[Certen] instruct[ions, obseruati]ons and orders militarie, requisit for all chieftaines, captaines [and?] higher and lower men of charge, [and officers] to vnderstand, [knowe and obserue]
Smythe, John, Sir, ca. 1534-1607.
Page  179

Certen proceedinges and obseruations that I would wish to be obserued in the first election, enrolling, arming, and weaponing of Souldiors, for any employment; but chieflie for the ordinarie bandes and companies of horsemen and footmen that are to be chosen in the Shieres of England, for the defence of the Realme, or for forren Inuasion; as also for taking of reuewes of musters againe from time to time, with diuers other particularities.

THe first thing of all others that doth be∣long to any perfect Militia,* either of horsemen or of footmen, or of both, is good and orderly and sufficient Election and choice of soldiors, which we com∣monly call taking of Musters, without which well and sufficiently performed, all the rest of any Militia and discipline Militarie can haue no good forme, nor worke any great effect: and therefore, according to orderly writing, I should first haue begon to haue written of the same: Howbeit, because I meane to write but of some partes thereof; I thought good in that re∣spect to set it downe in the end of these my former instruc∣tions: And therefore I say that there are only two principal causes of elections,* enrollements, & leuies of men of warre, of the which the first is for employments, and seruices by Sea; into the which there do enter none but only footmen and that of two sorts: the one Maisters of Shippes, officers, mariners, and saylers that are to mannage the Shippes,* and all other sorts of artificers that are to repaire the Shippes, and all things belonging to the same: And the other of sol∣diors and their officers that are chosen, elected and leuied to vse their weapons for the annoying of the Enemie, and defence of the ships; in which nomber of soldiors are con∣tained, all sortes of gonners and officers belonging to great ordinaunce, as also all others that do receaue paie for and Page  180 concerning those seruices; which because it is a distinct and different thing from that part of the Militia, that I intend to handle,* I will omit. Now the second cause of musters and leuies, is, for emploiment and seruices by land, either for a warre offensiue, or defensiue or for both; into the which doth enter the first elections, choice, and enrolle∣ments aswell of horsemen, as of footmen, and aswell the horsemen, as the footmen of different sorts of armors and weapons.

Now because I haue in diuers partes of Christendome seene soldiors both horsemen, and footmen elected, inrol∣led, and leuied, in some Countries with greater order, and in others with lesse; and that also I haue partly obserued the ancient maner of election, inrolling, arming & furnishing of soldiors here in England when I was yong, as also the pro∣ceedings in those affaires of this time; I thought good in this place to set downe my opinion how and in what sorte, I would haue al horsemen and footmen of such armors and weapons as we at this present in England do vse, to be elec∣ted inrolled and euerie waies furnished; and there withall in their first election and inrollement instructed: And there∣fore I will first beginne with footmen.

And because that in all right and true elections and first enrollements of men of war,* there be three principal things to be regarded and obserued; of the which the first is, con∣ueniencie of age and yeares: The second Corporall dispo∣sition and abilitie of bodie: and the third, honestie, which proceedeth from honest education, which in respect of o∣bedience Militarie that insueth thereof, is no lesse requisite then the other two: therfore I meane to include those as three principall matters belonging to my whole election. Of the which three concerning conueniencie of yeares,* I thinke none meete to be elected and inrolled vnder the age of. 18. yeares; which is the lowest age that hath beene al∣lowable amongst all warlike nations of auntient and mo∣derne times; nor none aboue the age of. 35. or. 40. at the most: And of the age of. 18. I would haue none elected Page  181 vnlesse they were of so great growth, & corporall dispositi∣on, as that they were able to perform the duties & effects of souldiors, which verie fewe at that age can. And such as should be elected after the age of 18. I would haue to con∣tinue soldiors vntill they come to the age of 45. incase their health and corporall disposition of bodie, doo continue in them vntil that age.

And so likwise, I would that such as were elected through their good disposition of bodies to bee souldiors at 35. or 40. yeares old, should with good account and credit in the shiers where they dwell, be dismissed from being souldiors at the age of 45. and no waies further to bee emploied in matters militarie, vnlesse their wisedome and sufficiencie were such, as they were to serue as officers of bandes. And the causes wherefore I would not haue any to bee elected to bee souldiors aboue the age of 40. or to continue souldi∣ors aboue the age of 5. yeares more, which is 45. are; that to elect and leauie olde men that neuer serued before to bee young souldiors, is contrarie to all discipline; and to serue as priuate souldiors aboue the age of 45. (vnlesse they bee excellent archers in perfection of strong and cleane shoo∣ting) it is more then is conuenient, considering that for the defence of a kingdome where there is choice of young men enough, it were contrarie to all reason and discipline that they should continue their seruices as priuate souldiors any longer, then vntil that age of 45. but in the countries where they dwell, at that age with great credit to be dismissed, that they may the better intend and follow their owne priuate affaires and other yoonger men of sufficiencie and abilitie of bodie and mind to bee chosen in their places: And thus far concerning conueniencie of yeares.*

And now to the second sufficiencie that is to bee re∣quired in such as are to be elected and inrolled to be souldi∣ors either horsmen or footmen; which is good and conue∣nient corporal disposition of body and minde, able and apt to handle, or to learne to handle & vse diuers sorts of wea∣pons, Page  182 without which none are worthy nor meet to be elec∣ted and enrolled for priuate soldiors. First therfore I would concerning the same, that the choice and election should be such, as euery souldior that should be chosen should bee a man well formed and dispost of body and mind, and ther∣fore meet and fit either by former exercise from his youth; or at least by aptnesse of mind and force, to learne the vse of such weapons as he should be chosen and inrolled vnto: as for example: I would have no man chosen to be an Archer that had not so practised the vse of his bow from his youth, that he should bee able to shoot strong, or at the least of a conuenient strength and long arrowes, and therewithall v∣sed by continuall exercise to draw his arrow with three fin∣gers, and not with two (according to the new fashion) to the head: of which shooters with two fingers, I would haue none to be alowed for archers,* how faire soeuer they shoot, vnlesse they could verie well reforme themselues from that fond new fashion: because that in their so shooting they loose a great deale of the strength of their draught. And thus farre in this place concerning corporall disposition of bodie.

And now to the third sufficiencie of such as are to be e∣lected, chosen & inrolled,* which is honestie, I would that all such as should be elected and inrolled should be of ho∣nest parentage, and that their education and course of life had bene such, as there were no notable vice to be noted in them, and chiefly of dronkennesse, theft, blaspheming, com¦mon swearing or brawling. Al which vices are such, as they cause al such as are possessed of them to be disordered, mu∣tinous, and disobedient; which are things most contrary to all true discipline. Also I would if it might be, that all such as should be elected and chosen to be soldiors, should be of themselues of some abilitie and substance either in landes, or goods, or both; or else that from their parentes they should be in possibilitie after their deceases to enioye some lands, or goods, or both: And I would that they should be of those two conditions before mentioned; I meane of Page  183 good parentage & present hauiour, or in possibilitie by the death of their parents as aforsaid, because ye same should be a kind of obligation to their captains, as also to ye common wealth, for their good and obedient behauior, in their vo∣cation and degrees of soldiorie. Besides all which I would haue all soldiors and officers of bands at their first election* and, enrolment to take their oathes of fidelitie and loyaltie to the crowne and Realme of England; as also of obedience to their captains and officers, in such matters as doo con∣cerne the arte, science, and discipline militarie, for the de∣fence of the Crowne and Realme of England.

Now the election and inrollment of the archers, as also of all the rest of the soldiors of other weapons being taken with such regard and respect as aforsaid; I would then haue them to be armed verie fitly and conueniently according to euerie different sorte of weapon: And because that no man can be conueniently and fitly armed, vnlesse he be first fitly apparelled for his armor, and also for the vse of his wea¦pon,* and that in the campe and armie at Tilburie 1588. wheras there were the regiments of diuers shieres, with di∣uers bands both of dimilaunces and light hormen, I did see and obserue, so great disorder and deformitie in their ap∣parrell, to arme withall, as I saw but a very few of that Army that had any conueniencie of apparel, and chieflie of doub∣lets to arme vpon; whereof it came to passe that the most of them did weare their armors verie vncomelie, and vnea∣silie; which foresaid doublets if they bee not conuenientlie made, and of purpose to arme vpon according to the vse of all antiquitie, it is not possible that armed men horsemen, nor footemen should finde themselues in their armors at ease: nor that they should vse their weapons with such dex∣teritie as they may doo if their garments be purposelie and fitlie made to arme vppon; nor yet that there can bee any comlinesse in wearing their armors vppon such deformed doublets; I would first therefore, that there should be spe∣ciall regard had to the fit and conuenient apparelling of all sortes of souldiors; and therefore to begin with souldiors Page  184 doublets,* I would that their doublets should bee made of Fustian according to the vse of all antiquitie, or of cha∣moise skinnes, aswel in respect of lasting, as that a man may arme better vppon any of both those thinges, then vppon Canuas, or any thinge that is more smooth, and lesse woollie.

Then concerning the form and fashion of their doub∣lets, I would that they should be of a conuenient heigth in the Collers, aswell to defend their necks from cold in win∣ter, as from heate in Summer. Then▪ I woulde that they should be narrow in the shoulders, & so smal in the sleeues, and with so little bumbast, that the vambrases of armed men might easilie close togither; and that archers vsing no vambrases but certen stripes of serecloth or maile within their sleeues to defend the cut of a sworde, might through the smalnesse of their sleeues easilie draw and shoot, with∣out the string hitting vpon any part of the sleeue, but onelie vpon their bracers.

Then I would that their doublets should be made ea∣sie and wide vpon the stomacks and breastes, that the soul∣diors being not pent by the straightnesse of their doublets vpon their breastes, might the easlier fetch their breath ei∣ther in fighting, or in any hastie march: and therewithall, that their doublets be cutte flat vpon the bellie, and wasted of like length to the Cuirasses of their armors, to the intent that armed mens armors might sit the more iust and flat to their bodies: But because the collars of armors doo beare the chiefe waight of all the rest of the armour, I would wish that the souldiors armed men horsmen, or footmen, should either haue vnder Collars of Fustian conuenientlie bom∣basted to defende the heueth and poise of their armours from the paining, or hurting of their shoulders and necks; or else that their doublets should be verie well bombasted in all that part vnder their Collars both before and behind according to the depth of the same, which will bee a great ease to all armed men horsmen or footmen, for their often and long continuing armed.

Page  185Also I would that no armed men should weare any cut doublets, as well in respect that the wearing of armour doth quicklie fret them out, and also by reason that the corners and edges of the lammes and iointes of the armours doo take such holde vppon such cuttes, as they doo hinder the quicke and sudden arming of men; as also that they are of more impediment to harquebuziers, mosquetiers, and ar∣chers, for diuers respects to all skilfull soldiors wel knowne, then doublets vncut are. Then I would wishe that there should bee regard had to their hosen, that they might bee easie for them to march and fight in; which the new fashi∣on straight hosen are not: and therefore I would that they should rather weare Greygescoes too vnder the knee, that shoulde bee large, wide, and easie, lined with a Cotton li∣ning without any bombast; and next to the thigh with a strong Canuas lining or false sloppe, wherevnto the nether stockinges should be set and sowed, and gartered vnder the knee, then either these new fashioned little round hose, or newe fashion'd bombasted Greygescoes that are very straight to the thighs and vpper parts; which in summer be∣sides the vneasinesse of them, doo with so much bombast keep armed men exceeding hot, whereas the other beeing large and wide as aforesaid, something after the fashion that the Spanish souldiors doo vse, are a great deale more easie, and chieflie for all sorts of footmen.*

Now as for their armors I would wish, that archers should either weare Ilet holed doublets, that wil resist the thrust of a sword, or dagger, and couered with some trim and gallant kinde of coloured cloth to the liking of the Captains, with their sleeues striped within, with certen narrow stripes of serecloth or maile, to resist the cut of a sword, or else Iackes of maile quilted vpon fustian to resist a blow or a thrust, of a conuenient length, and the skirts not too long, in respect of the lightnes & easines of them: with their doublet sleeues as aforesaid; and for the defence of their heads, because these steele. Cappes commonly vsed, are of verie small comlines for soldiors, and most of them too shallow, and therefore of Page  186 small defence, I would wish some new and gallant fashion morrions verie light and easie to be made for archers to weare without any couering vpon them, but that they should be milde or burnished white; which besides their greater defence, being well and aptly made; would with their brightnesse greatly bewtifie the archers that do weare them. And as for the archers bowes, I would that they should not be short after the new vse which causeth them often to breake, but that they should be long and well backt and nockt, according to the auncient vse; and their strings whipt with fine thred, or silke; and that they should head and make their first sheafes of arrowes, according to the length that they do commonly vse to drawe. The blades of their swordes I would haue to be verie good, and of the length of a yard and not aboue; with their hilts only made with. 2. portes, a greater and a smaller on the out side of the hiltes, after the fashion of the Italian and Spanishe arming swordes; and those swordes I would haue them to weare with strong girdles of leather, their hangers of such conuenient length, and so well formed as their swordes might hang vpon the vpper parts of their thighes; not only readie and verie easie to be drawen; but also by their well hanging of them straight forward and backward, (I meane not athwarte their bommes, as drommers, to giue place & roume to their drommes do vse; nor yet so farre forward as they may lie athwarte their Codpeeces, as great boies do vse at their first wearing of swordes when they come new from schoole) that the said soldiors swords vpon their hastie march, or any other occasion by their straight and well standing of them, should hang firme without daun∣cing, or bobbing forward and backward, as swords vnsoldi∣orly worne, do commonly vse. The blades of their daggers also, I would wish them to be not aboue 10 inches long, and that the hilts of the same should be only made of one sin∣gle and short crosse without any portes, or hilts at all, and not with great hilts after the fencers or alehouse fashion; and that they should weare their daggers not vpon their Page  187 girdles at their backs, but hanging downe vpon their right thighes before them, after the old English fashion; and be∣cause that their daggers should stand the more firme and steadie without bobbing or dauncing vp and downe vpon the hastie march of the soldiors; I would that they should weare them in leathers, after the fashion that I sawe some of the soldiors of Sir Iohn Peters band deuise and vse, at such time as I mustered his band neare vnto Brentwood the yeare 1588. Which leathers being of the length of 7. in∣ches, and 3. inches broad beneath, but aboue not so broad, and haue in the vpper parts two cuts straight downeward, for the waste of the girdle to goe through, and in the lower end, two cuts straight athwart, for the dagger sheath to be thrust through and downe euen to the verie locket; & then the locket of the dagger being fastned a little aboue, to two holes through the leather right against the same with a string or a lace; such daggers so worne, doo stand wonder∣full firme, and verie readie for souldiors, archers, or armed men to draw, and with thrustes to vse the pointes of them. The archers also I would haue them to vse shooting gloues with the inner partes of the fingers of Bucks leather, and in no wise any leathers called finger stalles after the new fashi∣on. Al their bracers also I would haue after the old fashion of our English archers to many well known, and not accor∣ding to the new deuises. And thus farre concerning the e∣lection, apparelling, arming, and weaponing of archers. And now to the election, apparelling, arming and weapo∣ning of harquebuziers.

Harquebuziers I would wish them to be elected and chosen of the yoongest sort of men,* and of the meanest sta∣ture and size of all other sortes that should be allowed of, to be elected and inrolled, and chieflie of such as haue small skill and dexteritie in the long bowe, and archerie: For I would that such as were skilfull in the long bow; I meane good archers of what size of men soeuer; that they should not be inrolled to any other weapon, considering that the number of good archers of our Nation in these daies are so Page  188 few, and that, that kind of weapon is of so wonderfull and miraculous effect in seruices of the field as by all auncient and moderne experience amongst all Nations it hath bene and is most manifest. Harquebuziers therefore I would haue them to be of the yongest sort of men, as aforesaid, be∣cause they should be the more nimble to trauesse their grounds, and to stoope to their peeces, and to take all ad∣uauntages of groundes, and of the smallest sorte and size of men, because they should be the lesser markes in the sights of their enemies in skirmish neare at hand, as is in my for∣mer instructions at large conteined.

Their apparell I would haue to be dublets of fustian without any cuttes, and Greigescoes all of the like sort and fashion, as I haue before particulerlie set downe concer∣ning archers; and that they should haue euerie one of them a saltenberg, commonly called a Mandilion of very good broad cloath that will not shrinke, to encouer and keepe drie their flasks and touchboxes and the pans and touch∣holes of their harquebuzes in the time of wet & moist wea∣ther; and the same handsomely made to their bodies, and of such Colours as euerie one of their Captaines should make choice of.

And therewithal that euerie one of them should haue an vpright or sharpe morrion fast tied with a red skarfe vnder their Chins after the spanish fashion, all white and grauen, or at least, white vngrauen, and in no wise any black morti∣ons; because that the white doth beutefie the soldiors more, and is of greater terror in the eie and sight of the Enemie. The Cannons of their harquebuzes I would haue them to be all of the length of a yard and not any longer nor shorter all ranforced backward, and conuenientlie thinne forward; and that the sights of their harquebuzes should be all open sights; I meane without any pipes or couers vpon them, because they might the more readilie take their sightes ei∣ther from point at blanke if time will serue, or else from the endes of their peeces. I would also that all those sights as al∣so the pins of their peeces should be very euen and straight Page  189 set and filed to a iust and conuenient height; and their pee∣ces chosen without any cracks or flawes within, verie well boared and drawbored, and therewithal their vices at the hinder ends of their peeces of such conuenient length, & so well made and filed, that their harquebuzes should not recoile: besides all which I would that all their bullettes should be of one Caliuer and heigth, and that of a meane size for diuers causes, & reasons that I haue before in mine instructions alledged.

All the stocks of their harquebuzes I would haue them to be crooked (as we call them) and of good forme, and not straight stocks, because that being crooked and com∣passed stocks they doo more readily counterpoise the fore end of their peeces, and more readilie fall into leuell when they are in skirmish, and haue no leisure to take any sight from point at blanke, but from the fore ends of their pee∣ces, then straight stockes doe: Besides that considering the lightnesse of their peeces they may aswell and as rea∣dilie without rests at any time take their sights from point at blanke with crooked stockes of good forme as if they were straight. The Cockes, or serpentines I would haue to be of conuenient compasse and able to receiue any con∣uenient match, and that the feathers and springs that doo belong vnto them should be of so hard and good temper, that they shoulde cause the ockes or serpentines to fall and rise so strong and quicke, as by their strong falling with the matches into the pannes, they may make the fire to sparcle, thereby in an instant to make the powder to take fire.

Then I would that euery harquebuzier should haue a good and a faire flaske and touchbox, with strings to them of conuenient length, and that they should bee taught by their Corporalles very souldiorlie to weare them, and to keep their powder in their flaskes and touchboxes very drie. And I would that the pipes or mouths of their flaskes should be a iust charge for their harquebuzes according to the vse of the Spaniardes and Wallouns, and that the Page  190 feathers and springs that doo make the plate or couer of the lower part of the mouthes of their flaskes to open and couer againe, should be of so good temper as they might open and couer quicke and close, that the souldiors there∣by might bee assured not to ouercharge their peeces to their daunger.

Then I would that euerie harquebuzier should haue in a little purse, or in a little bagge in his pocket, a little steele with a flint, and a little peece of a certen kind of tinder like a spunge, such as the harquebuziers Spaniards doo vse, to strike fire to light their matches, with scourers, skrues, pri∣ning irons, and mouldes, and all other things requisite for the well charging and keeping of their harquebuzes clean and neat. Swordes also the blads of the length of a yard, with hiltes of the fashion before mentioned, with strong leather girdles, able to beare their swordes, flaskes, and touchboxes, I would wish euerie harquebuzier to haue; & that they should weare their swordes of such conuenient heigth, as I haue before declared, that archers and armed men ought to doo. But as for daggers, I would wish no harquebuzier to weare any, because they haue so seldome occasion to vse them: and therefore doo rather increase heueth and burthen then serue for any other purpose; the experience whereof hath taught the harquebuziers of all Nations to weare no daggers; Besides all which, I would haue the harquebuziers to be taught, as also the mosque∣tiers, to know the differences of powder and of match, that they may bee the better able to know what charges they shall giue to their peeces, according to the goodnesse or badnesse of the powder, and therewithall alwaies in skir∣mish or otherwise to charge their peeces with some softe paper, or something else betwixt their powder and their bullets, and after their bullets to restraine the same: and to haue their flaskes full of good and drie powder well cor∣ned; and their touchboxes full of fine and drie touchpow∣der, with al other thinges requisit to the well vsing of their peeces, and thus farre concerning harquebuziers.

Page  191Mosquetiers I would wish to be elected of such men as are of good force & strength of bodie,* although they were but of meane statures, for the tallest and best formed men I would haue reserued for armed men piquers, and battle∣axes or halbarders to be reduced into squadrons or battles; and yet I would not as aforesaid, that any good or strong ar∣chers should be enrolled to any other kind of weapon, but onely to the longbowe, for the causes before mentioned. But it is conuenient that mosquetiers should bee of good force, and strength, in respect of the heauines of their wea∣pons and furniture, that by their strength and agilitie, they may the better cary, handle, and mannage their mosquets: And I would wish that they should be euerie waies appa∣relled, and that they should weare their swordes in strong girdles without any daggers as the harquebuziers aforsaid, and that they should be armed with the like morrions to the harquebuziers before mentioned. Then I would wish that all their mosquets should be of one length well ran∣forced backward,* and of conuenient thinnesse forward, and of one heigth, or caliuer of bullet with open sights, and in all other thinges and particularities of the like perfection to the harquebuzes that I haue before mentioned.

But all the mosquets I would haue them to bee with straight stocks because that considering their rests with the great heueth of their peeces they may the better sett the straight stocks to their shoulders and take their sights more readily & certainly from point at blank, then if their stocks were crooked. Their iron forkes, or rests I would haue them to be well and euen formed, that when the staues are fixed in the ground, their mosquets might ly iust and euen in their rests, which they cannot do if they be made higher on the one side then of the other, as many are. The staues of their rests, I would wishe to be of iust and conuenient length and strength with piques of a good length that they may enter a good waie in and stand the more firme in the ground. Their flaskes, touchboxes, and stringes I would haue to be of as great perfection as the flaske and touch∣boxes Page  192 of ye harquebuziers before mentioned. And I would wish that they should charge their mosquets with powder out of the pipes or charges of the flaskes as the harquebu∣ziers aforsaid, and not out of charges that hang vpon band rolles as many doo vse: Because that oftetimes the couers of such charges doo flie off, and shed the powder, in such sort as the mosquetiers if they be not olde souldiors or wel practised, doo sometimes thinke that they charge their peeces out of such bandrol charges, when the powder was spilt before, so as sometimes they put in their bullets into their peeces without any powder.

And I would that euerie societie or fellowship of 10. mosquetiers should haue one great mould to cast 2. sortes of bullets, the one full bullets, and the other 2. or 3. bores smaller to charge vpon some occasion with the more ce∣leritie. Also that the same mould should bee so long and bigge, as it should be able to cast at one time 8. haileshot of warre besides the bullettes, which haileshot of Warre should be of the heigth and Caliuer of small pistoll bullets. And this great moulde with a melting pan and lead, and all other thinges belonging to the same, should be for the common vse of the whole societie of 10. mosquetiers: as the like pan and mould and other thinges which I for bre∣uities sake did omit should be for the common vse of eue∣rie societie of 10. harquebuziers. And yet it doth behooue the societies aswell of mosquetiers as of harquebuziers to haue some priuate mouldes for bullets, besides their com∣mon and publike mould. And thus far concerning mos∣quetiers. And now to armed men piquers.

The arming doublets and greygesces for armed men piquers,* I haue before described, and therefore I proceed to the arming and weaponing of them, as followeth. I would haue all the piquers armed with burgonets of good depth wel lined and stuffed for the easinesse of their heads, and tied with a red skarfe vnder their chinnes, and that they should not wear them flapping open vntied, as I haue seene many of our Mosquetiers and armed men heere at Page  193 home doo. Also I would haue them armed with collers of a good size, with backes and with cuyrats not too flat but somthing high vpon the stomachs, that they may easily in any hastie march fetch their breaths: & the belly or lower part of the Cuirasses, I would haue to bee lowe, and rather somthing flat then any thing riing or high, because they may hauing their vambraces on, the more easily put their hands to their swords without any impediment of ye ouer∣much heigth of the lower parts, or bellies of their Cuiras∣ses. Also I would haue them to haue tasses to ye mid thigh not too broad, but of conuenient length and breadth, comely and fit for their greygescoes.

Also I would haue them to haue pouldrons of a good compasse and size, and vambraces both ioined together, and not asunder, because that the poise of the pouldrons and vambraces, hanging vpon the pinnes and springes of their collars, they doo not weigh so much, nor are not so wearisom as when they are separated; and that they weare their vambrases tied with pointes to their doublets vnder their pouldrons; Also I would that al armed men should weare gauntlets, as the armed men piquers Italians, and Spaniards doo, and not to be bare and disarmed handed as our English and some other Nations of late years haue vsed, because that any smal wound receiued vpon ye hands doth presently make such souldiors impotent, and vnable to vse their weapons that haue receiued such woundes al∣though they be but small. Their swords, their daggers, and their girdles I haue before particularlie set down, how and in what sort I would haue them to weare them. Their piques also I would wish them all to bee of the length of 18. foote, and neither longer nor shorter for the causes in my former instructions and discourses mentioned, as also conteined in my Booke of certen Discourses printed 1590. and that they shoulde haue verie good and foure square heads of good temper, and lowe armed with long cheeks, and in ye midst couered or armed with black lether or black vellure, or with some other such thing, and ye they Page  194 should not be too great nor heauie in wood, that thereby the souldiors may carrie them and mannage them with ease.

Also I would that the staues of the piques should bee of a tite and stiffe ashe, and not of ashe that dooth sagge, and bend when the piquers doo carrie their piques breast high before hand couched, because that such sagging and ben∣ding ashe, although it be verie tough yet it is more heauie then the other ashe: besides that the piquers cannot carry the 〈◊〉 of such sagging, and bending piques so euen and straight in their Enemies faces, as they may carrie the other piques that doo not bend nor sagge, but are tite and straight. And thus farre concerning armed men piquers, And now to batleaxes or halbarders.

The election, choice and inrolment, of souldiors with battleaxes or halbarders,* I would wish to bee of the taller and stronger sort of men, and that al the halbarders or bat∣tleaxes that should be to enter into squadron, should bee apparelled and armed in Corslets in all points and peeces of armour like vnto the piquers before mentioned: and yet if those halbarders or battleaxes in stead of pouldrons and vambraces did weare sleeues of good reueted maile that might couer all their shoulders and armes euen from vn∣der their Collers, breasts and backes, to the verie Gaunt∣lets, considering that by the good defence and easinesse of such sleeues of maile, they might mannage their halbards the better, I would for my part allowe them for verie well armed, although I woulde that the piquers because they are the formost rankes should bee in any wise armed with pouldrons, vambraces and gauntlets, as aforesaid, and not with any sleeues of maile. Also I would that the halbarders should weare their swords and daggers of the same length, and in the verie same sort that I haue appointed the armed men piquers. But their halbardes or battleaxes I▪ would haue to be strong and of good waight with long straight edges, with good piques backward, and strong pointes of conuenient length, but in no wise too long forward, and Page  195 that they should for the strengthning of them, be armed with two cheekes downe the staffe of a soote and more long, and that such battleaxes, or halbardes for the squa∣dron should not be aboue 6. foot long from the top of the points to the lowest end of the little iron hoopes common∣ly called the Feralles of their staues.

Also I would haue certen other halbardes that should be incorporated in euerie band of archers and likewise of harquebuziers, who should sere vpon diuers occasions, to doo execution vpon the enemie: And those Halbarders I would haue them called extraordinarie be∣cause they are not for the squadron; And those I would haue to be armed only with burgonets with collers, verie light Cuirasses and backes, and without any tasses, and in stead of pouldrons; vambrases, and gauntlets, the sleeues of their dou¦blets I meane within the fustian striped with certen narrow stripes of serecloth, or of maile, to defend the Cutt of a sword, and if that some of those extraordina∣rie battleaxes, or halbarders, were armed but only with burgonets and with short skirted Ierkins of buffe, with a double buffe vpon their brests, and the sleeues of their dou blets with stripes of maile or serecloth as aforesaid, and their swordes and daggers worne after thsame sort, as the piquers before mentioned, I thinke it allowable: But the staues of the halbards of such halbarders extraordinarie, I would wish to be longer by a foote, or a foote and a halfe or more, then the armed and ordinarie halbardes that are to enter into squadron, that is of 7. foote and a halfe long, or more, because that they being to succor troupes and so∣cieties of loose shot, or to do execution vppon diuers acci∣dents as aforesaid, and often times to fight with the enemy hand to hand, and sometimes to encounter with two, or three against one, it is requisite that their halbards for their aduauntage in figt should be longer then the ordinarie halbardes that are to enter into squadron; And incase that those halbards were lighter also thē the others that are for the squadron, being of good strength, it weare not amisse.

Page  196But whereas I haue before armed all the piquers, and battleaxes ordinarie, I meane, that are to enter into squa∣dron in Corslets complete, and that contrariwise I do vn∣derstand that diuers of our Captaines of this time when they receaue any English bandes readie armed and furni∣shed to serue withall either in Fraunce,* or the Lowe Coun∣tries, and that the piquers of those bandes are deliuered vnto them armed in corslets complet all sauing gauntlets; they presentlie giue, or throw awaie all their pouldrons, vambraces and tasses in such sorte as the soldiors doo re∣maine armed only with burgonets, Collers, Cuirasses and backes, contrarie to all true discipline: Certenly, it seemeth vnto me verie strange, that the lacke of Iudgement, or ra∣ther the ignorance of this time in matters Militarie should be so great,* that they should contemne the arming of their shoulders, armes, handes, and thighes, and only seeke to guarde their brests, bellies and backes, in respect as I doo thinke that they would preserue only those their vital parts: when it is verie well knowne by all experience Militarie, that such as come to be wounded in their shoulders, armes hands or thighes, do oftentimes by such woundes, come to be in their Enemies handes, and mercie, who many times vpon such aduauntages do put them to the sworde▪ Besides that it is more then strange that such Captains do not censider that soldiors with their legges and thighes do march forward to incounter with their Enemies, and with their shoulders, armes, and hands, they do vse their wea∣pons and fight with their Enemies; whereas cotrariwise with their bellies and backs, (which they altogether seeke to guarde) they do neither march forward against the ene∣mies, nor fight: which is a great skorne and mockerie that some of the men of warre of this time should so imitate the French, and Flemish fashions, who of late yeares, haue scarce remained one whole yeare in one order and man∣ner of arming, but haue still chaunged from fashion to fa∣shion. Howbeit such of our Captaines as do contemne the wearing of pouldrons, vambraces, gauntlets, and tasses Page  197 doo vainelie alledge for the reason and excuse of their so dooing;* that battles now a daies doo neuer come to ioine, but that they doo onely fight in skirmish; which is a verie vaine conceit and a friuolous excuse, and contrarie to all reason and true experience of diuers battles, that them∣selues may remember haue beene fought in France, and in diuers other Countries, within these few yeares: consi∣dering that whensoeuer there are two Armies of Enemies in the field, or two puissant powers of horsemen and foot∣men, and that the one armie or power of them vpon any aduantage or conueniencie of ground espied, shal resolue to giue battle or fight, that the contrarie power or armie shall not be able to refuse the battle, vnlesse they will turne their backs and betake themselues to their heeles; and that by reason that armies when they are in march, cannot as∣sure themselues alwaies to find grounds of such aduantage and strength, wherevpon the enemies resolution to fight they may suddenly intrench, or incampe & fortifie them∣selues. Besides al which, it is to be noted as Vigetius and di∣uers other ancient,* and more moderne notable historio∣graphers do write, that so long as the Romanes did obserue their ancient orders and discipline militarie, they did pre∣uaile against all other Nations; but that assoone as they be∣gan through effeminacie to neglect the same, and to leaue the couering and guarding of diuers partes of their bodies with armour in respect of the poise and heueth therof, and other suh important matters, that presently their Empire began to decline:* in such sort as ye Gothes, Vandals, Hunnes, & other septrional Nations, as also of later years the Ara∣bians, and the Sarasins did chieflie with weapons of volee, ouerthrow them in many, and manie battles, wherof and of the contempt of their archery insued the losse of a great part of the Romain Empire, and finallie vpon ye neglecting & forgetting of the like discipline did likwise ensue ye vtter ruine of ye two notable christian Empires of Constantinople & Trepisonda with diuers other christian Kingdoms. And thus far concerning the apparelling, arming & weaponing Page  198 of halbarders, or battleaxes: So as I haue now finished the apparelling arming, and weaponing of all sortes of foote∣men by our Nation in these daies vsed, and therfore I will God willing proceed to the apparelling, arming, weapo∣ning, and horsing of all such different sorts of horsmen, as we now a daies doo vse, with some other such sortes of horsemen also, as I would wish should be in vse and exer∣cise for the defence of the Crowne and Realme, as also for any forren inuasion.

And therfore to begin with light horsmen, such as in di∣uers shires of england we doo now vse,* armed with red or pied cappes and steele sculles within them, and with Iackes and speares by some called Gads; in stead of this rude kinde of arming as I account it, `I would wish that they should bee armed with burgonets, or else with vpright morrions after the Spanish manner, with collers, cuirasses, and backs, and short tasses, and with sleeues of maile and gauntlets, or else gloues of maile in stead of gauntlets; And to the intent they should bee the more easely & fitly armed, I would wish that they should be apparelled I mean in doublets & Greigescoes, in the very same sort as is before for armed men declared; And as for their speares I would wish them to be of 18. foot long, and those I would wish to bee so long, because they might not only vse them to charge vpon their thighes, but also that they might by taking and houlding them in the midst, vse them in stead of punching staues: And as for their geldings, I would haue them to be of good life and size, and swift of carire, and that they should ride them with light short cheeked bittes, according to their horses mouthes, & that their sadles should not bee so little and ill fashioned, as those which we commonly call scottish sadles, but rather that they should bee of that fashion, which wee call nowe a daies Morocco sadles, with pommells of suche conuenient heigth as one single pistoll in a case might bee buckled and set fast to the same, as also that the same should be made fast and buckled athwarte the lower end vpon a little boulster to make it to sit the more firme, and fitly vpon all occasions to Page  199 be vsed according to the manner of the Reistres: Also I would that no saddle should be without 3. girthes, and ther withal should haue Patrells, and croupers with the raines and headstalles light and of very good fashion. Besides al this, I would haue those kind of light horsmen to bee verie wel practised in the wel riding and vsing of their horses, and handling of their weapons in euery kind and sort. And thus far concerning that kind of light horsmen. And now to the apparelling, arming, & weaponing of stradiots by me men∣cioned in my former instructions, and discourses.

Stradiots are a kind of light horsmen that haue been v∣sed by manie Nations,* aswell Pagans, as Christians, and haue beene armed and weaponed in diuers different sorts according to the liking of such different Nations: How∣be it according to my opinion and best liking, I would wish those kind of souldiors to be verie well elected and chosen of such men as haue dispositions of bodies and mindes to learne very well to ride, as also to diet, vse, and keepe their horses, & therwithall to learne to handle al their weapons with great dexteritie: And as for their apparel, I meane their arming doublets & hosen, I would haue them to be after the verie same sort as I haue appointed vnto other ar∣med men. And I would wish them all to bee armed with good burgonets and buffes, with Collers, with Cuirasses, with backs, and with long Cuisses, from vnder the lowest lam, or skirt of their Cuirases to vnder the knee, and in stead of pouldrons and vambrases, leeues of maile com∣pleat, with gloues of maile also, or gauntlets, with all the vpper parts of their thums and forefingers of their right handed gauntets couered with maile, thereby the better to vse their pistols and other weapons; with such good swordes, daggers, and girdles, as I haue before appointed to other armed men, and in stead of Launces or speares, I woulde wish them to haue Launces commonlie called Launezagayas of good, tite, and stiffe ash, coloured black, with double heads of good and hard temper according to the vse of the Moores, of 18. or 20. footlong; to the intent that taking them in the midst, they may strike both for∣ward Page  200 and backewarde, I meane aswell their enemies that they haue in frunt or in flanks, as also their enimies & their horses that may vppon any retrait pursue them: I woulde wish them also to haue horses or geldings, strong, of good size and Carrire, with saddles of the fashion of the Reistres of Saxony, with Croupers, patels, good headstalles and raines with small chaines, to the intent that if their raines should happen to be cut, they should not be straight at the mercie of their horses, or of their enemies. And I would wish them to haue at their saddle pomels very good sin∣gle pistolles, in good cases well and firmelie sette at their saddles as I haue before mentioned, with touch boxes full of fine powder in some conuenient places about them ca∣ried, and with a Cartage boxe of Iron of 7. or 8. cartages fast set vpon euerie pistoll case, and the Cannons of the pistolles ranforced backeward, and of small bullet; and of the length of 12. inches, with good firelocks and no snap∣haunces, because in true vnderstanding for diuers causes that I could alledge, firelocks are a great deale more certen and of lesse failing then snaphaunces are. Also I woulde that they should haue at their saddle pommels of the con∣trarie side to the pistolles, men at armes axes; which be∣sides that they are good to fight withall, are verie com∣modious for horsemen to vse for manie requisit purposes, and vses, which because they are thinges so well knowne to all men of Warre of experience, I omit. And these kind of light horsemen Stradiots thus horsed, armed, and weaponed, are meet for all sorts of skirmishes and incoun∣tries, and also are of great execution against harquebuzi∣ers and mosquetiers, and to bee briefe against al sortes of horsemen and footmen.

But because their so many weapons, as are before mentioned for one horseman to vse may seeme strange to such of this time as do not loue to trouble themselues but with very few weapons, I say it is no strange matter, consi∣dering that such as doo meane to fight wel, do like to haue store of weapons, that incase one or two should faile, they Page  201 may presentlie betake themselues to the choise and vse of others, according to the time and occasion: But such as would thinke those weapons by me before mentioned to be too many for one man to vse, woulde thinke it a great deale more strange, to see a Turky horsman that trauelling by the way doth besides his Cemeterie, and his crooked dagger, voluntarily carrie his Launce, his harquebuze, and his Turkie bowe, with his sheafe of arrowes, with another weapon which now I haue forgot, and all those weapons they doo weare and carie so conuenientlie, and aptlie, as they may vse euery one of them in his most conuenient time and place. And thus far concerning Stradiots. And now concerning dimilaunces.

Dimilaunces are horsemen next in degree and account vnto men at armes, as well in greatnesse,* and puissance of horses, as in strong and sure arming; and they ought to be apparelled, as I haue in diuers partes before mentioned. They ought to be armed also, with their helmettes, with their beauers, with their sights not too high nor too lowe, with collers, cuirasses, with rests verie conueniently set not too high nor too low, backs, tasses, & short cuisses too vn∣der the knee, or else with long Cuisses from vnder the low∣est lam of their Cuyrasses to vnder the knee, without tas∣ses. Also they ought to haue good and well compassed pouldrons, vambrases, and gauntlets, and gussets of maile well set for the defence of their armeholes, and their wea∣pons ought to be arming swords, and daggers, worne in good and strong girdles, long, and strong launces, with a curtilace of the one side of the saddle pommell, or a steele mace, or a man at armes axe on the other side as aforsaid. Howbeit I haue seene some both men at armes, and dimi∣launces vse tocks very conueniently worne after the Hon∣garian & Turkie manner vnder their thighs; which Tocks are long narrow stiffe swords onlie for the thrust: And o∣thers I haue seene that in stead of Curtilaces & tocks haue worn single pistols, which pistols bicause men at armes or dimilances are to giue their charge in squadron with the Page  202 pointes of their Launces and shocke of their horses, they cannot haue so much leisure to pull out, and to pul down their cocks, as stradiots and other light horsemen that do fight loose in skirmish or in other little troupes may: Be∣sides that the gauntlets of men at Armes and dimilaunces are not fitlie made to handle pistols in, as all men may see that list to prooue them: and those dimilaunces ought to be all horsed vppon puissant horses for the shocke and not vpon geldings vnlesse they be very puissant; And their fur∣niture for their horses ought to bee steele saddles of good forme, and of a conuenient bignesse, and as light as they conuenientlie may bee made with good headstalles and raines with chaines as aforesaid; with good patrells and croupers. Also if there were any gentlemen in those bands of dimilaunces, I would wish them not to bee with∣out the forepart of steele barbes, to the intent that vppon any day that were likelie to be of great seruice against the enemie, they should arme and barbe the forepart of their horses, because that they being placed in the first rank, or two rankes, should bee the better able to giue and receiue the charge and shocke with the lesse daunger to their hor∣ses. And thus far for dimilaunces.

Now as for men at Armes because all men that are of any experience and vnderstanding in matters militarie,* doo well know that they must bee all armed, cap a pie, and their horses verie puissant, and all barbed aswell behind as before, with the number of weapons that they ought of ordinary to weare and vse: And because that in these daies partlie in respect of their great pay; but chiefly because the art and science militarie hath beene of late years, and pre∣sentle is in great declination and decaie, they are not in vse in England, nor in any part of Christendome as they haue beene, I ouerpasse them.

But now it is likely enough that some Gentlemen that haue beene trained vp in these late Ciuill wars of the Low Countries or France may thinke that I haue forgotten my selfe in not making mention in these aforesaid musters, of Page  203 Carabins or Argolettiers; vnto which kinde of horsemen they are greatly affected: Whereunto I say that for the smalle effect that by experience I haue seene those Cara∣bins in seruices worke,* through their great and manie fai∣lings, which I haue sufficientlie proued in the latter end of my booke of discourses that I did set forth, and cause to be printed the yeare 1590. as also in the former discourses of this booke, where I haue written of them; I doo not any waies hold them worthie to be compared in their effects neither to archers on horsebacke, nor Crosbowers on horsebacke; and therefore will in this place make but very small mention of them, but do in stead of them wish that there should be an election and inrollement made of cer∣ten archers and Crosbowers on horsebacke in euery shire who should be armed weaponed and horsed, and reduced into 〈◊〉 bands vnder their Captains and leaders, as here in this place I will out of my former booke sette downe a∣gaine, and that is in this sorte following.

All the Crosbowers on horsbacke vnder sufficient Con¦ductors well skilled in the weapon,* I would they should haue Crosbowes of two pound and a halfe of the best sort, with crooked gaffles hanging at their strong girdles after the manner of Germanie, that they might on horsebacke bend their Crosbowes the more easelie and readilie with 24. quarrels in a case, well, fitlie, and firmelie sette at their saddle pommels, and mounted vpon good colde geldings, of meane size, theselues armed with good morrions of the spanish fashion vpon their heads, Collers, light, and short wasted Cuirasses, and backes, with sleeues of maile, or their doublet sleeues chained with male, betwixt the li∣ning and outside of their said sleeues; or with certen nar∣row stripes of serecloth within their sleeues, as aforesaid; or else chat they should be armed with morrions, light and easie brigandines, and sleeues chained with maile, with broade short swordes by their sides of not aboue a yard in length, and short daggers. The archers on hrsebacke vn∣der their Captaines or conductors skilfull in archerie, I Page  204 would likewise haue mounted vpon good quiet geldings of mean size with deepe steele sculles in very narrow brimd hattes, well stuffed for the easines of their heades: or rather with certen light morrions of some gallant fashion inuen∣ted and deuised for them; and either Iacks of maile accor∣ding to the auncient manner when they were called Lo∣ricati Sagittar, or else light and easie brigandines, or at least Ilet holed doublets, verie easie and well fitted to their bodies; their sleeues chained within with maile, or else with certen narrow stripes of serecloth betwixt the lining and outside of their sleeues for the easines of their armes; with broade short swordes and short daggers, their bowes of good yewgh, long, and well nocked and backed, and all their stringes well whipt, with sheafes of .24. arrowes peece in cases, with shooting gloues and bracers after the manner of our archers in times past. And all these both ar∣chers & crosbowers I would haue them to be well practi∣sed, that they might know how to discharge their arrowes and quarrells galloping vpon the hand and in al other mo∣tions of their horses, and the Crosbowers to bend againe with great readines; and diuers bands being thus horsed, armed,* weaponed, and exercised, as also reduced into bands of fifties vnder sufficient conductors and other offi∣cers skilfull in those weapons, should in mine opiniō be a∣ble to performe far greater seruice in ye field either against horsemen or footmen, then any of the forenamed wea∣pons offire on horsebacke: Considering that both archers and Crosbowers may with their arrowes and quarrels ve∣rie certenlie wound or kill in their points and blanks either horsemen or footmen, that are in squadron, or troupe. 2. or 3. skores of, and rouing 6. 7. or 8. skores or a great deale furder may greatlie mischiefe and annoie any squadron ei∣ther of horsemen or footmen: where as the Argolettiers or Pistolettiers are not to worke any effect against squadrons or troupes of horsmen or footmen aboue 10 or 15. yardes off, at the furdest, and if it be enemie to enemie single, then they are not to discharge their peeces aboue 4. or 5. yardes Page  205 off; vnles they wil faile 5. times, before they hit once, so vn∣certaine are those weapons of fire: The iudgement wher∣of because this mine opinion may seeme strange to such as doo not know the imperfections of those weapons of fire on horsebacke, I refer vnto any Captaines or conductors of those weapons, either Italians, Spaniards, Wallouns, or French, that are souldiors of experience and iudgement.

But now because I haue diuers times seene new bandes of diuers sortes of horsmen verie sleightlie mustered,* aswel beyond the seas, as also in England, I thinke it good in this place brieflie to write with what curiositie I woulde wish musters of bandes of horsemen and footmen for the de∣fence of the Realme to be taken: And therfore I say, that I would wish that the Mustermaister of horsemen & foot∣men of euery shire,* should bee a knight or an Esquire of greatworship of the same shire, or some other shire next adioyning, and such a one as had serued in some warre or warres in former times, and therefore of some good expe∣rience in matters militarie, who in respect of his good cal∣ling and worship would haue speciall care to the good and faithfull seruice of the king and Realme, without any waies abusing the performance of his dutie in those seruices, as most of the common Mustermaisters of this time do; who being either Captaines newlie come vppe and of small ac∣count, or else such as haue beene souldiors and officers of bandes, and now reteiners and seruants to Noblemen, and doo procure and sue for such offices, rather to haue ordi∣narie and yearely stipendes at the charge of the shires, as also by diuers other waies and meanes to make their vn∣lawfull gaines and profits of the subiectes (then any waies to perform their duties in taking right and skilful musters, and reforming of militarie lackes and imperfections) doo wittinglie and willinglie in respect of gaine worke but very little good effect in those emploiments.

And because al the bands of horsmen of euerie shire are composed of knights, of gentlemēs, & of yeomens seruāts and that betwixt musters and musters they doo somtimes Page  206 change by putting out of their seruice, or otherwise, their men that are inrolled into the bands of horsemen, wherof it commeth to passe that sometimes a meane man of sta∣ture, putteth on a tall mans armor, and sometimes a taller man putteth on the armour of a man of smaller stature, in such sort as many of them are very vnfitlie and vneasily ar∣med, and as vnskilfull in souldiorlie wearing, and vsing of their weapons, and altogither ignorant to ride, handle, & vse their horses: and that armed men being on horseback may seeme to bee conuenientlie apparelled and armed, when if they were a foot they would shew to be far other∣wise;* I would therefore that euerie such principall Gen∣tleman Mustermaster should in calling ouer of euery hors∣man by name in order as they are in his muster roll set downe, make euery one of them in order as they are called one after another to alight a foot, and to view euery hors∣man well, whether hee haue an arming doublet fit for his armour or no, and whether both the armour and doublet be fit for the man, and hether there bee any buckles, or leathers broken, or any peece, or peeces lacking; none of the which particular lackes are sufferable.

Then he is to peruse whether he haue all the weapons belonging to horsemen of his sort, as if he be a dimilaunce with such weapons as I haue before particulerlie named that do belong to a dimilaunce; and if he be a stradiot, then the Mustermaister is to view him a foote as aforesaid, to see whether his apparell and armor be fitte for his person, and therewithall aptly and soldiorlie worne, as also whe∣ther he haue all his weapons belonging vnto horsemen of his sorte, and whether they bee good, and that he doth weare them aptly and soldiorly, yea he ought to view how he doth weare his hosen and Greigescoes, bootehosen, bootes and spurres, and whether he doth weare them apt∣ly and fitly like a horseman or like a Clowne: And incase there be any imperfections or imperfection in any of those particularities, he is presentlie to giue order vpon some conuenient penaltie according to the desault or imperfec∣tion Page  207 to be imposed vpon the partie that doth set forth the horse and horseman, that the same with al speede by a cer∣ten prefixed day be supplied or amended; Then he is to view his horse, and euerie part of the furniture of his horse to see whether there be any lacke, vnfitnesse, or imperfec∣tion in any part of the same, or whether his horse since the last muster hath bene chaunged, or whether since that time he hath by misusage bene broken winded or made lame; and therefore it behoueth the Mustermaister to haue a skilfull Ferrar with him at his taking of Musters, that can with skill Iudge of their lamenesse or soundnesse. All which performed, then the Mustermaister must command the horsman to mount on horseback,* and to put his horse orderlie into his Carrire, and to charge his staffe presentlie and soldiorlie from his thigh into his rest if he be a launce, and not as they doo commonlie vse to carrie their staues at the tilt to beautifie their courses, as is before declared, and againe at the end of his Carrire to discharge the same, and to set it againe vpon his thigh and to stoppe and turne his horse both of the right and lefte hand; and if he be a Stradiot, after that he is remounted againe on horseback he is to commaund him to gallop the field as if he were in skirmish, and to vse his double headed Launcegaie in stri∣king both forward and backward, as also on euerie side, as though he were in action with his enemie, and suddenly to cast frō him his double headed Launce, as if the same were broken, or by some accident lost, and to draw his pistoll, and pull downe the Cocke, and discharge the same, and presentlie againe to pull vp the cocke, and to thrust it into his case, and to draw his sword, or to handle some other weapon of his with dexteritie; which being soldiorlike per∣formed, he is to be allowed to passe the muster for a suffici∣ent soldior: but in case his horse be restie or headstrong, such a horse how sound soeuer, is not to be allowed, vnlesse he may in short time be reformed. And so likewise if he be an archer, or Crosbower on horsebacke, he must verie particulerlie view, and see; whether his apparell, armor and Page  208 weapons with all other furniture belonging to the same, bee all in as great, or greater order and perfection then I haue before particularlie set downe: and so likewise hee is verie curiouslie to view euerie one of their horses that they be of conuenient age, and size, and sound of wind and lim, as also whether their saddles, bridles, bittes, pattrels, and croupers, and other furniture be in perfection.

All which beeing by the mustermaister throughoutlie viewed and found in order and perfection, then hee is to command the archer to mount on horsebacke, and to gal∣loppe vppon the hand, and passing by some marke set vp in the fielde, to drawe 2. or 3. arrowes out of his sheafe one after another, and drawing euery one of them to the head, to discharge them at the same marke, some 3. or 4. scores off; which being by him souldiorlike performed, he is to al∣low him for a sufficient soldior and archer on horsback; & so al other archers that he shall muster & find to be armed, horsed, weaponed and furnished, and of sufficiencie as a∣foresaid. And so likewise, hauing viewed, and perused eue∣rie Crosbower on horseback, with all their armor, Wea∣pons and furniture, as also their horses with all other fur∣niture belonging to them, and finding them all in perfecti∣on, then hee is likewise to commaund the Crosbower to mount on horsback, and to gallop vpon the hande, and in passing by to discharge a quarrell at some mark set vp some 30. paces off, and againe presentlie with his gaffle to bend his crosbow and to discharge a second quarrell at that or some other marke; which being by him, and al other cros∣bowers orderlie and souldiorlike performed; then he is to allow them to passe the muster as sufficient souldiors, and so likewise he ought to allowe the Archers beeing in such perfection as aforesaid.*

And in this curious sort a Mustermaister is to take the view and Muster of euerie different sort, and kinde of hors∣men; For as for reducing any number of them into any forme or formes with many other particularities. hose things doo apperteine to their Captaines, and higher and Page  209 lower officers; and so likewise the mustering of them in such curious sort as aforsaid, doth appertain also vnto eue∣ry good and careful Captain, that dooth desire to haue his band in good order.* But because some such gentlemen as are appointed Captains of horsemen and footmen for the defence of the Realm, are for lack of skil or care, not so cu∣rious in hauing their bands in order as they ought to bee: therefore the forsaid knight or principal gentleman that is appointed to take musters, shoulde at certen conuenient times in the yeare, when al sorts of men are at most leisure from their country affaires & busines, muster them in con∣uenient places, some at one time and some at another, to see y they should be alwaies in order, to be emploied for ye defence of their Prince, and country: & should also in cal∣ling them ouer one after another by his muster roll, bee as curious in viewing not onlie the sufficiencie of the person of euery soldior, whether he be any waies by any accident decaied since his first election & inrolment: but also should very curiously view ye fitnes of his apparell and armor, least that since the first election and inrolment, or since the last musters, the man, his apparel, or armour had beene chan∣ged. Then he is to view his weapons, and ye apt and fit wea∣ring of them, & whether both armor & weapons be clean and neat,* and in such perfection as I haue before very par∣ticularly set down, in the election, apparelling, arming and weaponing of al sorts of footmen by vs in these daies vsed: and incase that he doth find any abuses, lacks, or imperfec∣tions in any of the particularities aforsaid, or any other, he is presently to giue order for the reforming of the same by a prefixed day vpon some seuere penalty to be imposed ei∣ther vpon the parish that hath set foorth that souldior, or vpon the priuate rich man that dooth finde and set foorth the same souldior, or vppon the Souldior himselfe, incase he be of that wealth that he is at his owne arming, and fur∣nishing.

Also wheras such soldiors either horsmen or footmen Page  210 as are inrolled in such bands as aforesaid,* do somtimes be∣come so maimed or mischieued by some accidental chaū∣ces that they shall neuer be after able effectually to vse such weapons as they were inrolled vnto, or that by long sick∣nes they are so decayed as they are not likely in a long time or neuer to recouer their forces therby soldiorlike to weare their armors, and vse their weapons; Vpon those and other like causes and accidents I would wish that the parish that doth find such soldiors, or else the priuate rich men, incase they be set forth and found by them, should presently note∣fie the same vnto ye captain vnder whom & in whose band the said soldior or soldiors do serue, & that they should with in a certen and a prefixed day after, present vnto him three other allowable, & able men, alreadie from their youth ex∣ercised, in case they be archers, or apte and willing to learn to be soldiors, incase they bee of other weapons, to the in∣tent that the captaine should to his best liking, make choice of one of them to be inrolled and supplie the place of the soldior maimed or by long sicknesse decaied.

Also incase that the soldior, or soldiors of any band or bands of horsmen or footmen should happen to die,* or vp∣on occasion of newe habitation, should remoue out of the parish or hundred, wheras he at his first inrolment did inha∣bit, or that any seruaunt, or seruingman inrolled to any wea∣pon to serue on horseback, should depart out of his miasters seruice; that in those and other like cases, the parishes vpon the death of any such soldior or soldiors, should presently notifie the same vnto his or their captaine or captains, and should within a certen prefixed daie after, present vnto him 3. other able and sufficient men to make his choice of one of them, to serue with the armor and weapons of the party, or parties deceased. But incase that such a soldior or soldi∣ors either horsman or footman should vpon the accasion of inhabiting else where, depart out of the Townes where they before had inhabited, or bene resident, or that such souldiors had departed out of their maisters seruices to serue elsewhere, as aforesaid: then I would in those or any Page  211 the like cases, that either the parish where such souldiors did dwell, or the maisters of such seruantes should signifie their intention of remouing and departure of such souldi∣ors, vnto their Captaines, a full moneth before their de∣parture, and that they should either 15. or 10. daies be∣fore their departure at the least, present vnto him 2. or 3. verie able men, of the which he may make choice of one to be inrolled and to serue and supplie in the place of such a souldior remoouing.

And whereas all the armors and weapons of the souldi∣ors footmen are at this time placed diuersly in al the shires of England,* in such partes whereas there are inrolmentes of horsemen and footemen, as in some places that they are placed in the chiefe Towne or Townes of the shire, and in other places in the Captaines, or other gentlemens houses, and in other partes that al the Corporals haue the custodie of all the armor and weapons that doo belong to the corporolates or societies that are vnder their charge; and all this vnder pretence for the more safe, and clean, and neat keeping of them, as also to take awaie the opportuni∣ties of the peoples sudden arming of themselues incase they should take armes,* the same beeing alreadie in their houses, with intention to reuolt, and rebell. Therevnto I say, that it is not the keeping or placing of the armour and weapons of a shire or diuers shires, heere or there out of the souldiors handes as aforesaid, that can keepe them, or a people disposed to rebell, from rebelling, if the souldi∣ors oathes of fidelitie at their first election and inrolments will not restraine and conteine them; by reason that rebel∣lions doo begin so diuerslie, and vpon so many prepensed or accidentall opportunities, as they cannot be any waies preuented by such poore deuises.*

For as rebellions in diuers Empires, kingdomes and Common wealthes haue begun vppon the ambition or discontentation of some Noble man, or Noblemen for wronges and iniustices at their princes handes receiued, that doo confederate togither, or otherwise resolue to take Page  212 Armes against the Prince: Vpon such conspiracies, or re∣solutions I say, it is not the placing of armor or weapons, heere or there in shires, that can eepe the same out of the handes of them,* and the people that follow them, the re∣uoult and rebllion being once begun, but the armor being placed in great Townes vnfortefied, as all our Townes of England are, those armors and weapons being in such Townes vnfortefied kepte, are a great deale the more rea∣die to arme and weapon a great multitude reuolted all at one time, then if they were dispearsed in the soldiors custo∣dies and houses to whome they belong, to serue withall, throughout such a whole Shire or diuers Shires. So som∣times also rebellions do happen through the discontenta∣tion of the Ignobile vulgus, or common people, and those most commonly do begin in great Townes vpon the as∣semblie of many people; as of faires, markets, and other such assemblies of people,* so as great quantitie of armor, and weapons being kepte in such great Townes, they are the more readie for the people reuolting to possesse them∣selues of them. And so likewise, armors & weapons, being placed either in the Captaines or Corporalls houses, they are a great deale more readie vpon a rebellion by the com∣mō people begon, to be by them taken to arme themselues withal, then if they were dispersed into al the soldiors hou∣ses vnto whome they belong to serue withall for defence of the Realme, according to their oathes, throughout a whole shire. But incase that the rebellion be vniuersall througout one, or diuers whole shires, then it cannot be avoided but that wheresoeuer the armor and weapons of such shires are placed, they will presentlie possesse them∣selues of them.

And incase that all the armor and weapons not only of a few shires, but of all the kingdome, were taken out of all the shires throughout, and were placed in some place, or places well fortified, and vnder great garrison to be the more safelie and surelie kept: I say that the same out of the handes of the people without other preuention, can no Page  213 waies hinder nor keepe a common people from rebellion that are disposed to rebell, considering that according to Virgill. Furor arma ministrat; as it may be apparant, by the Bellum seruile,* that hapned against the Romaines in all their greatnesse, which consisted most of slaues, and bond∣men, hauing one Spartacus a Fenser, and other Fensers for their Chiefaines, who at ye beginning of their reuoult had but verie few or no armors and weapons of warre, but such as their rage and furie taught them to inuent, take, and vse, and so likewise the common people of the kingdome of Hongarie,* and the peasants termed in the French Cro∣nicles, the Iaccarie of Fraunce when they first reuolted and ooke Armes against the Nobilite of those kingdoms were vtterly disarmed, and all the Nobilitie of those King∣domes verie notablie armed, both for on horsbacke and on foote; and yet after the rebellion was once begun, those common people presentlie inuented & forged both armor and weapons of warre in great numbers both offen∣siue and defensiue, and in short time reduced themselues into so great strength, as before that they could be vtterlie suppressed, it cost the liues of a great parte of the Nobiltie and gentlemen of those kingdomes: Notwithstanding that both those kingdomes, I meane Fraunce and Hon∣garie had many Cities, and Townes so well fortified for the Kinges and Nobilitie to make their retraites into, as the pesantes hadde neuer the skill nor power to pos∣sesse themselues of, which the Realme of England hath not.

And so likewise if we list to looke vpon the Rebellions* of the common people that happened in diuers partes of England in one smer in kinge Edward the sixthes time, and chiefelie the Rebellion vnder Kette in Norffolke it is most apparant, that at the first begining of the Rebellion they had verie little, or no armor, and verie few weapons of warre, but that in a verie short time after that they Page  214 had begun their rebellion, they did inuent, forge, & make manie weapons of warre, in the which for a time vntil they were suppressed, they behaued themselues in terrible sort; And of later time within these 24. or 25. years, the Moores of the kingdome of Granada in Spaine that was a people vtterlie disarmed and without weapons and exercises of warre,* did in al the greatnesse of king Philip of Spaine that nowe is, reuolt; and maing of necessitie vertue, did first betake themselues to fight with stones, and a few weapons that they had long before got by stealth and hidde in their houses: But after that their rebellion was begun, they in a very short time, did inuent, and forge, and winne by force of the Spaniards Christians great numbers of armors and weapons both offensiue and defensiue, and did so resist, preuaile, and defend themselues against the king of Spains powers sent against them, that it was more then two years after the first beginning of the Rebellion, ere it could bee suppressed; in which space, it cost ye liues of aboue 50000. Spaniardes: Amongst which number, there were manie principall Gentlemen, and Captaines of good account slaine.

By all which examples before rehearsed with many o∣thers, as all men that haue read and obserued many histo∣ries doo well knowe, it is most apparant, that it is not the placing of the armor and weapons, here or there, or the disarming of the cōmon people, as the peasants in France, and Hongarie, and the Moores in Spaine were disarmed, that can preuent Rebellions that doo happen and are be∣gun vpon diuers occasions,* and chieflie for lack of iustice dulie and equallie ministred: Howbeit Iustice duly & with great equalitie and order ministred throughout a whole Empire, kingdome, or common wealth, with great care had to protect, preserue, maintaine, increase and continue the Common wealth of the subiectes in al prosperitie, and by aduancing and fauouring the good, and by reproching and punishing the bad: the same I say, how wel armed so∣euer the subiects and people are, dooth take awaie all oc∣casions Page  215 and intentions of rebellion, as it is most apparant by the notable Cittie, and state of Venice, and their domi∣nions in the continent and Ilands that doo belong to that seniorie;* which haue beene euer in many ages so well ar∣med, as in Venice itselfe, the common multitude of the Ci∣tizens and people, who neuer beare any office in the com∣mon wealth, but certen base offices, doo so well content themselues with the gouernment, and great and equal iu∣stice of the Magistrates and their superiors; that although they haue all sortes of armors, and weapons of warre for footmen in all their houses; yet it is not to be found in any Chronicles or histories of Venice, that euer they did take armes or reuolt against their Duke, Senate, nor Nobilitie: And that in like sort, al the dominions that do belong vn∣to Venice, that are in the continent of Italie and elsewhere, although all the common people of those dominions, bee armed and weaponed; yet through the great care had by the state of Venice of their prosperitie, with equall & great iustice ministred euen to the very least of them; they finde themselues so well contented to liue vnder the quiet and happie gouernment of the Venetians, that they haue not in many and many yeares, once offred any kinde of reuolt against them; but haue rather at such times as some parts of those dominions haue beene by force wonne and pos∣sessed, sometimes by the Imperiall, and somtimes by the French and other Princes, at one time or other reuolted from the gouernment of such straungers, and returned a∣gaine to the obedience of the Venetians.

Besides which, it is to be noted, that the Cantonnes and confederate people of Suitzerland,* since they through the great extortions and iniustices of the Dukes of Austridge and their officers and substitutes, did take armes, and by battle and victorie (with the death of the Duke Lupold, and slaughter of a great part of his Nobilitie) redeeme and reduce themselues into a ciuill and popular State, haue ne∣uer reuolted; nor that the people of certen principalities of Germanie through the great iustice by their princes Page  216 and Magistrats equallie ministred, and the well ordering & vsing of the people, haue at any time rebelled: I mean the Suissers against their Magistrates, nor those Almaines a∣gainst their princes. By which examples with manie o∣thers, which for breuities sake I omit; this old prouerbe is verefied,*Opus Iustitiae pax; which may be interpreted, that the effect of iustice is peace.

From all which I come to conclude, that no Emperor, King, nor Common wealth that doo gouerne their Sub∣iectes with great and equall iustice, and therewithall doo effectuallie shew to haue great care of their increase, pros∣perity and happinesse, need any waies to doubt any reuol or Rebellion against them,* by their subiectes and people, although they haue al sorts of armors and weapons of war in their houses; but that it is rather verie requisite & need∣full for all great Princes and Common Wealthes, that wil maintaine and defend themselues and their dominions against forren Nations, to well arme, weapon, and exer∣cise their people in matters militarie; and that they doo establish good Lawes for the good and orderlie perfour∣mance of the same.* All which before considered, mine opinion clearelie is, that of all other places it is most con∣uenient, that the armours and Weapons of all Shieres should be kept by such rich men as doo finde those armors and weapons, in their owne houses; and such as are found by the common purse of parishes, that they should be kept in the chiefe mens houses of those parishes where the sol∣diors dwell; that vppon occasion of those seruices should weare and vse them, aswell in respect that all men by all reason will be more carefull to keepe and maintain in good order such apparell, armor and weapons as were bought at their owne charges, then great Townes, or Gentlemen, or Corporalles, that neuer bought the same: Besides that vpon any sudden alarum, or giuing of fire to the beacons vpon the enemies comming to inuade, or other occasion of seruice, when the souldiors of the whole shire, shoulde with al celeritie arme themselues & march to the place of Page  217 assembly generall, there to reduce themselues vnder their Ensignes and Captains, and vnder their higher and lower officers; I say that all sortes of souldiours may presentlie, and with a great deale more celeritie, apparell, arme and weapon themselues in warrelike manner, the same beeing in their owne houses, if they be owners of the same, or o∣therwise presentlie to apparell arme and weapon them∣selues in such houses of the same Towne whereas the fur∣niture is kept, and themselues doo dwell, then to runne to Gentlemens or Corporalles houses, or to great townes 3. or 4. miles off; where their armors & furniture are kept, & there in hubbledeshuffe disorderlie to arme themselues; wherof, besides diuers other disorders that do ensue often times vpon such sudden Alarmes, and armings, little men doo put on great or tall mens armors, and leaue little ar∣mors vnfit for great men to put on; according to the olde saying, first come first serued; And so likewise they do mis∣take the right choosing of their apparell and Weapons; whereof inseweth great disorder and confusion. And these sudden disorders with others that I omit, cannot vpō such sudden alarmes be possiblie preuented, the armors & wea∣pon being so placed, although al the particuler names of the soldiors, were written vpon the apparel, armor & wea∣pons. And now as I haue set downe mine opinion concer∣ning ye election and enrolling aswel of diuers sorts of hors∣men as of footmen, to diuers different sorts of armors and weapons with many other particularities: So would I now wish (al matters military being brought into the perfectiō aforsaid) that all the souldiors aswell horsemen as footmen, should in som conuenient place appointed for ye purpose,* vpon the holidaies, during certen moneths in ye summer, in the afternoone after they come from church, exercise themselues with such weapons as they are inrolled vnto, as archers to shooting game at Rouers, & long buts, with their long bowes, according to the ancient vse of England, and that the harquebuziers in the presence of the chiefe men or officers of y parish in trauessing their grounds as if they Page  218 were in skirmish, should with their peeces well, and order∣ly charged (as I haue in my instructions and discourses be∣fore particularly declared) at a great But discharge 4. shot; and so likewise that the mosquetiers should with their mos∣quets well charged with full bullets from their restes, dis∣charge 3. or 4. other shot: And this at the charge either of the parishes, or of such rich men as doo find such soul∣diors, or otherwise as it may be better considered of, and deuised. Also I would that such soldiors as are piquers being disarmed should with blunt piques, learne to march soldiorly, as also with dexeritie to handle and manage them, thereby the better to know how in seruice to han∣dle their sharpe piques; as also the halbarders with blunt halbardes made for the purpose, should learne to giue both blow and thrusts at their enemies with their greatest aduauntage: Howbeit as for halbarders and piquers there is no neede that they should be so often exercised to the vse of their weapons as the soldiors with weapons of volee; because that soldiors with weapons of volee, be they horsemen or footmen shal neuer be able effectually to per∣forme the vse and effects of their weapons in seruices of the field in earnest, if they be not often and long before exercised in sporte with dexteritie to mannage and vse those weapons. And so likewise vpon such aforesaid ho∣lydaies, I would wish that all sorts of horsemen of what weapon soeuer, should either before their maisters or some other principall men where they dwel, appointed for that purpose, ride their horses, and exercise themselues on hor∣backe, with such weapons as they are inrolled vnto. And all these aforesaid priuate exercises vpon holidaies I would wish to be performed to the intent to make all the sol∣diors of all sorts of armors and weapons as well on hors∣back as on foote to be the more apte, & ready to performe the effects of soldiors vpon all important emploiments and seruices Militarie, as also at such generall musters, and trainings as should be appointed, & thought requisite vp∣on some two speciall times in the sommer, when the peo∣ple Page  [unnumbered] might haue best leisure to be absent from their mo needefull and necessarie Countrie affaires.

Also I would that no horsemen,* nor footmen to what armor and weapon soeuer they bee inrolled, should alter or chaunge themselues from the same kinde of armors and weapons that he or they are inrolled vnto vpon verie se∣uere punishment, without the special appointment of their Captain, or Captaines; and therefore it is verie conueni∣ent that al Captains aswell of horsmen as footmen should euer haue all their officers of their bandes alwaies ready & wel known to their whole bands,* as also the whole bāds vnto them: as their Lieutenantes, their Ensignebearers, their Sergeants: And that all those officers should be men of credite and account, and inhabiters in the same shires, and that al those officers should haue the muster Rolles of the names of all the souldiors with their different wepons that they are inrolled vnto, in as great perfections as the Captaines: that thereby, as also for diuers other causes they should haue a continual eie that the souldiors of their bands should not through any kinde of negligence grow into any imperfections, or disorders; And therewithall that the Corporals of the footmen, who should haue 50. souldiors vnder their seuerall charges, (their own persons in that number conteined) should neuer be without a per∣fect Roll of the particular names of the souldiors of their Corporalates, and to what armor and weapons euery sol∣dior is inrolled, and where they dwell: And therewithall that they should haue speciall care, to see and diligently to inquire, whether the souldiors of their charge and Corpo∣ralates do vpon such holidaies as aforesaid, exercise them∣selues with their weapons, in the Townes, parishes, ham∣lets, or plaes where they are ordinarilie resident as also that at conuenient times they should see whether their arming aparell, armors and weapons be well and order∣lie kept without any thing lacking: And for the orderlie obseruation and performance of all the most requisit mat∣ters by me before set downe, as also others that haue noPage  [unnumbered]〈◊〉 present fallen into my remembrance, or that may 〈◊〉 better considered of and deuised by others of greater memorie and consideration then I am of, I would wish they should be with great consideration & aduise of coun∣sell propounded,* considered of, and established by Act of Parliament with certen different penalties for the refour∣ming of the neglecters of such requisite matters militarie, as also certen priuiledges, preheminences, or other ad∣uancements, a rewards for vertue, to be bestowed vppon such as doo best or verie well behaue themselues in their vocations, and egrees militarie.

And thus hauing for the great loue that I beare to the continuall safetie and prosperity of the Crowne & Realme of England,* ad English Nation, performed and finished my intended propositions and proiects militarie, I cease,* attributing all such matters as I haue rightly fallen into the reckoning of, to the most high praise, honor and glorie, of Almightie God, (as the only giuer of all right vnderstan∣ding, wisdome and science) and all my failinges and errors vnto mine owne great lacke and fault, in that I haue not giuen and yeelde my selfe as I ought to haue doon, to his deuine grace, and direction; thereby to haue considered, learned, and obserued more of the Art, and sciene Mili∣tarie, and of all other good thinges; then my simple capa∣citie and power, by seeing, reading, and hearing hath been any waies able to attaine vnto.

Honor et gloria in excelsis Deo omnipotenti, sempiterno, et incomprehensibili Amen.
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