The noble arte of venerie or hunting VVherein is handled and set out the vertues, nature, and properties of fiutene sundrie chaces togither, with the order and maner how to hunte and kill euery one of them. Translated and collected for the pleasure of all noblemen and gentlemen, out of the best approued authors, which haue written any thing concerning the same: and reduced into such order and proper termes as are vsed here, in this noble realme of England. The contentes vvhereof shall more playnely appeare in the page next followyng.
Gascoigne, George, 1542?-1577., Turberville, George, 1540?-1610?, attributed name., Fouilloux, Jacques du, 1521?-1580. Vénerie.

Certaine obseruations and suttleties to be vsed by Huntesmen in hunting an Harte at force. Chap. 40.


NOw that I haue treated of suche iudgements & markes as the huntesmen may take of an Harte, and how they should behaue themselues in harboring of a Deare, I thinke meete like∣wise to instruct (according to my simple skill) the huntesmen on Page  110 horsebacke how to chase and hunte an Harte at force: and that aswel by aucthoritie of good & auncient hunters, as also by expe∣rience of mine owne hunting. And bycause at these dayes there are many men which beare hornes and bewgles, and yet cannot tell how to vse them, neyther how to encourage and helpe theyr houndes therwith, but rather do hinder than furder them, hauing neyther skill nor delight to vse true measure in blowyng: and therewithal seyng that Princes and Noble men take no delight in hūtyng, hauing their eyes muftled with the Scarfe of world∣ly wealth, and thinking thereby to make theyr names immor∣tall, which in deede doth often leade them to destruction bothe of bodie and soule, and oftener is cause of the shortening of theyr lyfe (which is their principall treasure here on earth) since a man shall hardly see any of them reygne or liue so long as they did in those dayes that euery Forest rong with hou•…es and hornes, and when plentie of flagon bottels were caried in euery quar∣ter to refreshe them temperately. Therefore I shoulde thinke it labour lost to set downe these things in any perfect order, were it not that I haue good hope to see the nobilitie & youth of En∣gland exercise themselues aswell in that as also in sundrie other noble pastimes of recreation, accordyng to the steppes of theyr Honorable Iuncestors and Progenitours. And therefore I ad∣uenture this trauayle, to set downe in articles and particulari∣ties, the secretes and preceptes of Uenerie as you see.

First then the prickers and Huntesmen on horsebacke, muste vnderstand, that there is diuersitie betweene the termes and wordes whiche they shall vse to Buckhoundes, and the termes and wordes which they shall vse in hunting of the Bore. For an Harte fli•…th and eloyneth himselfe when he is sore hunted, tru∣sting to nothing els but vnto his heeles, nor neuer standeth in his defence vnlesse he be forced: and therefore you shall com∣forte such hounds with lowde and courageous cries and noyses, aswel of your voyce as of your horne also. But when you hunte a wilde Boare or any such beast, you shall do the contrarie, by∣cause they are beasts which are slower, and cannot flee nor eloyne themselues from the houndes: but trust in their tuskes & defence: Page  111 and therfore in such chases, you shall comfort your houndes with furious terrible soundes and noyse, aswell of the voyce as also of your horne, to the ende you may make the chase flee endwayes. And you should alwayes be neare at hande, and holde in with your houndes, & make great noyse least the Bore should hurte or kill them. As touching the Harte and such other light chases or beasts of Uenerie, the huntesmen on horsebacke may followe theyr houndes alwayes by ye same wayes that they saw him passe ouer, & neuer shal neede to crosse nor coast so much for feare least they should rowze some change: and likewise bicause in hunting so, they shal alwayes be best able to helpe at defaultes: and let thē neuer come nearer the hoūdes in crie, thā fiftie or threescore paces, especially at ye first vncoupling, or at casting of their relayes. For if an Harte do make doublings, or wheele about, or crosse before your houndes, if then you come in to hastily, you shall foyle and marre the Slot or view, in such sorte as the houndes should not be able to sent it so well, but should ouershoote the chase, and that would marre the sporte: but if the prickers and huntesmen on horsebacke perceiue that an Harte (beyng rūne an houre or more) make out endwayes before the houndes in chase, & therewithall perceyue that the houndes follow in ful crie taking it right, then they may come in nearer towardes the houndes, & blowe a Re∣chate to their hoūdes to cōforte them. You shal vnderstand here∣with that when a Harte feeles that ye houndes hold in after him, he fleeth & seeketh to beguyle thē: with chaunge in sundry sortes, for he wil seeke other Hartes & Deare at layre, & rowzeth them before the houndes to make them hunte chaunge: therewithall he wil lie flat downe vpon his bellie in some of their layres, & so let the houndes ouershoote him: and bicause they should haue no sent of him, nor vent him, he wil trusse al his. iii. feete vn•…er his belly & wil blow & breath vpō ye grounde in some moyst place: in such forte y I haue seene the houndes passe by such an Harte within a yeard of him & neuer vēt him: & this subtiltie doth nature endow him with, yt he knoweth his breath & his feete to giue greater sent vnto y houndes thā al the rest of his bodie. And therfore at such a time he wil abide ye horsemē to ride ful vpō him, before he wilbe Page  112 reared, and this is one especiall reason wherefore the horsemen & huntsmen should blemish at suche places as they see the Harte entre into a thicket or couert to the ende that if the houndes fall to change, they may returne to those blemishes, and put their houndes to the right slot and view, vntill they haue rowzed or founde him againe with their bloudhounde, or with some other stanche old hounde of the kenell, in the which they may affie thē∣selues. For old staunche houndes which will not hunte change, when they see an Harte rowzed & before them, they neuer call on nor once open: but if they be yong rashe houndes they wil runne with full crie and so take change. Wherfore in such respectes the huntesmen on horsebacke must haue great cōsideration, & let thē neuer affie themselues in yong houndes, vnlesse they see some old stanche houndes amongst them: and if there be two prickers or huntesmen on horsebacke together, that one shal run to the hoūds & rate them, that other shal hallow, and call them into the place where they made the default, & there let thē beate well with their houndes, cōforting them vntil they may finde the Harte againe. And if he heare any old sure hounde bay or open, let him make in to him & looke on the slot whether he hunt right or not: and if he find that it be right let him blow with hishorne, and afterwards halow vnto that hounde naming him, as to say, Hyke a Talbot, or Hyke a B•…wmont Hyke Hyke, to him, to him, &c. Thē the other huntesmen shall beate in theyr houndes to him, & by that meanes they shall renewe the chase and finde him agayne. I gaine a Hart bringeth the houndes to change in an other manner: for as soone as he perceyueth that the houndes runne him, and that he cannot eschew them, he will breake into one thicket after another to finde other Deare, and rowseth them, and heardeth himselfe with them. So that he holdeth herd with thē somtimes an houre or more before he will parte from them or breake heard: then if he feele himselfe spent, he will breake heard, and fall a doubling & crossing in some harde high way that is much beaten, or els in some riuer or brooke the which he wil keepe as long as his breath will suffer him: and when he perceyueth that he is farre before the houndes, he will vse like subtilties as before to beguyle them, Page  113 lying •…lat vpon his belly in some harde way or drie place, and crossing all his foure feete vnderneath him, breathing and blow∣ing against the grounde as before saide, or against the water if he haue taken the soylein such sort, that of all his body you shal see nothing but his nose: and I haue seene diuers lye so, vntyll the houndes haue bene vpon them before they would ryse. In these cases the huntesmen must haue especiall regarde to their olde sure houndes, when they perceyue a Deare to seeke the hearde so, for. the olde sure houndes will hunt leysurely and fearefully, when the rashe young houndes will ouershoote it. And therefore neuer regarde the yong houndes but the olde stanche houndes: and trust in the olde houndes gyuing them leysure, and being neare them to helpe and comfort them, euer∣more blemyshing as you perceyue and fynde any Slot or view of the Deare that is hunted.

And if so chance that the houndes be at default, or that they disseuer and hunt in two or three sundry cōpanies, then may they 〈◊〉 thereby that the Hart hath broken heard frō the fresh deare, and that the sayd fresh Deare do separate them selues al•…o. And they must not then trust to a yong hounde (as before sayde) how good so euer he make it, but they must regarde which way the old stanch hounds make it, and make in to them loking vpon the Slot, view, or soyle. And when they haue found the right, & per∣ceiue that the Hart hath broken heard frō the other Deare, let thē blemish there, and blow, and cry, There he goe•…h, thats he, thats he, •…o him, to him, naming the hound that goth away with the vaut∣chace, and hallowing the rest vnto him. You shall also haue re∣gard that hounds can not so well make it good in the hard high wayes, as in other places, bicause they can not there haue so per∣fect sent, and that for diuers causes. For in those high ways there are the tracke and footing of diuers sundry sorts of cattell which beate them continually, and breake the ground to dust with their feete in suche sort, that when the houndes put their noses to the ground to sent, the pouder and dust snuffeth vp into their noses, & marres their sent. And againe, the vehement heate of the Sun doth dry vp the moisture of the earth, so that the dust couereth the Page  114 slot or view of the Deare as he runneth, & that is the sent wher∣by the houndes hunte principally, whereas vpō the greene groūd the Harte leaueth sent vpon the grasse or boughes where he pas∣seth or toucheth with his bodie. Many other reasons there are to proue that in ye high wayes a hounde cannot haue so good sent as in other places, the whiche I passe ouer for breuitie. And in such place an Harte wil subtilly make crosses and doublings, or hold the same long together to make the houndes giue it ouer: such is the benefite of nature to giue the dūbe beast vnderstāding which way to help himself, as it giueth also vnderstanding to al liuing creatures to eschew and auoyde their contrarie, and their aduer∣sarie, and to saue it selfe by all meanes possible. But when the huntesmen shal finde their houndes at default vpon such an high way, then let them looke narowly whether the Harte haue dou∣bled, or crossed: and if they finde that he haue, as to runne right end wayes, & come backe againe counter vpon the same, then let them crie to their houndes to encourage them, To him boyes, coun∣ter, To him, to him. And let them treade out the counter slottes in sight of their houndes, helping & comforting thē alwayes, vntill they haue brought them where he entred into some thicket or co∣uert, and there let them stay theyr houndes vntill they make it good vpō the sides of the high wayes, or thickets, and not within the couerts: for when they are once entred into the couerts, they shall haue much better sent, and shal not so soone ouershoote it, as they should haue done in the high wayes. For there the grasse, & the leaues & such other things do keepe the sent fresher, and also the ground being moyster, an Harte cānot so 〈◊〉 touch it with his feete or bodie, but he shall leaue sent for the houndes: and let the huntesinen inake blemishes all the way as they passe, & beate the places wel with their houndes, cōforting and helping them ye best that they can: and if any one hounde cal on alone, the huntes∣men must make in to him, & looke by ye slot or other tokens what it should be that he hunteth: and if they finde that he 〈◊〉 the chaffed Deare, they shall rechate in for the rest of the houndes, & name that hounde to them, as to say Talbot, á Talbot, á Talbot, as beforesayd. It hapneth oftētimes also yt an Harte passeth by some Page  115 coleharthes or place where things haue bene buried: and then the houndes cannot haue so good sent, bicause the hote sent of the fire smoothreth the houndes, & makes thē forget the sent of the Harte. In such case the huntsmē may marke which way the Harte held head, and coast by the coleharthes with their hoūdes quickly, vn∣til they come on the farside thereof: there let thē beate well vntill theyr houndes make it good againe by the slot or other tokens, or by the sent which they must needes finde in the fresh ayre passing thus by and staying not. But if an Harte breake out before the houndes into the champaigne countrie, and that it be in the heate of the day, betweene noone & three of the clocke: then if the huntes∣men perceiue that theyr houndes be out of breath, they must not force them much, but cōfort them the best yt they can, and though they heare not theyr best houndes cal on vpon the Slot or view, yet if they wagge theyr tayles it is inough: for peraduenture the houndes are so spent with the vehement heate, that it is painefull to them to call on, or that they be out of breath: and therefore in such case the huntesmē shal do well to follow afarre off without ouerlaying or ouerriding of thē as I haue beforesayd. And if yt houndes giue ouer and be tyred, then let the huntesmen blemishe vpon the last Slot or view, and go with their houndes into the next village, where they shall giue thē bread and water, & keepe thē about them vnder some tree or shade vntill the heate of ye day be ouer, and let them sometimes blowe to call in theyr boyes or seruants which follow on foote, and their other cōpanions, about three of the clocke, they may go backe to their last blemishe, and put their houndes to the Slot or view: and if any of theyr var∣lettes or Boyes had a bloudhounde there, let him put his bloud∣hounde to the Slot or view, and drawe before the houndes with him, cherishyng and comforting him, and neuer fearyng to make him open in the string: for the other houndes hearing him open, will come in and take it right, leauyng their defaultes. Thus shoulde the Huntesmen holde on beating and following vntill they haue reared and found the Harte againe. You shall vnderstand that when a Harte is spent and sore rūne, his last e∣fuge is to the water whiche hunters call the soyle, and he will Page  116 cōmonly therefore rather descend downe the streame, than 〈◊〉 against it, especially if the hounds run him well. And it seemeth he hath naturally this vnderstanding, that he knoweth if he shuld not swimme against the streame when he goeth to the soyle, the houndes would haue greater sent of him, than when he descen∣ded downe the streame. For the wynde would alwayes beare the sent vpon them, and also it were more painefull and greater trauell to him selfe, to swymme against the streame, than to swymme downe the streame. Understande then that if a Harte be sore runne, and come to a Ryuer or water, he will common∣ly take it, and swymme in the verie middest thereof, for he will take as good heede as he can, to touch no boughes or twygges that grow vpon the sides of the Ryuer, for feare least the hounds shoulde thereby take sent of him. And h•… will swymme along the ryuer long time before he come out, vnlesse he light vpon some blocke or other suche thing which stop him in the streame, and then he is forced to come out. In such places the huntesmen must haue good regard to blemish at the place where he first toke soyle: and let them marke there wel which way he maketh head, the which they may perceiue either by their houndes, or by mar∣king which way he fled when he came thether. Let them make their houndes take the water and swymme therein: for they may •…nde sent vpon the bulrushes or weedes which growe in the ry∣uer. Or otherwise, the huntesmen them selues may seeke to finde where the Harte hath forsaken the soyle (which huntesmen call breaking of the water) and there they shall finde by the grasse or hearbes which he hath borne downe before him, which waye he maketh heade. When they finde assuredly which way he maketh heade, then let them call their houndes out of the water, for feare least they founder them with too much colde after their heate. And if there be three huntesinen of them together, let two of thē get one of the one side of the riuer, and another on that other side, and let the thirde get him before that waye that the Harte hath made heade, to see if he can espye him swymming or lying in the water: the two huntsmen which shalbe on each side of the ryuer, shal beate with their hounds each of thē vpō his side, & far inough Page  117 from the bankes. For they shal haue better sent. xx. or. xxx. paces off, than they should haue at the verie side or banke of the ryuer. And the reason is, that when the Hart commeth out of the water he is al wet and moyled with water, which poureth downe his legs in such abundance, that it drownes the Slot or view. But cōmonly he rouseth and shaketh the water off him at his cōming out therof, so that by that time he haue gone. xx. or. xxx. paces, the Slot is better, and the hounds shall sent him much better. Ne∣uerthelesse the huntsmen them selues should kepe alwayes neare to the riuer: for somtimes the Hart will lye vnder the water all but his very nose, as I haue before rehearsed: Or may percase lye in some bed of bulrushes, or in some tuft of sallowes, so that they might leaue him behind them: and then assone as they were past, he might goe counter backe againe the same way that he came. For commonly a Harte hath that craftie pollicie to suffer the hounds to ouershoot him, and the huntsmen to passe by him. And assone as they be past, he will steale back & go coūter right back∣wards in ye same track or path yt he came. This hapneth not oftē, vnlesse the riuer be full of sallows or such bushes, and neare vnto some forest. But let some one of ye Huntesmen haue alwayes an eye to the Riuer, & let the rest beate with theyr hoūdes. xx. paces from the bankes, and so let them keepe on altogether vntill they finde where he brake water: and if they finde any blocke or beame, or such thing that lieth crosse ouerthwarte the streame, let them looke there whether he haue broken water or not, for vnlesse it be at such a place, or at suche a let, a Harte will keepe the wa∣ter long, especially when he breaketh from the houndes ouer a champaigne countrie: for at such times they will holde the wa∣ter as long as they can, and also at such times they trust no lon∣ger neyther in their thickets, nor in their swiftnesse, but are con∣strayned to seeke the soyle as their last refuge. And here I thinke it not amisse to aduertise you, that an Harte dreadeth the Northerne windes, and the Southerne windes much more than he doth the Easterly or Westerly windes, in such sorte that if at his breakyng out of a couert, when he seeketh to breake from the houndes endwaies ouer the champaigne, he feele either a North∣winde Page  118 or a Southwinde blow, he will neuer runne into it, but turnes his backe and takes it in his tayle, and this he dothe for diuers respects. The first is bycause the Northwinde is colde and sharpe, and drieth exceedingly, and the Southwinde is hote and corrupt, bycause it commeth vnder the circle of the Sunne, the whiche ouercommeth him and settes him vp quickly by the vehement sweltrie heate thereof. And if he should runne into a∣ny of those two windes, it would quickly enter his throte when he is embost and beginneth to be spent, and would drie his throte and his tongue sore, and would alter and chafe him much with the vehement heate thereof. Also those windes are commonly great and tempestuous, and if he should runne against them, his head and hornes woulde be as a sayle to holde him backe, the which might much let him in his runnyng. Agayne, he know∣eth that if he runne into the winde, the houndes shall haue the better sent of him, and neede not so much to lay theyr noses to the ground but may hunte vpon the winde. Also he himself doth couet alwayes both to see and heare the houndes whiche follow him. And although Phoebus sayeth that all Hartes do commonly runne downe the winde how so euer it sitte, yet haue I found it otherwise by experience: and especially when it bloweth frō the Seawardes, which is a moyst winde, and then a Harte will co∣uet to rūne agaynst the winde: but doubtlesse a Harte doth feare the Northerlywinde and the Southwinde, as I haue sayde be∣fore: and so do all other beasts, as Spaniels or hoūdes, the which wil not hunte so wel in those windes, as they do at other times. Also you shal vnderstād, that a Harte doth foreloyne and breake out before the houndes for diuers reasons, especially in Aprill or May, when his head is bloudie and soft: for then if he be hunted he dareth not holde in the thickets or couerts for hurtyng of his head: but is 〈◊〉 to come forth of the strong holdes, and then he breaketh ouer the champaigne Countries, and seeketh to forloyne or to breake from the houndes, and then he doubleth, crosseth, &c. Or it may be that a harte forsaketh the couert for an other reason: bicause in the thickets he trauayleth more, & beateth himself sorer in bearing downe the boughes before him: & cannot Page  119 make way so wel before the houndes: for they beyng much lesser than he, do runne with greater ease in the hollow of the woodes below, and in like maner h•… cannot crosse nor double so well in the couert as he may do in the playne champaigne. And for these causes he is constreyned (as it were) to go out either into the hol∣low woodes, or into the champaigne. And there let the Huntes∣men haue good regarde, for a hounde may much sooner be at de∣fault in the hollow woodes than in the strong couerts, hauing more scope to cast about & to rāg•… furder out when they are hote & madbrayned, & so they may ouershoote the slotte, if the Huntes∣men be any thing hastie with them, & ouerley them, or ouereyde them and hunte change: the which they cannot so lightly do in ye strong couerts, for there they runne directly vpon the foote of the Deare: and cannot cast out neither one way nor other so redily, for they feare euermore to leese the right tracke where the Harte went. And therfore a Huntsmā shal take greater heede to chāge in the hollow high woodes, than in yonger springs: for a hounde will sooner ouershoote and hunte out in the hollowes, than in the strong holdes. Also in hollow high woodes a Harte dothe fore∣loyne more & breaketh furder from the houndes, and hath more leysure to crosse & double, and to seeke the change amongst other Deare thā he hath in strōger couerts: also an Hart doth forloyne or breake out frō the houndes for an other cause: that is when he feeleth himself sore layed to by the houndes, & seeth yt no subtiltie helpeth him, then becōmeth he amased and looseth his courage, and knoweth not whiche way to take, but passeth at al aduen∣ture ouer the fieldes, and through the villages & such other places. Then should the Huntesmen drawe neare to their houndes, and if they perceiue them at any default, they shall neuer go backe to any Slot or viewe, but go on still, and hunte forwardes: for a Deare that is spent or sore hunted, and that seeketh to foreloyne or breake from the houndes, will neuer tarie to crosse or double, but holdeth head onwardes still as long as breath serueth him, vnlesse he haue some soyle in the winde, then he may chaunce go aside to take the Soyle, but els not. True it is that if he breake out into the chāpaigne for any cause before mentioned, & be not Page  120 sore spent, nor beginne to sinke before the houndes, then he maye chance to double, crosse, and vse other subtleties: but if he be spent, he will sildome vse any subtletie, but onely to lye flat vpon his belly awhyle, and that not long neither. Furthermore you shall nowe vnderstande that there is great difference in finding out the subtleties of a Deare in the Forestes or strong holdes, and those which he vseth in the playinā chpaigne. For in the strōg co∣uerts you must cast about neare vnto the last Slot that you find, and you must hold in as neare as you can. For if the huntesmen cast wide out in beating for it, they maye chaunce to light vpon change, which will carie out your hounds to your great disad∣uantage. But in the champaigne you maye cast about at large without dread of chaunge: and that in the freshest and most cō∣modious places, where they might soonest finde viewe, and so make it out, and whereas also the houndes maye haue best sent. For in the sandhils and drye places, a hounde can not make it out so well, by reason of the dust and sande which will strike vp into his nose, and by reason that the Sunne doth sooner drye vp the moysture from the ground in those places. Again, bicause in such heathy places, and barreyne grounds, there is neyther grasse nor any thing whereon the Deare may leaue sent so well: and that is the cause that Huntesmen may caste aboute in the moste conuenient moyst places, and in the freshe vnder some bushe or shade where the earth is not so much dried and parched with the Sunne: and if they cannot make it out at the firste casting a∣boute, they may then caste about the second time a larger com∣passe: and if by that meanes they make it not out, then may they presume that he is within that compasse and precincte which they haue so caste about, or else that the Harte hath made some crossyng or some doublyng, or vsed some subtiltie: then let them leade backe theyr houndes to the place where they first fell at de∣fault, and put their houndes to it vpon the Slotte, or where the earth is broken as they went before, and lette them beate it well with their houndes, speaking to them and cherishyng them all that they cā deuise, aswell with their voyce as with their hornes: and let them looke well to the grounde to helpe their houndes. Page  121 And it shal not be possible (thus doyng) but that you shal rowze the Deare againe within the circuite and compasse that you had earst cast about: and at the least if you do not, you shall yet finde where he is gone on, and so make it out, vnlesse the extremitie of the heate do altogether marre your hou•…des Hunting. Further∣more you shall remember, that when an Harte breaketh out frō the houndes, by the two firste places where you stay vpon any crossyng or doublyng that he hath made, you shall perceyue all the subtilties and pollicies which he will vse all that day after. For if his t•…oo first doublings or other subtilties be in an high waye, or in á water, then all the rest that he will vse all the day after will be in the same manner. And then let the Huntesmen marke well on whiche hand he turneth when he parteth: for on whiche hand soeuer he turne the two firste times, on the same hand he will turne (at his parting) all the day after, whether it be on the right hand or on the left hand: And therefore remem∣ber euer when you come at any default to beate first on that hād which he tooke at the two first defaults. Also an Harte doth of∣tentimes vse greate pollicies in the pathes within the greate woodes and strong couerts, or els will follow such a pathe vn∣till he come to the outside of the woode, as though he woulde come out into the playne, and will immediately fall to dou∣ble and crosse, returnyng flat counter, sometimes two boweshot togethers: then the Huntesmen to make it out at such a default muste take good heede that theyr houndes take not the counter, bycause the Harte is 〈◊〉 backwardes therewith so farre: and also they shall finde the Slotte or view, (or at least the foyles of the view) fresher in the couert, than they should do abroade in the fielde, the which may carrie them farre backe vpon the counter. Wherefore at such defaults the Huntesmen shall not be to hastie with their houndes, but rather giue them leysure, and let them hunte in dread and doubt vntill they haue made it out perfectly. Also there be some Hartes, whiche when they rise out of their layres will halte, or fall downe vpon their bellie before the Huntesmen, and seeme to reele and royle before the houndes, as if they were spent and sore hunted not long before: by such sub∣tleties Page  122 you may iudge •…asily that they are olde beaten Deare, & wel breathed, & wil stand long vp before your houndes, tru∣sting much in their force & swiftnese: for a huntsman may easily know when a Harte is spent in deede, and when he beginneth to sinke and will not long holde vp, by diuers tokens. First if he neyther regard, heare nor see any man or any thing before hin•… when the houndes runne him: or if he beare his head lowe, put∣ting his nose downe to the grounde, and reele or folter with his legges, shewyng how feeble he is in deede, or if he espie a man before him, he rayseth vp his head, and maketh great boundes and leapes on heigth as though he were lustie and freshe (as I haue sayde heretofore) but such friskes will not last long: for when he is a little past by, he will stretche out his necke agayne and hold downe his head and will reele and wallow as before sayde. Or els likewise you may know when a Deare is spent, if his mouth and throte be blacke and drie without any froth or fome vpon it, and his tongue hangyng out: likewise by his Slot or view where you finde it, for oftentimes he will close his clawes to∣gethers as if he went at leysure, and streight way agayne will open them and stray them wyde, making great glydings, and hitting his dewclawes vpon the grounde, or his shanke bones sometimes, and will commonly followe the beaten pathes and wayes, and neuer double nor crosse but verie little. And if he come to a hedge or a dytch, he will goe all alongst to seeke some brack or beaten leape, bicause he hath not force to leape it round∣ly of him selfe. By all these tokens you may know when a deare is spent and readie to fall. Thus will I ende this chapter, pray∣ing all expert huntsmen and masters of Uenerie to hold me ex∣cused, if I haue ouerskipped, or left out any thing meete to be set downe, for as much as it is hard for any man to set down so wel in writing, as he might put it in execution. But always re∣member that the Arte it selfe requireth great skyll, wit, and pol∣licie, in a huntsman: and that he gouerne him selfe according to the varietie of occasions, and according to the presumptions that he shall see in the Deares wyles and subtleties: therewithall that he haue respect to the goodnesse or imperfection of the houndes, Page  123 and to the crossings and doublings of the Deare together with the places where the same are made. And therevpon he maye make his ring, and cast about litle or much, according to the cō∣moditie of the place, time, & season. For houndes will moreouer shoot in the heate, and in the time that there is most sent vpon the herbes, flowres, and grasse, than at any other season of the yeare. And therefore at such times and places, you shall do well to cast about a greater compasse or circuite, and oftner also, seeking moyst and fresh places for the better sent and aduauntage of the houndes. Thus doing, you haue verie euill lucke if you lose a Hart by default: so that you will take paynes and giue not ouer for a little discomfort. Yea when you are ouertaken with the night, or that your houndes are surbayted and wearie, yet a good huntesman should not thereat be abashed, nor discomfited, but blemishe vpon the last Slot or viewe, and to him agayne in the morning.