The chronicles of England from Brute vnto this present yeare of Christ. 1580. Collected by Iohn Stow citizen of London.
Stow, John, 1525?-1605.
Page  617

King Henry of Windsor.


HEnrie the sixth, being an in∣fant of eight moneths old, beganne* his raigne the last of August, in the yeare 1422. Continuing the time of his youth, the gouernance of the Realme was committed to ye Duke of Glocester, and the gard of his per∣son to the Duke of Excester: and to the Duke of Bedford was giuen the regiment of France, who right wisely and nobly ruled the same so long as he liued. This Henry was of witte and nature simple, gentle, and méeke: he loued better peace than warre, quietnesse of mind than businesse of the world: honestie than profite: rest and ase than trouble and care: all iniuries that euer happened to him, which were many, he suffered patiently, and repu∣ted them to be worthely sent of God for his offences.

William Gastfield: Robert Tatarsale, the 28. of Septem.*

William Walderne Mercer, the 28. of October.

The xxj. of October, Charles King of France passed out of Page  618 this world, and was buried at S. Denis in France after he ha* bin Crowned King 46. yeares. He was greatly beloued of his people all his life time, and therefore was called Le Roy Charle le biew ame: but yet he had a sicknesse the more part of his raigne, that being out of his witte, he woulde strike all that came néere him: it tooke him first in the Citie of Mans shortly after he had bin in Flanders to reduce the Flemings to obedience. There was by reason héereof great trouble in France, bycause those that were néere to him in lignage, sought euery one to haue the chiefe gouernement in theyr hands. When he thus dyed, the Realme was left in mise∣rable state, for people of each strange nation were gouer∣noures in the Realme. First, the Englishmen had conquered a great parte, and sought to haue the rest: and the Duke of Burgoigne, with many other great Lordes alied with hym, sought to conquere all, for the yong King Henry of Englande who claymed then to be King of France, and likewise in all* the money that was coyned, the Axmes of both Realmes were quartered. The Crownes that were stamped in the tyme of Charles, and all other money more, were forbidden to be currant, and called to the Minte. King Henry caused a péece to be stamped called a Salus, worth two and twen∣tie Shillings, and Blans of eyghtpence a péece, and so in no place of France where King Henry was obeyed, any o∣ther money was receyued, but suche as had the Armes of France and England stamped on it.

Charles Duke of Tourayne the Dolphin, sonne to King Charles le biew ame, clayming to be right inheritor to the* Realme of France, by the auntient Edictes and customes of the sayde Realme as was alledged, proclaymed himselfe King after the deceasse of hys father, notwithstanding, by the agréement made at the marriage of his Sister to the King of England, it was otherwise concluded (as before is recited) and so there were two Kings in France, Henry and Charles, both which striuing for the Crowne, the Realme* was in way of perdition.

Page  619A Parliament at London began the ninth of Nouember,* wherin was granted to the King a subsedie for thrée yeares, fiue nobles of euery sacke of wooll that should passe out of the land.

This yeare, the Weast Gate of London (sometime called*Chamberlaine Gate) was begon to be new builded, by the exe∣cutors of Sir Richard Whitington, late Maior of London.

King Charles of France began now to aduance himselfe into the D. of Burgoignes lands, and the Connestable of Scot∣land, accompanied with many Lords, and men of war of K. Charles side, layd séege to the towne of Carnens, but the Mar∣shall of Burgoigne assembled men of warre to raise the séege, with whome went the Earle of Salisburie, a valiant mā, and* now being come togither, fought with their enimies, wan the field, tooke the Connestable, whose sonne was slayne in the field. Many of K. Charles men were slayne and taken to the number of tenne or twelue hundred good men of warre. After whiche victorie, the Earle of Salisburie layde séege to Montaguillon in Champeigne, and continued there an eyght monethes before he could haue it rendred, and then caused the same to be rased and throwne downe. Then the Earle of Salisburie beséeged the Castell of Monnes, which at length* was yéelded to him: this Castell he also rased & bet downe, which was the strongest place in all Champaigne, it was af∣ter repaired by King Charles.

Nicholas Iames: Thomas Wanford, the 28. of Septemb▪*

William Crowmar Draper, the 28. of October.

About the same time, the Duke of Burgoigne gaue his si∣ster the Lady Anne in marriage to the Duke of Bedford, and so the alliance was made more strong betwixt the English & the Burgonians.

Phillip de Comines writeth, that Iohn D. of Bedford, was* Regent in France for the Englishmen, his monethly allowāce in that office amounting to 20000. Crownes at the least.

Also, y Dukes of Burgoigne, Bedford, & Britein, met in ye town Page  620 of Amiens, there was also the Earle of Richmont, brother to the Duke of Briteine, and many other great Lordes, whiche Earle of Richmont had married the Duke of Briteines eldest sister Margaret, sometime wife to the Duke of Guyen, and Dolphin of France. These thrée Dukes were fiue or sixe dayes togither in Amiens, in great friendship and reuerence each to other, promising perpetuall amitie to continue. Af∣ter this, the Duke of Briteine returned into his Countrey, the Duke of Bedford, (Regent of France,) to Paris, and the D. of Burgoigne, to Arras, but within a while after: the Earle of Richmont reuolted to King Charles, vpon some misliking he had conceyued against the Duke of Bedford. King Charles receyued him ioyfully, & made him Connestable of France.

About the same time, the Duke of Bedford caused Crotoy to be beséeged both by water and by land, which after foure or fiue monethes séege, was both Towne and Castell deli∣uered to the Duke, where he ordeyned Ralph Butler to bée Captayne. At that time, the Duke of Bedford was obeyed as Regent in all places through Vimeu, Pontieu, and Picardy, from Paris to Reins, Chalons, & Troyes, vp to the water of Loyre.

About the feast of Saint Andrew, the Captaynes of King Charles assembled their forces about Le Fere, and Nelle, and tooke by night the Towne of Campeigne, and spoyled the in∣habitants of all their goodes. Shortly after came the Duke of Bedford to Mondidier with twelue hundreth fighting mē, and requested the Lord of Sanenses to lay séege to Campeigne, and he woulde finde him men and money to wage them, wherevnto he graunted, and after fiftéene dayes séege, had the same deliuered.

In the moneth of February, Iames Steward, the yong King of Scottes, who was taken by the Englishmen in the* eyght yeare of King Henry the fourth, and had remayned in England prisoner till this time, was now deliuered, and married in Saint Mary Oueryes Church in Southwarke to the Lady Iane, daughter to Iohn Earle of Somerset, Cousin to King Henry.

Page  621Sir Iohn Mortimer Knight was drawne to Tiborne, and there hanged and quartered, but his body was buryed in Saint Iohns Church at Clarkenwell.

King Henryes people beséeging the Castell of Dinry in* the marches of Normandy, they within compounded to yéeld at a day assigned, if the Englishmen were not fought withall before the same day by the Frenchmen: wherevpon as well King Charles, as the Duke of Bedford, made great leuies of men to kéepe the day appoynted, and héerewith they drew both towards Yury: but when King Charles heard how the* Duke of Bedford was comming towardes him with such a puissance, he was counselled to draw backe, and so he did to∣wards Vernole in Perche, whome the Duke of Bedford follo∣wed, so that he found his armie néere to Vernole. And when eyther armie was in sight of the other, they put themselues in order of battell, and the Englishmen made an hedge of their Horsse behind their battell, bycause the French shoulde not strike in among them on the backes: and the Frenchmen ordered themselues in battell array, making a great bat∣tell of footemen, in the which, they put the floure and chie∣fest men. They appoynted their Horssemen to set on the En∣glishmen a trauerse, the battayles on foote came vpon and ioyned, where was a sore fight betwixt them, continuing two houres togither, that no man might iudge which way the victorie would encline: but at length, the men of King Charles began to breake, and then the Englishmen began to thrust in among them, and did so much, that they discom∣••ted their enimies. There were slayne the Earle Dow∣glas, Duke of Turon, Iames Dowglas, Earle of Wighton, Iohn Earle of Boughan, with the Uicount Nerbon, and many o∣ther, to the number of tenne thousand (sayth Fabian) foure* thousande sayeth mine Author (a Frenchman) who sayeth, that the Duke of Bedford bare himselfe most valiantly, figh∣ting with an axe so fiercely, as he had the prayse of all o∣ther. The Earles of Salisburie and Suffolke gouerned them∣selues also right valiantly.

Page  612The Lord of Torsy, and other Lords of Normandy, which before had taken part with the Englishmen, this day turned to the French, hoping that the Englishmen shoulde haue lost the battell. True it is, that the Frenchmen would neuer suffer their King Charles to be present in person at any bat∣tayle, but when they thought to pitch a fielde, they sent him into some strong Towne. By the losse of this battayle fought on the seauentéenth of August, before Vernole in*Perche, King Charles was put to great hinderance, so that he was not able in puissance to giue the Englishmen any bat∣tayle, hauing ynough to defende and kéepe his Townes and fortresses against them.

The Duke of Bedford returned into Normandy, where he punished many that fledde from him the day of the bat∣tayle. Then went he to Paris, where he found the Duke of Burgoigne, who receyued him, and the Dutches of Bedforde* his wife, the sayde Duke of Burgoignes Sister, right ioy∣fully, and made to them great feast, at whiche feast also were the Earles of Salisburie and Suffolke, the olde Quéene of France, mother to King Charles, and many other greate estates of diuers nations, amongst the whiche, the Du∣ches of Bedford was holden for the most gallantest Lady of all other, and with hir, the Countesse of Salisburie, a very faire Lady. The Duke of Bedford that had neuer iusted be∣fore, iusted there.

The Duke of Burgoigne was a very goodly & amiable mā of personage, doing excellently well whatsoeuer he tooke in hand, and especially in dansing and iusting he excéeded all other of his Countrey. At this feast, he became desirous of the Countesse of Salisburie, and some messages passed be∣twixt them, which came to the Earle of Salisburies eare, whereof he was nothing contented with the Duke, and therfore sought to do him displeasure afterward. This feast being ended, the Duke of Burgoigne went into his Coun∣trey of Burgoigne, and there tooke to wife the Duches of Ne∣uers, which had bin wife to his Unkle the Duke of Neuers▪Page  623 and had by hir two Children. She was halfe sister to the Duke of Burbon, but she liued not long with him. The D. of Burgoigne also gaue his sister the yongest, named Agnes,* in marriage vnto Charles de Barbon, Earle of Cleremont, for the which, the Duke of Bedford, and other Englishm were wroth, for that he made suche alliance with the enimies without their accord. This yeare, the Frenchmen repaired the Castell of Mouns in Champaigne, which had bin a little before destroyd by the Englishmen, and now it was well stuf∣fed with victuals and men, which began to make sore war to the Countrey, but shortly after the Earle of Salisburie be∣séeged thē, and with him Messire Iohn de Luxenburg, who did so much, that the Castell was yéelded to him. The D. of Bedford, with his wife the Duches, lay for the most parte in Paris, leading there a pleasant life with the Lady whom he greatly loued, and was lodged in ye house of the Tournels,éere to the Castel Saint Anthony, where he made faire buil∣dings, and his men still made sore warres againste the French, towards the Riuer of Loyre, and other places, vpon base Normandy, and toward the Duchie of Alanson.

This yeare in Englande, Edmond Mortimere Earle of March, with many other Lords, & a great retinue were sent* into Ireland, where the sayd Earle of March ended his life.

Simon Seman: Bythewater, the 28. of September.*

Iohn Michaell Stockfish monger, the 28. of October.

This yeare 1424. the warres began in Henault, by rea∣son of Iaqueline Duches of Henault, daughter to Duke Wil∣liam* of Henault, Unkle to Phillip Duke of Burgoigne, and al∣so daughter to Duke Iohn of Burgoignes sister, wife to the ••renamed William, and so double Cousin german to Phil∣••p, Duke Phillip now liuing. This Iaqueline was married •• Iohn Duke of Brabant hir Cousin german, & Cousin ger∣••n also to Duke Philip of Burgoigne, and before that, she ••s married to the Earle of Pontioue, son to King Charles le •••n aime, eldest Brother to King Charles now liuing, ••t notwithstanding that she was thus married to the Page  624 Duke of Brabant, yet was she conuayed by Sir Robersart Knight, and brought into England to the Duke of Glocester, and there married to the sayd Duke of Glocester: and so she* had two husbandes aliue at once, Brabant and Glocester, thing thought vnreasonable, both against God, the world, and the Church, for she had bin four or fiue yeares in com∣panie with the Duke of Brabant, but there had fallen some variance betwixt them, and so she was come from him into Henault.

About the last of Aprill began a Parliament at Westmin∣ster, wherein was graunted a Subsedie of twelue in the* pound of all manner Merchandize comming in, or passing out of this Realme: thrée Shillings of a Tunne of Wine for the tearme of thrée yeares to be holden. And furthermore it was enacted, that all Merchant strangers should be set to an English host within fiftéene dayes of their comming to their port sale, and to make no sale of any Merchandize, ere* they were so lodged: & then within fortie dayes following, to make sale of all they brought: and if any remayned vn∣sold at the sayd fortie dayes end, that then all such Merchan∣dize vnsold, to be forfeyted. Also, that all Strangers that ca∣ried any woolles out of this land, should pay. xliij. shillings four pence for a sacke custome, where the English Merchants and Denisons payde but fiue nobles &c.

After the marriage had bin solemnized betwéene the Duke of Glocester, and Iaqueline Duches of Holland, as is a∣foresayde,* within a moneth after the Duke of Glocester as∣sembled an armie of twelue hundred fighting men at the least, all Englishmen, and taking the Duches with him in cō∣panie, passed ouer to Caleis, and streight from thence to L••• in Artois, and so into Henault, making no outrage as he pas∣sed through Duke Phillips Countreys. At their comming into Henault, many townes obeyed thē, and other refused •• to do: likewise were y Nobles diuided. The D. of Burgoigne hearing of this, was sore offended for the iniurie done to his Cousin of Brabant, the dishonor of his Cousin the Duch••Page  625Iaqueline, and the euill dealing of the Duke of Glocester,* and therefore, to ayde the Duke of Brabant, he appoynted many of his Captaynes, with xij. C. fighting mē Pickards, to go against the Duke of Glocester. The Duke of Brabant was a man but of weake complexion, and therefore by the Counsell of Brabant it was ordeyned, that his yonger bro∣ther Philip, Earle of Saint Pol, should be chiefe Captayne of the warre, against the Duke of Glocester. He had a great Ar∣mye, as the more part of the Nobles of Brabant, of Henalt, and of Burgoigne, in all, 50000. Piere de Luxenburge, Earle of Conuarson; his néere kinsman, had the leading of the Armie, for himselfe was but yong. The Duke of Burgoigne had put of his men in garrison within the towne of Braine, in the Countie of Henault, who made sore warre to the Countrey about, but the Earle of Saint Pol, and Conuarson, did come and beséege Braine, continuing afore it twelue dayes before they within yéelded, compounding to departe with bodyes and goodes saued: these hauing wonne Braine, destroyde it vtterly, and that done, tooke the Field with all puissance, which was great: and the Duke of Glocester like∣wise came into the fielde, so that they approched néere togi∣ther, and the vauntcurrers skirmished, but the battayle ioy∣ned not. The Duke of Glocester had sent his Heraulte, and* written to the Duke of Burgoigne, calling him Traytor, and disloyall to the King of England and France, for that he had sente men in ayde against him, and offered him the Com∣bate, wherevnto the Duke of Burgoine aunswered, that hée would accept the Combate, denying that euer he had fay∣led of his promise, but that the Duke of Glocester had done great wrong to the Duke of Brabant, to haue bereft him of his wife, contrarye to the ordinance of God, and of holye Church, and for other wordes which the Duke had vttered against the Duke of Burgoignes honor, he gaue him the lye, and so farre the matter went in words betwixt them, that the day was appoynted for the Combate, and the Duke of Burgoigne chose for Iudge of the Combate the Emperour of Page  626Almayne, and the Duke of Burgoigne sent the Duke of Gloce∣ster a safeconduct, to departe safely into England, to prepare himselfe of things necessarie for the Combate, wherevpon, both the Campes brake vp: the Duke of Glocester wente to Mons in Henalt, to the Duches his wife (so tearmed) & gaue hir to vnderstand, that he was desirous to trie the Combate with the Duke of Burgoigne: and many other things he told hir, which he performed not, for within four dayes after, he tooke all his power with him, and returned into Englād, and left the Duches in Mons, smally accōpanyed with ye people of that Countrey. Shortly after his departure, the Duke of Burgoigne sent the Lord Lilladam to the Towne of Mens, to receyue Iaqueline the Duches, who being deliuered vnto him, he conueyed hir to Gaunt, where the Duke and she made great semblance of ioy togither, she promising to bée gouerned alwayes by his aduise, but to goe to hir olde hus∣band the Duke of Brabant she would not: and when she espi∣ed hir time, she stale away into hir Countrey of Holland, where she was well receyued of many Lordes, and began forthwith to mainteyne warre against Duke Philip of Bur∣goigne, and sent to the Duke of Glocester for ayd, who sente to hir a thousand fighting men, vnder the conduct of the Lorde Fitzwaters. The Duke of Burgoigne fearing least Iaqueline would deliuer the Countrey of Holland into the possessiō of the D. of Glocester, he assembled his power, and wente into Holland, to put the Coūtrey into obeysance. At his comming thither, Iaqueline, accompanyed with many Nobles of the Countrey, and the Lord Fitzwaters, woulde haue defended his landing, but notwithstanding al the defence they could make, he entred vpō thē, & there, néere to ye Towne of Brus∣seils, they ioyned in battaile, the D. of Burgoigne & his people against the Englishmen & Hollanders, taking ye Duches Iaque∣lines part: there was a fierce battayle on all sides, but in the end, the Hollanders and Englishmen were all discomfited, and there dyed in that place aboue seauen or eight hundred, be∣sides those that were taken prisoners: the Lord FitzwaterPage  627 hardly escaped. After this battell gote by the Duke of Bur∣goigne,* diuers Townes of the Countrey reuolted to him, a∣gainst Iaqueline the Duches, as Dordrecht, Sericzee, and ma∣ny other. Shortly after, the Duke of Burgoigne leauing gar∣risons in those Townes that obeyed him, to make resistāce against the Duches that lay in the Towne of Gaunt, hée re∣turned into his Countrey of Flanders and Artoyes, there to prepare such abiliments as were necessary for him to vse at the Combate appoynted betwixt him and the Duke of Glo∣cester. The Duke of Glocester likewise in England made his pronision of his habilimentes and furniture, but the Duke of Bedforde, brother to the Duke of Glocester, tooke greate paynes to make them friends: and also the counsell of the yong King of England, were nothing content with this vari∣ance, doubting least it might be occasion that the Duke of Burgoigne mighte withdrawe himselfe from their amitie, whereby their businesse in France should be hindered. The Duke of Bedford therefore tooke hys iourney from Paris, to Caleis, and so into Englande, to the ende to agrée the sayde* Dukes: he tooke with him the Duches his wife, and not past a four or fiue hundred men.

About Michaelmasse, the Prince of Portugale came into England, and was honorably receyued and feasted by the Kings Uncles.

William Mildred: Iohn Brokell, the 28. of September.*

Iohn Couentry Mercer, the 28. of October.

The morrow after Simon and Iudes day, when the Ma∣ior of London had bin at Westminster to take hys charge, as* the custome is, at suche tyme as hée was holding hys greate dinner, hée was by the Duke of Glocester Lord Pro∣tector, sent for in spéedie manner, & when hée came to hys presence, he gaue to hym commaundement, to sée the Citie were surely watched in the night following, and so it was done.

On ye next morrow, about ix. of the clock, certain seruāts of y Bishop of Winchester, brother to ye said Protector, would Page  628 haue entred the Citie by the Bridge, but the warders or kéepers thereof, kept them out by force, as before they were commanded, wherwith they being gréeuously discontented, gathered to them a greater number of Archers, and men of armes, and assaulted the Gate with shot, and other meanes of warre, in so much, that the commons of the Citie shut in their shoppes, and spedde them thither in great number, so that greate bloudshed woulde haue followed, had not the wisedome of the Maior and Aldermen stayde the matter in time.

The Archbishop of Canterbury, with the Prince of Portu∣gale, and other, tooke great labour vpon them to pacifie this variance betwixt the two bréethren, the Protector and the Bishop, in so muche, that they rode betwéene them eyght times, ere they might bring them to any reasonable confor∣mitie, and lastly, they agréed to stande to the rule of the Duke of Bedford, Regent of France, or of such as he would as∣signe, wherevpon the Citie was set in more quiet, and the Bishop of Winchester wrote a Letter to the Duke of Bedford Lord Regent, as followeth.

RIght high and mighty Prince, and right noble, and af∣ter one leuest earthly Lorde, I recommende me vnto your Grace with all my heart: and as ye desire the welfare of the King our soueraigne Lorde, and of his Realies of England and of France, and your owne weale, with all yours, hast you hither, for by my troth, and ye tarrie long, we shall put this Land in ieoperdy with a Field, such a Brother yée haue héere, God make him a good man. For your wisedome knoweth well, that the profite of France standeth in the wel∣fare of England.

Written at London,the last of October.

On the tenth day of January next ensuing, the sayde Duke of Bedford, wyth hys wife, came vnto London, & with them also came the said Bishop of Winchester, and the Maior and Citizens receyued him at Merton, and onayde hym through the Citie vnto Westminster, where he was lodged in Page  629 the Kings Pallace, and the Bishop of Winchester was lod∣ged within the Abbots lodging. On the morrow follo∣wing, the Maior presented the Regente with a paire of Basins of Siluer, and ouer-gilt, and in them a thousande Marke of gold. The xxj. of February, began a great Coun∣sayle at Saint Albons, which was after reiorned to Northamp∣ton, but for that no due conclusion mighte be made, on the* xxv. of March was called a Parliamente at Leycester, the which endured till the xv. day of June. This was called the Parliamente of Battes, bycause men being forbidden to bring Swords or other weapons, brought great battes and staues on their neckes, and whē those weapons were inhi∣bited thē, they tooke stones and plomets of Leade. During this Parliament, the variance betwixt the two Lords was debated, in so much, that the Duke of Glocester put a Bill of complaynt against the Bishop, conteyning sixe Articles, all which Articles were by the Bishop sufficiently aunswered, and finally, by the counsell of the Lord Regent, all the mat∣ters of variance betwéene the sayd two Lordes, were put to the examination and iudgemente, with the assistance of the Lordes of the Parliamente, Henry Archbishop of Canterbu∣rie, Thomas Duke of Excester, Iohn Duke of Norffolke, Thomas Bishop of Durham, Philip Bishop of Worcester, Iohn Bishop of Bath, Humfrey Earle of Stafford, Raulph Lord Cornewell, and Maister William Alnewike, then kée∣per of the priuie Seale, which Lordes, made a decrée and a∣warde, so that eyther party tooke other by the hande with friendly and louing words, none hauing amends of other. Upon Whitsonday following, was a solemne feast holden at Leycester aforesayde, where the Regente dubbed King Henry Knight, and then forthwith the King dubbed Ri∣chard Duke of Yorke, that after was father to King Edward the fourth, and other, to the number of fortie.

After the Parliamente, the Kyng wente to Killingworth Castell.

Henry Chicheley Archbishop of Canterbury, founded a Page  630 Colledge at Higham Ferrers, in Northamptonshire, of eyght* fellowes, foure Clearkes, and sixe Choristers. He also founded there an Hospitall for poore folke, with many pre∣ferments to the sayd Towne, which house for the poore, his* bréethren Robert and William Chichely Aidermen of Lon∣don, augmented with goodly legacies.

On Saterday, the euen of Saint Michaell the Archan∣gell,* in the morning before day, betwixte the houres of one and two of the clocke, began a terrible Earthquake, with lightning and thunder, whiche continued the space of two houres, and was vniuersall through the world, so that men had thought the world as then should haue ended, and the generall dome to haue followed. The vnreasonable Beasts rored and drew to the Townes with hideous noyse. Also, the Foules of the ayre likewise cryed out: suche was the worke of God at that time to call his people to repentance.

Iohn Arnold: Iohn Higham, the 28. of September.*

Iohn Reynwell Fishmonger, the 28. of October.

This Iohn Reynwell, Maior of London, gaue certayne Lands or tenements to the Citie of London, for the whiche, the same Citie is bound to pay for euer all such fiftéenes as shall be graunted to the King (so that it passe not thrée fif∣téenes in one yeare) for thrée wardes in London, to wéete,*Downegate warde, Billingsgate warde, and Aldgate warde.

This yeare, the Tower at the Draw Bridge of London* was begun by the same Maior of London.

On the Newyeares daye, Thomas Beawford, Duke of Excester deceassed at Greenewich, and was buryed at Sainte Edmonds Burie in Suffolke.

About the Purification of our Lady, the Duke of Bedford Regent of France, with his wife and familie, passed the seas vnto Caleis, and so through Picardy into France: but ere he departed from Caleis, to wéete, vpon the feast day of the An∣nuntiation* of our Lady, the Bishop of Winchester, within the Church of our Lady of Caleis, was created Cardinall, and after the solemnitie done, the Regente tooke him on Page  631 hys righte hande, and so conuayed hym vnto hys lod∣ging.

This yeare, was vnseasonable weathering, for it reyned most part continually from Easter to Michaelmasse.

This yeare, the Duke of Alanson, that before was taken prisoner at the battayle of Vernole in Perch, was deliuered for a raunsome of 200000. Scuttes of Golde, whiche was* 50000. Markes sterling.

This yeare also, the Earle of Salisburie accompanyed with the Earle of Suffolke, the Lord Talbot, and other, layde* a strong séege vnto the Citie of Orleance, and hilde the Citie∣zens very streight, and maugre the Duke of Orleance, and the Marshall of France, the Englishmen wanne from them di∣uers strong holdes, adioyning to the Citie, and forced them to bren a great part of their suburbes, but one day as ye sayd* Earle of Salisburie, Thomas Mountagew rested him at a bay window, a Gunne was leuelled out of the Citie, which all tosquashed his face, whereof he dyed, after which mishappe, the Englishmen lost rather than wanne, so that by little and little, they lost all their possessions in France.

This yeare, Humfrey Duke of Glocester tooke to wife*Elianor Cobham, whome before hée hadde wantonlye kept.

Henry Frowike: Robert Otley, the 28. of September.*

Iohn Gidney Draper, the 28. of October.

In a Parliament at Westminster, was graunted to the King a Subsedie of euery Tunne of Wine thrée shillings, and of other Merchandise, excepte wooll, fell, and cloth, xij.* pence of the pound. Also, of euery parish through ye Realme, (excepted Cities and Boroughes) the benefice being in va∣lue x. Marke, tenne of that parish should pay vj. s. viij. d. e∣uery man viij. d. and of euery benefice that were x. pound, x. parishners to pay xiij. s. iiij. d. and so rate and rate like of e∣uery benefice, from the lowest to the highest. And for the in∣habitants of Cities and Boroughes, euery mā being in va∣lue of xx. s. aboue his houshold stuffe, & the apparell of him & Page  632 his wife, should pay foure pence, and so after that rate vnto the richest.

On Corpus Christi day, a Briton, that a good widdow and honest woman had cherished and brought vp of almes,* dwelling in White Chappell parish without Aldgate, murthe∣red the sayd woman in a night sléeping in hir bedde, and af∣ter conuayde such iewels and stuffe as he might carrie, but he was so pursued vpon, that for feare he tooke a Churche, and there foresware the Kings land, and the Connestables caused him to be brought to London, and so intended to haue conuayde him Westward, but so soone as he was come into the parish where before he had committed the murther, the wiues cast vpon him so much filth and ordure of the stréete,* that notwithstanding the resistance made by the Conne∣stables, they slew him there out of hand.

On the first of September, the Cardinall of Winchester* being returned from beyonde the Seas, was mette by the Maior and his bréethren, and certaine Citizens of London on horsebacke without the Citie, and so brought to his pal∣lace in Southwarke.

This yeare, was a great fire at Baynards Castell in London.*

Thomas Duffehouse: Iohn Abbot the 28. of September.

Henry Barton Skinner, the 28. of October.

The viij. of Nouember, the Duke of Norffolke was like to haue bin drowned, passing through London bridge: hys* Barge being set vpon the piles ouerwhelmed, so that to the number of thirtie persons were drowned, and the Duke, with other that escaped, were drawne vp with ropes.

The xxj. of February, Ri. Neuill was made Earle of Salisb.*

The fifth day of June, Frier Randolph, a Mayster of Di∣uinitie, that had bin long prisoner in the Tower of London,* was there slayne by the Parson of the Tower.

In the moneth of June, the Cardinall of Winchester with a warlike companye passed the Sea, intending to haue made warre vppon them that then inhabited the Coun∣trey of Prage, but for néede of men that the Regente had Page  633 in Fraunce, the Cardinall chaunged his purpose, and taryed there a season with the Regent.

William Ruffe: Ralph Holland, the 28. of September.*

William Castfielde Mercer, the. 28. of October.

The sixth of Nouember, King Henrie being about the age of nintéene yeares was solempnely crowned in Saincte Peters Churche of Westminster, at whose coronation were made xxxvj. Knightes of the Bath, and after solemnization in the Churche finished, an honorable feaste in the greate Hall of Westminster was kept, wherof yée may reade a large discourse in Robert Fabian. After whiche feaste great pre∣paration was made for the Kings iourney into France.

The. xxiiij. of Januarie a battayle was done in Smith∣fielde* within the listes before the King, betwéene two men of Feuersham in Kent, Iohn Vpton appellaunte, and Iohn Downe defendaunt, when they had long fought, the Kyng toke vp the matter and forgaue both parties.

The. xxvij. day of April the King toke shipping at Douer, & landed the same day at Caleis, hauing in his company the Dukes of Yorke and Norffolke, the Bishops of Bath, Ely, and Rochester, the Earles of Huntington, Stafforde, Warwicke, Ox∣forde, Deuonshire, Mortaine of Ewe, and of Ormonde, and Bar∣rons, the Lorde Boucher, Beaumond, Typtoft, Fitz Water, Roos, Arundale, Audley, Faucōbridge, Gray, Codner, Scrop, and Welles.

Whilest the Kyng remayned at Caleis, manye skirmi∣shes were fought betwéene the Englishmen and the Frenche, in diuerse partes of France, and the Frenchmen preuayled great∣ly by helpe of a Woman which they named The Mayden of God. So that lastlye she with hir companye came to the Towne of Champaigne, to the end to remoue the siege layde therevnto by the Duke of Burgoigne and other of the Englishe Captaines, and the. xxiij. of Maye, she gaue battaile to the Englishmen, and fought with them a long time, but in the ende by the manhoode of a Burgonian Knight named sir Iohn Luxemborough, she was taken aliue, and hir company di∣stressed, Page  634 she was conuayed to the Citie of Roane, and there kept a season, where she fained hir selfe to be with child, but when ye contrarie was known, she was condēned & brent.

After this King Henrie by small iorneyes into Fraunce, came to Paris, wher he was honorably receiued of ye Citizēs and taken for theyr soueraigne Lord and King, whiles hée* there remayned, (sayeth Gagwine) the Frenchmen, wan ma∣ny holds of the Englishmen, and the Burgonians in the country of Bry. The third of August dyed the the Countesse of Vr∣monde, and was buried at Saint Thomas of Acres in London.*

Walter Chertesey: Robert Large, the. 28. of September.

Nicholas Wotton Draper, the. 28. of October.

Soone after Easter the Lord protector was warned of an assembly of certaine lewde persons to be assembled at A∣bington, wherefore he sent thyther certaine persons, and also rode thyther himselfe, and there arrested the Baylye of the Towne named William Mandeuil a Weauer, the whiche was appointed for a Captain, who had named himself Iack Sharpe of Wigmers lande in Wales, who being examined, con∣fessed that he ment to haue done many mischiefes, especial∣ly against Priests, so that he would haue made their heads as cheape as Shéeps heads (that is to say) thrée for a peny, or as some write, ten for a penny: manye of his complyces were taken and sent to dyuarse prisons. Their Captaine was drawne, hanged, and headed at Abingdon, and his head was sent to London, and set on the bridge: his other fautors were executed in diuerse places and Countreys to the ter∣ror of other.

The. xiij. of Julye Richarde Russel a Wooll-man, was drawn, hanged, and quartered, for that he wold haue made Dukes and Earles at his pleasure.

Richard Robsert Lord Bourcher deceased, and was buried at Westminster.

King Henrie remayning still in Fraunce, the Earle of A∣rundale accompanyed with two thousand Englishmen, sente a certaine of his company vnto a Towne called Bealmount, to Page  635 prouoke she Frenchmen to issue out of the towne, which smal cōpany when Boyssycant & Sentrales thē Captains behelde, they with their souldiours sped them forth to take the sayd Englishmen, y which by little & little gaue backe, till they had tolled the Frenchmen a good space from the Towne, and then sette vpon them with a stoute courage, and helde them on hand, tyll the Earle with his company rescued them: then betwixt them was a cruell fighte, but in the end the French∣men were chased, and the sayd Sentrayle with many footmen of the sayde Town were slaine.

Iohn Aderle▪ Stephen Browne, the. 28. of September.*

Iohn Wels Grocer, the. 28. of October.

Thys IOHN WELLES Maior of London caused the Conduite commonlye called the Standarde in Cheape to bée builded.

On the seauenth day of December Kyng Henrie was Crowned in Paris, by the Cardinall of Winchester, at the which Coronation was presente, the Duke of Burgoigne, the Duke of Bedforde Regente, and diuerse other Nobles of France. After the solemnitie of thys feaste was ended, the King departed from Paris, and so came to Roane, where he helde hys Christmasse, and that done, he returned to Caleis, where when he hadde soiourned a season, he tooke shipping and returned into England, and landed at Do∣uer, the eleauenth of Februarie, and then rydyng to∣warde London, he was mette on Barham Downe, betwixte Douer and Canterburie, by a greate companye of Gentles and Commons of Kent., all cladde in a liuerie wyth redde hoods, the whiche accompanyed hym tyll he came to Blacke Heath, which was on the one and twentith day of February where he was mette by the Maior of London, who rode in a gowne of Crimson Ueluet, his Aldermen in Scarlet, & the Citizens al in white gownes and red hoodes, with diuerse works or Cognisances brodered vpō their sléeues after ye fa∣cultie of their misteries or crafts: & after due obeysāce and sa∣luting of the king, they rode on before him towards ye City. Page  636 And when the King was come to the Bridge, there was deuised a mightie Giaunt, standing with a sworde drawen in his hande, hauing written certaine spéeches in metre of great reioycing and welcōming of the King to the Citie, on the middest of the Bridge, and in diuerse other places of the Citie, were diuerse faire and sumptuous pageants repleni∣shed with goodly and beautifull personages, the order and spéeches whereof, are sette downe by Robert Fabian in hys cronicle. Thus being cōueyed to his pallace at Westminster, the Maior with the Citizens returned to London, and on the xxiitj. day of Februarie the Maior and Aldermen yode to the King, and presented him with a Hampire of Golde and* therin a thousand pound of nobles.

This yeare by reason of the souldiours of Caleis, a re∣straynte was made there of the Woolles, for they were not content of their wages, wherefore the Regente of Fraunce, came downe thyther in Easter wéeke, at which time many souldiours wer arrested: and rode again to Tirwine. And ha∣uing not long buried the Lady. Anne his late wife, sister to the Duke of Burgoigne, he married there the Earles daughter of Saint Paule, and shortly after returned to Caleis where he caused foure of those souldiours to be beheaded, on the. xj. of June, and. 110. souldiours to be banished the towne, besides. 120. that were banished before that tyme. And vpon Midsommer euen the Lord Regent with his new wedded spouse came to London, and remayned there till the* latter end of August.

Iohn Olney: Iohn Peddesley, the. 28. of September.

Iohn Perneis Fishmonger, the. 28. of October.

On the. xxv. day of Nouember was the Lord Fitz Water drowned on the sea, and much other harmes were done by tempest.*

On the eight day of July, King Henrie began his Par∣liament at Westminster, continued it till Lammas, and then adiourned it vntil Saint Edwards tide.

This yere in the South-Weast appeared a blasyng star.

Page  637During the raigne of this King Henrie the sixth were lieutenaunts ouer the realme of Irelande, Edmond Earle of March and Iames Earle of Ormond his deputie: Iohn Sut∣ton Knight Lorde of Dudley, and sir Thomas Straunge hys deputie: sir Thomas Stanley, and sir Christopher Planket his deputie: Lyon Lorde Welles, and the Earle of Ormonde his deputie: Iames Earle of Ormonde the Kings Lieuete∣naunt by himselfe: Iohn Erle of Shrewesburie and the Arch∣bishop of Diuelin, Lord Justice in his absence: Richard Plan∣tagenet* Duke of Yorke, Father to Edwarde the fourth and Earle of Vlstar, had the Office of Lieutenaunt by letters pa∣tents, during the space of tenne yeares, who deputed vnder him at seuerall times, the Baron of Diuelin, Richarde Fitz Eustace Knight, Iames Earle of Ormonde, and Thomas Fitz Moris Earle of Kildare: to this Richard then resident in Di∣uelin, was borne within the Castel there, the seconde sonne George Duke of Clarence, afterward drowned in a Butte of almesey.

Thomas Chalton: Iohn King, the. 28. of September.*

Iohn Brokeley Draper, the. 28. of October.

The ninth of Nouember, the tormente of the Earle of Saint Paule, Father to the Dutchesse of Bedford, was solemn∣ly holden in Paules Church of London, where the more parte i estates of this realme were present.

The ninth of Marche the Lorde Talbot with a goodlye companye passed throughe the Citie of London, towardes Fraunce, where he wrought much woe to the Frenchmen. The* Towne of Saint Denis, which is within two English myles of Paris, was gotten by the practise of one Iohn Notice a knight of Orleance, from Matthew Gouglye, and Thomas Kiriel Captaines, they slewe there many Englishmen, and toke ma∣ny prisoners, but soone after, the sayde Captaines with strength taken from Paris, layde such a strong siege aboute Saint Denis, that finally they agréed to deliuer the Town to the Englishmen.

In thys season also the earle of Arundale, which in Nor∣mandie,Page  638 had manly born him, hearing that one Hirus,Frch Captaine, had fortifyed a strong Castell, named Gerborym, before destroyed of the Englishmen, toke with him a certaine number of souldiours, and belaied the Castel with a strong siege, and assaulted it sundry times manfully: but Gagwine sayeth, the saide Hirus with his companye issued out of the Castell, and gaue vnto the sayde Earle a cruel skirmish, in the which the sayde Earle receiued a deadly wound and dy∣ed shortly after.*

Thomas Barnewel: Simon Eyre, the. 28. of September.

Roger Otley Grocer, the. 28. of October.

Through a great Froste, that lasted from the fiue and* twentith of Nouēber, vnto the tenth of Februarie, the Tha∣mis was so frozen, that the Merchandice which came to the Thamis mouth, was there landed, and carried through Kent to London.

When the Pope Eugeny the fourth, and his Cardi∣nalles* after long laboure coulde make no peace betwixte King Henry of England and France, and Charles also named King of Fraunce, they at length made a peace betwixte the said Charles and Philip Duke of Burgoigne, whereby the said Duke of Burgoigne became vtter enimy to the King of Eng∣land, and soone after the said Duke beganne his order of the Lillie, and the Golden fléece, and ordayned certaine Knightes of that order, and made thervnto many Statuts, wherof some of them were like vnto the Statutes of the Garter.

On the fourtéenth daye of September at Roan in Nor∣mandy dyed the noble Prince, Iohn Duke of Bedforde, and Regent of Fraunce, and was after with great solemnitie ••∣ryed within the Churche of Noir Dame of the same i∣tie.*

Thomas Catworth: Robert Clopton, the. 28. of Septemb.

Henry Frowike▪ Mercer, the, 28. of October.

King Charles of Fraunce recouered the Citie of Paris▪Page  639 and at Newyeares tide wanne the Towne of Harflewe, and*Sainct Denis, and manye other Townes and holdes, expellyng and murdering the Englishe people in greate number.

The nintéenth daye of Julye the Duke of Burgoigne, wyth a great multitude of Burgonians and Flemmings appea∣red* before Caleis, and there pight his pauilions and tentes, at which season was Lieutenaunt of Caleis Sir Iohn Rat∣clife Knight, and of the Castell was Lieutenant the Baron of Dudley: this siege endured about thrée wéekes, in whiche season many knightlye actes were done & exercised on both partes.

On the second day of August the Duke of Glocester, pro∣tectour* of Englande, with 500. sayles, (as some write,) lan∣ded at Caleis, and entended vppon the thirde day following to haue issued out of the Towne▪ and to haue gyuen battel to the Flemmings, (but as testifyeth our Englishe writers,) so soone as the Duke of Burgoigne was ware of the great power of the Lorde Protector, he toke with him of his ordinaunce that he might lightly carrye, and the other that were cum∣berous he left behind. When the Duke with his host was thus fledde, the Lorde Protectour with his people follow∣ed hym into the Countrey by the space of eleauen dayes, in whiche season he brente the two Townes of Popering and Bell, and returned to Caleis and so into England.

This yeare was the Castel or Towne of Rokesborough in Scotlande besieged by the Kyng of Scottes, but when hée* hearde that Syr Ralph Graye Knyghte was commyng thyther with a competente number to remoue the siege, anone he departed leauyng some parte of hys Ordi∣naunce behynde hym, to hys greate shame and disho∣nour.

Thomas Norstede: William Gregory, the. 28. of Sep.*

Iohn Michel Fishmonger, the. 28. of October.

Page  640The second of Januarie Quéene Katherin late wife to Henrie the fifth, and mother to King Henrie the sixth, dyed at Bermondsey, and was buried at Westminster, but being takē* vp againe, in the raigne of Henrie the seauenth, when he layde the foundation of his new Chappel there, she was ne∣uer buried since, but lyeth still aboue ground▪ in a Coffin of bordes, behinde the East end of the Friers.

The. xiiij. of Januarie at noone of the day, the gate on Lō∣don bridge wyth the Tower vpon it, nexte to Southwarke, fell down, and two of the furdest Arches of the same bridge, and no man perished.

Ralph Lord Cromwel, erected the Colledge of Taeshall* in Lincolneshire.

King Henrie put downe the Maior of Norwich, sente the Aldermen, some to Linne, some to Canterburie, toke their frā∣chises into his hande, and appointed Iohn Wels Alderman, sometime Maior of London, to be Warden of Norwich, who so continued eight moneths, as I haue red on his Monu∣ment, in Saint Antholines Churche in London, whiche Monu∣ment is nowe amongest manye other by lewde persons defaced.

The ninth of July Quéene Iane wife to King Henrie the fourth dyed at Hauering a Boure, and was buried at Canter∣burie.

All the Lyons in the Tower of London dyed.*

William Hales: William Chapman, the. 28. of Septemb.

William Eastfielde Mercer, the. 28. of October.

This William Eastfield Maior, of his own costes cau∣sed to be builded the Water Conduite in Fleetestreete of London.

On Easter daye, Iohn Gardener was taken conuay∣ing* the Sacrament from his mouth with a soule cloth▪ af∣ter he had receyued the same at the Priests hande, in Saint Marie at the Axe Churche of London, for the whiche he was brent in Smithfielde the xiiij. of May.

Owen Tewtherouly hurting hys kéeper, brake out of Page  641Newgate but was againe taken afterwarde: thys Owen had priuilye (as it was sayde) maryed Quéene Katherin late wife to Henrie the fifth, and had foure children by hir, whi∣che was not knowen, tyll she was dead and buried.

On the Uigil of Mary Magdalen, the town of Nantwich, in the Countie of Chester was pitifully consumed with fire.

A great dearth of corne, for wheate was in some places* solde for two shillings sixe pence the Bushell.

Hugh Diker: Nicholas Yoo, the. 28. of September.

Stephen Browne Grocer, the. 28. of October.

The fiue and twentith of Nouember a great winde dyd* muche harme in manye places. In London it bare muche leade of the Gray Friers Churche, and almost blewe downe the one side of the stréete called the Olde Change, so that the same was faine to be vnderset with Timber.

On New yeres day a stacke of woodde fell downe at Bay∣nardes Castell, and killed thrée men: manye moe were sore hurte. By fall of a Staire at Bedforde, where the shire daye was kepte, eightéene persons were slayne, and manye moe hurte.

Richard Beauchampe Earle of Warwicke dyed at Roane in Normādie, the last of May, and the fourth of October next folowing his corpse was honourably conueyed as well by water as by land from Roane vnto Warwicke, and there wor∣shipfully buried in the Colledge of our Lady Church foun∣ded by his noble auncestours.

Wheate was sold at London for thrée shillings ye bushel, Malt at thirtéen shillings y quarter, & Otes at eight pence the bushel, which caused men to eate beans, pease, and bar∣ley, more than in a hundred yeares before.*

Manye Stumpets were sette on the Pyllerye, and banyshed the Cytye, excepte they ware theyr Raye hoodes.

Phillip Malpas: Robert Marshal, the 28. of September.*

Robert Large Mercer, the. 28. of October.

Page  642In a Parliament at Reading, it was ordayned, that all Marchaunt straungers shoulde goe to host with Englishmen, and to make sale of theyr Merchaundises, and buy again what they woulde, wythin the space of sixe monethes, ge∣uing theyr hoste for euerye twentye shillings worth two pence, except the Esterlings. And that euery housholder that* was alien, should pay to the King xuj. pence the yeare, and euery seruant alien vj. pence.

Syr Richard Wich, Uicar of Hermetsworth in Essex, who* had before abiured, was brēt on the Towre Hil, the xvij. of June. After whose deathe was greate murmur among the people, for some saide he was a good man and an holy, and put to death by malice: and some sayde the contrarie: so that manye men and women wente by nighte to the place where he was brente, and offered theyr money, Images of waxe, and other things, making theyr prayers, knéeling, and kissing of the ground, bare away with them the Ashes of hys body for holy reliques. &c. Thys endured eyght days, tyll the Maior and Aldermen ordayned men of armes, to restraine the people, who apprehended manye, and sente them to prison, among whome was taken the Uicar of Berking Churche beside the Tower, in whose Parishe al thys was done, who had receyued the offering of the simple people. And to excite them to offer the more feruentlye to the fulfilling of hys false couetousnesse, he hadde medled Ashes wyth the poulder of spices, and strewed them in the place where the Priest was brente, and so the simple people were deceyued, wéenyng the swéete sauour had come of the Ashes of the deade Priest. All whiche the sayd Uicar of Barking Churche confessed in prison. Thys haue I noted the more at large, bycause some haue wri∣ten the Uicare of Berking to bée brente, whiche is false, for hée was not brente, thoughe he better deserued than the o∣ther.

The eightéenth day of July the Posterne gate of LondonPage  643 by East Smithfielde, againste the Tower of London sancke by night, more than seauen foote into the Earth.

The twelfth of Auguste, the Starre in Breadstreet, an Inne of London, was fiered by lightning, and aboute fiftye loade of Hey burnte. The Eagle in Cheape was also burnt.*

The first of September, Iohn Knighte a souldiour, pri∣soner of Newgate in London, as he was led by one of the She∣rifes Officers, from thence towarde Guilde Hall, fiue of hys fellow souldiours with their daggers drawn, came sodain∣ly out of the Pannier Alley, and berefte him from the Officer, thrusting him into Saint Martins Lane, and so into yt church, where they all claymed priuiledge of the Sanctuarie, thin∣king to haue remained there: but the same daye Phil∣lip Malpas, and Richard Marshal Sherifes, came with a nū∣ber of other, and by force toke them from thēce fettered fast to the Counter, and from thence chayned by the neckes two togither, sente them to Newgate, where they remayned till the thirde of Nouember following, at whiche tyme they were by the Kings Justice restored agayn to the same San∣ctuarie of Saint Martin.

Iohn Sutton: William Wetinhall, the. 28. of Septemb.*

Iohn Paddesley Goldsmith, the 28. of October.

The Duke of Yorke was made Regente of Fraunce,* and the sixtéenth daye of Maye the sayde Duke wyth the Earle of Oxforde, the Earle of Ewe, sir Richarde Wooduile, Syr Iames of Ormonde, the Lorde Clynton, and ma∣nye other, shipped at Portesmouth, and Sayled thence into Normandie.

The sixe and twentith daye of Nouember was a chal∣lenge in armes done before Kyng Henrie within listes in Smithfielde, betwéene Sir Richarde Woduile a Knighte of Englande, and a Knighte of Spaine, but the Kyng tooke the matter into his hands after the thirde stroke.

Page  644Also a Combat was foughte at Totehil betwéene two théeues, the apealer and defendāt, the apealer had the field of the defendant within thrée strokes.

Roger Bolingbroke, a greate Astronomer, with Tho∣mas Southwell a Chanon of Sainte Stephens Chappell at Westminster, wer taken as conspiratours of the kings deth, for it was said, that the same Roger shoulde laboure to con∣sume the Kyngs person by waye of Negromancie, and the sayde Thomas shoulde saye Masses, in the lodge of Harnesey Parke beside London, vpon certaine instruments, with the whiche the sayde Roger shoulde vse hys crafte of Negromancye, againste the Faythe, and was assen∣yng to the sayde Roger in all hys workes. And the fiue and twentith daye of Julye beyng Sondaye, Roger Bo∣lingbroke, wyth all hys instrumentes of Negromancye, that is to saye, a chayre paynted wherein hée was wonte to sitte, vpon the foure corners of which Chayre stoode foure swordes, and vppon euerye sworde an Image of Copper hangyng, wyth manye other instrumentes: hée stoode on a highe Scaffolde in Paules Churchyarde, bée∣fore the Crosse, holding a Sworde in hys righte hande, and a Scepter in hys lefte, arrayed in a maruellous attyre, and after the Sermon was ended by mayster Low Byshoppe of Rochester, he abiured all Articles longing to the crafte of Negromancye or missownyng to the Faythe.

On the Twesday next following, Dame Elianor Cob∣ham* Dutchesse of Glocester fledde by nighte into the San∣ctuarie at Westminster, whiche caused hir to be suspected of treason.

In the meane tyme Roger Bolyngbroke was exami∣ned before the Kyngs Counsayle, where he confessed that hée wroughte the sayde Negromancye at the styr∣ryng and procurement of the sayd Dame Elianor, to know what shoulde be fall of hyr, and to what estate shée shoulde some, wherevppon shée was cyted to appeare bée∣fore▪ Henrye Chicheley Archebyshoppe of Caunterburie,Page  645Henrie Beauforte Bishoppe of Winchester Cardinall, Iohn Kempe Archbishop of Yorke Cardinal: William Ascothe bi∣shoppe of Salisburie, and other in Saint Stephens Chappell at Westminster, there to aunsweare to certaine Articles of Ne∣gromancie, Witchcrafte, Sorcery, Heresie, and Treason, where when she appeared, the foresaid Roger was brought forth to witnesse against hir, and sayde, that she was cause and first styrred him to labour in the sayde Arte. Then shée was committed to the warde of sir Iohn Steward Knight, and Iohn Stanley Esquire, and other, to be conueyed to the Castell of Ledes, there to remayne tyll thrée wéekes after Michaelmasse. Shortly after a commission was directed to the Earles of Huntington, Stafforde, and Suffolke, and to cer∣tayne Iudges of bothe Benches, to enquire of all manner of Treasons, Sorceries and other thyngs that myghte bée hurtefull to the Kyngs Person, before whome the sayde Roger, and Thomas Southwel, as principalles, and dame Elianor as accessarie, were indicted of Treason in the Guild*Hall of London.

There was taken also Margerie Gurdemaine a witch* of Eye in Suffolke, whose Sorcerie and Witchcrafte the said Elianor hadde long tyme vsed, and by hyr medicines and Drinkes enforced the Duke of Glocester to loue hyr, and af∣ter to wedde hyr, wherfore, and for cause of relapse, the same Witch was brent in Smithfield, on ye seuen & twentith of October.

The one and twentith of October, in the Chappel be∣foresayde, before the Bishoppes, of London Robert Gylbart, of Lincolne William Alnewike, of Norwich Thomas Brouns, the sayde Elianor appeared, and Adam Molins Clearke of the Kyngs Counsell redde certayne Articles obiected a∣gainste hyr of Sorcerye and Negromancie, whereof some she denyed, and some she graunted.

The thrée and twentith of October Dame Elianor ap∣peared againe, and witnesses were broughte forth and ex∣amined, and she was conuicte of the sayde Articles: then Page  646 was it asked if she woulde saye anye thing agaynste the wit∣nesses, wherevnto she aunsweared nay, but submitted hyr selfe. The seauen and twentith daye of October she abiured the Articles, and was adioyned to appeare again the ninth of Nouember. In the meane time Thomas Southwel dyed in the Tower of London, as himselfe had prophesied that hée shoulde neuer dye by Justice of the Law.

William Combis: Richarde Riche, the. 28. of September.*

Robert Clopton Draper, the. 28. of October.

The ninth of Nouember Dame Elianor appeared bée∣fore the Archbishoppe and other, in the sayde Chappel, and receyued hyr penaunce which she perfourmed. On Mon∣day the. xiij. of Nouember, she came frō Westminster, by wa∣ter, and landed at the Temple Bridge, from whence with a ta∣per of waxe of two pounde in hir hande, she went throughe Fleetestreete, hoodlesse (saue a kerchefe) to Paules, where she of∣fered hyr Taper at the high Aulter. On ye Wednesday next she landed at ye Swan in Thamis stréete, & then went through Bridgestreet, Grace Church Streete, streight to Leaden Hall, and so to Christ Church by Aldegate. On Fryday she landed at Queene Hiue, and so went through Cheape to Saint Michels in Cornehil, in fourme aforesayd: at all which times the Maior, Sherifes, and Craftes of London, receyued hir and accompa∣nyed hir. This being done, she was committed to the ward of sir Thomas Stanley, wherein she remayned duryng hyr life in the castel of Chester, hauing yerely an hundred marks assigned for hyr finding, whose pride, false, couetise, and le∣cherie, were cause of hir confusion.

The xviij. of Nouēber Roger Bolingbroke, with sir Iohn Hum Priest, and William Woodham Esquire, was arraig∣ned in the Guild Hall of London, where the sayde Iohn and William had their Charters, but Roger Bolingbroke was condemned, & had iudgemēt of sir Iohn Hody, chief Justice of the Kings Bench, and the same day he was drawen frō the Tower to Tiborne & there hanged and quartered: & when ye said Roger shold suffer, he said yt he was neuer guilty of any Page  647 treason against the kings person, but he hadde presumed too far in his cunning, whereof he cryed God mercie: and the Justice that gaue on him iudgemente liued not long af∣ter.

Henrie Beauchampe succéeded in hys fathers inheritāce, who being kept two yeares in the Kings hands, was resto∣red to al his liuings with greate glory, for he was crowned King of Wight, by the kyngs owne handes, and nominated chiefe Earle of England.

A challenge was done in Smithfield within listes, before* the King, by the Lorde Beawfe of Aragon, and Iohn An∣sley Esquire of the Kings house, whiche Ansley hadde the fielde, and at the Kings hande was made Knight: and the* Lord Aragon offered his harneis at Windsor.

In the moneth of August was a great fray in Fleetstreete, betwéene the yong Studentes of the Innes of Courte, and the inhabitauntes of the same stréete, whiche Fray began in the night, and so continued the assaultes and bickeryngs till the next day, in whiche season muche people of the Cy∣tie was thyther gathered, and diuerse men on both partes slaine and many hurte, but lastly, by the presence of the Ma∣ior and Sherifes, this Fray was appeased, of whiche was chiefe occasioner one of Cliffords Inne named Herbotel.

Thomas Beaumount: Richard Norden, the 28. of Sept.*

Iohn Athirle Ironmonger, the. 28. of October.

Iohn Beaufort Earle of Somerset was made Duke of So∣merset and Lord Talbot Earle of Shrewesburie.

The stéeple of Waltham Holy Crosse in Essex, was brente with lightning on Candlemasse day.

The Citizens of Norwiche, rose against the Priour of*Christes Churche, wythin the same Citie, and would haue fiered the priorie, they kept the towne by strength againste the Duke of Norffolke, and all his power, wherefore the Kyng sente thyther the chiefe Judge Iohn Fortescue, wyth the Earles of Stafforde and of Huntington, who indicted many Page  648 Citizens, and the Priour also. The Liberties of the Ci∣tie were seysed into the Kings hand, and Sir Iohn Clifton made Captaine there, and manye of the Citizens fledde ouer the seas &c.*

Nicholas Wilforde: Iohn Norman, the. 28. of September.

Thomas Catworth Grocer, the. 28. of October.

Iohn Earle of Huntington at Windsore was made Duke of Excester. Iohn Beauforde Duke of Somerset deceased, and was buryed at Wimborne.

The Earle of Stafforde was created Duke of Buckingham, Henrie Beauchampe Earle of Warwicke, Duke of Warwicke,* vnto whom the King gaue the Castell of Bristowe with all the appurtenances, which King Iohn had kept in his hāds, he gaue vnto him also the Isles of Garnsey and Iarnsey.

The Earle of Dorset was made Marques of Dorset, and the Earle of Suffolke, Marques of Suffolke.

King Henrie sent into Fraunce Ambassadours, William de la Pole Marques of Suffolke, Adam Molens Bishoppe of Chichester and kéeper of the priuie seale, sir Roberte Roos and other, to treat of a marriage betwéene King Henrie, and Margaret the kings daughter of Scicil, which was concluded in the Citie of Towres in Touraine.*

Stephen Poster: Hugh Wich, the. 28. of September.

Henrie Frowike Mercer, the 28. of October.

In the moneth of Nouember William de la Pole Mar∣ques of Suffolke, with other went againe into Fraunce for to conduct the sayd Lady Margaret into England.

On Candlemasse euen in diuerse places of England, was heard terrible thunders wyth lightning, wherby the church of Baldoke, in Hertfordshire, the Churche of Walden in Essex, & diuerse other, were sore shaken. And the stéeple of Saint Pauls in London, about two of the clocke in the after noone, was set on fire in the middest of the shaft, but by the labour of many well desposed people the same was quenched and no man perished. The stéeple of Kingstone was likewise fiered by the same lightnings.

Page  649Ladie Margaret landing at Portchester, went from thence* by water to Hampton, & rested there in a place called Gods house, from thence she went to the Abbay of Tychfielde and* was there wedded to King Henry, ye xxij. of April. She was receyued at the Blackeheath by the Citizens of London, ry∣ding on horsebacke, in blewe gownes with brodered sleues and red hoods the 28. of May, and on the 30. of May she was crowned at Westminster: hir badge was the Daysie.

With the fall of Kingstone steple, one man was slaine* and many sore hurt.

Iohn Darby: Godfrey Filding, the 28. of September.

Simon Eyre draper, the 28. of October.

This Simon Eyre builded the Leaden hall in London (to be a store house for graine and fewell for the poore of the Ci∣tie,) & also a beawtifull Chappel in the East end of ye same, ouer the gate whereof he caused to be written, Dextera Do∣mini*exaltauit me, that is to say, The Lordes right hand hath exalted me: Whereby he doing so notable a worke for the common weale, also left example to other Citizens com∣ming* after him, whō God likewise exalteth with such tem∣porall blessings, that they be not vnthankfull to God, and their common weale, wherein they haue receiued them.

Henrie Duke of Warwike, chiefe Erle of England, Lorde Spencer and Aburgaueny, King of the Isle of Wight, Garnsey and Iarnsey, and Lord of the Castell of Bristow, died without issue, and was buried at Tewksburie.

Iohn Dauid appeached his master William Catur an Ar∣morer* dwelling in S. Dunstones Parish in Fletestreete, of trea∣son, and a day being assigned them to fight in Smithfield, the maister being wel beloued, was so cherished by his friends, and plied with wine, that being therewith ouercome, was also vnluckily slaine by his seruaunt.*

Robert Horne: Godfrey Boleine the 28. of September.

Iohn Olney Mercer, the 28. of October.

Pope Eugenius sent a golden Rose to the King of England, expressing the propertie and aplicatiō of the same, with the Page  650 ceremonie that is yéerely vsed on Palme Sonday, touching* the same Rose, exhorting the Kyng agaynste the Turkes. Which Rose Lodouicus Cordona Doctor of Diuinitie did present to the King in S. Stephens Chappell at Westminster vpon S. Andrewes day, in presence of the Dukes of Yorke & Excester, Cardinall Kempe Archbishop of Yorke & Iohn Staf∣ford Archbishop of Caunterburie Chauncellor of England.

The x. of Februarie beganne a Parliament at Saint Ed∣mondesburie* in Suffolke, at which time al the wayes about the same Towne were kept with armed men both daye and night, so that many dyed with colde and waking. Humfrey* Duke of Glocester being at the castell of the Vies in Wilshire, came from thence to the Parliament, and was lodged in the Hospitall, where shortly after he was arrested by Iohn Lord Beaumount high Constable, the Duke of Buckingham, the Duke of Somerset and other, who appointed certaine of the Kings housholde to waite vpon him: but on the. xxiiij.* day he died for sorrow, as some said, that he might not come to his aunswere: he was buryed at Saint Albons. xxxij. of his principall seruauntes were arrested and sent to diuers pri∣sons, and fiue of them were arraigned at London and con∣demned,* whose names were, sir Roger Chamberlain knight Middleton, Herbert, Arteyse Esquiers, and Richard Nedam gentleman, which were al fiue drawne from the Towre of London to Tiborne and there hanged, letten downe quicke, stript naked, marked with a knife for to be quartered, and then a charter shewed for their liues: but the yoman of the crowne had their liuelode, and the hangman had their clo∣thes. Henry Beauford Cardinal of Winchester deceased, & af∣ter him W. Wainflete Prouost of Eaton, was made Bishop of Winchester. The v. of August died Iohn Hollād duke of Exce∣ster* & was buried at S. Catherins nygh the Towre of London.

William Abraham: Thomas Scot, the 28. of September.*

Iohn Gidney Draper, the 28. of October.

This yéere during y peace betwéene England & Fraunce knight of the English part, named sir Frances Aragonoyse,Page  651 toke a towne named Fogars vpō the borders of Normādie be∣longing* to y duke of Britaine. For the which he complained him to y French king, & he at ye said dukes request sent vnto y king of England▪ to aske restitutiō of the harme. The which messengers were answered of ye kings Coūsell, that y déede was right displeasant vnto ye king, & that sir Francis Aragon had enterprised y feate of his owne presumption. Whervpō it folowed shortly after, that ye French by like policie toke y towne & castle of Pountallarche, & after that many other, so y the taking of y foresaid towne of Fogiars by ye English men,* was y occasion by ye which the French after gat al Normādy.

William Catlow: William Marow, the 28. of September.*

Steuen Browne Grocer, the 28. of October.

This yéere the Frenchmē got many townes in Normādy, out of the possession of ye Englishmē. Also y citie of Roane was yéel∣ded to the French, with condition that the Captaines & gar∣risons might depart with armour & goods, & not long after was rendered (with the like cōditiō as of Roane) the towns of Harflewe, & Hounflewe. A knight of France called sir Lewes de Breyll, challenged an Esquier of England named Ralph Chalons of certaine feates of Warre, the which to proue, a day to them was giuen to méete at a towne in France named Maunce where y French king at that day was present: But Chalons, canne the French knight through the body with his* speare, whereof the said Lewes dyed.

William Hulin, Thomas Cannings, the 28. of September.*

Thomas Chalton Mercer, the 28. of October.

The 9. of Januarie Adā Molins Bishop of Chichester, kée∣per of the kings priuie seale, through y procurement of Ri∣chard duke of Yorke was by shipmen slaine at Portesmouth.

The 9. of Februarie Thomas Thany, otherwise Blewberd* a Fuller, was taken beside Caunterburie for raising a rebelli∣on, who was hanged and quartered.

Williā Delapole duke of Suffolke was banished ye land for v.* yéeres, to appease ye rumor of ye cōmons of England, who ta∣king ship at Ipswich the 3. of May, sailed toward Fraunce, but Page  652 was mette on the sea, by a ship of warre named▪ Nicholas•• the Towre, and beheaded, and his corps was cast vp at Do∣uer and buried in the Charter house at Hull. This William de la pole Duke of Suffolke, and Alice his wife, daughter to Thomas Chawcer, sonne to Geffrey Chawcer the famous Poet, translated and increased the manner place of Eweline in Oxfordshire: they builded a newe the parishe Churche of*Eweline, a comely péece of worke standing on a hyll: and also hard adioyning to the West end of Eweline parishe Church they founded a pretie Hospitall or almes house for. ij. priests* and xiij. poore men to dwell and be sustained in for euer, one of the priestes to be maister of the almes house, the other priest a scholemaster, fréely to teache the children of the te∣naunts of the sayd Lordship of Eweline and other Lordships pertaining to the said almes house their Grāmer, & eyther of those. ij. priests to haue. x. pound the yeare. One of the 13. poore men to be called minister, to present the faultes of the other to the maister, and to ring their common bell to ser∣uice, and to haue. xvj. pence the wéeke, the other xij. poore m to haue euery of them xiiij. pence y wéeke. This house hath to name Gods house, or the house of almes, vnto the which he gaue iij. Manors, Ramruge in Hampshire, Conocke in Wilshire, and Mershe in Buckinghamshire, with their appurtenaunces,* they also founded▪ the Hospitall of Donnington Castle.

In the moneth of May the commons of Kent in great* numbers assembled, hauing to their Captaine Iacke Cade, who named himselfe Mortimer, cosin to the Duke of Yorke, or as he was named of some Iohn amend all: this Captaine brought a great number of people to the Blackcheath, & there kept the fielde more than a moneth, pilling the countrey a∣bout, to whom the Citie of London at that time was full fauourable. And the said Captaine (as I finde recorded) sent for such Citizens of London as it pleased him to command to repayre vnto him, vnder letters of safe conduct, as fol∣loweth:

Page  653

The safegard and signe manuell of the Captaine of Kent, sent to Thomas Cocke Draper of London, by the Captaine of the great assemble in Kent.

BY this our writing ensealed, we grant and wil permit truly, that Thomas Cocke of Londō Draper, shal come in good suertie and in safegard to our presence, without any hurt of his person, and so auoyde from vs againe at his plea∣sure, with al other persōs assigned at his denominatiō with him comming in likewise.

The commaundement by the Capitaine of Kent, sent vnto Thomas Cocke aboue sayd.

FOr your instruction, first ye shall charge all Lumbardes & strangers, being marchaunts, Ienewes, Venetians, Floren∣tines, and other, this day to draw them together, and to or∣daine for vs the Captain. xij. Harnises complete of the best fashion, xxiiij. Brigandines, xij. battaile Axes, xij. Glaues, vj. Horses with saddle and bridle completely harnessed, and a thousande markes of readie money: and if this oure de∣maund be not obserued and done, we shall haue the heades of as many as we can get of them.

What answere to this demaund was returned I finde not, but like it is the same was graunted and performed, for I finde not thesaid Captaine and Kentishmen, at their being in the Cittie, to haue hurt any straunger.

In the meane time the King sent notable men to the sayd Captaine and his fellowship, to knowe their purpose and the cause of their insurrection: vnto whom the Captaine an∣swered, that he and his company were assembled there to redresse and reforme the wrongs that were done in the Realme, and to withstand the malice of them that were de∣stroyers of the common weale, and to amend the defaultes of them that were chiefe counsellers to the King, and she∣wed vnto them the articles of complaints touching the mis∣gouernment of the realm, wherein was nothing conteined but séemed reasonable, wherof a copie was sent to the Par∣liament holden that time at Westminster, with also one other byll of requestes by them made, of things to be reformed, Page  654 and to haue answere thereof agayne, but he had none. The bill of Articles they intituled

    The complaint of the Commons of Kent, and causes of the assembly on the Blackheath.
  • 1 Inprimis, it is openly noysed that Kent shoulde be de∣stroyed with a Royall power, and made a wylde forest, for the death of the Duke of Suffolke, of which the Commons of Kent thereof were neuer guiltie.
  • 2 Item the King is styrred to lyue onely on his Com∣mons, and other men to haue the reuenues of the Crown, the which hath caused pouertie in his excellencie, and great paymentes of the people, nowe late to the King graunted in his Parliament.
  • 3 Item that the Lordes of his Royall bloud béen put from his dayly presence, and other meane persons of lower nature exalted and made chiefe of his Priuie Counsell, the which stoppeth matters of wronges done in the Realme, from his excellent audience, and may not be redressed as lawe will, but if bribes and giftes be messengers to the handes of the sayde Counsell.
  • 4 Item, the people of his Realme be not payde of debts owing for stuffe and purueyaunce taken to the vse of the Kings housholde, in vndoyng of the sayde people, and the poore Commons of this Realme.
  • 5 Item, the Kings meniall seruauntes of housholde, and other persons, asken dayly goods and lands, of empea∣ched or indited of treason, the which the King graunteth anon, ere they so endaungered be conuict. The which can∣seth the receyuers thereof to enforge labours and meanes applyed to the death of such people, so appeached or indi∣ted, by subtyl meanes, for couetyse of the sayde grauntes: & the people so empeached or indited, though it be vntrue, may not be committed to the Lawe for their deliueraunce, but helde stil in prison, to their vttermost vndoyng and de∣struction, for couetyse of goods.
  • 6 Item, though diuers of the poore people and Com∣mons Page  655 of the Realme, haue neuer so great right, trueth and perfite tytle to theyr lande, yet by vntrue clayme of enfeffe∣ment made vnto diuers States, Gentles, and the Kings meniall seruauntes in maintenaunces againste the ryghte, the true owners dare not holde, clayme, nor pursue their right.
  • 7 Item, it is noysed by common voyces, that the Kings landes in Fraunce bene aliened and put awaye from the Crowne, and his Lordes and people there destroyed with vntrue meanes of treason, of which it is desyred, enqui∣ries thorough all the Realme to bée made howe and by whom, and if suche Traytors may be found guiltie, them to haue execution of Lawe without any pardon, in example of other.
  • 8 Item, Collectors of the. xv. pennie in Kent be great∣ly vexed and hurte in paying great summes of money, in the Eschequere to sue out a Writ called Quorum nomi∣na for the allowaunce of the Barons of the Ports, which nowe is desyred, that hereafter in the lieu of the Collectors the Barons aforesaide may sue it out for their ease at their owne costes.
  • 9 Item, the Sherifes and Undersherifes, let to ferme their offices and Bayliwikes, taking great suertie therfore, the which causeth extortions done by them & by their Bay∣lifes to the people.
  • 10 Item, simple & poore people that vse not hunting, be greatly oppressed by inditements fained & done by the saide Sherifes, Undersherifes, Baylifs, and other of their assent, to cause their encrease for paying of their said Ferme.
  • 11 Item, they returne in names of Enquests in wri∣ting into diuers Courtes of the Kinges not somoned nor warned, where through the people dayly léese great sūmes of money, welny to the vttermost of their vndoyng: & make leuie of amercementes called the Gréene Waxe, more in summes of money than can be founde due of recorde in the Kings bookes.
  • Page  65612 Item, the ministers of the courte of Douer in Kent vexe and arest diuers people through all the Shire out of Castle warde passing their bands and libertie vsed of olde time, by diuers subtile and vntrue meanes and actions falselye fained, taking great sée at their lust in great hurt of the peo∣ple on all the Shire of Kent.
  • 13 Item, the people of the saide Shire of Kent, may not haue their frée election in the chosing Knights of the Shire, but letters bene sent from diuers estates to the great Ru∣lers of all the Country, the which enbraceth their tenaunts and other people by force to choose other persons than the common will is.
  • 14 Item, where as Knightes of the Shire should chose the kings collectors indifferētly without any bribe taking, they haue sēt now late to diuers persons, notifying them to be collectors, wherevpon giftes and bribes be taken, and so the collectors office is bought and sold extortionously at the Knightes lust.
  • 15 Item the people be sore vexed in costes and labour, called to the Sessions of peace in the sayd Shire, appearing frō the farthest & vttermost part of the West vnto the East, the which causeth to some men. v. dayes iourney, where vp∣on they desire the saide appearaunce to be deuided into two partes the which one part, to appeare in one place, an other part, in an other place in releuing of the gréeuaunce and in∣tollerable labours and vexations of the said people.

The requestes by the Captaine of the great assemble in Kent.

INprimis, desireth the Captaine of the commons, the wel∣fare of our soueraigne Lord the King, & al his true Lords spirituall and temporall, desiring of our saide soueraigne Lorde, and of al the true Lordes of his counsell, he to take in al his demaines, that he may raigne like a King royall, according as he is borne our true Christian King annoyn∣ted, and who so will saye the contrarye, we all will liue and die in the quarrell as his true liege men.

Page  657Item desireth the said Captaine, that he will auoide al the false progenie and affinitie of the Duke of Suffolke, the whiche béene openlye knowne, and they to be punished af∣ter the custome and Lawe of this Land, & to take about his noble person the true Lordes of his Royal bloud of this his Realme, that is to say, the high and mightie Prince ye duke af Yorke late exiled from our saide Soueraigne Lordes pre∣sence (by the motion and stirring of the traiterous and false disposed the Duke of Suffolke and his affinitie) & the mightie Princes & Dukes of Excester, Buckingham, and Norfolke, and all the Earles and Barons of this land: and then shal he be the richest King Christen.

Item, desireth the said Captaine & commons punishment vpon the false traitors, the which contriued and imagined the death of the high & mightful excellent Prince the Duke of Glocester, the whiche is too much to rehearse, ye which duke was proclaimed as traitor. Upon the which quarrell, we purpose all to liue and die vpon that it is false.

Item the Duke of Excester, our holy father the Cardinal, the noble Prince Duke of Warwike, and also the Realme of Fraunce, the Dutchie of Normandie, Gascoyne, and Gwi••, An∣ioy and Mayne, were deliuered and lost, by the meanes of the sayd traytors, and our true Lords, Knights, and Esquiers, and many a good yoman lost and sold ere they wēt, ye which is great pitie to heare, of the great and gréeuous losse to our Soueraigne Lorde and his Realme.

Item, desireth the sayd Captayne and Commons that all the extortions vsed dayly among the Common people, might be layde downe, that is to say, the Gréene Waxe the which is falsely vsed, to the perpetuall destruction of the kings true Commons of Kent. Also the kings Bench, the which is too gréefefull to the shire of Kent without prouisi∣on of our Soueraigne Lord and his true Counsell. And al∣so in taking of Wheate and other graynes, Béefe, Mutton, and all other victual, the which is importable to the sayde Commons, without the briefe prouision of our saide Soue∣raigne Page  658 Lorde and his true Counsell, they may no longer beare it. And also vnto the statute of laborers and the great extortioners the which is to say the false traytors, Slegge Crowmer, Isle, and Robert Este.

These bylles when the Counsell had well perused, they did not onely disalowe and condemne them & the authors, as proude and presumptuons, but also perswaded the King rather to suppresse those rebels by force, than by fayre pro∣mises. Whervpon the King remoued from Westminster vn∣to Greenewiche, from whence he woulde haue sent certayne Lordes with a powre to haue destressed the Kentishmen, but the men sayde to their Lordes they would not fight against them that labour to amend the common Weale: wherevp∣pon the Lordes were driuen to leaue their purpose. And be∣cause the Kentishmen cryed out against the Lorde Say the Kings Chamberlayne, he was by the King committed to the Towre of London. Then went the King agayne to Lon∣don,* and within. ij. dayes after went against the Kentishmen with. xv. thousand men well prepared for the warre, but the sayd Kentishmen fled the night before his comming into the wood countrey néere vnto Senocke, wherevpon the King re∣turned againe to London, and sent sir Humfrey Stafforde▪ Knight with William Stafford his brother, and other Gen∣tlemen, to follow the Kentishmē, who finding them at Senock, set vppon the rebels, and fought with them a long time, but in the ende both the Staffordes were slaine with many other* of their people. When Iacke Cade had thus ouercome the Staffordes, he forthwith apparelled himself with the knigh∣tes apparell, and after he had refreshed his people, he re∣turned to the Blackeheath, and there pight agayne his fielde, and lay there from the. xxix. daye of June, tyll the first day of July, in which season came vnto him the Archbyshop of Caunterburie, and the Duke of Buckingham, with whom they had a long communication, and founde him ryght dis∣crete in his aunsweres. Howbeit they coulde not cause him to submit himselfe and lay downe his people.

Page  659In the meane while, the King and Quéene hearing of the increasing of his rebels, and also the Lordes fearing* their owne seruaunts, least they would take the Captaines part, remoued from London to Killingworth, leauing the Ci∣tie without ayde, except onely the Lorde Scales, which was left to kéepe the Towre, and with him a manly and warly man named Mathewe Gowghe. Then the Captaine of Kent thus houering at Blackeheath, to bring himselfe the more in fame, that he kept good Justice, beheaded there a petie Captayne of his named Paris, for so muche as he had offended agaynst such ordinaunces as he had established in* his hoste: and hearing that the King and his Lordes were thus departed, drewe him néere vnto the Cittie, so that vppon the first of July, he entred the Borough of South∣warke, then beyng Wednesday, and lodged him there at the Harte, for he myght not bée suffered to enter the Cittie.

And vpon the same day, the Commons of Essex in great* number pight them a fielde vppon the playne of Myles ende.

And vppon the seconde day of the sayde moneth, the* Maior called a common Counsell at the Guild hall, to pur∣ey for the withstanding of these rebels, in which assem∣bly were diuers men of sundrye opinions, so that some thought good that the sayde rebels should be receyued into the Cittie, and some otherwise. Among the which Robert Horne Stockefishe monger then being an Alderman, spake sore agaynst them that woulde haue them enter. For the which, the Commons were so moued agaynst him, that they ceassed not till they had him committed to ward. And the same afternoone about. v. of the clocke, ye Captaine with his people entred by the bridge, and cutte the Ropes of the draw bridge a sunder with his sworde, when he was passed into the Citie. He made in sundrye places thereof Procla∣mations in the kings name, that no man in payne of death shoulde robbe or take any thing without paying therefore. By reason whereof he wanne the hartes of the Commons, Page  660 but all was done to beguile them, after as he came by Lon∣don stone he strake it with his sword, and said: now is Morti∣mer Lorde of this Citie, and then shewing his minde to the Maior for the ordering of his people, he returned into South∣warke & there abode as he before had done, his people com∣ming and going at lawfull houres when they would. On the morrowe ye third of July, the sayd Captaine agayne en∣tred the Citie, and caused the Lorde Say to be fette from the Tower to the Guild hall, where he was araygned before the Maior and other the Kings Justices, and Robert Horne Al∣derman before named should haue bene likewise araygned, but that his wife and other friendes for. v. hundred markes gat him restored to his libertie. The Lord Say desiring he might be tried by his Péeres, was by the rebels forceably taken from the officers, & brought to ye Standard in Cheape, where they strake off his head, pight it on a pole, and bare it before them, and his body they caused to be drawne naked at a horse tayle vpon the pauement from Cheape into South∣warke to the sayd Captaines Inne.

Also a Squier called Crowmer that was then Sherife of Kent, that had wedded ye said Lord Sayes daughter, by com∣maundement of the Captaine was brought out of the Flete, that was committed thither for certaine extortions that he had done in his office, and led to Mile end without London, & there without any iudgement his head was smit off, & the Lord Sayes head and his were borne vpon. tj. long poles vn∣to London bridge and there set vp, and the Lorde Sayes body was quartered. The same daye the Captaine went vnto y house of Philip Malpas Draper & Aldermā, & robbed & spo∣led his house, taking from thence great substance, & returned into Southwarke: on the next morowe he againe entred y Ci∣tie, and dyned that day in the Parishe of Saint Margaret Pa∣tyns at one Cherstis house, and when he had dyned, like an vncourteous guest he robbed him, as the day before he had Malpas. For which two robberies, althoughe the poore people drewe to hym and were parteners in the spoyle, yet Page  661 the honest and wealthy commoners cast in their mynds the sequele of this matter, and feared least they should be delt with in lyke manner. Then the Maior and Aldermen with assistaunce of the Worshipful Commoners, in safegarde of themselues and of the Cittie, toke their Counsell how they might driue the Captaine and his adherents from the Ci∣tie, for the performaunce whereof the Maior sent vnto the Lorde Scales, and Mathew Gowghe, then hauing the To∣wer in their gouernment, requiring their ayde and assis∣taunce, which they promysed. On the. v. of July the Cap∣tayne being in Southwarke, caused a manne to be beheaded there, and that day entred not the Cittie. When night was come, the Maior and the Citizens, with Mathew Gowghe kept the passage of the Bridge, and defended the Kentishmen which made great force to reenter the Cittie. Then the Captayne séeyng this bickering, went to Harneys, & assem∣bled his people, and set so fiercely vppon the Citizens, that he draue them backe from the stoupes in Southwarke, or Bridgefoote, vnto the drawbridge, in defending wherof ma∣ny a man was drowned and slaine. Among the which was Iohn Sutton Alderman, Mathewe Gowghe a Squire of Wales, and Roger Hóysand Citizen. This skirmish con∣tinued all night tyll nyne of the clocke on the morrowe, so that sometyme the Citizens had the better, and some∣tymes the other, but euer they kept them vpon the bridge, so that the Citizens passed neuer much the Bulwarke at the Bridge foote, nor the Kentishmen no farther than the drawe Bridge. Thus continuing the cruell fighte to the destruction of much people on both sydes, lastly after the Kentishmen were putte to the worst, a truce was agréede for certayne houres, during which truce, the Archbyshoppe of Caunterburie, then Chauncellor of England, sonte a gene∣rall* pardon to the Captayne for him selfe, and an other for his people, by reason wherof, he and his company with∣drewe them little and little, and their Captayne put all his pillage and goods that he had robbed, into a Barge, and Page  662 sent it to Rochester by water, and himselfe went by land and woulde haue entred into the Castle of Quinborow with a fewe men that were lefte about him: but he was there let of his purpose: wherefore he fled into the wood Countrey beside Lewes in Sussex. The Captayne and his people be∣ing thus departed, not long after Proclamations were made in diuers places of Kent, Sussex, and Southerey, that who might take the foresaid Captaine aliue or dead▪ should haue a thousand markes for his trauaile.

The Copie of the Writ and Proclamation by the King, for the taking of the sayd Cade and his felowship.

HENricus Dei gratia Rex Angliae & Franciae, & dominus Hi∣bernia, vniuersis & singulis custodibus▪ &c.

For as much as one Iohn Cade borne in Ireland, which calleth himselfe Iohn Mortimer, and in some writing cal∣leth himselfe Captayne of Kent, the which Iohn Cade the last yeare tofore his dwelling in Sussex with a Knight called sir Thomas Dagre, slewe there a woman with childe, and for that cause tooke the gréeth of the Churche, and after for that cause for sware the Kings lande: The which Iohn Cade also after this, was sworne to the Frenche parte, and dwelled with them, which hath nowe of late time, (to the intent to enrich him selfe by robbyng and dispoyling of the Kings liege men, as it is▪ nowe openly knowne, to bring himselfe to great and high estate) falsely and vntrue∣ly deceyued many of the Kings people, and vnder colour of holy and good intentes, made them to assemble with him against the Kings Regalitie and his Lawes, and nought setting by the Kings Grace and pardons graūted, not one∣ly to him but to al the Kings subiectes, the which by his de∣ceyt haue assembled with him, the which he with great re∣uerence receiued on Munday last passed, and so did all that were assembled with him: not withstanding al this, he la∣boureth now of newe to assemble the Kings people againe, & to that intent beareth them on hand, that the Kings let∣ters of pardon graunted to him and them, be not auaileable Page  663 nor of none effect without authoritie of Parliament: wher∣as the contrarie is true, as it is openly knowen by that, that the King grauntes from tyme to tyme his Charters of Pardon to such as him lyst, of all manner of crimes and offences both generall and speciall.

The King therfore willeth and commaundeth, that none of his subiectes giue fayth nor credence to the said fals In∣formations of the sayde false raylor, nor accompany with him in any wise, nor comfort nor sustaine him nor his with victuall, nor with any other things. But will whosoeuer of the Kings subiectes may take him, shall take him, and that who so euer taketh him and bringeth him quicke or dead to the King or to his Coūsel, shal haue a thousand markes for his labour truely payde him without faile or delaye by the prouision of the Kings Counsell. And who so euer taketh any of those that from this day forth accompany with him, shal haue. v. marke for his reward, truely to be paide in ma∣ner and forme aboue saide.

And ouer this, commaunding all Constables, Ministers, & Officers of the said Shire, that none of them on paine of death take vpō them to execute any cōmandement by word or writing sent or▪ made vnto them by the said Cade, calling himselfe Mortimer & Captaine, be it to rere any people or to any other intent: but to arest and make to be arested such as take vpō them to bring any such cōmaundemēt by writing or by word. Et hoc nullatenus omittatis Teste me ipso apud West∣minster▪ x. die Iulij, anno regni. 28. After which Proclamation* thus published, a Gentleman of Kent named Alexander Eden awayted so his time, that he tooke the sayde Cade in a Garden in Snssex. And there he was slaine at Hothfield▪ and brought to Londō in a cart, & there quartered, his head set on Londō bridge, and his quarters sent to diuers places in Kent. This done, y King sent his Cōmissioners into Kent, & rode after himself, & caused inquiry to be made of this riot in Caū∣terbury, where for y same. vitj. mē were iudged & executed, & in other townes of Kent, & Sussex was dane y like execution.

Page  664This yeare the Commons also in diuers partes of Eng∣land, and in Sussox, Salisbury, Wilshire, and other places, didde much harme to many persons, among the which, on the xxix. of June, William Ascoth Bishop of Salisburie, (after he had sayde Masse at Edington) was by his owne tenauntes drawen from ye Altar, in his Albe with his Stole about his necke to the toppe of an hill, and there by them shamefully murthered, and after spoyled to the naked skynne: they ren∣ting* his bloudy shirt, tooke euery man a péece, & made boast of their wickednesse. The day before, his Chariot was rob∣bed,* to the value of. x. thousand markes.

Iohn Middleton: William Deere, the 28. of September.*

Nicholas Wilforde Grocer, the 28. of October.

Souldiours made a fraye against the Maior of London the same day he tooke his charge at Westminster, at nyght comming from Saint Thomas of Acres, after he had bene at Paules.

The. vj. of Nouember began a Parliament at Westmin∣ster, and the first of December the Duke of Somerset which was newly come out of Normandie, was put vnder arest,* and his goods by the Commons was foulely despoyled and borne away from the Blacke Eryers. After which ryot, on the nexte morrowe, Proclamation was made through the Cittie, that no man should spoyle or robbe, vpon paine of death: and the same day at the Standard in Cheape was a man beheaded for doyng contrarie to the Procla∣mation. And thus beganne malice to spring between the Lordes of the Lande, and specially against the Duke of Somerset and other of the Quéenes Counsell, for the lée∣sing of Normandie, whereof the chiefe Cittie of Roane was lost or giuen vp by appoyntment the yeare procéeding (as witnesseth Gagwyne,) vpon condition that the Duke of So∣merset* with his wife & English souldiours, shoulde with such goods as they might carrie, deprte fréely from the Cittie: For which frée passage he shoulde paye vnto the French king lvj. M. Scus, which amount to fourtèene thousand marks Page  665 sterling. And also he was bounde to deliuer into the French Kings possession, all Townes and Castels that at that day were in the possession of Englishmen, wythin the Dutchie of Normandie: for performaunce of whiche couenauntes, the Lord Talbot was sent for one of the pledges, and so by one Floquet all the Townes and Castelles were to the Frenche Kyngs vse receyued, Harfleete onely excepted, whereof the Captaine named Curson. with the assistance of sir Thomas Auringham, in despight of al the French Kings power laide both by Sea and lande, helde the same a full moneth or more, and then for lacke of rescue gaue it vppe by appoynt∣ment.*

Matthew Phillip: Christopher Warton, the 28. of Sep.*

William Gregorie Skinner, the 28. of October.

The sixtéenth of Februarie, King Henrie accompany∣ed with the Duke of Somerset and many other Lords, tooke towardes the Marches of Wales, for as muche as he was cre∣dibly informed, that the Duke of Yorke assisted wyth diuerse other Lordes and men of name, had in those partes gathe∣red a strong power of people, and with them was entring the land, and so helde on his iourney towarde him: but whē the Duke had witting of the Kings greate power, he retur∣ned from the way which was taken by the Kings hoste, and hasted towardes London▪, and when he had receyued know∣ledge from the Citie, that he might not there be receyued, he went ouer Kingstone Bridge, and so into Kent, and there vpon Brent Heath neare vnto Dertforde, he pight his fielde, wherof the king hauing knowledge, sped him after, & lastly came vnto Blacke Heath and there pighte hys fielde. When both the hostes were thus embattelled, mediation of peace was made betwéene them, for furtheraunce whereof, to the Duke were sente the Bishops of Winchester and of Ely, with the Earles of Salisburie and Warwicke. To whom it was an∣swered by the Duke, that he nor none of his company en∣tended any hurt to the Kings person, nor to any of hys coū∣sayle, beyng louers of the Common wealth▪ and of him and Page  666 hys land: but his intent and purpose was to remoue from the King a fewe euill disposed persons, by whose meanes the common people was gréeuously oppressed, and the com∣munaltie greatlye impouerished, of whome he named the Duke of Somerset to be the principal &c. And further to vn∣derstande of the Dukes meaning by this his forcible en∣tring of the Realme, (as himselfe pretended) may appeare by certaine letters by him written to the King, and also the Kings aunsweares, to the same, both whiche I thinke good here to set downe as I finde them recorded.

PLease it your highnesse to cōceiue, that sith my depar∣ting* out of this your Realm, by your commandement, and being in your seruice in your land of Ireland, I haue bin informed that diuerse language hath bene sayde of me to your moste excellente estate, whiche shoulde sounde to my dishonour and reproch, and charge of my person: howe be it that, I aye haue bene, and euer will be, your true liegeman and seruaunt: and if there be any man that wyll or dare say the contrarie, or charge me otherwise, I beséech your right∣wisenesse to call him before your high presence, and I wyll declare me for my discharge as a true Knighte ought to do, and if I doe not, as I doubt not but I shall, I beséech you to punishe me as the poorest man of your lande: And if hée bée founde vntrue in his suggestion and information, I bée∣séech you of your highnesse that he be punished after his de∣sert, in example of all other. Please it youre excellence to knowe, that as well before my departyng out of thys your Realme, for to goe into your Lande of Irelande, in your full noble seruice, as sith, certaine persons haue lyne in awayte for to hearken vppon me, as Syr Iohn Talbot Knighte at the Castell of Holte: Syr Thomas Stanley Knighte in Cheshire: Pulforde at Chester: Elton at Worcester: Brooke at Gloucester: and Richarde grome of your Chamber at Beaumarres: whyche hadde in charge (as Page  667 I am enformed,) for to take me and putte me into youre Castell of Conway, and to strike of the heade off Syr Willi∣am Oldehall Knighte, and to haue put in prison Sir Wil∣liam Deuereux Knight, and Sir Edmond Malso Knyghte, withouten enlarging, vntyl the time that your highnesse had appointed theyr deliueraunce. Item, at such tyme as I was purposed for to haue arriued at youre hauen of Beaumarres, for to haue come to youre noble presence to de∣clare me your true man and subiecte, as my duetie is, my landing was stopped and forbarred by Henrie Norres, Tho∣mas Norres, William Bulkeley, William Grust, and Bar∣tholmew Boulde, your officers in Northwales, that I should not lande there, nor haue victuall nor refreshing for mée and my fellowshippe, as I haue written to your excellence here before, so farre for the that Henrie Norres deputye to the Chamberlayne of Northwales, sayde vnto me that hée hadde in commaundemente that I shoulde in no wise haue landing, refreshing, nor lodging, for men nor for horsse, nor other thyng that myghte turne to my worshippe or ease, puttyng the blame vppon William Saye Usher of your Chamber, saying and affyrmyng that I am against youre intente, and as a Traytoure, as I am informed: and moreouer, certaine letters were made and delyuered vnto Chester, Shrewesburie, and to other places for to lette myne entrye into the same. Item aboue all wrongs and iniuries aboue-sayde done vnto me of malice, wythout any cause, I beyng in your lande of Irelande, in youre honou∣rable seruice, certayne commissions were made and dy∣recte vnto diuerse persons, whiche for the execution of the same, satte in certayne places, and the Juries empane∣led and charged, to the whiche iniuries, certayne per∣sons laboured instauntlye to haue me endited of trea∣son, to the intente for to haue vndone me and myne issue, and corrupted my bloude, as it is openlye publyshed: be∣séeching your Maiestie Royall, of your ryghteousnesse, to doe examyne these matters, and therevppon to doe suche Page  668 Iustice in his behalfe as the cause requyreth, for mine intēt is fully to pursue to your highnesse for the conclusiō of these matters.

COosin we haue séene the byll that yée tooke vs late, and* also vnderstand y good hūble obedience that yée in your selfe shewe vnto vs, as well in worde as in déede, wherfore our intente is, the more hastily to ease you of suche things as were in your sayde Bil. How be it that at our more ley∣sure we might aunswere you to your sayde Byll, yet we let you wit, that for the causes aforesayde, we will declare you now our intent in these matters: sith it is that a long time among the people hath bene vpon you many straunge lan∣guage, and in especial anone after your disordinate and vn∣lawfull slaying of the Bishoppe of Chester, diuerse and ma∣nye of the vntrue shipmen and other▪ sayde in their maner, words against our estate, making manace to our own per∣son by yoursayings, that yée shoulde be fetched with many thousandes, and yée should take vpon you that, whiche yée neyther oughte, nor as we doubt not, yée will not attempt, so farre forth that it was sayde to our person by diuerse & especiallye we remember of one Wasnes whyche hadde like words to vs. And also ther was diuerse of such false people, that went on & had like language in diuerse of our townes of our lande, whiche by our subiectes were taken and duely executed: wherefore we sente to diuerse of our Courtes and places, to hearken and to take héede if any such manner cō∣myng were, and if there had bin, for to resist it: but comming into our lande our true subiecte as yée did, our intente was not that ye, nor lesse of estate of our subiectes, nor none of youre seruauntes shoulde not haue bin letted nor▪ warned, but in goodly wise receyued: howe be it that peraduenture your sodaine comming, without certayne warnyng, cau∣sed oure seruauntes to do as they dyd, considering the cau∣ses aboue sayde. And as to the enditement that yée spoke of, we thinke verily, and holde for certaine warning, cau∣sed our seruaunts to doe as they did, considering the cau∣ses Page  669 aboue sayde. And as to the enditemente that yée spoke of, we thinke verylye and holde for certaine, that there was none suche. And if ye maye truely proue that any person was thereaboutes, the matter shall be de∣meaned as the case shall require, so that he shall know it is to our greate displeasure. Upon thys for the easing of your hearte in all such matters, we declare, repute, and adntte you as our true aud faythful subiecte, and as your faythfull Coosin.

PLease it your highnesse tenderly to consider, that greate* murmur & grudging, is vniuersally in this your realm, in that Iustice is not duely ininistred to suche as trespasse & offende against your lawes, and in especial of them that be endited of treason, and other being openly noised of y same, whereby greate inconueniences haue fallen, and greate is like to fall hereafter in your sayde Realme, which God de∣fende, but if by your highnesse prouision couenable be made for due reformation and punishment in this behalfe. Wher∣fore I your humble subiect & true leigeman, Richard Duke of Yorke, willing as effectuallye as I can, and desiring the suretie and prosperitye of your moste royall person, and the welfare of thys your noble Realme, counsell and aduertise your excellency for the conuersation of good tranquility and peaceable rule among all other subiectes, for to ordain and prouide, that true iustice be had, against all such that so bée endited, or openly named, wherin I offer my selfe, and wil put my endeuour for to execute youre commaundemente in the premisses, for the punishing of suche offendours, and redresse of the sayde misrules, to my might and power. And for the hastie execution hereof, like it your highnesse to ad∣dresse these letters of priuie seale and writs to your officers and ministers, to doe, take, and arrest, all suche persons so noysed and endited, of what estate, degrée, or condition, soe∣uer they be, and them to committe to the Tower of London and to other of your prisons, there to abyde without Bayle or mayne prise, vntil the tyme they be vtterly tryed, and de∣termined Page  670 termined after the course of your lawes.

COosin as touching your Bill last put vp to vs, we vn∣derstande* well that yée of good harte, counsayle and ad∣uertice vs to y setting vp of Justice, and to the spéedy puni∣shing of some persons endited or noysed, offering your ser∣uise to bée readie at commaundemente in the same, sithe it is that for manye causes mouing vs to haue determy∣ned in our soule to stablishe a sadde, and a substancial coun∣sell, giuing them more ample aucthoritie and power than euer we did afore this, in the whiche we haue appointed you to be one, but sithe it is not accustomed sure, nor expedient, to take a conclusion and conduct by aduise or counsell of one Person by hymselfe for the conseruation, it is obserued that the greatest and the beste, the riche and the poore, in libertye, Uertue, and effect, of your voyces be e∣quall, we haue therefore determyned wythin our selfe to sende for our Chauncellour of England, and for other Lords of our Counsel, yea and al other, togither within short time ripelye to common these and other our greate matters, in the whiche communication, suche conclusion by the grace of God shal be takē, as shal sound to his pleasure, the Weale of vs and our land, as well in these matters as in any o∣ther.

At length it was agréed by the King, that the Duke of Somerset shoulde be committed to warde, there to abyde and answere suche Articles as the Duke of Yorke would laye a∣gainst him, vpon which promises so made by the Kyng to the Duke, who sawe that the people of Kent, and of o∣ther places, came not to him as they had promised, and that they were not strong ynough, for the Kings part was much more than his, he brake vp his fielde on the first of Marche, and yéelded himselfe to the King at Dertforde, where contra∣rie to promise before made, he founde the Duke of Somerset chiefe about the King. Then was the Duke of Yorke sent be∣fore to London and holden, partly as prisoner, and streighter shoulde haue bene kepte, but it was noysed that sir EdwardPage  671 Earle of March sonne to the sayde Duke of Yorke was com∣ming towarde London with a strong power of Welchmen, whych feared so the Quéene and Counsell, that the Duke was set at full libertie. And on the tenth of March the saide Richarde Duke of Yorke made his submission, and toke hys othe to be true, faythfull, and obedient subiect to King Hen∣rie the sixth, King of England, in Saint Paules Church at Lon∣don, there being present the King and most of his nobilitye, that is to saye, the Dukes of Buckingham, Northampton, and Somerset: the Earles of Warwicke, Arundale, Salisburie, Shrop∣shire, Deuonshire, Wiltshire, Northumberlande, Stafford and Dor∣set: viconnts of Beaumount and Welles, Barons Fitz Warren, Sainmounde, Cobham, Douglas, and others: Bishoppes, the Cardinall, Archbyshoppe of Yorke, and Canterburie, Winche∣ster, Ely, and London, in these wordes following.

I Richard Duke of Yorke, confesse and beknowe that I am and oughte to bée humble subiecte and liegeman to you my soueraigne Lorde King Henrie the sixth, and owe therefore to beare you Fayth and trueth, as to my soue∣raigne liege Lorde, and shall doe all dayes vnto my liues ende, & shall not at any time wyll or assente that any thing attempted or done againste your moste noble person, but where so euer I shall haue knowledge of anye suche thing imagined or purposed, I shall with all spéede and diligence possible to mée, make that youre hyghe∣nesse shall haue knowledge thereof. And ouer that, doe all that shall be possible to me, to the withstanding and lette thereof, to the vttermoste of my lyfe: I shall not anye thing take vppon me agaynste youre royall e∣state or obeysaunce that is due thereto, nor suffer a∣nye other man to doe, as farre forthe as it shal be in my power to let it: And also shall come at youre commaunde∣mente whensoeuer I shall be called by the same, in hum∣ble and obeysaunte wise, but if it be letted by any sicknesse of impotence of my person, or by such other cause as shal bée thoughte by you my soueraigne LORD reasonable. Page  672 I shall neuer hereafter take vpon me to gather any rowe, nor to make any assembly of your people, without your cō∣maundement or licence, or in my lawfull defence, in inter∣pretation or declaration of the which my lawfull defence, I shall reporte me at all times to your highnesse, and if the case require, to my péeres, nor any thing attempt againste any of your subiects, of what estate▪ degrée, or condition, ye they be. But when soeuer I finde my selfe wronged and a∣gréeued, I shal sue humblye for remedie to your highnesse, and procéede after the course of your lawes, and in none o∣therwise, sauing in mine owne lawfull defence in manner aboue saide, and otherwise haue to your highnesse as an hū∣ble and true subiecte oughte to haue him to his soueraigne Lorde. All these things aboue sayde I promise you truely to obserue and kéepe, by the holy Euangelistes contayned in the booke that I laye my hande here vpon, and by the holye Crosse I here touch, and by the blessed Sacrament of oure Lordes bodye, that I shall nowe with hys mercye receiue. And ouer I agrée me and wil▪ that if I any tyme hereafter▪ as by the grace of our Lord God I neuer shall, any thing attempt by waye of feate or otherwyse againste your royall Maiestie and obeysaunce that I owe thereto, or any thyng take vppon me otherwise than is aboue expressed, I from that tyme forth be vnabled, helde and taken, as an vntrue and openly foresworne man, and vnable to all manner of worship, estate, and degrée, be it such as I now occupye, or any other that might in any wise grow vnto me hereafter. And this I haue here promised and sworne, procéedeth of myne owne desire and frée volunte, and by no constraynyng or coaction. In witnesse of all the which things aboue writ∣ten, I Richarde Duke of Yorke aboue writ subscribe, with mine owne hand and seale.

This oth he also toke at Westminster, and at Couentrey, at sundry times.*

Richard Lee: Richard Alley, the 28. of September.

Godfrey Filding Mercer, the 28. of October.

Page  673On the Twelfth day after Christmas, the King holding a* solempne feaste at Westminster, made his two bretherne on the mothers side Knightes: he also made Edmunde the el∣der, Earle of Richemonde, and Iasper the yonger, Earle of Penbrooke.

In the moneth of Marche (as witnesseth Gagwine,) was the Towne of Harflewe wonne by the Frenchmen. And soone after the Citie of Bayons was giuen vppe by appointment, that the souldioures shoulde leaue theyr armoure behinde them.

The one and twentith of July Iohn Talbot Earle of Shrewsburie wyth his sonne Lorde Lisle, and Syr Edwarde Hull Knight, was slaine besides Burdeaux: and the Lorde Molins was taken prisoner, who was after deliuered for a greate raunsome.

On Bartholmewe daye, at the Wrestling neare vnto Clearken well, a Gentleman belonging to the Prior of Saint Iohns, made a rumour or tumulte, for the whiche, by the commaundement of the Maior, he was arrested by Richard Alley, one of the Sherifes, and deliuered to Paris a Serge∣ant: but suche resistance was made by partes taking, that the Sherife was faine to craue help of the Maior, who with his brethren the Aldermen arose from the game, & strength∣ned the Sherifes, and for the rescue of the said Gentleman, one named Calleis, came out of Saint Iohns with a greate strength of Archers, to resiste the Maior, in the which fray, a Yeoman of Saint Iohns was laine, and many other sore hurte: the Maior himselfe escaped hardly, for his Cap was smitten from his head with an arrowe: but the Maior with his Citizens putte the other to flight, sente the principall of them to Newgate, and then toke his place again til ye games were ended, by which time, the Citizens had gathèred them selues in greate nūber, and fetched him home, neuer Maior so strongly, nor so honorably.*

This yeare the King lay longsicke at Claringdon, & was in greate daunger to haue ended his life.

Page  674The thirtéenth daye of October, the Quéene at West∣minster was deliuered of hir firste sonne, who was named Edwarde.

Iohn Waldren: Thomas Cocke, the 28. of September.*

Iohn Norman Draper, the 28. of October.

Before thys time the Maiors, Aldermen, and Commo∣ners of the Cytie of London, were wonte all to ride to West∣minster, when the Maior shoulde take hys charge, but this Maior was rowed thyther by water: for the whiche the watermen made of hym a song, Rowe the boate Nor∣man, &c.

The ninth of Marche in the nighte, was a greate fire nexte wythout Ludgate, in a Cordwayners house, whyche Cordwayner wyth hys wife, thrée yong men and a mayde were all burnte, the prisoners of Ludgate were remo∣ued to Newgate, bycause they were almoste smoulde∣red.*

Iohn Fielde: William Tayler, the 28. of September.

Stephen Foster Fishmonger, the. 28. of October.

A greate Fray at London by the Sanctuarie men of Saint Martins le graunde, who issued forth and hurte dyuerse Ci∣tizens, but it was appeased by the Maior and hys bre∣thren.

The one and twentith of May king Hēry taking his ior∣ney* from Westminster toward Saint Albons, to mete with the Duke of Yorke, the Earles of Warwicke and Salisburie lod∣ged that nighte at Wateforde or Wadeforde, on thys side Sainte Albons, and on the morning earely he came to Saint Albons, wyth hym assembled on hys partye the Dukes of Somer∣set, and of Buckingham, the. Earles of Penbroke, Northumber∣lande, Deuonshire, Stafforde, Dorset, and Wiltshire, the Lordes, Clifforde, Sudley, Barons, and Roos, wyth diuerse Knights, Esquiers, Gentlemen, and Yeomen, to the nūber of. 2000. and more. And at the same time were there assembled Ri∣chard Duke of Yorke, Richarde Earle of Warwicke, Richarde Earle of Salisburie, with diuerse Knightes and Esquiers in Page  675 the fielde called Keyfielde, beside Saint Albons. The King hea∣ring of the dukes comming with the Lords aforesaid, pight his banner in a place called Goselowe, which place was some∣times called Sandforth in Saint Peters stréete, & commaunded in strong manner to kéepe the wardes and Barriers of the same Towne. The Duke of Yorke knowing the strength made againste him abyding in the fielde afore sayde, from seuen of the clocke in the morning vntill it was almost ten of the Clocke without any stroke smitten on eyther parte, by the aduise of hys Counsell, sente vnto the King vnder these wordes following.

Wordes in writing by the Duke of Yorke to the King.

PLease it vnto your excellente grace, Richarde Duke of Yorke, to take hym as your true liege manne and humble subiecte, and to consider and tender at the re∣uerence of God, and in the way of Charitie, the true intent of my commyng, and to be good and gratious Soueraigne vnto me, and all other your true liege menne, whych, that with all their power and mighte will be readye to lyue and dye with you in your right, and to do al things as shal like your Maiestie royal to commande vs, if it be to the worship of the Crowne of England, and the welfare of this your noble Realme. Moreouer, gratious Lorde, please it vnto youre Maiestye Royall, of youre greate goodnesse and righte∣wisenesse, to encline youre will to heare and féele the rightwise parte of vs youre true Subiects and Liege men. Fyrste, praying and beséeching to oure Soueraigne, Christe Jesus, of hys hyghe aod mightye power, to giue the vertue of Prudence, and that throughe the prayer of the glorious Martyre Sainct Albon gyue you verye knowledge of oure trothes, and to knowe the intent of our assembling at this time: For God that is in Heauen knoweth, oure intent is rightfull and true. And therefore we praye vnto that mighty LORDE in these woordes: Domine sis clypeus defensionis nostrae:Page  676 wherefore gracious Lorde, please it your Maiestie royal to deliuer such as we will accuse, and they to haue like as they haue deserued. And this done, you to be honorably wor∣shipped as moste rightfull King and our true gouernour. And if we shoulde nowe at this tyme be promised, as afore thys time is not vnknown haue bin promises broken whi∣che haue bin full faithfully promised, and therevpon greate othes sworne, we will not nowe cease for no suche promi∣ses, nor othe, tyl we haue them which haue deserued death, or else we to dye therefore.

The aunswere by the King to the Duke of Yorke.

I King Henrie charge and commaunde, that no manner person of what degrée, estate, or condition soeuer he be, abyde not, but that they auoyde the field, and not be so har∣die to make resistaunce against me in my owne realm. For I shall knowe what traytour dare be so bolde to arise anye people in mine owne lande, where through I am in great disease and heauynesse: by that Faith I owe vnto Saint Ed∣warde, and vnto the Crown of England, I shal destroy them euery mothers son, and eke they to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, that may be taken afterward of them, in exam∣ple to make all suche traytours to beware, for to make anye rising of people within mine owne land, and so trayterous∣ly to abyde theyr king and gouernour. And for a conclusion, rather than they shall haue any Lorde that here is with me at this time, I shall this day for their sake in this quarrell my selfe liue and dye.

The wordes of the Duke of Yorke to all Gentlemen and other assembled with hym.

SIrs, the king our soueraign Lord wil not be reformed at our beséeching ne prayer, nor wil not in no wise vn∣derstād the intente wherfore we be here assēbled & gathered at this time, but only is in ful purpose to destroy vs al and Page  677 there vpon a great othe hath made, that there is none other waye but that he with all his power will pursue vs, and if we be taken to giue vs a shamefull death, léesing our liue∣lodeand goods, and also our heyres shamed for euer. Ther∣fore sirs, now sith it will none otherwise be, but yt we shall vtterly die, better it is to vs to die in the field, than coward∣ly to be put to an vtter rebuke and shamefull death, for the right of England standeth in vs. Considering also in what perill it standeth at this time, and for to redresse the mis∣chiefe thereof, let euery man helpe to his power this daye, and in that quarrell to quite vs like men, to the crowne of England, praying and beséeching vnto that Lord the which is eternal, that raigneth in the glorious kingdome celestial, to kéepe and saue vs thys day in our right, and throughe the giftes of his holy grace we may be made strong to withstād the greate abhominable and horrible malice of them, that purpose to destroy vs and the realme of England, and put vs to a shamefull death: praye we therefore vnto that Lord to be our comfort and our defendour, saying these wordes, Do∣mine sis clipeus defensionis nostri.

And when these wordes were sayde, the Duke of Yorke, and the Earles of Warwicke and Salisburie, with their hoste, betwéene eleauen and twelue at noone breake in in thrée seueral places of the sayd stréete. The King thē being in the place of Edmond Westby Hun∣dreder of the sayde Towne of Saint Albons, hearing of the saide Dukes comming, commaunded his hoste to slaye all manner Lordes, Knightes, Squiers, Gentlemen and yeo∣men, that might be taken on the party of the foresayd Duke of Yorke. Thys done, the Lorde Clifforde kepte so strongly the barriours of the same Towne, that the forsayde Duke of Yorke might in no wise with all the power that hée hadde enter, nor breake into the sayde Towne. The Earle of Warwicke knowyng thereof, tooke and gathered hys menne togyther wyth hym, and brake in by the Garden side into the sayde Towne, betwéene the signe of the keye, and the Exchequere in Holywel stréete: and anone Page  678 as they were within the fayde Towne they blew vppethe Trumpet and cryed with an high voyce a Warwicke, a War∣wicke, that maruayle it was to heare. And tyll that tyme the Duke of Yorke might neuer haue entry into the Town, and then with strong hande they brake vp the Barriers, and foughte a fierce▪ and cruell battayle, in the whiche were slayne, Lordes of name, Edmonde Duke of Somerset, the Earle of Northumberlande, the Lorde Clifforde, sir Barton Entewsell Knighte, William Souche, Iohn Botreaux, Ralphe Balithorpe and his sonne, William Coruin, Williā Cotton receyuer of the Dutchie of Lancaster, Gilbert Fal∣dinger, Reignalde Griffin, Iohn Dawes, Ellis Wood, Iohn Cyte, Robert Woodwarde, Gilbert Scarlocke, and Ralph Willowby Esquires, a Gentleman of the Courte Roger Mercraft the Quéenes messanger, Hawbin the Kings Por∣ter, Malener Padington and William Butler Yeomen, and fiue and twentie moe, whose names were not knowne, and of them that were slayne, bene buryed at Saint Albons eighte and fourtie persons. And at that battayle were wounded Lordes of name, the King was shotte into the necke wyth an arrowe. The Duke of Buckingham, and the Lord Sud∣ley, in the visages wyth arrowes, the Earle of Stafforde in the right hande with an arrowe, the Earle of Dorset was so sore hurte that he might not goe, but was fayne to be car∣ried home in a carte, and Syr Iohn Wenloke Knighte in likewise hurt and carried from thence in a Chayre, and di∣uerse other Knightes and Esquiers sore hurt, and the sub∣staunce of the Kyngs hoste dispoyled of theyr harneis, at their owne requeste, made deliuerye to the Dukes hoste for sauation of theyr liues and fled. The Earle of Wiltshire, and Thorpe, with many other fled, and cast away their harneis in ditches and woods. This done, the Duke of Yorke, the Erles of Warwicke and Salisburie, came vnto the King where hée was, and besoughte hym on theyr knées, of grace and for∣giuenesse of that they had done in his presence, & besoughte him of his highnesse to take thē to grace, & as his true liege Page  679 men. The king desired them to cease their people, that there shoulde be no more hurte done, and to obey hys commaun∣demēt, did cause to be proclaymed in the Kings name, that all maner of people shoulde cease off theyr malice, and not to smite one stroke more, and so ceased the battayle. And vpon the day next after, the King and the Duke of Yorke, the Earles of Warwicke and Salisburie, came to London and were lodged in the Bishoppes Pallaice of London, where they kepte theyr Whitsontide with great ioye and solemnitye, concluding there to holde a Parliament, the same to begin on the ninth of July next following.

This yeare in the moneth of June appeared a comet or starre, called Stella Cometa, betwixt the North and the East, extending his beames towards the South.

In the Parliament begun the ninth of July as is afore saide, Richarde Duke of Yorke was made protectour of the realme. The Earle of Salisburie was made Lord Chaun∣cellour of Englande, and Richarde Earle of Warwicke was made Captaine of Caleis.

Iohn Yong: Thomas Owlgraue, the. 28. of September.*

William Marrow Grocer, the 28. of October.

This yeare by meanes of the Quéene and the Lordes of hir Counsell, the Duke of Yorke was discharged of the Pro∣tectourship, and the Earle of Salisburie of the Chauncellour∣ship, and being called by priuie seale to Couentrie, they were like to haue bene intrapped there, and hardlye esca∣ped.

In the moneth of Maye, an Italians seruaunte walkyng* throughe Cheape of London, wyth a dagger hangyng at hys gyrdle, a Merchauntes seruaunt that before tyme had bin in Italy and there blamed for wearing of the like weapon, chalenged the straunger, howe hée durst be so bolde to beare weapon, consydering he was out of hys natiue Countrey, knowyng that in his Countrey no straunger was suffe∣red to wear y like. To the which questiō such answere was Page  680 made by the straunger, that the Merter toke from him hys dagger and brake it vpon his heade, wherevpon the stran∣ger complayned to the Maior, who on the morrow sent for the yong man to ye Guilde Hall: wherfore after his aunswere made vnto the complaynt, by agréemente of a full Courte of Aldermē, he was sent to ward, and after the Court was finished, the Maior and Sherifes walking homewarde tho∣roughe Cheape, were there mette by suche a number of Mer∣cers seruauntes and other, that they mighte not passe, for ought they coulde speake or doe, till they hadde deliuered the yonug manne that before was by them sente to pri∣son. And the same daye in the afternoone sodainely was as∣sembled a multitude of lewde and pore people of the City, which without heade or guide ranne vnto certaine Italians houses, and especially to the Florentines, Lukesses and Veneti∣ans, and there toke and spoyled what they founde, and dyd great hurt in sundry places, but moste in foure houses stan∣ding in Breadstreete warde, whereof thrée stoode in Saint Bar∣tholmewes Parishe the little, and one in the Parish of Saint Benis Finke. The Maior, Aldermen and worshipful Com∣moners of the Citie, with all theyr diligence resisted them what they coulde, and sente diuerse of them to Newe∣gate: and fynallye, not wythout shedding of bloude and mayming of diuerse Citizens, the rumour was appeased. The yong manne beginner of all thys businesse, tooke Sanctuarie at Westminster, and not long after the Duke of Buckingham with other noble menne were sente from the Kyng into the Cytie, who there charged the Maior by Uertue of a Commission, that inquirie shoulde hée made of thys ryot, and so called an Oyer determyner at the Guilde Hall, where satte for Judges the Maior, as the Kyngs Lieuetenaunte, the Duke of Buckingham on hys ryghte hande, the chiefe Justice on the lefte hande, and manye other men of name, where whyle they were enpanelyng theyr inquestes, the other Commons of the Citie manye of them secretly putte them in armour, Page  681 and ment to haue roong the common bell, so to haue raysed the whole force of the Citie, and so to haue deliuered such persons as before for the robberie were committed toward. But this matter was discretely handled by the counsel and labour of some discrete Commoners, which appeased their neighbours in such wise, that all this furie was quenched: but when worde was brought to the Duke of Buckingham, that the commonaltie were in harnesse, he with the other Lordes tooke leaue of the Maior and departed, and so cea∣sed the inquirie for that day. Upon the morrow the Maior commaunded the common counsell with the Wardens of fellowships to appeare at the Guild Hall, where by the Re∣corder in the Kings name and the Maiors, was commaun∣ded euery 〈…〉den, that in the afternoone eyther of them should assēble his whole fellowship at their cōmon Halles, and there to giue straight commaundement, that euery mā sée the kings peace kept within the Citie. After which time the Citizens were brought to such quietnesse, that after that day, the enquirie was duly perused, and. iij. persons for the said ryot put in execution and hanged at Tyborne, whereof ij▪ were Sanctuarie men of Saint Martins le graunde, the other* a shipman, for robbing of Anthony Mowricine and other Lumbardes.

Iohn Steward: Raph Verney, the 28. of September.*

Thomas Canings Grocer, the 28. of October.

In the moneth of Nouember, in the Ile of Portland not farre from the towne of Weymouthe was séene a Cocke com∣ming out of the Sea, hauing a great crest vpō his head, and a great red beard, and legges of halfe a yarde long: he stoode on the water and crewe. iij. times, and euery time turned* him about, and beckened with his head, toward the North, the South, and the West, and was of colour like a Fesaunt,* and when he had crowed. iij. times he vanished away.

And shortly after were taken at Erithe within. xij. myles of London, iiij. great and wonderfull Fishes, whereof one was called Mors Marina, the second a Sworde Fishe, the other Page  682 two were Whales.

The. xxvitj. day of August Peter Brice Steward of Nor∣mandie;* with a flete of Frenchmen landed at Sandwiche, and with fyre and sword wasted the Towne to ashes, and slewe the inhabitauntes almost to the last man. Also Fowey in Deuonshire was spoyled by Pirates in the moneth of Au∣gust.

In this yeare was a great fray in the Northe Countrey* betwéene the Lorde Egremond and the Earle of Salisburies sonnes, whereby many were maymed and slaine, but in the ende the Lorde Egremonde was taken, who was by the Kings Counsell found in great default, and therefore con∣demned in great summes of mony, to be payde to the Earle of Salisburie, and in the meane time committed to Newgate. Not long after this sir Thomas Percie Lord Egremount, and sir. Richard Percie his brother beyng prisoners in New∣gate condemned in a great summe to the Earle of Salisburie as is aforesaid, brake out of prison by night, and went to the King, the other prisoners tooke the leades of the gate and* defended it a long while against the Shriues and all their officers, in so much that they were forced to call more ayde* of the Citizens, whereby they lastly subdued them.

William Edwards: Thomas Reyner, the 28. of September.

Godfrey Boleyne Mercer, the 28. of October.

Maister Reginald Pecocke Byshop of Chichester, a secu∣lar Doctor of Diuinitie, that had labored many yéeres to translate the holy Scripture into Englishe, was accused to haue passed the bonds of Diuinitie and of Christian beléefe in certaine Articles, of the which he was conuict before the Archbyshoppe of Counterburie, and other Byshoppes and Clerkes, and after vtterly abiured, reuoked, and renoun∣ced those Articles openly at Paules Crosse in his mother tongue on the fourth day of December, as followeth. In the name of the Trinitie, Father, Sonne, and holy Ghost, I Reynold Pecocke Byshoppe of Chichester vnworthie, of myne owne power and will without any manner coer∣tion Page  683 or dread, cōfesse and knowledge that I here before this time presuming of myne naturall witte, and preferring my iudgement and naturall reason before the newe and the olde Testament, and the authoritie and determination of our mother holy Churche, haue helde, written & taught otherwise than the holy Romane and Uniuersall Churche teacheth, preacheth, or obserueth. And one is against the true Catholike and Apostles faith, I haue written, taught, and published many and diuers perilous doctrines, bookes, workes and writings, conteining Heresies and errors, con∣trarie to the fayth Catholike, and determination of holye Church: and especially these Heresies and errours follow∣ing, that is to say.

In primis quod non est de necessitate fidei credere quod dominus noster Iesus Christus post mortem descendit ad inferos.

Item, quod non est de necessitate salutis credere in sanctorū com∣munionem.

Item, quod Ecclesia vniuersalis potest errare in hijs quae sunt fidei.

Item, quod non est de necessitate salutis credere & tenere illud quod consilium generale & vniuersalis Ecclesia statuit, approbat, seu determinat, in fauorem fidei, & ad salutē animarum, est ab vniuer∣sis Christi fidelibus approbandum & tenendum.

Wherfore I miserable sinner which here before long time haue walked in darknesse, & now by the mercy and infinite goodnesse of God reduced into y right way, & light of truth, & considering my selfe gréeuously haue sinned and wickedly haue enformed & enfected the people of God, returne & come againe to the vnitie of our mother holy Church, & all here∣sies & errors written & conteined in my said bookes, works & writings, here solemnly & openly reuoke & renounce, which heresies & errors & all other spices of heresies I haue before this time before ye most Reuerēd father in God, and my good Lord of Caunterbury in diuers and lawfull forme iudicially abiured, submitting my selfe, beyng then and also nowe at this time verye contrite and penitent sinner, to the correc∣tion of the Churche and of my sayd Lorde of Caunterburie.

Page  684And ouer this, exhorting and requiring in the name and vertue of almightie God, in the saluation of your Soules and minde, that no man hereafter giue fayth and credence to my sayd pernitious doctrines, heresies and errors, ney∣ther my sayd Bookes kéepe, holde, or reade in any wise, but that they all such Bookes, workes, and writings suspect of heresies, delyuer in all goodly hast vnto my sayde Lorde of Caunterburie, or to his Commissioners and Deputies, in es∣chewing of many inconueniences & great perils of soules, the which else might be cause of the contrary. And ouer this declaration of my conuersation and repentaunce, I here o∣penly assent, that my sayde Bookes, workes and writings, for declaration and cause aboue rehearsed, be deputed vnto the fire, and openly brent in ensample and terrour of all o∣ther, &c. After this, he was depriued of his Bishopricke, ha∣uing a certaine pencion assigned vnto him for to lyue on in an Abbey, and soone after he dyed. His Bookes were inti∣tuled:

  • 1. Of Christian Religion, and a Booke perteyning there∣vnto.
  • 2. Of Matrimonie.
  • 3. Iust oppressing of holy Scripture, deuided into three partes.
  • 4. The Donet of Christian Religion.
  • 5. The follower of the Donet.
  • 6. The Booke of Faith.
  • 7. The Booke filling the. 4. Tables.
  • 8. The Booke of Worshipping.
  • 9. The Prouoker of Christian men.
  • 10. The Booke of Councell.

In the moneth of Januarie dyed the Earle of Deuon∣shire, in the Abbey of Abindon, poysoned (as men sayd) being there at that tyme with Quéene Margaret, to appease the malice betwéene the yong Lords, whose fathers were slaine at Saint Albons, and they that helde with the Duke of Yorke. A méeting was appoynted by the King to be at London, in Page  685 obeying whose commaundement, the Duke of Yorke came vnto London on the. xxvj. day of Januarie, and was lodged at Baynards Castle, and afore him, to wit the. xv. of Januarie came the Earle of Salisburie, and was lodged at his place called the Erber: shortly after came the Dukes of Somerset & Excester, who were lodged without Temple Barre, lykewise the Earle of Northumberland, the Lord Egremond: & the yong Lord Clyfford, were lodged in ye Suburbes. And on the. xiiij. day of Februarie came the Earle of Warwike from Calleis with a great band of men all arrayed in red Jaquets with white ragged staues vppon them, who was lodged at the Grey Friers. And the. xvij. day of Marche the King & Quéene with a great retinue came to London, and were lodged in the Bishop of Londons Pallace. And ye shall vnderstand, that with these Lordes came great companies of men, some had. 600. some. 500. and the least had. 400. Wherefore the Maior had dayly in harnesse. 5000. Citizens and rode dayly about the Citie and Suburbes of the same, to sée the Kings peace were kept, & nightly. 2000. men in harnesse, to gyue attendance vpon. iij. Aldermen, which kept the night watch tyll. vij. of the clocke in the morning, that the day watches were assembled, by reason whereof, good order and rule was kept, and no man so hardie once to attempt the breaking of the Kings peace. During this watch, a great Coūsell was holden by the Lordes, and a faygned agréement was made, betwéen the King, the Quéene, and the Duke of Yorke with* his retinue: for ioy whereof the. xxv. day of Marche a gene∣rall Procession was made in Saint Paules Church at London, where the King in Royall habite with his Diademe on his head kept the state, before whom went hand in hand y duke of Somerset, the Earle of Salisburie, the Duke of Excester, the Earle of Warwike, and so one of the one faction, & an other of that other sort. And behind the King, the Duke of Yorke led the Quéene with great familiaritie to all mens sightes.

The. xiij. of April there was a great fraye in Fletestreete,* betwéene men of Courte and the inhabitantes of the same Page  686 stréete, in which fray the Quéenes Atturney was slaine. For this facte the King committed the principall gouernours of Furniuals, Clifforde and Barnardes Inne to prison in the Ca∣stle of Hertforde, and William Taylour, Alderman of that warde, with many other, were sent to Windsore Castle the vij. of May.

On Thursday in Whitson wéeke, the Duke of Somerset* with Anthonie Riuers and other. iiij. kept Justes before the Quéene in the Towre of London agaynst thrée Esquiers of the Quéenes. And in lyke manner at Greenewiche the Son∣day following.

On the Trinitie Sonday or Munday following, certaine* shippes appertayning to the Earle of Warwike, met with a fléete of Spanyardes, and after long and cruell fyght tooke vj. of their Shippes laden with Yron and other Marchan∣dies, drowned and chased to the number of. xxvj. not without shedding of bloud on both partes, for of the Eng∣lishmen were slayne an hundred, and many more wounded* and sore hurt.

Ralph Ioseline: Richard Medtham, the 28. of September.

Thomas Scot Draper, the 28. of October.

The King and Quéene beyng at Westminster the. ix. day of Nouember fell a great debate betwéene Richard Earle of Warwike and them of the Kings house, in so much that they woulde haue slayne the Earle: and vnneth he escaped to his Barge and went after to Calleis, for he was not long before made Captaine thereof by authoritie of the Parlia∣ment. Soone after, the young Duke of Somerset by stirring of them that hated the Earle of Warwike, was made Cap∣tayne of Calleis, and a Priuie Seale direct to the Earle for to discharge him of the Captayneshyp: but the Earle for as muche as he was made by Parliament, he woulde not obey the Priuie Seale, but continued forth in the sayd office.

The Noble Science of Printing was about this tyme* founde in Germanie at Magunce by one Iohn CuthembergusPage  687 a Knight: One Conradus an Almaine brought it into Rome: William Caxton of London Mercer brought it into England aboute the yeare a. 1471. And fyrst practised the same in the Abbay of Saint Peter at Westminster, after which tyme it was likewyse practised in the Abbayes of Saint Augu∣stine at Caunterburie, Saint Albons, and other Monasteries of England.

In a lyttle Towne in Bedfordshire there fell a bloudie* rayne, whereof the red drops appeared in shéetes the which a woman had hanged out for to dry.

In this tyme the Realme of Englande was out of good order, as it had bene of long tyme: for the King béeyng symple and pitifull, was ledde by couetous Counsell. The King grewe in debte dayly, but payment was not made. All the possessions and Lordshippes that pertayned to the Crowne, the King had giuen some to Lordes and some to others, such as would begge them, so that himselfe had almost nothing lefte to lyue on, but such impositions as were put to the common people, as Taxes, Tallages, Quinzimes, all which was spent in vayne, for he helde no houshold, nor maintayned no warres, for which misgouer∣naunce the heartes of the people were turned from them that had the Land in gouernaunce. The Quéene with such as were of hir affinitie, ruled the Realme as hir lyked, ga∣thering riches innumerable. The Officers of the Realme, especially the Earle of Wilshire Treasurer of England, for to enriche himselfe, pilled the poore people, & disherited right∣full heyres, and did many wrongs. The Quéene was defamed and sclaundered that the young Prince was not hir sonne but a Bastard gotten in adulterie: wherefore she dreading that he shoulde not succéede his father in the Crowne of Englande, allyed vnto hir all the Knightes and Esquiers of Chestershire, for to haue theyr fauour: she helde open housholde among them, and made hir sonne the Prince to giue a liuerie of Swannes to all the Gentil∣men of the Countrey, and to many other through the land, Page  688 trusting through their strength to make hir sonne King, making priuie meanes to some of the Lordes of England for to stirre the King that he should resigne the Crowne to her sonne, but she could not bring their purpose about.

The. xxj. day of September Richard Earle of Salisburie ha∣uing* gathered a well appoynted armie for dread of his ene∣mies, especially of the Quéene, tooke his way towarde Lud∣lowe, where at that time the Duke of Yorke lay, to the intent that they both together would haue rydden to the King to Colshull in Staffordshire, to haue excused them of certaine arti∣cles layd against them by malice of their enemies as they sayd. Wherevpon those that were about the King, and also the Quéene, who laye at Eglishall, moued him to assemble a great powre, whereof Iames Twichet Lorde Awdley was made chiefe, and had the leading of them into the fielde cal∣led Bloreheath néere vnto Mucklestone, by the which the sayde* Duke and the Earle must néedes passe, & there both hostes mette and fought a mortall battaile, wherin the Lord Aud∣ley was slaine with Hugh Venables of Kinderton, Thomas Dutton of Dutton, Richard Mollynes, William Trowtbek, Iohn Legh del Bothes, Iohn Donne of Vtkinton, and Iohn Edgerton of Edgerton Knightes, Richard Donne of Croton, Iohn Duttes Esquiers, and many other of Chestershire, that had receyued the Princes liuerie of Swannes: and there were takē prisoners the Earle of Salisburies. ij. sonnes Tho∣mas and Iohn, and sir Thomas Harington, which were sent to Chester, but soone after deliuered. After this discomfiture, the Earle of Salisburie passed forth to Duke Richard to Lud∣lowe, and thether came to them for Calleis the Earle of War∣wike, which all thrée writ a letter vnto King Henry, whereof the tenure is this.

MOst Christian King, right high and mighty Prince, & our most dread Soueraigne Lord,

after as humble re∣commēdations to your high excellencie as will suffice. Our true intent to the prosperitie & augmentation of your high estate, and to the commō Weale of this Realme, hath be•••Page  689 shewed vnto your highnesse in such writing as wée make thereof. And ouer that an Indenture signed by our hands in the Churche Cathedrall of Worcester, comprehending y proofe of the truth & duetie that (God knoweth) we beare to your saide estate, and to the preheminence and preroga∣tiue thereof, we sent vnto your good Grace by the Prior of the sayde Churche, and diuers other Doctors, and among other, by M. William Lynwood Doctor of Diuinitie, which ministred vnto vs seuerally the blessed Sacrament of the body of Jesus, wherevppon we and euery of vs deposed for our sayde trueth and duetie, accordyng to the tenor of the sayde Indenture. And sith that time we haue certified at large in writing and by mouth, by Garter King of Armes, not onely to your said highnesse, but also to the good & wor∣thie Lordes beyng about your most Noble presence, the largenesse of our sayde trueth and duetie, and our intent and disposition, to serche all the motions that might serue conueniently to the affirmation thereof, and to our perfect suerties from suche inconuenient and vnreuerent ieopar∣dies as wée haue béene put in diuers tymes here before. Whereof we haue cause to make, and ought to make suche exclamation and complaint, not without reason, as is not vnknowen to all the sayde worthie Lordes, and to all his land, and wil offer vs to your high presence, to the same in∣tent, if we myght so doe without sayd suertie, which onely causeth vs to kéepe suche fellowshippe as we doe in our léefull manner. And hereto we haue forborne and auoy∣ded all thinges that might serue to the effusion of Christi∣an bloud, of the dreade that we haue of God, and of your Royall Maiestie: and haue also eschued to approche your sayde most Noble presence, for the humble obeysaunce and reuerence wherein we haue, and during our lyfe will haue the same. And yet neuerthelesse we heare, that we be pro∣claimed and defamed in our name vnrightfully, vnlaw∣fully, and sauing your high reuerence, vntruely, and other∣wise (as God knoweth) than we haue giuen cause, know∣ing Page  690 certainely, that the blessed and noble intent of your said good grace, and the righteousnesse thereof is, to take, repute and accept your true and lawfull subiectes, and that it ac∣cordeth neyther with your sayd intent, nor with your wyll or pleasure, that we shoulde be otherwise taken or reputed. And ouer that, our Lordshippes and tenantes bene of high violence robbed and spoyled, agaynst your peace and lawes, and all ryghteousnesse. Wée therefore, as we suffice, be∣séeche your sayde good Grace to take, repute, and receyne therevnto our sayde trueth and intent, which to God is knowne, as wée shewe it by the sayde tenor of the same Indenture. And not apply your sayde blessednesse ne the great righteousnesse and equitie wherewith God hath euer endued your high nobilitie, to ye importune impacience and violence of such persons as intende of extreme malice to procéede vnder the shadowe of your high might and pre∣sence, to our destructiō, for suche inordinate couetise (wher∣of God is not pleased) as they haue to our Landes, Offices, and goods, not letting or sparing therefore, to put suche things in all lamentable and too sorrowfull ieoperdie, as might in all wyse take effecte, by the mysterie of Gods will and power, nor not hauing regarde to the effusion of Christian bloud, ne any tendernesse to the noble bloud of this Land, such as serue to the tuition and defence thereof, ne not waying the losse of your true liege men of your saydo Realme, that God defend, which knoweth our intent, and that wée haue auoyded there from as farre as we may with our suerties, not of any dreade that wée haue of the sayde persons, but onely of the dreade of God & of your said high∣nesse, and will not vse our sayde defence vntil the time that wée be prouoked of necessitie, whereof wée call heauen and earth vnto witnesse and recorde, and therein beséeche God to be our Judge, and to delyuer vs according to our sayde intent, and our sayde trueth and duetie to your said high∣nesse and to the sayde Common Weale. Most Christian King, right high and mightie Prince, and most dread So∣ueraigne Page  691 Lorde, wée beséeche our blessed Lorde to preserue your honour and estate in ioye and felicitie.

Written at Ludlowethe. x. day of October:

  • R. Yorke,
  • R. Warwike,
  • R. Salisburie.

After their excusation contayned in this let∣ter sent to the King, they withdrewe them, and went into diuers partes beyond the Seas, for the more suertie of their persons. The Duke of Yorke went into Ireland, where he was honorably receyued: the Earle of Marche, Salisburie, and Warwike, not without great ieoperdie and perill, as well on the lande as on the sea, went to Calleis, and abode there.

Then was a Parliament holden at Couentrie, wherein* were attaint of treason, Richard duke of Yorke, Edward Erle of Marche his sonne and heire, Richard Earle of Warwike, Edmond Earle of Rutlande, Richard Earle of Salisburie, Iohn* Lorde Clifford, Lorde Clinton, sir Thomas Harington, sir Iohn Wenlocke, Thomas Neuill, Iohn Neuill sonnes of the Earle of Salisburie, Iames Pickering, Iohn Conyers, Thomas Par, William Oldhall, and Henrie Ratforde Knightes, Iohn Bowser, Thomas Cooke, Iohn Clay, Richard Gyton, Ro∣bert Browne, Edward Bowser, Thomas Vaughan, Iohn Roger, Richard Grey, Walter, Deuorux, Walter Hopton, Roger Kynderton, William Bowes, Foulke Stafforde, the Lorde Powys, and Alice Countesse of Salisburie, their goods and possessions escheted, and their heires disherited vnto the 9. degrée, their tenauntes spoyled of their goods, bemay∣med* and slayne, the towne of Ludlowe longing to the Duke of Yorke, was robbed to the bare walles, and the Dutches of Yorke spoyled of hir goods.

The Earle of Warwike hauing a great Nauie, kepte the* narrow seas, and sought with the Spanyards, kylled many of them, tooke their great vessels, with one Carrake of Iene, and got in them great riches.

Iohn Plummer: Iohn Stocker, the 28. of September.*

William Hulin Fishmonger, the 28. of October.

In this moneth of October, Henrie the yong duke of So∣merset,Page  692Henry Lorde Roos, and Lorde Audley, with men of Armes sailed toward Calleis, to the intent the Duke shoulde haue bene Captaine there: but when he came to lande, they* of Calleis would haue taken him, so that he hardly escaped to the Castle of Gwines: his souldiors were stripped out of their harnesse and let go. The Lord Audley was taken into Cal∣leis, and the Lord Roos fled into Flaunders, and after returned into England.

Not long after, Richard Lord Riuers was sent to Sādwich to kéepe the towne and certaine great ships which lay there at Anker, but when the Earle of Warwike sawe time conue∣nient,* he sent some of his men to Sandwich by night, ye which tooke the Lorde Riuers and Antonie Wooduile his sonne in their beds, & led them ouer to Calleis, with al the great ships saue one called Grace de Dieu, the which might not be had a∣way bicause she was broke in the bottome. Sir Baudwyne Fulford, vndertooke on paine of loosing his head, yt he woulde* destroy yt Earle of Warwike, but when he had spent ye King a thousand markes in money, he returned againe. Then was the Duke of Excester Admirall sent to the sea with a great* Nauie for to distresse the Earle of Warwike and his Nauie, he sailing from Sandwiche to Dertmouth, for lacke of victuals and money his Souldiours forsoke him there. And be∣twéene Sandwiche and Dertmouth he met the Earle of War∣wike comming out of Ireland that had bin there for to speake with the Duke of Yorke, and brought with him his mother that was sled thither for dread, and led hir to Calleis: but the Duke of Excester durst not set vppon the Earle of Warwike, nor the Earle woulde not distresse him, because he was Ad∣mirall and of the Kings bloud, but let him passe by.

In ye moneth of June. 500. men were sent to conduct the duke of Somerset frō Gwynes into England, but abiding ye wind in ye port of Sandwich, ye Earle of Warwikes men spoyled them of their harnes, killed their captain Moūford & many other. The Earles at Calleis, sent to the Archbishop of Caunterburie,* and at large to the commons of England certaine Articles in Page  693 writing, beginning thus: Worshipful sirs, we the Duke of*Yorke, the Earles of March, Warwike, and Salisburie, sewed & offered to haue come vnto the King our Soueraigne Lords most noble presence, to haue declared there asore him for our dutie to God & to his highnesse & to the prosperitie and welfare of his noble estate, and to the Common Weale of all his Lande as true liege men, the matters following, that is to say.

In primis the great oppression, extortion, robberie, mur∣ther and other violences done to Gods Church and to his ministers thereof, against Gods and mans law.

2 Item, the pouertie & miserie that to our great heaui∣nesse our Soueraigne Lord stādeth in, not hauing any liue∣lode of the Crowne of England whereof he may kéepe his ho∣norable housholde, which causeth the spoyling of his sayde liege men by the takers of his sayde housholde, which lyue∣lode is in their hands that haue bene destroyers of his sayd estate, and of the sayde common Weale.

3 Item, how his Lawes be partially and vnrightfully guided, and that by them that should most loue and tender his said Lawes, the said oppression and extortion is most fauored and supported, and generally, that al righteousnesse and Justice is exiled out of the sayde land, and that no man dreadeth to offend against the said Lawes.

4 Item, that it will please his saide good Grace to liue vpon his owne liuelode, wherevpon his noble Progenitors haue in dayes heretofore lyued as honorably and as wor∣thily as any Christian Princes, and not to suffer the de∣stroyers of the sayde land, and of his true subiectes, to lyue thervpon, and therfore to lacke the sustenances that should be belonging to his sayd estate, and finde his sayd houshold vpon his poore commons, without payment, which neyther accordeth with Gods nor mans lawe.

5 Item, how oft the said commons haue bene greatly & maruellously charged with taxes & tallages to their great empouerishing, whereof little good hath eyther growne to Page  694 the king or to the said land, and of the most substance there∣of the King hath left to his part not half so much, and other Lordes and persons, enimies to the sayd common Weale, haue to their owne vse, suffering all the old possessions that the King had in Fraunce & Normandy, Aniow & Maine, Gascoyn & Gwiene, won & gotten by his father of most noble memory, & other his noble progenitors, to be shamefully lost or sold.

6 Item, how they can not cease therwith, but now begin a new charge of imposition and tallages vpon the said peo∣ple, which neuer afore was séen, that is to say, euery towne, ship to finde men for ye Kings Gard, taking ensample ther∣of, of our enimies & aduersaries of Fraunce, which impositi∣on and tallage, if it be continued to heire, heires, and succes∣sors, will be the heauiest charge and worst ensample that e∣uer grewe in Englande, and the foresayde subiectes, and the sayde heires & successors, in such bondage as their auncetors were neuer charged with.

7. Item, where the King hath now no more liuelode out of his Realme of Englande, but onely the Lande of Ireland, and the towne of Calleis, and that no King Christened hath such a Lande and a Towne without his Realme, diuers Lordes haue caused his highnesse to write letters vnder his Priuie Seale, vnto his Irishe enemies, which neuer King of Englande did here to fore, whereby they may haue comfort to enter into the conquest of the sayde Lande, which letters the same Irishe enemies sent vnto me the sayde Duke of Yorke, and maruelled greatly that any such letters shoulde be to them sent, speaking therein great shame and villanie of the sayd Realme.

8 Item, in like wise the King by excitation and labour of the same Lordes, wrote other letters to his enemies and aduersaries in other lands, that in no wise they should shew any fauour or good will to the towne of Calleis, whereby they had comforte ynough to procéede to the wynning thereof. Considered also, that it is ordayned by the labour of the sayd Lords, that no where victuall nor other thing of refre∣shing Page  695 or defence should come out of Englande, to the succour or reliefe of the sayde towne, to the intent that they woulde haue it lost, as it may openly appeare.

9 Item, it is déemed & ought greatly to be déemed, that after that the same Lordes would put the same rule of Eng∣land, if they might haue their purpose and intent, into the handes and gouernaunce of the sayd enemies.

10 Item, howe continually sithe the piteous, shame∣full, and sorrowfull murther to all Englande, of that No∣ble, worthie, and Christian Prince Humfrey Duke of Glo∣cester the Kings true vncle, at Burie, it hath bene labou∣red, studyed, and conspired, to haue destroyed and mur∣thered the sayde Duke of Yorke, and the yssue that it plea∣sed God to sende me of the Royall bloud, and also of vs the saide Earles of Warwike & Salisburie, for none other cause but for the true hart that God knoweth we euer haue born, and beare to the profite of the Kings estate, to the Common Weale of the same Realme, and defence thereof.

11. Item, howe the Earles of Shrewsburie and Wilshire, and the Lord Beaumount, our mortall and extréeme ene∣myes nowe and of long tyme past, hauing the guiding a∣boute the most Noble person of our sayde Soueraigne Lorde, whose highnesse they haue restrayned and kepte from the libertie and fréedome that belongeth to his sayde estate, and the supporters and fauourers of all the premys∣ses, woulde not suffer the Kings sayde good grace to re∣ceyue and accepte vs, as he would haue done if he might haue had his owne will, into his sayde presence, dreading the charge that woulde haue bene layde vppon them, of the miserie, destruction, and wretchednesse of the sayde Realme, whereof they becauses and not the King, which is himselfe as noble, as vertuous, as rightuous and blessed of disposition, as any Prince earthly.

12. Item, the Earles of Wilshire and Shrewsburie, and the Lorde Beaumount, not satysfyed nor content with the Kings possessions and his goods, stirred and excited his sayd Page  695 highnesse to holde his Parliament at Couentrie, where an Acte is made by their prouocation and labour, agaynst vs the sayde Duke of Yorke, my sonnes Marche and Rut∣lande, and the Earles of Warwike and Salisburie, and the Sonnes of the sayde Earle of Salisburie, and many other Knightes and Esquiers, of diuers matters falsely and vn∣truely imagined, as they will answere afore almighty God in the day of Dome, the which the sayde Earles of Salisbu∣rie and Wilshire, and the Lorde Beaumount prouoked to be made, to the intent of our destruction and of our yssue, and that they myght haue our lyuelode and goods, as they haue openly robbed and dispoyled all our places and our tenementes, and manye other true men, and nowe procéede to hangyng and drawing of men by ty∣rannie, and will therein shewe the largenesse of their vio∣lence and malice as vengeably as they can, if no reme∣die be prouided at the Kings highnesse, whose blessed∣nesse is neither assenting nor knowing thereof.

We therefore séeyng all the sayde mischiefes, hearing also that the Frenche King maketh in his lande great as∣sembly of his people, which is greatly to bée dreade for many causes, purpose yet agayne with Gods grace to of∣fer vs to come agayne to the sayde presence of our sayde Soueraygne Lorde, to open and declare there vnto hym the mischiefes aboue declared, and in the name of the land to sue, in as reuerent and lowely wise as wée can, to his sayde good Grace, to haue pittie and compassion vppon his sayde true subiectes, and not to suffer the same mis∣chiefes to raygne vppon them. Requiring you in Gods behalfe, and praying you in our owne, therein to assist vs, doyng alway the duetie of liege men in our persons to our sayd Soueraigne Lord, to his estate, prerogatiue, and pre∣heminence, and to the suertie of his most Noble person, wherevnto we haue euer bene and will be as true as any of his subiectes aliue, wherof we call God, our Lady S. Marie, and all the Saintes in heauen vnto witnesse and record.

Page  697In the meane time the Earle of Wilshire treasurer of Eng∣land,* the Lorde Scales and the Lorde Hungerforde, went to Newberie, whiche longed to the Duke of Yorke, and there made inquisition of all them that in any wise had fauoured the sayde Duke, whereof some were founde guiltie, and were drawen, hanged, and quartered, and all the inhabi∣tauntes of the Towne were spoyled of their goods. From thence the Earle of Wilshire went to Southampton, where vn∣der* colour to take the Earle of Warwicke, he armed fiue gret Caraks of Iene with souldioures, taking victuals of the Kings price without payment, and put a great part of hys treasure into the sayde Caraks, and after sayled about in the sea, and at laste stale into Dutchlande, sending backe a∣gaine hys souldiours into Englande. Then were the Kings* priuie seales directed to all Bishops, Abbots, Priours, and other states, to lende the Kyng money, therewith to wage souldiours to kéepe the Sea coasts: but the commons of Kēt dreading the like vengeance to be taken vpon them, as was done vpon them of Newberie, sent priuily messangers to Ca∣leis,* to the foresayde Earles, beséeching them in all haste possible to come to theyr succour, whervpon the said Erles sent ouer into Kent the lord Fawconbridge to know if their déedes woulde accorde with theyr wordes, and anone the people of Kent and other shires adioyning, resorted to the sayde Lorde Fawconbridge in greate number. When the Earles knewe the wylling heartes of those people, they prepared to come into thys lande, againste whose com∣ming, a long Ballet was fixed vpō the gates of Canterburie, made in fauour of the Duke of Yorke and the sayde Earles, beginning thus: In the daye of fast and spirituall affliction, The celestiall influence of bodies transitorie, &c The Erles of March, Warwick, and Salisburie, arriued at Sandwich, where met wyth them Thomas Bourcher, Archebyshop of Canter∣burie,* who with hys crosse borne before him, and a greate number of other people, accompanyed them to London, into the whiche Citie they entred on the seconde of Julye: wyth Page  698 them came the Popes legate, to treate of peace if néed wer. Thn was a conuocation of the Clergie holden in S. Paules Church▪ where the sayde Earles being present, the Earle of Warwicke recited the cause of their comming into the lande, with the misgouernements thereof, and then made open othe vpon the crosse of Canterburie, that they had euer borne true faith and alegiaunce to King Henry. Then the Earles of March and Warwicke, with the Lords Fauconbridge, Clin∣ton, Borser Priour of Saint Iohns, Audley, Burgavennie, Say, and Scrope, the Archbyshop, the Popes legate, the Bishops of Excester, Ely, Salisburie, and Rochester, addressed thē forth to the King at Northampton, leauing the Earle of Salisbury to be gouernour of the Citie in their absence. The Lorde Scales and Hungerforde, that before the comming of the Earles, were in the Citie of London, and would haue had the gouer∣nance thereof, went to the Towre of London, and with them the Lordes Vessy, Louel, Delaware, Kendale a Gascoigne: Knightes, sir Edmond Hampden, Thomas Brune Sherife of Kent, Iohn Bruyn of Kent, Geruayes Clyfton treasurer of the King house, Thomas Tyrel, the Dutchesse of Exce∣stex, & many other. Then was the Tower of London besieged both by water and lande, that no victualles might come to them. And they that were within the Towre cast wilde fire into the Citie, and shotte manye small Gunnes, whereby they brent and slew mē, women, and children, in the stréets: also they of the Citie layde greate Gunnes on the further∣side of the Thamis against the Tower, and brake the Wals in diuerse places. The King lying in the Friers at Northāp∣ton, ordayned a strong and myghtie fielde in the Meddowes beside the Nunrie, hauing the riuer at his backe. The Earles with their power comming to Northampton, sent cer∣taine Byshops to the King, beséeching him to admit y Erle of Warwicke to come to his presence, to declare their inno∣cencie, which request being denyed by the Duke of Bucking∣ham, the Earles sent an Heralde of Armes, desiring to haue hostages for his safe comming and going, but he might not Page  699 be heard. The thirde time the Erle of Warwicke sent worde to the King, that at two houres after noone he would speake with him, or dye in y field. The Bishop of Hereford, a white Frier the kings Confessour, incouraged the kings parte to fight, wherfore after the battayle he was committed to the Castelf of Warwicke, where he was long prisoner. The tēth of July at two of y clocke after noore, y Earles of March & Warwicke let cry through the field y no man should lay hand vpon the King e on y cōmon people, but on the Lordes, Knights & Espuiers: then both hosts incountred & foughte halfe an houre, the Lord Grey that was the Kings vaward breake the fielde and came to the Earles partie, and was a great helpe to them in obtayning the victorie: many on the kings side were flayn, & many y fled were drowned in ye ri∣uer, y Duke of Buckingham, the Erle of Shrowesburie, ye Lorde Beaumont & the Lord Egremont were slain by y Kings ēt, wt many Knights & Esquires: ye kings ordinaunce of Guns might not be shot, there was so gret rayne that day: When the field was done, & the Earles had the victorie, they came to the King, he being in his tent, & said in this wise. Most noble prince, displease you not though it haue pleased God of his grace to grant vs the victorie of our mortal enemies, y which by their venemous malice haue vntxuely stirred & moued your highnesse to exile vs out of your land, & woulde haue vs put to finall shame and confusion: we come not to y intent for to vnquiet ne grieue your sayde highnesse, but for to please your noble person, desiring tenderly the high wel∣fare & prosperitie therof, & of al your realme, and to be your true liegemen while our liues shall endure. The King of these words was greatlye recomforted, & anone was led to Northampton with procession, where he rested thrée dayes, & came to London the sixtéenth of July, and was lodged in the Byshops Pallaice.

The nintéenth of Julye they that were in the Tower of London, for lacke of victualles yéelded and came forth, of the which afterward some were drawn and headed.

Page  700The Lorde Scales late in an euening entred a Wherry with thrée persons, and rowing towarde Westminster, there to haue taken Sanctuarie, was descried by a woman, and a∣none the Wherry men fel on him, killed him, & cast hym a lande beside Saint Marie Oueries.

When Quéene Margaret heard that the king was takē, she wyth hir sonne, and eight persons fled, to the Castel of Hardlagh in Wales, and was robbed by the way in Lancashire, of all hir goodes to the valewe of ten thousande markes: from thence she went into Scotland.

The tenth of August Iames King of Scottes besieging the Castle of Rockesborough, was slaine with a Gun that brake in his Campe.

The one and twentith of September the Duke of So∣merset came from Gwines into England.*

Richard Flemming: Iohn Lambert, the 28. of September.

Richard Lee Grocer, the. 28 of October.

The vitj. of October a Parliamēt was begun at Westmin∣ster, vnto the which came Ri. duke of Yorke, that a little be∣fore* was come out of Irelande, and being lodged in the Pal∣laice, the Kyng being there, he brake vp the dores of the Kyngs Chamber, so that the King giuing hym place, tooke an other Chamber. Then the sayde Duke, as right heyre by lyneall descent from Richard the seconde, chalenged the realme, purposing to haue bin crowned on Alhallown day next following, and herevppon sente to the Parliament in wryting hys sayde clayme, title, and pedigrée. The whych clayme after diligent deliberation had and approued, by the sayde Parliamente, peace and concorde betwéene the king and Duke on the Uigil of Alhalow was established and cō∣cluded, as in Articles followeth.

BLessed be Iohn in whose handes and bountie refieth* and is the peace and vnitie betwixte Princes and the Weale of euerye Realme: I knowe by whose direction a∣gréed it is appointed and accorded as followeth, betwixte the moste high and moste mightis Prince King Henrie the Page  701 sixth King of England and of Fraunce, and Lord of Irelande, on y one party, and the right high and mightie Prince Richard Plātagenet Duke of Yorke on that other party, vpon certain matters of variaunce moued betwixt them, and especially vpon the clayme and title vnto the Crownes of England and of Fraunce, and Royall power, estate and dignitie appertay∣ning to the same, and Lordship of Irelande, opened, shewed, and declared, by the sayde Duke, afore all the Lordes spi∣rituall and Temporall, being in this present Parliament.

First where the saide Richarde Duke of Yorke hath de∣clared and opened, as aboue is sayde, title and clayme in maner as followeth:

That the right noble and worthy Prince, Henrie Kyng of Englande the third, had issue and lawfullye got Edwarde his first begotten sonne, borne at Westminster the xv. Ka∣lendes of July, in the yeare of our Lord 129. and Edmond his second sonne, which was borne on Saint Marcels day, the yeare 1200. the whiche Edwarde after the death of Kyng Henrie hys Father, intituled and called Kyng Edwarde the firste, had issue, Edward his first begotten sonne, called after the decease of his Father, Kyng Edward the seconde, the whiche had issue, Edward the thirde: which Edward the third had issue, Edward Prince of Wales▪ William of Hatfield hys seconde sonne: Leonel the thirde, Duke of Clarence: Iohn of Gaun fourth, Duke of Lancaster: Edmond of Langley fifth, Duke of Yorke: Thomas of Woodstocke the sixth, Duke of Glo∣cester: & W. of Windsor the seuenth. The said Edward Prince of Wales, which dyed in the life time of hys Father, had issue Richard, which succéeded Edwarde the thirde his grandsire: Richarde dyed without issue: William of Hatfield the second sonne of Edwarde the thirde, dyed without issue: Leonel the thirde sonne of Edwarde the thirde, Duke of Clarence, hadde issue Phillip his daughter and heyre, whych was coupled in matrimony vnto Edmond Mortimer Earle of Marche, and had issue Roger Mortimer Earle of Marche hyr Sonne and heyre, which Roger had issue of Edmond erle of March,Page  702Roger Mortimer, Anne, and Elianor: which Edmonde, Ro∣ger and Alianor dyed without issue. And the sayde Anne coupeled in matrimony to Richard Earle of Cambridge, the sonne of Edmond of Langley, the fifth sonne of Henrie the third, and had issue Richard Plantagenet, commonly called Duke of Yorke: Iohn of Gaunt, the fourth son of Edward, & the yonger brother of the sayde Leonel, had issue Henrie Earle of Darby, whiche incontinent, after that King Richard resig∣ned the Crownes of the Realmes and Lordship of Irelande, vnrighteously entred vppon the same, then being aliue Ed∣monde Mortimer Earle of Marche, sonne to Roger Morti∣mer Earle of March, sonne and heyre of the saide Phillippe, daughter and heyre of the sayde Leonel, the thirde sonne of the sayde King Edward the thirde, to the whiche Edmonde the right and title of the sayde Crownes and Lordship by lawe and custome belonged. To the whiche Richard Duke of Yorke, as sonne to Anne daughter to Roger Mortimer, Earle of March, sonne and heyre of the sayd Phillip, daugh∣ter and heyre of the sayde Leonell, the third sonne of Kyng Edwarde the thirde, the righte, title, dignitie Royall, and estate of the Crownes of the Realmes of England and Frāce, and the Lordshippe of Irelande, pertayneth and belongeth a fore anye issue of the saide Iohn of Gaunt, the fourth sonne of the same King Edwarde. The sayde title notwithstanding and without preiudice of the sayde Richarde Duke of Yorke, tenderly desiring the wealth, reste, and prosperitie of this land, and to set apart all that might be trouble to the same, and consyderyng the possession of the sayde Kyng Henne the sixth, and that he hathe for hys tyme bene named, taken, and reputed for Kyng of Englande and of Fraunce, and LORDE of Irelande, is contented, agréede, and consenteth, that hée bée hadde, reputed, and ta∣ken for Kyng of Englande and Fraunce, wyth the Roy∣all estate, dignitye, and preheminence belonging there∣vnto, and Lorde of, Irelande during hys naturall lyfe. Page  703 And for that time, the saide Duke without hurte or pre∣iudice of his saide righte and title, shall take, worshippe, and honor him, for his soueraigne Lorde.

Item, the saide Richard Duke of Yorke, shall promis and binde him by his solempne othe, in maner and forme as fo∣loweth

In the name of God Amen: I Richarde, Duke of Yorke,* promise and sweare by the faith and truth that I owe to Al∣mightie God, that I shal neuer consent, procure, or stirre, directly or indirectly, in priuie or aperte, neyther, (as much as in me is) shall suffer to be done, consented, procured, or stirred, any thing that may sound to the abridgement of the natural life of King Henry the sixth, or to y hurt or dimini∣shing of his raigne or dignitie royall, by violence or anye o∣therwise, againste his fréedome or libertie: but if anye per∣son or persons wold do or presume any thing to y contrary, I shal with all my might & power withstande it, and make it to be withstoode, as farre as my power wil stretche there∣herevnto, so helpe mée GOD and his holie Euange∣listes.

Item, Edward Earle of March, and Edmund Earle of Rutlande, sonnes of the saide Duke of Yorke, shall make like othe.

Item, it is accorded, appointed, and agréed, that the said Richard Duke of Yorke, shal be called & reputed from hence forth very and rightfull heire to the crownes, royall estate, dignitie and Lordshippe aboue saide, and after the decease of the saide King Henry, or when he will lay from him the saide crownes, estate, dignitie, and Lordshippe, the sayde Duke and his heyres shal immediately succéed to the saide crownes, royal estate, dignitie and Lordship.

Item, the saide Richard Duke of Yorke, shall haue by au∣thoritie of this present Parliament, castels, manors, lands and tenementes, wyth the wardes, marriages, reliefs, ser∣uices, fines, amercementes, offices, anowsions, fées, and o∣ther appurtenaunces to them belonging, what soeuer Page  704 they be, to the yearely valewe of tenne thousande markes ouer al charges and reprises, where of fiue thousand markes shall be to his owne state, thrée thousande fiue hundred markes to Edward his first begotten sonne Earle of March for his estate, and one thousande pounde to Edmond Earle of Rutland his seconde sonne, for his yearely sustentation, in suche considerations and suche intent as shall be declared by the Lords of the Kings Counsell.

Item if any person or persons imagine or compasse the death of the sayde Duke, and thereof probably be attaynte, of open déede done by folkes of other condition, that it be déemed and adiudged high treason.

Item, for the more establishing of the sayde accorde, it is appointed and consented, that the Lordes spirituall and Temporall, being in thys present Parliament, shal make othes to accepte, take, worship, and repute the said Richard Duke of Yorke, and hys heires, as aboue is rehearsed, and kéepe and obserue, and strength in as muche as appertey∣neth vnto them, all the things abouesayd, and resist to their power, all them that woulde presume the contrarie, accor∣ding to their estates and degrées.

Item, the sayde Richard Duke of Yorke, Erles of March and Rutland, shall permitte and make other to helpe, ayde, and defende the sayde Lords, and euery of them, against al¦those that wyll quarrell, or any thing attempt against the sayde Lordes or anye of them, by occasion of agréemente or consenting to the sayde accorde, or assistaunce giuing to the Duke and Earles or any of them.

Item, it is agréed and appointed, that this accorde, and euery Article thereof, be opened and notifyed by the kings letters patents, or otherwise, at such times and places, and in maner as it shall be thought expedient to the sayde Ry∣charde Duke of Yorke, with the aduise of the Lordes of the Kings Counsel. The King vnderstandeth certainely, the sayde title of the sayde Richarde Duke of Yorke, iust, law∣full, and sufficient, by the aduise and assent of the Lordes, Page  705 spirituall and Temporall, and the Commons in this Par∣liament assembled, & by aucthoritie of y same Parliament declareth, approueth, ratifyeth, confirmeth and accepteth the sayde title, iust, good, lawfull, and true, and therevnto giueth his assent and agréemente of his frée will and liber∣tie. And ouer that, by the sayd aduice and aucthoritie decla∣reth, entitleth, calleth, stablisheth, affirmeth, and reputeth the sayde Richarde Duke of Yorke, very true and rightfull heire to the Corones, Royal estate, and dignitie of y realms of England and of Fraunce, and of the Lordship of Irelande a∣foresaid, and that according to y worship and reuerence that therto belongeth, he be taken, accepted and reputed, in wor∣ship and reuerence, by all the states of the sayde Realme of Englande, and of all hys subiectes thereof, fauyng and ordayning by the same aucthoritie, the King to haue y saide Corones, Realme, royal estate, dignity, and preheminence ofthe same, and the sayde Lordshippe of Ireland during his life naturall. And furthermore by the same aduice and au∣thoritie will, consenteth and agréeth, that after his decease, or when it shall please his highnesse to laye from hym the sayde Corones, estate, dignitie, and Lordshippe, the sayde Richarde Duke of Yorke and hys heyres, shal immediatelye succéede him in the sayde Corones, Royall estate, dignitye, and worshippe, and them then haue and inioye, any acte of Parliament, statute, or ordinance, or other thing to the con∣trarie made, or interruption, or discontinuaunce of posses∣sion notwithstanding. And moreouer, by the saide aduise and aucthoritie, stablisheth, graunteth, confirmeth, appro∣ueth, ratifieth, and accepteth the said accorde, and al things therein contayned, and therevnto fréely and absolutely as∣senteth agréeth, and by the same aduice and authoritie or∣dayneth and establisheth, that if anye person or persons y∣magine or compasse the deathe of the sayde Duke, and pro∣bably be attaynt of open déede done by folkes of that con∣ditions, that it be déemed and adiudged highe Treason. Page  706 And furthermore ordayneth and establisheth by the sayde aduice and aucthoritie, that all statutes, ordinaunces and actes of Parliament, made in the time of the said King Hē∣rie the fourth, by the whiche he and the heyres of his bodye comming of Henrie late King of England the fifth, the sonne and heyre of the sayd King Henrie the fourth, and the heires of King Henrie the fifth, were or be inheritable to the saide Crownes and Realmes, or to the heritage of the same, bée adnulled, repelled, dampned, cancelled, voyde, and of none effect.

And ouer this, the King by the saide aduice, assent & au∣thoritie, ordayneth and establisheth, that all other actes and statutes made afore thys time by acte of Parliamente, not repelled or adnulled by like authoritie, or otherwise voyde, be in such force, effecte, and vertue, as they were afore the making of these ordinaunces, and that no letters pattents royalx of record, nor actes Judicial, made or done afore this tyme not repelled reuersed, ne otherwise voyde by lawe, be preiudiced or hurte by this present acte. Also it was orday∣ned by the same Parliamente, that the sayde Richarde Duke of Yorke, shoulde be called Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornewall, and Earle of Chester, and protectour of Eng∣lande.

In the moneth of December, the Duke of Somerset and the Earle of Deuonshire, wente into the Northe Coun∣trey with eighte hundered men, and anone after, the saide Duke of Yorke, the Earle of Rutlande his sonne, and the Earles of Salisburie a little before Christmasse with a fewe persons wente into the Northe also for to represse the ma∣lice of the Northerne men, the whiche loued not the Duke of Yorke, ne the Earle of Salisburie, and were lodged at the Castell of Sandale, and at Wakefielde. Then the Lorde Neuill, brother to the Earle of Westmerlande, vnder a co∣lour of Friendshippe, came to the Duke of Yorke, requy∣ring of hym a commission for hym to rayse the people for Page  707 to chastice the Rebelles as he sayde, but when he hadde raysed to the number of eighte thousande menne, hée broughte them to the Lordes of that Countrey, that is to saye, the Earle of Northumberlande, Lorde Clif∣forde, and the Duke of Somerset, that were aduersaries to the Duke of Yorke, and on the laste of December they fell on the sayde Duke Richarde, killed hym and his Sonne the Earle of Rutland, and many other knights and Esquiers, to witte the Lorde Harington, Thomas Ha∣rington Knighte, Sir Thomas Neuil sonne to the Earle of Salisburie, and Syr Henrie Ratforde Knight, and other, to the number of 2200. The Earle of Salisburie was taken aliue and ledde by the Duke of Somerset to the Castell of Pomfraite, and had graunte of hys life for a greate summe of money, but the common people of the Countrey whyche loued hym not, toke hym out of the Castel by violence, and smote off hys heade. When the death of these Lordes was knowen •• the King, he commaunded writs and commis∣sions to be sent into the shires to the people, and to goe a∣gainste the Rebelles into the Northe to suppresse them, but they of the Northe came sodainelye downe to the Town of Dunstaple, robbing all the Countrey and people as they came, spoyling Abbayes, Priories, and Parish Churches, bearing awaye Chalisses, bookes, ornamentes and other, whatsoeuer was worth the carriage, as thoughe they had bin Sarisens and no Christians, againste whom, the twelfth of Februarie, the Duke of Norffolke and Suffolke, the Erles of Warwicke and Arundale, the Lord Bonuile and other, with the King, wente out of London towarde Saint Albons; and when they heard that they of the Northe were so nyghe, they tooke a fielde beside a little Towne cal∣led Sandriage not farre from Sainte Albons, on Barnarde Heathe, in a place called No mans Lande, where the Kyng stoode and sawe hys menne slayne on bothe sydes, tyll at the laste throughe the wythdrawyng manye of Page  708 the Kentishmen with their Captaine Louelace that was the vaward, King Henries parte lost the fielde, the Lords fled, and the King wente to Quéene Margaret that was come wt the Northerne men and hyr sonne Edwarde. The Earle of Warwicke wente towarde the Earle of Marche that was comming towarde London out of Wales. The Lord Bonuile woulde haue withdrawen him, but the King assured hym to haue no bodylye harme: neuerthelesse at the instance of the Quéene, the Duke of Excester, and the Earle of Deuonshire, he was beheaded at Saint Albons, and wyth hym Syr Thomas Kyriell of Kente. This battayle was fought on Shroue Twesday the seauentéenth of February,* in the whiche was slain. 1916 persons. The same day Tho∣mas Thorpe Baron of the Exchequer was beheaded at High Gate by the commons of Kent. Then the Citizens of Lon∣don dreading the malice of the Quéene and the Duke of Somerset, sente vnto them the Dutchesse of Buckingham with other, to treate for to be beneuolent to the Citie, for the which a summe of money was promised, and that they shoulde come to the Citie wyth a certayne number of per∣sons, where vpon certayne speares and men of armes were sente to haue entred the Citie before the Dukes com∣myng, whereof some were slayne, some sore hurte, and the remnaunte putte to flighte by the Commons, who tooke the Keyes of the gates, and manfully defended the Citie vntill the comming of Edwarde Earle of Marche, where-throughe King Henrie wyth Quéene Margaret and the Northerne men were forced to return again North∣warde.

The thirde of Februarie, Edwarde Earle of Marche foughte wyth the Welchmen beside Wigmore in Wales, neare vnto Mortimers Crosse, whose Captaynes were the Earle of Penbroke, and the Earle of Wilshire, where he put them to flight, and slewe of the Welchemen aboute foure thou∣sande. Owen Tewther (whome Iohn Leylande sayeth shoulde be called Me••dicke,) Father to the sayde Earle Page  709Penbroke, whiche Owen hadde married Katherin mother to King Henrie the sixth, was there taken and beheaded, and afterward buried in the a Chapel of the Gray Friers Church in Hereforde: the day before this battayle, about tenne of the clocke before noone, were séene thrée Suns in the firmamēt, shyning a like cleare, which after closed togither all in one.

The eight and twentith of Februarie, Edward Earle of March, accompanied with the Erle of Warwicke, & a mightie power of Marchmen, came vp to London, where he was ioy∣fully receyued, and on the seconde day of March being Son∣day, all hys hoste was mustered in Saint Iohns fielde, where was redde among the people certaine Articles and pointes that King Henrie had offended in, and then it was deman∣ded of them whether the said Henrie were worthy to raigne still, and the people cryed nay, naye. Then was it asked if they would haue the Erle of March to be theyr King, and they sayde yea, yea: then certaine Captaynes were sente to* the Earle of March, at Baynardes Castel, and tolde the Erle that the people had chosen him King, whereof he thanked God and them, and by the aduise of the Archbyshoppe of Canterburie, the Byshoppe of Excester, and the Earle of Warwicke wyth other, hée tooke it vpon hym. The Dutches of Yorke, mother to Edwarde Earle of Marche, fearing the fortune of the worlde, sente hyr two yonger sonnes George and Richarde ouer the seas, to the Citie of Vtricke in Al∣maine, where they remayned tyll their elder brother had got the Crown. Also Phillip Malpas Alderman of London, Tho∣mas*Vaghan Esquire, Maister William Atclife, with ma∣ny other, fearing the Quéenes comming to London, shypped them in a shippe of Antwerpe, purposing to haue sayled thy∣ther: but by the way they were taken by a French shippe na∣med the Colmapne, and at length delyuered for greate raun∣some.

Edwarde Earle of March, being elected as is abouesaid,* on the next morrowe went in procession at Paules, and offe∣red there, and after Te Deum beyng sung, he was with gret Page  710 royaltie conueyed to Westminster, and there in the Hall sette in the kings seate with Saint Edwards Scepter in his hand, and then asked of the people if they would haue him King, and they cryed yea, yea. Then after certaine homages by hym receyued, he was with Procession conuayed into the Abbay there, and sette in the Quire as King, whyle Te Deum was singing: that done, he offered at Saint Edwardes Shryne, and then returned by water vnto Saint Paules and was there lodged wythin the Bishops Pallaice. Thus tooke he possession of the Realme, vpon a Tuisday being the fourth of Marche, and was proclay∣med King of England, by the name of Edward the fourthe when King Henrie hadde raigned thirtie yeares, eight monthes and odde dayes. ∵