[Certen] instruct[ions, obseruati]ons and orders militarie, requisit for all chieftaines, captaines [and?] higher and lower men of charge, [and officers] to vnderstand, [knowe and obserue]
Smythe, John, Sir, ca. 1534-1607.
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Certen Instructions, obseruations and orders military, requisit for al Chieftains, Captains, and higher and lower men of charge, & officers to vnderstand, know and obserue. Composed by sir Iohn Smythe, knight, 1591.

THE first thing belonging to the Art and Science Militarie, practised by all Warlike Nations in all ages hath bin, that al Captains after they haue recei∣ued the charge of bands or companies of horsmen or footmen armed & wea∣poned, according to the discipline and vse of the Nation that they are of; haue first instructed and taught their souldiors to reduce themselues into their simple and single order of ranks, and to weare, carry, and vse all their weapons in soldior-like manner, according to the nature and effect of euery different sort of them, without which readilie and orderlie performed and dulie obserued, with all obedience, neyther Captains, officers, nor their soldiors, can in right vnderstanding be accoun∣ted worthy to beare the name of men of warre; and ther∣fore I will first begin with the orderlie reducing of a band into forme to march in their rankes as followeth.

All Captaines, Lieutenants, and Sergeants of bands, are first to consider before they do reduce their bands of souldiors into their simple and single order of ranks,* how many different sorts of weapons they haue in their bands with the number of euery different sort of weapon; which done, then are they to consider what sort & kind of wea∣pon shall march in the first compertiment or deuision, Page  2 and what other sort of weapon in the second comperti∣ment, and so subsequentlie in all the rest; so as alwaies the compertiment of armed men piquers doo march in the midst of all the rest of the compertiments.

All which being by them and their officers con∣sidered,* then they are to resolue how many souldiers of euery sort of weapon they will command to march in a rancke; as of 5. of 6. or of 7. or more or fewer: so as they be not fewer then 3. nor more then 10. or 11: at the most in their simple and single order of rankes, although their bandes be verie great. And these numbers of 10. or 11. in a ranke at the most, and 3. soldiors in a ranke at the fewest for single bands to march in, hath beene obserued by all men of warre of iudgement amongst all Warlike Nations in all ages; and that in respect that the rankes of souldiors that doe not exceed the number of 10. or 11. may in an instant bee numbred by the Captaines or of∣ficers, sudden casting their eies vpon such ranks, as also by the souldiors that are to reduce themselues into their rankes: wheras if they were of greater numbers, the cap∣taine, lieutenant, or sergeants, may quicklie mistake the number of soldiors in ranke, and so to their reproach faile in their intended reducements. Besides that squadrons how great, and of what forme soeuer they are formed, the compertiments of diuers or many bands, are more con∣ueniently and certeinlie brought into their proportions and formes,* with the compertiments of bands that doe not exceed the number of 10. or 11. in a ranke at the vt∣termost, or rather fewer, then if they were of greater numbers; with other causes and reasons also which for breuities sake in this place I omit. And now all this bee∣ing as aforesaid by a Captaine considered, and he hauing with himselfe concluded that all the compertiments of different weapons throughout his band shall march 5. in a rank, or any other number (as aforesaid:) he is presently to giue order to his officers to reduce them into that Page  3 number in euerie ranke; which to performe, some one of them is first to saie vnto the harquebuziers who are to be the first compertiment,*Ranke your selues harquebuziers fiue in a ranke, appointing them the ground where the soldiors of the first ranke shall reduce themselues; and so likewise the like briefe wordes and orders are to bee pro∣nounced to the Archers, to the Musquetiers, and to the armed men: which being by them heard, euery different sort of those weapons ought with all celeritie to reduce themselues throughout their compertiments into the foresaid number of 5. in a ranke,* all the backer rankes of euery compertiment, obseruing the proportionate di∣stances of the two first rankes of their owne comperti∣ment in frunt and by flanks.

But because when soldiors doo begin to reduce them∣selues into ranks after the number pronounced by their Captains or Sergeants, that in the first, second, or third ranke, or else in some of the rest of the rankes, there hap∣pen sometimes more soldiors to fal into some of those rankes, then there should be by the number pronounced, (as aforesaid) and that those soldiors that came last into that ranke or those ranks,* are vpon pride or wilfulnesse lothe to put themselues out of that ranke or rankes, and to retire themselues to find out some ranke or ranks that doe lacke the number pronounced: the Captains there∣fore and the officers of bands ought to instruct their sol∣diors, at such times as they are to reduce themselues into their simple or single order of rankes, according vnto the number by their Captains or officers pronounced, that if in the first, second, or third ranke; or in any of the rest of the former ranks, that disorder doe happen; that then the ouerplus of the number of the soldiors by the Cap∣taine or officers pronounced that doe find themselues on the left flanke, or side of that ranke, or rankes, shall pre∣sently put themselues out of the same ranke, or ranks, and retire vntill they find a ranke or rankes, that doe lacke the Page  4 number of soldiors by their Captain or officers pronoun¦ced. And to the intent that this order may be the better performed, the Captaines, Lieutenants, and sergeants, ought to instruct their soldiors that in the reducing of themselues into ranks, the first soldior that is to begin in the first ranke, being placed by the Sergeant in the place where the first ranke should begin, the rest of the soldiors of the same armor and weapon that are next vnto that first soldior by the seargeant placed, shall presently fall in∣to ranke by the left side or flanke the one of th' other, vn∣till that ranke be compleat according to the number by the Captain, Lieutenant, or Sergeant pronounced. And so likewise the second,* third, fourth, and consequentlie al the rest of the ranks are to reduce themselues into theyr ranks by the left flankes, or sides the one of the other, and not to enter into ranke disorderlie th' one betwixt the o∣ther. So that by the performance of this prescribed or∣der, any ouerplus of soldiors that shall happen to fall into any of those rankes shall find themselues to be on the left flanke or side of those ranks, and therfore shall know that it is their duties presently to retire out of those ranks, vn∣till they find some other ranke or rankes that doo lack the number by their Captains or Sergeants pronounced. Al which different weapons being reduced into their com∣pertiments by the orders aforesaide, then the Captaine may command his lieutenant and Sergeants of the band to draw the one halfe of euery different sort of weapon of volee, behind the compertiment of armed men, & there to place them in the same & like order as the other halfe of those weapons of volee are before the armed men; so as the armed piquers shall hold the middle place of the band according to all discipline.

And the like briefe speeches and prescribed orders of reducements by the left flanke the one of th'other may serue for horsmen, be they men at Armes, Launces, bor∣derers or Stradiots, or of any other kinde of armor and Page  5 weapon on horsebacke. As for example, If a Captaine or Lieutenant of men at Armes, or Dimilances would reduce his companie into their simple or single order of rankes,* he is to say vnto those that are to begin the first ranke: Ranke your selues Launces three in a ranke, or 4 or 5 in a ranke, or as it shal please him: Vpon which speaches pronounced, all his whole band or companie is to per∣forme his commandement and words pronounced with the like obseruations as are before prescribed vnto the bands of footmen, hauing alwaies speciall regard to their proportionate distances in frunt and by flanks. And these prescribed orders before set downe, al soldiors bee they horsmen or footmen ought to know & performe with all celerity, quietnes, & silence, vpō very seuere punishment.

Now the Captain or Captains hauing reduced their soldiors into their simple, or single order of ranks or into any forme of square, & that the soldiors piquers do stand at their piques, the butends on the ground, and the points vpright, and that the Captain, Lieutenant, or Sergeants would haue them to march, they are then to say to the first ranke: Shoulder your piques and march; which is as much to say:* Lay your piques vpon your right shoulders and march, which shouldering of piques must be doone with a comely and soldiorlike grace, all the piquers of the first ranke falling backe with their right feet almost a foot behind their left, that their piques may the more leisure∣ly and comelie fall to their shoulders, and then raising vp their left feet about a handfull from the ground,* & letting them fall againe, they must all in an instant aduance for∣ward, & so fal into their march, first with their right feet. And so in like maner the second, third, and fourth ranks, & so subsequentlie al the rest of the ranks must in al points perform the like, & shoulder their pikes one after another & carry the butends of their piques 3. foot or more from the ground, straight in discent towardes the right hams of the souldiors piquers marching before them, euerie Page  6 ranke beeing so euen in frunt, that the butend of no pi∣quers pique may preceed the one the other in the same ranke; and so euen and straight by flanks that the butend of euerie piquers pique may be iust point and blanke to∣wards the right hamme of the piquer preceding in the ranke before him: And so they must al with great silence and with a graue and soldiorlike grace, march.

But whereas in this place I doe instruct that all the sol∣diors of the first ranke, and so subsequentlie of all the rest of the rankes one after another should first fall back with their right feet, almost a foot behind their left, to the in∣tent that their piques should fall the more leisurely to their shoulders, and that then all the soldiors of the first ranke at one instant should raise and lift vp their left feet about a handfull from the ground, and letting them fall againe to the ground should march forward, first with their right feet; that instruction I doe giue partlie in re∣spect that the same being orderlie performed as aforsaid, it dooth giue a very comelie grace vnto the soldiors in their first beginning to march, but chiefelie because that the leisurely falling backe of all the soldiors of the first ranke with their right feet, to shoulder their piques, and so subsequentlie of all the rest of the rankes one after ano∣ther, with the lifting vp also of their left feet about a hand full from the ground, is a warning to euery hinder ranke presently to prepare themselues to march, whereas by not performing the same or the like leisurely and soldior∣like warning vpon the stroke of the drum or briefe spee∣ches pronounced as aforesaid, it often commeth to passe that the soldiors of the second ranke, are suddenlie, and disorderly cast too great a distance behind the first ranke, and so consequentlie all the rest of the rankes, by the sud∣den shouldering of their piques, and stepping forward of the first ranke.

And I doe further aduertise that the soldiors piquers of any priuate band marching in their single order of rankes Page  7 doe in any wise obserue the distances of 16. or else 18. feet betwixt euerie rank & ranke by flankes, and 6. or else 7.* feet betwixt euery soldior, and soldior in frunt; that is betwixt soldior and soldior in euery ranke: And this in case the ground will permit them or otherwise that they do march in conuenient distances in frunt and by flanks, according to the ground and occasion.

And in this place because I haue mentioned and tou∣ched the distances that ought to be obserued by a single band of piquers, and other weapons marching in their simple and single order of ranks, I thought it were a con∣uenient place also to handle and write at large of the ma∣ny and different distances that ought to be obserued as well in frunt; that is in euery ranke from frunt to backe, as by flanks, that is betwixt euery ranke and ranke, not only by single bands, but also by squadrons and battels for many purposes, and that not onelie by footmen, but also by horsmen of diuers different sortes of armour and weapons. Howbeit considering that the same hath been briefelie touched although to no great purpose by some other writers of forreigne Nations; And that if I should enter to write and discourse of those matters effectuallie, it would require manie sheetes of paper, and therefore would be very long and tedious to the Reader, I thought good to ouerpasse those particularities as thinges very well knowne to all skilfull men of warre of all warlike na∣tions, and to proceed to other matters that doe require more particular instruction.* And that the rather, because the many and different distances that are vppon diuers different causes and occasions to be obserued by horse∣men as also by footmen, are such and so many as they cannot bee expressed by writing but with verie great difficultie; for that the same cannot bee particularlye set downe but by the measures of paces and halfe paces, and by the measures of more and fewer feet, of halfe feet and quarters of feet, and other such measures; which I Page  8 thinke no man of any experience can possibly by writing rightlie expresse without failing or erring more or lesse: And that by reason that sometimes single bandes are to march in open places where they haue roome inough to inlarge their ranks both in frunt and by flankes, thereby to beautifie and giue grace vnto such companies; And at other times they are to march thorow Citties and Townes, where the narrownesse of the streats doe not giue them roome to inlarge themselues in their distan∣ces, thereby to make the greater show: at other times al∣so bands are to march in the field readie to be reduced & incorporated with other bands, at which time they are to march more close, & in neerer distances both in frunt and by flanks. And so likewise being incorporated into squadrons, they are for diuers different purposes, as som∣times for their greater ease to march, & to giue the grea∣ter show, and to bewtifie the squadron, they are to march in the rankes inlarged; and at other times vpon the expe∣cting of the enimie being not yet in sight, or beeing in sight, they are to straighten their rankes more or lesse; or that vpon the neare approch of the Enemies squadrons of both horsmen and footmen, they expect and doubt a charge of horsmen in frunt, or flankes, or both; or that they themselues are with their piques to charge a contra∣rie squadron of footmen. For al which, and diuers other occasions and purposes, they are to reforme themselues into diuers different distances.

And as piquers and short weapons either in single bands, or reduced into squadrons, are for diuers purposes to reforme themselues into such varietie of distances: Euen so weapons of volee reduced into sleeues, wings, and other formes, are to vse some of the like, and other sorts of distances. And as footmen are for such different causes and occasions to obserue such varietie of distan∣ces as aforesaid: Euen so horsmen of diuers armors and weapons, as men at Armes, Dimilaunces, Stradiots, Rei∣stres, Page  9 and other sorts of light horsemen, are to reduce themselues into diuers different distances according to the effects and nature of their armors and weapons; and are again to reforme themselues into other distances ac∣cording to new occasions and directions, sometimes for one purpose and sometimes for others. All which variety & different sorts of distances and many others are of ve∣ry great difficulty, to bee by writing rightly expressed in their iust and proportionate measures; and yet y notwith∣standing it is a thing of so great facilitie for all good and diligent Captaines and officers aswell of horsemen as of footmen, only by sight of eye and ordinarie practise to in∣struct and reduce their souldiors vpon any different occa∣sions into all sorts of distances either in Towne, Campe, or field, according to the Art and scyence Militarie; as that there is not any Captaine, Lieutenant, nor Serge∣ants of band, that are any waies worthie to haue the charge or mannaging of a band of footemen; nor any Captaine, Lieutenant, Conductor, nor Decurion of horsmen, that are any waies worthy to haue the ordering & managing of any sorts of horsemen vnder their char∣ges, if they doo not very well know all different sortes of distances according to discipline, that they are to reduce their soldiors into.

And if the Captaine or officers aforesaid, would haue their souldiors to stay their march and make a stand; then the Captain, Lieutenant, or Sergeant is to say to the first ranke of piquers Auance your piques: which words being pronounced, al the soldiors piquers,* of the first rank must in an instant lay their left hands vpon the forpart of their piques, about a foot or more before their right handes, auancing themselues forward two steps, the first with their left feet,* and the laste steppe with their right feet, and therewithall raising their piques vpright with both their hands, they must set the butends of them vpon the groūd with the pointes towards the Element, which being by the first rank performed with a comly & soldiorlik grace; Page  10 then the second ranke, the third, fourth & so subsequent∣ly all the rest of the ranks one after another, must after the same sort auance their piques.

And whereas it hath beene of long time vsed, and stil is by many Italian, Walloun, and French Captains, and so likewise by some other Captaines of other Nations, that they doo instruct their soldiors marching in their simple or single order of rankes of 5. or 6. or 7. or other such numbers, as also when they are reduced into squa∣dron, that all the piquers that doo march of the left flank or side of the band or squadron, should carrie all their piques vpon their left shoulders, as y piquers marching vpon the right flanke doo carry theirs vpon their right shoulders; and this to the intent (as they say) that the pi∣quers of the left flanke or side of the band or squadron carrying their piques vpon their left shoulders, doo in the same carrying of their piques, greatly beautifie the band or squadron in the eies of the beholders: whereas, if o∣therwise all the piquers of the left flank should carrie their piques vpon their right shoulders, as those of the right flanke doo, that it would not make so good a shew, as by carrying their piques vpon their left shoulders: Thervn∣to I say, that I haue knowne diuers Italians, and namelie Marco Antonio Colōna, Ascanio de la Corna, & Cha∣pin Vitelli: all which three were very notable gentlemen and great Captains, that did greatlie mislike that the pi∣quers of the left flanke of a band or squadron,* should car∣ry their piques vpon their left shoulders, vtterly condem∣ning the cause before alledged: saying, that the left flank or side of piquers marching in their simple, or single or∣der of ranks, or in squadron, could not be more bewtified, then by the wearing of their swords vpon their left sides, and their piques vpon their right shoulders in soldiorlike manner: besides that for right handed soldiors to carrie their piques vpon their left shoulders when they are to aduance, or vpright, or shoulder their piques, it dooth giue a greater disequalitie and disgrace in the perfor∣mance Page  11 of those and diuers other effects; and therewithal is a great deale more vnready for right handed souldiors, for diuers other purposes to performe and vse; then if they carried al their piques after one sor vpon their right shoulders. And as the opinions of diuers Captaines are as aforesaid, that the carrying of their piques vpon their left shoulders doth bewtifie the left flanke, because it dooth resemble the right: So contrariwise, I say that such as doo behold either the frunt or the backe of such a band or squadron, shall see a disproportion and disequa∣litie in the partition where the piquers of the left flank do carry their piques in a different sort from al the rest of the piquers of the right flanke. For all which causes before alledged, with others, which for breuities sake I omit; I would wish that all piquers should aswell in squadrons as in their single order of rankes, carry all their piques vpon their right shoulders, & not vpon their left; except some times when they are in march in the field to ease them∣selues, they may change their piques to their left shoul∣ders.

Also if there were any piquers that were left handed from their youth, I wold wish them to carrie their piques vpon their right shoulders, and to practise and vse their piques with their right hands, in couching and making head with them against either horsmen or footmen, and in all other militarie exercises and actions. And because such left handed soldiors doo weare their swordes vpon their right sides, I would wish that they should not be pla∣ced neither in single bandes, nor in squadrons, vpon the vttermost flankes or sides of them, but in some other of the inner ranks.

And here it is to be noted that in reducing of a single band or companie of soldiors into their simple,* or single order, the Captain, Lieutenant, or Sergeants of the band, must haue great consideration in forming of their bands; and chiefely consisting as our English bands doe of 5. dif∣ferent weapons; that is, of piques, batleaxes, musquetiers, Page  12 harquebuziers, and archers; and that they ought to per∣forme in this sort following: First that they should place the one halfe of the harquebuziers in frunt; and immedi∣atlie after them, should march the one halfe of the ar∣chers, and after the archers, the one halfe of the musque∣tiers, and after the musquetiers, al the ranks of the piquers with the Ensigne in the midst or centre of them, guarded with halbarders, or battleaxers; and after the piquers the other halfe of the musquetiers, and after the musquetiers the other half of the archers, and after them last of al the other halfe of the harquebuziers; which band marching in this sort, the one half of the different sorts of weapons of volee marching before the piques,* and the other halfe behind, both in like numbers of ranks & in one order, they are by that means alwaies ready vpon all occasions to be reduced into any forme, or different forms to arme aswell the back of the piquers by some called Rereward, as also the frunt, flanks, & al four corners of the said piques: as for example, If the Captain of the band be disposed to arme, and draw two sleeues of any one sort of those weapons of volee by the flanks of the armed men, he may then with great celerity perform the same, either by cōmanding by the stroke of the drum, or by som briefe speach, that al the piquers and short wepons shal aduance their piques and make a stand, and hauing reduced those armed men into som kind of square, then one of the Sergeants of the band is to draw down al the ranks of that weapon of volee, that he would make his sleeue of, vpon the right flanke of the piques in as many ranks as he listeth, and as many soldi∣ors in euery rank as pleaseth him, or as he is cōmanded; & so likwise at the same time & instant another sergeant, or the Lieutenant of the band (which Lieutenant ought euer to march behind the hindermost ranke of the band incase the Captain do march before) may draw vp by the left flank of the piques the like number of ranks, & of sol∣diors in euery rank of the same weapon of volee; and so likewise with the like celerity vpon the different strokes of the drum, or different briefe speaches of the Captain, all Page  13 the rest of the different sorts of weapons of volee by draw¦ing down as many ranks of them that doo march before as he thinketh requisit, and drawing vp as many ranks of those that do march behind or in rereward as he thinketh meet; and employing the rest for skirmishes, or ambu∣shes, or other seruices as he thinketh most conuenient; they may with great dexteritie reduce them into diuers different and variety of forms, aswell for the guard of the frunt and back of the piques, as for the flanks & corners, and all other occasions and purposes.

Also it is furder to be noted that if a Captain, marching with hi band in his simple or single order of 3.* of 4. or 5. or more in a rank; & that vpon any occasion he thinketh requisit to double all the ranks of the compertiments of his band by right line: that is by euery second ranke en∣tring into the ranke that is before them; then he is to say to the sergeant or sergeants of his band, Double your ranks by right line: vpon which briefe words and directions, the sergeant presently ought to command the drummer or drūmers to strike the doubling of the ranks; or else himself is to command the second rank of piquers to enter into y first rank of piquers, & at the same instant the fourth rank to enter into y third rank, and the sixt into the fift rank, & so subsequently in the like order, all the rest of the ranks to enter one into another; so as if they were before but 5. in a rank in their single order, they are nowe by this doubling of ranks by right line becom 10. in a rank.* And as a captain may double the ranks of y compertiments of his band, by right line as aforsaid, so may he likwise dou∣ble them by any of both y flanks by cōmanding euery se∣cond rank to march vp to the left flank of the rank before them, that is, that the second rank of 5. soldiors do march vp to the left flank of the first rank of 5. and that the fourth ranke doo at the same time march vppe to the left flanke of the third ranke, and the sixt ranke to the left flanke of the first ranke, and so subsequentlie all the rest of the second rankes throughout the bande to marche vppe to the left flankes of the rankes before them, vntill they Page  14 be of equall frunt & in equall distances with the said ranks before them. And further, if the captain of the same band his cōpany marching in their simple & single order of 5. in a rank as they did at y first be disposed to haue two rāks to enter into one, that is whereas they marched before 5. in a ranke to make them 15. then hee is to say to the Ser∣geants of his band: Triple your rankes by right line,* which briefe words by the Captain being pronounced, then the Sergeants presentlie are to command the drommers to strike the tripling of the rankes, or else themselues with the like briefe speeches as aforesaid, to cause the second and third ranks of any weapon to enter into the first ranke of the same weapon, and the fift and the sixt, to enter in∣to the fourth, and the eigth and the ninth to enter into the seuenth, and so subsequentlie all the rest of the rankes or∣derly to performe the like, which being by them perfor∣med, they must presentlie in euery ranke inlarge them∣selues in their distances. And to the same effect, If a Cap∣tain be disposed to triple the rankes of the armed men of his band by flanks;* that is, whereas they marched before but 5. in euery ranke in their single order, that he would reduce them into 15. in euery ranke, then he or his Lieu∣tenant, or the Sergeants of his band may commaund the tripling of the ranks by saying to the first rankes.*Triple your ranks soldiors by both the flanks throughout. Vppon which briefe speaches pronounced either by the Cap∣tain, Lieutenant, or Sergeants, the second & third ranks are presentlie to march vp to the flanks of the first ranke, that is to be vnderstood, that the second rank shall march to the right flanke of the fift ranke, and the third ranke to the left flanke of the said first ranke, vntil they be al of one equall frunt, and in like and equall distances; at which time likewise the fift and sixt ranks shall in the very same order and sort march vp to both the flankes of the fourth ranke, and the eighth and the ninth ranks shall march vp to both the flanks of the seuenth rank, and so subsequent∣lie all the rest of the ranks that are of any one sort of wea∣pon Page  15 shall march vp to both the flanks of the ranks of the like sort of weapon before them: so as of 5. that euerie rank did at the first consist in their simple and single or∣der they are now by this trypling of rankes by both the flanks as aforesaid reduced, to be. 15. in euerie ranke throughout. But because by this kinde of trypling of rankes, as also in trypling of them by right lyne, the fourth ranke is now become to be the second ranke, and the seuenth the third rank, and so subsequently in the rest, and that therfore euery one of those rankes are too great a distance by flanke the one from the other, they must euerie ranke presently vpon their first trypling perfor∣med, march vp vntill they finde themselues in such con∣uenient distances and nearenes by flankes one ranke to another, as the Captaine, Lieutenant or Seargeants shal thinke requisite.

But here it is to be noted that in case the last ranke or the two last rankes shall by this kinde of trypling and re∣ducing by flankes as afore said,* lacke a third ranke be∣fore them to reduce themselues vnto, by flanks, then the formost of the two last rankes shall marche vp by the rightflanke of the piquers, vntill they come to the mid∣dle place whereas the Ensignebearer with his Ensigne doth stand, and there shall ranke and place themselues on the right hand of the Ensignebearer. At which pre∣sent time likewise, the last ranke of the other. 5. piquers shall march vp by the lefte flanke of the armed men vn∣till they come to the foresaid midle place where the En∣signebearer with his Ensigne doth stand, and there shall ranke and place themselues on the left flanke of the En∣signebearer.* And this is to be performed, by reason that it is not sufferable according to discipline that any bro∣ken ranke of a squadron of piquers, or of any other wea∣pon of disequall nomber to the rest of the rankes should so march either in frunt or backe. How beit the Captaine before he commandeth the trypling of the rankes as a∣foresaid, ought well to consider of the nomber of the Page  16 ranks that he hath or meaneth to triple, to the intent to bring them into a conuenient and proportionate forme, aswell by flankes as frunte, which proportionate forme is not only intended in respect of the distances by frunt and flankes as aforesaid, but that there be not more rankes by flankes then there be soldiors in euerie ranke, which would cause being piquers, the square or squadron to be a great deale longer by flanke, considering their different distances, then broade in frunt, which in all discipline in forming of squares, or squadrons is a great disproporti∣on; vnlesse that the Captaine vpon some occasion or ac∣cident were disposed to make of flanke, frunt, that is to make all the soldiors to turne their faces and weapons that waies.* Howbeit if the Captaine by the tripling of his rankes as aforesaid, should find that he had not brought them into that proportion and forme that he ought according to discipline to do; that is to make the frunt full as broad as the flankes are long, or broader to any conuenient proportion then the flankes are longe; then he may easely remedie the same by increasing all the rankes by flankes sauing the hindermost ranke, (which by such encraesment of ranks commeth to lacke nomber), to as conuenient bredth and length by frunt and flankes, as he thinketh meete; which order of increa∣sing of rankes by flankes, I haue alreadie before sette downe. And as the Captaine may double or triple the rankes as aforesaid; so he may likewise vpon good consi∣deration and cause quadruple them; that is to make eue∣rie. 3. rankes to enter into the fourth ranke, obseruing and proceeding in performance thereof in the like sort and order as is before declared.*

But in the performance of this before set downe, the Captaine and his officers, are furder to consider that in that doubling of rankes by right line, or encresing them by flankes, they must take heed that they do not confuse or confound their rankes, by making two sorts of wea∣pons to enter into any one rancke; as to make any piquer Page  17 to enter into any rank of halbarders, or any harquebuzier into any rank of archers, or any archers to enter into any ranke of musquetiers, nor yet any harquebuziers at any time to enter into any rank of musquetiers, although they be both weapons of fire, because that to mingle two sorts of weapos of different force and qualitie in one rank, it is a great scorne and contrarie to al true discipline. But now if any man will aske the causes wherfore in reducing this band of 5. sorts of weapons into their simple & single or∣der of 4. 5. or 6. in a rank, I placed the harquebuziers for∣most, and the archers betwixt them and the mosquetiers, and the musquetiers next vnto the piquers. Therevnto I answer,* and say that the causes and reasons that haue mo∣ued me so to doe, are, that harquebuziers in respect of the lightnesse of their weapon and furniture, are of al other weapons of volee most readie and apt to bee imploied in skirmish, or vpon any aduantage of ground to bee placed vpon the sudden in ambush, where they may lie close & ready vppon diuers opportunities to giue a sudden volee, or diuers volees deuided either at horsemen or footmen. But I would alwaies vpon the employing of them in such actions,* that they should be bact with some number of halbarders lightlie armed, as also vppon some occasions with some piques for diuers causes & reasons that heeraf∣shal appeare. And as for the archers I haue placed them betwixt the harquebuziers and musquetiers, partlie to make a separation & distinction of those weapons of fire, the one of greater length & heueth,* and in effect of grea∣ter violence in further distance; and the other, I meane harquebuzes, shorter and lighter, and to be emploid most commonlie in the first seruices; but chie••e, in considera∣tion that neither the archers nor the musquetiers are to depart from the bodie of the piques, but are to bee redu∣ced into hearses, or into greater or smaller formed troups; as also for such other effectes, and purposes as in certen places of this booke heereafter shall appeare: and so like∣wise the reasons wherefore I haue placed the harquebu∣ziers, archers, and musquetiers in the same number and Page  18 order aswell behind the body of the piques, as before in frunt, are aswell in respect of the ready drawing of them vppe into sleeues, and other formes, by the flankes of the piques as aforesaid; as also that vpon some accidents or comming of the enemie, it somtime hapneth that the bo∣die of the piques reduced into square may happen to bee forced to make of backe frunt: vppon which and diuers other occasions and accidentes the body of the piquers haue alwaies in a readinesse as many of all sortes of wea∣pons of volee behinde them to bee any waies emploied with al celeritie as in frunt before.

And heere it is furder to be noted,* that a single band marching in their simple and single order, ought to place their drummers and phifers: one drumme and phifer be∣twixt the second and third ranke in frunt, and the other drummer and phifer (incase they haue two phifers which few bands haue) in the midst of the band directly before the Ensigne bearer; and in case that the band bee so great that there are three drummers, (which is but seldome seene) then the third drummer is to bee placed betwixt the second and third of the hindermost rankes. But be∣cause most great bands haue but two drummers and one phifer, those two drummers are to be placed, the one be∣twixt the second and third ranke in frunt as aforesaid, and the other drummer with the phifer in the midst of the band before the Ensignebearer: But in case there bee but one drummer and one phifer, then they are to be placed in the midst of the band before the Ensignebearer, as a∣foresaid, and not betwixt the fore rankes of the band; al∣though I haue seene when there hath been but one drum and one phifer, that they haue not marched before the Ensignebearer,* but in the frunt as aforesaid. And this I haue seene vsed by some Italians after the one sort, and by other Italians of other parts and dominions of Italie, after the other sort.* But because the Ensignebearer doth alwaies march in the midst of the piques accompanied with halbarders; and that the piques being the most ho∣norable weapon in respect that they are for the bodie of Page  19 the square, do march in the midst betwixt the weapons of volee; I would in consideration thereof, as also to the intent that the different directions of the strokes of the drumme may be the more easilie heard throughout the whole band, place the drummer and phifer (if there were no more but one in the band) in the midst before the En∣signe bearer, and not amongst the shot in frunt.

Also it is furder to be noted that the Ensignebearer marching in the midst of his band or companie through any Cittie or great Towne,* ought to carry his Ensigne open and vpright, and not wound vp about his Ensigne staffe, nor yet the lowest part of the Taffata of his ensigne gathered into his hand, and leaned vppon his shoulder, but vpright as aforesaid. Howbeit hauing marcht tho∣rough the Citty or Towne into the fields, and being out of the fight of the multitude of the people, he may then either winde vp his Ensigne, or gather the lower part of the taffea into his hand, and leane the same to his shoul∣der if it pleaseth him.

Also I would wish that all Ensignebearers should bee armed in this sort following (viz)* a light vpright & sharp crowned Spanish burgonet, a Coller, a Cuyrasse with short tasses, or without tasses, and a backe with a paire of sleeues and gloues of fine maile, or without gloues of maile, to the intent that they may carry their Ensignes with the more ease; and his said armour I would wish to bee of a good and a hard temper to resist the point of a pique, or halbard, and no waies at the proofe of harque∣buze nor pistoll shot, because that such armors at the proofe are too heauie for Ensignebearers to march with∣all, and to carry and mannage their Ensignes: Besides that Ensignebearers being most commonly in the mid partes or Centers of squadrons are verie seldom hurt by the bul∣lets of any peeces of fire maniable but rather with piques swords, or halbards, vpon a battle well ought.

Also I would wish that the Ensignebearer should haue a Deputy Ensignebearer,* who should be of his owne so∣cietie Page  20 or Camerada,* and this deputy Ensignebearer, as also the Ensignebearer himselfe I would wish should bee men of good force and strength, and therewithall that they should be men verie valiant, and verie sober and of good discretion, and able to speake well and deliuer their mindes to the encouraging of all souldiors about them;* and this deputy Ensignebearer being in all points armed like vnto the Ensignebearer, should carrie a faire, and a good halbard, which halbard should be in common be∣twixt him and the Ensignebearer, to the intent that when the Ensignebearer is disposed to deliuer his En∣signe to his Deputie, to ease himselfe, that then deliue∣ring his Ensigne, hee should take his halbard of his De∣putie.

Also I would that the same Deputie Ensignebearer should take the like oath for the guard and defence of the Ensigne that the Ensignebearer himselfe hath taken,* I meane hee as a deputie, and the other as Ensignebearer himselfe: And therefore I would wish that the Deputie Ensignebearer either vpon the aduancement to higher place or death of the Ensignebearer should succeed him in his place of Ensignebearer,* and that during the time of his being deputie, he should haue an aduantage of pay according to his place.

Also I would wish the Seargeants of the band, and of all bands to be armed in all points like to the Ensignebea∣rer as is before set downe,* as also weaponed like him with his halbard, sworde and dagger: Howbeit I would not that the sergeants should weare any long or short tasses because that their office in marching with their band is to performe the Captains directions with celeritie,* as al∣so to march and sometimes to trot by the flanks of the band to see that the souldiors doe march straight in their ranks both by frunt & flanks, and that they do with great silence obserue their proportionate and equall distances aswell betwixt euery soldior and soldior in ranke; as also betwixt euerie ranke and ranke, with all other orders and obseruations militarie.

Page  21Also a Captaine leading his band through any Cittie or great Towne ought to march in his Corslet compleat,* and to march before his band with his pique vppon his shoulder: Howbeit his page may weare his burgonet, and carry his target either before him or by him. And so likewise the Lieutenant of the band being armed & wea∣poned in the same sort ought to march at the backe or Rereward (as they call it) of the band; howbeit this is alwaies intended by such Captains, as haue disposition of bodie to performe the same. But incase that the Cap∣taine be very olde, or haue any other corporall impedi∣ment, whereby he is not well able to performe the same, then he is to march before his band more lightlie armed as he thinketh most conuenient, with his sword and dag∣ger and his leading staffe in his hand.

Also it is a great shame for any Captaine, or Lieute∣nant of a band of footmen to ride in the fielde before or with his band vpon any liuely or swift running horse or Gelding,* but vpon a simple hackney beeing sure of foote that will gallop a Caunterburie pace by the frunt, flankes, and backe of his band, to see order obserued and to ease himselfe vpon; by reason that when Captaines doe in the field vpon swift running horses or geldings lead their bands, it dooth giue the soldiors occasion to doubt whe∣ther the Captains will tarrie with them or not,* vpon any accident or occasion of extremitie.

And here it is further to be noted, that after all these a∣foresaid reducements of a single band into diuers orders and formes as aforesaid, that neyther in Camp, field, nor town, they must break their ranks to go into their quarter to lodge, vntil their Captain, Lieutenant, or sergeant doo come and giue licence to the Ensignebearer to depart out of his place and lodge; which Ensignebearer departing with his Ensigne in his hand, out of his place wheras he before marched, and himselfe pronouncing to y soldiors next about him that they may lodge, they all then may, some conuenient number acompanying & guarding the Page  22 Ensignebearer with his Ensigne orderlie, and with si∣lence breake their rankes and lodge, and goe into their quarter, or may in the Campe or Towne make prouision of victuall, and other things as they think most requisite: And the like is to be performed aswel by squadrons com∣posed of diuers Ensignes as by one priuate band; that is, that a squadron being reduced into forme within y mar∣ket place of a Towne,* or in the place of assembly within their Campe, they must neuer breake their rankes to go to lodge, vntill by the commandment of the Coronell or Sergeant Maior to the Ensignbearers giuen, they vnder∣stand or see that the Ensignebearers with their Ensignes in their hands pronouncing licence to lodge, are depar∣ted, or departing out of the Centre of the squadron; And therewithall it is further to be noted that all the Ensigne∣bearers of euery regiment, must fixe their Ensignes vp∣right in the ground all in one rank, a conuenient distance from and before their quarters, euery Ensigne directlie before the band that it doth belong vnto,* I meane in the frunt of euery one of their quarters and bands towardes the place of armes and assembly. And thus farre concer∣ning the aforesaid different particularities; And now a∣gaine I reuert to other briefe speaches, and wordes, and other orders, proceedinges, and particularities mi∣litarie to be performed by Captaines and officers in the field.

And if a Captain or diuers Captains, or their officers would haue their piquers stāding at their piques auanced as is before written to take their piques into the boultes of their armes,* as soldiors do vse when they approach verie neare the place of their watch, or as piquers ought to do when they are to charge another square of piques, or to make head and resist a charge of horsemen, then are they to saie to the first ranke Vpright your piques, which is asmuch to say, take the butends of your piques into the palmes of your right hands, & carry them in the boultes of your armes with the pointes vpright towards the hea∣uens: Page  23 which being performed by the first ranke, then the second, third, fourth and fift rankes, and so conse∣quentlie all the rest of the rankes one after another ought to vpright their piques as aforesaid. And if all the piquers of a band, or diuers bandes being reduced into any forme of squadron in the field, & hauing vprighted their piques in the boultes of their armes as aforesaid, and that the Sergeant Maior or Captaines. would haue their piquers to charge or to receaue a charge of another square of pi∣quers their Enemies,* then are they to say to the first rankes of piquers. Straighten and close your rankes, couch your piques and charge: which being pronounced, all the piquers of the first ranke must ioine, and close them∣selues close in frunt, letting fall the points of their piques and carying them close breasthigh with both their hands steadilie and firmely, the points full in the faces of their E∣nemies: And the second ranke likewise straightning and closing themselues by flanke and frunt, and ioyning themselues to the backe of the first ranke, and following them steppe with steppe carrying their piques aboue∣hand ouer the shoulders of the first ranke,* the points of their piques likewise towards the faces of their Enemies, And the third ranke closing and straightning them∣selues in flanke and frunt, and ioyning themselues to the backe of the second ranke; And the fourth ranke like∣wise straightning & closing themselues to the backes and shoulders of the third rane, and carrying their piques firmelie with both their hands ouer y shoulders of all the ranks before them, the points of their piques likewise to∣wards the faces of their enemies approching. And all the rest of the ranks of piquers following step with step each one at the heeles of the other, must carry their piques still vpright in the palmes of their handes, and in the boults of their armes as abouesaid, but yet bending the poines of them somewhat towards their enemies, that they may be seen ready in an instant to let fal the points of their piques towards their enemies, and to succor the ranke before Page  24 them vpon any necessitie,* or heard incounter of their E∣nemies. Aduising therwithall that no Captaines nor of∣ficers of bandes do in any wise teach nor suffer their pi∣quers, when they shall approch their Enemies to charge them, to shake and clatter their piques, as some newe phantastical Captaines and officers of this time do teach their soldiors to do; as though they would make their e∣nemies afraid before they come at them: which is more like vnto such as do plaie the Soldans and Sarazins vpon a Stage, then like soldiors piquers in the field, who should at an approach and charge, carie their piques as steadie and firme as they can possiblie, the points full in the faces of their enemies as is aforesaid.

But in this place I thinke good further to notefie vnto the Readers of these mine instructions that in the yeare. 1588.* I did heare some two or three of our Nation of principall offices and charge Militarie hold an opinion, that when two squadrons of Enemies all piquers should come to incounter and confrunt the one with the other, that then the ormost ranks of them should lie at the push of the pique and so should annoie the one the other, with thrusts and foines (as they terme it) at all the length of their Armes and piques, according to the vse of single Combattes either in sport or earnest betwixt piquer and piquer. By which kinde of fighting of squadrons at the push of the pique, I say, that none of the rankes can fight but only the first ranke, because that if they obserue their proportionate distances according to order and disci∣pline, the piques of the second rank are too short to reach with their points the first rank of their enemies squadron likewise standing still foining at all the length of their Armes and piques; as they vainelie imagine: Yea al∣though to the trouble and disorder of the first ranke be∣fore them they do thrust and foine ouer their shoulders; During which time of the pushing and foyning of the two first rankes of the two squadrons of enemies, all the rest of the rankes of both the squadrons must by such an Page  25 vnskilfull kind of fighting stand still and looke on and cr aime, vntill the first ranke of each squadron hath fought their bellies full, or vntill they can fight no longer: which is a very scorne and mockerie mylitarie to be either spo∣ken or thought of by any men of warre that doo pretend to haue eene any action effectuallie performed betwixt any great numbers of piquers reduced into form of squa∣drons in the field. For in troth according to all reason and true experience, such a squadron as should thinke it their greatest aduantage to fight in that sort, must (con∣trarie to discipline) inlarge themselues in their ranks and distaunces both in frunt and by flankes, to the intent that they may haue elbow roome enough without any impe∣diment by the nearnesse of the ranks behind them, to pul backe their armes, and to thrust at their enemies appro∣ching them at all the length they can of their armes and piques, and againe with dexteritie to pull backe, & retire them to giue new thrusts: which opening & enlargment of ranks being perceiued by the contrarie squadron (who if they be skilful men of warre) doe come closed in their rankes both in frunt and by flankes, as close as they can possiblie march pace with pace and step with step, as if they were one entire body, carrying their piques with both their hands breasthigh, all the points of the piques of the first rank of one euennesse & equality not any one preceeding the other: And so likewise the points of al the piques of the second, third and fourth ranks, carrying the like equalitie and euennesse, but yet the points of euerie ranke of piques, shorter and further distant almost by a yard from their enemies faces, then the pointes of the ranke that doo preceed them; And all those fower ranks marching or moouing forward together pace with pace and step with step, carrying their piques firmly with both their hands brest high as aforsaid their points full in their enemies faces, they doe altogether giue a puissant thrush, the points of the first ranke of piques, first lighting vpon the faces of the first ranke or rankes of their enemies; and Page  26 the points of the second, third, and fourth rankes, subse∣quently in a manner all in an instant, doe all one after an∣other in such terrible sort light vpon the faces, breasts and bodies of the formost rankes of the enimies that do stand still pushing and foining with their piques in their rankes opened and inlarged, that they neuer giue them any ley∣sure any waies to pull backe and recouer the vse of their piques to giue any new thrustes, nor yet to close their ranks inlarged, but doo ouerthrow, disorder and breake them with as great facilitie, as if they were but a flocke of geese; as all men of right consideration and iudgement may easilie consider and see.

But after all this it may be, that some very curious and not skilfull in actions of Armes, may demand what the formost rankes of this well ordered and practised squa∣dron before mentioned shall doo after they haue giuen their aforesaid puissant blows & thrusts with their piques incase that they doo not at the first incountry ouerthrow and breake the contrary squadron of their enemies: ther∣vnto I say, that the foremost rankes of the squadron ha∣uing with the points of their piques lighted vppon the bare faces of the formost ranks of their enemies, or vpon their Collers, pouldrons, quirasses, tasses, or disarmed parts of their thighes; by which blowes giuen they haue either slaine, ouerthrown, or wounded those that they haue lighted vpon, or that the points of their piques ligh∣ting vppon their armours haue glanced off, and beyond them; in such sort as by the nearnes of the formost ranks of their enemies before them, they haue not spacee∣nough againe to thrust; nor that by the nearnes of their fellowes ranks next behind them, they haue any conue∣nient elbowe roome to pull backe their piques to giue a new thrust; by meanes whereof they haue vtterly loste the vse of their piques, they therfore must either present∣lie let them fall to the ground as vnprofitable; or else may with both their hands dart, and throw them as farre for∣ward into & amongst the ranks of their enemies as they Page  27 can, to the intent by the length of them to trouble their ranks, and presently in the twinkling of an eie or instant, must draw their short arming swordes and daggers, and giue a blow and thrust (tearmed a halfe reuerse, & thrust) all at, and in one time at their faces: And therewithall must presentlie in an instant, with their daggers in their left hands, thrust at the bottome of their enemies bellies vnder the lammes of their Cuyrasses, or at any other dis∣armed parts: In such sort as then al the ranks of the whol squadron one at the heeles of the other pressing in order forward, doo with short weapons, and with the force of their ranks closed, seeke to wound, open, or beare ouer the rankes of their enemies to their vtter ruine: At which time and action all the inner rankes of piques sauing the first, 4. or 5. ranks, can with their piques worke no effect, by reason that the said 4. or 5. rankes before them being next to their enemies, are so neare and close together, that they cannot with any thrust vse the pointes of their piques against their said enemies, without endangering or disordering their fellowes before them; For which causes by al reason and experience militarie, short staued, long edged, and short and strong pointed battleaxes or halbards, of the length of 5. foot or 5. foot and a halfe in all their lengths, at the vttermost, in the hands of lustie and well armed soldiors that doo follow the first 5. rankes of piquers at the heeles, doo both with blow at the head, and thrust at the face, worke wonderfull effects, and doo carrie all to the ground. By all which particularities be∣fore alleaged and declared, I thinke it may be apparant to all such as are not obstinatelie ignorant, that Battles and squadrons of piquers in the field when they doo incoun∣ter and charge one another, are not by any reason or ex∣perience mylitarie to stand al day thrusting, pushing, and foining one at another, as some doo most vainelie ima∣gine, but ought according to all experience with one pu∣issant charge and thrush to enter and disorder, wound, o∣pen, and break the one the other, as is before at large de∣clared.

Page  28And if all the piquers of a band or of diuers bands bee∣ing reduced into any forme of squadron, should be char∣ged with a square or troupe of horsemen, hauing their piques vprighted in the pal••s of their hands, and boults of their arms (as abouesaid) and the sergeant Maiors and Captains seeing the Launces ready to charge them,* they shuld then say vnto their piquers, Straighten and close your ranks close, couch your piques and make head: which beeing by them pronounced, al the soldiors in the first rank shuld close the¦mselues in an instant in frunt, and setting the but∣ends of their piques vnder their right feet firmely to stay the endes of them from sliding, they should hold their piques with their left hands, about a yard and a quarter from the butends, leaning their right knees strongly vp∣on their piques to keepe them the more firme, & should direct the points verie lowe towards the breasts of their enemies horses,* hauing all their short arming swords re∣die drawne in their right hands, the points forward, rea∣die to kill or hogh any barbed horse or horses that by chance may breake the piques and enter: And then the second ranke of piquers straightning and closing them∣selues in frunt, should let fall the pointes of their piques towards their enemies, and should ioine themselues close to the backe of the first ranke, bearing their piques firme∣ly with both their hands, almost close to the vpper part of their breasts ouer the shoulders of the first ranke, at all the conuenient length they may, with the pointes to∣wardes the faces of the enemies horses: And the thirde, fourth, and fift rankes of piquers in the same sort should close and ioyne themselues close, each one to the backe and shoulders of the rankes before them: And each one of those rankes should carrie their piques firmelie with both their handes ouer the shoulders of the ranks before them, with the pointes of their piques full in the eies and faces of the horses, and bodies of the horsemen: And the sixth, seuenth, and all the rest of the backer rankes straightning and closing themselues as aforesaid should Page  29 carry their piques vpright in the boultes of their armes, but yet the pointes somewhat bending forward towards the enemie readie alwaies to fauour and succour the rankes before them: And thus all the ranks of the whole squadron being vnited, closed and in corporated as it were into one entire bodie, should with mightie hand resist & repulse any furious charge of horsemen.*

But it is to be noted that in case the Sergeant Maior be disposed to reduce three rankes of Harqueb∣ziers, or else two rankes of mosquetiers, and those not too thicke before the frunt of the squadron of piques, to the intent to giue a volee of shorte at the Launces approching; then the piquers of the first ranke must not sette their piques vnder their right feet with their swords drawne (as aforesaid) but the saide two rankes of mosquetiers,* or the three rankes of harquebuziers, seeing the Laun∣ces ready to charge them, must very orderlie retire themselues almost close to the forefeete of the firste ranke of piquers; and there falling vpon their right knees, they must set their left elbowes vpon their left knees, the more firmelie and steadilie to beare and discharge their mosquets or harguebuzes, as from very steadie restes at the horses or horsemen comming in their Carrire within 10. or. 12. or 15.a paces.

And then the first ranke of piquers, as also the se∣cond, third, and fourth,* must beare all their piques firmly abouehand close to the vpper parts of their breasts, the pointes of their piques full in the breasts and faces of the horses; and so must encouer and guard the shot vnder their piques, and brauely repulse & disorder the Launces. b Aduising all Conductors and leaders of mosquet shot that in this or the like action of arms before declared they do instruct & giue order to al their mosquetiers to charge their mosquets with 5. or 6. round hailshot of war of the heigth of Reistres pistoll bullets which are called by the Page  30 Spaniards Perdigones de guerra: and that they do thrust betweene the powder and the hailshot some conuenient quantitie of browne or soft paper, or something else to restraine and keepe the powder close together, and then to put in the round haileshot of warre, & againe to thrust after the same a conuenient quantity of browne paper or something else to keepe the haileshot close together, and to restraine both powder and shot; in such sort as therby the powder may carry the haileshot the further, and giue the greater blow, which within 10. 15. or 20. paces is of great effect.

But in this case the mosquetiers must take great heed, that they do not ouercharge their peeces with powder, nor with aboue the nomber of .5. or .6. haileshott of warre at the most, as aforesaid; least that their peeces should break or recoile, and so ouerthrow them to the trouble of the piquers, from vnder whose piques they are to dis∣charge their peeces: And this manner of discharging of haileshot of warre by mosquetiers is for diuers times and places of seruice, of great effect, so as they giue no volee at the enemie aboue .20. paces at the furthest. And I do furder aduertise that no musquetiers, nor harquebuziers, reduced vnder the guarde of a sqadron of piquers, should giue any volee, or volees of shot neither with full bullets nor with any haileshot of warre at anysquadron or troupe of Launces charging, or approaching to charge neither .300 .200. nor yet .100. paces, with intent to recharge a∣gaine, and to giue a new volee: Because that both by rea∣son and experience the first volee either of mosquets, or harquebuezes, being charged as they ought to be either with haileshott of warre, or full bullets, and being giuen within .10. 15. or. 20. paces at the Launces comming in their Carrire to charge, doth terrefie, wound and kill more horses and men, then. 10. volees of musquets or harquebuzes giuen. 300. 200. or. 100 paces distant can do. And this encouering of shot with piques (aboue∣sayd) at my trayning of Maister Barringtons, Maister Page  31 Westons, and Maister Maxeies bandes at Chelmesford this last sommer. 1588. I did shewe vnto them and to their officers both by actuall demonstrations and reasons with diuers other perticularities appertaining both to horsemen and footmen.

But now whereas there be diuers that haue conceiued an opinion from the discourse of Mounser de la Noüe,* that incase there be any great ouerplus of harquebuze or mosquet shott more then a squadron of piquers that is without horsmen can encouer and guarde vnder their piques from the charge of a squadron or diuers squadrōs of Launces, that vpon that occasion they should be redu∣ced into square, and enuironed or empaed in frunt, flanks and back, with 6. or 7. rankes of piquers; and that y Laun∣ces cōming in their squadrons to charge them in frunt, in flanks, or back; y piquers closing themselues close in frunt, flanks, and backe, and bending themselues forward with their piques to encouer and guarde certen musquetiers and harquebuziers placed before them, as also to resist & repulse a charge of horsemen; that then the rankes of the aforsaid harquebuziers placed within the ranks of piques, may giue a volee of shot ouer the piquers heads before them, at so much of the bodies of the horsmen as do ap∣peare aboue the heads of the piquers, greatly to the dan∣ger and mischiefe of the Launces charging. Certenlie I doo thinke that the opinion of so sufficient a man of war and old soldior is no waies to be contemned, but greatly to be regarded▪ Howbeit when I come to consider that the same was neuer yet put in practise in any seruice of the field: and therefore dooth rest but only in imaginati∣on, I will (with the helpe of almightie God) to the intent that the true effect and effects of the same may be y more apparant, aledge diuers reasons wherefore (in mine opi∣nion) the same can be no waies profitable, but very dan∣gerous to the whole squadron, and of verie small or no annoiance to the Launces; and my reasons are these: First, when a squadron of piques are to make head and re∣sist Page  32 a squadron of Launces comming in their Carrire to charge them,* they are to straighten and close themselues by frunt and flankes as close as they can, making them∣selues as it were, one entire body, to y intent that they may the more fimely and strongly stand together with their piques bent to the encouering and guarding of the mos∣quetiers before them, and to the resisting and repulsing of the horsmen, which when the formost. 7. rankes haue performed; then if the harquebuziers that are within the piques in the centre of the battle, as also the piquers of the flankes and backe, to the intent that the squadron may keepe proportion and forme, do likewise straighten and close themselues in their rankes by frunt and flankes, as the piquers before them haue done; it commeth to passe that they are so close together, that hauing no el∣bowe rome to discharge their peeces at some kinde of point and blanke: the discharging of their shott vpon di∣uers accidents doth become more daungerous to their fellowes piquers in the rankes before them, then any waies to the Launces; because that being so neare toge∣ther, euerie each one do so trouble the armes, peeces, and handes of their companions; that when they thinke to shoote ouer their fellowes piquers heads at the Laun∣ces, they are more likely to shoote too lowe, and to kill some of their fellow piquers in the rankes before them, to the daunger of the disordering of the whole squadron: Besides that it is wonderfull daungerous if any flaske, or tuchboxe by any accident should fall on fire by so many matches light, being so neare together, which if it should happen by one flaske or touchboxe taking fire; there is no doubt but that the same would set on fire a great sort of o∣ther flaskes and touchboxes, burning and scorching ma∣ny soldiors; in such sorte, as that one accident alone, would cause so great disorder and feare, that it were e∣nough to discorder and ouerthrow a whole squadron if it were of ten thous••• men; although they were the most practised soldiors 〈◊〉 are in Christendome.

Page  33But peraduenture som body not experienced in yt straight ning & closing of a squadron of armed footmen by frunt and flanks, will say; y althogh al the ranks of piquers both by frunt, flanks, & back, do straighten & close themselues to make head against ye launces (as aforsaid) yet that ye har∣quebuziers that are within the squadrō may remain so in∣larged in their ranks, as yt they shal haue so much elbowe room without any waies troubling or touching one ano∣ther, that they may with great facility discharg their pee∣ces ouer ye heads of the piquers before them without any waies troubling them, or endangering the firing of their flasks & touchboxes to the great mischiefe of the Laun∣ces. Whervnto it is to be answered,* that if euery rank of the whol squadron be of one number of soldiors, as al wel formed squadrons are; & that by flanks ye number of ranks be of the like number to the frunt & back; wherby it com∣meth to passe that the squadron is a iust square in frunt, in flanks, & back; or that the squadron be double as broad; that is, as broad again in frunt and back, as it is by flanks, or else that the squadron be triple as many, that is three times as many in frunt as by flanks, or more or fewer ac∣cording to the nature and aduantage of the ground, or of other occasions and aduantages, that may seeme best to the Sergeant Maior, or to the Sergeant Maior generall that hath the ordering of ye said squadron: then in which of those formes soeuer, or any other that the squadron of footmen should be reduced into; the formost 7. ranks of piquers in frunt, straightning, and closing themselues in their ranks to make head against y horsmen charging (as aforesaid) & likewise the 7. ranks of piquers at the back of y squadron straightning, & closing themselues, & turning their faces and piques backeward, to the intent to make frunt and head against a charge of Launces that would charge them in back: & the harquebuziers yt do remaine within the squadron empaled on euery side with 7. ranks of piquers (as aforesaid) still remaining enlarged in their rankes to haue the more commoditie to discharge their peeces ouer the piquers heads; of diuers disproportions Page  34 and disorders that must by the forming of this foresaide squadron of necessitie succeed by the harquebuziers re∣maining still enlarged in their rankes, and the piquers straightned and closed in their rankes: This one chiefe and most notorious deformed disorder, that doth include all the rest, must needs ensue to the present ruine and o∣uerthrowe of the whole squadron; that is, by 2. or 3. charges of the Launces giuen at one time vpon the open and vnguarded places of the squadron; and that by rea∣son that ye harquebuziers remaining stil enlarged in their rankes in frunt and by flankes, the more orderlie to dis∣charge their peeces, doo occupie so great a quantitie of ground, that all the rankes of the piquers that doo empale the harquebuziers of the right and left flanks straightning and closing themselues by frunt and flanks as the ranks of the piquers of the frunt and backe haue doone, cannot possiblie performe the same in any such sort, but that the said piquers of both the flankes must remain a great deale too short to close themselues, and ioine with the 7, ranks of piquers in frunt, and the 7. rankes of piquers in back: wherby of necessititie it would come to passe, that there would be 4. open places betwixt the 4. or rather 8. cor∣ners of the squadron vnguarded with piques; where the Launces without receiuing any resistance, nor so much as one blow of the point of a pique, might charge and giue in amongst the harquebuziers within the bodie of the squadron, to the disordering and vtter ouerthrow of the whole squadron with great facilitie,* as any man well practised and of good experience and iudgement in mat∣ters militarie, may easily consider & conceaue. For which causes, dangerous accidents, and reasons before alleaged mine opinion is, that I would neuer place nor yet suffer any weapons of fire, to enter within the body of my squa∣dron of piques.

But now furthermore, if any number of souldiors of what weapon soeuer they bee, beeing reduced into any forme of square, and that the Sergeant Maior or Cap∣taines Page  35 would make of flanke frunt; then are they to go to that flanke and side, that they would make frunt, and bee∣ing right against the midst, somewhat distant from the flanke,* they should say to their soldiors aloud. Frunt to me souldiors: which being by them pronounced; the first rank next vnto them is to turn their faces towards them, & so subsequentlie al the rest of the rankes one after ano∣ther: But because that by making the flanke frunt, the squadron commeth to be in disproportion, by reason that the distances of the ranks of a squadron, being reduced into any forme of square to march or to fight, are greater by flankes; that is betwixt ranke and ranke, then they are by frunt;* that is betwixt soldior and soldior in frunt: The Sergeant Maior and Captains in making the flank frunt, must straighten all the rankes in frunt and inlarge them by flanks; and so reduce them into their due and propor∣tionate distances.

And incase the sergeant Maior or Captains will make of the backe frunt, then they are to goe to the backe and pronounce with a loude voice the like words, & then all the rankes are to turne their faces and to make their frunt that waies:* And as these briefe words pronounced for the purpose aforesaid are to bee vsed vnto souldiors footmen; so the like wordes for the same effect and pur∣pose to make flanke frunt, may serue for men at armes, di∣milaunces, or light horsmen; as for example, If a Coro∣nell or Captaine of men at arms, or dimilaunces hauing reduced their Launces into any forme or squadron, bee disposed to make of flanke frunt; then they placing them selues vpon the side or flanke as aforesaid, and saying to their horsmen with a high voice,*Frunt to me Launces, or if they be light horsmen, Frunt to me speares, all the hors∣men of what armour and weapon soeuer they bee, must turne the faces of their horses, and make frunt that waie, hauing regard to reforme and reduce themselues into their proportionate distances by frunt & flank as aforsaid.

And now hauing written concerning the ordering Page  36 and forming of priuate bands and companies of soldiors,* with diuers and sundry particularities concerning as well squadrons composed of diuers bands, as of single bands: I will with the helpe of Almightie God, proceed to shew how a squadron should bee redued into forme in the o∣pen fields, to march or fight, that by the curious forming of that first one squadron with diuers particularties con∣cerning the same; all such as doo professe armes, and are of consideration may with great facilitie see and obserue all such particularaties as they shall thinke therein worth the nothing and obseruing: And therefore I say for exam∣ples sake: If a Coronell or his Sergeant Maior of a Regi∣ment of 4000. footmen of diuers weapons bee disposed to reduce 2100. piquers of the same Regiment into squa∣dron, and that hee would forme his squadron double as broad, or a thirde part broader, or more, or lesse in frunt then by flanke; then he first is to consider of how manie piquers he will make his frunt, that is, how many soldiors euery ranke from frunt to backe shall conteine,* as also of how many rankes the same squadron by flank, or flankes shall consist; and therewithall of how many diuisions or compertiments of bands he will forme the said squadron; and according to the same, the Sergeant Maior must command all the Captaines or their Lieutenants,* the pi∣quers of whose bands are to enter into squadron, to fepa∣rate them from all other sorts of weapons, and to reduce them into so many or so many in euery ranke, and so ma∣ny rankes by flank as he before hath propounded and re∣solued with himselfe. As for example, hauing 2100. pi∣quers to reduce into one battle, and that he thinketh 55. souldiors in ranke, and 38. ranks by flankes to be a con∣uenient forme of squadron according to the nature of the ground to march and fight; he then may make his com∣pertiments of the piquers of euerie priuate band, of odde numbers; or of different odde numbers, as of 5. and 7. or else of euen and odde numbers, as of 4. of 5. of 6. and of 7. according to the greatnesse or smalnesse of the num∣ber Page  37 of piquers of euery priuate band, incase there be none of the numbers too small; which if any of them be, then they are to be vnited and incorporated with the comper∣timents of the piquers of other bands; alwaies obseruing that the different numbers of al those compertiments be∣ing vnited in frunt doo make iust 55. souldiors, and by flankes 38. rankes.* And therefore I will begin with three different formings of squadrons, which of all others are most ready and best;* of the which the first is, That a Co∣ronell or his Sergeant Maior hauing considered and cast how many compertimentes or diuisions of piquers hee will make the frunt of his squadron of; and that the same compertiments be they euen or od, or of compertiments both of euen and odde numbers, so as they all vnited in∣to one bodie of squadron doo make in frunt but the iust number of 55. soldiors: then the Coronel or his sergeant Maior determining to forme his squadron, and seeing all those compertiments of piquers by their Captians, deui∣ded and separated from all the weapons of volee & other weapons, and therefore ready to bee reduced into squa∣dron; he then is to say to the captain that dooth lead that compertiment, or companie that is next him, if he thin∣keth good to begin his squadrō with that compertiment: March vp to yonder ground, pointing to the same with his warder; & there you & your cōpanie auance your piques and make a pause: which being by that company or com∣pertiment performed; then he is to say to the Captaines of two other compertiments or companies: March vppe with your company vpon the right flanke, and you with your company by the left flank of yonder compertiment, and incor∣porate your compertiments in frunt, flankes, and backe, with that companie or compertiment; Then the Coronelles drummer Maior, or rather his trompetter according to the vse of the Suissers in respect that the soundes and commandementes of the same may bee the better and further heard and vnderstoode for the forming of bat∣tailes and squadrons, then the strokes of Drummes Page  38 can bee; is presentlie to sounde the forming of the squadron by doubling by both the sides or flankes at one time, according vnto the order of the doubling of the 3. first compertimentes; which being by all the rest of the compertiments performed; I meane by marching vppe and doubling themselues vpon both the flankes or sides of the 3. first compertiments formed; all marching and succeeding one another both vppon the right and lefte flankes in a manner at one time; and so the squadron be∣ing reduced into forme; the first compertiment by this kind of forming and doubling vppon both flankes of the same, is now come to be the middlemost compertiment of the whole squadron: and this manner of forming of a squadron by doubling the compertiments vppon both flankes at one time, is one of the readiest, and best of all others, if the ground doo permit the performance thereof.

Then there is another order in forming of squadron;* and that may bee tearmed to forme and double a squa∣dron with companies, or compertiments by backe, and that is to be performed in this sort; First, that a Sergeant Maior hauing considered which waies he will make the frunt of his squadron, he is then to command that euerie companie or compertiment that are to enter into squa∣dron shall be reduced into so many souldiors by flank, as he dooth meane to make his frunt of, hauing regard also to the number of the rankes that he will make his whole squadron of by flankes: which being by his direction, as also by the sound of the Coronels trompetter thrughout all the companies or compertiments performed; then he may say to the Captain of the first compertiment that he will make his frunt of, pointing or directing with his war∣der: March to yonder ground, & there auaunce your piques and make a pause, and make of your right flanke frunt, and reforme your distances according to discipline both by frunt and flankes, or if he hath determined to make his frunt of the left flanke, he may then say, Make of your left flanke Page  39 frunte, and reforme your distances both by frunte and flankes according as he hath before determined either the one waies or the other to make his frunt: which making of frunt either of the right, or of the left flanke is to be vnder∣stood that they should turne their faces and weapons one of those waies: which being by them performed, then if they were. 55. rankes, and. 5. in euerie ranke in their marching, they are now by making of their flanke frunt become. 55. in frunt, that is so many in euery ranke, and by flanke only. 5. rankes: which aduancing of their piques, and pause, and making of flanke frunt by the first company, or compertiment performed; then he is to say to another compertiment of the like number of rankes by flanke, be they of euen or od numbers it is importeth not so as he faile not in his great and generall account of the number of the rankes of the whole squadron by flanke, or flankes. March and double your selues by the backe of yonder conpertiment, or companie, and there 〈◊〉 make of flanke frunt, as that companie hath done. Which being by them preformed, then persentlie, but rather at the first, the Co∣ronelles Trompetter is to sound the doubling of their Companies into squadrō by back, which being by all the companies or compertiments performed and reduced into their conuenient distances both by frunt and flankes according to discipline either to march or to fight, then the Sergeant Maior may giue order and reduce vpon the flanks and corners of the squadron all the different sortes of weapons of volee into as many formes as he listeth, of sleeues, winges, hearses, troups &c, and may backe as many of them with light armed piquers, and halbar∣ders, or battleaxes, as the number or remnante of those weapons will giue them leaue.

And yet there is another order of forming of a Squa∣dron by doubling and redoubling of the compertiments vpon the backe of the first compertiment, which with diuers others, because I do not allowe them for so good as these before sett downe, I omitt; and therefore procee∣ding Page  40 to the third order of forming of a squadron by dou∣bling the compertiments only by one flanke, that is only either vpon the right,* or vpon the lefte flanke, with diuers and sundrie particularities concerning the same; I say that incase I had a regiment of. 4000. footmen of diuers sorts of weapons, as abouesayd, and that I were disposed to reduce. 2100. piquers into squadron of. 55. in frunt, & 38. by flanks, and that I thought good to make my com∣pertiments altogether of like od nūbers, as of. 5. soldiors in euerie ranke from frunt to backe, and the same of. 38. rankes by flankes, I would then deuide them into. 11. compertiments of. 5. in euery ranke throughout euery compertiment, which vnited are. 55. piquers in euery ranke: and in number of rankes by flanks. 38. euery which compertiment of. 5. from frunt to backe cōteining. 190. soldiors, the whole squadron consisting of. 11. comperti∣ments as aforesaid, doth come to consist of. 2090. soldi∣ors; the ouerplus which lacketh nomber to make a ranke and therefore to be tearmed a broken ranke. 10. soldiors; who are either to march and place themselues with the ranke of Ensignes, or otherwise readie to be emploied as the Sergeant Maior shall thinke most conuenient. Now hauing all these. 11. compertiments in the field seperated from all the rest of the weapons; and being disposed to re∣duce them presently into forme, the Coronell, or Serge∣ant Maior either leading them himselfe, or pointing with his warder in his hand to the ground to y which they shal march vnto, is to vse these briefe speaches, or the like to the Captain that dooth lead the first band, or comperti∣mēt March vp to that ground & there aduāce your piques & make a pause; then presently after he is to say to the second band or compertiment, March vp and double your selues by the left flanke of the first compertiment, and so subsequently he is to commaūd his trumpettor to sound, as also other∣wise to giue direction to the rest of the compertiments that they shall double themselues euery one vpon the left flanke of the other: but after that he hath vsed the briefe speaches aforesaid to the two first compertiments, then Page  41 besides the sounds of the trompettor for the forming of the squadrō, if he be not disposed to gallop with his horse by ye flank of the rest of ye compertiments yt are furder off behind, and to vse the like speaches of doubling by flanks as aforesaid, he may by certen signes that hee may vse to accustome his Captaines and officers vnto, either with his hand, or with his warder, direct them to the doubling of their rankes by flankes as aforesaid, which squadron, with all the Ensignes guarded with their halbardes, or battleaxes placed in the Centre, or betwixt the 2. middle rankes of the same beeing by the Coronell, or Sergeant Maior with so great facilitie perfourmed, and by him and his officers straightlie lookt into, that all their rankes as well in frunt as by flanke, doo obserue their most con∣uenient and proportionate distaunces either to march or to fight, he then may forme his sleeues, wings, squares, hearsses and troups of harquebuziers, Archers, and mosquetiers, and backe as many of them with the rest of the piques and battleaxes, as the ground and the sayde remnant of those weapons wil giue them leaue, or as the approching and cōming of the enemies shall giue them occasion.* Now as this squadron is formed altogether of compertiments of like od numbers, so may the Sergeant Maior forme the very same squadron with comperti∣ments of different odde numbers, as with compertiments of . and 7. or with compertiments of different euen and odde numbers, as of 4. 5. and 6. so as they all vnited in frunt doo come to make 55. souldiors, and by flane 38. ranks, as is before declared: which different particulari∣ties with many others concerning aswell the ordering of horsmen as footmen, I haue set down by demonstration in a booke which I mean shortly to put in print, entituled. Certen military discourses, and Arithmetical tables, with diuers formes and demonstrations for a Lord Martiall or for a sergeant Maior to form squadrons and to reduce both hors∣men and footmen into diuers and many forms of battles, by me Composed 1585. or rather 1580.

Page  42But now this foresaid squadron being reduced into the forme of 55. by frunt and 38. by flankes, ouerplus a bro∣ken ranke of 10. souldiors as aforesaid, if the Sergeant Maior vpon the comming of the enemie, or vpon any o∣ther occasion shall thinke requisite to make the said squa∣dron broader in frunt, that is of more souldiors in euerie ranke, and shorter by flanke, that is to bee vnderstood of fewer rankes; then he may drawe vp by flanke, from the backe, or rereward (as some termeth it) as many ranks as he thinketh conuenient. As for example, If he be dispo∣sed to draw vp 4. rankes of piquers by flanke to frunt, he is then to say vnto his deputie Sergeant Maior, or to any other such Captaine or officer that dooth accompany him;*Draw vp 4. rankes from the backe of the squadron by flanke: which briefe speach or the like being by him pro∣nounced, his said Lieutenant, Sergeant Maior, or other Captaine or officer by him appointed, is presently to goe to the left flanke of the last 4. rankes in backe, and to saie vnto them: Frunt vnto me yee 4. last rankes, and let this word, frunt, from the left flanke passe throughout to the right flanke; and that incase hee doo pronounce those wordes vpon the left flanke. Vppon which wordes pro∣nounced, and the wordes passed from the one flanke to the other, and their faces and weapons turned towardes him; then he is to lead them vppe by the left flanke vntill they come to make euen frunt with the formost ranke of the squadron; which being performed, then of 55. that the squadron was before in euery rank from frunt to back, it is now come to be 59. throughout all the rankes from frunt to backe.

But heere it is to be noted,* that this addition of 4. pi∣quers in euery ranke being drawne vp by the flanke of the squadron as aforesaid, there doo remaine ouerplus 21. rankes, of 4. in euery ranke, which doo in all make 84. pi∣quers; of the which number the sergeant maior may if he dooth so thinke it requisite, draw vppe 34. rankes more of 2 in euery ranke, by the flanke of the squadron; which Page  43 performed, then the squadron doth consist in frunt of 61. souldiors, and by flank of 34. rankes; but then there doth remaine an ouerplus of 16. souldiors, which li••e number he may reserue to employ in any place of seruice where he shall thinke most requisite; but if the Sergeant Maior shall not thinke it conuenient to inlarge his whole squa∣dron from frunt to backe with 2. souldiors in euery ranke as aforesaid: then he may with 59. souldiors taken out of the number of 84. that did before remaine, (in which number of 84. souldiors, the 16. souldiors ouerplus be∣fore remaining are conteined) increase his squadron in number of one ranke by backe, as by drawing those 59. piquers in one ranke by the backe of the squadron, then the squadron from 34. that it was before, is now come to be of 35. rankes, ouerplus 25. souldiors, with which 25. souldiors and with the 10. souldiors that did first remaine of the 2100. that were reduced into the squadron, who were to be placed in the ranke of Ensignes as aforesaid; those 10. souldiors being drawn againe from thence, and annexed vnto the 25. doo in all make 35. which 35. soul∣diors being drawne vp in length by the flanke of the squa∣dron, doo increase euery one of the 35. ranks 1. souldior in euerie ranke; so as of 59. souldiors that euery rank did consist before; they are now by this increase come to be iust 60. souldiors in euery ranke, and in rankes by flankes 35. rankes, besides the rank of Ensignes with their guard of Halbarders, that are paced in the midst or Centre of the squadron: by which kinde of reducement the whole squadron commeth to contein iust 2100. soldiors, ouer∣plus, 0. that is to be vnderstood, not so much as one soul∣diour.*

And it is further to be noted that if another squadron of like number in frunt should come to confrunt and ioin in battle with this squadron, and being entred into fight; and that the Coronell or Sergeant Maior, or the Lord Marshall of the field should thinke it their aduantage to charge and assaile the contrary squadron with a sleeue of Page  44 piquers in flanke, then the Sergeant Maior may drawe 5. or 6. rankes or more as hee thinketh good from the backe of the squadron vppe by any of both the flankes of the same squadron, but distant the length of 2. piques or more, to the intent that by that little distance of the length of 2. piques as aforesaid, when they haue marcht vp, and doo finde themselues right against the flanke of their enemies squadron, they may haue space to turne themselues and make frunt towards their enemies flank, and to close their rankes by frunt and flankes, and with y points of their piques to charge their enemies in flanke: And thus farre concerning the ordering and forming of squadrons in diuers sorts, as is before set downe.

But now further,* this squadron being thus formed in∣to 60. souldiors in frunt, and of 35. souldiors by flanke, which is by flanke 35. rankes, then if vpon any occasion of the comming of the enemie, or vpon any other cause, the Coronell and Sergeant Maior shall thinke requisite to make of one of the flanks frunt: As for example of the left flanke frunt, and that he would reduce them into the verie same forme of squadron both in number of rankes by flanke, as also of number of souldiors in euery ranke that they were before; then the sergeant Maior ought himselfe on horsebacke if he thinke it requisite, or else to command his Lieutenant Sergeant on foot presently to goe athwart 25. ranks:* not from flanke to flank, but from frunt to backe, that is to goe downe by right line betwixt the fiue and thirtith soldior of his right hand, & the fiue & twentith souldior of his left hand, from frunt straight to backe; and passing through them he is to say to the soul∣diors that are vpon his left hand: Keepe your selues in frunt as you are, notwithstanding that the souldiors of my right hand, doo make flank frunt: the effect of which his words being throughout signified to the souldiors that are next vnto him of his left hand, presentlie the Captaines and their drummers that did marche in frunt before the 7. compertiments of 5. in euery compertiment as aboue is Page  45 set downe; are to march and goe to the left flanke, which now shall be made frunt: but the other Captaines and drummers that are in frunt before the other 5. comperti∣ments are still to keepe their places vntill they receiue further direction.

And now the Captains and their drummers of the compertimentes aforesaid beeing come before the left flanke; the Coronels drummer is first to begin to strike, and the rest immediatlie to doo the like, that all the soul∣diors of that left flanke are to make frunt towardes the Captaines and drummers; that is, to turne their faces and weapons towards them: Or else the Sergeant Maior may command the Captaines, or in galloping or passing on horsebacke by the flanke, may himselfe say with a loud voice, Frunt to me souldiors: vpon which words pronoun∣ced, or vpon the sound of the drums for that purpose, all the souldiors of flanke, are presently, to make frunt; and are therewithall presently to reforme their distances as well in frunt, as by flankes; which by this making of flank frunt is growne into great disproportion: which refor∣ming of their distances as well by frunt as flanke, is to bee performed by straightning their ranks in frunt and enlar∣ging them by flanks into their conuenient and proporti∣onate distances, either to march or fight.

Which being performed; then the Sergeant Maior to the intent to giue the more ground and roome to the other part of the squadron of 5. compertiments to re∣duce themselues by flanke, is to command the Coro∣nelles Drummer and so the rest to strike a march; which doone, then the Captaines and all that part of the squa∣dron that haue made flanke frunt, are orderlie one ranke after another to shoulder their piques and march after their Captaines but 50. or 60. paces where the Drum∣mers againe striking and sounding a pause; all that foresaid part of the squadron, are presentlie one ranke after another to aduance their piques and make a stand; which being performed, then the sergeant Maiors Lieu∣tenant Page  46 is presently to command the drummers that doo remaine vppon the frunt of the 5. compertiments that haue not altered their frunt nor flankes, to strike a march; which being performed, he and all their captaines must with that part of ye squadron march certen paces straight forward, thereby to take the more compasse of ground: and then turning vpon the left hand, must draw them vp almost close by the left flanke, to the frunt of that part of the squadron that haue alreadie made of flanke frunt: Al which being performed according to the orders before set downe, the whole squadron is now come againe to be in the same proportion both in number of souldiors in euery rank, as also of number of ranks by flanks that they were at the first; that is of 60. in euery rank, & 35. ranks.

But heere it is to be noted,* that the ranke of Ensigne∣bearers of the first part of the squadron that made flanke frunt with their guardes of halbarders by this making of flanke frunt, being brought into disorder, by reason that now they are not in ranke as they were before, must pre∣sentlie vpon the stroke of the drummer commanded by the Coronels Ensignebearer march vp, not betwixt the rankes but through the rankes of the souldiors, till they al come betwixt the seuenteenth ranke before them, and the eighteenth ranke behinde them; and there betwixt those two rankes they must reduce themselues into order and ranke; which being by them done, then both they and the rest of the other Ensignebearers of that part of the squadron that marched vppe and reduced them∣selues by flanke as aforesaid, being in one ranke, haue be∣fore them iust 17. rankes, and behind them 18. which in all are 35. ranks.

All which performed, then the sleeues, winges, and troupes of the different weapons of volee that did before arme the right and left flankes, and all 4. corners of the squadron, are againe by their officers to be lead and re∣duced into the same forms vpon the right and left flanks, that they were before that the squadron did make of Page  47 flanke frunt; or else may be reduced into any other varie∣tie of formes that the Coronell or Sergeant Maior shall thinke most conuenient; And so march forward if the plainnesse of the Countrie, and other requisite causes, do cause and permit them so to do.

But now it is furder to be noted that if the same squa∣dron accompanied with sleeues, winges, and troupes of diuers sorts of weapons of volee as aforesaid, not hauing the enemie in sight nor neare, should happen in their march to come to a straight passage; where betwixt rocks mountaines and hilles or any such like there could not passe aboue .5. soldiors in a ranke; and that there were no other open way neare by many miles for the Regiment to passe, but only the same; then the Coronell if he be alone with his Regiment of .4000. men,* as aforesaid, is present∣ly to take order that the highest partes and sides of the mountaines, rockes, & hilles be possessed of both sides of the passage, with certen numbers of harquebuziers, and some mosquetiers, as also of some light armed hal∣barders to backe them; that thereby the rest of the shott and squadron of armed men may the more safelie passe through the straight; which being perfomed, then he is to send the one halfe of the shott of all the diuers sorts of volee yt did arme the right and left flanks of the squadron to march before through the straight, I meane all such weapons of volee as did arme the foreparts of both the flankes and frunt of the squadron, and not the other halfe of shott that did arme the hinder parts of the flankes, and backe of the squadron, who are for the guard of the backe or Rereward of the squadron, and for diuers other causes, and accidental employments to remaine hindermost and to march .5. in a ranke, and to follow the last comperti∣ment of piquers into the straight, and that I would wish to be performed in this order and sort following: First I would send the compertiments of mosquetiers of the right flank marching according to the narrownes of the straight .5: in a ranke, and the harquebuziers of the same Page  48 flanke after them, backt with some light armed piquers and halbarders; then I would send the compertiments of archers likewise of the right flank marching .5. in a ranke, then I would that the compertiments of mosquetiers and harquebuziers that were for the guard of the left flanke marching. 5. in a ranke, backt likewise with some num∣ber of light armed piquers and halbardars, should follow the archers of the right flanke, and that after them should follow the archers of the forepart corner of the left flank, which different compertiments of weapons of volee of the forepart of the right flanke being marcht through ye straight into the plaine, should march so far on the right hand, as there should be space and roome enough for the compertiments of the piquers of the right flanke to re∣duce themselues into forme vpon their lefte flanke, and that then euerie sort and weapon of volee should reduce themselues into the same formes, of sleeues, winges, and troupes and other such like, as they were vpon the right corner and flanke of the squadron before that they mar∣ched into the straight:* Then would I that the different Compertiments of the like weapons of volee of the fore∣parte of the left flanke of the squadron that haue followed the first compertiments and are now likewise come through the straight, should march so much on the left hand of the plaine as they may leaue ground and space e∣nough for the squadron of piquers to reduce themselues into their forme betwixt them and the weapons of volee of the right flank, & that they there should again reduce themselues into the like formes of sleeues, winges, and troupes that they were vpon the forepart of the left flanke before they marched through the straight. But it is to be noted, that presently vpon the entring of the last com∣pertiments of the forepart of the weapons of volee of the left flanke into the straight, that the Sergeant Maior is to come to the frunt of the right flanke of the squadron if the same flanke be next vnto the passage, and he is in briefe words to say. Single. 5. in a ranke throughout from Page  49 frunt to backe and march after the last compertiment of shot through the straight,* and being marched thorough into the plaine, Auaunce your piques and make a pause. Vppon which his direction the Captaine with his whole com∣pertiment of 5. in a ranke from frunt to backe is to single the same from the rest of the squadron and to followe the shot and march into the straight; vppon the separa∣tion and marching of which compertiment, then the Sergeant Maior is to say to the Captain of the next com∣pertiment. Single your compertiments of 5. throughout, and follow, and march straight after the first compertiment through the straight, and being marched thorough into the plaine, double your compertiment by the left flanke of the formost compertiment of piquers, which compertiment be∣ing something separated and marching into the straight; then vppon the same direction receaued by all the Cap∣taines that are before the frunt of the rest of the comper∣timents, as well by such briefe speaches as aforesaid, as by the sound of the trompettor and drummes, they are all subsequentlie and orderlie with their compertimentes to separate them and to followe one another by right line; and as euerie one of those Captaines with their compertimentes haue marched one after another tho∣rough the straight into the plaine; so they are with all ce∣leritie to reduce themselues by the left flanke the one of the other into the same form of squadron that they were before they entred into the straight;* and that is, that the Captaine of the thirde compertiment of 5. in a ranke throughout, as aforesaid, seeing the seconde comper∣timent reduced and doubled by the lefte flanke of the firste Compertiment; hee likewise is to reduce his compertiment by the lefte flanke of the seconde; and so consequentlie the fourth, fifth, and all the reste of the compertiments, are by their Captaines to bee lead and reduced by the left flanks the one of the other; which be∣ing by them performed, and the squadron reduced into the same forme of number of ranks, & of soldiors in euery Page  50 ranke that it was before they entered into the straight; then all the shot of the different weapons of volee that did march through the straight before the first comperti∣ment of piquers; I meane, the one halfe of those that be∣fore they came to the straight did arme the forepartes of the right and left flankes of the squadron, and now againe already before the squadron is altogether againe formed by their Captaines and officers, reduced into the same formes vpon the foreparts of the right and left flankes of the squadron that they were before that they first separa∣ted themselues from the squadron, and entred into the straight: And euen as those different compertiments of shot did one after another orderly march through the straight and are now againe reduced and come into their first order as aforesaid; So the different compertimentes of sleeues, winges, troups, and other such like of different sorts of weapons of volee that did arme the right and left hinder flanks, and corners of the squadron, in the like or∣der immediatly following the last compertiments of pi∣quers through the straight, are presentlie againe by their officers to be reduced into the like compertimentes and formes for the guard of both the hinder flanks and backe of the squadron, that they were before the squadron did enter into the passage.

All which being performed, and al the harquebuziers, mosquetiers, and halbarders that were sent to possesse the tops of both the sides of the passage being come downe into the plaine,* and reduced into such formes, or other∣wise employed as the Coronell and Sergeant Maior shall thinke most meet, they may then begin againe to march forward. Howbeit in this place it is further to be noted that the squadron marching forwarde in the enemies countrie the one halfe of the drummers are to bee placed vpon the frunt, and the other halfe vpon the backe of the squadron; and that, during the time they march the ene∣mie being not in sight; but vpon the sight and approch of the enemy and doubt of battle; then vpon that occasi∣on Page  51 all the drummers & phifers y did march in the frunt & back of the squadrō must presently reduce themselues, the one halfe vpon the forpart & hinder part of the right flank of y squadron, & the other halfe vpon the forpart & hinder part of y left flank of the squadron; I meane more towards al the 4. corners of the squadrō vpon both flanks, then towards the midst of those flankes; because that all their different strokes of direction, may bee the better heard and vnderstood aswell in frunt and backe as flanks:* And the cause wherefore I woulde haue no drummers placed in the frunt of a squa¦dron vppon the occasion of battle is; that they should bee no impediment to the pi∣quers through the greatnesse of those instruments, to vse their piques, nor vnto mosquetiers, nor harguebuziers, in case that any, vpon any occasion should be reduced vnder the guard of the frunt of the piques to vse their mosquets or harquebuzes.* Besides that I would neuer permit vp∣on any occasion, that any drummes, or at the most aboue one drummer, and a phifer, should march in the midst of the squadron with the rank of Ensignes, because that the greatnesse of them would be an impediment to the ranks to close themselues by frunt and flankes, as vppon some occasions they ought to doo.

But heere it is furder to be noted that the squadron be∣ing againe reduced into forme, and marching forward in the enemies Countrie, and finding the ground in diuers partes as they march of that nature, yt they cannot march in squadron formed, and hauing great intelligence by discouerers, and espialles, that the enemie is not so neere hand as that by reason and discipline military they ought to keepe themselues in squadron; then they ought accor∣ding to the bredth or frunt of their squadron, to deuide the whole squadron into as few and as great comperti∣ments of number of soldiors in euery ranke from frunt to backe as the grounds or passages will giue them leaue; that by the greatnesse of their compertiments they may a great deale the sooner reduce and forme their squadron Page  52 againe vpon any sudden or great Alarum: As for exam∣ple, If the squadron were double as broad in frunt as by flankes, as of 60. in frunt and 30. by flankes, then the Co∣ronell or Sergeant Maior may presentlie command the whole squadron to be deuided into 6. compertiments of 10. souldiors in euery ranke from frunt to back through∣out euery compertiment; or if the ground be of that na∣ture, that in some places there cannot passe aboue 7. or 8. souldiors in frunt, then he may deuide his whole squa∣dron into . compertiments, that is of 4. compertiments of 7. in euery ranke, and the other 4. compertiments of 8. souldiors in euery ranke throughout euery comperti∣ment, and by flanks, that is in length from frunt to backe euery compertiment of 30. ranks, the Ensigns alwaies pla¦ced betwixt two of the middlemost ranks of euerie com∣pertiment, or of so many of the compertiments as shalbe requisit. All which compertiments vpon intelligence or discouery of the enemies approching may in any conue∣nient ground be presently incorporated and reduced by flank or flanks into the same form of squadron that it was at the first forming of the same; or into any other forme that the Coronell or Sergeant Maior shall thinke most requisit by any one of the same orders of reducementes that I haue before very particularly set downe.

And it is furder to be obserued that the said squadron marching in the open fields with sleeues, wings, & troups of weapons of volee belonging to the same, should euer at certen times make certen pauses, aswel to the intent to ease themselues and take breath, because that armed men or mosquetiers with their heauy furniture, or the soldiors of any other weapon cannot possibly continue any long march without such pauses and staies, as also that if anie dismarch or disorder hath hapned in their ranks, forms, or orders, the same may be presently againe reformed and redressed: And the like pauses and staies are to bee made by bands of horsmen, for the same cōsideration & causes.

But now peraduenture some that may read this place Page  53 of my booke may say that I forgot in this place to write of horsmen, aswell where they should be placed in the field either vpon the flankes or corners of the compertiments of diuers sortes of weapons of volee reduced into their orders, as also in marching through the straight, whether they should march halfe before and halfe behind, or o∣therwise. Wherevnto I answer that it were impertinent to this place,* considering that here I doo but only shew, how a Regiment of 4000. footmen vnder their coronels, Captaines, and officers, without any bandes of horsmen should be reduced into diuers formes aswell to march as to fight; as also to passe through a passage or straight, and being passed through the same; howe againe to reduce themselues into forme; that by the ordering, forming, and marching of this squadron and regiment as aforsaid, all such as doo professe armes, and that doo not knowe how squadrons of footmen should bee formed, may by that which I haue before set downe, see, consider, and obserue,* how any squadron of a great deale greater or smaller numbers may diuers waies be reduced into form, although in troth, bands and squadrons of horsemen are to bee reduced into forme or diuers formes euen after the verie same order and sort that bandes and squadrons of footmen are. But yet something to satisfie such as shall reade this my booke, I will by the helpe of Almigh∣tie God, in some places more conuenient, of these dis∣courses make mention, and set downe diuers verie im∣portant particularities concerning the ordering, four∣ming, and employing of bandes, squadrons, and diuers other formes of horsemen of sundrie sortes of armous and weapons.

But now peraduenture some will with more reason furder demand where the baggages and carriages of the Regiment that I haue not hithervnto mentioned, shoulde bee placed in marching through the straight: and how the same should be guarded; as also where the field peeces of the same regiment, if there be any shuld be Page  54 placed vpon the squadron formed; and in what conue∣nient place or places they should be with their hores,* or oxen drawne, and go through the said straights. Wher∣vnto I say that incase there were 8. field peeces belonging to the Regiment, that is, 4. fawcons of the Caliuer of 5. pound the bullet, and 4. fawconets of the Caliuer of 3. pound the bullet; I would then vpon the squadron, for∣med and marching forward, that 2. peeces (viz) one faw∣con, and one fawconet should with their horses be drawn vppon the flanke, or side of the squadron, betwixt the sleeues of the weapons of volee and the squadron, I mean vpon the forepart of the right flanke; and so likewise an∣other fawcon, and fawconet to be drawne by the hinder part of the same flanke likewise betwixt the weapons of volee and the squadron, and euen in the same manner, in the like places, order and sort I would haue the other 4. fawcons, and fawconets to be drawn vpon the left flanks of the squadron ready vppon all occasions to be drawne forward and placed, the 4. formost that were vppon the formost right and left flanke of the squadron somewhat distant or wide from the 2. forecorners of the squadron, or vpon some occasions vpon the very frunt of the same squadron readie to be discharged at the enemie appro∣ching, and so likewise the 4. peeces that are drawne by the hinder flankes of the squadron are readie likewise to be placed vpon the frunt or both the corners of the back or rereward of the same square, incase that the squadron vpon any accident or comming of the Enemie should make of back frunt: And heere it is to bee noted that all these 8. field peeces must bee accompanied with their gonners,* officers, and all other their assistants, with some numbers of pioners, and with all kind of thinges and In∣struments belonging to them, as bullets ladles, rammers, and other such like, as also with a large and sufficient quantitie of good powder well guarded by some number of halbarders, and archers from the danger of fire.

Howbeit vpon the occasion of marching through a Page  55 straight as aforesaid; then I would that. 4. of these field peeces with their powder,* bullets, and all other thinges requisite should vpō their carriages be drawen with their horses, conducted by their Carters, gonners, and pioners and guarded and accompanied as aforesaid, iust betwixte the last troupes, and compertiments of weapons of volee, and the first compertiment of piques; and so likewise that the other. 4. field peeces that did before march vpon both the hinder flankes of the squadron, should vnder the conduction of their gonners and assistants as aforesaid with their powder, bullets and al other things necessarie, march through the straight in Rereward iust betwixt the hindermost compertiment of piquers, and before the for∣most troupe or compertiment of the weapons of volee, that did and are againe to arme the hinder partes of both the flankes of the said squadron; and those. 8. peeces mar∣ching in the order and sort as aforesaid are most readie a∣gaine vpon the whole Regiment being past through the straightes, and the reducing againe of the same into the forme of squadron first aboue set downe, to be placed and drawne as they were at the first before the regiment en∣tered into the straights: But incase that the Coronell be∣ing entered into the straights should doubte to be assailed by the enemie either in vauntguard or in Rereward; then hee ought to place a couple of fawcons,* or of fawconets either in frunt or in backe as he doubteth to be assailed, with some conuenient quantitie of powder, and bullets, and other thinges necessarie strongly guarded and ac∣companied with some numbers of archers, light armed piquers, and halbarders, as also some mosequtiers, so that those soldiors of weapons of fire do not come too neare the powder belonging to those field peeces; and in y sort, those. 2. field peeces are to be drawne by their horses and accompanied with their gonners pioners and guardes of diuers sorts of weapons as aforesaid, in frunt and backe according to the occasion.

And now concerning the most conuenient and sure Page  56 placing of the cariages and baggages of the Regiment,* I meane for the passing through the straight; for the pla∣cing and marching whereof, it is first to be considered, whether they expect, or doubt the enemie more in frunt and vauntgard when they shall be passing, or passed through the straight, or in backe and Rereward when they are entring & entered into the straight; or that they doubt to be assailed both in vauntgard and Rereward: Now if in case they doubt to be assailed by the enemie in Rereward,* then the Coronell is to commande all the carriages and baggages to be placed in the midst of the weapons of volee y are in vauntgard with some conueni∣ent numbers of light armed piquers and halbarders for ye better guard of the same; but in case that they doubt to be assailed in vauntgard and not in Rereward,* then they are to place the cariages in the midst of the short of the Rere∣ward accompanied with some light armed piquers and halbarders as aforesaid; But if they doubt to be assai∣led both in vauntguard and Rereward, then the Coro∣nell is to commaund all the cariages and baggages to be placed in the midst betwixte al the compertiments of pi∣quers, I meane the one halfe of the piquers before, and y other halfe behind the carriages; euerie Carre, or waggon hauing two harquebuziers or archers for y guard of them. Howbeit here it is to be noted that the carriages of the chiefe substance of the powder that doth belong to the Regiment be they waggons or Carres that do carrie the same,* do with their officers, Carters, and pyoners march either formost of all the rest of the Carriages, or else hin∣dermost of them all; or else vpon some occasions halfe before and halfe behind as the Coronell vpon any occa∣sion shall thinke most conuenient, but in any wise a con∣uenient waie distant from all the rest of the carriages, and that the same carriages of powder be well accompanied with some good numbers of archers and halbarders, but with no harquebuziers nor mosquetiers, thereby to auoid all accidents of fire. Also euerie Wagō or Carre ought to Page  57 haue a couer of the hides or skinnes of buffes made of such largenesse that the same may couer all the barrels of powder from wet,* as also that such couers of buffe wil re∣sist the force and furie of all kind of bals and other inuen∣tions of artificiall fires and wilde fire,* which peculiar pro∣perty the skins of those beasts haue aboue all others.

And now as I haue very particularly shewed howe a squadron of 2100. should be reduced into form in diuers different sortes, and that the same squadron consisting of 2100. armed men piquers is now last of all reduced into 60. souldiors in frunt,* which is intended in euery rank frō frunt to back, and 35. soldiors by flank, which is to be vn∣derstood 35. ranks; which proportion of squadron is bro∣der in number of piquers in frunt, then long by flanks, by more then a third part, which by most Sergeants Maiors is esteemed to bee of a great deale greater aduauntage to fight, for diuers causes and reasons (which heere I omit) then any iust squadrons of armed men are; by reason that squadrons that are iust square in number of men;* that is, as many piquers by flank as in frunt, are accounted to bee out of proportion; and that in respect that such squadrons are a great deale longer by flankes then broade in frunt, because that the distaunces betwixt ranke and ranke bee it either to march or fight, are a great deale more then they are betwixt euery soldior and soldior in frunt, which is to bee vnderstood in euerie ranke;* So to satisfie such as would vnderstand of the forming of a iust squadron of piquers: I meane a iust square of like numbers of men in frunt, flankes and backe as aforesaid; and not a iust square in ground, I would take 6600. piquers, which number I would command y sergeant Maior, Maior, to draw out of 4. of 5. regiments, & to reduce them into 12. comper∣timents, euery cōpertiment of 5. in frunt & 60. by flanks, which maketh iust 300. piquers in euery compertiment; al which 12. cōpertiments of 300. piquers in euery com∣pertiment, beeing reduced into squadron either by dou∣bling those compertiments by back, or by flank or flanks, Page  58 or any other waies, as I haue before very particularlie set downe; doo come to be a iust squadron of 60. piquers by frunt, flankes, and backe, ouerplus not any one souldior.

And this kind of iust square of armed men by frunt, flankes, and backe, hath beene holden by some men of warre,* and yet is, to be the most strong and puissant kind of squadron of all others, in respect that the number of rankes by flanks are equall with the number of souldiors in frunt and backe; whereof ensueth (say they) vppon the ioyning of two squadrons, and a battle well fought, that commonlie many of the souldiors of the first rankes are either ouerthrowne & wounded, or slain in the place: vpon which accidents, the souldiors that are in the next rankes directlie behind them, are presently to bestride them; I meane to stand ouer and defend them if they be but wounded, and if they be slaine, then to take their pla∣ces; and so subsequentlie euery hinder ranke to fill vp the ranke before them; so as only the hinder ranks shal come to diminish and lacke number, by the supplying and fil∣ling vp of the former ranks: By meanes of which entring of souldiors out of the hinder rankes still to fill vppe the formost rankes for the causes aforesaid, the opinion of some men of warre hath been and is, that a iust squadron of armed men, is of more resistance and annoyance a∣gainst the enemie, then a broad squadron in frunt and shorter by flankes is, I meane both the one squadron and the other being neere about one number of souldiors; Be∣sides all which it may bee alleaged, that such iust squa∣drons in frunt, flankes, and backe, are more ready vppon any sudden vnlooked for occasion, and comming of the Enemie to make of any of both the flankes frunt, with a conuenient breadth; then a squadron that is broad in frunt, and narrow by flankes is able to performe, by rea∣son that the iust squadron hath no more to doo, but to make of one of the flanks frunt by turning their faces and weapons that waies, and to reforme their distaunces by frunt and flankes: whereas the broad squadron to make Page  59 of flanke frunt, must not onely doo the like, but also must draw out a great sort of rankes from the contrary flanke, and draw them vp to the head of that flanke, that is nowe made frunt, and also reforme themselues in their distan∣ces by frunt and flanke, with diuers other particularities by me at large before set downe.

But incase that the sergeant Maior when he hath four∣med this iust square of men,* and not of ground as afore∣said, shall vpon any occasion thinke it requisite to inlarge the same squadron in frunt, that is to increase euery rank from frunt to back with some conuenient number of sol∣diors, and to shorten the same squadron by flanke, that is to make fewer rankes; then hee may with great celeritie and dexteritie draw out as many rankes from the back or rereward, as hee shall see requisite to inlarge the frunt withall, and draw them vp by one of the flankes: But be∣cause the squadron commeth to be shortned by flanks, by so many rankes as the Sergeant Maior hath drawne out from the backe or Rereward, and therfore that there shal remaine an ouerplus of broken rankes more then at one time can be drawne vp by flankes as aforesaid: the serge∣ant Maior then must consider whether the numbers of the piquers of those broken ranks, be sufficient to increase one ranke more by backe: And incase there doo lacke number to performe the same; then hee is to consider whether the numbers of the piquers of those broken rankes, will serue to increase euery ranke one souldior or more by flanke; which is to be vnderstood from frunt to backe; and as he may with those broken rankes best per∣forme either the one or the other, he is to doo the same. But incase that the Sergeant Maior shall see that the ar∣med men of those broken ranks doo lacke number to per∣forme as well that by flanke, as the other by backe (as a∣foresaid,) hee then is to place them in the ranke of En∣signes, or otherwise to employ them in other seruices as he shall thinke most requisite: The particularities of all which with many more I haue before set downe at large, Page  60 and therefore it were superfluous to particular the same againe. And now as I haue formed this foresaid battle and iust square of 60. piquers in frunt, flanks, and backe, which in all do amount to 6600. men, with diuers other requisite matters: Euen so by the like orders of reduce∣ment, If a Lord Marshall or a Sergeant Maior Maior, haue 4000. or 5000. yea or 10000. or more or fewer pi∣quers to reduce into one bodie of squadron, hee may re∣duce them into a battle of a thirde part broader in frunt then by flanks; or double as broad or more in frunt then by flankes; or otherwise as he thinketh most conuenient: As for example; If he haue 5355. piquers, and that hee woulde reduce them all into one squadron, double as broad or more by frunt then by flankes, as of 105. piquers in frunt, and but of 51. rankes by flankes; and that hee would reduce his squadron into form, by compertiments throughout of 5. in a ranke; he shall then finde that 21. compertimentes reduced into squadron by flanke or flankes as aforesaid, will forme that squadron, of 105. pi∣quers in euerie rank from frunt to backe, and of 51. ranks by flankes.

Or if the Sergeant Maior, be disposed to forme the same squadron of the like number of 5355. piquers with greater compertiments as of 7. in euery compertiment throughout from frunt to back, that thereby he may form his squadron with the fewer compertimentes; hee may then command all the Captains or leaders of the piquers to reduce euery one of their compertimentes into 7. in a rank throughout from frunt to back; and then he shal find that 15. such compertiments or diuisions of 7. in a ranke throughout euery compertiment reduced into squadron either by the flanks the one of the other, or by both flanks subsequently al at one time, (as I haue in the beginning of this proiect of squadrons very particularlie declared) doo make iust 105. piquers in frunt, and 51. rankes by flanke, which is more then double as broad in frunt, then long by flankes.

Page  61But because peraduenture there are some professing armes not knowing how squadrons should be fourmed that will imagine,* that it is a matter of farre greater diffi∣cultie to forme a squadron of 10000. or 12000. piquers, or of greater numbers, then of 3000. or 4000. There∣vnto I say, that the orders and waies of reducing of 3000. or 4000. or of 10000. or any greater numbers in∣to one bodie of squadron is all one, sauing that the com∣pertimentes or diuisions of piquers, or of piquers and short weapons to forme great squadrons must be longer by flankes, then the compertimentes of small squadrons are: and therefore whereas the number of piquers of one bande, or companie are sufficient to make a compleat compertiment of number of piquers by frunt, as of 5. 6. 7. or any such euen or odde numbers, not exceding 10. or 11. as also of numbers of rankes conuenient by flanks to beginne the squadron withall; and that so likewise the piquers of other such single bandes are able to performe the like, beeing reduced by the flankes the one of the o∣ther as aforesaid, whereof it shoulde come to passe that such small squadrons should bee composed of the com∣pertiments of single bands by themselues; yet great squa∣drons or battles double as broad in frunt, as long by flankes, or iust squares, or any other formes, must bee composed of compertimentes although of like numbers in frunt as aforesaide: yet much longer by flankes, which to performe, because no one band haue piquers enough to mae a compertiment of so great a number as is requi∣site with celeritie to forme so great a squadron; the Ser∣geant Maior in that case is to commaund the piquers of 2. bandes presentlie to bee reduced into one comperti∣ment, and so likewise of other bandes, to the intent that by such great compertiments he may with the more ce∣leritie forme his squadron; in such sort, as if a Lorde Marshall or a Sergeant Maior Maior, were disposed to forme and reduce his squadron of 10000. or 12000. piquers, or any greater, or smaller numbers into one Page  62 squadron or battle; and that hee would forme the same double as broad by frunt as long by flankes; hee may by the like order of reducing of compertimentes of greater numbers by flanks, performe the same with as great faci∣litie, as hee did in the reducing of the other squadrons of smaller numbers with the compertiments of single bands into forme.

And therfore if a Sergeant Maior Maior would forme one battle of aboue 10000. piquers, and that hee would make them double as broad or more in frunt then long by flankes: As for example, of 143. in frunt, and of 71. rankes by flankes; he is first to consider how many com∣pertiments of euen and od numbers wil make that frunt, and he shall find that 17. compertiments of 8. souldiors in euery ranke from frunt to backe, and of 71. rankes by flankes in euery compertiment reduced into squadron by flanke or flankes (as I haue verie particularlie in my first forming of squadrons before declared) doo make y squa∣dron in frunt 136. souldiors, and then drawing vppe ano∣ther compertiment of odde number, as of 7. souldiors in euerie ranke throughout the whole compertimente from frunt to back, in all are 17. compertiments of euen num∣bers of 8. and one of 7. which are odde, which in all are 18. compertiments. All which diuisions reduced into squadron by flankes as aforesaid, the whole squadron so formed, dooth come to be of 143. souldiors in frunt, and 71. rankes by flankes, which in all doo make 10153. souldiors.

But now whereas all these squadrons before reduced and described do consist only of piquers with a few hal∣bardiers for the guard of the Ensignes,* which hath bene altogeather vsed of late yeares by the Italians & Spany∣ards in respect (as I haue heard them say) that such squa∣drons all of one weapon are mor readilie reduced into squadron, then of two different weapons, and therewith∣all more beawtifull and terrible in the sight of the E∣nemie in shewe, through the equalitie of the length of Page  63 the piques, then if there were many rankes of short weapons within the piques, which through the shortnes of the weapons would make the squadron to shewe vnto the Enemie as though there were a voide place without any soldiors in the midst of the piques: Yet because ma∣ny yeares past I haue in Fraunce seene the Sergeants Ma∣iors of the Suissers reduce certen rankes of halbardiers within their piques, thereby according to discipline to strengthen their battles aswell against the charges of hors∣men as against squadrons of footmen piquers: I will here (with the helpe of Almightie God) sett downe and shew how a squadron of halbardiers or battleaxes, inuironed or impaled about with 5. rankes of piquiers in frunt, flanks and backe, should be reduced into a squadron broader by a third parte in frunt and backe,* then long by flankes: which is to be performed in this sort following, that is, Incase that I haue .1500. armed battleaxes, or halbar∣diers, and that I were disposed to reduce them into .50 in frunt, and .30. by flankes, and that I would deuide that whole number into .10. compertiments of .5. battleaxes in euery ranke throughout euery compertiment: so as e∣uery compertiment from frunt to backe should containe 150. battleaxes; Or that I were disposed to commaund the .1500. battleaxes to be reduced into .5. comperti∣ments of 10. souldiors in euery ranke throughout euerie compertiment from frunt to backe, that is of 300. soul∣diors in euery compertiment, the same being by the cap∣taines and officers performed, I then appointing the ground where I would make the frunt of the squadron, would command the Captaines or leaders of euery com∣pertiment either of .5. if the compertiments be all of .5. or of .10. if they be of .10. soldiors throughout euerie compertiment to march vp, the one by the flanke of the other, vntill they come all to make one equall frunt in their iust & proportionate distances from frunt to backe: which being performed then I would commaund two compertiments all of piquers, each one of them of .150. Page  64 marching .5. in a ranke to be drawne vp, the one com∣pertiment of .150. close by the right flanke of the battle∣axes: and the other compertiment of the like number in like sort close by the left flanke of the battleaxes vntill the formost rankes of both those compertiments of piquers vpō both flanks be of equal frunt with the frunt of the bat∣tleaxes, and their last ranke equall with the last ranke of the battleaxes, which being performed, then of 50. bat∣tleaxes that they were in frunt before, now by the con∣ioining and reducing of those 2. compertiments of pi∣quers vpon the two flankes as aforesaid, the squadron is come to be of 60. soldiors in euery ranke from frunt to backe; which performed, then would I commaund 300. piquers reduced into 60. rankes of 5. in euery ranke to be drawne close by the frunt of the squadron of battleaxes & piquers before reduced, euen from the one flanke and corner to the other: And at the very same instant, I would command 60▪ ranks of piquers more of 5. in euery ranke to be drawne close by the backe, and Rereward of the same squadron: which being performed, then aswell the 60. ranks of piquers 5. in a ranke in frunt, as the 60. ranks of piquers 5. in a ranke in backe, are either vpon the sound of the trumpet, or the stroake of drummes to tourne their faces and weapons, and to make of flanke frunt: I meane that waies that the squadron of battleaxes, and the pi∣quers on the flankes do make frunt, and therewithall pre∣sently to reforme themselues in their distances: so as of 60. rankes of 5. in euerie ranke that the same comperti∣ment of piquers that was reduced in frunt was before, it is now by making of flanke frunt as aforsaid, become to be of 5. rankes of 60. soldiors in euery ranke: And so like∣wise the aforesaid compertiments of the like number of 300. piquers of 5. in euery ranke reduced vpon the backe of the squadron, by making of flanke frunt, towards the squadron of battleaxes and piquers, are now likewise be∣come to be 5. rankes by flanke, and 60. in euerie ranke. All which being performed the squadron of battleaxes Page  65 dooth come to be enuironed or empaled with 5. rankes of piquers in frunt, flankes, and back, the whole squadron conteining in frunt 60. soldiors, & by flanks 40. rankes.

And now this squadron being thus formed; then would I reduce all the different sortes of weapons of volee into their most conuenient forms of forlorn hopes, of sleeues, of winges, of hearses, of troupes, and other formes, ac∣cording to the nature and effect of euery different sort of weapon, and as the comming of the enemie should re∣quire, or as the ground or groundes woulde permit, ha∣uing therewithall regard as wel to arme the backe or rere∣ward of the squadron with weapons of volee, as to arme the frunt and flanks. And as I haue very particularly she∣wed how a squadron of Halbardiers or battleaxes, enui∣roned about with 5. rankes of piquers should be reduced into the forme aboue described, and therewithall said that the same should be armed in frunt, flankes and back, with weapons of volee of diuers sorts, so would I if I had conuenient numbers of horsemen of diuers armors and weapons, arme the same squadron, and sleeues, & wings of weapons of volee, with horsemen in their due & most conuenient places and formes.

But because I doo thinke that it shall be a farre greater instruction for such Gentlemen of our Nation, as doo not know and yet are willing and desirous to learne how diuers squadrons or battles of footemen with their wea∣pons of volee and field peeces ought to bee armed with many hearses, squares, and troupes of horsemen of di∣uers sorts of armors and weapons, and those conuenient∣ly placed in the large and open fieldes to giue battle and fight with the Enemie,* with their moste aduauntage, then to place onelye one squadron of footemen with their Weapons of volee, and to arme the same with horsemen of diuers sortes, I doo for example say, that if there were in the enemies Countrey 28000. or 30000. horsmen & footmen of our English Nation, well sorted, armed, weaponed, and exercised, according to the Page  66 nature and effect of euery different sort of weapon: And that the same Armie of 28000. did consist of the diffe∣rent weapons and numbers vnder written, that is of 4500 piquers, 8500. battleaxes, or halbardiers, of 10000. wea∣pons of volee, of the which I would haue 7000. good ar∣chers, 1500. mosquetiers, and 1500. harquebuziers; Of horsemen also I woulde haue 5000. of the which there should be 240. men at Armes, 480. Dimilaunces, 1680. Stradiots, 1300. archers on horsebacke, and 1300. cros∣bowers on horsebacke; and all those aswell horsemen as footmen sorted and deuided into their different propor∣tions and numbers vnder their standards, Enignes, pen∣nons and Guydons, as also vnder their Coronels, Cap∣taines, Conductors, and other higher and lower men of charge and officers; and that I were by the commande∣ment and appointment of the Lord Lieutenant Generall to giue order and reduce the said Armie into a forme of battle, as if it were presentlie to fight with the enemie, I would then take of those 8500. battleaxes or halbardiers, 6000. and out of the 4500. piquers I would take 3600. and would deuide and reduce all those numbers of pi∣quers and battleaxes into 3. battles,* that is, into a vaunt∣guard, a battle, & a Reregard, or rather into foure battles, that is into a vauntgard, a battle, and a Reregard, and into a fourth which I would tearme and call by the name of an a Rereregardrereward: euery one of which foure bat∣tles should consist of 1500. armed halbardiers or battle∣axes, and of 900. armed piquers, which are iust 2400. piquers and battleaxes in each battle: And as for the o∣uerplus of the whole number of the halbardiers or battle∣axes, which in all doo amount to 2500. as also the ouer∣plus of the piquers which are 900. (none of both which numbers are to enter into the squadrons afore mentio∣ned) I would reserue to be employed in such other serui∣ces as heereafter shall be mentioned: And I would that each one of the said 4. battles should conteine 60. souldi∣ors in euery ranke from frunt to backe and 40. rankes by Page  67 flanks: And that all the battleaxes should bee enuironed and empaled in frunt, flankes and backe, with 5. rankes of piquers, euen in the very same forme and sort that I haue before particulerlie reduced and formed the laste squadron before described.

But because diuers squadrons being reduced into form in the open fields where battles most conueniently are to be fought, are to be placed in diuers sorts, as sometimes all in a manner of one equall frunt with their sleeues and winges and other formes of weapons of volee, and some∣times also the vauntgard, aduaunced a good distance be∣fore and nearer to the enemie then the battle and Rere∣gard, who are in winges more retired, ready vppon all needfull occasions to succour and aide the foremost bat∣tle: And at other times the vauntgard, and Reregard ad∣uaunced beyond and nearer to the enemie then the prin∣cipall battle, which remaineth either in wing retired, or otherwise placed according to the nature of the ground and comming of the enemy, or according to some other order and commandement of the Generall, readie vpon all occasions to succour the other two battles, that are ready to enter into fight: So would I place those foresaid 4. battles in this sort following.

First,* I would place the vauntgard and Reregard both of one equall frunt, but yet so farre distant the one from the other, as that there might be ground & place enough betwixt them to reduce so many troupes, sleeues, wings, and other formes of all the different sorts of weapons of volee footmen, belonging to those two battles, as ought to bee (according to the disposition of the ground and comming of the Enemie) reduced and placed vppon the outer flanks and corners of those 2. battles: And I would that of the 2500. halbardiers before reserued and not pla∣ced, one thousand deuided into 2. partes of 500. halbar∣diers in each part should be placed in many little societies and troupes of ten halbardiers in euery societie, some in guard of the field peeces belonging to those two battles, Page  68 and all the rest behind in Rereward at the backes of the troupes and winges of the weapons of volee, ready vp∣on any occasion to succour them and to annoy the ene∣mie: I meane that the said 1000. halbarders deuided in∣to 2. parts of 500. in each part, that the one 500. deuided and placed in their little troupes as aforesaid, should bee for the succour and guard of the weapons of volee of the vaungard, and the other 500. should be for the succor & guard of the weapons of volee of the Rereguard, which performed, then would I place the other two squadrons of battle and a Rereregardrereward in two wings, but not so farre forward as the hindermost rankes of the two for∣most battles by 150. paces or more, with all theyr diffe∣rent sortes of weapons of volee, reduced into their most conuenient formes, with one thousand Halbardiers also taken out of the 1500. yet remaining vnplaced, equallie deuided 500. to each battle for the guard of the field pee∣ces and succor of the weapons of volee as is before more at large set downe: And those twoe hindermost battles I would also place of one equall frunt, that is, the one as farre forward as the other, but so farre seperated and di∣stant the one from the other, and so farre without and in winge, the one on the right hande, and the other on the lefte hand of the two foremost battles, as that all the dif∣ferent sortes of weapons of volee belonging to the two inner flankes of those two hindermost squadrons, might not onelie haue roome inough to bee reduced into their most conuenient formes, according to the nature & dif∣ferent dispositions and effects of euery sort of them, but also in such sort, as that both those two hindermost bat∣tles with all their weapons of volee might (without any impediment of the two formost battles and their wepons of volee, or of any their hearses, troupes, or squares of horsmen) haue the comming of the enemies battles, and squares, and troupes of horsmen, so apparant and cleare in their sightes, as that they might succour and aide the said two formost battles vpon all needfull and requisit oc∣casions and causes.

Page  69All which reducements of those foresaid 4. battles, being by the Coronels, Sergeant Maiors, Captaines and other officers with great order and celeritie perfourmed: then I hauing such conuenient numbers of men at arms, of dimilaunces, of Stradiots, of Archers and Crosbow∣ers on horsebacke (as are before particularlie set downe) to arme the flankes of the aforesaid foure battles: I would first giue order that the 240. men at Armes shoulde bee deuided into 4. winges, that is into 60. men at Armes in each wing, euery which number of 60. men at Armes, I would reduce either into 3. rankes of 20. in euery ranke,* or else into 4. rankes of 15. in euerie ranke, and woulde place two of those hearses or broade squares of men at Armes, the one euen by flanke and right ouer againste the middest of the right flanke of the vauntguarde, and the other broad square or hearse of men at Armes in like sort, euen by flanke and right ouer against the mid∣dest of the lefte flanke of the Reregard; And so likewise in the very same order I would place the other two broad squares of men at Armes, the one by flanke right ouer against the midst of the right flanke of the principall bat∣tle, and the other broad square by flanke, right ouer a∣gainst the middest of the left flanke of the a Rereregard∣rereward.

But yet it is to be vnderstood by this before written that I would place all those 4. hearses or broad squares of men at Armes, so farre distaunt in winge from all the flankes of those foresaid 4. Battles, and so farre wide and cleare from all the Sleeues, Winges, and Troupes of the Weapons of Volee footemen, as that those hear∣ses of men at Armes might vppon all good occasi∣ons offered, giue a charge vppon the Enemie, bee they horsemen or footmen without any waies troubling the Weapons of volee, or receiuing any trouble or let by the Weapons of Volee to giue their charges with great order: And therewithal that vpon their charges giuen, they may retire to giue new charges without disordering Page  70 their owne weapons of volee, or any waies troubling the rankes of their owne squadrons of armed footmen.

The dimilaunces also belonging to those men at Arms (which according to discipline ought to bee in number double as manie as the men at Armes)* which is that the men at Armes being 240. the dimilaunces ought to bee 480. which number 480. Launces, I would deuide in∣to 4. broad squares or hearses, of 120. in euerie hearse, euerie which number of 120. dimilaunces, I woulde re∣duce either nto 4. rankes of 30. in euery ranke, or else in∣to 5. rankes of 24. Launces in euery ranke, and woulde place two of those winges, the one by flanke in a manner euen with the right flank of the hearse or wing of the men at Armes reduced vpon the right flank of the vauntgard, and the other wing of dimilaunces in a manner euen by flanke, with the left flanke of the wing of the men at armes that are reduced vpon the left flanke of the reregard: But yet both those two winges of dimilaunces I would place a little aduaunced more forward then the winges of the men at Armes, and so farre distant by flanke from both the foresaide winges of the men at Armes, as that there might be ground and roome enough betwixt them, for sixe little troupes or societies, I meane two troupes or so∣cieties of archers on horsebacke, and 4. troupes of Cros∣bowers on horsebacke of 10. in euerie societie, to place themselues in their troups in conuenient distances sepa∣rated and oblique each one troupe from the other, readie vpon any charge by the Launces or men at Armes giuen or vnto them by the Enemie offered, to galloppe by the flankes of the Launces or of the men at Armes, but som∣thing more backe and in Rereward of them, and to giue their volees of quarrels and arrowes at the enemie, before the Launces or men at Armes should come to ioine and shocke with the enemies horsmen, or charge their foot∣men, or otherwise to giue their volees at any squadrons or troupes of horsmen or footmen, according to any o∣ther order and commandement vnto them by their su∣periors giuen.

Page  71And in like sort as I haue placed those 2. winges of di∣milaunces with their troupes of Crosbowers and archers on horsbacke betwixt them and the flankes of the 2. for∣moste winges of men at Armes as aforesaid; Euen so would I in the verie same sort place the other two winges of dimilaunces of 120. in each winge reduced, either into 4 rankes of 30. in euerie ranke, or else into 5. rankes of 24▪ in euery ranke, almost euen and right ouer against, sa∣uing a little more aduanced forward, then the flankes of the two hindermost winges of the men at Armes, that are reduced the one vpon the right flanke of the princi∣pall battle, and the other vpon the left flanke of the a Re∣reregard-Rereward, with the like numbers of troupes or societies of Crosbowers & archers on horsbacke betwixt them, (euerie little troupe of those weapons of volee se∣perated and oblique in distances the one from the other,) as are reduced and placed betwixt the flankes of the. 4. ormost winges of men at armes and dimilaunces. All which with great order being performed, then of al y rest of the numbers of Stradiots,* of archers on horsbake, and Crosbowers on horsbacke, which in all do amount to 4040. I would take out 60. stradiots 40. Crosbowers, & 40. archers on horsebacke, which are in all 140. horse∣men, which numbers I would reserue for such other em∣ployments as hereafter shalbe mentioned, and would de∣uide the rest which in all are 3900. stradiots, Crosbowers and archers on horsebacke into 3. diuisions or parts that is into. 1300. in each diuision, in euerie which. 1300. I would there should be like numbers of euery one of those 3. foresaid different sorts of weapons, or as neare therea∣bouts as they could be deuided: which done, then would I appoint one of those. 3. partes of different sorts of light horsemen, which are in number 1300. to arme the right flanke of the winge of dimilaunces that are vpō the right flanke of the men at Armes which do arme the righte flanke of the vauntgard. And I would giue order to all the Captaines & Conductors of al the aforesaid light horse∣men Page  72 men of the first 1300. that they should deuide and reduce all the numbers of their stradiots, of Crosbowers and ar∣chers on horsebacke into little troupes and societies of tennes & fifteens in euerie troupe, and that euerie socie∣tie and troupe should be of distincte and like weapons by themselues, and that euerie one of those societies should be lead by the heads and chiefe of their societies, & that all the troupes of stradiots Crosbowers and archers on horsebacke, should be placed and aduanced in winge more furder forward towards the Enemy, then the hearse or winge of dimilaunces: And I would also that all the so∣cieties of the weapons of volee, I meane the archers and Crosbowers on horsebacke, should be placed & aduan∣ced before and nearer to the Enemie by some 10. 15. or 20. paces, then the troupes and societies of stradiots, and that the troupes of archers should not march altogether by themselues, without any troupes of Crosbowers a∣mōgst or betwixt them, in respect that they are different kindes of weapons, but I would that the troupes of ar∣chers and Crosbowers should march in their troupes se∣perated, but yet in their troupes intermingled about 15. or. 20. paces distant one troupes from another, which is to be vnderstood a troupe of archers and a troupe of Crosbowers, and a troupe of archers & a troupe of Cros∣bowers and so the rest, some troupes fifteene, some twen∣tie paces one from another and those not all of one equal frunt, but oblique the one to the other, I meane some ad∣uaunced furder forward towards the Enemie, and others more backward in winge and Reregard Retired; And that I would to the intent that when the formost societies and troupes of weapons of volee, had giuen their volees of quarrels and arrowes either at horsemen, or footmen their Enemies, and that they were casting about againe and retiring to giue place to other troupes of weapons of volee to second and succeed them: that then some other troupes of weapons of volee that are in winge Reregard of them, should in their troupes put spurres to Page  73 their horses and aduaunce themselues forward and se∣conde and supplie their fellowes places retired, with new volees. And I woulde also that euerie three societies of Crosbowers and Archers on horsebacke, should haue one troupe of 10. of 15. of 20. or 25. stradiots with their double headed Launces continuallie vppon all charges and other seruices to attend vppon them in Reregard, some 15. or 20. paces distaunt, ready vpon any occasion to aduaunce themselues forwarde and succour them, as also vpon the disordering or ouerthrowe of the Enemie to followe the Chace, and doo execution vppon their Enemies disordered or broken, bee they horsemen or footmen.

And I would that no societie nor troupe of Archers nor Crosbowers on horseback should be vnder the num∣ber of 10. nor aboue the number of 15. nor that any troupe of Stradiots shoulde exceed the number of 25. nor be vnder the number of 10. And to the intent that euerie troupe of Stradiots should knowe vppon which 3. troupes of Crosbowers and Archers they should at∣tend, as alo that euery 3. troupes of Archers, and Cros∣bowers should giue their charges and volees and make their Retraites, and worke all other effectes in the fielde together, it were conuenient that euery 4. troups of stra∣diots, archers, and Crosbowers on horseback, and their Conductors, should alwaies lodge in their quarters in Campe together, but I meane not that the soeieties of archers, of Crosbowers, and stradiots should lodge all in one hale or tent together, but that the hales and tents of euerie different sort of weapon of euery such 4. troups should be placed one next vnto another, and that al their Cariages vpon any remoue of campe should march to∣gether, and that all the Conductors and the chiefs of the societies of tennes, as also all their soldiors of euery dif∣ferent sort of weapon, shuld know, frequent & keep com∣pany one with another in Campe, & should vow to liue Page  74 and die together, as if they were but one ind 〈…〉, societie and Camerada.

And as I haue placed this first 1300. light •••smen of different weapons in the order before described, so would I in the very same sort and form reduce the second num∣ber of 1300. stradiots, archers, and Crosbowers on hors∣backe vppon the left side and flanke of the dimilaunces, that are vpon the left flanke of the men at armes, which are in wing of the left side of the Reregard, which perfor∣med, I would then giue order that the third diuision and number of 1300. stradiots, archers, and Crosbowers on horsebacke, should be deuided into 2. diuisions or parts, that is into 650. in each diuision, and that the first 650. stradiots, archers and Crosbowers on horseback should in the like order as abouesaid bee reduced in their socie∣ties and troupes vpon the right flanke of the dimilaunces, that are reduced on the right flanke of the men at armes, that are in wing on the right side of the principall battle: And that the other diuision and number of 650. stradi∣ots, archers, and Crosbowers on horseback should bee likewise reduced in their societies and troupes vpon the left flanke and side of the broad square of dimilaunces, that are on the left flanke of the men at armes, that doo arme the left side of the a Rereregardrereward.

And I would that all those 4. winges of light horsmen, stradiots, archers and Crosbowers on horseback should vppon any occasion of battle, great incountrie, or skir∣mish, behaue themselues in fight according to the in∣structions that are heereafter described and set downe, where amongst other matters I make speciall mention of those 3. different sorts of light horsmen.

And now as I haue reduced and placed these 4. battles of footmen,* and armed them and their weapons of volee with many squares and troupes of horsmen of diuers dif∣ferent sorts of armors and weapons, so would I in this sort following, arme those 4. squadrons with certen field pee∣ces, according to the ordinarie vse of this time for the Page  75 greater annoiance of the Enemie, and for the more sure guard of the battles. First, incase there were any little hil or high ground of aduantage of any conuenient neere∣nesse vnto the two formost battles, that might command the open fieldes and plaines where the Enemies battles should march and approch, then I would there place so many field peeces as should bee requisite for that ground of aduauntage, with some trench or trenches by good numbers of laborers and pioners vppon the sudden cast, and those peeces well and stronglie guarded with conue∣nient numbers of piquers, halbardiers, and archers, and would place the rest of the field peeces, vpon the flanks of the battles in their most conuenient places, with their powder, bullets, and all other thinges that do appertaine to the vse of them for the annoiance of the Enemie. But incase there were no such grounds nor ground of aduan∣tage as aforesaid where to plant such peeces of artillerie, then would I place 3. fawcons ranforced of 6: poundes the bullet, and one fawconet ranforced of 3. pounds the bullet, some 8. or 10. paces wide from the right corner of the vaungard, and aduaunced furder forward then y frunt and Corner of that battle by the like number of paces with their gunners and all their aides and thinges apper∣taining vnto those peeces well guarded with conuenient numbers of halbardiers; And so likewise would place the like numbers of 3. fawcons and one fawconet in the like distances wide and aduanced furder forwarde, then the left corner of the same battle, by th like number of paces, with their gonners and all their aides and other thinges appertaining vnto those peeces, well guarded also with conuenient numbers of halbardiers.

And as I haue now armed the frunt of the said vaun∣gard with the number of field peeces before planted, so would I arme the fruntes of the other 3. battles of Rere∣gard, of maine battle, and of a Rereregardrereward be∣fore placed and described, each battle with the like num∣bers of field peeces planted in like distaunces from the Page  76 frunt and corners of them, well guarded also with Hal∣bardiers as aforesaid. And although the backs and Rere∣gards of all those 4 battles should not need to bee armed with any fielde peeces, as it shall bee within fewe lines heereafter apparant by the rest which I will set downe concerning those matters: yet to arme those 4. battles in the greatest perfection that I can, I would place vpon euery corner of the backs and Reregards of all the afore∣said 4. battles, two fawcons and one fawconet in like di∣staunces of paces that I haue before placed the field pee∣ces from the corners of the frunt of the aforesaid 4. bat∣tles.

But heere it is to bee noted that although diuers great Captaines that haue bin commanders and leaders of ar∣mies, haue alwaies accoūted Sakers of 10. or 12. pounds their bullets and other peeces from 10. poundes downe∣wards to Robinets of one pound to bee in the number of fielde peeces,* yet I to arme any battle with field peeces in the open fieldes, would vse no peeces aboue the heigth of fawcons of 6. pounds the bullets, and no smaller pee∣ces then fawconets of 3. pounds the bullets, vnlesse it were some Robinets of one pound the bullet, and those moun∣ted vpon carriages after the manner of Germanie light and easie to be drawne, and readie vpon the suddaine by the Gonners to bee turned euery waies. And the causes wherefore I would vse no peeces of any greater heigth for the field, are, that to vse Sakers of 10. or 12. pounds the bullets in the fielde, such peeces I say doo require more Horses, or Oxen to drawe them, and men to ma∣nage them, then Fawconets of 3. poundes, or Fawcons of 6. poundes doo, which ouerplus and greater num∣bers of Horses or Oxen of draught, doo vpon the remoo∣uing of those horses or oxen, and drawing them backe when the peeces are planted, giue a great deale more impediment and trouble not onely to the Gonners and their aydes, but also to he sleeues, winges, and troupes of the weapons of Volee, that are reduced on the flankes Page  77 and Corners of squadrons, then the small number of horses belonging to fawconets of three pounds or Faw∣cons of 6. pounds doo.

Also Armies sometimes in marching in the open and plaine fieldes, doo light vpon sandie and such other softish and yeelding groundes, where either vppon the drawing or discharging of Sakers of 10. or 12. poundes the bullets, their Wheeles doo sinke so deepe into the ground, that oftentimes they giue great impediment and let to the Gonners and their aides to manage and vse them, vpon diuers needefull occasions; besides that, vppon their discharginges the worke no greater effect against the Enemie, then such Fawcons and fawconets as aforesaid doo.

Also it is further to be noted that I would neuer place aboue the number of 8. field peeces by the flanks or cor∣ners of any battle, nor vnder the number of 4. I meane that I woulde neuer place aboue 3. Fawcons and one Fawconet, and those in conuenient distances wide from the right Corner of the Battle, and 3. Fawcons and one Fawconet, wide and in like distaunces from the left frunt and corner of the same Battle, or at the fewest 2. Faw∣cons and one Fawconet, some 8. or 10. paces wide from the one Corner, and 2. Fawcons and one Fawconet wide in the like distaunce from the other Corner of the fame Battle, and that in respect that too manie fielde peeces beeing drawen and marching vppon the flankes of squadrons to the intent to bee planted as abouesaid vppon the day of battle, are for diuers causes and vppon diuers accidentes of farre greater impedimentes and trouble, then any waies profitable to their owne Squa∣drons.

Also it is further to bee noted that I woulde neuer place any Fielde peeces directlie before the frunt of anie Squadrons or Battailes, vnlesse I thought our forces in the field to bee much inferiour in strength to the Enemy, Page  78 because that peeces so planted would be a great impedi∣ment vnto the battles marching forwarde to incounter with the enemie, by reason that such squadrons should be compelled by such peeces so planted to open & break their rankes, and to disorder themselues, which is a mat∣ter of great danger the Enemie being in sight or neere at hand. And now hauing armed all the aforesaid 4. bat∣tles with field peeces in their most fitte and conuenient places, there resteth to shew what should become of the Cariages and baggages of the Campe, as also where the ouerplus of the horsemen and footmen that are not yet placed, ought to be emploied.

The Carriages of all Armies and Camps do consist of two sorts, the one sorte that are publique, as of treasure and pay for the Armie, of great quantitie of powder both for great and small shot, of armor and weapon, of Ar∣tillerie, as of Cannons, Culuerings, demy Cannons, de∣my Culuerings, & Sakers and other smaller pieces, with all things belonging vnto them, of diuers sorts of victu∣all of prouision, of pieces maniable also, as of Curriers of warre, of mosquets, harquebuzes and other such pieces, with all things belonging vnto them, of bowes & sheafes of arrowes, and Crosbowes, gaffles, and quarrells, with piques, halbardes, targets, Launces, Launcezagaies and all other sorts of armors and weapons both offensiue and defensiue, with boates also to make bridges ouer riuers & all thinges appertaining vnto them: And to be briefe, of many other munitions & prouisions, al which being pub∣lique for the vse of the whole Armie or Campe, are vnder the charge of the Maister of the Ordinaunce. And as for the other Carriages and baggages that are priuate they are such as do belong vnto Cheistaines, Coronells, Cap∣taines, and other higher and lower men of charge and of∣ficers, and to be short to all the soldiors of the Army that haue any thing to be caried: All which priuate Cariages also, are vnder the Maister of the Ordinance his com∣maundement and Order. Now all the aforesaid most im∣portant Page  71 publique Carriages that do belong to the Army and Campe,* I would that the Maister of the Ordinaunce and his officers and substitutes should reduce as neare as he can possiblie into a square with such cōuenient distan∣ces betwixt euerie rowe of carriages & carriages as they might not be any impedimēt nor let the one to the other, neither in marching nor in staing and pawsing. And I would that the treasure should be caried either vpon mu∣lets or horses, or rather vpon close couered waggons af∣ter the manner of Germanie, and those carriages placed towardes the midst of the square on the right hande, and that the waggons or Carts that do carrie the cheife sub∣stance of the powder, should be placed also towardes the midst of the square on the left hand, and that both those sorts of carriages should bee very strongly guarded with good numbers of halbardiers, and that all the great or∣dinance of batterie and artillery with powder and bullets, and all other things belonging vnto them should be pla∣ced and drawen with their horses or oxen aswell vpon the frunt and backe, as vpon the outer flankes and sides of the same square: And I would that all the rest of the carri∣ages should be reduced into 2. 3. or 4. ranks in the forme of a Rainebow, a semicircle or halfe round at the back of the most important publique cariages which are beore reduced into square, in such sort as that the midst of the halfe round should be directly behind and verie neere the foresaid square of Cariages, and that both the endes of the semicircle should be so farre extended and drawn in∣to a great Compasse circular, that the right ende thereof should haue right ouer against the left flanke & corner of the same (but a good distance wide) the hinder part of the right flanke of the principall battle, and that the lefte end of the same halfe round, should aso haue right ouer against the right flanke and corner (but a good distance wide) the hinder part of the left flank of the a Rereregard∣rereward, and that in such sort as that semicircle or halfe round of Cariages might seeme as it were to halfe com∣passe Page  80 and embrace the backes and Rerewards of all the 4▪ battles and their weapons of volee: which Reducement of Cariages being performed, I would then take the 500. halbardiers, and the 900. piquers, which at the first for∣ming of the 4. battles were reserued and not any where placed, and would also either from the beginning reserue vnplaced, or at least would drawe. 400. archers. 400. harquebuziers, and. 400. mosquetiers, out of the 7000. archers, and the. 3000. harquebuziers and mosquetiers, which are reduced and placed in many sleeues, winges, troupes and other formes vpon the flankes Corners and Reregards of all the aforesaid 4. battles, and would deuide all the aforesaid 900. piquers 500. halbadiers and 12000. wepons of volee of different sorts into 4. parts, 3. parts of the which being reduced into diuers squares and troupes, I would should be reduced vpon the backe and both the Corners of the semicircle, with certen fawconetts and Robynets for the guard of the backe and ends of the semi∣circle of Cariages, and therewithall would also place ma∣ny of 〈◊〉 the harquebuziers and mosquetiers aforesaid vp∣on diuers of the Carriages themselues, that from thence vpon any approach of the Enemie, they might discharge their peeces at them to their terror and mischiefe.

Now as for the fourth part and diuision of the weapons aforesaid I would they should be placed in many hearses and troupes vpon the frunts and flankes of the aforesaid square of carriages, as also vpon the ynner parts and cor∣ners of the halfe round. And as for the 140. stradiots, ar∣chers on horsebacke and Crosbowers on horsebacke, I would that. 100. of them should be placed vnder their Conductors in diuers little troupes & societies vpon the backe and Rereward of the halfe round, for the more sure guarde of the same, and the rest which are 40. light hor∣men, I would that they being deuided in their litle troups and societies, should be for the guarde of the inner parte of the semicircle, or else that the Enemies Army being in frunt of the aforesaid 4. battles, that 20. of those light Page  81 horsmen vnder a sufficient Conductor should serue for discouerers on the right hand of the whole Armie, and that the other 20. light horsmen vnder the like Conduc∣tor should discouer on the left hand, whether there were any vnlooked for troupes of the enemie approching, and thereof to giue aduertisement to the Generall of the Ar∣mie, or to the Lord Marshall.

And now all these reducements before set downe be∣ing performed, It is to be noted that for so puissant an Ar∣mie as this of 28000. horsemen and footmen of our En∣glish Nation is, there cannot be fewer then 4000. pio∣ners and labourers, besides the waggoners, Carters, and other baggagers of the Campe, aswel for the leuelling & plaining of groundes where the Armie and artillerie shal passe, as also for the fortefying of Campes and appro∣ching of places fortefied with trenches, Crosse trenches and gabions, and for the making of mounts and working in mines, and infinite other thinges appertaining to the Armie and Campe: which 4000. labourers and pioners I would vpon the day of battle appoint and place in this sort following. First,* I would that besides their spades, shouelles, and mattocks, which they should haue alwaies by them readie to performe any labour or worke to them appointed by their Captaines and Conductors, that e∣uerie one of them should haue a good halbard or blacke bill with a good dagger either hanging before them, or vppon their Girdles at their backes: And so I would like∣wise that all the Waggoners, Carters and other bagga∣gers of the Campe should bee appointed with the like weapons alwaies vppon their cariages readie vppon any occasion for them to take and vse, or else that euery sort of them should haue such other weapons as they haue most skill to handle: And of the pioners and labourers I would appoint some conuenient numbers to bee with the field peeces that were placed vppon the fruntes and corners of all the 4. battles to helpe to remoue, turne and mannage them.

Page  82Also I would take 1600. more of those pioners and labourers, and would deuide them into 4. diuisions or parts of 400. in euery diuision, vnder their Captaines, & Leaders, and would appoint euery one of those 4. partes deuided into their societies of tens to attend vpon the a∣foresaid 4. battles, and that they should be placed at the backs and in Rereward of the societies of halbardiers that are in Rereward of the weapons of volee of the 4. battles, readie to cut any trenches, or to perform any other com∣mandment vnto them giuen, as also vpon the ouerthrow of the Enemie with their blacke Bils or other weapons to follow the Chase, and doo execution vpon the Enemie flying as the souldiors halbardiers placed at the backes of the weapons of volee ought to doo, because that accor∣ding to right discipline vpon the ouerthrow of the Ene∣mie,* it is not any waies lawfull for battles and squadrons of footmen to breake their rankes and orders, to the in∣tent to follow the Chase: And as for all the rest of the 4000. labourers and pioners, I would place them deui∣ded vnder their Captaines and leaders aswel for the gard of the aforesaid square and halfe round of cariages, as for the keeping of the Cariages in order, and repairing and mending of the wheeles and other thinges of the Ordi∣nance, or of Carts and waggons broken.

And now hauing reduced and placed all the aforesaid 4. battles with their forlorn hopes, sleeues, wings, troups and other formes of weapons of volee in their most con∣uenient places, and therewithall armed them with con∣uenient numbers of field peeces, and reduced and placed all the horsmen of diuers different sortes of armors and weapons in their most conuenient formes for the annoi∣ance of the Enemie and for the aiding and succouring the one of the other vppon all needefull occasions and acci∣dents, and therewithall placed all the Cariages of the Armie and Campe in the forme of a halfe round and se∣micircle with a square of cariages in the midst or bosome thereof for the guard of the Rerewards and backs of all Page  83 the 4. battles; and all those cariages in their forms guar∣ded with diuers different sorts of weapons both of horse∣men and footmen, accompanied with small field peeces to make head against and resist al attempts either of hors∣men or footmen: And all this to the intent presently vp∣on the approach of the Enemy that is now in sight to giue battle: Then I would wish according to the auncient vse of many Warlike Nations, to the intent that it might please Almightie God to prosper this Armie with victo∣rie, that vpon the sound of the Lord Lieutenants trom∣pet for the displaieng of the standard Royall of the Army, to the intent to giue battle, the Enemie being in sight and approching, all the souldiors should be instructed and taught long before to say this short praier following, or some other to the like effect.

O Almightie,* Eternall, and incomprehensible God, we most humblie beseech thy diuine Maiestie, to giue vnto vs all courage, force and victorie to the glorie of thy holy Name.

And this said praier, I would wish to be said vpon the sight of the Enemies battles by all the squadrons of ar∣med footmen, and by all the sleeues and winges of the souldiors of weapons of volee vpon their knees in their Rankes as they stand. And that all the horsmen of euery sort of weapon should on horseback vse the same or the like short praier.

And therewithall I thought good furder to aduertise, that those squadrons being so formed or in any other sort,* to the intent to giue battle to the Enemie, all the soldiors piquers, and halbardiers should be instructed and taught long before, that it is not lawfull nor sufferable for any of the souldiors of any ranke reduced into forme of battle, when vpon the very neere approch of the enemies squa∣dron they haue vprighted their piques, to the intent with the points of them to charge or receiue a charge of their Enemies be they either horsemen or footmen, so much as once to turne their faces to looke behind them: And Page  84 to the intent that they may bee the more terrified from any waies turning their faces to look backe (which doth argue feare) they are to be instructed according to disci∣pline, that it shall bee lawfull for the souldiors of euerie Ranke to wound or kill any souldior or souldiors of the ranke before them vppon the turning of their faces and bodies to looke backe: and the same is to bee performed euen from the verie first to the last rankes: And this in∣struction is to be obserued to ye intent to make all the sol∣diors of a squadron formed to keepe their weapons, fa∣ces, eies, and braue countinaunces towardes their Ene∣mies, without shewing any suspicion or so much as one tittle of feare.

But now after my describing verie particularlie and at large this said Armie reduced into the forme & formes aforesaid, to the intent that thereby all Gentlemen affec∣ted to matters of armes, and souldiors may with great fa∣cilitie vnderstand mine intention and meaning; it may bee that some gentlemen not experienced in matters of armes, will in reading this my proiect imagine that the reducement and forming of an armie into diuers battles and other formes, dooth appertaine onely to the Lorde Lieutenant Generall, or to the Lord high Marshall of the armie; and that the same should be performed onley by one of them, one peece after another: And that they per∣aduenture may imagine the rather; because I in my fore∣said reducing and forming of ye armie by way of discourse doe write, and say, that first I would reduce and place the vaungard, then the Reregard, and then the other two battles, and the Weapons of volee, and after the horse∣men of diuers sorts of armors and Weapons in this sort, and in that sort, with many other particularities and cir∣cumstances: Vnto which their misimaginations I say, that it is not one mans worke; although it were Iulius Caesar himselfe, to reduce a whole armie into diuers forms of battle with celeritie when they are to march in the eni∣mies Countrey, or to fight with the Enemie, but that the Page  85 same must be of necessitie perfourmed by diuers Chiefe∣tains, and higher and lower officers of the armie: And yet that notwithstanding, it is not possible to perfourme the same with art, celeritie, and Discipline, vnlesse the di∣rection and order thereof doo proceede either from the onely mouth of the Chiefetaine of the armie, or from the Lorde high Marshall, or some other chiefe Officer by them appointed; And therefore it dooth behooue (which of them soeuer dooth giue the order) to haue the forme and formes, of all the battles, squares and troupes, as well of horsemen as of footemen with the scituation and nature of the ground and groundes, and many other particularities in his memorie and head; and that in so great perfection, as if hee with his eies did at that instant behold and see the whole armie in the field reduced into all his intended formes.

And therefore to perfourme the same, it is the ordi∣narie vse of all skilfull Chieftaines of armies and Lorde Marshals when they haue concluded and resolued with themselues by the aduise of their Councell,* into what forme and formes the whole armie shall bee reduced to march or to fight, to call and assemble before them the Chiefetaines of all the horsemen and footmen, the mai∣ster of the Ordinance, the Sergeant Maior generall, the maister of the Campe, and such other men of office and charge as hee thinketh requisite, and there giueth order vnto them from point to point, concerning y dislodging and ordering of al those most important affaires: which being by him performed; they presently do resort euerie one to their owne charges, and doo giue order to their Lieutenants, to their Sergeant Maiors, Captaines, and all other officers vnto whom the execution of those af∣faires and actions doo appertain, for the performance of al those reducements and orders that they haue receiued of the Chiefetaine of the armie, or from the Lord Mar∣shall: which doone, then all the Captaines both of Page  86 horsmen and footmen, and all their officers, doo with all celeritie reduce their bandes into order, and march into the field, where the Lord Lieutenant Generall, with the Lord Marshall, and Sergeant Maior generall, do ouersee and direct the Coronels, Sergeant Maiors and Captains, in the ordering and forming of their battles, troupes and other formes. And thus by this ordinarie proceeding of all skilfull Chieftaines of Armies in their reducementes and formings of battles and Campes, those and all other matters militarie of any great importance, are with great facility, and in very short time performed.

And now hauing shewed all the most couenient waies of reducing and forming of all sortes of squadrons aswell great as small, and where in the field to their most aduantage they may be placed, and therewithal how and where horsemen of diuers different sortes of armors and weapons ought to bee placed in their most conuenient places: with many other particularities, I think good be∣fore I goe any further to giue an aduertisement that al∣though it hath beene the vse of all antiquitie amongest many Nations according to good discipline to reduce the chiefe force of their armed footmen into three squa∣drons or battles,* terming the first, vaunguard, the second, battle, and the third, Reregard; and that oftentimes they haue vsed to forme very great battles of 8000. or 10000. or more into one body of squadron; yet I for diuers cau∣ses and reasons would wish a Lieutenant generall, or lord Marshall of a puissant Armie, rather to forme 6. 7. or 8. smaller battles; incase the number of the Armie bee so great that the same by reason militarie may bee perfour∣med, then onely into three great battles as aforesaid.

As for example, if there were an Army of 30000. hors∣men and footmen; and that there were of those. 15000. armed men piquers and short weapons to be reduced in∣to diuers battles; that I would not only of those. 15000. according to the ordinary vse, forme a vauntgard, battle and Rereward, but also 3. other smaller battles, vnto the Page  87 which I would giue 3. different names, & would call the first by the name of a vauntregard Rereward; the second the batle of succor;* and the third by the name of a Rerere∣gard Reregard; and the firste 3. battles of vaungard, battle, and Reregard I would should consist of 3000. piquers and short weapons to euery battle; and that each one of those battles being reduced into squadron should consist of. 75. piquers in frunt, and. 40. by flankes, ouerplus of broken rankes not so much as one soldior; and the last 3. mentioned battles I would should consist of. 2000. to e∣uery battle, and that euery one of them being reduced in to squadrons should consist in frunt, that is in euery ranke from frunt to backe of 50. piquers, and by flankes of. 40. rankes, ouerplus of broken rankes not any one soldior. And these 6. foresaid battles reduced into the formes a∣foresaid, and flankt and wing'd with weapons of volee of diuers sorts according to discipline and the comming of the enemy; in mine opinion should be of great aduantage to encounter with 15000. armed men their enemies re∣duced but only into. 3. batles of 5000. to euery battle; by reason that whilest the 3. formost battles each of them consisting of 3000. as aforesaid, do confrunt with the. 3. great batles of 5000. in each battle, the other 3. battles of a vauntregard Rereward and of the battle of succor, and of a Rereregard Rereward, that doo march in winges in Rereward retired, as aforesaid, may with great celeritie and dexteritie by marching and auauncing themselues forward, charge the flankes of their enemies 3. battles, and put them in great hazard of disordering & breaking: Howbeit here it may be obiected against mine opinion, that in case the 3. great battles of the enemy of. 5000. to euery battle were each one of them reduced into. 125. armed men in frunt, & of 40. rankes by flankes; that their 〈◊〉 encountting & ioining with the formost 3. small batles of vaungard, battle, and Reregard, they might euerie one of them in ioyning frunt to frunt with them, in respect that euery one of the great battles of. 5000. to euery Page  88 batle doth beare a greater bredth by the nūber of. 28. sol∣diors in frunt, then any of the formost 3. squadrōs of 3000 in euery squadron do, with great aduantage draw vp a sleeue of 28. in euery ranke, and of 40. rankes by flankes; and finding themselues full against the flanke of their E∣nemies squadron, they may suddenly make of flanke frunt by tourning their faces and weapons towards the flanke of the foresaid littlesquadrons, and then reforming them∣selues in their distances, and closing themselues in frunt and flanks, may bend their piques and charge the flankes of the little squadrons to their most assured ruine. Or o∣therwise vpon the inconsiderate ioining of any one of the small squadrons of 3000. being in frunt but. 75. with the verie midst of the frunt of the great battles of. 5000. that do consist of 125. piquers in frunt; the foresaid great squa∣drons vpon such an aduantage offered, may drawe vp each of them two sleeues from each side or flanke of their squadron one of. 14. piquers in euery ranke, and finding themselues euen vpon both the flankes of the little squa∣dron; they may of their flankes make frunt, and so of. 14. that they were before in euery ranke, they are now by making of flanke frunt become to be 40. in euerie ranke, and in length by flankes 14. soldiors, and so by reforming their distances and straightning and closing themselues in frunt and by flanks as aforesaid, may with their piques charge both the flankes of the little squadron to their vt∣ter disorder and ouerthrow. To which obiection I say, that those foresaid aduauntages and others might be very well taken against the 3. little squadrons of vaungard, bat∣tle, and Reregard, if it were not that the other 3. little bat∣tles of succor of 2000. to euery squadron, euery of them of. 50. piquers in frunt, marching in Rereward in distincte battles by them selues were not alwaies ready vpon the drawing vp of all such sleeues or winges from the bodies of the great squadrons, suddenly with great dexteritie to charge them either in frunt flanks or backe, to their most assured ruine and ouerthrow. But againe it may be Page  89 further alledged in fauor of the great battles, that al squa∣drons of armed men piquers doo alwaies march, wing'd, & flankt with conuenient numbers of weapons of volee, in such sort as those weapons of volee should be a great impediment to the forsaid little squadrons to charge the sleeues, and wings as aforesaid.

Vnto the which I say, that true it is, that all well orde∣red battles, are wing'd and flankt with shot of diuers sorts and that it hath beene and is a maxime amongest al men of warre of great experience and Iudgement, that hear∣ses, sleeues, winges and troupes of shot beeing deuided into many small diuisions, are a great deale more apt and ready to bee emploied at one time, into more different and effectuall seruices to worke great effectes then any great diuisions of shot can bee: Which if it be so, as most certen it is by all experience Militarie; then the 3. battles of 5000. to euery battle hauing 10000. weapons of vo∣lee of diuers sortes to be reduced vnder their safeguard, must diuide those 10000. into so many compertimentes and diuisions of sleeues, winges and troupes, as are requi∣site to guard 3. such battles; As also the diuisions of wea∣pons of volee themselues to bee protected and defended vnder the safeguard of those 3. squadrons; and so likewise the 15000. armed men beeing reduced into 6. little bat∣tles as aforesaid, hauing the like number of weapons of volee of diuers sorts to aide them, and to be by them pro∣tected, must by all order militarie diuide those 10000. weapons of volee into double as many or more diuisions of sleeues, wings and troups then the 3. great battles haue diuided theirs for their aide. From all which experien∣ced reasons and examples I come to conclude that as 15000. armed footemen reduced but onely into 3. great battles cannot by any reason militarie haue so manie sleeues, winge, troupes, & other diuisions of diuers sorts of shot vnder their safegard, as 15000. armed men redu∣ced into 6. smaller battles may haue: Euen so that the 3. great squadrons of armed men with their few & great di∣uisiōs of shot cannot possibly by any reason or experience Page  90 worke so great effects, as the 6. smaller battles their Ene∣mies, with their many and more conuenient diuisions of diuers sorts of weapons of volee may worke.

And now whereas I haue before fourmed a squadron and diuers squadrons all of halbardiers or battleaxes en∣uironed or empaled about with 5. rankes of piquers in frunt, flankes and backe; and that the short weapons are in greater number then ye piques; & therfore by some in these daies (that doo more regard the new fashions, and fancies of the disordered and corrupted Militia, that of very late yeares in diuers ciuill warres haue crept into Christendome, then the true discipline, art, and science militarie, which hath beene practised and vsed from age to age of all antiquitie, in the warres betwixt Emperors, Kinges, and puissant Common wealthes) it may perad∣uenture be thought, that such a squadron is no waies cō∣parable for all great effects and purposes to a squadron of the like number al of piquers without any short weapons, sauing onely a very fewe for the guard of the Ensignes: Thervnto I say, that I doo thinke this squadron of short weapons enuironed with 5. ranks of piques as aforesaid, to be of a great deale more aduantage, strength and effect aswell against horsmen as footmen, then any squadron of the like number all of piquers can be. And because it shall be apparant that I am not carried with new fashions and fancies, but with the obseruation of that which I haue read, hath been in vse and obserued by diuers braue Nations in many ages, as also by mine owne hearing the opinions of diuers great Captaines, Coronels, and Ser∣geants Maiors of diuers warrelike Nations, some of late yeares dead, and some yet aliue; And therwithall by that which I haue seene and obserued my selfe, in the squa∣drons of diuers Nations, some of the which haue vsed squadrons all of piquers as aforesaid, and other Nations squadrons of piquers with some rankes of halbards with in their piques: which different vses of Nations haue gi∣uen me occasion not onely to enter into imagination of Page  91 the different or contrarie causes of the forming of such squadrons, but also the more curiouslie to aske & inquire of diuers men of great sufficiencie of those Nations, the different reasons and causes of the forming of such squa∣drons, some all of piques and others of piques and short weapons as aforesaid; I therfore will set down that which I haue gathered and obserued by the diuersitie of their opinions concerning the same, as also by mine own sight and consideration, and will here by the helpe of Almigh∣tie God, giue sufficient causes and reasons to proue that my foresaid squadron formed with short weapons, enui∣roned about with 5. rankes of piquers as aforesaid, is of farre greater force and effect, then if the squadron were all of piquers; And the reasons are these.

First, when a squadron of men at armes or dimi∣launces, or diuers squadrons seconding one ano∣ther, shoulde charge the squadron of footemen all of piquers in frunt:* all men of consideration may consi∣der and know that all the whole squadron consisting on∣ly of piquers, according as I haue before formed diuers squadrons in this discourse; that not aboue 5. rankes of the foremost piques at the most beeing closed in frunt, flankes and backe, or rather but 4. rankes, can make head with the pointes of their piques to hurt or reach the hor∣ses or men of the formost ranks of the Launces charging; & that because the longest piques that are in these daies vsed by any Nation are not aboue 18. foot long, of which length of 18. foot,* the formost ranke of piquers either clapping the butendes of their piques vnder their right feete, or carrying them breast high to resist, and repulse the Launces (both which waies are in the beginning of this booke, very particularlie declared) I say that from their right handes that they hold the butendes of their piques withall to theirleft and forehands that doo beare their piques (incase they carry them abouehand breast high) doo occupie and therefore shorten 3. foot at least of the length of their piques towards the foremost ranke Page  92 of their Enemies; then there doo remaine 15. foot be∣yond their left and forehandes more for them to reach and annoy their enemies withall; then the second ranke closing themselues to y first rank and carying their piques breast high ouer the shoulders of the first rank do leese 3. foot more of y length of their piques by that which they hold betwixt their hinder and forehands, as aforsaid; so as there remaineth but 12. foot of the length of their piques beyond the foremost rankes towardes the annoiance of their Enemies; then the third ranke closing themselues to the shoulders of the second ranke doo come likewise to loose three foote more by so much of their piques as they hold betwixt both their handes as aforesaid, which with the thicknesse and distance of the two rankes before them dooth come to make them to leese 9. foote of the length of their piques, so as there remaineth only 9. foot of the length of their piques at the most beyond the fore∣most ranke towards the annoiance of the Enemie; then the fourth ranke by the like cause and reason commeth to leese 3. foot more of the length of their piques, so as there remaineth only 6. foot of the length of their piques with the pointes of them before the formost ranke to an∣noy the Enemie; then the fifth ranke of the squadron of piquers commeth by the like causes and reasons as afore∣saide to leese 3. foote more at the least of the length of their piques, which with the thicknesse of all the 4. ranks before them doo come to make them to leese 15. foot or more of the length of their piques so as there remaineth only 3. foot of y length of their piques beyond y formost and first ranke, the which 3. foot of their piques towards the Enemie reaching too short to annoy either horses or men, doo rather through the shortnesse of the same, rea∣ching so little a waie beyond the first ranke, trouble the foremost rankes of their fellowes, then worke any other good effect; and therefore those piques of the fifth ranke are rather to be kept still vprighted with the points some thing bent towardes the Enemie, then any waies to bee Page  93 couched as the piques of the 4. foremost rankes are, and so likewise the piquers of the sixth, seuenth, and eighth rankes, and subsequently of all the rest hauing no possibi∣litie at the first charge either of horsemen, or footmen, to annoy them, they are to keepe their piques still vprigh∣ted, the pointes something bent forward towardes the enemie to shew themselues in the sight of the enemy rea∣dy to succour the formost rankes, rather then any waies to beare the pointes of their piques any lower. But if any man will say that all the backer rankes of piquers may or∣derlie and easilie succour and supplie the places of such piquers of the fore rankes as come to be slaine, wounded, or ouerthrowne, and so resist or repulse either horsemen or footmen entring, as I my selfe in the beginning of this booke haue particularly set downe.

Therevnto I answere,* that the piques that are in the backer rankes vppon the accidentall breaking in of any men at Armes into the foremost ranks of piquers; or vp∣on the entring of any of the formost ranks of the contra∣rie squadron of footmen; are through the hauing of so many other ranks of piquers before them, with the great length of those weapons in a presse so vnmaniable, and therefore of so little effect when battles come to ioine; that most of the piques of the inner rankes; I meane of the sixt, seuenth, and eighth, and so consequentlie of the rest of the middle rankes, through the letting fall of the pointes of their piques forward (how leisurely soeuer) to couch and bend the points of them to the annoiance of the enemies, do through their great length so intermin∣gle, and intricate with the pique•• of the former rankes, that euery sudden touch of the piques that are in the ranks before one another, do so disorder, beat, and turne aside the points of the piques from their intended thrusts at their enemies, as that they rather turne them through their great length to the trouble of the ranks before them, then any waies to resist, repulse, or annoie the Enemie.

But now it may be demanded of me wherfore the sixt, Page  94 seuenth,* and so consequentlie the rest of the inner rankes should not as orderlie one after another let fal and couch their piques to the resistance and mischiefe of their ene∣mies, as the 5. formost, and first rank of piquers may. Wherevnto I answer that the 4. or 5. first rankes hauing apparant and cleare in their eies and sights the comming of their Enemies in squadron, be they horsemen or foot∣men, may with greater order and leisure all one after another couch their piques and charge a contrary squadron of footmen, or receiue a charge of horsemen, then the other inner rankes of piquers can, who vpon the breaking in and entring of some of the men at armes in one place or other, or y entring of some part of the squa∣dron of their enemies footmen more in one place then in another, as sometimes it happeneth, cannot so well and clearely see the comming and entring of their Enemies, by reason of so many ranks of their fellowes before them, as that they may so wel in iust and conuenient times, mo∣ments and distances, orderlie and effectually let fall and couch their piques as the 4. or 5. foremost rankes haue doone.

Vpon which accidentes it dooth ordinarilie happen, that such inner ranks are driuen to let fall and couch their piques vpon suddens, least y by their not couching them, they should by their enemies approching them too neer leese the vse of the points of their piques. Which sudden letting fall and couching of their piques, dooth cause the aforesaid intermingling and intricating, and confused o∣uerthwarting of piques with piques, a great deale more in the inner rankes, then any waies in the formost 4. or 5. rankes as aforesaid. By all which it is to bee considered and noted, that neither horsmen, Launces, nor footmen piquers can enter vnder the points of my squadron of bat∣tleaxes empaled and inuironed in frunt, flanks and back, with 5. ranks of piques as aforesaid, but that they must of necessitie abide the first violence of the pointes of them, 〈◊〉 they find them already in great order and leisure Page  95 couched to resist and repulse them.

Whereas farre otherwise it doth behooue the inner ranks of a squadron consisting all of piquers, to obserue the en∣tring of their Enemies be they horsemen or footmen in such moments & iust distances, as that they may be sure to let fall and couch their piques, when their Enemies are entred, and do come within 4. or 5. ranks of them; which if they should faile to performe; then it were too late for such inner rankes to couch their piques either againste horsemen or footmen, now entred and comne within and vnder the length of their piques. But vnto this, some vn∣skilfull soldior may obiect and say, that the inner rankes may still carrie their piques couched, readie to resist, or repulse their Enemies entering. Or otherwise, that they letting fal and couching their piques, after that their Ene∣mies be entered within lesse then 5. or 4. rankes of them may so farre retire, and pull them backe, as that they may recouer the vse of the points of them against their Ene∣mies to their great annoiance.

Vnto which obiections, I say that it is not in the force and strength of the most puissant soldiors of any Nation that liue,* still to carrie their piques couched, no nor yet to beare them abouehand ouer their fellowes heades but a verie little while, considering the great length and hea∣ueth of them: And therefore they must neuer let fall and couch them, vntill such instant & needfull times, as their Enemies do approach them in so neare distances, as they must presently (either with one entire thrush, if they bee the formost, 4▪ or. 5. rankes, or with diuers thrusts in iust instantes and times if they be the inner rankes), vpon the entering of the Enemie, be driuen to make head, and suc∣cor the rankes before them; for if the inner rankes should through lacke of skill thrust at their Euemies before they come within the reach of their piques, then they should worke no other effect, but thrust their owne fellowes that are betwixt them and their Enemies, to their trouble, or mischiefe in their heads, necks or backs. And for aunswer Page  96 to the other obiection that the ynner rankes of piquers letting fall and couching their piques, may pul and retire them so farre backe, as that they may againe recouer the vse of the points of them against their Enemies entered; I say, that if the enemies be they either horsemen or foot∣men be entered but only .7. 6. 5. 4. or 3. feete within and vnder the length of any of the piques of the inner ranks that it is not possible for such piquers, in respect of the ranke and rankes that are so neare and close behind them, to pull their piques with their armes so farre backe, as any waies to recouer y vse of the pyonts of them against such Enemies as are comne within and vnder their piques as aforsaid: whereof insueth that those inner rankes haue vtterly lost the vse of their piques, and therefore must let them fall to the great trouble of the leggs and feete of the rankes of their fellowes aduauncing forward, and betake themselues to their swords and daggars,* which are not weapons any waies able to repulse or resist armed men with battleaxes, or halbards. By all which before allea∣ged, I thinke it is most apparant that the 5. rankes of pi∣quers that do empale & enuiron my squadron of battle∣axes by frunt, flanks, and backe, are ranks enough to restist any Charge or Charges of Launces, aswell, and a great deale better, then if the same squadron were all of piques, because that the 4. or 5. first rankes only are those that do worke al the effects to the resisting & repulsing of Laun∣ces charging, or that are with their thrush to resist and re∣pulse any charge of a squadron of footmen piquers their Enemies; and if any Launces by chaunce should breake through those 5. rankes, then the battleaxes, and short staued, and long edged, and short and strong pointed hal∣bards in the handes of well armed men, are readie at the heeles of the 5. rankes of their piquers, and do wonder∣fully both with blow and thrust at the heads, and faces of horses or men, kill wound, ouerthrow, or repulse either horsemen Launces, or footmen piquers, whose first char∣ges and furies haue bene before greatly staied and weake∣ned Page  97 by y resistance of the first 5. ranks of piquers (as afor∣said;) For it is to all men of vnderstanding in matters Mi∣litarie most euident, that short staued battleaxes, or hal∣bards, of not aboue 6. foot long in their whole length, do no waies in their blowes nor thrusts, either against hors∣men or footmen trouble, entermingle, nor intricate one with another, by reason of their shortnesse, as the rankes of piques do, through their great lengthes: which piques doo no waies kill nor hurt but only with their pointes, as is before at large declared. By all which I come to con∣clude, that 4. or 5. of the first rankes, be it in frunt, flanks, or backe; I meane which of them soeuer vpon the com∣ming of the enemie be made frunt; doo worke far grea∣ter effectes then all the rest of the inner rankes of piquers can possibly do: for in troth, all y inner ranks of piquers besides the 5. first ranks, doo neither against horsemen, and chieflie against footemen halbarders, or battleaxes well armed; no nor yet against armed men with swordes and targets, vsing their targets only to defend their faces from the points of the piques, worke any important ef∣fect, as it is most manifest by the reasons, causes and ac∣cidents by me before alledged.

And thus hauing at large shewed by diuers reasons the imperfections of squadrons that doo consist onelie of piques, with the great perfections and effects of squa∣drons of battleaxes enuironed onely with 5. rankes of piquers; as also howe all sortes of squadrons that are commonlie in vse in the open fieldes in these daies, and also in al former ages ought to be reduced into form, with many other different particularities; I will omit diuers other sorts & forms of little battles that are conteined in som printed books of diuers languages; as of Crossebat∣tles, of battles in triangle, & battles in form of stars, with many other such battles of diuers shapes & fashiōs extra∣ordinary, y are rather set forth to fill vp books & to please y curious; then for any great vse of them; by reason y such phantastical battles are no waies able in the open fields to Page  98 march & encoūter with such squadrons as I haue before described and set down: And yet somtimes armies may march vpon such strange & extraordinary grounds (as in marching ouer mountains or high hils y haue varietie of forms of rising & descending grounds) y it is not possible to form such great squadrons in such forms, as I haue be∣fore declared and described, but that vpon the comming of the enemie they must bee forced to deuide their three battles of vauntguard, battle and Rereward, that they marched withall in the plaine and open fieldes, into as many varieties of little battles and formes, as the aduan∣tages and formes of the varietie of groundes where they presently find themselues doo present vnto them; and therewithall to flank their armed men on euery side with weapons of volee: All which a Lord Marshall or serge∣ant Maior may with a great deale more facilitie perform, then to forme such great squadrons as I haue before de∣scribed, reduced, and formed.

But heere I thinke it good to aduertise the Reader, that I haue heard verie crediblie reported, that there is another kind of forming of a battle, amongst some of the Sergeants Maiors of our Nation in these daies greatly in vse, and that is; That they place foure piquers with their piques aduaunced in square, according to the greatnesse of the squadron that they meane by guesse to form with the number of piquers that they haue for that purpose: And somtimes they place in the middest of the frunt be∣twixt the two formost piquers, a third piquer, and so like∣wise they place two other piquers, vpon the midst of ech flanke one, betwixt the said piquers that are in flanke, with a fourth piquer also in the midst betwixt the two hin¦dermost piquers, which 8. piquers when they haue pla∣ced in as iust square in their distaunces as they can: then they command al the piquers that they meane by guesse to reduce into squadron, beeing all behind and in Rere∣ward of the 8. piquers in square, presentlie to run into the void place within the square of the 8. piquers, and there Page  99 to fall into their rankes with hubbledeshuf as well as they can, vntill they haue filled vp all the distances and empty place within y square of the said 8: piquers, which being performed; they hold this way not only for a verie ready forming of a squadron, but also for a most excellent waie of reducement,* because that there is not any Sergeant Maior so vnskilfull, although hee be vtterly ignorant in Arithmetique, nor that he do know so much as one let∣ter vpon the book, but that he may by guesse forme such a squadron; which kind of forming, or rather deforming of squadrons, in troth is called of all antiquitie to make a squadron or battle of extremitie and necessity; when vp∣on the sudden and vnlooked for approch and neare com∣ming of the enemie, through the fault and negligence of the scouts & discouerers, they are forced in the place of assemblie in their Campe, to make of necessitie ver∣tue: that is, for lacke of time to reduce their squadrons into forme of like numbers of souldiors in euery ranke, and into their iust and proportionate distances both by frunt & flanks according to discipline, to form a confused squadron of different numbers of soldiors into crooked ranks, and vncerten and confused distances, into the void ground or place that is within 4. 8. or 12. or more pi∣quers, placed in square as abouesaid, in the place of as∣sembly of their Campe: which kind of disordered battles of extremitie are no waies able by any reason Military, to encounter and abide the charge of a squadron of the like number of piquers reduced into forme according to dis∣cipline; that is of like numbers of soldiors in euerie ranke from frunt to backe, and in their euen and proportionate distances in frunt, and by flankes; and therefore being al∣waies ready with great order and facilitie to incorporate and close themselues by frunt and flankes, may without any waies troubling the one the other, nor intricating their piques nor rankes, mannage and vse their piques with great dexteritie▪ and charge, and ouerthrow, such a confused multitude, or battle of extremitie that are in Page  100 vncerten numbers in their ranks, and in as vncerten and confused distances: which causeth disequality and croo∣kednesse of rankes; and therefore cannot possibly close themselues in frunt and by flankes, in any order, forme, and strength, nor mannage and vse their piques without confounding and intricating their piques with their fel∣lowes piques, to the great aduantage of their enemies well formed squadron, and their own most certen ruine; Besides all which it is not possible for such a disordered squadron to march in the fields, with any order, nor ac∣cording to discipline to performe diuers other effectes belonging to well ordered squadrons in the fielde, as all skilful and expert Sergeants Maiors, and men of warre of experience and iudgement doo verie well know. Wher∣fore I come to conclude that such disordered battles of necessitie and extremitie are neuer to bee vsed, but vp∣pon a suddaine and vnlooked for comming of the ene∣mie, through the negligence of the scoutes, discouerers, or Centinelles as aforesaid. And therefore now I pro∣ceed to diuers other very important and requisit matters Militarie.

That great bands of 500. vnder an Ensigne are mor connenient for al seruices in the field, then smal bands of 150.

IN this place before I proceede any further, I thought good to notifie vnto all such as shall read these my instructions, that my opinion is, y great bands of footmen of 500. souldiours to euery Ensigne accor∣ding to the ancient and moderne vse of Germany (when they doo inuade,* or resist, and make head against y Turk) are more conuenient, and a great deale better as well for the princes sauing of many paies of Captaines, and offi∣cers, as also for the more speedie forming of great battles or squadrons with dexteritie & celeritie, then smal bands of 150. are; who in respect of the many Captaines and officers, are a farre greater charge vnto the prince as a∣foresaid; Page  101 as also through the smalnesse and great number of their compertiments or diuisions of diuers different sorts of weapons, a great deale more slow and vnfit to be reduced into great battles or squadrons, then great bāds are: which mine opinion, because I haue fortified and proued the same with certen examples & many reasons in my booke of discourses, which I set foorth and caused to be printed 1590. and yet that the same hath beene by certen apassionate Gentlemen with many malicious and vaine words void of all reason militarie, denied in certen malicious libelling pamphlets by them in written hande in many places dispersed contrary to all ciuilitie and pro∣fession militarie; I wil againe in this place rehearse & set downe a part of that which is conteined in my foresaid booke of discourses, and wil fortefie the same with such reasons and examples, as any man that is of any discreti∣on may manifestlie see the great ignorance and lacke of skill of those that doo thinke, that many small comperti∣ments of piquers and of weapons of volee may be assoon brought into any forme of battle, with sleeues, winges, forlorne hopes, &c, as great bandes of 500. that do con∣sist of great compertiments of different sorts of weapons may; And therefore the words of my booke of discour∣ses to proue my foresaid proiect, are in a manner verba∣tim, these following.

When the great Princes of Germanie vppon any oc∣casion or iniury offred, are disposed to make Warre one against another, or vpon an imperiall army assembled to inuade or resist the Turk, beeing bounde as they are by their Tenures Militarie to the Empire, some to finde Horsemen,* and others to finde footemen at their owne charges, they then vppon such occasions haue alwaies vsed, and doo still vse to forme their Regiments of foot∣men into great bands of 500. to an Ensigne, & that they vse especiallie for two causes; the one thereby in their re∣gimentes and so consequentlie in their whole Armies to saue the pay of a great sort of Captaines, Lieutenantes Page  102 of bands, Ensignbearers and other officers, which would be greatly increased & so amount to a far greater charge, and pay, incase they should compose smaller bandes of 200. or 150. or vnder that number.

The other cause that doth moue them to forme their bands so great, is, that their Militia consisting of harque∣buziers, mosquetiers, piquers, and some halbarders, with a few slathe swords for the guard of their Ensignes, that those sorts of weapons by reason of the greatnesse of the bands being in great compertiments and diuisions may be the more readilie and easilie drawne out, and sepera∣ted, and with a great deale more celeritie incorporated with the other great compertimentes of like weapons of other great bands to forme their squadrons with sleeues, winges, troupes, and forlorne hopes, according to the order and direction of their Coronels, and Sergeantes Maiors, then if their bands were smaller either of 200. or 150. or vnder that number, whereby the Comperti∣ments of weapons should be also the smaller, and therby in number the greater, and so consequently, would re∣quire a much longer time not only to drawe out, but also to incorporate compertimentes with compertimentes for the forming of battles with sleeues, winges, and for∣lorne hopes as aforesaid: Besides that, such great bands both by reason and experience are as readie, and a great deale more ready to bee emploied either in whole com∣panies vnder their Captains and Lieutenants, or deuided into partes and corporalates vnder their Corporals and Sergeants, for watches, bodies of watches, Centinels, and all other ordinarie and extraordinary emploiments and actions militarie, in Campe, Towne, or field, then a∣ny smal bands are: For it is most euident that smal bands of 150. to an Ensigne, consisting of 5. different sortes of weapons, (viz:) piques, battleaxes, mosquets, harque∣buzes, and longbowes, and that therefore euery one sort of those weapons is to be reduced into diuers little diuisi∣ons by themselues, which besides the vncomely sight to Page  103 see so many small compertimentes in euery such little band, it would require a much longer time vpon the dai∣lie and ordinarie dislodging of an Armie reduced into a vaungard, battle and rereward, to draw so great numbers of compertiments out of such a number of little bandes; then out of a few bands of 500. to draw a few great com∣pertiments, and to incorporate and reduce them into any forme or formes.

And this before written, I thinke, might suffice to per∣swade any that do professe Armes, that are of any discre∣tion, although but of meane iudgement in matters Mili∣tarie, that such great bands as aforesaid, are a great deale more fitt and conuenient to forme battles and squadrons withall, then such small bands as aforesaid are. Howbeit because there be some 3. or 4. of our Nation yt haue writ∣ten in certen lewde and false pamphlets and libells against me (as is before mentioned) that haue not bene ashamed to name themselues the inuentors and deuisers of a new discipline Militarie, (who how farre wide they are from the vnderstanding of all true discipline, all men of right consideration may euidently see by their writinges, speakings, vaine opinions and actions); that they I say, in their malitious and friuolous libels do write (as aforesaid) that small bands of 150. are as readie to be reduced into any squadron, as great bands of .500. are. I therefore to make that, which I haue before written more apparant, and vtterlie to conuince their obstinate ignorances, will by comparing the best orders and waies of fourming of squadrons, both with great, and with small bandes, shewe with what great readines and facilitie, squadrons may be formed with a few great Compertiments out of great bandes of. 500. to an Ensigne; and with what difficultie great squadrons are reduced into forme, with many little Compertiments out of small bandes of .150. to an En∣signe: that therby all men of consideration may euident∣lie see the erronious and vnskilfull opinions Militarie that those our such men of warre do hold: And therefore I do Page  104 for example alledge: That admit that a generall of an Ar∣my of .18000.* footmen reduced into .6. Regiments of .3000. to euerie Regiment and .8000. 10000. or .12000. horsemen of diuers armors and weapons, with all other prouision and furniture belonging to such an Armie, to inuade some forren dominions; & that the whole 18000 footmen being deuided into 5. partes he had concluded (according to the commendable opinion of some nota∣ble men of warre that I haue knowne in my time) that. 3. parts of the 5. should be all piquers and short weapons, or all piquers without any short weapons, to forme a vaun∣gard, battle and Rereward, according to the manner and vse of the Italians and Spaniards of this time; and that the other two parts should be all weapons of volee; weare I say, determined to make a proofe, whether little bandes of 150. or great bands of 500. were most apte and ready to forme squadrons withal; and therefore hauing reduced 3. of the 6. Regiments into little bands of 150. that is 20. bandes of 150. to euerie Regiment of 3000. and the o∣ther. 3. Regiments into great bandes of .500. that is .6. bandes of 500. to euerie Regiment of 3000. he then ge∣uing these or the like directiōs hereafter set down, should most manifestly see the great aptnes, dexteritie and readi∣nesse of great bandes of .500. to reduce squadrons into, with the wonderfull vnreadinesse, great disorders and im∣perfections in reducing of squadrons into forme by little bandes of 150. consisting of .5. different weapons as a∣foresaid▪

The Lieutennant general therfore first to make proofe whether the piquers of one of the regiments of the small bands, or the piquers of one of the Regiments of the great bands were more readie to be reduced into squadron, is to commaund that at a certen houre vpon a sound and warning giuen by his trompettor, two Coronells with their two Regiments the one consisting all of small bands of .150. and the other all of great bands of .500. should with all celeritie reduce themselues into their simple and Page  150 single order of rankes: (which reducement of bandes in∣to their simple, and single order, is euer to be performed before squadrons can with order and reason Militarie be formed),* and that either in the place of Armes, if the Ge∣nerall shal appoint that place, or otherwise if it shal please him to commaund both the Coronells at one time to march out of the Camp to two seuerall places & grounds appointed both of like distance from the fortifications of the Campe; there to reduce .3. parts of their Regiments which do consist of piquers, (the other two parts consist∣ing weapons of volee as aforesaid) into two seuerall squa∣drons, each of them 60. piquers in frunt, & 30. by flanks which are in each Regiment .1800. piquers:* Then I say that the 3. partes of piquers of euerie great band of .500. being .300. and the other two parts of weapons of volee in number 200. marching out of their quarters into the place of Armes, which is betwixte their quarter and the fortifications of the Campe, and there reducing them∣selues into their simple and single order of 100. rankes 5. in euerie ranke; or rather into 50. rankes of 10. in euerie ranke: I mean the one halfe of the weapons of volee, that doconsist of 100. marching before the ranks of y piquers, and the other halfe of y like number of weapons of volee behinde the hindermost ranke of all the piquers, with the Ensigne according to all discipline in the middest of the piquers: And so all those 6. bandes of 500. vnder e∣uerie Ensigne marching 10. in a ranke one after another out of the Campe towardes the ground where they are to forme their squadron; whither being comne, the wea∣pons of volee that are in frunt of the first band, marching a conuenient distance to the right hand from before the piquers, to the intent to giue the piquers place, and to be readie to arme the forepart of the right flanke of the squadron: And the compertiment of piquers of this formost and first band being comne to the ground wher∣as they are to aduaunce their piques, and make a stande, and hauing perfourmed the same; the other halfe of Page  106 the weapons of volee of the same band that marcht be∣hind, who are to arme the forepart of the left flank of the squadron being drawne vp by their Conductors so large a distance on the left hand from their compertiment of piquers, as they may leaue ground enough betwixt them and their piquers to forme all the rest of the squadron: which whilst the first band of 500. is a performing; then the one halfe of the weapons of volee of the second band that dooth follow the first band, being by their Condu∣ctors drawn from before their compertiment of piques, and marching vppe by the right flanke of the comperti∣ment of the first bande of piquers, (that haue alreadie made their stand) vntill they come to the formost com∣pertiment of the weapons of volee; & y second comper∣timent of 30. ranks of piquers 10. in a rank of y said secōd band, marching vp by y left flank of the first cōpertiment of that weapon vntill they find their first and last ranks e∣quall in frunt and backe, with the first and last ranks of the first compertiment; and then the other halfe of the wea∣pons of volee, that marched behind the second comper∣timent of piquers being by their Conductors drawne so farre to the left hand, vntill they come to find the hinder∣most rankes of the other compertiment of weapons of volee that was marched thither before; And so subse∣quently the formost compertiments of the weapons of volee of the third band of 500. marching vp by the right flanke of the piquers that they find alreadie reduced; as the other two foremost compertimentes of the former bands haue doone; And the third compertiment of pi∣quers marching vppe by the left flanke of the other two Compertiments before reduced, vntill they finde them∣selues of equal frunt with them: And then the other that is, the last compertiment of weapons of volee of the same band, being drawne from behind their piquers to the other two compertiments that are already of the left hand: And so subsequentlie the three formost comperti∣ments Page  107 of weapons of volee of the three last bands, mar∣ching vp by the right flanke of the piquers before them, to the intent to arme aswell the hinder part of the right flanke, as the backe, or Rereward of the squadron: And the three compertimentes of piquers, of the said three last bands, marching vp by the left flanke of the other 3. compertiments already reduced, as also by the left flanks orderlie the one of the other, vntill they find themselues all of one equal frunt; the whole squadron by this means, is now reduced in a very short time into forme of battle, hauing in frunt 60. piquers, and by flankes 30. rankes: which whole squadron being reduced thus into forme of 60. piquers in frunt, and 30. rankes by flankes, doth con∣teine 1800. piquers as aforesaid; the hindermost & last three compertiments of weapons of volee marching to the left flanke of the squadron, readie to arme the same according to the direction of the Coronell or Sergeant Maior.

Or otherwise, if the same said Regiment of 3000. bee∣ing ready to dislodge and march out of their quarter, will vse a more short waie of reducement into squadron, and to arme the same with weapons of volee: Then the Ser∣geant Maior may giue order that euerie one of the 6. bands of 500. to euery Ensign be reduced into their sim∣ple and single order of rankes in this sort following; that is that the Captains and officers of the 3. first bands that he will reduce into forme, and begin his squadron withal, doo reduce all their weapons of volee that are to 〈◊〉 the frunt and right flanke of the squadron into comper∣timents of 10. in a ranke, or fewer as he shall think most meet: And that the said seuerall compertiments of eue∣rie one of those three bands being led by their Conduc∣tors shall march and follow one another: And that al the piquers of the 6. whole bandes be reduced into 6. com∣pertiments of 10. in euery ranke from frunt to back, rea∣die vpon the sound of the drums to follow the comper∣timents of weapons of volee; As also beeing distinctlie Page  108 led by their Captaines to march and follow one another: And then that the three compertiments of weapons of volee, that do belong to the three last compertiments of piquers, y are to arme the left flank and back of the squa∣dron shall reduce themselues into 10. in a rank through∣out, or any smaller number, in like sort as he hath before giuen direction to the three first compertiments of wea∣pons of volee.

Al which reducementes into their simple or single order beeing performed; then vppon the strokes and sounds of the drummes, or of the Coronels trompettor, they are presentlie to march out at that Sallie, turnpique, or barriers of the camp, that it hath before pleased y Ge∣neral, or L. Marshal to giue direction: And the three for∣most compertiments of weapons of volee being comne neere to the place where the squadron is to bee formed, they are presently to march to the right flanke and side of the same place, & there to reduce themselues into as ma∣ny different forms, as the sergeant Maior hath before gi∣uen direction: At which instant, the first compertiment of 30. ranks of piquers 10. in a rank, doo march vp to the place of reducement, whither being comn, vpon y sound of the drums for that purpose, they are presently to ad∣uance their piques and make a pause. At which time & instant the second compertiment, and the third comper∣timent both of like numbers of 10. piquers in euery one ranke from frunt to back, do march vp the second by the right flanke of the first compertiment that hath alreadie made a pause or stand, and the thirde by the left flanke of the said first compertiment: At which time and instant also the fourth compertiment dooth march vppe by the right flanke of the second compertiment, and the fifth by the left flanke of the third compertiment.

And the sixt or last compertiment by the right flanke of the fourth compertiment, vntill all those 5. comperti∣ments doo finde their first rankes equall in frunt, and their last rankes equall in backe or rereward, with the first and Page  109 last rankes of the said first compertiment. During which time and instant of the reducement of the said 6. com∣pertiments of piquers into squadron, the three last com∣pertimentes of weapons of volee doo march vp by the left flanke of the squadron of piquers now alreadie four∣med, and there are to reduce themselues into the like formes that the foremost 3. compertiments of weapons of volee haue doone, vpon the right flanke of the squa∣dron: Or otherwise as it shall please the Coronell or Ser∣geant Maior to giue direction, for the arming of the said left flanke and back of the aforesaid piquers.

And now this squadron being by this kind of reduce∣ment, reduced into forme, with sleeues, winges, troups, and other formes of weapons of volee, with great readi∣ness and celeritie; al men of consideration may euident∣lie see, with what great facilitie and dexteritie a few great compertiments of piquers and halbardiers for the guard of the Ensignes, out of great bands of 500. are reduced into squadron of 60. souldiors in frunt and 30. rankes by flanke, or into any other farre greater squadron, with weapons of volee reduced into diuers formes to arme, the frunt, flankes and backe, according to the comman∣dement of the Generall, or Coronell, or Sergeant Maior.

But now let vs see how the other aforsaid regiment of 3000. deuided into small bandes of hundreds and fifties, (according to the contrarie opinion) three parts of them piquers, and the other two partes weapons of volee (as aforesaid) may with most celeritie be reduced into y like squadron of 1800. piquers before set downe; that is, 60. in frunt, and 30 by flanks: I say that to form that squadrō, each one of the 20. Captaines must according to all or∣der and discipline, first reduce their bandes vnder their Ensignes into their simple and single order of rankes, as also into their different compertiments, as the great bāds before haue doone.

And because that they may the more readily forme the Page  110 squadron, it will behooue them to haue speciall re∣gard to the number of 60. souldiors that their squadron must conteine in euery ranke from frunt to backe, as also that there must be 30. ranks by flankes: which beeing by them considered, they then must reduce all the piquers of euerie one of their bandes into such numbers of ranks, as that they may be by flank, in equall numbers of ranks with the squadron that they intend to forme of 30. ranks: which to accomplish, they must reduce their comperti∣mentes of piquers of each one of their bandes into 30. rankes of 3. in a ranke: which number being 3. partes of the 5. parts of each one of their bands as aforesaid; doth amount iust to 90. piquers; the other two partes consi∣sting of weapons of volee beeing 60. So as they must forme their squadron with the compertiments of 90. pi∣quers, 3. in euery ranke, as the great bandes did forme their squadrons with compertiments of 300. piquers 10 in euery ranke, which to perform, (considering that they are 20. compertiments of 90. piquers to euery comper∣timent, out of 20 little bands, as the compertiments of the great bandes were but only 6. compertiments of 300 piquers to euery compertiment, out of the 6. great bands of 500. to euerie band) will require 3. or 4. times longer time, then to reduce them into squadron by the 6. com∣pertiments of the great bandes as aforesaid.

Or incase that the Coronell would giue order that those little bands being reduced into their simple and sin∣gle order of.3.* in euerie ranke throughout euerie Com∣pertiment as aforesaid, should come to ioine 3. or 4. Cō∣pertiments of piquers out of 3. or 4: little bandes, think∣ing thereby to forme the squadron with greater celeritie: They I say shall first before they bring that to passe, finde themselues greatly confused to forme the same, by their seeing so great a number of little bandes dispersed ouer the place of Armes, which do occupy a great deale more ground in the said place, then 6. great bands do: Besides that it will require a double, or rather a treble time more, Page  111 first to reduce 20 little bandes into their simple and single order of ranks, and little Compertiments of so many dif∣ferent sorts of weapons in so many places dispersed: and then to drawe out and to incorporate such a number of small Compertiments one with another, and after to re∣duce them into one bodie of squadron as aforesaid, then only with 6. greate Compertiments of piquers to forme the like squadron, & to arme the same with many formes of different sorts of weapons of volee in frunt, flankes and backe. By all which alleadged both Pro et contra, as also performed in the sight and presence of such a generall as aforesaid, I thinke it would be euident vnto him, and to all other men of consideration and Iudgement in his A∣mie, that this little squadron formed but of. 1800▪ pi∣quers, is a great deale sooner and with more facilitie per∣formed with the Compertiments of a few great bandes, then with a great number of little Compertiments, out of many little bandes as aforesaid: which if it be so in so small a squadron where the little Compertiments of 90. piquers marching 3. in a ranke doo beare length in num∣ber of rankes by flankes to forme such a little battle with∣out patching and peecing so many little compertiments to forme the squadron withall: what then if the Generall should command the Coronels and Sergeants Maiors of 2. of the 3. Regiments of those little bands to reduce al the piquers that according to the former diuision doo a∣mount vnto 3600. piquers, into a squadron on of 90. piquers in frunt, and 40. rankes by flanke? when that to perform the same, they must not onlie first of all reduce euery one of their little bands into their simple, and single order of ranks of 3. or 4. or more in euerie ranke; but because that their compertimēts of 30. ranks 3. in euerie ranke are too short by 10. rankes to make 40. rankes, they must not on∣ly incorporate themselues by flankes with the like nom∣ber of rankes; but also must with pieces of other bandes, patch and piece their incorporated Compertiments, and after the patching and pieing of them, then reduce and Page  124 forme their squadron: which to performe doth require a verie long time, and doth greatlie confuse & confound the Coronels and Sergeants Maiors, and al the rest of the officers of those Regiments to their great disgrace and reproach: wheras contrariwise the 3600. piquers of the. 2 Regiments of 6000. that do consist but of 12. great bands being in the place of Armes reduced into 10. Comperti∣ments of 9. piquers in euerie ranke, in each Comperti∣ment from frunt to backe, are with great facilitie, & with out any cōfusion to be reduced, by doubling themselues by flanke, or flankes as aforesaid into the aforesaid squa∣dron of 90. piquers in frunt, and 40. rankes by flankes: which being so, as by all reason and practise Military it is, then if the Generall should giue furder order to the three Coronels or Sergeants Maiors of al the three Regiments of 9000. that do consist of little bands (as aforesaid) to re∣duce al their piquers, which according to the proportion and diuisions aforesaid, do amount iust vnto. 5400. pi∣quers; besides the other two partes that are weapons of volee, into one bodie of squadron of 108. piquers in frunt and of 50. rankes by flanke: how wonderfully then would the Sergeants Maiors & officers of those Regiments find themselues confused to forme so great a squadron of the peeces and patches (as they may be well termed) of. 60. little bandes; when euery one of those single Comperti∣ments do not only lacke number in frunt to make conue∣nient compertiments to forme the frunt of the bate with celeritie; but also are a great deale too short by flankes to forme the aforesaid squadrō in number of ranks by flanks and therefore must of necessitie, not only incorporate a great number of little Compertiments, and peeces of compertimēts with other little compertiments by flanks therby to make them to come to the iust number in frunt of 108. piquers; but also must peece and patch euery one of those Compertiments with the peeces of other little Compertiments in backe or Rereward, thereby after to reduce, forme, and being their squadron by flankes to Page  125 haue the iust length of 50. rankes: which to performe, dooth cause so great a disorder and confusion in the offi∣cers executing of the directions of the Coronelles and Sergeants Maiors, as it is neuer to make an end: whereof insueth great noises and rumors, by calling, by swearing, by commaunding and countermaunding, and by this and by that.

Wheras contrariwise, the compertiments of piquers of the other three Regiments of great bandes of 500. as aforsaid, consisting of 300. piquers to euerie comperti∣ment, may with great dexteritie, quietnesse and facilitie, without the aforesaid peecing and patching of comperti∣ments with compertiments form the aforesaid squadron of 108. in frunt, and 50. by flanks, with their single com∣pertiments, without any one band, or compertiment bo∣rowing the one of the other: As for example, to form the aforesaide squadron of 108. piquers in frunt; and 50. rankes by flankes, (the three Regimentes of 3000. to e∣uerie Regiment consisting of 18 bandes 500. to euerie ensigne: which of piquers and weapons of volee are in all 9000. Of the which there are 3. partes piquers, and two partes weapons of volee, as aforesaide, that is 5400. piquers, and 3600. souldiours of weapons of volee) the compertimentes of piquers of all those 18. bandes con∣sisting euery one of 300. piquers, and euery one of those compertimentes of 300. beeing reduced into their sim∣ple and single order of 6. in euerie ranke, from frunt to backe, are iust in number 50. ranes of 6. souldiours in euery ranke.

All which 18. compertimentes of 300. piquers to euerie compertiment marching euery one of them 6. in a ranke, (as aforesaid) beeing led and drawne vp by their Captains by the flanke, or flankes the one of the other, (according vnto any of the orders that I haue before ve∣ry particularly set down for ye forming of squadrons and battles) are without any kinde of trouble, disorder or ru∣mor, with great facility reduced into ye aforsaid battle and Page  126 squadron of 108. piquers in euery ranke from frunt to backe, and of 50. rankes by flankes, which squadron in al consisteth of 5400. piquers as aforesaid.

And this dexteritie and facilitie of forming of great squadrōs without any disorder or confusiō doth proceed of the great compertiments that are drawne out of great bands: whereas farre otherwise, to forme the same saide squadron with 60. compertiments of 90 piquers, 3. in a ranke in euery compertiment, drawne out of 60. little bandes of 150.* to euery Ensigne, to the intent to forme the said squadron: the Captaines and officers after that they haue reduced euery one of their bandes into their simple and single order of ranks, (which is the first thing for all seruices in the field that according to al discipline ought to be performed) must then because their litle com¦pertiments of 90. piquers doo consist but of 30. ranks, 3. in a ranke, go and find another compertiment of the like number of another band to ioine with them by flanke, thereby to make their compertiment of 6. in euery rank. But because their two compertiments incorporated by flankes as aforesaid, doo lacke 20. rankes of 6. in euerie ranke to make the iust length of the squadron by flanke that consisteth of 50. rankes: Another Captaine must bring his whole compertiment of 90. piquers, which do consist of 15. rankes 6. in a ranke, and ioine them at the backe of the other two compertiments; and yet those 3. Captaines must borrowe out of another compertiment of a fourth band 5. rankes more of 6. in a ranke, which are 30. piquers to make out the full number of 50. ranks, 6. in euery ranke; so as the fourth Captain that hath lent 30. piquers, dooth remaine but with a peece of his com∣pertiment of 60. piquers, with the which he must after incorporate, and peece and patch other compertiments either to make length by flanke, or bredth in frunt. And in this sort or in the like with small difference all the 〈◊〉 compertiments of 90. piquers in each compertiment as aforesaid must in corporate, peece and patch by flankes Page  127 and backe all the rest of their compertiments, and peeces of compertimentes vntill they haue formed their squa∣dron: which kind of reducing, peecing and patching, to forme a squadron, dooth breed such a wonderfull confu∣sion in such a number of little compertiments dispersed in the fieldes, as the Sergeants Maiors and other chiefe commanders wil finde themselues wonderfullie confu∣sed and confounded in their directions for the forming of their squadron,* and the Captaines and other inferior officers in the performing and executing of the same.

And as these before alledged confusions and disor∣ders doo insue in forming of a squadron of piquers with such little compertiments: euen so dooth there ensue as great or greater confusions in reducing a farre greater number of little compertimentes of weapons of volee, that do consist of three different sorts of weapons, as of Archers, mosquetiers and harquebuziers, into diuers formes and emploiments; All which reducementes of squadrons into forme with sleeues, winges, troups, and forlorne hopes of weapons of volee, and other such like doo require fower or fiue times longer time to performe, then with a few great compertiments of piquers & wea∣pons of volee out of bandes of 500. to reduce such great squadrons into forme as aforesaid with sleeues, winges, forlorne hopes, &c. of weapons of volee, as all men that are not obstinatelie ignorant may by that which I haue before declared most manifestlie see.

The testimonie and proofe whereof was euidentlie seene at such time as there were certen great squadrons formed, or rather with great disorder, trouble, and con∣fusion wonderfullie deformed heere in Essex the yeare 1588. Which proceeded of nothing so much as of the lacke of vnderstanding of such as should haue reduced the whole Armie into great bandes of 500. to euery En∣signe, with conuenient and well sorted compertimentes, or of 400. or of 300. to euerie Ensigne at the fewest. Whereas farre otherwise, the bands of the whole Armie Page  128 did consist of diuers different numbers, as of 150. of 200 of 300. of 400. of 500. and of 600. to an ensigne, and in all those bands, the compertimentes of the different sorts of weapons were so ill sorted, and in so great dispropor∣tion, as the same with the lacke of skill of such as should haue reformed those imperfections, were the very cau∣ses that when they went about to reduce and forme any squadron with sleeues, wings, &c: they fell into manie errors and confusions, as all those that were there of any vnderstanding in matters militarie might euidentlie see. Vppon all which reasons and examples of reducing of great and small bands into squadrons with so many im∣perfections, confusions, and failings as are incident and doo ordinarilie ensue in reducing of little comperti∣ments of small bandes into diuers formes of squadrons with sleeues, winges, forlorne hopes, &c, with the great perfections and easinesse of reducing the great comper∣timentes of great bandes into all sortes of formes with great facilitie as is before declared, considered; I come to conclude that the aforesaid Lieutenant Generall, or any other Chiefetaine of right vnderstanding, obseruation and iudgement, would forme the footmen of his Armie into great bandes, and not into such small bandes as are before mentioned. And thus farre concerning the proo∣uing that great bandes of 500. are more conuenient for all purposes and emploiments, then small bands of 150. or 200. are.

Concerning Ensignes and Ensignebearers of priuate bandes of footmen, as also concerning the Standard, and Standard bearer of an Emperour, or of a King.

HEere it is to be noted, because Ensignebearers of footmen are to march in the midst of the armed men, aswell in squadrons as in priuate bands; and therewithall to be euer ready to take their places vppon the assembling, reducing, or marching of such bandes: Page  129 that they with their Ensignes ought to be lodged in their Captaines tents or lodginges,* or verie neere vnto their Captains; alwaies accompanied with one of the drum∣mers, and the phier of the band; & the other to accom∣panie the Captaine. And incase there be but onely one drummer and a phiser, then they are alwaies to accom∣panie and lodge where the Lieutenant and ensignebea∣rer with his Ensigne in their soldiors quarter doo lodge; and that, in respect, that they may with al celeritie by the stroke and sound of the drum assemble their band vppon al sudden Alarmes, or mutinies or other accidents.

Also it is to bee noted that an Ensignebearer in the field,* carrieng his Ensigne displayed ought 〈◊〉 carrie the same vpright, and neuer, neither in towne nor field, nor in sport, nor earnest to fetche florishes about his head with his Ensign staffe, & taffata of his Enigne, as the En∣ignebearers of London do vpon midsommer night; be∣cause that such florishes in all true discipline are houlden for mockeries: Howbeit sometimes to aduaunce, lift vp; and raise his Ensigne higher vpon certen occasions it it verie allowable.

Also an Ensignebearer carying his Ensigne woond vp about the Ensigne staffe,* or else he carrying the same o∣pen, & leaning it to his shoulder, ought marching doune a hill to gather together the lower parte of the taffata of his Ensigne in such sort as it may not touch the ground: And therfore Ensignes of a conuenient size and not too large and great,* are far better and more conuenient then Ensignes that are very large.

Also the halbarders that do march in the ranke of the Ensignes, and are for the gard of them ought to carrie their halbards with such respect as they ought not to teare nor touch any part of the Ensignes as neare as they can possible.*

Also all Ensignebearers marching in the field either a∣mongst their single companies, or being reduced into squadron vpon the discouerie of the Enemy are present∣ly Page  130 to vnwind, open & display their Ensigns: but yet if the wind be great, they may gather together the lower parte or taffata of their Ensignes, and leane the Ensignestaffe and Ensigne to their shoulders vntill they approch nee∣rer to the enemie; at which time all Ensignebearers ought to display and aduance their ensignes carrying them in their left hands, to the intent that they may bee the more ready vpon the neer approch and encountring with the enemie, with their right handes to drawe their swordes and defend their Ensignes, by reason that they ought not to fight nor thrust with the points of their en∣signe staues, but only in assaults of Towns, or vpon some other great extremitie, but to carry them vpright, and sometimes aduanced to the intent that they may be still in the sight of their souldiors.

Also if any Ensignebearer or ensignebearers in their band or bandes,* happen to march by an Emperour or King, or by the Lieutenant Generall, they ought to car∣rie them displaied and aduaunced, and when they come almost ouer against such a Prince or his Lieutenant Ge∣nerall, they ought to pull downe their ensignes lower, & bow downe forward the point and taffeta of their ensign or ensignes, not directlie towards the prince, or Lieute∣nant Generall, but directly towardes the waie that they are marching: and at the same instant, they ought also to bow something forward their heads and bodies, in to∣ken of respect and reuerence, without any waies moo∣uing or touching their burgonets, which ought to be al∣waies fast tied with a taffeta vnder their chinnes.

Also when a single band or companie of soldiors or a squadron of diuers bandes marching in the fieldes shall come to aduaunce their piques and make a stay,* or pause, then the Ensignebearer of that single band if it be alone, or all the Ensignebearers of a whole squadrō must display and aduance their Ensignes.

Also a squadron of diuers bands marching in the fields, it is lawfull for all the Ensignebearers in their ranke or Page  131 rankes of Ensignes to carrie their Ensignes woond vp a∣bout their Ensignestaues,* rested or leaned to their shoul∣ders so as in the ranke of Ensignes or in each ranke of En∣signes, if the squadron be so great that there be more then one ranke of Ensignes, that one Ensignebearer in eache ranke must carrie his Ensigne open and displayed: and he during the time that he so carrieth his Ensigne ought to be in the midst of the ranke of the Ensignes, vntill such time as he to ease himselfe doth wind vp his Ensigne, and retire againe to his owne place, be it on the right or left hand, leauing the middle place to the Ensignebearer that doth succeede and supplie his place with his banner or Ensigne displayed. But it is to be noted that in a squadron whereas there be diuers Ensignes, for some of them to car¦rie their ensignes woonde vp and leaned against their shoulders & others displaied, vprighted, and aduaunced, and other ensignebearers also their ensignes opened and leaned to their shoulders, it is verie vnsoldiorlike and vn∣comely to see such varietie of carrying of ensignes in one squadron, & therefore either they ought all to carry their ensignes woond vp and leaned against their shoulders sa∣uing only one ensignebearer with his ensigne displayed, vprighted, or aduaunced as aforesaid; or incase in calme weather or vpon any other occasion, the ensignebearers like not so to do, then they may carrie them al opened & displaied, but in any wise all after one sort, sauing only he that is the chiefe ensignebearer for the time, who ought to cary his ensigne vpright, opened & displaied, although all y other ensignebearers do carry their ensignes woond vp as aforesaid.

But all this before notwithstanding,* here it is to be no∣ted that in case an Emperor or a Kinges Standard be in a∣ny battle or squadron of footmen in the field, that then al the ensignebearers of priuate bandes are to receiue their orders & directions from the Standerbearer of the same Emperor or King, whether they shall carrie their ensignes woonde vp, or any waies open, with all other directions.

Page  132And also it is to be noted that the said standardbearer with his standard, or his deputy standardbearer, when the standardbearer is disposed to ease himselfe,* is alwaies to hold the middle and chiefe place of the ranke of ensigns, and therewithall that hee should neuer display his Stan∣dard, as other ensignebearers of priuate bandes doo, but onely vpon the assured doubt and expectation of battle, the enemies Armie being in sight in the field,* or else vp∣on some other great and principall occasion; and yet not then neither without the speciall commandment of the prince or his Lieutenant Generall: which said displaying of the Princes standard, ought to be performed with cer∣ten notable respects, praiers, and ceremonies: which be∣cause I do not certenlie know them all, I omitte. And therwithal it is to be furder noted that the standardbearer of an Emperour or King being alwaies either a Noble∣man or a Knight, doth seldome himselfe carrie the stan∣dard, but vpon certen great occasions, and therefore he hath alwaies. 2. or. 3. esquiers of great reputation and valot to supplie his place in carring the standard, the ene∣mie being not in sight in the field; but the enemie being in sight, he is presentlie to leaue his horse and to retire himselfe into the squadron and ranke of ensignes, readie to take his standard into his owne handes vpon any im∣portant occasion: And besides when he commeth neare to the place where he shall lodge,* be it in Campe or Towne which ough to be in the Lieutennante generalls lodging or at leat very neare vnto the same, he then be∣ing on foot, must himselfe with great respect & reuerence take and carrie the standard be it imperiall, or roiall, and place it in his lodging vnder a strong and verie conueni∣ent guarde of soldiors, and so likewise in the morning vp∣on the occasion of dislodging he himselfe being strong∣lie accompanied ought to take the standard into his own hands, and to march and take his place according to the directiō of the Prince or his Lieutennant general, which being by him performed, he may then deliuer the stan∣dard Page  133 vnto one of his deputies giuing vnto him a great charge therewith, and so march out of the battle & then take his horse and ride a little either before the squadron to ease himselfe, or else to accompanie the Prince or the Lieutenant Generall if any of them both bee neare vnto the same battle or else not. And these particularities con∣cerning these matters aforesaid are such as I doo at this present remember, although there be others that I haue in times past obserued which with length of time I haue forgotten.

Certen orders, directions and briefe speeches to be vsed vnto Harquebziers, Piquers, and battleaxes, when they are in skirmish with their enemies in the field.

SKirmishes both on horsebacke and on foot doo begin vpon such, and so many diuers, and infi∣nite occasions when two puissant Armies that are enemies one to ye other are in the field, as no man is able to particular the number of them: And ther∣fore I will as not requisite ouerpasse them; But because hithervnto I haue handled the ordering, reducing and forming more particularlie of footmen then of horsmen, I will by the help of Almighty God in this place proceed to certen orders, directions and briefe speeches, that are to be vsed vnto bands of harquebuziers entring into skir∣mish, or being in sirmish; as also how they should bee reduced into diuers orders and formes for diuers effectes and purposes: which when I haue performed, I wil then proceed to the reducing and ordering of other weapons of volee, as of mosquetiers, and archers into their conue∣nient formes. And therefore it is first to be noted yt there be 4. different and principal waies for bandes of harque∣buziers to enter into skirmish* and to maintaine them∣selues being in skirmish, which although they seeme not much to differ, yet their differences are so great, as they are to be obserued by al skilfull leaders and conductors of harquebuziers, and by the soldiors themselues.

Of the which 4. the first is vpon some occasions to Page  134 skirmish only with loose shot,* backt some good & con∣uenient distance behind them with light armed halbar∣diers: yea and of piquers also incase they doubte ye charge of horsmen, but then those loose shot must deuide them selues into small societies either of 3. or else of 4. harque∣buziers to second and supplie one anothers place: and that is to be vnderstood in this sort: Incase that they doo deuide themselues into societies of threes, then haue they but onely three dischargings, and that is when the formost soldior hath in trauessing his groūd & with good aduisement discharged at the enemy, and trauessing his groūd doth retire behind his fellowes to charge again; y then ye second harquebuzier should aduance forward to espie som aduantage to discharge his harquebuze, not in hast at the aire, but with leisure at his enemie that hee es∣pieth standing still or in slow motion; which when hee hath performed, and trauessing his ground, he dooth re∣tire: then the third harquebuzier aduauncing forward and trauessing his ground should with good aduisement discharge his peece at the enemie that he espieth stan∣ding still or in slow motion, whilest the other two har∣quebuziers his companions, before retired doo charge againe: which by him performed, then he is to trauesse his ground and to begin againe to charge, retiring bee∣hind, and somthing wide of the hindermost of the three. And by this kind of loose skirmishing of many societies of threes dispersed in the field,* the formost of euery three next vnto the enemie with his peece charged, trauessing his ground, and espying when to discharge his peece ef∣fectuallie (as aforesaid) dooth giue time and leisure, to the other two of his societie retired behind, to charge their peeces againe: But because that the chiefe effect of harquebuziers in skirmish dooth consist principallie in three thinges;* that is, in the well charging of their pee∣ces, which cannot be well performed without conueni∣ent time and leisure; the second, in leisurely discharging, although not from steady and firm point at blank; which can be seldome performed at men, or by men in motion; Page  135 and therefore they are to take their sights at the endes of their peeces, at such their enemies as are in slowest moti∣on, and so make the best point and blanke that they may by guesse from the endes of their peeces.

And the third which is of no lesse importance then the former two is; that harquebuziers doo not discharge their peeces at the enemy out of conuenient distances; for if they doo, then how well soeuer they haue charged their peeces, and with what leisure and aduisement soe∣uer they doo discharge the same at men in motion, they doo worke verie little or no effect, as well in respect that no harquebuziers howe good soeuer they bee, can take their sightes so certenlie from point at blanke in a great distance, as they may in a much nearer distance; as also that they can a great deale lesse take their sights from the ends of their peeces at their enemies in motion a great distance off, although it be within the points and blankes of their peeces: besides many other causes and particu∣larities concerning the same in my booke of discourses by me set forth 1590. conteined:* All which well consi∣dered, it dooth behoue all good and skilfull harquebu∣ziers not to discharge their peeces aboue 20. 30. or 40. paces at the vttermost, although their peeces will carrie point and blanke a much greater distance.

But here it is to be noted that this kind of skirmishing of lose shot of societies of threes is not so good by a great deale as to skirmish in societies of 4.* in euery societie; and that by reason that euery formost harquebuzier of 4. next to the enimie discharging his peece as effectually as he may and retiring behind the hindermost of his socie∣tie to charge againe, whilest the second aduauncing for∣ward and trauersing his ground doth supplie the place of the first harquebuzier that did first discharge and is now retired as aforsaid, and so consequently the third harque∣buzier vpon the discharging of his fellowe before him, (that at the first was the second) to aduance and supply his place, and then againe the fourth that did first of all Page  136 discharge, and hath now againe very well charged hi peece, doth (vpon the dischargeing and retiring of his fel∣lowe before him) aduaunce forward, and trauessing his ground supplie his place: which orderly discharging & recharging againe, and discharging, & recharging againe and againe with good aduisement, doth by the societies of 4. giue more time and leisure to euerie harquebuzier that hath discharged his peece to retire and charge verie well againe without heating of his peece, then societies of threes aforesaid can doo, considering that in those skirmishes of loose shot, it is conuenient that onelie one of euerie societie of 4. should bee formost, and should discharge alone to the intent aswel to giue leisure to their fellowes one after another to recharge againe, as also to haue 2. or 3. harquebuziers continuallie ready with their peeces charged one after another stil to aduance forward and supply the others place ready to discharge at the ene∣my. For if they should discharge 2. or 3. or al at one time, then vpon their error espied by the enemies, and taking the aduantage thereof by a sudden approch, they should find themselues vnsupplied and vnsuccoured, the one of the other to their great danger and mischiefe.

But here it may be demanded what I doo call the well charging of peeces of weapons of fire? Whervnto I an∣swer, That I doo allow neither harquebuze nor mosquet for well charged in seruices of the fielde,* vnlesse they bee charged with conuenient charges of powder, and with softe browne paper, or the refuge endes of matches, or something else, with their skowring stickes thrust close to the powder to restraine the same, and likewise vppon the bullet the like or a more quan••••• to keepe close and restraine the bullet: or when at the least, I would that some such thing should be thrust vpon the bullet with the skowring stick to keep the same close to the powder; & therewithall to the intent that euerie souldior vppon his lacke of bullets might vse his fellowes bullets, I woulde Page  137 that all the harquebuzes throughout the field should be of one Caliuer and heigth;* and that all the ordinarie bul∣lettes for the field, I meane not the full bullets that first with great leisure they charge their peeces withall before they march out of the Campe, which are or ought to be of the iust Caliuer and heigth of their harquebuzes,* but the ordinarie bullets for skirmish: that those bullets I say should not be aboue two bores lower then the heigth of their peeces, whereas farre otherwise the most bullettes for the field heere in England as well of Mosquets as of harquebuzes are 4. 5. and many 6. bores lower then the height of the peeces, which with the souldiors not re∣straining the powder nor bullettes as aforesaid,* is the cause, that the powder how good soeuer dooth neither carrie the bullets so farre point and blanke, nor yet doo giue so violent blowes as beeing otherwise well charged with more full bullets they would doo, nor yet can pos∣siblie shoot with any certentie, although it were from a steadie rest either at horses or men standing still within point and blanke, by reason that such bullets doo natu∣rallie mount and flie wide, howe true soeuer the peeces are, besides that the powder for lacke of restraining as aforesaid, dooth lie in the Cannon of the peece loose, and the bullet through the too much smalnesse thereof in comparison of the peece doth vpon euerie little acci∣dent fall out and droppe to the ground: where as ordina∣rie bullets for the field, that are not aboue two bores low∣er then the heigth of their peeces, doo carry the bullets (the peeces being otherwise true and well charged as a∣foresaide) further point and blanke, and with a great deale more certentie: and besides doo giue a more for∣cible blow as aforesaid then such ouer small bullets can doo.

But now the second way of skirmishing is,* that such little societies of threes and of fowers may skirmish by discharging their peeces, almost, or neere about one time: but that must be performed by the discharging and Page  138 retiring to charge again of such little troupes, other such little societies of like numbers that are a conuenient waie distant vpon both their flankes but something reti∣red, and therefore haue kept their shot, aduancing for∣ward, as well to espy some aduantage to giue their volees at their enemies effectuallie, as to giue time and leisure to other little troupes that haue discharged, and therfore retired to recharge and aduance forward againe.

The third waie of skirmishing is of greater troupes as of 6. of 9. of 12. of 15. of 18. or of 21.* And this kind of skirmishing in so great troupes doth resemble the first mentioned skirmishing of loose shot of 3. souldiors in euerie societie, and that in this sort; that euen as the so∣cieties of 3. did deuide themselues into 3. single dischar∣ginges as aforesaid, so must these greater troupes deuide their dischargings into 3. volees: as for example, if the troupe be of 6. then the 2. foremost may discharge at or neere about one time, and then trauessing their grounds retire behind the hindermost two, to charge againe, whi∣lest the two second being now formost doo aduance for∣ward to espie their aduantage to discharge effectuallie: which when they haue perfourmed, then they likewise are to retire againe recharging vntil they be hindermost, giuing place vnto their next two fellows to giue their vo∣le as aforesaid: which being by the second two perfor∣med, then are the laste two (who did first discharge and haue now recharged againe) to aduance forward againe towards the enemie to giue time to their fellowes retired to recharge againe: but if the troups be of greater num∣bers as of 9. then their diuisions of volee are of 3. harque∣buziers at a time, as those of 6. were but of two; and so likewise their troupes being of 12. then their diuisions of discharging are likewise of 3. volees, yt is 4. to discharge at or neere about one time: And incase that the troupes be of 15. then they are to deuide their discharginges into 3. volees of 5. at a time, that is of 3. times 5. And incase that the troupes be so great as of 18. then they are like∣wise Page  139 to deuide their volees into 3. times 6.* harquebuzi∣ers: And if of 21. then of 3. times 7. harquebuziers, euery 7. to giue their volees one after another in the order and sort before declared, greater then the which for diuers causes I would haue no troupes of harquebuziers in the field for to giue their volees in three diuisions as afore∣said.

But now the fourth sort of giuing of volees in troupe,* is of 4. diuisions, which resembleth the second discharging of loose shot of societies of 4. harquebuziers, for as those societies of 4. soldiors did deuide themselues into 4. sin∣gle discharginges for the causes aforesaid, so these greater troupes are to deuide themselues into 4. dischargings or volees, and that in this sort: the smallest troup that are to performe the same are. 8. which nomber is to be deuided into. 4. volees of two of the formost harquebuziers to dis∣charge or giue their volee at or neare about one time, and to retire to charg againe & giue place to their fellowes as aforesaid, and so subsequently, all the rest by two harque∣buziers continually aduaunced to discharge, and other 2. continually retiring to recharge to performe the like: and incase that their troupes be of 12. then they may deuide their volees into 4. as of. 3. harquebuziers to giue their volee at one time, and if they be of 16. then their diuisions of volee may be of 4. harquebuziers all at one time, and incase that their troupes be of 20. then their. 4. diuisions of volee may be of 5. harquebuziers at a time, greater then the which nūber of 20. or 21. as aforesaid I would not in mine opinon for diuers causes haue any troupes of shott in skirmish to giue their volees: which 4. diuisions of vo∣lee, by discharging, retiring, aduauncing, and dischar∣ging, retiring and aduancing again and againe with con∣tinuall volees, doth giue more time and leisure to euerie formost diuision of harquebuziers with good aduisement to discharge their peeces, and to retire & rechgarge their peeces orderlie and verie well againe, then the diuisions of three dischargings or volees aforesaid, for lacke of Page  140 conuenient time can do, as all men of any consideration may euidently see by the particularities by me before sett downe. But here it is to be noted that the 2. first little societies of 3. & of 4. soldiors deuided into three single dis∣charginges, and the other of 4. harquebuziers into 4. sin∣gle discharginges are to be accounted skirmishing and discharging of loose shott, whereas al the rest are to be ac∣counted skirmishing in troupes.

And furder that all the aforesaid little societies and greater and smaller troupes of shot, are in their foresaid skirmishes to be ordered ouerseene and conducted by their Corporalles, and all the Corporalls by their higher officers; and all these different sorts o skirmishing in so∣cieties of loose shot, as also in troupes I haue particulerly set down because I haue known some Conductors of har∣quebuze shot, Italians, Spaniards, & of other Nations that haue vsed to skirmish by their soldiors giuing of their vo∣lees in three diuisions, and some other conductors of the same Nations that haue caused their harquebuziers to giue their volees in 4. diuisions in such sort as is before declared.

But now besides all this,* there is another kinde of skir∣mishing of loose shot, and that is when vnskilfull harque∣buziers Nouices are lead out to skirmishe by as vnskilfull conductors, that those harquebuziers do neuer deuide themselues into chosen societies of threes, of foures, or any sch numbers, nor into little troupes, as aforesaid, the one to take care of the other, and to giue time and leisure to discharge and recharge with order as aforesaid, but that they are lead in skirmishe by their officers in great troupes of. 25. or 30. harquebuziers together or more, wheeling about & following one another so thick and so nre as they resemble a sport that I haue seene little boies play, hanging one vpon anothers long coate when there haue bene many of them together, called, Why Puttocke away, or else that euerie one of his owne head do go thick & threefold or dispersed to discharge at the enemie with Page  141 all furie,* by which disorderlie and furious skirmishing, it commeth to passe that the harquebuziers doo discharge in hast without aduisement, to small or no hurt to the enemy, and therwithall by their discharging, charging, and rechar∣ging as fast as they can, they suddenlie heat their peeces and make thē vnprofitable, & oftentimes do by such disorder∣lie skirmishing, kil, or mischiefe one another: And besides, if any of them happen to be wounded or hurt because they haue not deuided themselues into chosen societies as afor∣said, none doo take care to succour and relieue such hurt & wonded souldiors, nor to draw away and saue their dead karkases according to the vse of all warlike Nations, with diuers other Inconueniences that I omit, which doo ensue vpon such disorderly skirmishing: And this kind of skirmi∣shing may be very well tearmed to skirmish in hubblede∣shuffe. But yet it is furder to be noted that in most skirmi∣shes that are well performed in the open fieldes, although they do skirmish in such troupes of 3. or 4. diuisions of vo∣lees as aforsaid, yet such skirmishes are first begun by small societies of threes and of fowers, besides that it is alwaies conuenient that such troupes of shot should be backt with some numbers of light armed halbarders and piquers for such causes as heereafter shall be mentioned.

But because that in all matters militarie how well orde∣red at the first soeuer, there happeneth vppon diuers acci∣dents disorder, either through the fault or lacke of skill of the conductors, or else through y negligence or lack of skil of the soldiors conducted: I wil now proceed to shew how the chiefe cōmanders & directers of such skirmishes should by briefe speeches redresse & reform al such disorders hap∣ned: as for example, If the chiefe leaders & directers of the skirmish, shal see the loose shot in their societies as aforsaid, or any of the troupes of shot before mentioned to skirmish too thick and neere togither wherby they may indaunger one another, or receaue the greater annoiance from the shot of their Enemies, being more thinne and dispersed in their distāces: then he is to say vnto such societies or troups, Page  142Inlarge souldiors inlarge,* which being by the harquebuziers heard, they then should presentlie inlarge themselues more thinner, and into greater, but yet conuenient dis•••ces, as wel the societies of the loose shot of threes, and foures, as also such troupes of shot as are before mentioned, thereby to discharge with great order and dexteritie, seconding & supplying the one the others place, as also each one to suc∣cour the one the other incase of any wounds or hurts recei∣ued according to the directions by me before very particu∣lerlie set downe.

And if it happen as your souldiors are in skirmish or marching towardes, or entring into skirmish or retiring, that you doo perceiue and espie any ground or grounds of aduantage for your harquebuze or mosquet shot to worke any good effect against your enimies, either by ambush or otherwise as of hilles, bankes, trenches, caues, wooddes, shrubs, vines, or any other thing to encouer your shot, then you are to say to so many societies or troupes of your soul∣diors as you shall think meet for that effect;*To your aduan∣tage souldiors to your aduantage, and therewithall you must name the aduantage and strength that they should preuent the enimies of, be they bankes, hedges, trenches, hilles, or any other strength, which being by them heard, they must presently performe the same.

And incase that you beeing in skirmish doo see any rea∣son of aduantage to drawe the loose shot of societies or troupes, or both, more on the one side, then on the other, that is more to the right hand then to the left; then you are to say vnto them, Wing, Wing souldiors to the right. And if to the left hand then you may say, Wing, Wing souldiors to the left.* And if you see that the enemies haue spent their powder and heated their peeces, and that your aduantage is to approch them with more furie, then you are to say Auaunce, Auaunce forward souldiors. And incase your souldiors being in skirmish, you shall see your aduantage to reduce some of your loose shot into troupes of 6. of 9. of 12 or of 15. or more, be the numbers euen or odde it impor∣teth Page  143 not, so as the particularities by me before set down be alwaies obserued, in such sort that the one troupe may fa∣uour and flanke the other; then in passing amongest them you are to say to your Corporals and souldiors. Troupe, troupe, and flanke souldiors.

And if you find your souldiors ouerpressed with num∣ber of shot, or that your souldiors with long skirmish haue almost spent their powder or heated their peeces, then you are to say. Retire, retire, and frunt souldiors, which beeing by them heard they must retire stil with their faces towards their Enemies, discharging their peeces not too fast, least that they should find themselues to their own mischiefe al∣togither without powder.

And incase that you haue piquers or halbarders to backe your shot (which you should neuer be without,) and that you see that your Enemies as also your owne soldiors by long skirmish haue spent much of their powder and heated their peeces, and that your shott with the shot of your ene∣mies are readie to enter pellemelle, then you are to say to your piquers and halbarders: Charge charge and execute sol∣diors: which being by you pronounced they are to enter with all furie vpon their enemies, and with puissant hand to do execution vpon them.* And here it is to be noted that harquebuzes of a yard long the Cannons at the most, well ranforced backward, & of a conuenient thinnesse forward, and the bullets of a conuenient Caliuer or heigth not too great, are a great deale more maniable, and therefore bet∣ter for soldiors to vse in the field, then such heauie harque∣buzes as we in these daies do miscall Caliuers, that are of great bullets, and the Cannons long and heauie with de∣formed stockes: which said harquebuzes ranforced of con∣uenient heueth & lightnes will wound or kill as well 50. or 60. paces off (which is distance enough) as any such heauie mistearmed Caliuers▪ & therewithall they do not so soone wearie the soldiors in handling and vsing them in seruices of the fielde as such foresaid heauie peeces do, besides that they haue this commoditie that when in skirmish soldiors Page  144 do grow very neere together, and so sometimes pelle melle that they haue no more leisure to recharge their peeces but that they are forced to betake themselues to their swordes: they may then I say take their peeces being of such conue∣nient heueth & lightnesse, in the midst with their left hands and drawing their swordes may beare a blow either at the head or legges, or beat by any thrust of sword, halbard, or pique, either with the vpper or lower part of their harque∣buze, and may therewithall at that instant enter and run in with the points of their swordes to the mischiefe or endan∣gering of their enemies, which cannot be performed with our such heauie mistearmed Caliuers, which most com∣monlie vpon such accidents through the too much heueth of them are throwne awaie by the souldiors that vse them. Aduertising furder, that whensoeuer your souldiors bee in skirmish with the enemie in the plaine and open fields, that your harquebuziers be alwais instructed neuer to discharge their peeces nor giue any volee of shot at their euemies a∣boue 20. 30. or 40.* paces distant, or 50. at the vttermost: For it is to bee noted that to discharge or giue any volee, or volees of shot at the enemie in skirmish any greater di∣stance then 50. paces, the same dooth worke but very little effect; by reason that such weapons of fire are in those acti∣ons so vncerten, as all Captaines and souldiors that are of experience in matters of Armes doo verie well knowe; al∣though I haue diuers times heard some talke and tell how they haue seene skirmishes wheras the harquebuziers haue discharged their peeces at their enemies,* 10. 12. or 14. skores of, which (considering the verie small effect that such discharginges and volees doo worke against the ene∣mie) is to be holden for a verie great skorne and error mili∣tarie, for such harquebuzes as doo vse to skirmish so farre off, are more meet by al reason and true experience to skare Crowes in a corne field, then to worke any good effect a∣gainst their enemies in the field.

Page  145

Briefe speeches to be vsed by Captaines or leaders, of Harque∣buziers when they would reduce them into a broad square with distances oblique.

IF a Captaine or leader of harquebuziers would vp∣on any occasion or aduantage of ground reduce a∣ny number of harquebuziers into a broad square or hearse oblique of 7. rankes, with intent that they may haue the more conuenient distances for the discharging of their volees, then they are to say vnto them: Oblique your selues harquebuziers 21. and 20. in rankes, or any other numbers greater or fewer, so as the first ranke doo exceed the second ranke by the number of one, and the third, the fourth like∣wise by the number of one, and so consequently in the same sort to the last seuenth ranke which should be of equal num∣ber to the first: Then the harquebuziers presentlie are to reduce themselues into the forme oblique,* all the harque∣buziers of euerie second ranke being fewer in number then the greater ranke preceeding them by the number of one should place themselues oblique to the ranke before them, that is, they shoulde place euerie one of themselues with their faces directlie towards the voide places or distaunces of the greater ranke before them sauing that the last ranke as aforesaide, must be of equall number to the first ranke, to the intent that the same may bee a fourmed and pro∣portioned hearse that is broad in frunt and narrowe by flankes.

And all those harquebuziers beeing reduced into this forme oblique with conuenient and proportionate distan∣ces, may through those distances oblique giue gallant vo∣lees to the great mischiefe of their enimies, without hurting or endamaging the one the other: And because that these distances oblique may seeme strange to such as neuer sawe horsemen or footemen reduced into that fourme: So it is that I haue manie times seene in Hongarie in the Warres of Emperour MAXI MILIAN against the Page  146 Turks, the harquebuziers,* Hongarians called by the name of Heydukes march and serue in those orders and distances oblique: And so in like manner the horsemen Hongarians being all light horsemen and called by the name of Vssarons although I haue seene them in the field in many and diuers orders and formes, yet their distances were most common∣lie oblique; which order oblique is also vsed by the Turks, Tartars, and other such orientall Nations: because that all their horsemen are light horsemen and not men at Armes,* sauing that the Persians onely of all the rest of the orientall Nations doo vse both men at armes with their horses bar∣bed, as also light horsemen. And this aforsaid order oblique is of great aduantage for all light horsmen in the field, and chiefelie for such as doo vse to charge their speares,* as the Hongarians doo, in sockets made fast to their Saddles, or as our light horsmen borderers that doo charge their speares vpon their thighs, as also for such light horsmen Stradiots as will after the maner of the Moores, vse double headed Launces, or zagayas by some called punching staues for di∣uers causes and reasons, that I am able by the helpe of Al∣mightie God to shewe by effectuall demonstrations in the field, Of the which some I did shew this Iast Summer 1588 in exercises of the field, vnto diuers Captaines and Gentle∣men of the shire of Essex.

Speaches to be vsed to a broad square, or to any ordered troupe of harquebuziers being in a straight or ground of aduantage, where horsmen cannot charge them.

WHen a good number of harquebuziers are redu∣ced into a square or troupe formed not in rankes oblique but by right line to flanke a breach or to make head against the enemie in some straight or passage, or that the place is such and of that strength for the guard of the harquebuziers that it is more requisit that they should make resistance against the enemie in some square or troupe formed then any waies disseuered or in troupes Page  147 confused, then the leaders vppon the approch of the ene∣mie are to say vnto them Discharge soldiors & to your knees, and charge againe volee after volee:* which beeing by them heard, the first and second ranke being in rankes of conue∣nient distances, are at one instant to giue a volee as neere as they can, taking their sightes at point and blank, which be∣ing doone, they ought in an instant to fall vppon one of their knees and to charge againe while the third and fourth rankes doo likewise giue their volees, which being by them performed, they ought in like manner to kneele downe and charge their peeces, giuing place to the fist, and sixt ranks to discharge their peeces ouer all their heads, which being performed throughout the whole hearse or troupe, sauing that the two hinder rankes shall not need to kneele bicause there are none behind them to shoot ouer their heads, then all the first rankes that haue charged their peeces againe are to stand vp & to giue volee after volee, and so to their knees againe, and to giue place to the hindermost rankes to dis∣charge their peeces ouer their heads according to the for∣mer prescribed order: But to the intent that two ranks may the better giue a volee both at one instant without daunge∣ring the one the other as aforesaid, it were requisit that eue∣ry second ranke should be reduced oblique as aforesaid to the ranke preceeding, for otherwise there can but only one ranke discharge at a time vnlesse their rankes be very thin.

Briefe speaches to be vsed to Mosquetiers beeing in a broad square.

WHen a conuenient company of mosquetiers well guarded with armed men are reduced into a broad square of 15. or 20. in frunt, and 6. by flankes, more or fewer, and that all their restes be fixed in the ground in conuenient distances, and that their conductors vpon the approach of the enemie would haue them to giue volee af∣ter volee from their rests, taking their certen sights from pointe at blanke, and that euerie ranke should orderlie suc∣ceede Page  148 the one the other in discharging their peeces; then they are to say vnto them, Discharge, retire, and aduance, which being by the mosquetiers heard,* then the first whole ranke taking their sights at pointe and blanke are all at one time to discharge their peeces at the squadron or troupe of horsemen or footmen approching, which being by them performed they are presently to retire to the last ranke of rests there to charge againe, leauing their owne ranke of rests still fixed in the ground. Then the second ranke are to aduaunce themselues and to clappe their peeces vpon the first ranke of rests as they do stand directly before them, and the third ranke are to aduaunce themselues to the second ranke of rests, & the fourth ranke to the third ranke of rests and the fifth ranke to the fourth ranke of rests, and the sixte ranke to the fifth ranke of rests, whilest the first that hath dis∣charged, and is now retired to the sixte or last ranke of rests do charge their peeces againe & so geuing continual volees of bullets by discharging, retiring, and aduauncing as afore∣said, they may annoie the enemy be they horsemen or foot∣men in terrible sorte without falling into any disorder or cō∣fusion. And the verie like speaches may be vsed to little squares or troupes of harquebuziers in the field when they are to retire hauing discharged, and other troupes to ad∣uaunce and supply their places geuing them time to charge again, and so by retiring, aduauncing, and succeeding euery one the other, they may giue continuall volees of shot at the enemies. Aduertising and aduising all leaders of mosquetiers that will worke good effect and winne repu∣tation with that kinde of weapon in the field,* that they do not permitt their mosquetiers to discharge their peeces at their enemies aboue 8. 9. 10. or 12. skores, at the furdest, and therewithall to take their sightes at point and blanke from their rests and without their rests. Also I would that some conuenient numbers of mosquetiers should be com∣maunded to charge their peeces with conuenient charges of powder and with 5. pistoll bullets of a meane Caliuer and height with some quantitie of soft browne paper or some∣thing Page  149 else, both betwixt the powder and haile shot of war,* as also after the haileshot to restraine both powder and bul∣lets, to the intent that the same may worke the more forci∣ble and terrible effectes: And that the same mosquetiers should be commanded not to discharge their peeces when their companies do discharge theirs with single bullets, but that they should reserue their shot vntill some squardron of footmen, or square, or troupe of horsemen should approch within 10. 15. or 20. paces to charge them. At which time I would haue them to giue their volee of hailshot of warre from their rests at their Enemies approching within the a∣foresaid distances, and not any furder, because they may be the more sure to hit either horsmen or footmen, which in greater distances they cannot so certenlie performe.

And heere it is to be furder noted,* that such as doo talke of giuing volees of mosquet shot 30. 24. or 20. skores off, at squares or troupes of horsemen or footmen that are in march or in any motion of the field do greatlie erre, as men that neuer had any good experience of that weapon in ac∣tions of the field, vnlesse peraduenture it hath been to their owne mischiefe, incountring with olde bandes, Italians, Wallouns, or Spaniards, who were neuer so ill aduised as in vaine to giue their volees so great distances off, and ther∣fore doo reserue their shot to discharge at the enemie not aboue 8. 9. or 10. skores off at the vttermost, although it bee at a whole square or troupe of horsemen or footmen, vnlesse it were out of some fortification, from whence they may discharge their peeces with full bullets, and Demain puesto, as the Spaniards call it.

For although the mosquet ranforced and well char∣ged with good powder woulde carrie a bullet point and blanke 24. or 30. scores: doth it therefore follow that they should giue Volees of mosquet shotte 24. or 20. skores off,* when that in failing to take their iuste point and blanke no more but the length of a Corne, their bullettes doo worke as much effect at the starres, as against the ene∣mie that they shoot at; Besides that in so great a distance of Page  150 ground, how truly soeuer they take their sights at point and blanke, the aire dooth worke verie great effect, with their bullets that are lower by 4. or 5. bores then the heigth of their peeces, to carrie them by mounting, or otherwise from the marke or markes that they are shot at.

Certen Orders, directions, and briefe speeches to be obserued by a Sergeant Maior, and Captaines, and leaders of Ar∣chers in the field.

ALl the most notable and excellent kinges and their great captaines of our English nation in times past, (who as it is most manifest by many notable histo∣ries both auncient and moderne) were not any wayes infe∣rior in knowledge and skill in the Arte and science milita∣ry to the greatest kinges and captaines of our age deceased; but did also farre exceed and excell all the Princes and Cap∣taines of this obscure time of Ignorance in christendome nowe liuing, in all proceedings and actions militarie, (as it is most apparant by the many battles & great victories by them in diuers ages, and against many warlike nations ob∣tained) did (contrarie to the vaine and friuolous opinions of our newe English men of warre of this time) so greatly esteeme of our archers,* through the continuall and great experience they had of their wōderful & miraculous effects in all battles and great in countryes; that vpon the compo∣sing & forming of any Armie, the same being deuided into fiue partes, alwaies three partes of the fiue did consist of ar∣chers: And because archers in all actions militarie were so continually & greatly emploied, they vsed to reduce them into the most conuenient orders and formes that they could deuise for them with their arrows to work their grea∣test effects,* against both horsemen and footmen their Ene∣mies; which was into the forme of hearses, which hearses were broad in frunt, and narrow short by flankes, which is to be vnderstood, of many soldiors in euery ranke; and but of fewe rankes by flankes; in such sorte, as what nom∣bers Page  151 soeuer of archers they placed in frunte, that is in euery ranke, the archers by flanke did neuer exceed the nomber of 7. or 8. rankes at the most; And the causes and reasons were these: that the archers being reduced into their hearse or hearses, as also into their conuenient distaunces in frunt and by flankes, euery one of them without any trouble through the too much nearenes of their fellowes in the same ranke, or by the ouermuch nearenes of the ranke & ranks before them, might, without any impediment shoot and roue of any mean height at their enemies being either horsemen or footmen, ouer the heads of the rank or ranks before them; and therewithall that the hindersmost ranks, (being so few by flanks as aforesaid) might the more easily see their Enemies that they shoot at: As also that by the fewnesse of their rankes, the hindermost ranke and rankes being the nearer to their Enemies, should the more easilie reach their Enemies with their volees of arrowes; whereas otherwise if the rankes were many, then by the ouerplura∣litie of rankes the hinder rankes should be depriued of the sight of their Enemies that they should shoot at, and also should be driuen to shoot their arrows at their enemies too high a compasse, and by such meanes worke the lesse effect against their enemies.

All which considered,* I thought good in this place to shew how any number of archers should be reduced into the forme of a hearse, or diuers hearses, which is a thing of great facilitie to be performed, because that the Captaine or Captaines of archers haue no more to do but to say vnto their archers. Ranke your selues archers. 7. in a ranke or if they will make a hearse of 8. rankes, then ranke your selues 8 in a ranke, (as in the first part of this my booke concerning the reducing of single bandes into rankes, is verie particu∣lerly contained); which being by the archers performed thrughout the whole band, or as manie bands of archers as they will bring into a hearse; then their Captaines and con∣ductors are to lead them by the flanke and corner of the squadron where those archers shall be reduced into winge; Page  152 and there drawing those archers as far out, and large from the corner of the squadron as they shal think requisite; and finding the hindermost ranke of 7. soldiors, or of 8. if they be disposed to make their flanke of 8. archers, to be of such cō∣uenient distance from the corner of the squadron as they shal think meet: then the chiefe Commander of those Ar∣chers is presentlie to goe to the midst of that flanke where they are to make of flanke frunt, and then being a conueni∣ent distance from them, he ought to say vnto them: Frunt to mee Archers, and let this worde passe throughout from flanke to flanke: Vppon which his wordes pronounced, all the souldiors in flanke throughout next vnto him are pre∣sentlie to turne their faces and weapons towardes him and make of flanke frunt, and so subsequentlie all the rest of the archers throughout al the rankes must performe the like. And this making of flank frunt may be performed aswel by the stroke of the drumme as by the briefe speeches of the commander: which being by them performed, then they must presently reforme themselues into their conuenient distances both by frunt and flanks, that thereby they may without any impediment giue their volees as aforsaid: And thus of a great number of ranks that they were before when they marched in their simple or single order of rankes, as of 7. or else of 8. in a ranke from frunt to backe, they are now become a great number of Archers in frunt; that is, in eue∣rie ranke, and but onelie of 7. or else 8 rankes by flankes, which order and forme is to be vnderstood and tearmed a hearse of Archers; and as this hearse is now reduced into a wing either from the right or left corners of the squadron: so may the like winges be drawen from all 4. corners, as al∣so vpon the frunt or flankes of the squadron, or any other place or places where it shal please the General of the field,* or the Lord Marshall to direct or command.

But heere it is to be furder noted, that such hearses are not to giue any volees of arrowes at their Enemies, but on∣lie vppon a token or signe giuen vnto them by some chiefe Commaunder of the hearse, who by his officers is to make Page  153 all the souldiors of the hearse priuie to the same signe and token; And therefore the same Commaunder and signe giuer is to be of good vnderstanding in archerie: as also of the distances of groundes, that thereby he may not faile to giue his signe when the hindermost archers are within the reach of the former rankes of the enemies bee they horse∣men or footmen: for if hee should faile in the same, where∣by the Archers through the too great distance of ground shoulde shoot short, hee should then commit a very grose error.

Also it is to bee noted that if the commander of the ar∣chers doo thinke it requisite, he may deuide the deliuerie of his archers arrowes into two volees, that is, that hee may if the hearse doo consist of 8. rankes by flankes take order that fower of the formost rankes shal giue their first volees, and as the enemies doo approch neerer to giue order that the other 4. hindermost rankes shall likewise giue their volees altogither with the rankes before them. And as the reducing of Archers into these aforesaide formes of hear∣ses are verie conuenient and of great effect for battles: euen so they may bee brought into diuers other formes accor∣ding to the scituation of the ground or grounds and di∣uers other occasions, and likewise worke verie great ef∣fectes.

But now, whereas there be diuers in this time professing Armes, that doo greatly disesteeme archers, thinking that a farre greater number of Archers were not able to en∣counter with a smaller number of mosquetiers:* Thereunto I say that that their opinion doth proceede of nothing else, but of their lacke of vnderstanding and knowing the won∣derfull imperfections and failinges that do belong to mus∣quets and mosquetiers in the field, as also of the strange and incredible effects of archers arrowes, and therewithall that they did neuer enter into the consideration that mosque∣tiers are not to worke any effect in the open fieldes but from their restes fixed in the ground, or some other accidentall or naturall rests and themselues standing still to take some Page  154 sight from point at blanke, at their enemies when they dis∣charge, which at men in motion with any certentie it is not possible for them to performe, and if they faile in taking their sightes at point and blanke, then their bullets do flie straight at the Cloudes without doing any other hurt; be∣sides that when they haue once discharged their first char∣ges of full bullets, or haileshot of warre from their rests in∣case they be forced vpon the vncerten comming of the E∣nemie to remoue and new place their rests and charge a∣gaine, their peeces are so exceeding heauie, and they there∣withall so troubled with their rests hanging vpon their fin∣gers, that they are driuen to a verie long recharging of their mosquets againe, which recharging if it be not in such par∣ticuler sort and perfection, as I haue before set downe, the bullets of their second volee will scarce go within the com∣passe of the height of piques vprighted, or rather of younge trees, as all skilfull soldiors that do know their wonderfull vncerten effects in seruices of the field will confesse: so as I com to conclude, if the trial were to be made in the open & plaine fields betwixt 1500. archers, and 3000.* mosquetiers without any other weapon of succor either for the one side or for ye other, ye mosquetiers being reduced into anyformes of greatest aduauntage and conueniencie for mosquetiers yt can be deuised, those. 1500. archers being reduced into ma∣ny & many troupes of fifteenes, of twenties, of fiue & twen∣ties, of thirties & more or fewer, and they approching & as∣sailing the mosquetiers both in frunt and by flanks, & giuing their volees of arrowes in continuall motions at the mos∣quetiers, who if they meane to worke any effect of necessi∣tie must stand still to discharge their peeces as aforesaid du∣ring which time of their standing still they shall to their great error and mischiefe receaue the continuall volees of the archers arrowes, vpon all parts of their bodies, in such sort as the archers there is no doubt, being well instructed and led in their troupes by their Captaines and other offi∣cers,* would with great facilitie with a verie few volees of arrowes breake all the mosquetiers, although they were of Page  155 a farre greater number: For although mosquets will carrie their bullets point and blanke a great deale furder distance then archers are able to work any effect with their arrowes; yet their wonderfull vncertenties (many of the particula∣rities whereof I haue in other my bookes very particulerlie set downe) are such and so manie, as against archers redu∣ced into great numbers of troups as aforesaid, and assailing them in motion with infinite volees of arrowes, they would be found to be of a wonderful, & incredible small resistance against the blowes of such innumerable arrowes as afore∣said.

Howbeit peraduenture some professing armes will saie, that harque∣buziers may with a great deale more aduantage encounter with Archers then mosquetiers,* because that harquebuziers may incounter with Archers deuided into great numbers of societies and troupes, and therewithall may giue their volees of bullets in motion at the archers, aswell as the archers their volees of arrowes in motion at them. Wherevnto I answer, that if the volees of mosque∣tiers bullets from their rests be so vncerten at men in moti∣on as I haue before mentioned, then of necessitie the vo∣lees of harquebuziers, themselues discharging in motion, at the archers likewise in motion must needs be a great deale more vncerten: besides that if harquebuziers do discharge 9. 10. 11. or 12. skores distant at the archers, as the archers may doo at them, it will bee found that in 10000. of their shot they will not hit so many as 10. archers:* so wonderful vncerten by all true experience of all wel practised and skil∣full souldiors are those weapons of fire. So as I come to conclude also that a farre greater number of harquebuziers are no waies able to abide the terror of a much smaller num¦ber of archers, I meane if the archers bee of a thousand or any greater number, whereby they may reduce themselues into many formes and troupes.

And now as I haue alledged diuers reasons to shew and proue that a smaller number of archers reduced into many greater and smaller troupes, haue great aduauntage to o∣uerthrow Page  156 and breake a great deale greater nomber of mos∣quetiers in the plaine & open fields: euen so am I perswaded by the like causes and reasons that.* 500. harquebuziers in the plaine and open fields reducing themselues into many societies of loose shot, as also into greater troupes (as I haue before in other places, whereas I haue shewed in what sort harquebuziers should skirmish declared) were able with great facilitie to ouerthrow and driue out of the fieldes. 500 mosquetiers; I meane, if neither the harquebuziers nor the mosquetiers had any other weapon to succor them but themselues, by reason that the harquebuziers being disper∣sed into many societies of loose shot, and into greater and lesser troupes, may trauesse their grounds and inlarge them∣selues, and giue their volees in continuall motion, Iauing only at the instant when they take their sights and discharge their peeces at the frunt, flankes and backe of the mosque∣tiers standing still like buttes without motion at their rests whereas mosquetiers reducing themselues into diuers broad squares, or troupes according vnto their most con∣uenient orders of aduauntage to discharge their peeces from their rests, cannot discharge their peeces although with haileshot of warre at the harquebuziers to any effect, by reason that they are dispersed, and in continuall motion. Howbeit if any man will saie that mosquetiers might with∣out their rests likewise reduce themselues into many little societies, and greater and smaller troupes, and so with great aduauntage in respect that their peeces wil carrie point and blanke a great deale surder, then harquebuzes, skirmish with the harquebuziers:* Thereunto it is to be aunswered, that it is not possible that mosquitiers, although they were al men of great force and strength, should be able with their fore∣handes to support and beare their so heauie peeces to dis∣charge, and shoote with any steadines or certentie: Consi∣dering that for any man to discharge any peece either har∣quebuze, Currier, or mosquet without a rest effectuallie it doth behooue him to haue his peece of such lightnesse, as he may be Maister of his peece, and not his peece through Page  157 the great heueth thereof maister of him;* that is, that hee may with dexterity discharge it steadily and with ease from his forehand, taking his sight either from point at blanke, or at least from the end of his peece with some kind of certen∣tie: which if his peece be any thing too heauie for him with facilitie & ease to mannage, it is not possible for him to per∣forme, although it were at a firme and steadie marke, by reason that he striuing with all his force to beare the end of his peece, to discharge the same with some steadinesse and certentie, the same ouermaistring his forces with extreame heueth, doth make him to shoot iust either at the centre of the earth, or else at the seuen stars without dooing any hurt to the enemie: Besides that when he hath once or twise dis∣charged to recharge againe, it dooth not onlie through the great length and heueth of his peece require a much lon∣ger time then for a harquebuzier to recharge his harque∣buze, but also doth so weary the mosquetier, that it doth be∣reaue him of his forces, in such sort as he is to work in a mā∣ner no effect, other then by his seldom discharging to make a great noise. So as in this matter I come to conclude, that as mosquetiers (as I haue in certen other places before men tioned) through the great distance that their peeces wil ca∣rie, and the great blowes that they will giue aswel with hail∣shot of war as with single bullets, haue in their conuenient and due times and places great aduantage against har∣quebuziers: Euen so for skirmishes, harquebuziers for the causes and reasons before alledged, do in their effects farre exceed and excel mosquetiers. And thus farre concerning these matters before handled.* All Captaines both of horsemen and footemenne and their officers shoulde in∣struct and teach their bandes that when they are reduced into their simple or single order, or into any forme of squa∣dron, or into any other form; that when any briefe speeches or words are spoken either by y coronel or sergeant Maior, or by their Captains, to y intent that the same should passe from the hindermost rank to the formost rank, or from the formost to the hindermost, or from flank to flanke: y then Page  158 they do in no wise faile with all celerity to passe that speech or worde without stop or stay vppon seuere punishment of euerie ranke that shall be found not to passe the same, euen to the verie first or last ranke, and so likewise from flanke to flanke. And the commandement of the passing of those briefe speeches or wordes in bandes single doo appertaine to the Captaine,* his Lieutenant or Sergeants; and if it be in diuers bandes reduced into forms either to march or fight, then those commandements of briefe speeches or wordes doo apperteine chieflie to the coronell or Sergeant Maior, or to his deputie Lieutenant, and not to any Captaine or Captains, or their officers, without the speciall comman∣dement of one of the three aforesaid officers.

All drummers should bee very skilfull and perfect in all* the different strokes that are to direct and command al cap∣taines and their souldiors be they either in Campe, field or Towne. All trompettors also, aswell such as doo belong to bands of horsemen, as others that doo belong to Coronels of footmen should be very skilfull and perfect to blow and sound all kinde of soundes, directions, & commandments. And the Lord Lieutenant generals sergeant trompettor, or trompettor Maior, as also his Sergeant drummer, or drum∣mer Maior, should haue a speciall care to see that all trom∣pettors, and drummers vnder them throughout the whole Campe should strike, and sound all diuersities and kindes of soundes and strokes with one conformitie, in such sort that all Captaines and their officers & souldiors may at al times and vppon all occasions vnderstand distinctlie by all those their diuersities of soundes and strokes what they shoulde performe without any waies mistaking them.

Also all Captaines and officers of bandes aswell of hors∣men* as of footmen should be verie carefull to instruct their souldiors to learne and know what euery different sound of trompet or stroke of drumme dooth signifie, and howe to performe the directions of those trompets or drummes: as for example, when horsemen or footemen should reduce themselues into their simple or single order of rankes, and Page  159 when one or diuers bandes should reduce themselues into squadron, and how when they being reduced into squadron should make of backe, or of flankes, frunt, when also to march faster or more leisurelie, and when to march a trot without disordering their rankes, when to staie and make a stand, when to retire, and when to aduance, when also to straighten and close their rankes by frunt and flankes, with all other diuersities of soundes and strokes, that are in the skill and science of trompettors and drommers to direct with their trompets and drums. And as they are to learne and know when by the sound of the trompet, or stroke of the drum to performe those and other actions militarie, so ought they to be instructed and taught by their Captaines and officers by often exercises how to performe all those and other matters militarie with great order as well euerie souldior in particular as all souldiors in generall. And thus all bands both of horsemen and footmen being instructed and taught by their Captaines and officers to vnderstand the different significations of all strokes and soundes of trompets and drummes, as also all such briefe speeches, as I haue before set downe in this booke, and how effectu∣allie to performe them, may in mine opinion be very well accounted not only soldiors, but old souldiors, in most ser∣uices of the Campe or field.

Certen Instructions and obseruations concerning the orde∣ring and exercising of men at Armes, of dimilances, & al so of light horsmen, stradiots incorporated with Archers and crosbowers on horsebacke, for diuers purposes & seruices.

FIrst, when any Coronell or Captaine or Captains will reduce their bandes be they of men at Armes, or of dimilaunces, or Stradiots, or of any other sort of light horsemen into their simple or single order of 4. 5. or 6. or more or fewer in a ranke,* I would wish that they should instruct their horsemen that vpon the sound of the trompet for that purpose, or vpon hearing such words pro∣nounced by their Captaines or officers, as I haue very par∣ticularlie Page  160 set downe aswell for horsemen as footmen in the beginning of this booke, that they should presentlie reduce themselues into rankes by the left flankes the one of the o∣ther, and that there withall they should haue regard to their distances, and to all other such considerations as are there mentioned concerning these and diuers other purposes.

Now to reduce men at Armes or dimilaunces into squa∣dron, I think it is more then needeth againe to particuler ye same; considering that any numbers of such horsmen are to bee reduced into their squadron or squadrons in one of the same sorts that piquers footmen are;* and that with a greater facilitie; because that squadrons of men at armes, how ma∣ny soeuer they bee in frunt ought not in mine opinion (al∣though I haue seene otherwise) to bee aboue 10. or 12. at the most by flankes; because all the rankes that should bee aboue that number might be holden for superfluous and vn∣profitable; by reason that if another squadron of men at Armes that were but of the like number by frunt; and were by flankes 24. or 30. rankes or more, would vpon that opi∣nion of the pluralitie of the rankes conceiued without ta∣king any other aduantage, charge such a squadron as afore∣said, that were of like number vnto them in frunt, and by flankes onelie 10. rankes, they should finde that squadron but of 10. rankes aswell able to encounter with them, and to abide their charge, as they theirs; because they should not be able with their charge to passe those 10. rankes, no more, then the squadron of 10. ranks to passe through their multiplicitie of ranks; which is the cause that I would make my squadron of men at Armes or Launces broad in frunt according to the number, and by flanks not aboue 7. or 8. or 9. or 10. or 11. or 12. ranks at the most.

Howbeit, true it is that such squadrons of Launces as do consist of 20. 25. or 30. rankes may drawe foorth from the backe or rereward a sleeue of 5. or of 10. ranks of Launces, and draw them vppe by one of the flankes of the same squa∣dron, and make the frunt of their squadron broader by frunt and shorter by flankes; and may also vpon some other ad∣uantage Page  161 espied with those ranks drawne out from behind, charge the contrarie squadron in flanke; or vpon other oc∣casions otherwise employ them, which is the greatest ad∣uantage that such squadrons of men at Armes or dimilaun∣ces of manie rankes haue.

Also it is to be noted that it is a greater aduantage for such as are Coronels,* commaunders, or orderers of horse∣men to reduce 500. Launces into 2. 3. 4. or 5. squadrons to charge either horsemen or footemen, then to reduce 500. Launces all into one body of squadron; by reason that they being in so many squadrons may at one time bee emploied in diuers seruices. Also if it were to charge a squadron of 500. Launces; 3. of the 5. of those little squadrons may make themselues all of one frunt: but I meane euerie squa∣dron by himselfe separated a good distance one from ano∣ther, and in that forme may receiue or giue a charge all at one instant vpon the broad frunt of the 500. Launces whi∣lest that the other two squadrons that are in wings of those three, espying their aduantages immediatlie vpon ye charge giuen and receiued, may likewise almost at the same instant giue their charge vppon the flankes, backe, or hinder cor∣ners of the great squadron to the disordering of them: euen so likwise 500. Launces reduced into 5. squadrōs of 100 to euery squadron may with greater aduātage charge a squa∣dron of piques, then if the whole 500. were reduced but into one bodie of squadron, by reason that 3. of the 5. squa∣drons of 100. to euerie squadron reduced into 5. rankes 20 in euery ranke, charging the frunt & corners of ye squadron of piquers at one time, and the other 2. squadrons of 100. a peece being each one of them reduced into 4. ranks of 25. in euerie rank to the intent to beare the greater breadth, or into 5. rankes of 20. in euerie ranke as the other 3. were, may immediatlie vppon the Retraite of those 3. Squa∣drons, giue a newe Charge vppon the frunt and corner of the Squadron of piquers, to the indaungering of the disordering and breaking of the saide Squadron: Page  162 whereas, if the whole number of 500. Launces were redu∣ced into. 100. rankes. 5. in a ranke, or into. 8 rankes that is 62. in a ranke, ouerplus▪ 4: or into. 10. rankes that is. 50. in euerie ranke, or more or fewer, I say (that in mine opini∣on) one charge of the squadron of 500. launces should not be able to worke so great an effect to the endaungering of the squadron of piquers as those 5. little squadrons or hun∣dreds should be able to doo, seconding one another and charging at different times, and thereby the two last squa∣drons finding the squadron of piques in some disorder through the charge of the. 3. first squadrons should with great facilitie giue in amongst them & ouerthrow them, or at least, put them in great hazard of breking & ouerthrow∣ing. And so likewise 500. launces or stradiots or any greater number haue a great deale greater aduauntage to charge, disorder & break in the open fields any number or numbers of harquebuziers or mosquetiers, incase they be without any succor of piques or aduauntage of ground in troupes of hundreds and fifties, or many other smaller troupes, then if they were reduced into any. 2. or. 3. great bodies of squa∣dron or troupes.

But yet because I haue said before that a squadrō of Laun∣ces of 10. or 12. rankes are to be reduced into forme with a great deale greater facility then a squadron of footmen that doth consist of many rankes and peraduenture of diuersitie of weapons, and that all Captaines that do leade Launces do not well knowe how to forme such a squadron, al∣though but of a few ranks as aforesaid; I will therefore here briefely set downe how they shall presently reduce such a squadron of few,* or of many rankes into forme with great facilitie; and that is by any one of two waies, the first to reduce them by flanke or flankes, & the other by right line.

As for example, the Captaine or Captaines of such a band or bands of men at Armes or dimilaunces, comman∣ding their officers to reduce their band or bandes into their simple or single order of 6. Launces in a rank throughout, Page  163 and then considering the one halfe of the full number of the rankes, they are vpon the sounde of the Trompette, or else by briefe speaches pronounced, to commaund the formost one halfe of the launces to marche some 20. or 30. paces, and the other halfe of the launces to stay and kepe their ground, which marching forward of 20. or 30. paces by the first halfe to giue conuenient ground and place to the other halfe to reduce themselues into squa∣dron by flanke being performed, and they there in their rankes making a stay and pause, then some captain or cap∣tains or other leaders for that purpose appointed, placing themselues vpon the frunt of the hinder halfe of the laun∣ces that haue not yet moued, they vpon the sounde of the trompet are to march vp either by the right or left flanke of the formost halfe of the launces now making their pause and standing still, vntill that the formost ranke of the hinder halfe of launces doe make equall frunte with the formost ranke of the formost halfe of launces, and so likewise that the hindermost ranke of the same one halfe of launces, bee equall with the hindermost ranke of the formost one halfe of the launces, and so consequently all the rest of the ranks be euen and straight by flankes one with another: which being performed then of 6. in a rank that the same band or bandes of launces were before throughout, they are nowe comne to be 12. in a ranke throughout; which being done, then to make them a broade square of many in frunte, that is in euery ranke, and but only of 12. rankes, the captain, or captains that doe lead them, are to lead and draw the flanke of their band or bandes to the ground whereas they will make of flanke frunt: where being comne, they are to make a stay and pause, and then either by the sound of the troum∣pet vpon that flanke that shall be made frunt, or else vpon some of the captains galloping to the midst of the same flanke, and being something distant from the flanke; and pronouncing with a loud voyce. Frunt vnto me men at Ar∣mes; or frunt vnto me Launces: then presently all the horse∣men that are nexte vnto them are to tourne their horses Page  164 faces and make frunt that waies, and so subsequetnly al the rest of the ranks of the launces one after another, which be∣ing performed, then of how many rankes soeuer they were before by flankes, now they are becomne to be only of 12. rankes by flankes, and in frunt, of the like number that they were by flanke, or flanks: And as the first forming of this squadron was performed by doubling of the hinder halfe of the Launces by the flanke of the formost halfe of the Laun∣ces (as aforesaid:) Euen so may the Captaines either by the sound of the trompette, or by brief speaches commaund their Launces to double themselues by right line; that is, that the second ranke of 6. should enter into ye formost rank likewise of. 6. and that the fourth ranke should enter into the third ranke; and so consequentlie euerie second ranke throughout to the verie backe or Rereward, to enter into the ranke before him, in such sort that of 6. that euery ranke was before, they are now by this doubling by right line be∣comne. 12. in euerie ranke from frunt to backe: which be∣ing performed and all the ranks reformed in their distances as well by frunt as flankes, then the Captaine or Captaines may presentlie make of flanke frunt according as I haue before verie particulerlie declared; and then the standard or Ensigne,* or Ensignes if they be men at Armes, or the Guidons if they be dimilaunces being placed in the midst of the same squadron, the whole broade square is readie to straighten and close their rankes by frunt and flankes, and either to charge their enemies or to receaue a charge. And as this broad square of many Launces in frunt, and but of 12. Launces by flankes hath bene reduced into forme by two different waies as aforsaid; so may any other squadrō or squadrons of launces be reduced by any of those two waies, of how many rankes by flankes soeuer they are. But yet as the reducing of horsemen by right line is verie good and ready: so the reducing of them into squadron by flankes as aforesaid, is better; because they do no waies alter nor dis∣order themselues in their distances neither in frunt nor by flankes; whereas otherwise by entring and doubling their Page  165 rankes one into another by right line, they come to disor∣der their proportionate distaunces, which they must again with all speed reforme. Aduertising furder, that as this squa∣dron hath beene formed by the aforesaid two waies, so may the same or any other euen at the first be as well reduced by any of those 2. waies into form, in vaungard and frunt, with∣out making of flank frunt, so as the Coronell, Sergeant Ma∣ior, or Captain, that hath the forming of the said squadron, haue good regard aswel to the ground and number that he wil make his frunt of, as to the number of ye ranks by flanks, and therwithal to place and accomodat the broken rank, or ranks if there be any with the standard, ensigne, or Guidon.

Now because in these daies new opinions and fancies in matters of armes grounded vpon very weake or rather no reasons at all, do beare a very great swaie; and that amongst other errors militarie there be some that doo hold & allow that launces should be rather reduced into troup to charge or receiue a charge,* then into squadron formed: I for diuers reasons, of the which some I will after alledge, would that when any Coronell or Captaines of men at armes or dimi∣launces shal haue occasion to reduce their bands into form, either to march or fight; that then they doo in any wise re∣duce them into forme of squadron, according to the anci∣ent-vse, and not into troupe according to the newe fancies, incase that time and leisure wil serue: And therwithall that they do form them with a triple frunt,* that is three times as many in frunt as by flanks, and somtimes more: As for ex∣ample, if the frunt be of 24. or 25. Launces, then the flanke should be of 8. launces: And somtimes also with a quatriple frunt, that is 4. times more in frunt, then by flankes; as also at other times and vpon other occasions into farre broader frunts then quadruple, although by flankes not aboue 10. or 12. rankes at the most as aforesaide: and that the Stan∣dardes or Ensignes, if they bee men at Armes; or the Gui∣dons if they bee dimilaunces bee placed in the midst of the squadron.

And ye those horsmen be instructed how to inlarge them∣selues Page  166 in their rankes when they march in squadron: and how presentlie vpon the sight of the enemie approching to straighten themselues by frunt and flankes, with their iust & proportionate distances, in such sort as they may charge or receiue a charge of the enemie without disordering their horses or Launces, or confounding their ranks. But incase that vpon a sudden Alarm giuen vppon the approch of the Enemie the Launces being in Campe, Towne, or Village be not reduced into their single order vnder their Ensignes or Guidons, but that they are then assembling themselues and the enemie neere at hand; then they must make of ne∣cessitie vertue, that is to reduce themselues into troupe, ma∣king as neere as they can a triple, or quatriple frunt, or more that they may somewhat resemble a squadron, hauing re∣gard to their distances, that they may vse their Launces without disordering the one the other as neere as they may.

And whereas there be some professing armes in this time that doo holde an opinion that Launces haue a greater ad∣uantage to charge or receiue a charge in troupe, then in squadron as aforesaid; they therein doo shew that for lacke of vnderstanding and consideration they doo greatlie erre in the ordering of horsemen Launces. For the Almaines, Italians, English, and diuers other Nations haue of great antiquitie vsed, both squadron of men at Armes and dimi∣launces, and also troupes: But it was neuer heard of before these disordered ciuill wars of France,* and the Lowcoun∣tries, that Launces in troupes confused, should be preferred and iudged to be of greater aduantage then launces in squa∣dron formed, considering that the reducing of Launces in∣to troupe dooth amongest men of war proceed of nothing else but of lacke of time to reduce them into squadron vpon some sudden Alarme and approch of the Enemie: So as such as doo hold that opinion might aswell say that two,* or three thousand piquers, and short weapons haue more ad∣uantage to fight in a battle of necessitie, then in a Squadron formed: which battle of necessitie or extreamitie, terme it Page  167 as you list, is neuer vsed but vpon some great and sudden ac∣cident as when a puissant enemie dooth make a sudden ap∣proch vpon your Campe most commonlie by night, or at the breake of day with a Canuesada, killing both scoutes, Centinels and watches, through their negligent watching, or discouering, and therevpon an alarme giuen, for lacke of time to reduce your piquers into squadron formed, you are faine in the place of assemblie to make them to runne togi∣ther into rankes confused, closing themselues as close as they can to defende the Ring, or entrie of the Campe. By the which comparisons, reasons, and examples of footmen piquers before alledged, such new fancies and lacke of vn∣derstanding in the ordering, or rather disordering of laun∣ces may be easilie discerned by men of reason and iudge∣ment.

And now to the intent that your men at Armes or dimi∣lances may be the better able to charge or receiue a charge of their enemies, it is verie meete, and conuenient that their Captaines and officers should reduce them some time into squadron with a triple, or quatriple frunt.

And being so reduced, that they should be taught,* how to straighten and close themselues in frunt and flankes; and how presently vpon the sound of a charge they should al∣most all at one instant put spurres to their horses galloping vpon the hand about 8. or 10. paces, and then charge their Launces from their tasses or long Cuisses and thighes pre∣sentlie into their restes, and not to carrie their Launces at the Armes ende, as they do commonlie vse at Tilt, to make the fairer shew; and then imagining the squadron of the enemies Launces to be within 15. or 20 paces directly be∣fore them, they should altogither put their horses into their Carrires to the intent to giue the greater blowe and shocke to the ouerthrowing or breaking of their enemies. Then I would wish them to be taught how they should receiue a charge if another squadron of launces should charge them: and that they should doo in this sort.

First when they shall see the squadron of their enemies Page  168 comming to charge them either galloping vpon the hand, or in their full Carrire; then they being straightned & clo∣sed in their rankes by frunt and flankes should stand firme, all the Launces of the three formost rankes ready charged in their restes, but yet the pointes of their launces something high, vntil they do see the enemies squadron within 15. or 20. paces of them: at which time they should with a terri∣ble shout altogither in an instant, as if they were one entire bodie, put spurres to their horses, and fall into their Carrire, and so charge and shock with their enemies, to the disorde∣ring or breaking of them.

All which being by them performed, they should then stop their horses and discharge their launces, setting them againe vppon their thighes: And then they should be in∣structed how with al celeritie to make of flank frunt, by tur∣ning al their horses faces that waie, and by inlarging them∣selues and doubling, and redoubling their rankes to reduce their squadron againe into a triple, or quatriple frunt. Then I would wish that all the squadron of Launces should disor∣der themselues pelle melle out of their rankes: and that they should be instructed either vppon the sound of the Trom∣pet or vpon the pronouncing of these wordes,*Troup, troup Launces, presentlie to fall into troupe, making their frunt, triple, or quatriple, or more in respect of the flankes, as neere as their Captaines or officers can guesse; And being thus fallen into troup, they should be taught how to charge or receiue a charge of their Enemies, without disordering themselues or their launces.

Then I would haue them againe reduced out of troupe into squadron, and taught how they should charge ye flank or corner of a squadron of piques, and how incase they doe not disorder▪ nor breake the piquers, that they should re∣tire againe; and then falling into troupe they should with a terrible shout offer a false charge by making a point & ca∣sting about when they come within 10. or 15. paces of the squadron of piques, incase that the piquers making head with their piques doo not disorder themselues: But if they Page  169 should perceiue the squadron of piquers to waer or swaie (as commonly they do a little before they break) that then they should giue in vpon the piquers with a full charge, to the vtter ouerthrowing of them. And thus with these and such like exercises they should be made skilfull & able with all aduantages to charge any squadron of horsmen or foot∣men with great art and deteritie.

Now peraduenture some not skilful in matters of armes may say that I haue made in a maner no difference betwixt the charging of a fquadron of men at Armes, or Dimi∣launces, and the receiuing of a charge of another squadron of the like Weapons, because I doo allow to the squadron that should charge but 30. paces, that is 20. galloping vp∣on the hand, and 10. for their full Carrire to giue the grea∣ter blow and shocke:* Wherevnto I answer that such as are leaders of any squadron of Launces that will fall into their gallop 12. skores, or 15. skores distant or more, to the in∣tent to charge another squadron of Launces, shall finde themselues in so great a distance greatly disordered & con∣founded in their rankes, and their horses out of breath, and thereby the force of their blow and shocke greatlie weake∣ned when they shall come to encounter with the squadron of their enemies freshe, and not disordered, ho haue put forward their Horses into their Carrire not aboue 10. paces.

Now if it should bee said vnto me that it were more meet that a squadron of launces that is disposed to receaue a charge,* should keepe their ground and stand firme with their launces in their rests rather then to fall into their car∣rire of. 10. paces as aforesaid: I say that their receauing of a charge in standing still, should be greatly to their disad∣uauntage, because that force and violence in this action must be repulsed with the like or greater force & violence. For any man of iudgement by reason may consider that a squadron of launces straightned and closed in frunt and flanks with their iust and proportionate distances cōming to charge their enemies squadron but 30. paces, that is. 20. Page  170 galloping vpon the hand, and. 10. with a terrible shoute in their full carrire will worke a wonderfull effect to the brea∣king of the squadron of launces standing still,* without mo∣uing forward with any force. Besides that the disaduaun∣tage of such a squadron as receaueth a charge standing still without mouing forward with force, is greatly augmented by the terror and thundering of their enemies horses feete vpon the ground comming in their full cartire, as also by the noise of the armors of the horsemen, and with the furi∣ous comming of the horses in squadron with the pointes of so many launces in the eyes and sights of both horses & men standing still in colde blood: whereas contrariwise the squadron comming but. 30. or. 40. paces in hoat blood to charge them, first galloping vpon the hand, & after in their full carrire as is aforesaid, doe gather heate, furie, and force, in such sorte as their blowe and shocke becommeth so vio∣lent, that it doth amaze, disorder and breake the contrary squadron with great facilitie; But a squadron of Launces standing firme vpon their ground vntill they see their ene∣mies within. 20. paces of them, & then putting themselues into their full carrire and meeting with their Enemies. 10. paces of, it is distance enough to receaue and encounter them with as great force as if they had begun their carrire when the squadron of their Enemies was a greater di∣stance of.

But now in this place it is to be noted and obserued that the Ensignebearer if he be of men at Armes, or the Guidon bearer,* if he be of light horsemen, be euer lodged both in Campe and Towne in the Captaines Tent, or lodging, or very neer vnto the same, euer accompanied with the trum∣petor of the same band, to the intent that they may receaue all orders and sudden directions; and hauing receaued the same, may signifie them by the soundes of the trumpet.

Light horsemen borderers I will not take vpon me to set downe any thing for their instructions how they should vse their speares in the field, because that they themselues by their continuall exercise are so skilful with al such weapons Page  171 as they do vse in the seruice of the borders.* But yet I would wish them to learne to reduce themselues into semicircles or halfe moones into two rankes either by right line or else oblique, after the manner of the Turkes and Hongarians; Because I thinke that the same would be of great aduaun∣tage for them, for diuerse purposes, as I haue shewed by di∣uers demonstrations and formes in a Booke by me Com∣posed 1585. and not yet printed, entituled; Certen Military discourses, Arithmeticall Tables, formes and demonstrations to reduce both horsemen and footmen into many formes of squa∣drons. &c.

But because that in my forementioned Booke I haue but only sett downe the formes and demonstrations of those semicircles by figures of little horsemen, and not how nor in what sort they should be reduced into those formes; I will here briefely set downe concerning those reducements, as also of the aduauntages that such light horsemen haue in such semicircles against a squadron of Launces. And there∣fore to reduce them into the aforesaid formes, I say that if therebe (for examples sake) 200. light horsemen; they are to march 2. in a ranke either by right line or oblique: And incase they march 2. in a ranke by right line, then euerie 2. horsemen are of equal frunt throughout from frunt to back as all other sortes of horsemen in their rankes are: But if they march in ranks oblique,* then euerie second light hors∣man doth march retyred and a good distance wide from the first, in such sort as he may march and haue in flanke the midst of the voide ground that is betwixt his fellow formost horseman of his owne ranke, and the formost hor∣seman of the second ranke, that followeth the first, and so likewise the second souldior of the second rane is to follow him in the like sort, but marching and hauing on his flanke likewise the midst of the distance or voide ground that is betwixt his formost fellow of his owne ranke, and the for∣most light horsman of the third ranke; And so subsequent∣lie all the rest of the light horsemen must march in rankes oblique the one to the other.

Now all this band of 200. light horsemen reduced into Page  172 100. rankes marching by right line straight forward, are to be reduced into a semicircle in this sort following, that is, that one Conductor ought to march before all the rankes; And another last of all behinde all the rankes; Then after two other Conductors are to be placed in the verie midst, the one to take care and to see order obserued by the one halfe of the semicircle, that is of his right hand; and the o∣ther to see order obserued by the other halfe of the semicir∣cle that is of his left hand: which conductors being so pla∣ced, and the Cornet either in the midst of the rankes of the light horsemen, or else in one of the formost rankes; then to reduce these 100. rankes into a semicircle, either the Cap∣taine, or formost Conductor must march with his band & fetch a great and a large compasse and circuite of ground, either vpon the right, or left hand, according as he inten∣deth to make the frunt of his semicircle: And thus he must leade his band in compasse and halfe circle, vntill he seeth the hindermost ranke right ouer, and against in semicircle to the formost ranke of all the bande, which he himselfe leadeth: which he perceiuing, then he must commaund his trompettor to sound a stay or pause, which done, the trum∣pettor must gallop towards the midst of the semicircle; I meane of the inner or compasse side, and there must againe sound to make of flanke frunt: which being performed, then of 100. ranks of 2. in a ranke that they were before, they are now becomne to be only 2. rankes of. 100. in each ranke, which being performed, then may they march in this forme of semicircle in their rankes, either by right line or oblique if the fields be large and open (as they are most commonly in Fraunce, and many other Countries) with great facilitie: And incase there were a squadron of. 150.* Launces that would thinke to breake that semicircle by a charge giuen in the midst of the same semicircle, then the aduauntage of the semicircle is, vpon the instant and verie beginning of the charge of the launces to open themselues in the midst; the formost Conductor of the Corner of the right hand galloping large and something in compasse, Page  173 and leading the one halfe of the semicircle of light horse∣men, vpon the one flanke of the squadron of Launces; and the other Conductor of the other ende, or corner of the se∣micircle to galloppe likewise somewhat large in compasse, and lead the other halfe of the semicircle to charge vppon the other flanke of the squadron of Launces, and with ter∣rible noises and shoutes to charge both the flankes, as also the backe of the squadron with their speares al at one time. Or if the Semicircle bee all of stradiots, with their zagaias, which are double headed Launces, then that they beeing lead by their Conductors and opening in the midste, as a∣foresaid, doo charge both the flanks and backe of the squa∣dron with their zagaias striking both forwarde and backe∣ward, killing, and wounding, both horses and men.

By which new, extraordinarie, and vnexpected kinde of charge, the squadron of Launces that thought by right line to haue charged and broken the semicircle in the midst finding nothing there before them to charge but onely the ayre, are forced to make a stay or stand, and to defend them selues with great disaduantage of Weapon; and are com∣pelled to make frunt of both their flankes and backe, all at one time; which they can no waies performe without dis∣ordering themselues out of all forme: whereof, and by the neernesse of the light horsmen bee they speares or zagaias, that haue charged them, as aforesaid, it commeth to passe, that they haue not any ground nor roome to put their hor∣ses into any Carrire, nor to charge their launces into their restes, thereby to giue the greater blow and shocke, or anie other waies to annoy the light horsmen, that haue charged & do with their zagaias, or speares vsed as punching staues, wounde and kill them and their horses both in flanks and backe, as aforesaid, by meanes whereof they haue not onelie vtterlie lost the vse of their Launces, but are driuen with many wounds alreadie receiued to disorder all their ranks & squadron & in tumultuarie and disordred sort, to fight with their swords, and other such short weapons against the said Page  174 light horsemen with their punching staues, to the g〈◊〉 disaduantage and vtter ruine of the Launces.

And whereas I haue shewed this order of marching of a semicircle of two rankes oblique according to the Honga∣rian and Turkie manner: I say that it hath beene and is in respect, that if any other such light horsemen in rankes by right line should charge them, that the hindermost light horsemen of the second ranke, that are oblique in ranke to their fellowes before them, may at the same instant, haue more open and conueniencie of ground to succour their fellowes in the formost ranke, and to charge their enemies, then they otherwise could haue, if they were by right line directly behind the first ranke.

The great effects that Stradiots, Archers on horsbacke, and Crosbowers on horsback, are to performe in the field, both against horsmen and footmen, with also, the great ad∣antage that they haue against Carabins, and against Reistres, and all other weapons of fire on horsebacke, in seruices of the field.

STradiots before mentioned are a kinde of light horsemen that haue beene vsed of many yeares both in Italie, Fraunce, Spaine and Germanie, although in their weapons & manner of arming, euery Nation hath differd one from another more or lesse.* Amongst the Pagans, the Arabians and Persians, the Turks and the Tartars, in such ages as they conquered the grea∣test part of Europe, Affricke and Asia, vsed almost no other souldiors and weapons on horsebacke but light horsemen Launciers with long launces, Stradiots with Launceza∣gaias headed with two steeled heades, Archers with their bowes; and Crosbowers, and al those with their Cemete∣ries and straight or crooked daggers, and other weapons in vse with them.*

Now these light horsemen stradiots that haue been vsed by so many Nations are of great execution and seruice in Page  175 the fielde, both against horsemen and footmen disordered, and very excellent to enter into and maintaine skirmishe, chieflie if they be incorporated with Archers on horsback, and Crosbowers on horsebacke: The difference of which armors, weapons, horses, and other furniture belonging to those three sorts of weapons I omit, because I haue verie particularlie set down mine opinion of those matters in my forementioned book, entituled; Certen Military discourses, Arithmeticall Tables, formes and demonstrations, &c. by me Composed 1585. not yet printed. Now therefore I will make mention of nothing else but how they shoulde be∣haue themselues in the field against their enemies, and that I would haue them to performe in this sort.

Stradiots,* archers on horsebacke, and Crosbowers on horseback, being incorporated into bandes, euery band of 100. of the which I would haue 40. stradiots, 30. archers, and 30. Crosbowers all on horseback, and all those redu∣ced into Cameradas or societies of tennes, or fifteenes I would wish that they should not fight in squadrons nor in great troupes as men at armes and dimilaunces should do; but that they should fight in many little troupes of tennes, or fifteens, or twenties, and not aboue; and that they should charge a squadron or troupe, or diuers squadrons or troups of Launces in frunt, flanks and backe, in many little troups some aduanced, and some retired, in such sort, as all the troupes next vnto the squadron of their enemies horse, might haue other troupes in wing more retired to second and succour them; and that the troupes of archers & Cros∣bowers should giue their volees of arrowes and quarrels at the squadrons or troupes of their Enemies both in frunt, flankes and backe, all at one time, and that the little troups of Stradiots should remaine in winges somewhat retired, readie vppon all occasions of any disorder of their enemies to giue in, by flankes, and backe, and to kill, or wound the horses of their enemies; and that incase the Launces being in great squadrons, or troupes, should charge them; that then they should presentlie cast about and flie in their little Page  176 troupes, and that they should disperse their troupes all ouer the large fieldes, in such sort, that the squadrons of launces should not well know which troupes to followe; and that vpon the Launces pursuing of those troupes; that other lit∣tle troupes and societies should charge them againe both in backe and flankes, and that with terrible shoutes and vo∣lees of quarrels and arrowes, the Stradiots at the same time galloping in their troups by the hinder corners of the squa∣dron, should wound their horses with their Launcezagay∣as, and giue them occasion to stay their pursuit, & to make head against them; which if the Launces doo without dis∣ordering themselues; then I would wish those troupes that charged the backe and flankes presently likewise to disperse and flie: and that the other little troupes that they had fol∣lowed before, should vppon some extraordinarie shoute or hubabub, (whereto they should bee inured) returne a∣gaine vppon them with new charges and volees both in backe and flankes with terrible shoutes and cries as afore∣said: In such sort that although all the little troupes of Stra∣diots, and shot, doo not exceed the number of the launces in their great squadrons; yet that their false charges should be such, so many, and so continuall in giuing their volees in frunt, flankes, and backe, as that by continuall molesting of them, they should put them in hazard to disorder them∣selues and disperse: which if it shoulde happen; then that the Stradiots should enter pelle melle amongest the Laun∣ces, and striking both forwarde and backwarde with their Launces that haue double heades, should kill or wounde their horses; and so by the aduauntage of their weapons, should doo execution vppon their Enemies to their vtter ouerthrow.

Now peraduenture some wil saie that there are no squa∣drons of Launces that wilbee without some companies of Carabins, and Argolettiers, or else of Reistres to succour them, which should greatlie trouble the archers and Cros∣bowers to worke the effect before declared. To the which I answer, that I am perswaded that if the Stradiots, archers Page  177 and Crosbowers, bee as many in number, as the Launces,* and Argolettiers, or Reistres; that the Argolettiers or Rei∣stres will bee of small succour to the Launces against those kindes of weapons, but that they would vpon three or fo∣wer volees of quarrels and arrowes turne their backes, and leaue the launces to defend themselues: For Argolettiers, or Reistres in true experience, are not to discharge their peeces and work any effect aboue 6. 8. or 10. paces distant,* and yet that too farre, considering the vncertentie of those weapons caused through the motion of their horses: wher∣as Crosbowers and chiefelie archers, may worke very cer∣ten and great effect to the mischiefe both of men and hor∣ses a great deale greater distance off; which with diuers o∣ther reasons that for breuities sake I omit, do perswade me to thinke that 2000. Carabins or Reistres, are not able in the fielde to abide the charge and volee of 1000. stradiots, Archers and Crosbowers.

Now the effectes that bandes of stradiots, archers and Crosbowers on horsebacke may worke against footmen,* vpon diuers opportunities are, that they may giue their vo∣lees of quarrels, and arrowes at randon into the squadron of piquers or into the winges, or sleeues of shot, to the di∣sturbing and molesting of their orders; and vpon the ouer∣throw of horsmen or footmen be they armed men or shot, the stradiots in following the chase may doo great executi∣on and slaughter by striking both forward and backewarde with their double headed launces. And these actions be∣fore declared are in mine opinion the chiefe effectes of those three sortes of weapons in corporated in bandes, as a∣foresaid.

And thus hauing now finished all such instructions, and aduertisements militarie as haue at this time fallen into my remembrance, that doo concern the ordering, forming and exercising of single bandes and companies aswell of horsemen as of footmen, as also of reducing and sorming of squadrons into al the chiefe formes of battles y are requisit for armies to march or fight withal in the open fields, with Page  178 manie other important particularities: I wil now (with the helpe of Almightie God) proceed to the setting downe of mine opinion how new bands and companies that should be elected and enrolled for defence of the Realme, or for forren inuasion, are to be elected, inrolled, armed and wea∣poned, with diuers other particularities. For as for the mustering of olde bandes that haue either serued long in Armies, or in Garrisons, they are matters so cōmon in vse, as it might be holden but for superfluous to set downe the orders and proceedings concerning the same; considering that the most of all Warrelike Nations doo obserue almost all one sort of proceedings and obserua∣tions in viewing and mustering of armies and Garrisons that haue of long time serued.