. 1. Macch. 1. 21. to the yeare 148. 1. Macch. 4. 52.
Answ. 1. There is no consequent, that those words which follow should be either vn∣derstood of Antiochus, or of the Iewes, who neuer ruled ouer the whole world: for there the Prophet sheweth the destruction and ruine of the tyrannie of Antiochus, by Christ,* to whome raigning spiritually in his Church (there called the holy people) the kingdome should be giuen ouer the whole earth. 2. The word chatzi, signifieth not onely the halfe, but the part of a thing: as the same is expressed by an other word pelag, c. 7. 25. which signi∣fieth a diuision: and so indeede the desolation of the Temple continued iust 3. yeares, and a part of a yeare, namely tenne daies, as is before shewed: therefore Iosephus is deceiued, which maketh account but of three yeares: for there were tenne daies aboue. 3. The persecution vnder Antiochus was either of the citie, with spoiling also and robbing onely of the Tem∣ple, or in laying wast the Sanctuarie, and causing the daily oblation to cease: the first conti∣nued aboue sixe yeares, euen 2300. daies, as is prophesied c. 8. 14. but the other endured onely three yeares and ten daies: so these diuers persecutions, had their diuers tearmes: and both may well stand together.
Some thinke that this tearme of 3. yeares and an halfe, sheweth the tearme of Christs persecution in the daies of his flesh, which was iust so many yeares: M. Br. this prophesie may haue such an analogicall application; but the historicall accomplishment was vnder An∣tiochus, as hath beene sufficiently prooued.
20. Quest. Of the meaning of the words, v. 7. When he hath made an ende to disperse the hand of the holy people.
Some referre these words to the comming of Christ in the flesh, some to the ende of the world, some to the daies of Antiochus.
1. Of the first sort, some giue this sense, when God hath dispersed the hand, that is, the place and citie of this holy people, which came to passe in the destruction of Ierusalem, then Page 478 these things shall be fulfilled. Iun. in comment. But 1. beside that the Iewes after they had put Christ to death, were not worthie to be called the people of God, but were reiected of God, and not held to be his people. 2. this prophesie of the tyrannie of Antiochus was ac∣complished before Christ came in the slesh.
2. Osiander thus interpreteth, that first before the ende be, populus Dei per Evangelij praedicationem colligendus est, &c. the people must be gathered together by the preaching of the Gospel: but the text speaketh of dispersing and scattering, not of gathering together the people of God.
3. Of the second sort: some doe thus interpret, that before the ende of the world the Church shall be afflicta, lacerata, & contrita, afflicted, rent as it were in sunder, and troden downe, Bulling. Oecolamp. But they read in the passive, when the dispersion of the hand, that is, the power of the holy people is accomplished, &c. whereas it must be read actively, when he hath accomplished to scatter, &c. and it hath beene before shewed, that this prophesie con∣cerneth not the ende of the world.
4. Some referre it to the comming of Antichrist in the ende of the world, and make this the sense, when as Antichrist beeing destroied, the faithfull which were before dispersed, are returned to their place, and freely professe the Gospel, then shall an ende be of these things: Perer. But this were to make the signe and the thing signified, one & the same: for the thing signified, is the peace and restitution of the Church: this then cannot be giuen as a signe.
5. Hierome expoundeth it, of the oppression of the people of God by the hand of Anti∣christ, ista generalis populi dispersio, this generall dispersion of the people of God is giuen as a signe of the end of these things, Perer. when Antichrist shall be killed, Hug. Card. then shal be the resurrection of the dead, Lyran. But neither doth this prophecie concerne the end of the world, neither yet shall there be such a singular Antichrist, as they imagine.
6. Some vnderstand these words, of the dispersion of the Iewes in the end of the world, after the death of Antichrist, to whome they did cleaue, as their Messiah: then the persecuti∣on of the Christians shall cease, Hug. Card. But this deuise of the Iewish Messiah, and Popish Antichrist, is of like truth and certentie, the one as the other.
7. Of the third sort, which applie these things vnto the time of Antiochus, some vnder∣stand, the hand of the holy people passively, manum prementem, the hand that oppressed the people of God, that is, Antiochus: that after his end and dest•uction, there should be an end of these troubles. Iun. M. Br. in comm. Polan. But 1. it seemeth an harsh interpretation, the hand of the people, that is, the hand which was against the people. 2. neither did all the troubles of the people ende after the death of Antiochus, as the storie of the Macchabees sheweth.
8. Wherefore I take rather Calvins sense, for the generall meaning of the words: that when the people shall be brought to so low an ebbe, as that they shall seeme to haue no strength, ac si manus illis contritae essent, as though their hands were weakned; and when there shall be such a persecution of the people of God, vt nullus apparere audeat in publico, that none da•e to appeare openly, then shall these things come to passe, Lyran. And this sense P•ppus well confirmeth by the like place, Apoc. 6. 11. where vnto the like question, the like answer was made: it was said vnto them, that they should rest for a little season, vntill their fellow seruants, and their brethren, which should be killed, as they were, were ful•illed: the same thing is here meant by accomplishing to disperse the hand (that is the power) of the holy people: that is, when they are at the lowe•t, and there is small hope of any deliuerance, and the Lord hath fulfilled the number of the faithfull, which he purposed to trie, then shall an ende and consummation be of all these things: which came to passe vnder Antiochus, when the faithfull were dispersed, the Sanctuarie lay wast, and small hope remained, then the Lord looked vpon his people, and sent them deliuerance: and this is that which is saide, c. 11. 34. that when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little helpe: when their state seemeth most desperate, then God shall raise them vp an helper, which was Iudas Macchabeus, who was but small in respect of the power of Antiochus.
21. Quest. What it was that Daniel vnderstood not, v. 8.
1. Some thinke, that Daniel here enquired of the ende of the world, as the Apostles as∣ked of Christ: and as Christ answered his Apostles that the day and houre of his comming was not knowne, no not to the Angels, the like answer is made to Daniel here. Bulling. Page 479 Oecolampad. But, as hath beene often fhewed before, this prophesie concerneth not the ende of the world: Daniel onely desireth to know, what should befall his owne people.
2. Pappus thinketh that Daniel vnderstood not, what was meant by the time, two times, and halfe or a part of time, that he tooke it not for any certen time: for otherwise interroga∣tionis illius nulla fuisset necessitas, there had beene no necessitie of that interroga•ion, or que∣stion. But if Daniel had beene altogether ignorant hereof, he might haue asked the same question before, c. 7. 25. where mention is made of a time, two times, and an halfe.
3. Pererius thinketh that Daniel was ignorant of the particular circumstances of the former Propheticall narration, as of the persons, times, and place, of those seuerall prophesies of the battells of the kings of the North and South, reuealed vnto him, c. 11. so also Lyran. Hugo. But Daniel enquired not of those particular circumstances, which he might be igno∣rant of, for that had beene too great curiositie; but he asketh▪ What shall be the ende of these things: that is it then whereof he was ignorant. As M. Calvin saith well, haec ignorantia restringitur ad eius interrogationem, this ignorance is restrained vnto the interrogation or question.
4. Calvine further thus saith, that Daniel was not altogether ignorant of the meaning of this prophesie, but yet he vnderstood not in euery respect, as afterward it was fulfilled: he did not fully conceiue, what should be meant by the time, two times, and a part of time: Iun. in commentar. that is, though he did know how long the time of this great persecution should continue, yet he was ignorant where it should beginne, and where ende: M. Br. and therefore his question is, when shall be the ende of these things.
22. Quest. Whether Daniel had altogether a repulse in his demaund.
1. Some thinke, whereas this answer is made to Daniel. Goe thy way Daniel, that because his question was curious, to enquire of the ende of these things, quod illum non exaudi•rit Angelus, that the Angel did not heare him▪ Calvin. and that the Angel staied Daniel, curio∣sitie here, as Christ did the Apostles, Act. 1. It is not for you to know the times and seasons, which the father hath kept in his owne power: Perer. and so he saith in effect, Goe thy way, ni∣hil amplius dicturus sum, I will say no more at this time vnto thee: Vatab. Pintus. But it ap∣peareth by the explanation, which followeth, that Daniel was not altogether repelled.
2. Wherefore in part Daniel hath his request, pleniorem explicationem Christus exhi∣buit, Christ doth more fully explane the former prophecie of the time of the persecution: M. Br. partly he faileth in his desire: for he obtaineth not singularem & minutam istarum rerum cognitionem, a particular and seuerall knowledge of these things, which are sealed vp, vntill the time come, when they should be fulfilled: Iun. in commentar. for if all these things had beene particularly expounded aforehand, the faith and patience of Gods seruants had not beene so fully tried; if euery thing had beene manifest as in their sight before: for as the Apostle saith, 2. Cor. 5. 7. We walke by faith, and not by sight.
23. Quest. Of those words, v. 10. The wicked shall doe wickedly, and none shall haue vnderstanding: what wicked he speaketh of.
1. Some expound this place by that place, 2. Pet. 3. 3. that in the last daies there shall be mockers, which shall say, Where is the promise of his comming? that although some shall profit by the Lords chastisments, and thereby be purged, and made white, yet others shall be se∣cure, passing their time in pleasure, and carnall delight, Oecolampad. euen as it was in the daies of Noe and Lot, Bulling. But the vnderstanding or not vnderstanding here spoken of, is concerning the prophesie of this booke, as Lyranus obserueth: which concerneth not the afflictions of the last times otherwi•e then by way of analogie.
2. Pererius and Pintus thinke, that the wicked may attaine vnto some knowledge, but it shall be infructuosa cognitio, an vnfruitfull and vnprofitable knowledge: But this rather is giuen as a reason, why they shall doe wickedly, because nihil intelligent, quia excaecati sunt, they shall vnderstand nothing, because they are blinded, Calv. the knowledge of these se∣crets and mysteries shall be kept from their eyes.
3. Here then is speciall relation had vnto the false brethren, that should be in those daies of persecution, which •hould giue way vnto Antiochus wicked proceedings, and labour to seduce and betray their brethren, Iun. annot. which should not haue any care to obserue the accomplishment of this prophesie, nor compare the euent therewith: of these the Angel Page 480 foretold before, c. 11. 34. Many shall cleaue vnto them fainedly. And as it was in those daies of persecution, so should it be afterward: as S. Paul saith, 2. Tim. 3. 12. All that will liue godly in Christ Iesus, shall suffer persecution: but the euill men and deceiuers shall waxe worse, decei∣uing, and beeing deceiued: of such also speaketh S. Iohn, Apoc. 22. 11. He that is vniust, let him be vniust still, he that is filthie, let him be filthie still, &c.
24. Quest. What the abomination of desolation is, mentioned v. 11.
1. Hierome and Theodoret vnderstand hereby the discontinuing of the true seruice of God by Antichrist at his comming: he shall bring in an horrible desolation, and abolish the true seruice of God: he shall Dei cultum interdicere, forbid the seruice and worship of God: But neither doth this prophecie concerne the ende of the world: nor yet shall there be any such singular Antichrist.
2. Pererius and Pintus, with other Romanists, vnderstand this of the abrogating of the sacrifice of the Masse, and in stead thereof Antichrist shall command himselfe to be wor∣shipped: so also Hug. Card. Antichristus se exhibebit ad adorandum, Antichrist shall cause himselfe to be worshipped. But 1. that idolatrous sacrifice of the Masse, is rather the abo∣mination of desolation it selfe, whereby the true seruice of Christ, and the right vse of the Eucharist according to Christs institution, is abolished: 2. neither shall this abomination be Antichrist himselfe, but he shall set vp this abomination: as it is saide before, c. 11. 31. They shall set vp the abomination, &c. that is, wicked Antiochus with his captaines: he that setteth vp, and that which is set vp, is not the same.
3. Bullinger thinketh it is, abominanda gentis & vrbis vastatio, the abominable laying wast of the nation and citie of the Iewes at the destruction of Ierusalem by the Romans: but this prophesie was rather fulfilled in Antiochus time, as afterward shall be shewed.
4. M. Calvin vnderstandeth the sacrifices of the Iewes, which were abominable, after the sacrifice of Christs death performed vpon the crosse: so also Pëllic. but the daily sacrifice of the Temple was not taken away presently after Christs death.
5. Osiander thinketh this abominable desolation to be the idolatrous seruice brought into the Church by the Romane Antichrist: but then can not the time here described by daies agree: for more then so many daies or moneths, hath the true seruice of God beene corrupted by them: and so many yeares, as here are named daies, God forbid that Antichrists corrupt religion should continue.
6. Wherefore, this abomination which shall be set vp, was no other but the profanation of the Temple by Antiochus, when he caused that abominable idol of Iuppiter Olympius to be brought into the Temple, and the daily sacrifice to cease, 1. Macchab. 1. 57. 2. Macchab. 6. 2. And hereof mention is made before, c. 8. 13. and 11. 31. likewise c. 9. 27. but there the a∣bomination of desolation is spoken of, which should be set vp in the finall destruction of the citie and Temple by the Romanes, as is shewed, c. 9. quest. 88.
Quest. 25. The 1290. dayes mentioned v. 11. how to be taken.
1. Lyranus taketh this to be the tearme of Antichrists tyrannicall raigne in the ende of the world, euen 3. yeares, 6. moneths, and 12. dayes: so also Pererius: but he counteth one∣ly 10. odde dayes: so also Pintus with other Romanists thinke that Antichrist shall raigne 3. yeares, and an halfe: but as Bullinger saith, it is not like that Antichrists kingdome should continue ad tempus vsque adeo breue, for so verie a short time.
2. Bullinger sheweth how the Iewes warre before the finall destruction of the citie, be∣gunne by Vespasian in the 14. yeare of Nero his raigne, and ending the second yeare of Ve∣spasian, continued about a 1290. dayes, that is 3. yeare and an halfe: but the text is, that these dayes must beginne from the time of that abhominable desolation, and continue onely du∣ring that time: but after these warres which held 3. yeares and an halfe, that desolation of the citie and Temple beganne, which then ended not, but continueth vnto this day.
3. Some by so many dayes vnderstand so many yeares, a 1290. yeares, so long Osiander thinketh, that the profanation of religion should continue vnder the Romane Antichrist, from the first beginning thereof, vnto the vtter ruine of Antichrist: But we trust that God will not suffer that man of sinne so long to afflict his Church.
4. Some vnderstand here no certaine but an indefinite and vnlimited time: as Oecolamp. multiplicatione dierum longum tempus Antichristianae impietatis agnoscas, by the mul∣tiplying Page 481 of dayes knowe that the time of Antichrists impietie shall be long: so also Calvin by this number of dayes, thinketh, that tempus immensum, a great time is signified.
5. Pellican contrariwise inferreth, magnus numerus, sed breue tempus significat, a great number of dayes, but it signifieth a short time, that the Iewes sacrifices should not long continue after Christs death. But in that this number receiueth an addition of 45. dayes which make with the former summe a 1335. dayes, it is euident, that a certaine time is here∣by signified.
6. Wherefore, that which he called before, a time, two times, and an halfe, is here ex∣plained to be 1290. dayes, that is 3. yeares, 7. moneths, and about 13. dayes, which must beginne from the profanation of the Temple by Antiochus, which was in the 145. yeare, the 15. of Casleu, which was the ninth moneth, 1. Mac. 1. 57. and must ende 45. dayes before Antiochus death.
Iunius setteth downe the time precisely, when the 1290. dayes ended, in the 15. day of the moneth Xanthicus, which is the 11. moneth, in 48. yeare, when Antiochus by his pub∣like edict and writing confirmed and ratified the Iewes religion, restored by Iudas Maccha∣beus: But the time will not agree, if we beginne from the profanation of the Temple, from the 15. of the 9. moneth Casleu in the 45. yeare, from whence to the 15. of the 11. moneth Xanticus in the 48. yeare, are but 3. yeares and iust 2. moneths: therefore Iunius in his com∣mentarie to helpe this, beginneth the profanation of the Temple in the 15. day of the 4. moneth, in the 145. yeare, and citeth 1. Macchab. 1. and so the time will agree: but there the moneth Casleu is named, 1. macchab. 1. 57. which was the ninth not the 4. moneth, 1. Macchab. 4. 52. therefore I rather with Polanus, thinke that the 1290. dayes, determine at such time as Iudas Macchabeus had prosperous successe against the Ammo∣nites with their captaine Timotheus, after he had cleansed the Temple, and Antiochus him∣selfe was forced to suffer the Iewes to enioy their libertie and religion, and this was 45. dayes before the death of Antiochus, though the precise and particular time, be not expres∣sed in storie.
Quest. 26. The tearme of 1335. dayes expounded.
1. This tearme of 45. dayes added to the former number, of a 1290. dayes, maketh it a 1335. dayes: so many dayes after the death and slaughter of Antichrist shall Christ come in his maiestie, Hierome, with whom consenteth herein Pererius, and the Romanists in gene∣rall, because they thinke by this meanes to free the Pope from this imputation, to be Anti∣christ: But this opinion cannot stand. 1. they cannot assigne the right cause, why these 45. dayes should be giuen after the death of Antichrist: Theodoret thinketh that in this space Henoch and Elias shall preach vnto the world: but Hyppolitus holdeth, and so the Romanists generally, that they shall be slaine by Antichrist: some thinke this respite shall be giuen for the repentance of the world: but 45. dayes is a small tearme for repentance: God gaue the old world an 120. yeares for their repentance. 2. if Christ shall come to iudge the world iust 45. dayes after the death of Antichrist, then the verie day of Christs comming may be knowne before, which is contrarie to the Scripture. 3. Lyranus thus argueth, that whereas at the comming of Christ there shall be great peace and securitie, eating and drinking, and feasting, this great securitie would aske a larger space then of 45. dayes.
2. Lyranus noteth, that some Hebrewes take these dayes for so many yeares, that after the setting vp of that abhomination in the Temple, there should be a 1335. yeares to the comming of their Messiah: But they are herein much deceiued: for if they reckon from the setting vp of the idol by Antiochus in the Temple, which was, as Eusebius counteth, in the 153. Olympiad, there are runne aboue a 1700. yeares: if from the last setting vp of the i∣mage of Adrian, which was in the yeare of the Lord an 140. according to Eusebius, then are there expired aboue a 1460. yeares from thence.
3. M. Calvin thinketh that this addition of 45. dayes, signifieth no certaine time: but onely hereby is signified, that although the time seeme to be prolonged for the deliuerance of the Church, yet the godly should waite with patience: so also, Oecolampad. Pellican. But this adding and putting to of one number to another, euidently sheweth, that a certaine summe of yeares or dayes is intended.
4. Melancthon putteth both these numbers of a 1290. and a 1335. together, which make 7. yeares and three moneths: which tearme he beginneth in 145. yeare of the Greeks, Page 482 and endeth in the 151. yeare, when Nicanor was ouercome: But these two numbers haue the same beginning from the time that the daily sacrifice should cease.
5. Some by these two summes put together, vnderstand so many yeares, namely, two thousand six hundred and odde: whereof 6. hundred were expired at Christs comming, and two thousand should runne out afterward: But who can define whether the world shall yet continue 400. yeares, the day, yeare, or houre is not reuealed.
6. Osiander thinketh this last summe of a 1335. yeares to be set for the continuance of the kingdome of Antichrist, vnderstanding so many yeares: but he thinketh it is not known when this tearme taketh beginning, because God would haue the time of Christs comming to iudgement kept secret: But neither shall the kingdome of Antichrist continue so many years: neither doth this prophesie properly, but by way of analogie, cōcerne the latter times.
7. Bullinger taketh these 45. dayes to beginne from the taking of the citie: for immedi∣ately after, many were sold into captiuitie, condemned vnto the mines and stone quarries, some reserued for triumph: therefore he should be thought an happie man, that suruiued vn∣to the ende of these dayes: But these miseries of the Iewes continued longer then 45. dayes or 40. yeares after the destruction of the citie: and what happinesse could there be vnto that nation, to see their, Temple and citie layed wast.
8. Therefore these 45. dayes added to the former summe, are prescribed to shewe the death of Antiochus, which was in the 149. yeare, as 1. Macchab. 6. 16. though the verie moneth and day of his death be not expressed in that historie, yet it is without question, that it was 45. dayes after the religion of the Iewes was restored, and their state setled, Iun. Polanus.
Thus haue we fowre tearmes set downe concerning the persecution of Antiochus, 1. 2300. dayes, c. 8. 14. which maketh 6. yeares, 3. moneths, and 20. dayes, which compre∣hendeth the whole time from the first beginning of that persecution, before the Sanctuarie was defiled: see more hereof, c. 8. quest. 24. 2. there is a time, two times, and a part of time mentioned, c. 7. 25. and c. 12. 7. which containeth the precise time of three yeares and 10. dayes, during the which the daily sacrifice was discontinued. 3. here is one time of 1290. dayes, which endeth at such time as religion was fully restored after the purgation of the Temple. 4. and there is mentioned a fourth time of a 1335. dayes, which endeth at An∣tiochus death.
Quest. 27. Of the last words spoken to Daniel: goe thy waies vnto the ende, v. 13.
1. Melancthon hence inferreth, because mention is here made of the last resurrection, that Daniel shall stand vp in his lot; that the prophesie of Daniel reacheth vnto the ende of the world: But this followeth not because the resurrection is here spoken of, that therefore Da∣niels prophesie comprehendeth the last times, no more then it can be hence concluded, that Daniel should himselfe liue vnto these times: yet we denie not, but that typically many things in this prophesie may be applyed vnto the persecutions of the Church, in the latter dayes.
2. Chrysostome thinketh, that by this speach the Lord reuealed vnto Daniel, that he should not returne into his owne countrey, but die in Babylon in the land of the captiuitie, as the Lord told Moses, that he should not goe into Canaan: But though thus much is not here signified, it is true, that Daniel died out of his owne countrey: and he is forewarned of his ende, which could not be farre off, Daniel beeing now verie old, of more then an 100. yeares.
3. These words▪ goe thy way vnto the ende, doe put Daniel in minde of diuerse things. 1. contentus sis hac mensura, be content with this thy lot, Calvin. he should from henceforth expect no more visions. 2. that he should perseuere and continue vnto the ende, Bulling. 3. and that he should set all things in an order, and not trouble himselfe any further with curi∣ous searching out of these things, but prepare and make himselfe readie for his ende, Iun. in comment. 4. that which God had yet further to reueale for the comfort of his Church, he would reserue for other times, as Ezra, Zacharie, Haggie, Malachie were raised vp after∣ward: the Lord would adorne his Temple at the reedifyi•• thereof with some propheticall visions, M. Br. in commentar.
Quest. 28. Of these words, thou shalt rest, and stand vp in thy lot.
Here two things are promised vnto Daniel. 1. his rest that should followe immediately Page 483 after his death both in bodie and soule. 2. his reward, he should stand vp in his lot in the ende of dayes.
1. He shall rest, both in bodie, in the graue, and in soule, being taken vp into euerlasting ioy: the wicked doe not rest after their death: for their soules goe immediately to the place of torment: as is shewed in the parable of the rich glutton, Luke. 16. But this is the priui∣ledge of those which die in the Lord, they doe rest from their labours, Apocal. 14. 13.
2. He shall stand vp in his lot. 1. Melancthon thus interpreteth, docebis & confirmabis Ecclesiam, &c. thou shalt teach and confirme the Church in the last times: but it is euident, that he speaketh of his standing vp in the resurrection: because mention is made before of his rest. 2. he shall stand vp: for the wicked beeing condemned of their owne conscience, shall not be able to stand in iudgement, Psal. 1. 5. But the righteous shall stand forth and appeare with boldnesse before the Lords tribunall seate, Perer.
3. And the lot and portion of the righteous is euerlasting life: which is called a lot, be∣cause it is giuen freely, and cast out vnto them, without any desert of theirs, Perer. and be∣cause euerie one hath his lot, all shall not haue the same measure of glorie, Polan. And vnto this gracious promise made vnto Daniel, answeareth that holy and comfortable saying of S. Paul, I haue fought a good fight, I haue finished my course, I haue kept the faith, from hence forth is laid vp for me a crowne of righteousnesse, which the Lord the righteous iudge shall giue vnto me, at that day, and not vnto me onely, but vnto all them that loue his appearing, 2. Tim. 4. 8. God graunt vnto vs so to keepe the faith, and to fight a good fight, that we may obtaine that crowne of righteousnesse, through the merits of our blessed Lord and Sauiour Christ Iesus, to whom be praise for euer.
4. Places of doctrine.
Doctr. 1. Of the person and office of Christ.
v. 1. Michael shall stand vp, the great Prince, which standeth for the children of thy peo∣ple: here are three things shewed concerning Christ: 1. his person, he is called Michael, that is, as God, one equall vnto God, a distinct person from the Father, but of the same essence, power, eternitie, who is the brightnesse of the glorie, and the engraued forme of his person, Hebr. 1. 3.
2. His office is described: he is the great Prince: the gouernement is vpon his shoulder, Isa. 9. 6. the Lord of Lords, and the King of Kings, Apocal. 17. 14. the mightie protector and defender of his Church.
3. The benefit which we haue, is this, this Michael standeth for his people to defend them from the rage of Sathan and of his ministers: as our Blessed Sauiour saith, I giue vnto them eternall life, and they shall neuer perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand, Ioh. 10. 28.
Doctr. 2. Of the resurrection of the dead, and the manner thereof.
v. 2. Many of them which sleepe in the dust of the earth, shall awake, &c. 1. Here is con∣firmed that article of our faith concerning the resurrection of the dead: the like hath Iob. 19. 26. Isay. 26. 19. Ezech. 37. 12. and this is the first place in the old Testament, where∣in euident mention is made of eternall life.
2. The diuerse state and condition is described of those which shall rise againe, some vn∣to euerlasting life, and some to perpetuall shame: as our Sauiour saith in the same manner, Ioh. 5. 29. they shall come forth (of their graues) that haue done good, vnto the resurrection of life, but they that haue done euill vnto the resurrection of condemnation.
3. The easines and facilitie of this work is shewed with God: that it is no more for him to raise the body out of the graue, then for the body to awake frō sleep, & to rise out of the bed: & so the righteous are said to rest in their beds, that is, in their graues, Isa. 57. 2. sleepe then is an image of death, then the awaking from sleepe, should put vs in mind of our resurrection, and assure vs thereof: as Tertullian well saith, cum evigilaverit corpus redditum officijs eius, resurrectionem mortuorum tibi affirmat, when thy bodie is awaked beeing restored vnto the duties thereof, it doth affirme and testifie vnto thee the resurrection: lib. de anim. c. 43. the same Tertullian concludeth the resurrection by the example of the Phoenix, which is said to rise out of the ashes of the old Phoenix, whereupon he inferreth, that the bodies of men shall rise againe, avibus Arabiae de resurrectione securis, the birds of Arabia beeing secure of their resurrection, lib. de resurrection. Pintus thinketh that mention is made of the Phoenix in Page 484 the Psal. 92. 12. for where we reade the righteous shall flourish like a palme tree, in the Greeke it is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which signifieth both the bird Phoenix, and a palme tree: but the origi∣nall putteth it out of doubt, where the word tamar is vsed, which is a palme tree: see more concerning the Phoenix, Hexapl. in Gen. c. 7. quest. 7. We haue better arguments to assure vs of the resurrection, then this from the Phoenix. Bullinger, because mention is made of sleeping in the dust, whereout man was taken at the first, doth hence gather an other argu∣ment of the resurrection, because it is as possible for the Lord to raise the bodie out of the dust of the earth, as he created it at the first out of the dust.
4. The qualitie of the bodie is shewed, what it shall be in the resurrection, they shall shine as the brightnesse of the firmament: some qualities of the bodie are essentiall vnto it, without the which it cannot be, as to be visible, to be palpable, to haue parts, as the head, hands, feete, and the rest: these qualities it shall haue in the resurrection: some qualities are essentiall, but not naturall, as to be hungrie, thirstie, heauie, wearie, of a grosse or thick sub∣stance, darke: these qualities shall be laid aside together with corruption: then the bodies of the Saints shall shine as the Sunne, Matth. 13. 43. Polan.
Doctr. 3. The difference betweene Philosophie, and the Christian religion.
v. 3. They which turne many to righteousnesse: This cannot Philosophie doe, conuert men vnto righteousnesse: for like as the starres doe somewhat lighten the night, but they cannot expell darkenesse: so philosophie may giue some light vnto the vnderstanding, but it cannot vtterly chase away ignorance, or giue true knowledge: it is the light of the Gospel that cha∣seth away darkenesse, as the Apostle saith, Rom. 13. the night is past, the day is come, and Christ onely hath the words of ••ernall life, Ioh. 6. 68.
Doctr. 4. That the word of God is not reuea∣led to all.
v. 4. Thou Daniel shut vp the words: Like as this prophesie of Daniel was commanded to be shut vp and sealed, and was not communicated to all: so the secrets of Gods word are onely reuealed to those whom it pleaseth God, Psal. 147. 19. he sheweth his word vnto Ia∣cob, his iudgements to Israel: in the old Testament, the knowledge of the Messiah was not made manifest vnto the Gentiles: and there are now many nations, in Asia, and India, that haue not heard of Christ: hereof no other reason can be giuen, but that it is so the good plea∣sure of God.
Doctr. 5. Of the office, qualitie, and condition of Angels.
v. 6. And one said vnto the man cloathed in linen, &c. when shall be the ende of these won∣ders, &c. 1. In that the Angels doe aske of Christ touching the ende of these afflictions, and calamities of the Church: their compassion therein appeareth, and loue toward the members of Christ, desiring the end of their troubles and afflictions. 2. in that they stand on each side of the man cloathed in linen, which was Christ, they shewe their readinesse, be∣ing alwaies at hand to execute the wil of God for the good of his Church. 3. in calling these things wonders, they therein declare, that they wonder at and admire the workes of God in the Church. 4. and they in asking this question, shewe their desire to profit in the knowledge of Gods secrets: as S. Peter saith, 1. Pet. 1. 12. which things the Angels desire to behold: teaching vs by their example, to proceede in the further knowledge of the myste∣ries of God.
Doct. 6. Concerning the person, dignitie, and office of Christ.
v. 6. The man cloathed in linen, which was vpon the waters of the riuer: 1. here first the person of the Sonne of God is set forth, beeing both God and man: this appearing in humane shewe was a praeludium, and foreshewing of his incarnation, and assuming of our flesh. 2. for his dignitie, he is the word of his father, from him all the elect both Angels and men receiue their illumination and knowledge, for in him are hidde all the treasures of wise∣dome, and knowledge, Coloss. 2. 3. 3. for his office, he is our high Priest, which is signified by his linen garments. 4. for his authoritie, he hath rule and power ouer all nations: and there∣fore he standeth vpon the waters, which signifie the people. 5. his mercie also and loue ap∣peareth, beeing readie to declare vnto the Angels, the thing, which they desired.
Doct. 7. Of the lawfulnesse of an oath, and the manner of it.
v. 7. He sware by him that liueth for euer. 1. In that Christ here taketh an oath, we see that it is lawfull to vse an oath, contrarie to the opinion of the Anabaptists. 2. as Christ here in swearing lifteth vp his hands vnto heauen; so in taking of oathes some externall ceremo∣nie by gesture, or otherwise, may be vsed, which yet is no part of the oath. 3. but an oath must onely be made by the name of God, as here Christ sweareth by him that liueth for e∣uer. 4. the ende of an oath is here obserued: which is either to ende strife and controuersie, or for the confirmation of the truth, as in this place.
Doct. 8. Of the inequalitie and diuerse degrees of glorie in the resurrection.
v. 13. Thou shalt stand vp in thy lot: which sheweth that the Saints shall haue their di∣uerse lots and portions of glorie: for as Christ the head shall excell all his members in glory, so his members shall haue their diuerse lots and degrees: there shall be one lot of the holy Prophets and Apostles, another of the martyrs, another of the holy pastors and teachers, an other of the faithfull and beleeuers: as before the Angel shewed, v. 2. that all the iust shall rise vnto eternall life: but they which conuert others to righteousnesse, shall shine as the starres, Polan.
Doct. 9. Election of grace, not by merit.
v. 13. In thy lot. Pererius well inferreth hereupon, that as a lot is that which is not pro∣cured by any mans industry, but it commeth out vnlooked for, so gratia praedestinationis conting it electis nullo ipsorum merito, &c. the grace of predestination falleth vnto the elect without any merit of theirs, onely by the meere good will and loue of God: as the Apostle sheweth, that the purpose of God might remaine according to election, not by workes, but by him that calleth, Rom. 9. 11.
5. Places of controversie.
1. Controv. Against blasphemous Seruetus, that made himselfe Michael.
It hath beene shewed before, quest. 2. that this Michael was no created Angel, but Christ the Mediator, who is the Prince and protector of his Church, as is there prooued by these 3. aguments out of this place. 1. by the name Michael. 2. by the title here giuen vnto Christ, called the great Prince. 3. by his office, he standeth for the people of God: Herein then appeareth the horrible blasphemie of Seruetus, who as M. Calvin reporteth his words, was not afraid to say, se esse illum Michaelem Ecclesiae custodem, that he was that Mi∣chael the protector and keeper of the Church, &c. What presumption is this for a mortall man to arrogate vnto himselfe that name and title, which is too great to be giuen vnto the Angels?
2. Controv. Whether Henoch and Elias shall stand vp with Michael in the last times.
Pererius, concurring with other Romanists, saith, that beside Michael, who shall be the inuisible protector of the Church, shall stand vp two faithfull witnesses Henoch and Elias, who shall oppose themselues against Antichrist; and they shall preach repentance vnto the world a 1260. dayes, that is 3. yeares and an halfe, Apocal. 11. 3. And that Elias should come in person, beside the receiued opinion of the fathers, as of Theodoret in this place, Au∣gust. lib. 20. de ciuitat. Dei c. 29. he alleadgeth these Scriptures for it, Malach. 3. 4. 5. I will send Elias the Prophet before the comming of the great and fearefull day of the Lord: which must be vnderstood of the second comming of Christ, which shall be fearefull and terrible: Againe, Apocal. 11. 6. it is said of these two faithfull witnesses, these haue power to shut hea∣uen that it raine not in the dayes of their prophesying: wherein there is an allusion vnto Elias, at whose word the raine was staied three yeares and sixe moneths: so Pererius vpon this place.
First, these places giue no warrant for this opinion. 1. the two witnesses are the ministers and preachers of Gods truth, who are said to be two, because their number shall not be great, and yet they shall be so many, as one shall giue witnesse to an other: neither Henoch nor Elias are here named: for these 1260. dayes beeing taken prophetically for so many yeares, two Prophets could not continue preaching so long. 2. that place in Malachie our Page 486 Blessed Sauiour expoundeth of Iohn Baptist, Matth. 11. who should come in the spirit of Elias, to turne the hearts of the fathers to the children, as the Angel saith, Luk. 1. 17. And the first comming of Christ is there vnderstood to be that fearefull day: for in the same place the Prophet saith, v. 2. vnto you that feare my name shall the Sunne of righteousnesse arise: which Zacharie applyeth to the first comming of Christ, Luk. 1. 78. whereby the day spring from an high hath visited vs: It shall be a day of health and saluation vnto the faith∣full, but a day of terror to the wicked and vnbeleeuers, as Iohn Baptist saith, Mat. 3. 12. which hath his fanne in his hand, and will make cleane his floore, and gather his wheate into his gar∣ner, but will burne vp the chaffe with vnquencheable sire. 3. And by the shutting of hea∣uen is by an allegorie signified the efficacie of the preaching of the Gospel, in opening the heauens to the faithfull, and shutting vp the same to all vnbeleeuers, as our Sauiour faith to Peter, Matth. 16. 19. whatsoeuer thou shalt bind in earth, shall be bound in heauen, and what∣soeuer thou shalt loose in earth, shall be loosed in heauen.
Secondly, concerning these witnesses, there is great difference and varietie of opinion, 1. both for the number of them. 2. and who they shall be. 3. and when they shall preach: for the first: the common opinion is, that they shall be but two: yet Lactantius affirmeth, that there shall be onely one Prophet, lib. 7. c. 17. Some thinke there shall be three, Henoch▪ Elias, and Iohn the Euangelist, and this is one of their reasons: because as in the world there haue beene 3. lawes in force, the lawe of nature, the lawe of Moses, the lawe of grace; so it is requisite there should be 3. witnesses that liued vnder these three lawes, Henoch, Elias, and Iohn: Hyppolit. oration. de consum. secul. A•br. Catharin. in Genes. 2.
As great diuersitie there is of opinion, who these witnesses should be: Elias is agreed vp∣on by the most, to be one: but it is doubted who should be the other: Victorinus in Apocal. 11. thinketh, that Ieremie the Prophet shall be the other witnesse: because the Lord saith Ierem 1. 5. I haue ordained thee a Prophet vnto the nations: but then Ieremias onely pro∣phesied to the Hebrewes: to fulfill therefore that saying, he shall come in the ende of the world to prophesie vnto the nations: But Pererius well answeareth vnto this reason: that Ie∣remie is said to prophesie vnto the nations; because he fortelleth the destruction in his pro∣phesie of diuerse nations, the Aegyptians, Moabites, Ammonites, Philistims, with others: Areta vpon the Apocalypse thinketh, that Iohn the euangelist shall be one of the witnesses, whom they suppose yet to be kept aliue in Paradise with Henoch and Elias, because it is said Apocal. 10. 11. thou must prophesie againe among the people, and nations, and tongues, and to many Kings: which was not done in Iohns life time, and therefore he thinketh he shall come in the ende of the world, to prophesie vnto nations: But the meaning of this place is, that Iohn should prophesie vnto nations in the rest of the visions of this booke: and nowe though Iohn be dead, his Reuelation prophesieth still: Pererius also vnderstandeth it of the Gospel, which Iohn did write after his returne from the Isle Pathmos, whereby he prophe∣sieth vnto nations. But it is certaine, that Iohn is not yet aliue in the flesh: as Eusebius proo∣ueth by the testimonie of Polycrates, who was the Apostles disciple, lib. 3. Ecclesi. histor. c. 25. Lyranus thinketh that the two witnesses spoken of Apocal. 11. were Sylverius the Pope and Menna that resisted the Eutychiane heresie. Ioachimus Abbas, and Gagnaeus, vpon the Apocalypse, c. 11. doe thinke that Moses shall be one of these witnesses: that like as he was raised to life to be a witnesse of Christs first comming, when he was transfigured in the mount, so he shall be raised to be a witnesse of his second comming. And this is brought as a probabilitie thereof: because these witnesses are said to haue power ouer waters to turne them into blood, Apocal. 11. 6. which thing Moses had done before.
But 1. it followeth not because Moses was seene in the mount talking with Christ, that therefore he shall come againe before his second comming: for by the same reason it may be inferred, that his three disciples also which went vp to the mount, and sawe him transfigured, should also be witnesses of his second comming, & be sent againe into the world to preach: Sure it is that both the Prophets and Apostles shall accompanie Christ in his second com∣ming, and by the doctrine, which they preached, iudge and condemne the world, Matth. 19. 28. But neither the one nor the other shall be raised vp before the generall resurrection, and sent into the world to preach. 2. by the turning of waters into blood, is vnderstood the threatening of Gods iudgements for the contempt of the ministerie of the word.
3. A third vncertaintie there is concerning the time of the preaching of these two witnes∣ses: Theodoret thinketh that Elias shall preach 45. dayes after that Antichrist is slaine: and Page 487 therefore it is said, v. 12. blessed is he that shall come to the 1335. daies, which is 45. daies more then the former summe of 1290. daies. But Hyppolitus thinketh that Antichrist shall put to death Henoch and Elias, after they haue preached 3. yeares and an halfe: and that af∣ter their death, Antichrist shall raigne 3. yeares and an halfe more. Bellar. lib. 3. de Rom. Pont. thinketh that these two Prophets shall preach 3. yeares and an halfe, that is, 1260. daies, a cap. 8. moneth before Antichrist is slaine, who shall raigne a 1290. daies. This vncertentie sheweth, this to be but a Iewish fable, and a meere imagination of the comming of Henoch and Elias in person in the ende of the world to preach.
3. Controv. What manner of persecution shall be vnder Antichrist.
Pererius thus farre proceedeth well in describing the grieuous persecution which shall be vnder Antichrist, that it shall not be onely corporall and externall in tormenting of the bo∣die, but it shall be also spirituall in abolishing all exercise of religion: he shall burne the bookes of the Scripture, and burne the righteous together with those bookes: he shall for∣bid the vse of the Sacraments; and as Augustine saith, there shall be great difficultie in bap∣tizing of the infants of Christians: lib. 20. de civitat. Dei, c. 8. the sacraments shall not pub∣likely be administred, but priuately. All this is most true, and euery one of these things hath thus come to passe vnder the tyrannie of Antichrist: the true seruice of God was abolished, and prayer in an vnknowne tongue brought into the Church: they haue burned the Mar∣tyrs with bookes of Scripture and of godly prayers together: as is set forth in the storie of the burning of Bucer and Fagius bones, and one Hilliard at Cambridge: the Christians chil∣dren could be hardly baptized, but after their superstitious manner, as the historie of M. Haukes martyr sheweth.
But herein Pererius is deceiued: he thinketh that Antichrist shall take away all images, neither shall suffer any man to signe him with the signe of the crosse, but shall abolish that signe out of euery place.
Contra. 1. It is certen that Antichrist rather shall set vp images and idols of siluer and gold: as in the Revelation, c. 9. 20. after the opening of the sixth and last trumpet saue one, toward the ende of the world, mention is made of those that worshipped idols of siluer and gold, of brasse, &c. and had not repented: now there are none knowne worshippers of such idols in these daies in these part of the world, vnder the Romane Empire, but the Pa∣pists.
2. And Antichrist, as he shall couer his hypocrisie with the name of Christ, so he shall not abolish the signe of Christs crosse, but still rather superstitiously abuse it: robbing Christ indeede of his due honour, and giuing him reuerence onely in outward shewes and signes: as the Iewes clothed Christ in purple, and did obeisance to him in mocking: So that whe∣ther by the marke of the beast, we vnderstand with Iunius the Popish chrysme, which in con∣firmation is laid on with the signe of the crosse vpon forehead and hand: or with Napier the crosses of all kinds superstitiously abused by the Romanists, which are represented in the number of the beasts name expressed in these three Greeke letters 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. as he pithily proo∣ueth, propos. 31. or with D. Fulke S. Peters crosse-keyes, which the Pope vseth as his en∣signe, to the which he forceth euery one to submit himselfe; we shall finde, that the Anti∣christ shall not abolish all such signes, but abuse them rather to superstition and idolatrie.
4. Controv. Of the certentie of election, that none of the elect can finally fall away.
v. 1. In that the Angel here saith, thy people shall be deliuered, euery one that shall be found written in the booke, it is euident, that none there written shall perish: and so consequently whosoeuer is not there written, can not but perish: the first our Sauiour affirmeth, saying vn∣to his Apostles, Luk. 10. 20. Reioyce, for your names are written in heauen: that is, were so written, as that they could neuer be blotted out: in which sense the Prophet Dauid saith, Psal. 119. 89. O Lord, thy word remaineth for euer in heauen: the other also is euident, A∣poc. 20. 15. Whosoeuer was not found written in the booke of life, was cast into the lake of fire.
But against this position of the certentie of Predestination, these places of Scripture are obiected, Exod. 32. 32, 33. Moses saith vnto God, if not rase me out of the booke which thou hast written: and the Lord answeareth, him that sinneth, will I blot out of my booke: likewise Psal. 69. 29. Let him be put out of the booke of the liuing, and let him not be written with the Page 488 righteous. Apoc. 3. 5. He that ouercommeth, &c. I will neuer blot his name out of the booke of life. Apoc. 23. 19. If any shall diminish of the words of the prophecie of this booke, God shall take his part out of the booke of life.
Ans. 1. We refuse here the opinion of Ambros. Catharinus, lib. de praedest. that maketh two orders of those which shall come to euerlasting life: one of such as are predestinate bee∣ing excellent and worthie men; an other of such as are not elected, that is, by the grace of God ordained to saluation, yet through Gods mercie shall be saued. But this opinion is con∣trarie to the Scriptures, which testifie, that whosoeuer is not written in the booke of life, shall be cast into the lake of fire, Apoc. 20. 15.
2. Thomas Aquin. here hath this distinction,* that some are saide to be written in the booke of life, simpliciter, simply, such as are in deede predestinate according to the good purpose of God, and these can neuer be blotted out: others are written secundum quid, after a sort, in respect of their present iustice, these may be blotted out: And as these in respect of their present state may be saide to be written in the booke, so the elect indeede may in re∣spect likewise of their present state, while they remaine in sinne, be saide to be blotted out: And therefore some thinke that the booke which was shewed vnto Ezekiel, was written within and without, in the inside were written onely those, who should be saued, on the backside they which are written onely there for a time.
Contra. 1. This distinction may well be admitted, if some be saide to be written in the booke in respect of their owne opinion, and outward appearance: but none can be said to be there written by God: for as the Preacher saith, Eccles. 3. 14. I know, that whatsoeuer God shall doe, it shall be for euer: his workes are perfect, therefore he writeth not any there, and blotteth them out againe.
3. Wherefore the best solution is this: that God is said to blot out, not properly, but by a certaine similitude, as he is saide in Scripture, to repent, to be angrie: they are blotted out, that is, the Lord declareth by the euent, that they were neuer written there: as Augustine well saith, hoc dictum est secundum spem ipsorum, this is saide in respect of their hope, they tooke themselues to be written there: and they are saide accordingly to be blotted out, that is, non ibi se script•s agnoscent, they shall finde and acknowledge that they are not written there in deede. August. in Psal. 68. So the Scripture sometime speaketh, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, according to the opinion of men: as Matth. 8. 12. the children of the kingdome shall be cast out into darknes: and Matth. 9. 12. I come not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance: here they are called the children of the kingdome, and the righteous, in respect of their own opinion, and others, not that they were so in deede: And so some making a glorious shew for the time of righteousnes, seeme to themselues and others to be written in Gods booke, and yet are not. Pellican.
But yet a further doubt is mooued, concerning Moses words, that wished to be rased out of Gods booke: he was there written in deede, and therefore this solution will not serue here: of this now more in the next place.
5. Contr. In what sense Moses wisheth to be rased out of Gods booke, Exod. 32. 32.
Though this question be sufficiently handled elsewhere,* yet it shall not be amisse to adde somewhat more concerning that matter: and the rather because the other booke may be not so readie at euerie ones hand.
1. Some thinke that Moses speaketh of the booke not of eternall, but of this present life, desiring in effect to giue his life, and to shed his blood, that the people might be saued: in which sense also S. Paul wisheth to be anathema, and accursed for Israels sake: thus Origen in 9. ad Roman. so also Hierome, noluit deleri de libro vitae perpetuo, sed in present•: he would not be blotted out of the booke for euer, but for the present: qu. 19. ad Algasiam: to the same purpose Euthy•ius, who maketh three books of Gods prescience, as is shewed before, quest. 6. and here Moses speaketh, de libro vitae corporis, of the booke of the life of the bo∣die, wherein all men both good and bad are written: But Chrysoctome lib. de compunct. cord. and lib. 3. de pr••ident. by this argument confuteth this opinion: Moses and Pauls desire were all one: now Paul desireth to be separated from Christ for his brethrens sake, Rom. 9. 3. but the death of the bodie doth not separate from Christ, but rather more speedily bringeth the faithful to Christ, as the Apostle •aith, I desire to be dissolued & to be with Christ, Ph. 1. 23.
2. Basil thinketh that Moses and Paul in thus desiring, were not ignorant that they could not be separated from God in thus praying, it proceeding from so great charitie: but Page 489 they rather hoped to receiue so much the more at Gods hand for it: in libr. regular. But if they had thus praied onely of this minde, they had respected themselues more then the glorie of God.
3. August. queast. 140. in Exod. thinketh, that this wish of Moses proceeded ex ingenti quadam divinae familiaritatis securitate, from a wonderfull securitie and familiar assurance that he had with God: and he maketh this to be the effect of Moses speach; either forgiue the people this sinne, or blot me out: but I am assured, thou wilt not blot me out: therefore forgiue them. But the Lords answer, I will blot out him whosoeuer sinneth, sheweth that Moses wish was to be blotted out, and he sheweth not his assurance in so wishing, not to be blotted out.
4. Bernard thinketh that this wish came à paterno affectu, from a fatherly affection, ne solus ipse, excluso populo, &c. that he alone without the people would not attaine vnto euer∣lasting life: serm. 12. in Cant. But this had beene no orderly affection, to wish to be damned with others: the hope of the faithfull is such, that they doubt not to be saued, though all the world beside be damned.
5. Rupert. lib. 3. in Exod. giueth this sense; either forgiue them, or els it must needes fol∣low, that I also be blotted out of thy booke, because I am likewise a sinner: But this had shewed some diffidence and doubtfulnes in Moses of his owne saluation.
6. Hugo in Psal. 138. maketh two bookes of life, one of the present state of iustice, out of the which Moses wisheth to be rased out, the other the booke of predestination: But this had beene to tempt God, to wish to fall from the state of grace into sinne.
7. Caietane thinketh the meaning to be but this, that he desireth to be blotted de libro principatus, out of the booke and decree of his principalitie and gouernment: to loose that princely office, ouer the Lords people, which God had assigned him vnto.
8. And R. Salamon Ioachi much to the same purpose, vnderstandeth by the booke, the Pentateuch, out of the which Moses wisheth his name to be blotted, that is, no mention to be made of his name, or of his acts therein: But Gods answer taketh away both these inter∣pretations, him that sinneth wil I blot out of my book: but in the Pentateuch the names of ma∣ny sinners are written. And Moses only had the principality appointed vnto him for his time, there was none other written there but he: but God speaketh of the blotting out of others.
9. Lyranus thinketh, that as Christ secundum voluntatem partis sensitivae, in the will of his sensitiue part desired the cuppe to passe, quem voluntas rationalis appetebat, which the will of his reason desired: so Moses here, secundum desiderium partis inferioris, in the desire of the inferiour part of his minde, (that is, his will and affection) wisheth to be blotted out, though in his superiour part, that is, in his iudgement, he would not haue it so. But this com∣parison is not alike, for the desire in Christ to escape death was naturall; but this wish of Moses to perish not onely temporally, but eternally, was supernaturall: and to wish one thing one way, and not an other way, includeth a contradiction.
10. Alphons. Abulens. in Exod. thinketh it is an hyperbolical speech, and not literally to be taken, as was that of Rachel to Iaakob, Giue me children, or els I die: not that shee pre∣ferred the hauing of children before her life; but in so speaking shee sheweth her vehement desire. But Gods answer to Moses in the same phrase, sheweth, that Moses so meant in deed.
11. I preferre here therefore the interpretation of Chrysostome in the place before al∣leadged, that Moses and Paul, tanto Dei amore flagrabant, &c. did burne with such loue and zeale to the glorie of God, that in respect thereof, Deo ipso frui pro nihilo reputarunt, they made no account of the fruition of God himselfe: hoc erat eorum propositum, ne Deus ab ipsis summe dilectus, irrideretur ab impijs, this was the purpose and scope of their desire, least God whome they dearely loued, should haue beene laughed to scorne and derided of the wic∣ked: which Moses feared would haue beene, if the Lord should at this time haue destroied his people: as Moses had declared before in his praier, Exod. 32. 12. Wherefore shall the E∣gyptians speake and say, He hath brought them out miraculously to slay them in the moun∣taines. These holy men preferred the glorie of God before their owne saluation.
6. Controv. That the soules of the faithfull departed, doe not sleepe vntill the resur∣rection, but presently enioy the sight of God.
Bellarmine → falsly ascribeth this opinion vnto Luther and Calvin, and vnto the reformed Churches, that the soules of them which depart hence in the Lord, doe not enioy the pre∣sence and sight of God vntill the generall resurrection. Tom. 1. contr. 7. l. 1. c. de canon. sanct.
Page 490 But 1. ← Bellarmine → is much deceiued: for they hold no such thing: it was the opinion of one of the Popes, Iohn 22. which is thus reported by Hadrian the 6. an other of their Popes, in 4. sententiar. de sacram. confirm. artic. 3. Ioannes 22. publice docuit, &c. Iohn the 22. did publikely teach, and commanded also to hold, quod animae purgatae ante sinale iudicium non habent stolam, quae est clara & facialis visio Dei, that the soules beeing purged receiue not their stoale or garment before the finall iudgement, which is the cleare vision of God face to face, &c. 2. This his error might seeme to be grounded out of this text, they that sleepe in the dust shall awake: but this is euidently spoken of their bodies, which are laid in the graue and dust of the earth: which are said to sleepe, because their bodies doe but rest there for a time, they shall be raised againe. But that the soules of the beleeuing doe presently passe out of their bodies vnto heauen, is manifest by the answer of our Sauiour vnto the theefe, This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise: out of which place Gerson Chauncelour of the Vni∣uersitie of Paris, in an oration before the states of France, inferreth, Latronem &c. beatifica∣tum suisse in Paradiso in ipsa hora mortis, that the theefe, though he had not fulfilled his penance, was made blessed in the very houre of his death. Gaguin. histor. Francor. lib. 8. 3. The truth then is this, that the soules of the faithfull departed are presently taken vp vnto rest: but yet their glorie shall be more full and absolute, when the bodies together with soules shall be glorified in the resurrection: as S. Peter faith, 1. epist. 5. 4. When the chiefe shepheard shall appeare, ye shall receiue an incorruptible crowne of glorie. So the Angels that fell, are said to be kept in chaines of darknes vnto damnation, 2. Pet. 2. 4. they are alreadie damned, but yet they shall haue a further consummation of iudgement at the last day. Like∣wise the wicked are said to goe into euerlasting fire in the day of iudgement, Matth. 25. 46. and yet presently after death their soules goe vnto the place of torment, Luk. 16. 23.
7. Controv. That all men shall rise againe, and not onely the faithfull: neither shall they die againe.
Two errors of the Iewes are here conuinced: 1. they hold that the resurrection shall be onely of the righteous, but the wicked, they thinke shall abide in death for euer: But the Angel saith, that of these, which awake out of the dust, some shall awake to shame: the wic∣ked then shall rise againe. 2. The Iewes hold with the Chiliasts, that the iust shall rise a∣gaine, and shall liue a thousand yeares in the earth without any warre or trouble, and after∣ward they shall die againe: But here the Angel saith, that some shall rise vnto euerlasting life: they shall rise then neuer to die againe.
8. Controv. That Christ died not in generall for all, but for such onely as beleeue.
The Vbiquitaries, which hold an omnipresence of Christs flesh in euerie place, doe also hold, that Christ died vniuersally for all men: and that where the Scripture seemeth to speake otherwise, naming many, and not all, as Matth. 26. 28. the blood of Christ was shed for many for remission of sinnes: Rom. 5. 19. by the obedience of one many were made righteous: In these and such like places, many are vnderstood for all, as here in Daniel, many that sleepe in the dust of the earth, shall awake, Pap.
Contra. 1. Why in this place of Daniel, many are named not all, diuerse reasons are be∣fore alleadged, quest. 9. 2. and though in this place many be taken for all, yet it followeth not, that euerie where it should so: in this place it is so, because it is warranted by other places of Scripture: as Ioh. 5. 28. the houre shall come, in the which all that are in the graues, shall heare his voice: But in the other places, many cannot be all, because the Scripture doth not warrant that sense, that Christ intended the benefit of his death to all, but onely to those which beleeue, the holy and vndefiled, Apocal. 14. 3. they sung a new song before the throne, &c. and no man could learne that song, but the hundreth fowre and fourtie thou∣sand, which were bought from the earth: by this place it is euident, that all are not bought by Christs blood, but onely a certaine number, for whom it is ordained: Christs death is in∣deede sufficient for all the world, but is effectuall onely to those which doe beleeue in him: see more of this question of the vniuersalitie of grace, Synops. Centur. 4. err. 23.
9. Controv. That the faithfull doe not iustifie other by way of merit or satisfaction, but as ministers onely of saluation.
In what sense the faithfull seruants of God are saide to iustifie others, as here the Angel Page 491 faith to Daniel, v. 3. is before sufficiently shewed, qu. 12. But the Romanists by occasion of this, and other such like places, as namely that Coloss. 1. 24. where S. Paul thus faith, I fulfill that which is behinde of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh, for his bodies sake, which is the Church: whence the Rhemists inferre: that the sufferings of Christs members are not onely satisfactorie for the sufferers, but for others. But this is a blasphemous assertion, that the passions of any are meritorious or satisfactorie, sauing onely of Christ. 1. The sufferings of Christs members are called his sufferings, because Christ suffereth in his members: 2. but their sufferings are to a farre diuers end, then Christs passion was: for Christ suffered for our redemption: his members suffer not for that ende: for Christs offering was sufficient, which otherwise should haue beene imperfect, if it needed any other supplie: but they suffer both for themselues to be made conformable vnto Christ, and for the confirmation and example of others: in which sense S. Paul saith, 2. Tim. 2. 10. I suffer all things for the Elects sake, that they may also obtaine saluation. So Thomas Aquinas well expoundeth,*passiones sanctorum prosiciunt Ecclesiae, non quidem per modum redemptionis, sed per modum exempli & exhorta∣tionis, &c. the passions of the Saints doe profit the Church, not by way of redemption, but of example and exhortation: according to that saying, 2. Cor. 1. 6. Whether we be troubled, it is for your consolation and saluation, &c.
10. Controv. That the Saints merits as they are diuers doe not merit diuers degrees of glorie.
v. 3. They that be wise, shall shine as the brightnes of the firmament. Though we admit, that there shall be diuersitie of glorie among the Saints in the next world, as one starre dif∣fereth from an other in glorie; yet two errors are here to be taken heede of: 1. the curio∣sitie of the heretikes called Cataphryges, whose sect-masters were Montanus, and his two Prophetesses, Prisca and Maximilla: who imagined that the bodies of the Saints should some exceede the Sunne in glorie an hundred fold, some more, some lesse: which is a curious and idle fansie and speculation: the Scripture saith, that the righteous shall shine as the Sunne in the kingdome of Christ:* but by how many degrees their bodies shall exceede the brightnes of the Sunne, it is a superfluous and curious inquisition. 2. The Romanists thinke, that this difference and diuersitie of glorie is measured vnto the Saints, according to their diuersitie of merit, which is a great error: mens works as they are great and small, shall be a rule, according to the which men shall be iudged, but the greatest works are not meri∣torious of the least degrees of glorie, as Christ teacheth his disciples to say, Luk. 17. 10. When ye haue done all those things, which are commanded you, say ye are vnprofitable ser∣vants.
11. Controv. The Scriptures not so obscure, but all may be admitted to the reading of them.
v. 4. Thou Daniel shut vp the words, &c. Hence Pererius inferreth, that not onely this prophesie of Daniel, but other bookes of Scripture also are obscure, and hard to be vnder∣stood: it should be as a cloased booke to them that would reade it: and thereupon he crieth out against heretikes (meaning in his Iesuited, or rather Iudasited sense the Protestants) which should affirme, omnem diuinam Scripturam cuilibet etiam de vulgo facilem esse & perviam, that all the diuine Scripture is easie and plaine to be vnderstood euen of euery one of the common people. Likewise the Rhemists doe falsely charge the Protestants to say that the Scriptures are so easie, that they may not onely be read, but expounded of the learned and vn∣learned, and that euerie one may make choise of such sense as himselfe liketh, in 1. Pet. 3. vers. 16.
Contra. 1. They doe here notoriously slaunder the Protestants: fot we denie not but that many places in Scripture, are hard to be vnderstood: neither do we giue libertie to ouery one to expound the Scripture as they list. 2. But this we affirme, that the doctrine of faith and of all things necessarie to saluation, is set forth in plaine and manifest places of Scripture, to the reading whereof euen the vnlearned may safely be admitted: as our Blessed Sauiour exhor∣teth generally all, Search the Scrptures, for in them yee thinke to haue eternall life, Ioh. 5. 39. 3. Neither doth it followe, because some things in Daniels prophesie are hard, that all the Scripture is so: and yet the hardnesse of this prophesie was but for a time: for when these things were accomplished, then the meaning thereof plainely appeared: And therefore Da∣niel is bid to seale it vp but for a time: See more of the perspicuitie and plainnesse of Scrip∣ture, Synops. Centur. 1. err. 6.
12. Controv. ← Bellarmine → confuted, who by diuers arguments out of this chapter would prooue the Pope not to be Antichrist.
1. Argum. Antichrist shall raigne onely 3. yeares and an halfe, called here a time, two times, and an halfe: which is defined to be a 1260. daies, Apoc. 11. 3. and 12. 6. But the Pope hath raigned in the Church now more then 1500. yeares at the least: therefore the Pope is not that Antichrist. Bellarm. lib. 3. de Rom. pontif. c. 8.
Ans. 1. The proposition is false: for this place of Daniel is vnderstood of Antiochus, that so long the Sanctuarie should lie prophaned and polluted by him: he was indeede a type of Antichrist, but not in euery respect, as namely in the time and continuance of his ty∣rannie: types doe not answer in euery respect vnto the thing that is shadowed forth, but onely in that wherein they are types: as Dauid and Salomon were types of Christ, yet it fol∣loweth not, that Christs kingdome shall continue but 40. yeares, because they raigned no longer.
2. That tearme of a 1260. daies, mentioned in the Apocalyps, Polanus taketh to signifie that time precisely, namely 3. yeares and an halfe, when the Church of Christ fled from Ieru∣salem vnto a towne called Pella, where they were preserued, during which time the citie was besieged, and at the last taken and destroied: but these daies are rather taken propheti∣cally for so many yeares, 1260. during which time the mysterie of iniquitie did worke in the Church: which tearme some beginne in the yeare 300. so Napier vpon the Reuelation, propos. 36. Iunius also taketh those daies for so many yeares, Apoc. 11. 3.
3. In that he saith the Pope hath raigned 1500. yeares in the Church, therein he confes∣seth that the Pope is the Antichrist, that taketh vpon him to raigne in the Church: whereas S. Peter saith, 1. ep. 5. 3. Not as though ye were Lords ouer (Gods) inheritance. And thus also is euident by his confession, that the said tearme of a 1260. daies taken for yeares, and begin∣ning in the yeare 300. will make that summe of 1500. and somewhat more.
2. Argum. When Antichrist commeth, all externall ceremonies of religion shall cease, and the publike worship of God: but so is it not vnder the Pope: for they haue the daily sa∣crifice of the Masse: Ergo. Bellarm. lib. 3. c. 7.
Ans. 1. Whereas it is here said, v. 11. That the daily sacrifice shall be taken away: it is vnder∣stood not of Antichrist, but of Antiochus, who in deede caused the daily sacrifice to cease: as the author of the bookes of the Macchabees taketh it, 1. Macchab. 1. 57. and Ioseph. lib. 2. antiquit. c. 10. so also Chrysostome expoundeth, and Hierome vpon the 11. chap. v. 30, 31.
2. Neither is it true, that all outward ceremonies of religion shall cease vnder Antichrist: for he shall fit in the Temple of God, and so reteine some outward markes of Christian reli∣gion, as baptisme, and yet in deede be an enemie to the Christian faith.
3. Though in the reformed Church there is (thankes be to God) publike exercise of the right sernice of God; yet vnder the Papacie, the true worship of God is abolished: idolatrie, invocation of Saints, and other strange worships are brought in.
4. The Masse is not that daily sacrifice here spoken of, it is rather that abominable idol, which abrogateth the vertue of Christs sacrifice vpon the crosse, and maketh the oblation of a peece of hallowed bread a sacrifice propitiatorie for the quicke and the dead.
3. Argum. They which goe about to abrogate the sacrifice of the Eucharist, are the fore∣runners of Antichrist: but the Protestants, not the Papists abolish the sacrifice of the Eucha∣rist: Ergo. Bellar. ibid.
Answ. 1. The Protestants doe obserue and keepe the true institution of the Lords Sup∣per, called the Eucharist: which they celebrate as an Eucharisticall and commemoratiue sa∣crifie, not as propitiatiue, as the Papists doe: for Christ hath with one offring consecrated for euer, them, that are sanctified, Heb. 10. 14. therefore he was not to offer himselfe vp often, Heb. 9. 25. we vse it as a commemoration of Christs sacrifice, according to his owne com∣mandement: doe this as oft as ye doe it in remembrance of me: Thus Theodoret writeth, hauing mooued this question, cur noui testamenti sacerdotes mysticum sacrisicium peragunt, &c. why the Priests or ministers of the newe testament doe celebrate a mysticall sacrifice, seeing Christ by his sacrifice, hath made other sacrifices not now to be necessarie: clarum est ijs, qui in rebus diuiuis sunt eruditi, nos non aliud offerre, sed illius vnius & salutaris memoriam pera∣gere, it is well knowne to those which are skilfull in diuine things, that we offer no other sa∣crifice, but celebrate a memorie of that one healthfull sacrifice: for this the Lord himselfe Page 493 commanded, doe this in remembrance of me, &c. so Theodoret in c. 8. ad Hebraeos.
2. But the Papists indeede haue abrogated the true vse of the Eucharist; turning bread into flesh, a Sacrament into a sacrifice, a commemoration into an oblation, eating and drin∣king, into gazing, and shaking to and fro, and lifting vp: in stead of worshipping God, ado∣ring a peice of bread: and such like profanations haue they brought in of the Lords Supper.
4. Argum. 45. dayes after the death of Antichrist, Christ shall come vnto iudgement: But the Pope hath raigned these 500. yeares in the Church, vtroque gladio, by both swords, euen by the protestants owne confession, and yet Christ is not come vnto iudgement: Ergo. Bellar. lib. 3. de Roman. Pontisi. c. 9.
Answ. 1. If iust 45. dayes after the death of Antichrist, Christ shall come to iudge the world, then they which liue at that time shall be able to assigne the verie day of Christs comming, and so shall be wiser then the Angels, to whom the day and houre of Christs comming is vnknowne.
2. This prophesie of a 1335. dayes concerneth not Antichrist, it was fulfilled in the death of Antiochus, who miserably ended his dayes 45. dayes after the restitution of reli∣gion among the Iewes: see before quest. 26.
3. In that ← Bellarmine confesseth, that the Pope hath raigned so long with both swords, therein he sheweth him to be the Antichrist: for Christ saith, learne of me, for I am humble and meeke, Matt. 11. 29. and the Prophet Isay saith, speaking of the kingdome of Christ, c. 11. 9. then shall none hurt or destroy in all the mountaine of mine holinesse: the Pope then, that kil∣leth and destroyeth with the sword the innocent sheepe of Christ, is the verie Antichrist.
6. Morall obseruations.
1. Observ. Michael the great Prince standeth for his people.
v. 1. At that time shall Michael stand vp, &c. This is the comfort of Gods Church, though Turke and Pope, and other aduersaties doe stand vp against them, yet they haue Michael the great Prince to fight for them, who shall deliuer his Church from their cruell rage, and not suffer them further to preuaile, then it shall be for his glorie, and the triall of their faith: and this is that, which our Sauiour hath promised, Behold, I am with you alwaies to the ende of the world, Matth 28. 20.
2. Observ. The hope of the resurrection doth arme vs against all afflictions, yea death it selfe.
v. 3. Many of them that sleepe in the dust of the earth, shall awake, &c. This ought to be our comfort, that although the members of Christ are persecuted in this world, vexed and tormented, giuen to the fire, slaine with the sword, cast into the Sea, yet God shall re∣store vnto them all their parts againe: this was Iobs comfort in his greatest extremitie, c. 19. 25. 26. I knowe my Redeemer liueth, &c. and I shall see him in my flesh.
3. Observ. It is not sufficient to knowe the will of God, but we must teach it others, and doe it our selues.
v. 3. They that turne many to righteousnes: Christ requireth of his disciples both to teach, and themselues to obserue his commandements, Matth. 5. 19. for like as the ostrich hath wings, but flieth not with them: and as the stomake which receiueth meate, and keepeth it, neuer digesteth well, vnlesse it transmit it ouer vnto other parts: so are they which haue knowledge and other gifts, and seeke not to benefit others thereby.
4. Observ. The glorie of the next life, should teach men temperance and sobrietie.
v. 3. They shall shine as the starres: The bodies of the Saints shall be so glorified in the resurrection, that they shall shine as the starres, yea as the Sunne, in the kingdome of God, Matth. 13. 42. If men doe hope to haue their bodies vessels of so great glorie, they must take heede that they defile them not with surfetting, drunkennesse, vncleanesse: Such filthy and polluted vessels, are no fit temples for the spirit of God: Thus S. Peter exhorteth, 2. epist. 3. 14. Beloued, seeing yee looke for such things, be diligent, that yee may be found of him without spot and blamelesse.
5. Observ. Against curiositie.
v. 9. Goe thy way Daniel, for the words are cloased vp: In that Daniel obtaineth not altogether his desire for the knowledge of these hid mysteries, it teacheth vs that we should Page 494 not curiously presse to knowe such things, which it hath pleased God to keepe secret: So the Apostle aduiseth, that no man presume to vnderstand, aboue that which is meete to vnder∣stand but that he vnderstand according to sobrietie, Rom. 12. 3.
6. Observ. Of the vse and ende of affliction.
v. 10. Many shall be purisied, made white, and tried. Here are three effects of affliction expressed. 1. as the wheate is purified from the chaffe, so by affliction the fathfull are discer∣ned from the hypocrites: as the Apostle saith, in an other case, 1. Cor. 11. 19. there must be heresies, that they which are approoued may be knowne. 2. as the cloath by often washing is whited, so by affliction men are purified from their corruptions: as the Prophet Dauid saith, Psal. 119. 67. before I was afflicted I went astray. 3. as the gold and siluer is tried in the fire, so the Lord taketh triall of the faith and patience of his seruants by affliction: as S. Peter saith, 1. epist. 4. 12. Dearely beloued, thinke it not strange concerning the sierie triall, which is among you to prooue you, &c.
7. Observ. Of the fruitfull meditation of death.
v. 13. Goe thy way, for thou shalt rest, and stand vp in thy lot: After that the Lord had reuealed to Daniel by his Angel, the comming of the Messiah, that should finish sinne, and reconcile sinners, c. 9. 24. and beside he had heard what should be the ende of the iust, they should awake vnto euerlasting life: now he is called to prepare himselfe to his ende: so after we haue attained to the knowledge of Christ, we should desire nothing more, then with S. Paul to be dissolued and to be with Christ: and to sing with old Simeon, Lord now lettest thou thy seruant depart in peace according to thy word, for mine eyes haue seene thy saluation. And now blessed be the Lord, who hath suffered me to liue with Simeon to see this great mysterie of saluation reuealed in this booke, who I trust will yet strengthen me in other bookes and parts of holy Scripture, to embrace Christ as it were in mine armes, and to shew him vnto others: that when the course of my poore ministrie is fulfilled, I may sing nunc di∣mittis with Simeon: and so we the seruants of Iesus Christ may comfort our selues with this gracious promise made to Daniel, to rest in peace, and stand vp in our lottes in the day of the Lord: to whom be praise for euer.