The history of Great Britaine under the conquests of ye Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans Their originals, manners, warres, coines & seales: with ye successions, lives, acts & issues of the English monarchs from Iulius Cæsar, to our most gracious soueraigne King Iames. by Iohn Speed.

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The history of Great Britaine under the conquests of ye Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans Their originals, manners, warres, coines & seales: with ye successions, lives, acts & issues of the English monarchs from Iulius Cæsar, to our most gracious soueraigne King Iames. by Iohn Speed.
Speed, John, 1552?-1629.
Imprinted at London :: [by William Hall and John Beale] anno cum privilegio 1611 and are to be solde by Iohn Sudbury & Georg Humble, in Popes-head alley at ye signe of ye white Horse,

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Great Britain -- History -- Early works to 1800.
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"The history of Great Britaine under the conquests of ye Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans Their originals, manners, warres, coines & seales: with ye successions, lives, acts & issues of the English monarchs from Iulius Cæsar, to our most gracious soueraigne King Iames. by Iohn Speed." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed June 17, 2024.


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HAd God almighty (the * 1.3 giuer and transferrer of Kingdomes) thought good that the English should haue setled in the Continent of Europe, and not haue beene shutte vp within their Ilands, hee would not so soone haue depriued them of their late incomparable Captaine and Soueraigne Henry the fifth. But it seemes that God hauing humbled the French Nation vnder Henries victorious hand, ment now again to restore them to his wonted fauor by taking away their terrour & triumpher, substitu∣ting * 1.4 his son (an Infant) in his place, Henrie of that name the 6. born at Windsor, who was crowned about the eight month of his age. The prety hands which could not feed himselfe, were yet made capable to weeld a scepter, and hee that was beholding to nur∣ses for milke, did neuerthelesse distribute the suste∣nance of law and iustice to so great and warlike Na∣tions. Counsell supplies the defect of age. At his fathers death hee had vncles, men of approued va∣lour and discretion, to whom the principall care of all publike affaires by the fathers last prouisions was committed. Humfrey Duke of Glocester (the yonger brother of two) had the * 1.5 gouernement of England entrusted to his fidelity: the regency of France was assigned for Prouince to Iohn Duke of Bedford, the eldest liuing vncle of the King, as to a Prince of much magnanimity, prowesse and felicitie in conduct, with whom was * 1.6 ioyned Philip Duke of Burgundie. The guard and custody of the royall Infant was assigned to Thomas * 1.7 Duke of Excester: the nurture and edu∣cation to his * 1.8 mother, the Queene Dowager: vpon the two vncles (as betweene the two Poles of the English Empire) the whole globe of gouernment moued: whatsoeuer is done by the kingly power is said to be done by the King. We shall behold not∣withstanding in the tragicall glasse of this Henries raigne, how farre the imbecillity of the kingly per∣son

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may affect the body politicke with good or euill. If histories were ordayned to stirre affections, not to teach and instruct, neuer any Princes raigne since the Conquest did better deserue to bee described with a tragical style and words of horror & sorrow, although the beginning (like the faire morning of a most tempestuous day) promised nothing morethen a continuance of passed felicities.

(2) For the State of the English affaires was great and flourishing, England without tumult, the natu∣rall fierce humors of her people consuming or exer∣cising themselues in France, and France her selfe (for the nobler parts together with the grand City of Paris head of that Monarchie) was at their deuoti∣on. There wanted nothing which might aduance the worke begunne. Most noble and expert Lea∣ders as those which had bin fashioned in the schoole of warre, vnder the best martiall master of that age, the late Henry, arms full of veterant souldiers, most of which were of skill sufficient to be commanders themselues: their friends firme, no defect nor breach (by which dissipation might enter to the ouerthrow of the English greatnesse) as yet disclosing them∣selues. Wisdome, pietie, riches, forwardnesse at home, courage and like forwardnesse abroad. It is a fruitfull speculation to consider how God carrieth his part in the workes of men, alwaies iustly, some∣times terribly, but neuer otherwise, then to bring all worldly greatnesse and glory into due contempt, and loathing, that the soule may bee erected to her Creator, and aspire to a Crown celestiall. The first disaduantage which hapned to the English cause (af∣ter the late Kings decease) was the death of Charles the French King, who suruiued the other but * 1.9 fiftie and three dayes. This wee may worthily call the first (as it was a great, aswell as the first) disaduan∣tage, for the imbecilities of that Prince were a strēgth to the English; On the other side (God obseruing a talio and parilitie) the infancy of young Henry was an aduantage to Charles the Daulphin of France, now by them of his faction called King of France, as the English vsed in derision to enstyle him King of Ber∣rie, because little else was left vnto him.

(3) In England (whose condition the order of na∣rure wils vs first to describe, because there was the * 1.10 seat of counsell, by which all the actions of the ge∣nerall state were directed) a Parliament was assem∣bled to establish the Crowne vpon the Infant, and to prouide for the publike vses and necessities of State. Money * 1.11 (alwayes one of them) was liberal∣ly granted. It was a strange sight (and the first time that euer it was seene in England) which in the next yeere hapned, an infant sitting in the mothers lap, before it could tell what English meant, to exercise the place of Soueraigne direction in open Parlia∣ment. Yet so it was, for the Queene to illumine that publike conuention of States with her Infants presence, remoued from Windsor to London; through which Citie (her selfe roially seated with her young sonne vpon her lappe) passed in maiesticke manner to Westminster, and there tooke seate among all his Lords, whom (by the ordinary mouth of that high Court) hee saluted and spake to them at large con∣cerning the premises; where, as hee vttered the mind of his place by anothers tongue, so hee else∣where prosecuted all affaires by other mens hands and Organs.

(4) The Duke of Bedford (as the nature of his place exacted) to settle and preserue the State of France for his young Nephew the King, together with Phi∣lip Duke of Burgoigne, who as yet continued a stedfast friend to the English Soueraignety (knowing the Daulphin busie to recouer France) strengthned the confines of their gouernment with Garrisons, as∣sembled their powers, and laboured to retaine the hearts of their owne party. The Duke of Bedford Regent of France, had * 1.12 words to them to this ef∣fect in open assemble. That they should not violate their plighted and sworne alleagiance, neither by them∣selues endeauour nor endure, that by others their Soue∣raigne Lord young Henry should be defrauded of his inhe∣ritance, or that the hatreds and enmities which now be∣ganne to die betweene the French and English names, should through the practises of most faithlesse men be re∣nued, and reinflamed: That they would remember how (by Gods speciall fauour and goodnesse) the two King∣doms of France and England were vnited vnder one most faire and goodly Monarchie in an eternall league, and lately so established that no humane force could r•…•…st. That albeit they had sustained dammage by the warre, yet the same would bee recouered with aduantage, if they honored loued and obeyed their lawfull Soueraigne Lord King Henry, and prosecuted his enemies with extremity, ac∣cording to bounden duty. This Oration found plau∣sible admission in shew: Henry is proclaimed King of England and of France, and such chiefes as were present did their homages, taking oath to be true: The like Obligation and Sacrament of alleagiance was put vpon all the French through the English Dominions in France.

(5) Charles (who as sonne and heire to the late King entitled himselfe King of France, by the name of Charles the seuenth) being then about the seauen and twentieth yeere of his age, full of courage and new hopes, gathered what force he could: his chiefe Leuies were made in Daulphynois and Italy, from whence (for money) he drew sundry troupes. But the best sinews of his Army moued in certain thou∣sands of the Scotish Nation, which serued vnder him. The first steppe which the Charolines, or forces of Charles made into hostile action was vnfortunate, for comming to raise the siege which the English held a∣bout * 1.13 Crepan they were put to flight, with the losse of about two thousand of their numbers. This was noble in Charles, and his Charolines, that their minds sunke not at the horrour of such an euill Omen. It * 1.14 was saith Aemylius of them, resolued to encounter ad∣uerse fortune with encrease of courage. The Regent on the other side was vigilant vpon all occasions: the power of his Regency extended it selfe without con∣tradiction * 1.15 through Vimew, Pontieu and Picardie, from Paris to Reines, Chalons and Troyes, vp to the water of Loyr and the Sea: A goodly scope of territory, and absolutely the best of France. That late losse & foile of the Charolines was repaired shortly after by an o∣uerthrow in skirmish which they gaue to the English party, from whom (with the slaughter of about fif∣teene hundreth) they recouered a great booty, speci∣ally of Cattel which the English had gotten in the Countries of Nugion and Main, but thus intercep∣ted vpon their return into Normandy. Charles (which Paul. Aemylius omitteth) doubteth that successe: for * 1.16 Meulan vpon Sein is by him taken where all the English are put to the sword: but the possession was short, and the reuenge speedy: Thomas Montacute Earle of Salisbury (a man (saith Polydor) more like the old Romans then people of that age, so great was his vertue and cheualrie) hauing with him Iohn of Lux∣emburg, Generall of the Burgundian horsemen, reco∣uers the place, killing all the French which were found therein.

(6) At the Citie of * 1.17 Amiens in Picardie the three great Dukes of Bedford (Regent of France) Burgoign and Britaine meet to consult of the whole course & summe of affaires. There they renued the League, adding, that each should be others friend, and that all of them should defend King Henries right with their best forces. For the better assurance of this profitable a∣mity, the Regent (then a Bachelour) tooke to wife the Lady Anne, sister to Philip Duke of Burgundie: while the Regent was absent from Paris vpon these iust occasions, the Parisians (who not long before had * 1.18 sent Ambassadors into England, to acknow∣ledge their obedience to King Henry) practised with Charles to deliuer their City. The Regent had no∣tice of this dangerous treason, and with his presence retained them in duety. The chiefe Actors paied their liues for satisfaction of the trespasse. In good

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time there arriued out of England ten thousand fresh Souldiers. Ouer them hee ordeined Captaines, * 1.19 the famous Earle of Salisbury, William Pole Earle of Suffolke, Robert Willoughby and others. Himselfe lead about with him for the generall seruice, eigh∣teene hundred horsemen, and eight thousand foote. With these field-forces the maime of the English e∣state in France was held together, though not with∣out difficulty, and diuers aduentures. In them he tooke from Charles sundry strong Townes, and For∣tresses as * 1.20 Crotoy, Baside, Riol, Rula, Gyrond, Basile, Mer∣mound, Milham, Femel, Seintace, and many other.

(7) The Regents chiefe designe was to draw Charles to fight, hoping by his ouerthrow to con∣clude many daies workes in one. For this cause he drew into Normandy. Charles was then in * 1.21 Tourain, where he mustereth his people. The Regent pros∣pers in the meane time, and takes by siege a place of good importance, presuming so to dare the French out to a Battell. Iohn Duke of Alanson is sent with an Army and instructions to fight, if occasion serued, but Charles himselfe was not suffered to hazard his person. Not farre from the Towne * 1.22 of Vernoil, which the * 1.23 English had taken before the * 1.24 Duke of Alanson, and his Charolines could succour it, the two Armies embattelled themselues. The fight be∣gan with shot, which seeming not quicke enough to dispatch the work, the battels came to hand-stroaks, where for some houres, there was maintained a con∣stant and doubtfull battell with great furie on both sides. The English enured to the French warres, hauing borne the first heats of their enemies, (which are in that Nation most ragefull:) by perseuerance * 1.25 vtterly brake and put them to flight. The Regent * 1.26 himselfe with a battle-axe fought most fiercely, winning immortall honor in that bloody iourney. There were slaine of the enemies side: Iohn * 1.27 Earle of Boughwhan Constable of France: Archenbald Dowg∣las Duke of Tourain and Lieutenant of France; Ar∣chembald his sonne Earle of Wigton, with many other of the Scots. Of the French there were slaine the * 1.28 Earle of Vantadowr, and sundry others. In all there died vpon that side certaine thousands. None writes of fewer then foure or fiue thousand, nor any of a∣boue fifteene. The great number of the slaine, is not the measure of a victory, but the vse and effects which it drawes. The Duke of Alanson himselfe was taken prisoner, with about two * 1.29 hundred others of speciall worth. The English paid for this noble vi∣ctory, the bodies of about two thousand of their souldiers which lost life there, for it was fought vpon faire termes in the open fields, and carried by meere manhood. That which followeth till the siege of Orleance, Paul * 1.30 Aemylius comprehendeth in some few lines. The fierce Conquerour besiegeth Mants in Main, and with Ordinance beates downe part of the wals. It yeelds heereupon. The English Garrison left therein, after the taking not being sufficient to containe the Towne in due subiection, is compelled to flie to a Tow∣er for their safetie, the enemies which were admitted into it by the Burgers enioying the rest. The Lord Talbot (the most noble Captaine of the English) presently arriues to the rescue, and puts the malefactors to death. The English Empire extends it selfe to the Riuer of Loyr. Charles they call in scorne the King of Berry. Thus roundly he.

In nine Articles and capitulations drawne and * 1.31 concluded at the yeelding of M•…•…nts, this was one, as perhaps it was in euery like occasion. That if any persons were found within the City, which had beene con∣senting to the murther of Iohn Duke of Burgoin, father to Philip Duke of Burgoin, in full reuenge whereof, he had hither to adhered to the English, that * 1.32 they should simply bee at the Regents mercy.

(8) The chiefe things which passed in England, * 1.33 during these happy proceedings in France, were brief∣ly these.

Iames Steward the young King of Scots, hauing beene casually taken vpon the Sea, in the reigne of King Henry the fourth; and after his fathers death not sufficiently tendered nor respected by the Scots, re∣mained still a Prisoner. The rather therefore to hinder the Scots, (that was the hope) from aiding the French, it was now thought fit by the Councell of England to enlarge him. Which was accordingly done vpon pledges. Not long after the which, he married the Ladie Iane, daughter to Iohn Earle of Som∣merset, neere cosen to King Henry. Principall setters forward of this marriage (as by likelihood of his li∣berty also) to honour their family with a Kingly al∣liance, were the Earle of Sommerset and the Bishop of Winchester, both of them Beauforts, who together with sundry other of the English Nobility, condu∣cted the new married Couple to the Scottish Bor∣ders. Much of his ransome was abated, and his new kinsemen bestowed vpon him * 1.34 store of plate, gold, and siluer, & among other gorgeous Ornaments suit of hangings, in which the labors of Hercules were most curiously wrought. But this wise King (ha∣uing had the benefit of excellent and Princely edu∣cation in England) did not suffer any obligations contracted in the time of his durance, to preponde∣rate with him the Generall state of Scotland, whose freedome did much depend vpon the fortune of France, whereby the maine drift of his enlargers was not much aduanced. The reason notwithstanding which lead this action was probable, and so much the more commendable, for that it was tempered with humanity. The forreine mischiefe thus how∣soeuer intended, hereby to be auoided or qualified, Sir Iohn Mortimer (a dangerous firebrand at home) being Prisoner in the Tower was arraigned for many treasonable speeches vsed to a yeoman, (seruant to Sir Robert Scot * 1.35 keeper of the Tower of London) to draw the said yeoman to let him escape: promi∣sing him great matters. The points of his speeches were as that fellow charged vpon him in open Parliament,

  • 1. That the said Mortimer meant to flie into Wales to the Earle of March, and with an armie of forty thou∣sand men to enter England, and strike off the Protectors head, and the Bishop of Winchesters.
  • 2. That the Earle of March ought by right to bee King of England, and if the Earle would not, that then * 1.36 hee himselfe was next heire.
  • 3. That if he could not safely reach to the Marches, he would saile to the Daulphin of France, and there serue with honor, which he was assured of.

For these ouertures of escape, and conspiracie the Knight was drawne hanged and headed: Of whose death no small * 1.37 slander arose. Perhaps he that writes so doth meane that the whole was but a stratageme to rid him out of the way. Edmund Lord Mortimer Earle of March, the party whom the said knight mentioned, was sent not long after with many other Lords, and competent numbers of men, into Ireland, where he deceased without issue, whose great patrimony descended to Richard Plantagenet Earle of Cambridge, the fatall disturber of the Realme of * 1.38 England, vpon the pretence of Mortimers title to the Crowne.

(9) The amity with the Duke of Burgoin, which the English had hitherto found so auailable toward their Conquests, hauing otherwise receiued some few slight flawes was now in danger of vtter break∣ing * 1.39 vpon this occasion. Humfrey Duke of Glouce∣ster Protector of the Realme, following councell vnworthy of his person and place, contracted him∣selfe with the Lady Iaqueline of Ba•…•…aria, Inheretrix of Holland, Zeland, Hena•…•…lt, and many other faire domi∣nions in the Netherlands, notwithstanding that Iohn Duke of Brabant, her former husband was then liuing, and that the suit of diuorce commenced by Iaqueline * 1.40 depended still betweene them. The Duke of Burgoin held with Brab•…•…t. This bred bit∣ter humor in the Duke of Glocester, who being not vsed to meet with any rubs or confrontments, and now when in person he came with an armie to take

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seison of Henault in right of his supposed wife, fin∣ding * 1.41 himselfe hard set vnto, by the aids which Bur∣goin ministred to the Duke of Brabant, he challen∣geth Combat of the Duke of Burgundy, calling him traitour. It was accepted and the * 1.42 lie strongly thrust vpon Gloucester, who (leauing the light Lady at her Towne of Monts in Henault) returned into England, doing nothing of that for which at that time he came. Mediation tooke vp the quarrell afterward betweene the Duke of Burgundy and him. Not long after the returne of the Duke of Gloucester into Eng∣land, the first marriage which had beene made and consummated betweene the Duke of Brabant, and the said Lady Iaqueline, was pronounced lawfull by Pope Martin the fifth. Hereupon the Duke of Glo∣cester * 1.43 (hauing susteined many losses aswell of friends as treasure in punishment of that great sinne, in ta∣king anothers wife) forthwith marries Eleanour, daughter to Reignald Lord Cobham of Sterborough, whereby he made her amends for that * 1.44 vnlawfull familiarity which had formerly passed betweene them.

Meanewhile the Court of England doth well shew that the King was an infant, for it was full of dange∣rous * 1.45 emulations and sidings, the Duke of Gloucester (whose high office it was to tender the welfare of the King and State) laying sundry grieuous accusati∣ons * 1.46 against the Cardinall Beaufort (sonne of Iohn Duke of Lancaster) Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor as being a person very dangerous vn∣to both.

(10) The news of these home-contentions com∣ming to the Duke of Bedford into France, easily drew him home, though the state of that Realme could not well want his presence. For Iohn Duke of Britaine, (notwithstanding his late renouation of league with the Regent at Amiens) iealous of the * 1.47 English great∣nes turned sodeinely to Charles, and with him, Ar∣thur, Earle of Richmond his brother. This puts fresh spirit into the drooping Prince. Arthur is by Charles made Constable of his France, in place of the Scottish Earle, who was slaine at the bloody Battell of Vernoil. The Duke of Britaine ouerliues this re∣uolt but a small time. Arthur to declare his for∣wardnes on the behalfe of Charles, assembleth about twenty thousand men, and with them sodeinely be∣siegeth * 1.48 S. Iean a Towne of Normandy, vpon the fron∣tier of Britaine; which Edmund Duke of Sommerset, Gouernour of Normandy, had lately fortified and stuft with souldiers. The vnexpected arriuall of the French, did greatly at the first perplex the English, but vpon better aduise, they valiantly sallied out vp∣on them, both before and behind, which stroke so great terrour into the enemy, that with losse of their Artillery, and many of their people they forsooke the siege. To redeeme this dishonour, he turnes his fury vpon the Countrey of Angio•…•…, which in many parts he depopulates and spoiles. The Regent be∣ing resolued to returne into England, leaues behind him Bea•…•…champ * 1.49 Earle of Warwicke; as lieutenant, who was lately arriued in France, hauing six thousand fresh Souldiers in his company.

(11) The presence of the Duke of Bedford Regent * 1.50 of France, was to the State of England very necessary. For the wisdome and authority of so great a Prince, being eldest vncle to the King, and one whom many great deedes made famous, allaied the distemper which he found at his arriual. It was a worke wor∣thy of his labour, and he also found it to be a worke indeed, and not easily effectuable. The differences were debated first at Saint Albans, then at Northamp∣ton, lastly in a Parliament at Leicester, which continu∣ed there till toward the end of Iune. The Duke of Bedford himselfe, to auoid the note of partiality, for that his brother of Glocester was a party did not intermeddle otherwise then as in Generall words to perswade amity, but the whole cause was referred to arbitrators of greatest Nobility and prudence: by whose endeuours all those differences and greeuan∣ces were equally thrust into one sacke, to be sealed vp for euer by obliuion, and without mention of a∣mends * 1.51 on either side, the Duke and Bishop (the one hauing sworne by his * 1.52 Princehood, the other by his Priesthood, truly to obserue the award,) shooke hands, and were fully for that time reconciled. After which holy and necessary worke of priuate attone∣ments, ensued acts of festiuitie and honor. For in * 1.53 the same Towne of Leicester the young King, not then fiue yeeres of age, was at the high feast of Pente∣cost dubbed Knight by the Regent of France. Im∣mediately whereupon the King honored Richard Earle of Cambridge, (who by the fatall errour of the Counsell was at this Parliament created Duke of Yorke, the same who was father to Edward the fourth) with the order of knighthood, and about forty more with him. This Richard Duke of Yorke was hee, who brought vpon this Kingdome and nation most dolefull diuisions to the vtter extirpation of all the male lines of either house, that is to say, his owne, and that of Lancaster, whereof the young King was head. From Leicester the King was conueighed to Killingworth, and Thomas Duke of Excester dying, Beauchamp Earle of Warwicke, was constituted Guardi∣an and Tutor to the King.

(12) The Regent hauing thus worthily prouided * 1.54 for the quiet estate of the King and Country, returns to his charge in France. There went ouer at the same time a choise and great number of fresh men, vnder the conduct of that immortally renowmed, the L. Talbot, whose victories (saith Polydor) were so many, that his name was not onely most dreadfull to the French, but most famous through the world, euen at this present. That yee may know the man not to haue beene studious of fine Phrases; vpon the one * 1.55 side of his sword-blade was engrauen, Sum Talboti, and vpon the other this boisterous blunt sentence;

Pro vincere inimicos meos.
The Duke of Alanzon (taken at the Castell of Ver∣noil) was set at liberty vpon payment of two * 1.56 hun∣dreth thousand Scutes of gold. At Mountarges a∣bout Orleance the English receiued an ouerthrow with the losse of about fifteene hundreth of their num∣bers, and in Britaine the French sustained great dam∣mages by a Captaine of the Duke of Sommersets. These were petty matters: They of Mantz in Maine had drawne in the French by night, who massacred the English. William Earle of Suffolke Captain of the place sends to Iohn Lord Talbot for succour. It came, and that so vnexpectedly, that the French were alike distrest. All but souldiers were spared, and many al∣so of them, though thrust into prisons. The Trai∣tours which had caused so much mischiefe, had their deserts by death. From hence the Lord Talbot mar∣ched to other enterprises. The quality of our taske cals vs to the maine.

(13) Thomas Lord Montacute Earle of Salisbu∣ry, being with the Regent at Paris, and considering what forces of men, and all prouisions the English then enioied, bethought himselfe of some action, which might answere the greatnesse of his owne name, and of the publike meanes. The siege of Orleance is by him propounded to the Councell. The credite of the Motioner was alone an argument of power to conuince the possibility. His desires were therefore furnished with all competent proui∣sions. They of Orleance hearing what a storme was comming (for the name of this Earle was worthily terrible) with great diligence ordaine for their de∣fence. The * 1.57 Suburbes (answerable in bignesse to a good City) they leuell with the earth, that the ene∣mie might not from thence annoy them. Men, vi∣ctuals, * 1.58 munition, and constant intentions to fight for their liberty, and safegard abounded. The Earle of Sarisburie, the Lord Talbot, and a dreadfull puissance vnder most expert commanders present themselues before it. Orleance was and is an Episcopall See, a

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Parliament Towne, and Vniuersity, richly scituate vpon the riuer of Loir, whose best glory it is, being the chiefe City which that renowned streame wa∣tereth. No enemies appearing abroad, he * 1.59 approa∣cheth close to the walles. Assaults * 1.60 prouing vain, he entrencheth about it, and to secure his Campe, casts vp ramparts and other works, one of which (by reason of the hugenesse thereof) was called London, by the name of the chiefe-City of England. The Fort which stood at the Bridge foot beyond the Loyr, hee seiseth vpon and closeth them vp on euery side. Charles of France could minister no sufficient succor. God, when mans helpe failes interposeth his hand, which as all of vs daily feele, so is it most conspicu∣ous in the deliuerance of Nations. The City is dri∣uen to some miserie through the beginning want of all things; for the siege had now endured about 60. daies * 1.61 not without much bloudshed on both sides. The Earle of Salisburie impatient of such delay, pur∣poseth to giue a generall assault. The better to con∣sider vpon the course, hee stands to take view at a window barred with Iron which ouerlookt the Ci∣ty toward the East. Behold how God began to vn∣cutte the knot of those bands with which the English held France bound, a bullet of a great piece (which * 1.62 lay ready leueld at that window) discharged by the Gunners * 1.63 sonne, a lad, stroke the grates, whose splin∣ters so wounded the Earle, and one Sir Thomas Gar∣graue, that they both dyed of the incurable hurts within few dayes. Heare now the common iudge∣ment of Writers concerning this Earles losse: * 1.64 Pre∣sently after the death of this man the fortune of the war changed. * 1.65 Now both mortall and immortall powers be∣ganne to looke fauourably vpon the State of France. This to the * 1.66 English was Initium malorum: for after this mishappe they rather lost then wanne, so that by little and little they lost all their possession in France: and albeit that somwhat they got after, yet for one that they wan, they lost three. So that Polydor not without cause (after many other great praises) doth elsewhere call him the man in whom the safety of the English state consisted. The vertue therefore of a fortunate Generall is inestimable.

(14) Howbeit the siege did not determine with his life, William Earle of Suffolke, the Lord Talbot & the rest maintained the same all the winter. The * 1.67 wants of the Campe were relieued from Paris by a conuoy, vnder the guard of Sir Iohn Fastolfe and fif∣teene hundred souldiers who arriued safe in despite of all the attempts to distresse thē, which the French made. The City would yeeld it selfe, but not to the English. The Duke of Burgundie they were content should haue the honour. A subtle stratagem, rather * 1.68 then an offer of yeelding, for there was likelihoode in it to breake thereby the amity betweene the Eng∣lish and him. The Regent and his Counsell being sent vnto, thought it not reasonable (Aemylius erro∣niously makes the late Earle of Salisbury the Author of that refusall) neither indeed was it, theirs hauing beene the cost and labour. The Duke of Burgundy construed this repulse sowerly, which marred his taste of the English friendshippe euer after: yet the Regents answere was iust and honest. That the warre was made in King Henries name, and therefore Orleance ought to be King Henries. Among these difficulties stood the French affaires. Charles of France vnder∣standing the miserable straites of his deare City, & ignorant how to remedy so neere a mischiefe; there presented herselfe vnto him at Chinon a yong maid about eighteene yeeres old, called Ioan of Loraine, * 1.69 daughter to Iames of Arck dwelling in Domremy neere Va•…•…caleurs, a * 1.70 Shepheardesse vnder her fa∣ther, whose flockes shee tended, bids him not faint, and constantly affirmes, that God had sent her to de∣liuer the Realme of France from the English yoake, and restore him to the fulnesse of his fortunes. Shee was not forthwith credited; but when the wise of both sorts, aswell Clerkes as Souldiers had sifted her with manifold questions, she continued in her first speech so stedfastly, vttering nothing but that which was * 1.71 modest, chast and holy, that honour and faith was giuen vnto her sayings. An * 1.72 old woman directed her. Ioan armes her selfe like a man, and requires to haue that sword which hung in * 1.73 S. Katherines church of Fierebois in Touraine. This demaund encreased their admiration of her; for such a * 1.74 sword was found among the old Donaries or Votiue tokens of that Church. Thus warlikely arrayed she rides to Blois, where forces and fresh victuals lay for the reliefe of Orleance. Shee with the Admirall and Marshall of France enters safe. This did greatly encourage the fainting French. Ioan the maide of God, so they cal∣led her, (though * 1.75 some haue written that it was a practise or imposture) writes thus to de la Pole Earle of Suffolke, who succeeded Salisbury in the maine charge of that siege.

(15) King of England do reason to the King of hea∣uen, for his bloud royall; yeeld vp to the Virgine the * 1.76 keyes of all the good Cities which you haue forced. She is come from heauen to reclaime the bloud royall, and is ready to make a peace, if you bee ready to doe reason: yeeld therefore, and pay what you haue taken, King of England: I am the chiefe of this war, wheresoeuer I encounter your men in France, I will chase them wil they or no. If they will obey, I will take them to mercy. The Virgine comes from heauen to driue you * 1.77 out of France. If you will not obey, shee will cause so great a stirre as the like hath not beene these thousand yeeres in France. And beleeue certainly, that the king of heauen will send to her, and her good men of Arms, more force then you can haue. Goe in Gods name into your Country: bee not obstinate, for you shall not hold France of the King of Heauen, the sonne of S. Marie, but Charles shall enioy it, the King and lawfull heire to whom God hath giuen it. Hee shall enter Paris with a goodly traine; you William de la Pole Earle of Suffolke, Iohn Lord Talbot, Thomas L. Scales Licutenants to the Duke of Bedford, and you Duke of Bedford terming your selfe •…•…egent of the Realme of France, spare innocent bloud, and leaue Or∣leance in liberty. If you doe not reason to them whom you haue wronged, the French will doe the goodliest exploit that euer was done in Christendome. Vnder∣stand these newes of God, and of the Virgine.
Yet Charles had at this time no whole Countries vnder his obedience, * 1.78 but Languede•…•… and Daulphin against which both the Sauoyard and Burgundian pre∣pared, but miscarried, the Prince of Orenge the third confederate being discomfited.

(16) This letter was entertained by the English with laughter. Ioan reputed no better then a Bed∣lam or Enchantresse. Though to some it may seem more honourable to our Nation, that they were not to bee expelled by a humane power, but by a diuine, extraordinarily reuealing it selfe. Du Serres describes this Paragon in these words. Shee had a modest coun∣tenance, sweete, ciuill, and resolute, her discourse was * 1.79 temperate, reasonable and retired, her actions cold, shew∣ing great chastity without vanity, affectation, babling, or courtly lightnesse. Let vs not dissemble what wee finde written. By her encouragements and con∣duct * 1.80 the English had Orleance pluckt out of their hopes, after they had suffered the Duke of Alanson to enter with new force, and with much losse were driuen to raise the siege. Ioan herselfe was wounded at one sallie in which shee led, being shot through the arme with an arrow. Iudge what she esteemed of that hurt, when shee vsed these admirable and ter∣rible words. This is a fauour, let vs goe on; they cannot escape the hand of God. In all aduentures she was one and formost. The English lost at this siege, the Earle of Salisbury, the Lord Molins, the Lord P•…•…ynings, and many other. But doe not rashly beleeue Serres in say∣ing, that of all sorts were slaine in such Sallies, as the martiall Virgine made eight thousand. Our Writers say but * 1.81 six•…•… hundreth. The Lord Talbot marched away with aboue nine thousand, whom Ioan would not suffer the French to pursue. In memory of this admirable deliuerance, they of that City erected a

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monument, where Charles the seuenth king of France and Ioan the Martiall maide were represented, knee∣ling in Armour, eleuating their eyes and handes to heauen, in signe of thankes and acknowledgement.

(17) There was an interchangeable taking and recouering of Townes and places of importance vp∣on * 1.82 both sides. The Lord Talbot tooke Lauall, and the Earle of Suffolke puts himself into Iergeaux. Thi∣ther the Duke of Alanson with Ioan and other great Captaines come, which they force by assault. Sir Alexander Pool the Earles brother was slaine, with many others in the fight, the Earle himselfe remai∣ned prisoner. The Duke added some other places to this Conquest: soone after his numbers are aug∣mented by the repaire to him of Arthur Constable of France, the Earle of Vandome, the Lord Dalbret and others, so that now their whole Army contay∣ned about twenty and three thousand men. With these they encounter the Lord Talbot (who had scarce the fifth part of their numbers) at a village called Patay, whom they charged so sodainely, that his Archers had no time to fortifie their battels (af∣ter their manner) with a Palizado, or empa•…•…ement of * 1.83 stakes, so that the chiefe fight must bee made vpon horsebacke. After three houres bloudy resistance, the English were put to the worst. * 1.84 The Lord Scales * 1.85 the Lord Hungerford, Sir Thomas Rampstone, and e∣uen the Lord Talbot himselfe (being first wounded in the backe) were taken. The footmen enforced to trust to their * 1.86 swords vnder the shelter of such horsemen as remained, retreated in order, and came to a place of safety. The English lost aboue a thou∣sand, the French aboue 600. This blow shooke the whole fabricke of the English greatnesse in France, at the very foundations, awaking multitudes (euen of those who before had vowed fealty to the English, and now had colour of diuine warrant for violating that vow) to ioyne with the victors for the recoue∣ry of common liberty. There followed the present reuolt of sundry townes; neither was it long before * 1.87 Charles himselfe issues out in Armes, recouers the City of Aunerre and Reims; where according to the Maides direction, hee was solemnly crowned King. Hitherto shee might bee thought propheticall and fortunate. It should seeme now that the chiefe part of her imployment was accomplished, yet she flou∣rished a while longer. The Duke of Bedford to but∣tresse the shrinking state of English affaires in France, and to encounter euill fortune in the face, vpon the vnpleasant newes of Orleance rescued, and Talbots taking, musters his whole present forces which made aboue ten thousand English, besides certaine wings of Normans: with these he marcheth out of Paris, and opposeth himselfe to the Current of Charles his new hopes who meant to attempt that City, some of whose Citizens held strict and secret correspondence with him. But vpon this affrontment he suspended the execution of that design, hauing as then no hope to atchieue it. The Regent returnes to Paris, Ioane the Pucell disswaded Charles from fight.

(18) Places of speciall note as Campeigne and Beauuois yeelded themselues voluntarily to Charles. The Regent hauing setled the Estate, and Garrisons of the Chiefe City, passeth into Normandy, to pro∣uide for a safe retreat there, if perhaps the English (by the ineuitable will of God) should bee enforced to quit their other holdes and dominions: which hee began to suspect, for that he had intelligence of a secret purpose, which the French pursued to winne the Burgundians from King Henries side. While the Regent was absent vpon this occasion, Charles got the Towne of Saint Denis, (a neighbour to Paris) though hee held it not long by practise. From thence he sends the Duke of Alanson and Ioane to trie their friends and fortunes at Paris. They found not hoped successe, for the English gaue them so rough an encounter, that Ioan her selfe was * 1.88 woun∣ded; and the rest with much slaughter driuen to fall off. The Regent hearing of these attempts, entru∣steth the Coast-Townes of Normandy, to the care of Richard Duke of Yorke, and Roan (the Capitall City of that Dutchy) to Edmund Duke of Sommerset, himselfe speedes to Paris, where he commends the souldiers and Citizens for that they had not imitated the dis∣loyaltie of their Neighbours. New supplies came out of England. The next enterprize was to reduce Campeigne to obedience. Iohn of Luxemburg with Burgundians and some English besiegeth it. Here the glory of Ioan vnfortunately ended; for comming to the rescue shee entred indeed, but afterward sally∣ing * 1.89 forth, her troupes were beaten, and her selfe (being betrayed, say her fauourers) taken prisoner * 1.90 by the said Burgundian * 1.91 Knight, who for the value of her ransome (ten thousand pounds Turnoys, and three hundreth Crownes yeerely rent) deliuered her vnto the English. The siege was notwithstanding raysed; they sent her to Roan, where she (about nine * 1.92 or ten moneths after) was burnt to death. Claelia * 1.93 was saued by * 1.94 Porsenna; and it is not to be doubted, but that the magnanimity of the English would haue spared her, had they not found it necessary to deface the opinion which the French euen with su∣perstition had conceiued of her. Our * 1.95 Writers shew how the course of her life being legally examined by the Bishoppe of Beauois (in whose Diocesse shee was taken) and shee thereupon for sorcerie, bloud∣shed, * 1.96 and vnnaturall vse of manlike apparrell, and habiliments contrary to her sex, condemned to die, was notwithstanding vpon her solemne abiu∣ring of such her lewd practises, pardoned her life, till againe conuicted of periurious relapsing, though acknowledging her selfe a * 1.97 strumpet, and fayning to be with child, she deseruedly vnderwent that punish∣ment which she sought to delay. The rumor of her end, and the ignominious cause thereof was some∣what incommodious to the affaires of Charles. It * 1.98 was thought that the comming of King Henry to Paris would be much more.

(19) Hee had already with great solemnity receiued the Crowne of England at Westminster, being about nine yeeres olde, a most fashionable and waxen age for all impression either of good or bad. The next yeere after his Coronation in England, he passeth ouer into France there also to receiue the diademe thereof. The Constableship of England, was * 1.99 before his departure, assigned by Patent for terme of life to Richard Duke of Yorke (which gaue him a more feeling of greatnes and secretly whetted his ambiti∣ous appetite,) vpon this occasion. One Iohn Vpton, of Feuersham in Kent Notarie, accused Iohn Down of the same place Gentleman, That hee and his com∣plices did imagine the Kings death at his Coronation. The combat was granted, and in Smithfield (the Duke of Yorke exercising the office of high Consta∣ble) they fought in lists. In the end the Kings name was vsed to part and forgiue them. It is a vice to suspect too farre. The Duke of Yorke (a most subtle man) seemes neuer in heart to haue beene a true sub∣iect to King Henry: yet no man saith, hee was any author in this. Henrie (the common wealth hauing yeelded to liber all grants of money) is now ready to enter Paris. England remained vnder the gouern∣ment of the Duke of Glocester.

(20) There is no doubt that the English there * 1.100 at their Kings presence, set forth their greatnes to the full shew. The yong King attended vpon with two English Cardinals, Yorke, and Winchester, and great Princes of his blood, Dukes, Earles, Barons, Prelates, and the flower of our nation, with many aswel French and Burgonians, as Normans and others, excellentlie well appointed, makes a triumphant entry into the head City of that most noble Monarchy. There * 1.101 was no signe in the People but of ioy and welcome; the showes were many and magnificent. Vpon the seuenth day of December, he was solemnely Crow∣ned King of France, by the * 1.102 Cardinall of Winchester, his great vncle, in the * 1.103 Chiefe Church of Paris, called of our Lady. The Duke of Bedford entertained the

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minds of the Assembly with a set speech, wherein he declared, King Henrie his Nephewes vndoubted title to that Crowne, and commended the same to their fidelities, adding ample promises of honour and emolument. Such of the French Nobilitie as were present, did their ho∣mage. The people had good and gratious words giuen vnto them, and certaine * 1.104 quantities of money, Corne, and wine, in the nature of a donatiue, liberal∣ly distributed among them. Proclamations were made, that all Frenchmen who came in by a day there named, should be protected. The Kings Patents and grants touching French matters, passed vnder the seale and stile of Henry King of the * 1.105 Frenchmen and of England, which Seale (for variety) we haue prefix∣ed, as we found it annexed, *to a writing directed by the King to his Court of Requests in his Pallace at Paris; but for English affaires he vsed another Seale, being in euery point like vnto that * 1.106 of King Henry the fourth, and (as some thinke) the very same stamp, (which therefore we haue here omitted,) as likewise some * 1.107 Charters of his there are, whereunto he af∣fixed the seale of his father. Charles of France estee∣med not himselfe the lesse a King for all this, but pursues his affaire. His people tooke the City of Char∣tres by a stratagem, the Bishop whereof (because a Burgundian) they also put to the sword with others. Neither were the English idle. Iohn Duke of Norfolke, Thomas Earle of Arundel, Richard Beauchamp Earle of Warwicke, the Earle of Suffolke, and others, made vp this losse with aduantage. Their actions are placed by some as done before the Coronation which is likely. The King hauing thus taken possession of France, not long after tooke his farewell thereof. His returne was by Roan, and so ouer land to Callais, from whence * 1.108 vpon the eleuenth day of February, hee arriued safe at Douer. His vncle the Duke of Glocester was able to giue an honest, and good account of the Gouernment during the kings absence. The suppres∣siō of an insurrection, beginning at Abingdon in Ox∣fordshire * 1.109 was not the least seruice. A weauer (the Ba∣liffe of the Towne) was the vlcerous head, to which that corruption gathered; who had changed his own name, and called himselfe; Iacke Sharpe of Wigmores land in Wales. The speciall colour of his attempt was * 1.110 to haue massacred Priests; whose heads (he said) hee would make as cheape as Sheepes-heads; that is, two or three, or ten for a penny. But the mention of Wig∣mores lands, the ancient inheritance of Mortimer, (then the possession of the fatall Duke of Yorke, who afterward in the right of that name, challenged the Crowne of England from King Henry) insinuates somewhat further. The varlet forfeited his head and foure quarters for his attempt. It is to be won∣dred that the Councell of Estate vnder King Henry, hearing that title so often glanced at, prouided not better against the mischiefe. But the eies and hearts of the wise are blinded, when God hath a purpose to reserue a scourge, or to hide the fire which shall af∣terward be vsed to consume a nation. Vnquiet hu∣mors were aswell abroad as at home. The souldiers of Callais discontented with their wages as to little began to be mutinously troublesome. The Regent * 1.111 comes thither in person in Easter weeke, where he ex∣erciseth necessary discipline seuerely. Foure, the most faulty lost their heads, one hundred and ten are cashered, and banisht from the Towne, as sixe score others had formerly beene. Why dwell we vpon so petty accidents? The losse of the Kingdome of France is imminent. Let vs diligently note the de∣grees which God found out to depriue our Nation of that honor. In this iourney of the Regent, King Henries interest was not aduanced. The Regent (a widdower) roade from thence to Turwin, where * 1.112 (without the Burgundians priuity) he married the Lady Iaquet, aged about * 1.113 seuenteene yeeres * 1.114 daugh∣ter to Peter of Lutzembourg Earle of S. Paul no friend to the Burgundian. This was nothing prosperous to the English affaires. For Anne, the Regents for∣mer wife, sister to the Duke of Burgundy, being, while shee liued, a strong reason and assurance of amitie, weakened the same by her death; and this second marriage, not pleasing the Burgundian, did yet more diminish it. These were but degrees.

In the meane space, the accidents of warre between the English and French, were manifold and perplext, now wee, now they leesing, or gaining, as opportu∣nity serued: which vncertainties brought forth their ordinary progenies, fearefull outrages, and * 1.115 s•…•…rcitie of all things needfull for the vse of man. It would be wearisome, and not much necessary, to recount the particular lesser actions, neitheir indeed is it easie; for who can readily tell the sieges, surprises, skirmishes and the like, being so confusedly set down by Authors, wherein diuers of both Nations wanne to themselues much honour, and serued the vses of those times, and their owne. The vttermost effect of those great labours, was, that the English Regency fell not forthwith into nothing. Permanent lea∣ders in those publike seruices were the Regent him∣selfe; their maine Pillar and Chiefe life, Thomas Earle of Arundel, Richard Earle of Warwicke, Henry his Sonne, the Lord Willoughby, the thrice noble Iohn Lord Talbot, (who was now at liberty,) the Lord Scales, besides Knights, Esquires, and other valiant Cap∣taines a multitude.

(21) The fortune of Renate Duke of Barre, is not to be omitted, for that afterward; our King vn∣luckely married into his house. He had to * 1.116 wife I∣sabell the daughter, and heire of Charles Duke of Lor∣raine, by whom he had issue two sonnes, and two daughters, the youngest of which was Lady Marga∣ret, whom King Henry afterward tooke to wife. Charles Duke of Lorraine dying, Renate thinkes to suc∣ceed in that estate. Antony Earle of Vallemont, bro∣ther to Charles presumes he hath a neerer right. The matter comes to be determined by blowes. Charles King of France was a stedfast supporter of Renates claime▪ in lieu of like offices performed by Renate to him in the times of most difficulty. The Regent and Philip Duke of Burgundy, stood for the Earle. * 1.117 Their aides preuailed so much, that Renates forces were beaten with losse of about * 1.118 three thousand, from the siege of Vallemont, and himselfe with not fewer then two hundred others remained prisoner to the Duke of Burgundy, one of whose subiects com∣manded in chiefe at that enterprise. This * 1.119 Renate was afterward entituled to the Crowne of Naples and Sicilia, by the testament of Ioane Queene of them. The King of France might seeme to haue susteined a grieuous losse by the enthralment of this Duke: but the English gained nothing thereby: for his perswasions, and priuate offices on the behalfe of King Charles, did not a little prepare the Burgundi∣ans heart (which now was knit to the English but with feeble Arteries) to accept in time the holy im∣pression of reconcilement. The French who liued vnder the Regency, or in danger of the English, made choise of the Burgundian to protect them, which could not be embarred to them, for that he was as yet King Henries pretended friend. Indeed this Scene and vnstable state of affaires was full of hor∣rour, which Polyd•…•…re Vergill describeth well enough. While the English and French (quoth he) contend for Dominion, Soueraignty and life it selfe, mens goods in France were violently taken by the licence of warre, Chur∣ches spoiled, men euery where murthered, or wounded, o∣ther, put to death, or tortured; Matrons rauished, Maids forcibly drawne from out their parents armes to be de∣flowred, * 1.120 Townes daily taken, daily spoiled, daily defaced, the riches of the Inhabitants carried whither the Con∣querors thinke good; h•…•…sen and villages round about set on fire: no kind of cruelty is left vnpractised vpon the miserable French; omitting many hundreth kinds of other calamities, which all at once oppressed them. Adde here∣unto that the Commonwealth being destitute of the helpe of lawes, (which for the most part are mute in times of warre and muti•…•…ie) floateth vp and downe without any

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anchorage at right or iustice. Neither was England her∣selfe voide of these mischiefes, who euery day heard the newes of her valiant childrens funerals, slaine in perpetu∣all skirmishes and bickerings, her generall wealth continu∣ally •…•…d, and wained, so that the euils seemed almost equall, and the whole Westerne world ecchoed the groanes and sighes of either Nations quarrels, being the common argument of speech and compassion throughout Chri∣stendome.

(22) The course certainly which the English held, did only faintly keepe aliue the Generall State of the Regency, without giuing period to the warre, either by finishing the Conquest, or setling that which was conquered. Some would haue had large supplies of men, and treasure leuied, that King Charles might no where haue any rest: Of this opi∣nion were Bedford * 1.121 himselfe, the Dukes of Yorke and Sommerset. This Counsell was not followed, but another, in shew more frugall, which fed the euils, but redressed none. Present sparings doe oftentimes draw after them infinite wasts, and no husbandrie proues so ill, as vnseasonable Parsimony. In the mean time, the Earle of Arundel and the Lord Talbot, car∣ry about victorious Armes, and terrifie Angiou, Main, and other places with their successes. In Normandie, neuerthelesse the common people drew together in huge multitudes. There were three∣score * 1.122 thousand of them rebelliously knotted toge∣ther in Vexin, Norman, and twenty thousand in C•…•…ux. Their purpose was (through dislike of the Eng∣lish Gouernment, or practise of the French) to haue reacht one hand to King Charles, and to haue thrust King Henries officers out. What is a multitude with∣out * 1.123 aduise? To stoppe their insolency and course which * 1.124 they held toward Caen, the Earle of * 1.125 Arun∣del, and Robert Lord Willoughby, with about thirteen hundred light horse, and sixe thousand Archers, march against them, by direction of the Dukes of Yorke and ommerset, who had the chiefe Leiutenan∣cies in Normandy. They diuide their forces to vse them with the more aduantage. The Earle stayes in Ambush with two parts, the Lord Willoughby drawes them into it with the third. A thousand of the Re∣bels were cut down before the souldiers hands could be stayed to spare the rest, who basely (as it became them) threw away their weapons, and fell to the earth, crying mercy. The multitudes were suffered to returne, their ringleaders lost their liues. All that the world could collect by this popular insurrection was, that the Normans would be gladly rid of the Eng∣lish. Nothing else was done. This Earle of Arun∣dell * 1.126 hauing done sundry noble deeds during the wars in France, receiued his deathes wound shortly af∣ter in a skirmish at Gerberoy in Beauuo•…•…sine, where La Hire (a famous Captaine among the enemies) had the day.

(23) The Regency yet held, and the miseries of France (being burnt vp by the fiery reflections of two Counter-Sunnes) were nothing diminished: Who should giue to them a Period? while the Duke of Burgundy continued English, it could not be. To prepare therefore a separation betweene them, such of the Nobility as went ouer to the Burgundian Duke told him, * 1.127 That King Charles vpon all occasions (when speech was ministred) spake of him honourably, and inwardly wished him well, and that he neuer heard any mention of the murther committed vpon the Duke his fa∣ther, (cause of the sonnes hatred to France) but he hearti∣ly sighed, protesting hee was neither party nor priuy thereunto. These and the like mollifying salues ap∣plyed to the tumors of his reuengefull affections, did worke strongly, the rather for that his minde heretofore possessed with the English amity, was now vacant in that part, the same (by the means of sundry iealousies and auersions) lying open to con∣trary impressions. There wanted but an outward ho∣nourable meanes to fashion him entirely to the French partie. Let vs heare * 1.128 Serves in this point: The Deputies of the Generall Councell presse both French, English and Burgundians to end all quar∣rels by some good composition. The City of Arras is allowed of them all to treat in. From the * 1.129 Pope and Councell of Pisa, there came the Cardinals of S. Crosse and Cypres, with twelue Bishoppes. For the * 1.130 King of France, there was the Duke of Bourbon, the Earle of Richmond Constable of France, the Arch∣bishoppe of Reims, Chancellour of France, and many others, great, noble, wise and learned men. For the King of England, the two Cardinals of Yorke and Winchester, the Earles of Suffolke (* Iohn Holland Earle of Huntington) the Bishoppe of Saint Dauids, Iohn * 1.131 Ratcliffe Keeper of the great Seale, the Lord Hun∣gerford, Ralfe the wise Officiall of Canterbury, and some Doctors of Diuinity. For Philip Duke of bur∣gundy, the Duke of Guelders, the Earle of Nassau, the Bishoppe of Cambray, Count Vernamb•…•…urg, the Bishoppe of Leige; fiue other great Earles, be∣sides the Deputies of many his best Townes, suffi∣cient to shew, that though hee was in title but a Duke, yet that his greatnesse was equall to a King. When it came to communication, the English being also in possession, vrged farther for themselues the right of descent, and the act of Charles the sixth, father to this Charles, by which act the Crowne of France was setled vpon Henry the fifth, and the issue of the Lady Kathe∣rine his wife, and therefore they propounded no other condition of peace, but that Henry their King might haue all, and * 1.132 Charles to hold of him. The French offered Nor∣mandie and Guien. There ended the hope of agree∣ment betweene them, for neither party would ac∣cept. King Charles therefore resoluing to maime the English faction vpon any termes (how base soe∣uer) sends Duke Philip a blanke, bids him therin to * 1.133 prescribe his owne conditions and demands: he did so: and his Conditions were so vnreasonable, and so ma∣ny, euen a great volume full, (saith a French man) as it * 1.134 is strange, so great a Monarch should stoope so much to his subiect and v•…•…ssall, but that necessity hath no law. They * 1.135 ioine hereupon most firmely, and the Duke * 1.136 (a man wholy transported by profite) declares him∣selfe a publike enemie to all the enemies of King Charles, and friend to all his friends. This was the first parting stroke which seuered the French Domi∣nions from the English Soueraignty: the euent de∣clared, that the English had done more wisely, if they had accepted Normandy and Guyen; but as the case stood, then they could not in honour doe it; and Councels are not to bee measured by euents; for so the most foolish may sometimes passe for prudent. King Henry not onely lost now hereby a most need∣full friend, but was compelled to relie vpon his single strengthes, aswell against King Charles his na∣turall enemie, as against the Duke of Burgundie, who plainely seemed to haue betrayed the cause. To set a glosse vpon this fact, the Duke * 1.137 dispatcheth Am∣bassadors into England to King Henry (who as * 1.138 Ae∣mylius erroneously saith was present at this treaty of Arras) to make known the reasons of his peace with King Charles, and to perswade the King to enter∣taine the same. This Ambassage was so odious to the English, that they forbare not to call the Duke a deceitfull man, a turn-seruer, a periured person, and a Traitor.

(24) The popular hatred also was such against the Dukes Subiects, resiant in London, that they were beaten and slaine many of them, before the fu∣rie thereof could be stayed by Proclamation. The Ambassadors returne with honest admonitions to their Master, against which, his eares and senses were strongly mured; for King Charles had set about them as it were a Barricado of royalties, priuiledges, * 1.139 honours, money, Cities, Townes and whole Pro∣uinces, which he confirmed to the Duke, onely to withdraw him from vs. The whole Counties of * 1.140 A•…•…, Erre, Ponthieu, Bolein, Artois, the towne of * 1.141 Abb•…•…lle, and other lands, the Cities and Townes in Picardy, vpon the water of So•…•…e, Amiens, Corbie, Pe∣r•…•…n, S. Quintin, but these last as it were in gage till

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* 1.142 foure hundreth thousand Crownes were satisfi∣ed: Briefly, what not? the Charity of King Charles was so feruent to make the Duke of Burgundy a true Frenchman once againe: hee paide so deare for it, that wee may thinke him worthy to obtaine his de∣sire; yet was it worth his cost; for Aemylius saith most truly, that the ceasing of that indignation did re∣deeme the French from a forraine gouernment, as the first assuming thereof had made the English, Lords ouer France. But, howsoeuer the high and iust displea∣sure, which this Prince tooke for the wicked mur∣ther of his father, (aboundantly satisfied-for by this * 1.143 treatie) moued him first to embrace the English amity, hee afterward most subtilely conuerted the reuenge (by way of taking amends) to the enlarge∣ment of his proper riches, power and amplitude. After his Ambassadors returned, hee sends backe all contracts to the Duke of Bedford at Paris, and renounceth the alliance of England with a watch∣word, that euery one should looke to himselfe.

(25) Each man hereupon (saith * 1.144 Serres) shar∣pens his sword and scoures his Armes, to recouer that by force which they could not obtaine by rea∣son; Serres might better haue said, reasoning. All things certainly fauoured the French designes; for this was the generall estate of the English affaires. King Henry scarce out of his Child-hood; and when he came to mans age, not Man enough to manage so turbulent occurrents; the Princes of the blood weakely vnited in loue, for the common good; the Protector vigilant ouer England, the Regent carefull for France, but both priuately enuied; Richard Duke of Yorke (whose strenghts daily increased, which in time he meant nothing lesse then to vse for the be∣nefit of King Henry,) ambitiously reseruing himselfe for a deare day; most of the great warriours slaine; and in briefe a great inability (for want of a Soule, willing and fit to looke so sterne and dismall aduen∣tures in the face) through the whole body of the English forces; which though otherwise they might haue lingred out the warre, and kept their footing, yet the death of the great Duke of Bedford Regent of France doubled the difficulty, or rather the im∣possibility. * 1.145 In taking this triumphant Peere away, God made it manifest, that he held the English vn∣worthy and vnfit to continue their Empire among the French any longer. This Prince not long after this reuolt of Duke Philip, died at * 1.146 Paris, vncertaine to some, whether through griefe of the euils he fore∣saw, or other malady. But the Analogy and colour of his whole former life, doth contradict their con∣ceit, who think that such a grief should determine his daies, because it could not but proceed from a kind of feare and despaire, an humor absolutely opposite to Magnanimitie, wherein hee abounded. How mighty a Prince he was this his * 1.147 style sheweth: Re∣gent of France; Duke of Bedford, Alanson, and Aniou, Earle of Maine, Richmond, and Kendale; and Constable of England. But (which excelleth his greatnes) he was one of the best Patriots and Generals, that euer blossomed out of the roiall Rosiar of England. His valour was not more terrible to the enemy, then his memory honorable. For (doubtfull whether with more glorie to him, then to the speaker) * 1.148 Lewis the eleuenth being afterwards counselled by certaine en∣uious persons to demolish and deface his stately Tombe, (wherein, with him, *saith one, was buried all the Englishmens good fortune in France) which was ere∣cted ouer his body in the Northside of the high Al∣tar, in our Ladies Church at Roan, vsed these indeed most Princely words.

(26) What honor shall it be to vs, or you, to breake this Monument, and to pull out of the ground the bones of him dead, whom in his life-time, neither my father, nor * 1.149 your Progenitors with all their puissance, were once able to make flie one foot backward? who by his strength, polli∣cie, and wit kept them all out of the principall dominions of the Realme of France, and out of this noble Dutchy of Normandy? wherefore I say first, God saue his soule; and let his body now lie in rest: which when he was aliue, would haue disquieted the proudest of vs all: And as for the toombe, I assure you, it is not so worthy, or conuenient as his honor and acts deserued.

(27) The Regent being now dead, the late peace made at Arras betweene King Charles and Philip Duke of Burgundie, presently disclosed, and put forth effects most dangerous to the English; for many Townes voluntarily yeeld, and multitudes of the French (who hitherto through feare contained themselues) starting away, all the English domini∣ons were full of priuate conuenticles, practises, and correspondences with the Enemy. Such English as then were in France, are not altogether sloathfull, but yet, through a fatall either security or negligence at home, there was not speedy sufficiencies of resi∣stance ministred.

(28) Richard Duke of Yorke, (whose seruices ne∣uer * 1.150 did good to the English common-wealth) is crea∣ted Regent of France, and Edmund Duke of Sommer∣set (his perpetuall riual, or perhaps an intelligent cen∣sor of his manners) continues his commands in Nor∣mandie. The Duke of Sommerset * 1.151 opposed the ad∣uancement of Yorke to that slipperie dignity. He was no babe in so doing, but more fore-seeing then the Protector, and all the Councell of England. Yet his opposition was vnseasonable, and fruitlesse, for the others carriage had woonne such a party about the King, (whom he meant by embracing to pull down) that notwithstanding the disaduantage of his silen∣ced title, which was alone a great cause to haue made him euerlastingly incapable of so great trust and meanes, he preuailed. But before he could arriue, Paris was lost. Robert Lord Willoughby was Gouer∣nour there for the English, who had with him but a∣bout two thousand, the faith of the Citizens was presumed vpon to make vp the rest at a pinch, for a common resistance. On the contrary, they percei∣uing vpon what termes the English affaires stood in France, chiefly after the late Regents death, conspire against them. The treason was carried so cunning∣lie by some of the principall Magistrates of the Towne, who capitulated for a generall pardon from King Charles (which was gladly yeelded vnto,) that the mischiefe sooner tooke effect, then it could be discouered. Thomas Lord Beaumont began the losse with his misfortune; for Arthur Earle of Richmond, * 1.152 Constable of France, houering about Paris, in hope to recouer the same, the Lord Beaumont with certaine hundreth of English, fell into his danger about Saint Denis, and were distressed. While as yet the terror of this discomfiture (not great in regard of the num∣bers slaine, but in regard of the Circumstances) was freshest, the French aduance their Banners vp to the City, where a gate was opened vnto them by their partisans. What should the English doe in this gene∣rall mischiefe? The townesmen, lately vassals, turne enemies on a sodaine: women and children assaile the English from their windowes with all sorts of mis∣sill things. Many are beaten downe and massacred in the streetes. The Lord Willoughby Gouernour of Paris, Lewis of Luxemburg Bishop of Ther•…•…an, Chan∣cellour of France for the English, the Bishops of Lisie∣ux and Meaux, with other, flie to * 1.153 S. Anthonies gate and the Bastile, places which they had reserued for defence till extreme necessity. Many more had been saued in those places, but that the perfidious Citi∣zens drew chaines thwart the streetes, and empea∣ched their retreat. Heare the rest in a * 1.154 Frenchmans words.

(29) All runne to the Bastile. The Tournels are presently seized, and all approaches vnto the Bastile are soone won. Such as were within it, at first made some shew of defence, but all things were prepared to force them: they demand a Parlea, and agree to depart with * 1.155 their liues and baggage. They are conducted about the Towne beneath the Loure, to embark vpon the Riuer of Sein, and so passe to Roan. They could not well haue pas∣sed through the City. The people hereof aduertised runne

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to the walles, and cry out with great shoutes, * 1.156 baiting the English like Dogs, whom a little before they had feared, and honoured as their masters. Who of the English reades these things without indignation? but they are the perpetuall manners of the base multitude, & the fortune therin of the English, the same which fol∣loweth all like accidents. Some will thinke that the Lord Willoughby, and his people might haue done more nobly, to haue taken vp their graues in the place which they pretēded to make good against the French. Fortitude is neuer separated from Pru∣dence. Succour was despaired. The Duke of Yorke was not as yet arriued, and in maintaining their strengthes against the whole City of Paris, and all the present French forces for the space of about ten dayes, they sufficiently cleared themselues both in point of honour and loyalty. Paris * 1.157 is thus lost in the worst time for an Army to march in. They did wisely to choose so vnseasonable a season, their mar∣ket might haue else beene marred; for the new Re∣gent (not so much hindred from sooner comming by the Duke of Somersets emulations, which some af∣firme, * 1.158 as by the very quality of the winter weather) arriued afterward, accompanied with the Earles of Salisbury and Suffolke, the Lord Falconbridge, and o∣ther worthy persons, with an Army of eight thou∣sand men. But this Regent did neuer good in France: Hee who so writes, might haue also safely added, nor * 1.159 elsewhere. The English affaires were not as yet come to the very breake-necke point. They held (in the late conquered parts of France) Normandy entire, though not without much trouble; for the people againe rebell in Caux: but that mischiefe was destroi∣ed with the greater and more mercilesse confusion of the Authors and Actors, then the former. A∣bout fiue thousand of them were trampled to death by the iust fury of the English, vnder the leading of the Lord Scales, the Lord Hoo and others. They burnt all their dwellings, made booty of their goods, draue their whole numbers out of the Country. The Lord Scales not long after discomfited La Hire, and his Companie not farre from Roan. The war was hand∣led on all sides without full or complete armies. Skirmishes were the ordinarie formes of fighting. The French were schooled from setling their rest vpon a pitcht field. Thus houered the affaires.

(30) Philip Duke of Burgoigne had as yet in person * 1.160 giuen no proof against the English of his affection to King Charles. Now hee addresseth himselfe to an enterprise worthy of that expectation, the recouery of Calais. You would suspect that hee continued still a friend to the English, in making choice of a seruice, wherein hee was most likely to waste his time in vaine, and yet make shew of much forward∣nesse; but hee was reall, though the rather stirred therunto by the desire of priuate reuenge. The Eng∣lish, vpon his forsaking their alliance, had attemp∣ted to kindle the Gauntois, and other of the Flemish townes (Subiects to the Duke) to rise in rebellion: but the opinion that K. Henries fortunes in France were desperately stooping, made their wils too dank to take fire. The notice notwithstanding of this at∣tempt came to the Duke, which sharpened him to reuenge, whereof (as the former passages abundant∣ly declare) hee was not ordinarily thirsty. He brings his Armie before Calais. Chiefe commanders there for King Henry were the L. Dudley who had charge of the Castell, and Sir Iohn Ratcliffe of the Towne. The Dukes purpose was to haue cloyed the har∣bour by sinking shippes laden with stones, and such like choaking materials; but vpon the •…•…bbe-water the Calisians deliuered the hauen from that perill. The King of England aduertised that his precious * 1.161 Fort and Towne of Calais were thus emperilled, Humfrey Duke of Glocester the Protector comes in person with a very great Fleete (some write fiue hundreth saile) to the rescue, and in it a great puis∣sance, with full purpose to giue battell, glad per∣haps that hee might now reuenge old grudges. It is able to moue choler, to consider how Writers torture vs with the diuersities of reports; but the ge∣nerall agreement is, that the Duke of Burgundy did raise his siege before he was fought with. Some * 1.162 say the very rumor of the Protectors approch draue him away, and that the Protector came the next day af∣ter the Burgundians flight. Others excuse him (pro∣bably enough) in saying that the Flemings grew vn∣weildie to his commandements, and would needes home.

(31) The Protector was master of the Dukes Camp, and spent eleuen dayes in his Dominions, burning * 1.163 Poppering and Bell, and greatly damnified him about •…•…Grauelin and Bolognois, then setleth hee the state of Calis, and * 1.164 returnes with great honour to his charge into England. But the English were thought to haue created store of worke for this busie Duke at home, where many great tumults rose, in * 1.165 one of which, his owne person was endangered at Bruges, Lisle-Adam the Captaine of his guard being there pre∣sently slaine. Hence it came perhaps that a meane * 1.166 was found by contracts made with Isabel the Dut∣chesse his third wife (a most witty woman a Portu∣gesse) to hold a league with England, and yet no breach with France.

(32) These haue hith erto beene the actions of Men, let vs not neglect two great Ladies, because * 1.167 much concerning our historie depend on their cour∣ses. Queene Katherine, the widdow of King Henrie the fifth, and mother by him of this sixth Henrie, a∣bout * 1.168 this time departed out of the world. This most noble Lady, when her husband the King was dead, being not of iudgement (by reason of her ten∣der yeeres to vnderstand what became her greatnes, or hauing found perhaps that greatnes was no part of happinesse,) secretly marrieth one Owen ap Theo∣dore or Teder * 1.169 the most noble and most goodlie gen∣tleman of all the Welsh nation, and endued with * 1.170 ad∣mirable vertues, who drew his descent from holie Cadwallader, last King of the Britaines. This husband had by her sundry children, two of which, Edmund and Gasper doe beare a part in the royall history, and King Henry the sixth (their halfe brother) created the first of them Earle of Richmond, the other of Pem∣broke. This Edmund is he, who by Margaret the daughter of Iohn Duke of Somerset, (grandechilde * 1.171 to Iohn of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster) had Henry the 7. the most famous and prudent King of England.

(33) In that yeare in which this excellent Queen died, the young Dutchesse Dowager of Bedford (wid∣dow to the late Regent of France) married also (be∣low her degree) a vigorous English Knight, one * 1.172 Sir Richard Wooduile, of which match yet Serres needed not to haue spoken so contemptibly, calling him an English aduenturer, of small account; shee thereby (saith he) giuing cause to laugh at her: which censure tasteth perhaps of the French leuen and pre∣iudice, because the Lady was sister to the Earle of S. Paul, who would not make one in the peace of Ar∣ras, but held with the English.

(34) But let vs see the sequell. Out of this Ma∣trimony also sprung Queenes; for her husband (af∣terward made Earle of Riuers) had sundry children by her, whereof Elizabeth being one, had the honour * 1.173 to marry Edward the fourth King of England, and hereby was both herselfe a Queene and a Pro∣genitresse of those glorious Kinges and Queenes which followed: for from her and this match sprang another Elizabeth, the renowned wife of King Henry the seauenth, as King Henry himselfe did of the for∣mer: both those marriages proued most fortunate to England: but another marriage which then threat∣ned present danger to King Henry, was that which Iames the first King of Scots made with France, who gaue his daughter the Lady Margaret, to Lewis the Daulphin for wife, and sent new supplies of men a∣gainst the English: hee meant also to haue attemp∣ted some personall hostility, but that hee was most * 1.174 wickedly murthered by certaine bloudy Traitors in

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Perth, suborned thereunto by Walter Earle of Athol, (his owne neere kinsman) in hope to attaine the Crowne; crowned indeed he was, but not (as his Withces & Sorcerers had ambiguously insinuated) with the Crowne of that Realm, but with a * 1.175 Crown of red-hote yron, which was clapt vpon his head, be∣ing one of the tortures wherewith he ended at once his wicked dayes and desires.

(35) Let vs now cast our eye to the doings of our new Regent the Duke of Yorke, that we may be wit∣nesses, how farre by his endeauors, the affaires of * 1.176 King Henry were aduanced in France. The silence at this time is euery where very great, yet had he op∣portunitie to haue atchieued somwhat. Two * 1.177 thou∣sand French horsemen were mutined, and roued vp and downe in great disorder. Paris was fearefully pu∣nished with famine, and the attendants of famine, pestilentiall maladies. The Countries about lay o∣pen: the Courtiers were discontented and diuided: Nothing is yet done by our Regent, which * 1.178 some impute to Edmund Duke of Somersets opposition, who out of enuy and disdaine hindred his dispatch. Wee must in the meane time find out them that did somewhat. The Duke of Sommerset himselfe ac∣companied with the Lords Talbot and Fanconbridge, with other Gallants, and a competent force of the English, besiege Harflew, which the Normans in the * 1.179 late rebellion tooke from them, and still maintained against them vnder French Captaines: King Charles sends some of his principall Commanders with foure thousand men to rescue the Towne; who did their best, but not able to effect any thing, Harflew was rendred to the Duke.

(36) In Nouember Richard Earle of Warwicke came as Regent into France, being surrogated in that of∣fice * 1.180 to the Duke of Yorke, who returned into Eng∣land. Hee carried with him a thousand fresh Soul∣diers, and arriued at Harflew, from whence he repai∣red to Roan, the chiefe seat (Paris being now lost) of the English Dominions in North France, as Burdeaux was in the South; whether now the Earle of Hun∣tingdon, with certaine troupes and companies of Souldiers, was sent as Seneschall. This new Regent busied himselfe in the generall affaires of his place. * 1.181 Vnder him the Duke of Burgoins forces were driuen from Crotoy. Abbeuile freed from the danger of a Bastile, with which the Duke had pent that Towne in; and the English for twentie dayes space toge∣ther tooke their pleasure in spoiling the Country of Picardy about Amiens and Artois. These and some other actions hauing beene worthily carried during this Regents gouernment, himself dyeth. The Duke * 1.182 of Yorke againe succeedes him. Our interest in France was retained, not so much by King Henries mini∣sters and Armies, as by remissenesse of King Charles, whom also Lewis the Daulphin (afterward King) did greatly trouble by rebellious decessions, and absent∣ments of himselfe. The feare of the English recon∣ciled the sonne to the father the sooner. K. Charles was now fallen into dislike with his people, but to * 1.183 redeeme his credite, hee attempts the recouery of P•…•…ntoyse (a towne neere to Paris) which the Lord Clifford had not long before surprised by stratageme and money (an ordinary meanes as then for the ex∣pugnation * 1.184 of places) and comes in person to the en∣terprize. There attended vpon him for that seruice about ten or twelue thousand men. The L. Clifford is within, and makes a braue defence.

(37) The Duke of Yorke lately landed in Norman∣die, as Regent, assembleth his maine strengthes, be∣ing about seuen or eight thousand; offers the French King battell. Hee keepes himselfe within his tren∣ches. The Duke (according to the ancient humor, and discipline of the English, who loue to set all vp∣on a push) desirous to fight, vnexpectedly passeth the riuer of oyse, which ranne betweene the two Campes. King Charles dislodgeth so fearefully, that the French doe not ouer boldly excuse him of * 1.185 fly∣ing. The Duke hauing had the spoile of the French Kings Campe, refortifies Pontoyse, and assaults a Ba∣stile, where Charles had left three thousand Souldiers to maintaine the face of a siege. It was held better to pursue the King, who was gotten to Poisie. There * 1.186 the Duke of Yorke againe very nobly prouokes him to a field. It would not be; King Charles saw the hazards were not equall, and therefore endures his brauado. What could the Duke doe more? hee is of necessity to returne to the maine of his charge in Normandy, and doth so. King Charles ran into such obloquie and contempt with his people by this dis∣honourable retreat, but chiefly with the Parisians; that if hee had not attempted again and preuailed a∣gainst Pontoise, it might haue ieoparded his whole estate; for there was a faction which would haue made vse of his disgrace. He returnes in great fury to * 1.187 the siege, and finally enters the town, not without much bloudshed. Serres saith, that fiue hundred English left their dead bodies at the breach. The King was one of the first that entred, choosing ra∣ther to be thought temerarious then timerous. This exploit established his opinion among the people. A satietie of warre filled both sides, and the estate of England vnder King Henry, whose softnesse and le∣nitie gaue way to sundry dangerous Court-factions, needed quiet Commissioners meet at Callis: nothing * 1.188 is concluded but the enlargement of Charles Duke of Orleans for the summe of three hundred thousand Crownes. Hee had beene Prisoner in England about twentie and sixe yeeres, euer since the Battell of A∣gincourt, where hee was taken. The Duke of Burgun∣die was a speciall Actor in his enlargement, with a purpose to secure his owne greatnesse by benefites: this high borne Prince for the murther of his father, being naturally the head and chiefe of that deadly fewde, which had most mortally raged between the houses of Burgundie and Orleance. Humfrey Duke of Glocester prudently foreseeing the dangers like to en∣sue on Orleance his enlargement, stoutly opposed himselfe thereunto, and that vpon important rea∣sons which * 1.189 hee required to haue registred, that they might remaine on Record for a testimony and discharge of his duty in that behalfe.

1 First, for that the French King wanted discre∣tion and iudgement to order his affaires, which de∣fects might bee supplied by the Duke, (being a man of experience and very subtle) if hee should bee set at liberty.

2 That the said Duke might procure an vnion of the factions (now hotely maintained in France a∣mong the Nobility) to the preiudice of the Crowne of England, and hazard of the losse of the Kings ter∣ritories in France.

3 That the Dutchie of Normandy (hauing sustai∣ned a great charge in maintaining the warre) seeing the Duke of Orleance deliuered, and no royall Army on the English part to withstand the common ene∣my, was likely inough to reuolt.

4 That if the Duke should be deliuered, it might be probably coniectured, that he would sooner break his oath, which he should (being prisoner) make to the King of England, then the oath of his alleageance to the French King his Soueraigne Lord, of whom he holdeth his lands and dignity.

5 If the Articles concluded between his Maie∣sty and the French on the Dukes behalfe, should not be performed, what remedy might his Maiesty haue or expect?

6 That considering his cosen of Huntingdon was to leaue the Dutchy of G•…•…yenne, and for that the al∣liance betwixt the said Duke, and the Earles of Ar∣minack and Foix, and the Lord de la Bret, was to bee suspected as dangerous, it was very necessary that good prouision should be made for defence of that Country, being his Maiesties ancient inheritance.

7 That his Maiesty hath no allyance with any Christian Prince, but onely the King of Portugall (be∣ing but of tender yeeres and farre off:) And therfore it was not safe for his Maiestie to deliuer him, that

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was likely to proue his Capitall enemie, and to seeke meanes to depriue him of those lands which his noble father had left him.

8. That if any of his Maiesties kinred, or other Lords on that side the Sea, should happen to be ta∣ken prisoners, the said Duke of Orleance might ransom 4. or 5. of them.

9. That it were fit to take aduise of the Lords, and other his Maiesties subiects in the Realme of France, and dutchy of Normandy, whether they thought it expedient that the said Duke should be deliuered or not. Otherwise the world might crie shame thereon, when men should call to minde the losse of his brethren of Clarence, and Bedford, and other noble Personages, in defending and keeping those Lands.

10. If he (the said Duke of Gloucester) should con∣sent to the said Dukes deliuerance (the same being also quite-contrary to the last will of his Maiesties Father) such inconueniences, as would ensue there∣upon▪ should be imputed to him.

(38) Notwithstanding the weight of so many thousand Crownes ouer▪peysed all these important and ponderous reasons; and the warre eates on still in the body of France, but not with so sharpe teeth, nor so full engorgement as before. Townes and peo∣ple are taken on both sides. The Countie of Ami∣ens was spoiled by the English Lords, Willoughby and Talbot; The Regent and the Duke of Sommerset, march into Angiou, where they charged their carria∣ges with much spoile and returned. Then the Duke of Sommerset seuers himselfe, and doth sundry ex∣ploits in and about Britaine. Diep in Normandy be∣ing besieged, was rescued by the Dolphin of France to our losse. The contemplation of these mutuall vi∣olences touched all Christendome: for the Turke, common enemie thereof, encreased. Ambassadors are sent from all parts, to determine these bloody differences. William de la Pole Earle of Suffolke, was chiefe for the English. A truce was hereupon taken * 1.190 for eighteene months, between King Henry and King Charles, and an hope of perpetuall amity, weakely grounded vpon a match, which the Earle of Suffolke contracted for King Henry, with Margaret the daughter of Renate, titulary King of Sicile, Naples, and Ierusalem, Duke of Angiou and Lorrain, Prince of the blood. To effect this, the Earle couenanted that the English should abandon the possession of Angiou, and Main to her father. A strange purchase of a wife, who though shee brought youth, beauty and hope of a perpetuall peace with France, (the more profi∣table opportunity whereof, the English had more brauely then happily neglected) yet was shee other∣wise without portion. The Earle notwithstanding (whose drift herein could not be without manifest ambition, to make himselfe one of the greatest of England, by this gratification of the French, with his Masters charge and dishonour) is not abashed to ex∣pect publike thanks for this high seruice, and an whole fifteene for the charge of her transportation. Sundry Lords of Councell and the King himselfe thought him worthy, and according to his deuise and ouerture, the whole affaire was carried. Suffolke made Marquesse is sent ouer with many honorable persons, both men and women, to conduct the faire and goodly (but most vnfortunate and fatall) Bride into England. * 1.191 Polydore giues vs no vnfitting Cha∣racter of this Lady. Shee was prouident enough, very desirous of glory, abounding in discourse, coun∣sell, gracious behauiour, and manly courage; but not free from womens humour, which (saith he) is vsually vehement and apt to change. In England ye may easily suppose, that shee was most roially entertai∣ned; Humfrey Duke of Gloucester, among others, mee∣ting her with a traine of * 1.192 fiue hundred horsemen in a liuery, that worthy Poet Iohn Lydgate Monke of Burie, deuising the speeches for such gratulatory tri∣umphs as were made at her entrance into London. The King being married lawfully enioyes her em∣bracements, from which he was often afterward vio∣lently * 1.193 separated by the miseries of a most crueil warre, wherein shee had her piteous portion Suffolke in the meane time hauing the most assured fauour of the Queen pursues his ambitious purposes. Shee in the meane time was solemnly Crowned Queene of England at Westminster vpon the * 1.194 thirtieth of May.

(39) Would to God it stood now with the qua∣lity of this argument, to turne our eies from the view of those actions which ensued; for here the mournefull tragedies of our poore Countrey began. But we cannot but open those olde and most exe∣crable sores, that, in their example, all true English blood may the rather be tender ouer their bowels, beholding such effects as the diuell and all the furies of hell were (by Gods seuere permission) Actors in. Fabian giues vs the causes and contents of those ef∣fects, in these graue and few words.


It appeareth that God was not pleased with * 1.195 that marriage: For after this day, the fortune of the world began to fall from the King, so that he lost his friends in England, and his reuenues in France: For shortly after, all was ruled by the Queene and her Coun∣sell, to the great disprofit of the King and his Realme, and to the great mauger (it is Fabians word) and ob∣loquie of the Queene, who (as since hath beene well proued) had many a wrong, and false report made of her. All which miserie fell for BREAKING OF THE PROMISE, made by the King vnto the * 1.196 Earle of Armenacks* daughter, as most writers agree: Which misery in this Story shall some-deale appear by the loosing of Normandy, (as all things else, except Callais, which the English held in France) the diuision of the Lords within this Realme, the rebellion of the commi∣nalty against their Prince and Soueraigne, and finally the King deposed, and the Queene with the Prince faine to flee the land, and lost the rule thereof for euer.
Thus he: but all this farre short of the euils that were the brood and ofspring of the following times. The Parliament in the meane time grants aides of money, that vpon expiration of the truce there might bee present abilities to maintaine warre. The Duke of Yorke is reuoked, and the Duke of Sommerset (in an e∣uill * 1.197 houre) is sent in his place, with such prouisions as were reputed competent.

(41) Humfrey the renowned Duke of Gloucester, * 1.198 Lord Protector, felt the first stroke of the euill An∣gell, which was sent to punish England, and to roote out her Nobles. This Duke was much hated of the Queene, and her faction, as the onely man who by his prudence, as also by the honor and authoritie of his birth and place, seemed to empeach that so∣ueraigne command, which they pretended to settle in the Kings owne person, but meant indeed (as the manner is vnder soft Princes) to reigne themselus in anothers name. Many great Lords were drawne on (at the time of a Parliament then * 1.199 holden at Saint Edmunds Bury,) to concurre for his ruine, not per∣ceiuing, that thereby they pluckt vp the floodgate, at which the Duke of Yorke entered, ouerwhelming all of them in a deluge of blood. Whether they had any true or iust feare of Gloucester himselfe, least per∣haps he should take reuenge vpon some particular persons among them, is doubtfull, though it be pro∣bable enough, that they had. Heare some things that forewent this Parliament. About fiue or sixe yeers before, * 1.200 the Dutchesse of Gloucester Eleanor, was conuented for witchcraft and sorcerie, and afterward endited of treason in the Guild-Hall in London, before the Earles of Huntington, Stafford, Suffolke, and Nor∣thumberland, and certaine Lords, as Fa•…•…hope, and Hun∣gerford, with others, and Iudges of both benches; of which crimes shee was appealed by one B•…•…ling∣brook an Astronomer, and Thomas Southwell a Cha∣non, which Southwell was charged to haue said Mas∣ses ouer certaine instruments, by which the Astrono∣mer should practise Necromancy against the life of the King. These being taken, accused her as accessa∣rie,

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shee hauing desired the helpe of their Art, to know what would befall her. Some part hereof shee confessed, for which shee was put to publike and solemne penance in London vpon three seueral daies, with wonderfull shame to her person, and after shee was committed to perpetuall prison vnder the ward of Sir Thomas Stanley in the Castle of Chester, but from thence remoued to Kenelworth. Her pride, fal∣shood, auarice, and lechery were causes of her confusion, saith Stow; who hath set forth that businesse very diligently, though not seeming to attribute much credit to that accusation of treason. The Duke of Glocester her vnhappy Lord and husband (whom shee by loue-cups and enchantments was said to haue enucigled, vsing therein one Margerie Gurd∣main a witch of Ey in Suffolke, who was burnt in Smithfield) stung with this reproach, might reasona∣bly be thought not vnwilling to doe somewhat. Howsoeuer that was, his destruction borrowed countenance from that opinion. The Duke there∣fore being come to attend in this Parliament at Bu∣rie, was arrested of high treason by Iohn Lord Beau∣mont high Constable of England, the Dukes of Buc∣kingham and Sommerset with others. Certaine of the Kings houshold were appointed to guard him. Not long after he was found dead. His body was * 1.201 shewed to the Lords and Commons, as if he had di∣ed of a palsey or an aposteme. Of thirty and two of his seruants which were attached, Sir Roger Cham∣berlaine Knight, Richard Middleton, Thomas Herbert, Arthur Tursey, Esquires, and Richard Nedham Gen∣tleman, were condemned of high treason, and had this vnexampled punishment. They were drawne from the Tower to Tiburn, hanged, let down quick, * 1.202 stript naked, marked with a knife to be quartered, and then a Charter of pardon shewed for their liues by the Marquesse of Suffolke. But the yeoman * 1.203 of the Crowne had their liuelihood, the executio∣ner their cloathes. Their pardons were thus obtai∣ned by the earnest diligence of Doctor Gilbert Wor∣thington, a famous preacher, parson of S. Andrewes in Holborne. Thomas Wilde Esquire, the Dukes ser∣uant also, being condemned and pardoned among other, had for a preamble in his letters patents words importing, * 1.204 that hee had beene one among many other traitours against the King, with Humfrey Duke of Glou∣cester, who went about, and practised to deliuer Eleanour, late wife to the Duke, from out of prison, for which pur∣pose he had gathered a great power, and number of men, to come to the Parliament at Berie, there to haue contriued the Kings destruction.

(42) Such was the end of this great Prince, who, notwithstanding this open shewing of his body, and these pretended crimes, was by the people of Eng∣land thought to be doublie murthered, by detracti∣on, and deadly practise. He was not only a true louer of learned men, but himselfe also * 1.205 learned, and (saith our Author) a father of his Countrey. His maine opinion concerning the gouernment of King Hen∣ries French dominions, was as mainely opposed by the Cardinall of Winchester and others, who altogether perswaded Peace, to which the noble Duke (standing precisely vpon the honor and Maiesty of the Eng∣lish name,) was * 1.206 an absolute enemie. From this troubled fountaine of diuided Councell many fol∣lowing blacke aduentures did flow. The Duke thus brought to his end, goodmen (saith Polydore) fear∣full of their owne safeties, did of their owne accord forsake the Court, into whose roomes many succeeded, who for the more part looking how to rise in dignity made open an ea∣sie way for new factions. The Cardinall of Winche∣ster (the other halfe-arch of the Kingdome) ouerliued not the Duke aboue fifteene or sixteene daies. The * 1.207 whole frame of gouernment was thus drawne to re∣pose it selfe vpon the Queene, and such fauourites, as the King by her commendation the rather liked.

(43) The Marquesse * 1.208 of Suffolke, prime man in grace, was created Duke, which made him a more conspicuous marke of enuie, then that any shadow of the King or Queene could shelter or protect. Af∣ter the Cardinals * 1.209 death, the affaires in France (where Sommerset was now Regent) wereneither duel•…•…e looked vnto, nor the gouernours of the Countrey well aduised. But the King and Realme of England lay, much more then France, open to the ineuitable, deepe, and perni∣cious conspiracies of Richard Duke of Yorke. Hee (by the error of King Henry, and the euill starres of our Countrey) being of himselfe a great Prince, and growne stronger by affected popularitie, perceiuing the King to be a Ruler, and not to Rule, began secretlie to * 1.210 allure his friends of the Nobilitie, and priuily declared to them his title to the Crowne, as likewise he did to certaine Gouernors of Cities and townes, which attempt was so politickly and closely carried, that his prouision was * 1.211 readie, before his purpose was opened. The very state of things inuited this fatall conspiracie: a mil∣der King then England was worthy of; a Councell out of fauour with the people; manifold losses and di∣shonours abroad; a turbulent and iealous condition of things at home. Of all which and much more, the Duke of Yorke, hauing King Henrie the fourth (the enemie of his house) for a perillous example, made his pretious vse, cherishing the popular auersions, without seeking to redresse any euils, but represen∣ting them worse then they were, thereby to ripen that breach of loialty in the hearts of men, which his ambition wrought vpon. His displacement from the Regency of France, did not a little (perhaps) of∣fend him at first, because the Duke of Sommerset got it ouer his head; but it will not be long, before Som∣mersets euill carriage of that trust, and the declining fortune of England, will giue him occasion to reioice * 1.212 at the foile of his dreaded enemy. Let vs not be long in the rehearsall of the publike shame and dam∣mage of our nation.

(44) During the truce betweene England and France, one Sir Francis Surien an Arragonois (Knight * 1.213 of the Garter) seruing vnder the Regent, vnlawfullie surprized Fougers, a towne of Britaine vpon the con∣fines of Normandy. Restitution is demanded. The Duke of Sommerset (a proud man (saith Serres) who thinking to d•…•…e better then the rest, did absolutely ruine the English affaires) contrary to good discipline, cheri∣shing his souldiers in their riots and disorders, negle∣cted the iustice of nations in that point. The French make this their example, and surprize Port del' Arch, and towne after towne, so many and so fast, that King Charles (who, that he might haue God on his side, and wrong on his enemies, conteined himselfe with great modesty, till * 1.214 he saw all quiet restitution desperate,) recouered Roan, Caen and all Normandie within a short space after.

(45) Thus Sommerset, and the English, are com∣pelled to quit Normandy, not only inglorious, but al∣so * 1.215 in England it selfe vncommiserated. The next maine parcell of the English inheritance, beyond our Ocean, was Gascoigne. King Charles and his people desirous (against plaine right) to make all that theirs, whatsoeuer was comprehended within the French language, inuaded that Dutchie also, and within verie * 1.216 few yeeres after (the fortune of warre, and disloialty of the people euery where fauouring them) extor∣ted the same out of the English-mens possession, after it had continued theirs about two hundreth foure∣score and nine yeeres, to the immortall dishonour * 1.217 and dammage of our nation. The Duke of Yorke in the meane time, who thirsted for the Crowne of England, hath occasion ministred to impe more fea∣thers into his aspiring wings. Ireland is in tumult. Thither the Duke passeth, and not only appeaseth the disorder of that Nation, but * 1.218 wan such fauour a∣mong them, as could neuer be separated from him, and his linage. Thus diligently the Pioner makes his mines into the quiet and felicity of his Countrey, calling his cause the quarrell of right and iustice, as preten∣ding that the Crowne of England appertained to his name and familie.

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(46) But the odor of this vile successe in France, comming into England, filled mens hearts and sen∣ses with great perturbation. The Queene and Suf∣folke suffer obloquie for these effects in the generall iudgement. The common wealth is not silent. A Parliament is called to be holdē at Westminster, which from thence was assigned to be kept at Leicester. The place likes not; few appeare. It is brought backe to Westminster. There the whole body of publike counsell meetes. Many * 1.219 Articles are exhibited by the lower house against the Duke of Suffolke; where∣in hee is charged with euill demeanor, misprision and * 1.220 treason: who thereupon is committed prisoner to the Tower: from thence, within fowre or fiue weeks hee is discharged, which more augmented the gene∣rall indignation then his commitment had mini∣stred satisfaction. The perilous Duke of Yorke warms himselfe at these blazes, and vnderhand cherisheth them as opportunity wil permit, hauing his cunning factors and instruments fitte for such occasions se∣cretly spread ouer the Realme, to instill the poy∣sons of discontentment, and desire of change into the giddie multitude. When wee reade in our vul∣gar Chronicles, that about this time Adam Molins * 1.221 Bishoppe of Chichester, Ke•…•…per of the Kings Priuy Seale (through the procurement of Richard Duke of Yorke) was by shipmen slaine at Portsmouth, and yet no cause of so foule and wicked a murther expressed, it cannot but offend any curious Reader, who would receiue satisfaction rather by the reasō ofactions then by the euents. His guiltinesse in the fact was so apparant, that K. Henry in his answere made a yeere or two af∣ter to the Dukes dissembling, and deceitfull letter, confidently mentioneth the same, where thus hee speaketh. Sooth it is that long time among the people hath beene vpon you many strange language, and in spe∣ciall anone after your disordinate and vnlawfull slaying of the Bishoppe of Chichester, diuers, and many of the vn∣true shipmen and other, said (in their manner) words a∣gainst our state, making menace to our owne person by your sayings, that yee should bee fetched with many thou∣sands, and you should take vpon you * 1.222 that which you neither ought, nor as wee doubt not will attempt, &c. What cause led the Duke to commit this so impious a deed, may easily now be coniectured, being none other but the common hatred hee bare to all such wise or valiant persons, as might in any sort vphold the most iust and gracious Henry, and this sincerity in the Bishoppe could not be but a grieuous crime in the Dukes ambitious eyes, whose greatnesse was e∣uen then too intollerable; for where was the Kings iustice when such a fact might hope of impunity? The Duke did effect it by his bloudy complices as hee did many other most seditious and perfidious things, while hee was absent in Ireland. Thomas Tha∣nie notwithstanding calling himselfe Blew-beard * 1.223 being a Fuller of Canterburie, and attempting to ga∣ther the people, miscarrieth in his treason, and for that was hanged and quartered: this was a pream∣ble to the following tumults. The Duke of Yorkes whole and onely hopes were reposed in the general perturbations of his Country.

(47) The Duke of Suffolke (a principal pillar of K. * 1.224 Henries safety) being set at liberty, attends the King and Queene in their Parliament at Leicester. Behold the humour of the Commons which were sowred with the pestilent leauen of Yorkes conspiracy. They cannot endure the sight of this Prince, because his readuancement seems done in despight of them. Ca∣lumniations & odious surmises are exhibited against him: hee must downe to make way for K. Henries most vnworthy ruine. The most vile part of this Parliamental accusation was, that they should charge that for a crime vpon Suffolke which themselues had vniuersally in another former Parliament assented vnto and ratified. Which was the deliuery of An∣iou and Main vpon the marriage, concluded (for the good of England, if others had not inuerted or inter∣rupted the successe by their temerity) with Renate, father of Queene Margaret. N•…•…ither did the enuy onely of the secret York•…•…s ouerlade this noble Gen∣tleman, but the impotency of the Duke of Sommer∣sets faction, whose rashnesse and vanity hauing lost all Normandy, would gladly find any others shoul∣der, vpon which to cast the imputation, either in part or whole. In that former Parliament assembled immediately vpon Suffolkes returne from that trea∣ty with Renate out of France, this was the summe of the whole proceedings. Suffolke (as hee was very eloquent) made knowne to both housen, his coun∣sels and seruices, and the effect of his Embassie, pray∣ing they might be approued, and enrolled for his discharge. Whereupon * 1.225 the next morrow, Burley Speaker of the lower house, and the body therof re∣paired to the Kings presence, then sitting among the Lords, and there * 1.226 humbly required, that the request of the Marquesse (afterward created Duke of Suffolk) might be granted: and the Lords made the like peti∣tion, kneeling on their knees. The King condiscen∣ded to their desires, and so the whole matter was recorded for his acquitall.

(48) What can bee more euident? or who can enough admire the vanity of popular mutabilitie? The Duke the (principall marke, though the Bishop of Salisbury, the Lord Say, and others were also accu∣sed) vnable to stand the push of so generall an op∣position, must be banished. The King vnwillingly giues this sentence against the Duke, or rather a∣gainst his owne life and safety: fiue yeeres are li∣mited to his exile. Being vpon the sea, hee is taken by his enemies, who at Douer-road stroke off his head * 1.227 vpon the side of a Cocke-boat. This diuelish mur∣ther (for it was none other, the Kings authority be∣ing not vsed therein) committed vpon so great a Prince, was the lesse pittied, for that hee was noi∣sed among the people to haue beene a priuy actor in the Noble Duke of Glocesters death, who perished (saith a * 1.228 learned Author) by the fraud and practise of a woman (belike) Queene Margarite. The Bishop of Salisburie before said more impiously, and irregu∣larly lost his life in the following tumults, being murthered (after he had finished diuine seruice) by his owne Tenants, who dragged him from the Al∣tar * 1.229 to an hill-top, and there (while hee was making his last prayers) cleft his sacred head: The Lord Say Treasurer of England fell likewise into the peoples fury, and had his head cut off by the commande∣ment of that execrable rebell Iacke Cade, at the Stan∣derd in Cheape, as yee shall hereafter learne.

(49) This William Duke of Suffolke * 1.230 was indeed a great and worthy person, for when his Father, and three Brothers had valiantly powred forth their liues for their Country in the warre of France, hee serued in them foure * 1.231 and thirty yeeres, in seuenteene of the which hee neuer re∣turned home, hee was once taken prisoner, being then but a Knight, and paied for his ransome twenty thou∣sand pounds sterling, hee was fifteene yeeres priuy Coun∣sellour, and thirty yeeres Knight of the Garter. Notwith∣standing all which, the same Author truly addeth: That as for these causes he was in highest grace with the King, so he was the more disgratious or hated of the peo∣ple, and for * 1.232 certaine very sleight matters, and those not very apparant, hee was driuen into banishment, and (as you haue already heard) was intercepted vpon the sea in his passage to France, and by his aduersaries killed. What honest heart doth not melt at the relation of these violent contempts of all religion, honour, rea∣son and iustice? yet are they but the drops which doe forego those many bloudy showres, which the cloud of Yorkes faction rainde vpon our miserable Nation. They who murthered this great triumphant Gentleman, were certaine persons who wafted vpon the Seas in a Barke called the Nicholas of the Tow∣er, which belonged to Iohn * 1.233 Holland Duke of Exce∣ster, Constable of the Tower of London, whom Gods reuenging hand shall not leaue vnpunished.

(50) The Yorkists hauing thus rid Suffolke out of the way, thought it now a fitte season to spring their

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practise. Hereupon the Commons of Kent, (who haue seldome refrained in such turbulent times) * 1.234 while the Duke of Yorke was as yet in Ireland, take Armes. One Iacke Cade is their Captaine: hee had beene the seruant of a Sussex Knight, Sir Thomas Da∣gre; kils a woman with Child; abiureth the land; turnes French; swearing seruice to them, and now returning, is the instrument to hang out Mortimers name, like a flagge to draw a party, faining him∣selfe to bee a Cosen to the Duke of Yorke. A pesti∣lent deuise, to sound the affections of the multitude, and to proclaime the Title to the Crown, which the Duke (as heire of that family) afterward challenged; for who would not aske, what should moue him to vse the name of Mortimer? This Cade whom some (by contraries) call Iohn Amend-all (that is, Iohn Marre-all) hauing drawn great numbers to follow him, encampes at Blacke-Heath by Greenewich, and in his writings cals himselfe the Captaine of Kent. His pretences (as of al like disloial actions) were the com∣mon good and such other. The King at the report of these stirres is stirred. The Captaine of Kent de∣maunds.

1 That Richard Duke of Yorke bee called out of Ire∣land, * 1.235 and (with certaine others named for stales and co∣lour) be principally vsed in Counsell.

2 That as the Duke of Glocester was falsly proclaimed a Traitour, so the Authors of his death might bee pu∣nished.

4 (For the third Article contained no demand, but onely seandalous matter to aggrauate hatred a∣gainst the dead Duke of Suffolke, and his liuing ad∣herents:) That all the extortions (so the Rebels phra∣sed them) daily vsed among the common people, might be laid downe: that is to say, the greene waxe, which is falsly vsed to the perpetuall destruction of the Kings true Commons of Kent. Also the Kings Bench, the which is too grieuous to the Shire of Kent, without prouision of our Soueraigne Lord, and his true Councell. And also in ta∣king * 1.236 wheat and other graines, beefe, mutton, and all o∣ther victuall, the which is importable to the saide Com∣mons, without the briefe prouision of our said Soueraign Lord, and his true Councell, they may no longer beare it. And also vnto the Statute of Labourers, and the great extortioners, the which is to say, the false Traitors, Sleg, Cromere, Isley, and Robert East.

(51) Thus traiterously to the Kings welfare, and scandalously to his most gentle gouernment, writes this arrogant Captaine of Rebels. The King vpon view of these braues, beginnes to feele the indig∣nity and danger. An Armie is raised, Cade retires to Seuenoke in Kent. The King supposing hee had fled, sends after him * 1.237 Sir Humfrey Stafford Knight, and other Gentlemen with some forces. Wee reade none of these things without a suspition, that the King was alwayes betrayed by such hypocrites about him, as would not haue him prosper. Marke the euent. At Seuenoke Cade abides, probably not without encouragement from secret Traitours, and after long fight slew Sir Humfrey with many o∣thers. * 1.238 Hee armed himselfe in the dead Knights a∣billements with guilt spurres. The King and Queene hearing of this mishappe, leaue the Tower of Lon∣don to the custodie of the Lord Scales, and of that re∣nowned Esquire Mathew Gowgh; and London it selfe to the Lord Maiors fidelity, themselues depar∣ting to Kenilworth. The headlong crewes of London fauour the Rebell, and giue entrance. Robert Horne Alderman, like an honest wise man, would haue * 1.239 had them resisted. This free necessary speech en∣dangered his life; honourable in his memory for the hazard onely, what should hee haue beene if hee had gloriouslie lost it? but money buyes out his perill with the Tyrant, who fined him at * 1.240 fiue hun∣dred Markes. The time was very slippery and loose; for the Essex men also were encamped vpon Mile∣end by London: All men are afraid of their owne e∣states; such secret well-wishings attended vpon the Arch-Rebels pretences. The King before hee had left London was enforced (by such hollow friends as were about him) to commit the Lord Say Treasu∣rer of England to the Tower, after that the valiant and loyall Sir Humfrey Stafford was slaine, and the * 1.241 newes of his vnlucky defeate were confirmed.

(52) Cade therefore being admitted into London vpon the second of Iuly with his forces, (where for a short while to delude the people with a shew of * 1.242 conscience, they abstained from robberies) strikes with his sword vpon London-stone, saying; Now is Mortimer Lord of this City. At night hee returnes into Southwarke: One * 1.243 Robert Poinings of South∣warke Esquire was his Sword-bearer and Caruer. It is needlesse to be particular in this Rebels behaui∣our: The next day hee returnes, and the Lord Say is beheaded in Cheapside (as is before said) at Cades commandement, and his body cut into quarters. The King being by the losse of so trusty and graue a seruant, not a little weakened.

(53) The next tragedie was Cromeres an Esquire, and high Sheriffe of Kent (the Lord Sayes sonne in law) who is drawn out of the Fleet (and to appease the Essex Rebels) sacrificed by beheading without any triall at Mile-End. The City stirres not for all this. Malpas and Gerstie, two rich Citizens, at whose houses Cade had seuerally dined, being spoi∣led and robbed by him (left perhappes it might ap∣peare, that he who durst commit treasons, had not also the heart to commit felonies) teach what others are to expect. The Maior, Thomas Chalton and the wiser wealthy ones, ouerruled by faction till then, see their danger now, and secretly send to the Lord Scales for aide. Mathew Gowgh at night is come among them as sent by him. The Kentish-men, * 1.244 hearing their entrie was barred, runne furiou∣sly to armes. Cade endeauors to open his way by force; but in despight of all his power, the Citizens made good & defended London-bridge against him, though with the losse of many valiant and honest men, for the conflict endured all night till nine in the morning. Among such as were slaine on the Kings side, were Iohn Sutton Alderman, Mathew Gowgh * 1.245 himselfe, and Robert Heysand Citizen. This Gowgh (an Esquire of Wales) was a man of excellent vertue, manhood, and zeale to his Country, and of great renown in the warre of France, where he had serued with spe∣ciall commendations faithfully, for the space of a∣boue twenty yeeres. His deserts at this time de∣serued a Statue in the City, for whose safety hee spent his last bloud. To giue a quicke end to these miseries, impunity is proclaimed for all offenders, and sent to them in the Kings name by the Archbi∣shoppe of Canterbury, Lord Chancellour, vnder the great Seale of England: the rebels are scattred with this assurance of their safeties, and euery man retires in peace from following so pestilent an Impostor. A * 1.246 thousand Markes (when Cade afterward attemp∣ted new troubles) are promised to him, who kils or takes this counterfeit Mortimer. Alexander Eden, a Gentleman of Kent, had the happinesse to discouer and kill him at Hothfield in that County: his wretch∣ed carkase was brought to London, where his false head was set sentinell vpon London-bridge, and his quarters were aduanced for terrour in seuerall parts of Kent. There died also by the stroke of iustice twenty and sixe more, whereof eight were executed at Canterbury, and the rest elsewhere in Kent and Sussex. The multitude it selfe * 1.247 came naked in their shirts to the King on Blacke-heath, humbly pray∣ing mercy which they obtained.

(54) The Kentish rebellion thus pacified, farre greater and farre more dangerous troubles ensued, as it * 1.248 fareth in humane bodies, which relapsing into sicke∣nesses, are shaken so much the more terribly. These trou∣bles had their fountaine and mediate Originall, from Richard Duke of Yorke, no degenerous sonne of that Richard, whom King Henry the fifth had created Earle of Cambridge, and enriched with much wealth, honoring him aboue others in regard of his blood

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and parentage; but * 1.249 no bountie, nor benefits could change a treacherous disposition, for (as you haue heard before) he conspired to murther his benefactor King Henry the fifth, as the Duke of Yorke (his true progenie) labo∣red to depose this King Henrie his aduancer. The humors of the popular body, were, in the last com∣motion, not obscurely discouered. The Common weale had perhaps some few enormities, through the abuse of Magistrates and men in place, but yet such, as the maladie was infinitely lesse pernicious then * 1.250 the remedy. Vpon this intelligence the Duke comes sodeinely out of Ireland, and to begin his v∣surped censureship and dictature, apprehends * 1.251 Iohn Sutton Lord Dudley, Reignald Abbot of Saint Peters, at Glastenbury, and another, whom he imprisoneth within his Castle of Ludlow. Intollerable beginnings of more intollerable sequele. Edmund Duke of Som∣merset was the man, who (after Suffolks death) most supported the Kings side by * 1.252 his vigilancie, caresdan∣gers, and good Counsels, endeuouring by all meanes to cleare the Realme from factions, and to preserue the King and state in quiet.

(55) Yorke seeing this, doth find that Suffolke perished in vaine, if Sommerset held like grace; against whose person he had a particular pretence of quar∣rell, for that the City of Caen in Normandy, which was the Duke of Yorkes charge, was rendred vp to the French by him, when the English affaires grew despe∣rate in those parts; Sir Dauid Hall Knight, being at that time Captaine there for his Lord and Master the Duke of Yorke, and not allowing it, although the renowned Talbot himselfe was present at the render, and became an hostage for performance of the Ca∣pitulations. Yorke hereupon consults with his spe∣ciall friends, Richard Earle of Salisbury, and Richard his son, (who was afterward that most seditious & great fighting Earle of Warwicke,) Thomas Courtney Earle of Deuonshire, Edmund Brooke Lord Cobham, and others, how Yorke might get the Crowne of England, and for that cause how to ruine or fret out the Duke of Sommer∣set, who standing, they were to looke for strong op∣position. In the end, they conclude to take armes, * 1.253 but yet to smother the mention of the Duke of Yorkes ti∣tle, giuing out to the world for the reason of their doings, that they meant all honour and obedience to King Henry, and only to remoue certaine bad men from about his per∣son, who afflicted the people, and made a pray of the Com∣mon-wealth: which, to gaine the more credit, and to blind the good King, the subtile Duke declares by * 1.254 Proclamation; * 1.255 wherein, thus speaketh that Ambiti∣ous Hypocrite. God knoweth from whom no thing is hid, I am, haue beene, and euer will be his true liege man; &c. And to the very proofe it is so, I offer my selfe to * 1.256 sweare that on the blessed Sacrament, and receiue it, the which I hope shall be my saluation, at the day of doome. &c. In that it was the euill hap of the Duke of Som∣merset, that Normandy was lost during his Regencie, his enemies had the more commoditie to incommo∣date him with the people, who forbare not at his re∣turne to offer to him sundry dishonours and iniu∣ries, till vpon paine of death they were restrained, for breach of which Proclamation, one had his head cut off in West Cheap London.

(56) The King (notwithstanding all his Cosens * 1.257 arts and dissimulations) seeing the hooke through the baite, and the snake through the grasse, by the aduise of his trusty friends, chiefly of Edmund Duke of Sommerset, thinkes not fit to relie vpon his enemies good nature, but hauing a strong power, and store of honorable men to conduct them, he marcheth to∣ward Wales against the Duke. The King did here∣in wisely, but not so much as the cause required. Yorke hauing notice of the Kings approach turnes a∣side, and with all speed marcheth toward London. That City, (the vaine hope of all Rebellions,) would not harken; Thereupon he slides with his people into Kent, the nest of his hopes, and at Brent-heath neere Dertford (a towne about twelue miles from London) encampeth, meaning to fight. The King is not slow, but leauing his march toward Wales, pitcheth vp his roiall pauilion vpon Black-Heath, with a purpose to teach his cosen of Yorke more duty. Behold the fortune of England. God * 1.258 puts an excellent opportunity into the Kings hands of tearing vp the danger of his house by the rootes, for the Duke was farre inferiour in numbers. Such therefore as secretly fauoured him, fearing his ouer∣throw, were willing to aduise a reconcilement. Mes∣sengers goe betweene the hosts. The Duke, in his wonted manner, pretends loialtie and particular iniu∣ries, as that the Kings seruants, Sir Iohn I albot at Holt Castell, Sir Thomas Stanley in Cheshire, and others in o∣ther places, were set to harken vpon him. That by * 1.259 two of the Norrices, Bulkeley, Grust, Bould (and other Gentle∣men) he was forbidden to land at Bewmaris, or to haue any refreshment, affirming that he (the Duke of Yorke) was against the Kings intent and as a Traitour. The King stoupes so much as to answere the letter, letting him to knowe: That the suspition vniuersally conceiued of his behauiours moued those effects: neuer thelesse, in re∣gard of the humble obedience which was now protested, he, for the easing of the Dukes heart, doth declare, repute and admit him as a true, and faithfull subiect, and as his wel∣beloued Cosen. The Duke then aduanceth his pra∣ctise one step further, and writes to the King, that Iustice might be done vpon all persons of what de∣gree soeuer, which were guilty, or noised to be guiltie of treason: aiming at the Duke of Sommerset, whom he doubted not to ouerwhelme with sleights and ca∣lumnics, as hee and his had done the Duke of Suffolke.

(57 The King is contented (such weake or treacherous counsels he relied vpon) that Sommerset (for his satisfaction) should be commanded Prisoner to his * 1.260 owne house, and Yorke (hauing first dissolued his armie) should come in person, and put himselfe into the Kings hand. When he was come, he exhibites a great complaint against the pride and auarice of the Duke of Sommerset, and cunningly accusing none but him, he seekes the good-will of all others. A cunning drift as any, considering that hereby he deriued vp∣on his enemie all the enuie of the people, and left him single to withstand the effects. Sommerset (a Prince of great spirit and wit) not thinking it reasonable, as well in regard of his owne honour as the Com∣monwealthes interest, to endure such indignity, pre∣sents himselfe to the King against his accuser, and resoluing not to be tender-mouthed in the so appa∣rent perill of the King and Realme, whose quiet was vndermined, answeres Yorke face to face, and, in plaine termes accuseth him of highest treason, as hauing conspired to depose the King, and take vpon himselfe the Soueraignty: vehemently vrging: That * 1.261 the Duke of Yorke might be committed and arraigned, to the intent that by his deserued death, and the disenablement of his sonnes, Ciuill warre might be extinguished, praying finally that God would not suffer the enemie of the Kingdome to escape the hand of iustice.

(58) This had in likelihood beene done, but that the publike faith seemed to stand engaged for the Dukes indemnitie, he hauing come in vpon the Kings word, and also for that the hearts of men were not well assured to the King, which by executing Yorke would perhaps haue beene more vnsetled, be∣cause (not looking into the depth of the Kings perill) it would haue beene thought that he had beene de∣stroied to gratifie Sommerset, and not to secure the Realme. There was hope likewise to recouer A∣quitain, for that Burdeaux had offered to returne: Lastly, the Dukes sonne and heire, Edward Earle of March (afterward King) was reported to be ready with a great force of Welshmen to succour his father. Vpon these and other reasons, the Duke is no lon∣ger restrained, as vpon Sommersets most weighty ac∣cusations he had beene, and to assure the gentle and indulgent King, of his allegiance, he makes his sub∣mission, * 1.262 and solemnely TAKES HIS OATH to bee true, faithfull and obedient subiect. This was done

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vpon the tenth of March in the Church of S. Paul in London, the King himselfe, and most of the chiefe nobility being present, as the Dukes of Buckingham, Norfolke, & Sommerset, nine Earles, the Vicounts, Beau∣mont and Wels, manie great Barons: Of the Clergy, the Cardinall of Yorke the Archbishop of Canterbu∣rie, the Bishops of Winchester Elie and London.

(59) Let vs view the forme and words of this Caution vpon which King Henrie (measuring other mens hearts by his owne) aduentured to repose his life and Kingdome, which are these.

I Richard, Duke of Yorke, confesse and beknown * 1.263 that I am and ought to be humble subiect, and liegeman to you my Soueraigne Lord, King Henry the sixt, and owe therefore, to beare you saith and truth, as to my Soueraigne liege Lord, and shall doe all daies to my liues end: and shall not at any time will or assent that any thing be attempted or done against your most noble person, but wheresoeuer I shal haue knowledge of any such thing * 1.264 imagined or purposed, I shall with all speed and diligence possible to me, make, that your highnesse shall haue know∣ledge thereof, and, ouer that, doe all that shall possible be to me to the withstanding, and let thereof to the vtter∣most of my life: I shall not any thing take vpon me a∣gainst your roiall estate or obeisance that is due thereto, nor suffer anie other man to doe, as farre forth as shal be in my power to let it. And also shall come at your com∣mandement, whensoeuer I shall be called by the same, in humble and obeisant wise, but if I be letted by any sick∣nesse or impotencie of my person, or by such other cause as shall be thought by you my Soueraigne Lord reasona∣ble. I shall neuer hereafter take vpon me to gather any rowt or to make any assemblie of your people without your commandement, or licence, or in my lawfull defence, in interpretation or declaration of the which my lawfull defence I shall report me at all times to your highnesse, and, if the case require to my Peers; nor any thing attempt against any of your Subiects, of what estate, degree or condition that they be. But whensoeuer I find my selfe wronged and agrieued, I shall sue humbly for re∣medie to your highnesse, and proceed after the course of your lawes, and none otherwise, sauing in mine owne lawfull defence in manner abouesaid, and otherwise haue to your highnesse as an humble and true subiect ought to haue him to his Soueraigne Lord. All these things abouesaid I promise you truly to obs•…•…rue and keep by the holy Euangelists conteined in the booke that I lay my hand here vpon, and by the holie Crosse I here touch, and by the blessed Sacrament of our Lords body, that I shall now with his mercie receiue. And ouer I agree me, and will that if at any time hereafter, as by the grace of our Lord God I neuer shall, any thing attempt by way of feate, or otherwise against your roiall Maie∣stie and obeisance, that I owe thereto, or any thing take vpon me otherwise then is aboue expressed, I from that time forth be vnabled, held, and taken as an vntrue and openly forsworne man, and vnable to all manner of worship, estate or degree, he it such as I now occupie, or a∣ny other that might in any wise grow to me hereafter. And this I haue here promised and sworne, proceedeth of mine owne desire and free volunt, and by no constrai∣ning nor Coaction. In witnes of all which things a∣boue written, I Richard Duke of Yorke aboue write subscribe with mine owne hand and seale.

This Oath he also tooke at Westminster and Couen∣tree at sundrie times. Who now can consider the effects of this so publike and solemne Oath, and doth not tremble in euerie part? Let vs hasten to their view, least God perhaps may quietly seeme to haue beene mockt to his face by a vaine ambiti∣ous man.

(60) To diuert these home-breeding rancors * 1.265 and practises, by employing the wits and bodies of men in other more honest things, the Earle of Candal (sonne * 1.266 to Captal de Budie who had vpon necessitie submitted his Seignouries to Charles the French King, but reserued his person out of that obedience) and the Lord L'Esparre, come secretly from Burdeaux and pray an Armie, for that Burdeaux and the Gas∣coigns would returne to the English, if they might be supported. An Armie is decreed for their reducti∣on. Iohn Lord Talbot the first Earle of Shrewsburie of his name as Generall in that enterprize, lands in Gascoigne, where he doth sundry exploits, and the fame of his former cheualrie flying before with ter∣rour, makes many places the rather to yeeld. Burde∣aux her selfe secretly opens a gate vnto him, which the French Garrison perceiuing fled out at a Postern, but many being ouertaken were slaine by the Lord L'Esparre and the English. New supplies and victuals arriue, whereof the Earle of Shrewsburies yonger sonne, (Vicount Lile by his wife,) was a principall conducter. Burdeaux thus throughly mand and fortified, the Earle is aduertised that the French lay at siege before Castillion, a place of importance vpon the riuer of Dardonne. Thither the Earle marcheth, and with too great a confidence charging the ene∣mie * 1.267 vpon vnequall termes, was there slaine, together with his sonne the Vicount Lile and others. Burdeaux receiued such as fled. The English fortunes and hopes which began to quicken, made this vnhappie Cata∣strophe in * Iulie, to the infinite losse of our nation and griefe of the Gascoigns, who generally misliked the * 1.268 French, and inclined to the English, hauing so hono∣rablie, and for so long a time gouerned those domi∣nions. This was the end of that great Earle, after he had for the space of twentie and foure yeeres serued his Prince and Countrey in the French warres, with highest commendation; a * 1.269 most noble and most valiant man, by whose vertue the English name did chiefly become terrible in France. Burdeaux it felfe, and all other pla∣ces after this, were by siege brought againe vnder the French King, who prosecuted those affaires in per∣son. From that time forward the English neuer ob∣tained there any hold or further footing, the felicity * 1.270 of this attempt breaking all combinations of the Gascoignes. This Dutchie of Aquitaine * 1.271 contained foure Archbishopriks, foure and twenty Bishopriks, fifteen Earledomes, two hundred and two Barons, and aboue a thousand Captainships and Bailywickes. The losse of so goodly an inheritance which had continued Eng∣lish for almost three hundred yeeres, the world may easily coniecture how iustly it was greeued and la∣mented for. In this falne estate of the English, the Queene vpon the thirteenth day of October was de∣liuered of her first sonne who was named Edward, prouing the child of sorrow and infelicity. * 1.272

(61) It were to be wished we might now rather number the following euils of England, then describe them; for what can we learne out of such vnnaturall and sauage destructions, but matter of horrour and detestation? but sith they must be handled, (the law and necessitie of our taske exacting it,) the sooner to be quit of so vnpleasing obiects, it will bee best a∣bruptly to thrust into the narration. The Duke of Yorke (wickedlie carelesse of an Oath so religiouslie and publikely taken,) to make his way to the * 1.273 Crowne more easie, hath now procured his chiofe and most fearefull enemie the Duke of Sommerset to be sodeinely arrested of high treason, (doubtfull whether by any authority but his owne) in the Queenes great Chamber, and sent to the Tower of London, vpon pretence that he had capitall matter to charge him with. Yorkes principall friends (vpon confidence of whom he dared so high things) were Richard Neuil Earle of Salisburie second sonne of Ralfe Neuil Earle of Westmorland, whose daughter the Duke of Yorke had married. This Richard was Earle of Salisbury in right of Alice his wife, sole heire to Tho∣mas Montacute, the famous Earle, slaine at the siege of Orleance. The Dukes other maine hope was Richard Neuil (sonne of the former Richard Neuill,) who in right of his wife, the Lady Anne (sole sister, and heire of the whole blood to Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick) was by this King Henry the sixth created Earle of Warwick in a most vnhappie houre both for the King & kingdome, being * 1.274 inuicto animo &c: a man of an vndaunted mind, but flitting faith.

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(63) The King in the meane space, while the Duke of Sommerset was thus endangered, lay sicke; and Yorke (as Regent) swayed and ouerswayed in Court; but when the king (perceiuing malice and practise to be the chiefe bases of Yorkes accusations) had recouered his health, and resumed the gouern∣ment, Sommerset is set at liberty and made Captaine of Calleis; Yorke and his adherents repaire to open force: They leuy their armie about the Marches of Wales, with which they repaire toward London, the maine obiect of Pretendents. The King hearing * 1.275 of his enemies approach, is accompanied with Hum∣frey Duke of Buckingham, Edmund Duke of Sommerset, Humfrey Earle of Stafford, Henry Percie Earle of Nor∣thumberland, Iames Butler Earle of Wiltshire, and Or∣mond, Beaufort Earle of Dorcet, Iasper Theder Earle of Pembroke the Kings halfe-brother, Thomas Courtney Earle of Deuonshire, the Lords Clifford, Sudley, Berners, Rosse and others, and with them enters into Saint Albans in warlike manner, hauing certaine thousands of common souldiers. Thither also the Duke of Yorke and his adherents came. This was toward the end of May: The Dukes request to the King was, that he would deliuer such persons to be deseruedly puni∣shed as he would name. The King (to let them know who he was) returnes this confident answere. That hee and the rest were Traitors, and that rather then they should haue any Lord from him who was with him at that time, hee himselfe would for their sake in the quarrell vpon that day liue and die.

(64) The Yorkists hereupon assaile the Kings peo∣ple * 1.276 within the Towne, and Warwicke breaking in through a Garden, a sharpe battell is begun. The losse fell lamentably vpon King Henries side; for be∣sides the Duke of Sommerset, there were slaine the Earles of Northumberland and Stafford, the L. Clif∣ford, with sundry worthy Knights and Esquiers, of which forty and eight were buried in Saint Albans, there being slaine aboue fiue thousand of K. Henries party, and of the Yorkists about sixe hundreth. The King himselfe was shot into the neck with an arrow; & other of his chief friends were likewise sore woun∣ded and taken. The Earle of Wiltshire, and Thomas Thorpe, Lord chiefe Baron of the Exchequer, with others saued themselues by flight. The Duke of Yorke, the Earles of Salisbury and Warwicke with the King, (whome they in shew did vse most reuerently, and as if they had meant nothing vnto him but good faith) vpon the morrow ride to London, where in Iuly immediately following, a Parliament is holden in King Henries name. The fore-runner whereof was a Comet, or blazing starre, which appeared in the moneth of Iune, the beams whereof extended them∣selues into the south. The first popular act of this assembly, was to restore the memory of Humfrey Duke * 1.277 of Glocester to honour, declaring him to haue beene a true subiect to the King and Realme.

(65) The next prouisions which the Yorkists made, were for themselues, and their owne security, willing and commanding that the Duke of Yorke & his partakers should incur no blame by reason of the iour∣ney at Saint Albans: the whole fault whereof was laid vpon the dead Duke of Sommerset, the Lord Chiefe Baron, and one William Ioseph Esquier, who (say they) kept from the King a pacificatory letter which the Duke of Yorke had sent. It is a wonder and a shame to reade how officiously these violent Lords (meaning nothing lesse) behaued themselues to the King, of whose maiesty they will needs seeme to be the onely Champions and conseruators. The Duke of Yorke in the same Parliament creates himselfe Protector of England, the Earle of Salisbury is made * 1.278 Lord Chancellour, and the Earle of Warwicke (his sonne) Captaine of Caleis: they spared as yet to touch King Henries life, because the people did wonder∣fully honour, esteeme, and reuerence him for his singular holinesse, and for that he had great friends left aliue, and * 1.279 a sonne. In the meane space, that they might without trouble, and at their pleasure, vncrowne or kill him, they by little and little displaced the ancient Counsellors, and substituted their ass•…•…ed fauourites. Another Act of that absolute force and fraud, which they exercised in this dreadfull perturbation of all things, was the drawing of Ionn Holland Duke of Excester out of Sanctuarie at Westminster, conuaying him to Pomfret Castle in the North.

(66) Henry Beauford Duke of Sommerset, (sonne of the former) the Duke of Buckingham, (whose * 1.280 sonne and heire the Earle of Stafford was slaine at S. Albans) and other the Kings friends, perceiuing whereunto this faire shew tended, consult with the Queene at Greenewich concerning her husbands dan∣ger, * 1.281 and how to preuent it. Hereupon the Duke of Yorke is displaced from the Protectorship, a ridicu∣lous title to be assumed, where the king was aged a∣bout fiue and thirtie, and had no other fault or vn∣fitnes, but that he was too good to liue among them. The Earle of Salisbury was also depriued of his Lord Chancellorship.

(67) The King hauing thus recouered his digni∣ty and authoritie, but not sufficient meanes to sup∣presse * 1.282 his dangers, the French take courage at our in∣testine diuisions, and landing at Sandwich with fif∣teene thousand men (part of their forces) they kill the Maior, Bailifs, and other Officers of that Towne, with sundrie Gentlemen of the Countrey, spoile all they could lay hand vpon, and among all they rob two great vessels laden with merchandise, which lay there bound for London and departed. Another part of them, burnes Foway and certaine other townes in Deuonshire. On the other side the Scots hostillie entred into Northumberland, but vpon no∣tice that the Duke of Yorke approached with a pow∣er, they returned, hauing not as yet done any great harme.

(68) These indignities and losses might haue v∣nited the disioined affections of true English hearts, which was greatly desired by such as loued their Countrey: For which purpose the King, Queene, and their chiefe friends, being at Couentrie, the Duke of Yorke, the Earles of Salisbury and Warwicke are * 1.283 sent for by the Kings letters vnder his priuie Seale, to giue their attendance, whither they come, but they (either warned of some plot contriued against them, or fearing it, or faining to feare) sodeinely leaue the Court, without leaue, the Duke departing to Wigmore in the Welsh marches, the Earle of Salisburie to his Castell of Midleham in the North-Countrey, and the Earle of Warwicke to Calleis, whose bodies though thus diuided, their mindes continued most firmely factionated. But the King (a patterne of * 1.284 Christian goodnes) being tender ouer the generall estate of his Countrey, and wonderfully desirous to reconcile differences among his subiects, that they might the better withstand their imminent forrein enemies, returnes to London there to consult how to effect his holy wishes. The great Lords are per∣swaded to * 1.285 meere there; which they did; but yet not without store of followers, for the Duke brought with him foure hundred men, the Earle of Salisburie fiue hundreth, the Earle of Warwicke sixe hundreth: The Dukes of Excester and Sommerset eight hun∣dreth, * 1.286 the Earle of Northumberland, the Lords Egre∣mond and Clifford fifteene hundreth. This was the fashion of that swording age.

(69) In March the king and Queene with a very roiall company alight at Westminster, to accom∣plish, if it were possible this charitable and necessa∣ry worke of attonement and reconciliation. Godfrey Bolein was at that time Lord Maior of London, (being the ancestor of two renowned and vertuous Queenes * 1.287 of England, Anne second wife to King Henry the eight, and Elizabeth their daughter,) through whose great vigilancie and prouidence, the City stood so well guarded, that the Kings peace was dutifullie kept, notwithstanding the great Lords of both the factions (Yorkists and Lancastrians,) were with so great troupes of followers lodged within, and about

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the same: for during the whole time of their abode he had * 1.288 fiue thousand Citizens in Harnesse, himselfe riding daily about the City and suburbs, to see the publike quiet preserued: and for the night watch there were assigned to three Aldermen two thou∣sand corslet-men.

(69) During this watch, a great Councell was holden by the King and Lords, where at length by the diligent trauaile, good exhortation, and prudent aduise of the Archbishoppe of Canterbury, and of o∣ther learned and godly Prelates, the parties offended were induced to a communication, and afterward to a finall accord: the points whereof, considering they held so short a while, (for as * 1.289 one saith truly, the dissimuled loue day hung but by a small threed) it were friuolous to dwell in their rehearsall. The King him∣selfe (a singular testimonie of the opinion which all parties had of his integritie) was whole arbitrator of * 1.290 their differences. Certaine satisfactions were awar∣ded to be made by the Duke of Yorke, with the Earles of Warwicke and Salisbury, for the death of Edmund Duke of Sommerset, and others slaine at S. Albans. And the same Duke of Sommerset, the Earle of Northumberland, and Lord Clifford (slaine in that battell by the Yorkists) are declared for true liege∣men to the King at the day of their deathes, aswell as the Duke of Yorke, the Earles of Warwicke and Salis∣burie. So both parts stand iustifide and recti in curia. Many other articles and awards were made, to solder and glue together their alienated harts and affecti∣ons. The reioicement caused by this seeming peace (which on the behalf of the kings persō was vndoub∣tedly sincere and true) was wonderfully great among all good Englishmen, who flocked to the publike celebration thereof. For vpon our * 1.291 Ladies day in Lent, a solemne procession was made within the Ca∣thedrall Church of Saint Paul in London, where the King (adorned with Crowne and robes of maiestie) went in person, before whom went hand in hand the Duke of Sommerset, and the Earle of Salisburie, the Duke of Excester, and the Earle of Warwicke, and so of either faction one and one, and behind the King himselfe, came the Queene and Duke of Yorke with great familiarity in all mens sights. O religion, ô honour, ô sinceritie, that your diuine vertue should not haue contained these spirits in the harmonie of sweet obedience; but if you could not, what alas should? England must be more seuerely scourged, then that so goodly a blessing of publike reconcilia∣tion should continue, whereby the proud tops of her nation (offensiue to God and men) being taken off, the way might be opened to other names or races, which as yet were nothing thought on.

(70) There is no reason to doubt, but that the Duke of Yorke (a man of deepe retirement in him∣selfe) * 1.292 secretly continued his purpose for the Crowne, notwithstanding all these his vernished pretences, and did only therfore not as then put for it, because he presumed the time was incommodious. Againe the Queene (true head and life of the contrary part) aswell in regard of her selfe, her husband, and young sonne, may in likelihood be thought to haue laid downe any thing, rather then the wakefulnesse and iealousie, which former perils and the enemies pre∣sent strength might worthily keepe aliue in her. The thinne ashes therefore, which couered these glow∣ing coles, were thus againe first vnraked and set to blaze.

(71) The King and manie of the Lords, still be∣ing at Westminster, there hapned (or perhaps * 1.293 was plotted) a fray betweene one of the Kings seruants and a follower of the Earle of Warwicke, who hurt the Kings seruant. Hereupon his fellowes of all sorts (as Cookes with their spits &c:) in great disorder assaile the Earle himselfe, as he was comming from the Councell, and had there slaine him, but that the euill fate of England and his owne, reserued him to doe and suffer greater mischiefes. The Earle hardly * 1.294 gets to his Barge, and reputing all things vnsure a∣bout the King, gets ouer to his place at Calleis. The Yorkists directly charge the Queene with this, as with a plot drawne for the Earles destruction. Not long after this, the young Duke of Sommerset is sent Captaine to Calleis. Warwicke will resigne no roome, notwithstanding the Kings command, alleaging he was made by Parliament: Sommerset is reiected with danger to his person. Warwicke partly main∣tains himselfe, and such as stucke to him in that charge, with spoiles which he got at Sea; How law∣fullie it appeares not; though Warwicke is said to haue been Admirall by Patent, though now reuo∣ked. The Ordinarie bookes haue, that he, with foureteene faile of men of warre, set vpon three Ca∣ricks of Gene or Genoa, and two of Spaine, greater then the Caricks: three of which Merchant-fleete (which how they should be lawfull prize, we see not) he vanquished after two daies fight, with the losse of about an * 1.295 hundreth men of his owne, and a thousand of theirs: The bootie was worth, at meane rates ten thousand pounds; such also as followed the Duke of Sommerset comming into his hands, he be∣headed at Calleis. These were strange darings in the Earle of Warwicke; whom yet the vnskilfull, and drunken multitude so highly praise: but what are these in regard of them which will presentlie follow?

(72) The Duke of Yorke in the meane time, and Warwicke with his father, the Earle of Salisbury (the Triumuirs of England) consult of their affaires: Salis∣burie * 1.296 is resolued with sword in hand to expostulate the danger and iniury offered to his sonne at West∣minster. The Queene (a Lady of incomparable magnanimity and foresight) confident in this, that now King Henry, or the Duke of Yorke must perish, and that one Kingdome was not wide enough for both their Families, bestirres her selfe to maintaine the posses∣sion of a Crowne, and to aduance to the same her owne flesh and bloud Prince Edward, by ruining his house, whose whole building consisted of Lancastri∣an beneficence. She consults, she sends, she speakes, she giues, and strengthneth her selfe with friends on all sides, chiefly in Cheshire, causing her sonne to distribute siluer swannes (his badge or deuise) to all the Gentlemen of that County, and to many other * 1.297 through England. Salisbury sets forward from his Castell at Middleham with foure or fiue thousand men. Iames Touchet, Lord Audeley encounters him vnaduisedly vpon Blore-heath neere Muckelstone. The fight was long and bloudy, but in the end K. Hen∣ries euill fortune gaue the better of the day to the Earle of Salisbury, where, besides the valiant Lord Audeley himselfe, were slaine not fewer then two thousand and foure hundreth, but the chiefe losse fel vpon the Cheshire men, who ware the Princes Li∣uerie.

(73) The Earle of Salisbury in this sort opened to himselfe a way to Ludlow, where the head of their combination, Richard Duke of Yorke, busied himself to gather forces: being met, they conclude, that seeing the matter was now become deadly, they would deale in cloudes no longer, but fight it out to the extremity. Men are drawne out of all parts with large hopes & promises of sharing in their fortunes, and the Earle of Warwicke bringing with him from * 1.298 Caleis (which he left with his friends) that valiant Captaine Andrew Trolop, and a band of stout and choise Souldiers, comes to the generall Rendeuo•…•… of the Yorkists, the Castell of Ludlow. The King in the meane space, (and not before it was need and time) hath assembled a great puissance of faithfull Subiects, and being * 1.299 attended with the Dukes of Sommerset and Excester, and other of his chiefe friends marcheth against his enemies. His first worke was, to offer them generall pardon. It is re∣fused, and called by them a staffe of reede, or glasse Buckler. The sword must decide the quarrels; wher∣upon the king commands his Standards to aduance: while he was in his March, * 1.300 a letter fraught with the

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wonted hypocrisies) is deliuered to the King. There * 1.301 are in it among many other insinuations these also: Most Christian King, right high and Mighty Prince, and our most dread Soueraigne Lord, &c. Wee sent vnto your good grace by the Prior of the (Cathedral) Church (of Wor∣cester) and diuers other Doctors, and among other by M. William Linwood doctor of Diuinity, which ministred vn∣to vs seuerally the blessed Sacrament of the body of Iesus, * 1.302 whereupon wee and euery of vs deposed of our said truth and duty.

(74) Thus these prophane and ambitious men play with God, who in the end will seuerely bee a∣uenged on them for their impietie: but the letter made no ouerture of any course, vpon which they would yeeld to lay downe Armes, alleadging, they wold but make their way to the king for redresse of abuses, & that they were enforced to stand together for their own defence, against such great Courtiers and Fauourites, as (say they) intended their destruction; meaning indeed such persons whose vigilancy and manhood might protect and guard him from their practise and vio∣lence. The King is now in sight, whom the Tri∣umuirs Yorke, Warwicke and Salisbury being strong∣ly entrenched before. Ludlow, * 1.303 meane to assaile. An∣drew Trollop (who had in the Kings pay done great seruice vpon the French) was acquainted with all their counsell, and finding himselfe extreamely de∣ceiued, (for hee thought and so by the Earle of War∣wicke * 1.304 was made to belieue, that the preseruation of the King was intended, and not destruction) aban∣dons the Yorkists Campe at midnight, & with a choise number of trusty men presents himselfe and seruices to the King, who graciouslie receiued him and his. The truth of the Triumuirates plot, and bottome of their conspiracies was thus made clearely knowne: The Yorkists vpon notice of Trollops act, despairing of successe, at that present flie. The Duke of Yorke * 1.305 with the Earle of Rutland his yonger son into Ire∣land, the Earle of March his eldest sonne and heire, Warwicke and Salisbury, with much difficultie escape to Caleis, which place (as * 1.306 one saith probably) if Henry had in time taken from his enemies, they had with∣out question beene forthwith irrecouerably ruined.

(75) The multitude which serued vnder Yorke found mercy, but their Tenants were many of them executed, maimed, or generally ransackt. The town of Ludlow it selfe was spoiled to the bare wals, and Dutchesse of Yorke depriued of all her goods. What lesse could bee the effects against the friends of such aduersaries, vpon so publike an act and aduantage? The point is followed more sharpely vppon the great Offenders in the next Parliament which was * 1.307 holden at Couentree: there Richard Duke of Yorke, Edward Earle of March, Richard Earle of Warwicke, Edmund Earle of Rutland, Richard Earle of Salisbury, Alice Countesse of Salisbury (in whose right her husband was Earle) two or three Lords, 9. Knights, and certaine other, were openlie of high Treason at∣tainted, and their whole estates confiscated.

(76) Caleis, a most important piece, being in the meane space violently possest by Warwicke, the Duke of Sommerset, the Lords Rosse and Audley, are sent with forces to take it; their successe was euill, for the Duke was glad to flie, his Souldiers were robbed by Warwicks men of their harnesse, the Lord Audley is taken into the Towne, and the Lord Rees hardly es∣caped. Letters are hereupon written into forraine parts, entreating * 1.308 that no reliefe bee ministred to the Traitors who kept Caleis against the King, and all men are at home forbidden to transport any victuall or re∣freshment thither. Euident it is, that the Councel of England rather wished that the Town and Castel had beene French againe, then as it was; neither therein erred they, for it could not be so mischieuous to the maine of their cause, as now it was. The Duke of Sommerset being in Guines, a neighour Castle, doth daily by his Souldiers skirmish with the Caliseans: Warwicke meditates other things. Hee must speake with the Duke of Yorke, at whose commandement all Ireland (where hee abode) seemed to be readie; but is aduertised that the King had certaine shippes, which lay at Sandwich to transport supplies and suc∣cours to the Duke of Sommerset. Hee meanes not * 1.309 to leaue such a perill behind him vnremoued; ha∣uing therefore espied his time, hee wils his people to slippe ouer in the night to Sandwich, which they accordingly did, tooke the Lord Riuers, and his son Anthony Wooduile prisoners, and brought away all the shippes, except one called Grace de Dieu: one Sir Baldwine Fulford Knight, hauing (after this) assu∣med to doe seruice vpon the Earle of Warwicke, and to take him, returnes empty. Warwicke sailes now to Ireland. The King makes the Duke of Excester * 1.310 Admirall, and giues him commission to apprehend the Earle of Warwicke. The Duke with a great na∣uie puts forth to Sea from Sandwich. Behold the ill carriage of things. At Dertmouth many of his Soul∣diers, pretending want of money and victuals, for∣sake him. Meanewhile the Earle of Warwicke passeth by the Duke, not daring to assaile him, nor he wil∣ling to assaile the Duke, for that hee was Admirall and of the Kings bloud. Such was the act and cun∣ning of the Yorkists to pretend reuerence vnto that, which most of all they thirsted to shed: Fiue hun∣dreth fresh souldiers attend at Sandwich to bee shipt ouer to the Duke of Sommerset for safe-conducting him into England. Warwickes men sodainely come vpon them, slew Montfort their Captaine, and ma∣ny other, and disarmed the rest. Such was the di∣stracted estate of our poore Country at this time, through the pride and restlesse ambition of one or two vnhappy men. But though nothing was more plaine then that the Duke of Yorke sought the crown of England; yet nothing is truer, then that they as yet pretended nothing lesse for the veneration of King Henries purity of life, would haue preuailed with the people greatly to their preiudice.

(77) The King failing thus to obtaine the per∣son of Warwicke, or his Towne of Caleis, the Yorkists send ouer certaine Articles into Kent, in which (as if they were the onely Patriots and best Subiects of the world) they complaine of certaine generall enormi∣ties concerning iniuries done to the Church, and the ill * 1.311 ministration of iustice, abuse of purueyers and takers, the Kings pouerty by the corruption of his officers, and the like plausible stuffe: where they speake of the King, they sequester him from all exception, as be∣ing of so noble, so vertuous, so righteous, and so blessed disposition: (these are their words and the truth) as a∣ny Prince earthly. Where they speake of their ene∣mies, (that is, the Kings principall friends and faith∣full subiects) they name the Earle of Salisbury, the Earle of Wiltshire, and the Lord Beaumont which must euer bee an honour to their memories, and put the blame (if it were blame-worthy) of such attaindors which were enacted against the Yorkists at Couentree, vpon these three Lords specially. Where they speake of themselus & their intentions, they professe al sinceri∣ty and loyaltie to King Henry, and that they onelie meant to come vpon their guard to speake with him concerning the common-wealth, and their owne safeties, and that now they would attempt the same againe, in the name of the Land, and not to suffer such mischiefes to raigne vpon them. The conclusion of their cunning and painted pretences hath these fained holy words: Requiring you (the people) on Gods behalfe, and praying you in your owne, therein to assist vs, doing alway the duety of Liegemen in our per∣sons to our said Soueraigne Lord, to his estate, preroga∣tiue and preheminence, and to the surety of his most no∣ble person, whereunto wee haue euer beene, and will bee as true as any of his Subiects aliue: whereof we call God, our Lady Saint Marie, and all the Saints in heauen, to witnesse, and record. But of the thing it selfe (that is to Crowne the Duke of Yorkey they make not the least mention: what wanted in these men to the height and depth of humane malice? They pre∣uaile with the multitudes; a shallow braind, but a

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great and many headed beast. The Lord Fawcon∣bridge is sent to sound their affections, and to draw the purulent matter to an head: he finds great for∣wardnesse. The Earles of March, Warwicke and Salisburie aduertised of all things, land in Kent. But the people onely were not deluded; for Thomas Bourchier Archbishoppe of Canterbury, and other * 1.312 graue men, beleeued they meant sooth; which that they might the rather doe, the Earle of Warwicke made open oath vpon the Crosse of Canterbury, that they had euer borne true faith and alleagiance to King Henry. A strange humor in the English, that could neither brooke bad nor benigne Princes. The King had before their comming quit the City of London, as not greatly trusting the affections which the peo∣ple thereof bare toward such as the Yorkish faction had made odious about him, and appointed the Rendeuow of his forces at Northampton where he a∣bode. The enemy (shewing friend) aduanceth thi∣ther. It is a shame to reade that some of the great Prelates would simply bee drawne to countenance such an enterprise: but their intentions were diffe∣rent; they hoped to reconcile enmities, the Earles, to make Yorke King. Meanewhile their complices labour to take the Tower of London, within which there were for King Henry these loyall Nobles. The Lord Scales, Hungerford, Vescie, Louel, Delaware, and Candal a Gascoigne with sundry others.

(78) At Northampton things were carried thus: The King meaning there to abide his aduersaries, when it was not thought meete to admit the Earle of Warwicke to his presence, (which thing was cou∣lourably sued for to raise a ground of iustification for battell) they prepare on both parts. The Earles of March and VVarwicke (with like or greater cun∣ning, then they had desired admission to the Kings speech) let cry through the field, that no man should lay hand vpon the King, nor common people, but vpon the Lords, Knights and Esquiers.

(79) The hoasts ioy ne. No stroke they gaue but seemes to wound vs also. Let vs swiftly turne our eyes from so vnnaturall slaughters. The * 1.313 L. Grey of Ruthen began the discomfiture of the Kings side, for hee (let the world iudge with what commenda∣tion,) hauing the point, did quit his place and fled to the Earles. The kings armie is defeated, and vt∣terlie broken. Many were slaine and drowned. Po∣lydor and Grafton say ten thousand: The chiefe of the Nobles who there lost their liues, were the Duke of Buckingham, Iohn Earle of Shrewsburie (a * 1.314 most hopefull young Gentleman, and in all points like his heroicke Ancestors) Iohn Vicount Beaumont, Thomas Lord Egremond, and among sundry other prime men, * 1.315 Sir William Lucie, who making hast to the fight, was vpon his first approach chopt downe with an axe. The Kings Ordinance could not play, there fell so great a raine.

(80) This wofull battell was fought vpon the * 1.316 ninth of Iuly. The King (as a man borne to all calamities and miseries, though he not therefore the lesse, but the more happy through that excellent fortitude of mind, with which hee inuincibly su∣stained them) comes into his enemies hands; but the Queene and the Prince, and the remains of their scattered fortunes flie into the North, there to re∣enforce their powers, and to * 1.317 subdue (as shee caused them to be proclamed) the Kings Rebels and enemies. The Tower of London after this misfortune renders it selfe. The Lord Scales is wickedly murthered vpon the Thames by Wherrimen, belonging to the Earle of Warwicke, as hee intended to passe to * 1.318 San∣ctuary at Westminster. The Earles when they were possessed of the King, continued their admirable hypocrisies (which God will terribly plague them for) thereby to leade the people on, and had to him these words.

(81) Most noble Prince, displease you not, though it hath pleased God of his grace to grant vs the victorie * 1.319 of our mortall enemies, who by their venemous malice haue vntruly stirred and moued your Highnesse to exile vs out of the land, and would haue put vs to finall •…•…me, and confusion: wee come not to vnquiet or grieue your said Highnesse, but to please your noble person, desiring tenderly the high welfare and prosperity thereof, and of all your Realme, and to be your true Liegemen while our liues shall endure. Our soules are amazed at these arts, and men blush to publish to the world things so vn∣worthy.

(82) The * 1.320 Florentine Secretary was scarse borne at this time, but the Diuell was as great a Master then as afterward. The King and Earles in the meane time goe to London, where a Parliament was sum∣moned in his name to be holden in October follow∣ing. The Duke of Yorke (aduertised of his victo∣rie) speedes from Dublin, the chiefe City of Ireland, to bee at that Parliament, where wee shall at last see the true face of his purpose, his owne selfe taking a∣way the maske which hitherto concealed it.

(83) Scotland, by reason of late affinity with the house of Beaufort, whose chiefe and toppe was the Duke of Sommerset, (descended from Iohn Duke * 1.321 of Lancaster by the Lady Katherine) was a speciall backe, and Second to King Henry in all his tempestu∣ous aduersities; but now that refuge was also ha∣zarded: for King Iames the second, partly in fauour of King Henry, and partly as making vse of the trou∣bles in England, laieth siege to Rocksbrough (Bellenden the Scot calleth the same Castle * 1.322 Marchmont) being in the custody of King Henries enemies, where while himselfe (whose * 1.323 skill and delight in shooting of Ordinance was great) comming down the trenches to see the * 1.324 Lion (a new great piece which had lately beene cast in Flanders) and the other Artillery dis∣charged, one of them brake, and with a shiuer ther∣of * 1.325 slew the king, and dangerously wounded the Earle of Angus. This vnhappy accident hapned vp∣on a Sunday, the * 1.326 third day of August. The Queen of Scotland neuerthelesse maintaineth the siege, and aswell obtaines that place, as the Castle of Warke, both which shee (in reuenge) threw to the earth, Iames the third, a child of seuen yeers old succeeded to his father, aswell to the cherishment of the distres∣sed English, as to the Crowne.

(84) The Parliament being begunne, about the * eight of October at Westminster in King Henries * 1.327 name, thither comes with flying speed, Richard Duke of Yorke, who brake open the Kings lodging Chamber, and placed himselfe therein, suffering the King to prouide elsewhere. Then makes hee his claime to the Crown of England, and publisheth it in open Parliament together with his pedigree. The whole house (such among them excepted as were pri∣uie to the Dukes intention) was * 1.328 greatly dismayed both for that hee did set himselfe in the Kings seate, and for this his vnexpected challenge: But the Duke though at first hee greatly meant to haue deposed King Henry, and with speed to bee crowned him∣selfe at Alhallontide next, yet finding such amasement and silence, hee sends them his pedigree and his claime in writing, that they might the better consi∣der, yeelding (as it seemes) to be ordered therein, ac∣cording to their generall agreement during the trea∣ty whereof he would not visite King Henrie, allead∣ging himselfe was peerelesse in England. The maine points of his Title were as followeth. King Edward the third had issue, Edward Prince of VVales, VVilliam * 1.329 of Hatfield, Lionell Duke of Clarence, Iohn of Gaunt D. of Lancaster, Edmund D. of Yorke, Thomas D. of Glocester, and VVilliam of VVindsor. Edward Prince of Wales dyed, liuing his Father, and left issue Richard the second King of England, who died without Issue: as did also William King Edwards second sonne.

(85) Lionel the third sonne had issue Philip his daugh∣ter and heire, married to Edmund •…•…ortimer Earle of March, who had Issue Roger Earle of March, who had Issue Edmund Earle of March, Roger, Anne, and Ele∣anor, which Edmund, Roger, and Eleanor died without Issue. Anne (the heire of that house) marrieth Richard

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Earle of Cambridge, the sonne of Edmund Duke of Yorke, fifth sonne to King Edward the third, which Earle of Cambridge had Richard commonly (saith the Booke,) cal∣led Duke of Yorke.

(86) Iohn of Gaunt the fourth son and younger brother to Lionel, had Issue Henry, who immediately after King Richards resignation, vnrighteously (saith the Booke) en∣tred vpon the same, for that Edmund Earle of March, sonne of Roger Earle of March, and of Philip daughter and heire of the before said Lionel Duke of Clarence, el∣der brother to Iohn Duke of Lancaster was then aliue, and that aswell the said Henry, eldest son to Iohn Duke of Lancaster, as his descendents haue hitherto holden the Crowne of England, &c. vniustly, for that himselfe the said Richard Plantagenet Duke of Yorke was the lawfull heire, being the sonne of Richard Plantagenet Earle of Cambridge, and of Anne before said.

(87) This was the effect of the Duke of Yorks ti∣tle, which for the points of the Pedegree was very true, though in barre thereof the friends of King Henry (without denying any part of the premises, being all of them more euident then that they could be honestly denied) had not a little to say for him: * 1.330 for they could among other things alleadge, that Richard the second resigned vp his Crowne and Regali∣ty at large; and that none else making claime but Hen∣ry Duke of Lancaster, hee was thereunto by the consent of all the three Estates admitted; that Richard Earle of Cambridge was for high Treason attainted and executed, and his Issue made incapable of any inheritance, that this Richard his sonne now challenging the Crowne of Eng∣land, being restored by the meere clemency and goodnesse of this King Henry the sixt, had voluntarily acknowled∣ged him for his lawfull Soueraigne, and sworne the same, and that the said Richard was finally for treason attain∣ted, and adiudged vninheritable: they could hereunto haue added sundry Acts of Parliament, made to establish the right of the Lancastrian line, the succession of three Kings, all Henries, that is to say, the fourth, fifth and sixth; the politicke addresses of the first of those Kings, the noble victories of the second, and the holy life of the third; which three Kings liues contained of raigne about three∣score yeeres, in which number this was the nine and thir∣tiethof King Henry the sixth, who was descended of the male line, and the Duke of Yorke but of a female: of which female line none had euer been in possession of the Crown. Great and weighty points, (if any) and the rather to bee considered, for that King Henries person beeing (in very truth) Prisoner, no act of his to establish Yorkes title could bind in law or conscience, and the lesse, for that hee had a wife, and by her a sonne, who was at liberty, and ready with Armes to free his father, or hazard to destroy the whole English name. But they who (on Yorks behalfe) abstractiuelie disputed these highest questions, knew a rule of law, which saith, Iura sanguinis nullo iure ciuili dirimi pos∣sunt'; and the Lancastrians were not without their speculatiue and remote considerations, to counte∣nance the particulars of their cause. Thus we see that in Monarchies (though the noblest forme of Regiment) where lineall succession is the rule of in∣heritance, there sometimes fall out as great and as indeterminable difficulties, as where Election desig∣neth the Successor: whereof the French tragedies which our Nation made among them, and now these in England, are without all exception, the most feare∣full instances. For France had heretofore her time of affliction, but now (O dearest England) it was thine.

(88) While this weighty controuersie was deba∣ted, a Crowne which hung for garnishment in the middle of the roofe, where the Knights and Burges∣ses * 1.331 of the Parliament met to consult, and the crown which for like cause stood vpon the highest Tower of Douer Castell, * 1.332 fell sodainely down, which were vulgarly construed * 1.333 to portend That the raigne of K. Henry was at an end, and that the Crown should be trans∣ferred from one royall line to another. But the Queene, her sonne Prince Edward, and her fast friends in the North (the seate of their hopes) being nothing dis∣couraged at their late ill fortunes, prepare all the forces they can to recouer K. Henrie and the King∣dome; which thing whiles they are pursuing, the conclusion of the Parliament concerning the crown, was, That Henry the sixth should raigne, and bee King * 1.334 during his life, the remainder to rest in Richard Duke of Yorke, and the lawfull heires of his body in generall tayle, King Henries heires to bee excluded. The Duke in the meane time is proclaimed heire apparant, and called Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Earle of Chester, and Protector of England. The agreement was en∣grossed, sealed and sworn vnto. The Queene will haue nothing to doe in this bargaine, being so dan∣gerous and preiudicious to her selfe; her husband, and her sonne; and therefore when the King (at the Duke of Yorkes instigation) sent for her to repaire vnto him, shee relying vpon the Dukes of Sommer∣set and Excester, and other the Kings friends, vtter∣ly refuseth: Henry continueth king. The Armes therefore, which she taketh for his deliuerance, haue the more iustice. The Duke of Yorke missing the prey hee expected, leaues the king with the Duke of Norfolke, and the Earle of Warwicke at London; himselfe with the Earles of Salisbury and Rutland, and certaine forces, * 1.335 setteth forward to Wakefield to pur∣sue the Queene and her sonne, sending direction to the Earle of March that hee should follow with all his power. The Castell of Sandall standeth plea∣santly vpon a small hill, in view of the faire town of VVakefield; there the Duke of Yorke (comming thither vpon Christmas Eue) reposeth himselfe, and expecteth the encrease of his numbers. The Queene aduertised, thinkes it wisdome to fight be∣fore the Duke grow too strong; and thereupon mar∣cheth forward, hauing an Army of eighteene thou∣sand men, led by the Dukes of Sommerset and Ex∣cester, the Earles of * 1.336 Deuonshire and * 1.337 Wiltshire, the Lords Neuill, Clifford, Rosse, and in effect all the Northerne Nobility. The host (or so much ther∣of as they thought necessary to shew) presents it selfe before Sandall, to prouoke and dare the Duke * 1.338 to battell. His bloud impatient of these braues, & ignorant perhaps that the enemy had so great a mul∣titude, will needes fight, though the Earle of Sa∣lisbury, and Sir Dauid Hall (an ancient seruant of his, and a great Souldier) gaue him aduise to stay, till his sonne (the Earle of March) approched with such Welshmen and Marchers, as hee had in great numbers assembled. But God would forbeare him no longer, but like a seuere Master meanes to take a present account: at which he found whether all the kingdomes of the earth are worth the least sinne, much lesse a wilfull periurie.

(89) The Queene therefore addeth stratageme, and wit to her force, to the entent hee might not escape her hands; whereupon the Earle of Wiltshire vpon one side of the hill, and the Lord Clifford vp∣on the other, lie in ambush to thrust between him and the Castell; the Dukes of Sommerset and Exce∣ter, stand embattelled in the open field. Their poli∣cy had the wished successe; for the Duke being not fully fiue thousand strong, issueth out of the Castle downe the hill. The battels which stood in front, ioyne furiously, when sodainly the Duke of Yorke sees himselfe inclosed, and although hee expressed great manhood, yet within one halfe houre, his whole Armie was discomfited, himselfe and diuers * 1.339 his deare friends beaten downe and slaine. There lay dead about him the Lord Harington, Sir Thomas Neuill sonne to the Earle of Salisburie, Sir Dauid Hal, with sundry Knights and others about two thou∣sand, & two hundred; among which were the heires of many Southern gentlemen of great account, whose * 1.340 bloud was shortly after reuenged. Let vs not lin∣ger vpon the particular accidents of this battell, but consider what it wrought for King Henries aduance∣ment; yet these few things are not to bee vnremem∣bred. The Earle of Rutland (a yonger sonne to

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the Duke of Yorke) being about twelue yeeres old, was also slaine by the Lord Clifford, (who ouertooke him flying) in part of reuenge for that the * 1.341 Earles father had slaine his. A deed which worthily ble∣mished the Author; but who can promise any thing temperate of himselfe in the heat of martiall furie? chiefly, where it was resolued, not to leaue anie branch of Yorke line standing, for so doth * 1.342 one make the Lord Clifford to speake.

(90) That mercilesse proposition was common (as the euent will shew) to either faction. The Duke of Yorkes head, crowned with paper, is presen∣ted to the Queene. Cruell ioy is seldome fortu∣nate. Caesar wept ouer Pompeis head, but the Queen (ignorant how manifold causes of teares were reser∣ued for her owne share) makes herselfe merrie with that gastly and bloody spectacle. The Earle of Salisburie, after wounds receiued, being in this battel taken prisoner, is conueighed to Ponfract Castle; from whence the common people (who loued him not) * 1.343 violently haled him, and cut off his head; which perhaps was not done without the good liking of others. The Dukes head, together with his, were fixed on poles, and set vpon a gate of Yorke, and with them (if Grafton say true) the heades of all the other prisoners which had beene conducted to Pomfret.

(91) This battell (called of Wakefield) was fought vpon the last day of December; of whose weathers complexion if their courages had partici∣pated, mischiefe might haue made her stop here, which now is in her swiftest course.

(92) For the Earle of March, sonne, and heire to this late valiant Duke of Yorke, hearing of this tragi∣call * 1.344 aduenture, giues not ouer: but, hauing gathered an armie of about twenty thousand to march against the Queene, he findes emploiment neerer hand: be∣ing certified, that Iasper Theder Earle of Pembrooke (halfe brother to King Henrie) and Iames Butler Earle of Ormond and Wiltshire, had with them a great force of Welsh and Irish to take him. The youthfull and valiant Earle of March, whose amiable presence and carriage made him gratious with the people, (and the rather for that he had the generall good word of * 1.345 women,) meanes to try his fortune against the said Earles. He sodeinely therefore turnes backe from Shrewsbury, and at a place called Mortimers Crosse neere Ludlow, where the enemie abode, he sets vpon them; It was Candlemas day in the morning, at * 1.346 which time there appeared (as some write) three Sunnes, which sodeinely ioined in one. This luckie prognosticon, and ominous Meteor exceedingly fi∣red the Earle of March, and was (some say) the reason, why he vsed for his Badge, or roiall deuise, the Sunne in his full brightnesse. The Battels maintaine their fight with great furie; but, in the end, the Earle of March obtaines the victorie, killing of his enemies three thousand, and eight hundreth men; the Earles saued themselues by flight. The sonne of ho∣nour and fortune did thus begin to shine through Clouds of blood and miserie, vpon Edward, whome shortly we are to behold King of England. There were taken * 1.347 Sir Owen Theder (father to Iasper Earle of Pembrooke,) who was beheaded by Edwards com∣mandement, as also Sir Iohn Skudamor knight with his two sonnes, and other.

(93) The Queene on the other side (hauing or∣dered her affaires in the North, setled the estate there∣of, and refreshed her people,) within a while after drawes neere with her Northern armie to S. Albans. There came before them an euill fame of their beha∣uiour to London, whose wealth lookt pale knowing it selfe in danger; for the Northern armie, (in which were Scots, Welsh, and Irish aswell as English,) made bold by the way with what they liked, making small distinction of sacred or prophane, after they were once past the riuer of Trent, Captaine Andrew Trolop being their Coronell. King Henry himselfe in per∣son, with the Dukes of Norfolke and Suffolke, the Earles of Warwicke and Arundel, the Lord Bonuile, & other, with a great puissance encampe at S. Albans, to giue the Queene battell, and stop her farther pas∣sage toward London. But the Lords of her faction being ready to attempt on her behalfe, assaile the Kings forces within the Town, and after some sharpe affronts, breake through, and driue their aduersaries out with much bloodshed, till they fell vpon a squa∣dron or battalion of the Kings, wherein there were about foure or fiue thousand men, which made good * 1.348 their ground for a while with great courage, but in the end the Queenes side clearely wanne the day. There perished in this conflict about two thou∣sand.

This hapned vpon Shroue-tuesday, the seuenteenth of Februarie. The King, Queene and Prince meet ioifully, where he knights his sonne, (being eight yeeres old,) and thirtie others. The Lord Bonuile and Sir Thomas * 1.349 Kiriel of Ken•…•… being taken in the fight, were beheaded, but all the other great men elcape. The common people of London doe not∣withstanding stand wholy for the beautifull Earle of March, and stand the more confidentlie, because they had sure intelligence, that he had vanquished the Earle of Pembrooke in the Marches of Wales, and that the Earle of Warwicke, escaping from S. Albans, had met with the Earle of March neere Costwold, and that both with ioint forces were marching toward London. These newes made the King and Queene retire into the North, and leaue that Citie and the * 1.350 Southern Countreys to their Enemie, till they might recouer a fairer opportunitie or more suffici∣encies. Edward vpon notice of the Kings departure, entreth London, and giues period to Henries reigne, which is accounted to take end after he had succes∣siuely ruled this Land the space of thirtie eight yeeres, sixe moneths, and foure daies.

His Wife.

(94) Margaret the wife of King Henrie, was the daughter of Reyner King of Ierusalem, Sicilie, and Arragon, Duke of Andegauia, Lorraine, Barre, and Cala∣bria, Earle of Prouince, Cenomania, and Guize. Shee by proxie was espoused vnto King Henrie, at the Citie Towers in Touraine in the Church of Saint Martin; William de-la-Poole being Procurator to the king in the presence of the French king and his Queen, which king was vncle to the Brides Father, and the Queene Aunt vnto her mother. Shee with great pompe was conueyed to South-hampton, and thence to the Abbey of Tichfield, where the yeere of grace 1445. and twen∣tie two of Aprill, shee was solemnly married to king Henry; and honorably attended by the greatest E∣states of the Land, was crowned at Westminster the thirtieth of May following. Shee was exceedingly beautified in face, and of goodly feature, of a great wit and deepe pollicie, but of stomacke farre aboue her sexe, as in the managing of those trouble some times did too well appeare. Shee was his wife twen∣tie sixe yeeres, and twentie nine daies: and (after her husbands depulsion from his regall throne) her forces being vanquished at the battell of Tewksburie, in a poore religious house, whether shee had fled for the safetie of her life, was taken prisoner, and so carried Captiue to London, where shee remained in durance, till Duke Reiner her father did purchase her liberty with great summes of money, vnto whom shee returned, and lastly died in her natiue Countrie.

His Issue.

(95) Edward the only Child of king Henrie and Queene Margaret his wife was borne at Westmin∣ster the thirteenth day of October, the yeere of Christ 1453. and the 31. of his fathers Raigne, and the next yeere following vpon the fifteenth of March, by authoritie of Parliament, was created

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Prince of Wales & Earle of Chester: For the title of Duke of Cornwal (as it is noted by warrant of record) is repu∣ted * 1.351 vnto the Kings eldest sonne, the very day of his natiuitie, and by vertue of a speciall Act is presumed and taken to be of full and perfect age, so as he may •…•…ue that day for his liuerie of the said Dukedome, and ought by right to obtaine the same; hauing his roialties in the Stannary, wrackes at Sea, Customes &c: the first Duke thereof was Edward commonlie called the Blacke Prince, whome his Father, King Edward the third created in great Estate Duke of Cornwall by a wreath on his head, a ring on his fin∣ger and a siluer verge. He proued a Prince of great hope and forwardnes, being skilfull in martiall knowledge, matters of gouernment, and Lawes of the Realme. At the age of seuenteene, the better to bandie against his Fathers Competitor, King Ed∣ward, (the Maul of the Lancastrians claime) a•…•…ian∣ced in France, Anne the second daughter of Richard the Make-king, Earle of Warwick; whose other daugh∣ter was married to George Duke of Clarence. This Prince when the day was lost at Tewkesburie, sought to escape thence by flight, but being taken, was brought into the presence of king Edward, whose re∣solute answeres enraged the Conqueror so much, as he dashed him (an vnprincely part) on the mouth with his gauntlet, and Richard the crooke backe ranne him into the heart with his dagger. His Body was buried without all solemnity among the poore and meane persons slaine, in the Monasticall Church of the blacke Friers in Tewkesburie. Anno Domini 1471.

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