[Certen] instruct[ions, obseruati]ons and orders militarie, requisit for all chieftaines, captaines [and?] higher and lower men of charge, [and officers] to vnderstand, [knowe and obserue]
Smythe, John, Sir, ca. 1534-1607.

Certen Instructions and obseruations concerning the orde∣ring and exercising of men at Armes, of dimilances, & al so of light horsmen, stradiots incorporated with Archers and crosbowers on horsebacke, for diuers purposes & seruices.

FIrst, when any Coronell or Captaine or Captains will reduce their bandes be they of men at Armes, or of dimilaunces, or Stradiots, or of any other sort of light horsemen into their simple or single order of 4. 5. or 6. or more or fewer in a ranke,* I would wish that they should instruct their horsemen that vpon the sound of the trompet for that purpose, or vpon hearing such words pro∣nounced by their Captaines or officers, as I haue very par∣ticularlie Page  160 set downe aswell for horsemen as footmen in the beginning of this booke, that they should presentlie reduce themselues into rankes by the left flankes the one of the o∣ther, and that there withall they should haue regard to their distances, and to all other such considerations as are there mentioned concerning these and diuers other purposes.

Now to reduce men at Armes or dimilaunces into squa∣dron, I think it is more then needeth againe to particuler ye same; considering that any numbers of such horsmen are to bee reduced into their squadron or squadrons in one of the same sorts that piquers footmen are;* and that with a greater facilitie; because that squadrons of men at armes, how ma∣ny soeuer they bee in frunt ought not in mine opinion (al∣though I haue seene otherwise) to bee aboue 10. or 12. at the most by flankes; because all the rankes that should bee aboue that number might be holden for superfluous and vn∣profitable; by reason that if another squadron of men at Armes that were but of the like number by frunt; and were by flankes 24. or 30. rankes or more, would vpon that opi∣nion of the pluralitie of the rankes conceiued without ta∣king any other aduantage, charge such a squadron as afore∣said, that were of like number vnto them in frunt, and by flankes onelie 10. rankes, they should finde that squadron but of 10. rankes aswell able to encounter with them, and to abide their charge, as they theirs; because they should not be able with their charge to passe those 10. rankes, no more, then the squadron of 10. ranks to passe through their multiplicitie of ranks; which is the cause that I would make my squadron of men at Armes or Launces broad in frunt according to the number, and by flanks not aboue 7. or 8. or 9. or 10. or 11. or 12. ranks at the most.

Howbeit, true it is that such squadrons of Launces as do consist of 20. 25. or 30. rankes may drawe foorth from the backe or rereward a sleeue of 5. or of 10. ranks of Launces, and draw them vppe by one of the flankes of the same squa∣dron, and make the frunt of their squadron broader by frunt and shorter by flankes; and may also vpon some other ad∣uantage Page  161 espied with those ranks drawne out from behind, charge the contrarie squadron in flanke; or vpon other oc∣casions otherwise employ them, which is the greatest ad∣uantage that such squadrons of men at Armes or dimilaun∣ces of manie rankes haue.

Also it is to be noted that it is a greater aduantage for such as are Coronels,* commaunders, or orderers of horse∣men to reduce 500. Launces into 2. 3. 4. or 5. squadrons to charge either horsemen or footemen, then to reduce 500. Launces all into one body of squadron; by reason that they being in so many squadrons may at one time bee emploied in diuers seruices. Also if it were to charge a squadron of 500. Launces; 3. of the 5. of those little squadrons may make themselues all of one frunt: but I meane euerie squa∣dron by himselfe separated a good distance one from ano∣ther, and in that forme may receiue or giue a charge all at one instant vpon the broad frunt of the 500. Launces whi∣lest that the other two squadrons that are in wings of those three, espying their aduantages immediatlie vpon ye charge giuen and receiued, may likewise almost at the same instant giue their charge vppon the flankes, backe, or hinder cor∣ners of the great squadron to the disordering of them: euen so likwise 500. Launces reduced into 5. squadrōs of 100 to euery squadron may with greater aduātage charge a squa∣dron of piques, then if the whole 500. were reduced but into one bodie of squadron, by reason that 3. of the 5. squa∣drons of 100. to euerie squadron reduced into 5. rankes 20 in euery ranke, charging the frunt & corners of ye squadron of piquers at one time, and the other 2. squadrons of 100. a peece being each one of them reduced into 4. ranks of 25. in euerie rank to the intent to beare the greater breadth, or into 5. rankes of 20. in euerie ranke as the other 3. were, may immediatlie vppon the Retraite of those 3. Squa∣drons, giue a newe Charge vppon the frunt and corner of the Squadron of piquers, to the indaungering of the disordering and breaking of the saide Squadron: Page  162 whereas, if the whole number of 500. Launces were redu∣ced into. 100. rankes. 5. in a ranke, or into. 8 rankes that is 62. in a ranke, ouerplus▪ 4: or into. 10. rankes that is. 50. in euerie ranke, or more or fewer, I say (that in mine opini∣on) one charge of the squadron of 500. launces should not be able to worke so great an effect to the endaungering of the squadron of piquers as those 5. little squadrons or hun∣dreds should be able to doo, seconding one another and charging at different times, and thereby the two last squa∣drons finding the squadron of piques in some disorder through the charge of the. 3. first squadrons should with great facilitie giue in amongst them & ouerthrow them, or at least, put them in great hazard of breking & ouerthrow∣ing. And so likewise 500. launces or stradiots or any greater number haue a great deale greater aduauntage to charge, disorder & break in the open fields any number or numbers of harquebuziers or mosquetiers, incase they be without any succor of piques or aduauntage of ground in troupes of hundreds and fifties, or many other smaller troupes, then if they were reduced into any. 2. or. 3. great bodies of squa∣dron or troupes.

But yet because I haue said before that a squadrō of Laun∣ces of 10. or 12. rankes are to be reduced into forme with a great deale greater facility then a squadron of footmen that doth consist of many rankes and peraduenture of diuersitie of weapons, and that all Captaines that do leade Launces do not well knowe how to forme such a squadron, al∣though but of a few ranks as aforesaid; I will therefore here briefely set downe how they shall presently reduce such a squadron of few,* or of many rankes into forme with great facilitie; and that is by any one of two waies, the first to reduce them by flanke or flankes, & the other by right line.

As for example, the Captaine or Captaines of such a band or bands of men at Armes or dimilaunces, comman∣ding their officers to reduce their band or bandes into their simple or single order of 6. Launces in a rank throughout, Page  163 and then considering the one halfe of the full number of the rankes, they are vpon the sounde of the Trompette, or else by briefe speaches pronounced, to commaund the formost one halfe of the launces to marche some 20. or 30. paces, and the other halfe of the launces to stay and kepe their ground, which marching forward of 20. or 30. paces by the first halfe to giue conuenient ground and place to the other halfe to reduce themselues into squa∣dron by flanke being performed, and they there in their rankes making a stay and pause, then some captain or cap∣tains or other leaders for that purpose appointed, placing themselues vpon the frunt of the hinder halfe of the laun∣ces that haue not yet moued, they vpon the sounde of the trompet are to march vp either by the right or left flanke of the formost halfe of the launces now making their pause and standing still, vntill that the formost ranke of the hinder halfe of launces doe make equall frunte with the formost ranke of the formost halfe of launces, and so likewise that the hindermost ranke of the same one halfe of launces, bee equall with the hindermost ranke of the formost one halfe of the launces, and so consequently all the rest of the ranks be euen and straight by flankes one with another: which being performed then of 6. in a rank that the same band or bandes of launces were before throughout, they are nowe comne to be 12. in a ranke throughout; which being done, then to make them a broade square of many in frunte, that is in euery ranke, and but only of 12. rankes, the captain, or captains that doe lead them, are to lead and draw the flanke of their band or bandes to the ground whereas they will make of flanke frunt: where being comne, they are to make a stay and pause, and then either by the sound of the troum∣pet vpon that flanke that shall be made frunt, or else vpon some of the captains galloping to the midst of the same flanke, and being something distant from the flanke; and pronouncing with a loud voyce. Frunt vnto me men at Ar∣mes; or frunt vnto me Launces: then presently all the horse∣men that are nexte vnto them are to tourne their horses Page  164 faces and make frunt that waies, and so subsequetnly al the rest of the ranks of the launces one after another, which be∣ing performed, then of how many rankes soeuer they were before by flankes, now they are becomne to be only of 12. rankes by flankes, and in frunt, of the like number that they were by flanke, or flanks: And as the first forming of this squadron was performed by doubling of the hinder halfe of the Launces by the flanke of the formost halfe of the Laun∣ces (as aforesaid:) Euen so may the Captaines either by the sound of the trompette, or by brief speaches commaund their Launces to double themselues by right line; that is, that the second ranke of 6. should enter into ye formost rank likewise of. 6. and that the fourth ranke should enter into the third ranke; and so consequentlie euerie second ranke throughout to the verie backe or Rereward, to enter into the ranke before him, in such sort that of 6. that euery ranke was before, they are now by this doubling by right line be∣comne. 12. in euerie ranke from frunt to backe: which be∣ing performed and all the ranks reformed in their distances as well by frunt as flankes, then the Captaine or Captaines may presentlie make of flanke frunt according as I haue before verie particulerlie declared; and then the standard or Ensigne,* or Ensignes if they be men at Armes, or the Guidons if they be dimilaunces being placed in the midst of the same squadron, the whole broade square is readie to straighten and close their rankes by frunt and flankes, and either to charge their enemies or to receaue a charge. And as this broad square of many Launces in frunt, and but of 12. Launces by flankes hath bene reduced into forme by two different waies as aforsaid; so may any other squadrō or squadrons of launces be reduced by any of those two waies, of how many rankes by flankes soeuer they are. But yet as the reducing of horsemen by right line is verie good and ready: so the reducing of them into squadron by flankes as aforesaid, is better; because they do no waies alter nor dis∣order themselues in their distances neither in frunt nor by flankes; whereas otherwise by entring and doubling their Page  165 rankes one into another by right line, they come to disor∣der their proportionate distaunces, which they must again with all speed reforme. Aduertising furder, that as this squa∣dron hath beene formed by the aforesaid two waies, so may the same or any other euen at the first be as well reduced by any of those 2. waies into form, in vaungard and frunt, with∣out making of flank frunt, so as the Coronell, Sergeant Ma∣ior, or Captain, that hath the forming of the said squadron, haue good regard aswel to the ground and number that he wil make his frunt of, as to the number of ye ranks by flanks, and therwithal to place and accomodat the broken rank, or ranks if there be any with the standard, ensigne, or Guidon.

Now because in these daies new opinions and fancies in matters of armes grounded vpon very weake or rather no reasons at all, do beare a very great swaie; and that amongst other errors militarie there be some that doo hold & allow that launces should be rather reduced into troup to charge or receiue a charge,* then into squadron formed: I for diuers reasons, of the which some I will after alledge, would that when any Coronell or Captaines of men at armes or dimi∣launces shal haue occasion to reduce their bands into form, either to march or fight; that then they doo in any wise re∣duce them into forme of squadron, according to the anci∣ent-vse, and not into troupe according to the newe fancies, incase that time and leisure wil serue: And therwithall that they do form them with a triple frunt,* that is three times as many in frunt as by flanks, and somtimes more: As for ex∣ample, if the frunt be of 24. or 25. Launces, then the flanke should be of 8. launces: And somtimes also with a quatriple frunt, that is 4. times more in frunt, then by flankes; as also at other times and vpon other occasions into farre broader frunts then quadruple, although by flankes not aboue 10. or 12. rankes at the most as aforesaide: and that the Stan∣dardes or Ensignes, if they bee men at Armes; or the Gui∣dons if they bee dimilaunces bee placed in the midst of the squadron.

And ye those horsmen be instructed how to inlarge them∣selues Page  166 in their rankes when they march in squadron: and how presentlie vpon the sight of the enemie approching to straighten themselues by frunt and flankes, with their iust & proportionate distances, in such sort as they may charge or receiue a charge of the enemie without disordering their horses or Launces, or confounding their ranks. But incase that vpon a sudden Alarm giuen vppon the approch of the Enemie the Launces being in Campe, Towne, or Village be not reduced into their single order vnder their Ensignes or Guidons, but that they are then assembling themselues and the enemie neere at hand; then they must make of ne∣cessitie vertue, that is to reduce themselues into troupe, ma∣king as neere as they can a triple, or quatriple frunt, or more that they may somewhat resemble a squadron, hauing re∣gard to their distances, that they may vse their Launces without disordering the one the other as neere as they may.

And whereas there be some professing armes in this time that doo holde an opinion that Launces haue a greater ad∣uantage to charge or receiue a charge in troupe, then in squadron as aforesaid; they therein doo shew that for lacke of vnderstanding and consideration they doo greatlie erre in the ordering of horsemen Launces. For the Almaines, Italians, English, and diuers other Nations haue of great antiquitie vsed, both squadron of men at Armes and dimi∣launces, and also troupes: But it was neuer heard of before these disordered ciuill wars of France,* and the Lowcoun∣tries, that Launces in troupes confused, should be preferred and iudged to be of greater aduantage then launces in squa∣dron formed, considering that the reducing of Launces in∣to troupe dooth amongest men of war proceed of nothing else but of lacke of time to reduce them into squadron vpon some sudden Alarme and approch of the Enemie: So as such as doo hold that opinion might aswell say that two,* or three thousand piquers, and short weapons haue more ad∣uantage to fight in a battle of necessitie, then in a Squadron formed: which battle of necessitie or extreamitie, terme it Page  167 as you list, is neuer vsed but vpon some great and sudden ac∣cident as when a puissant enemie dooth make a sudden ap∣proch vpon your Campe most commonlie by night, or at the breake of day with a Canuesada, killing both scoutes, Centinels and watches, through their negligent watching, or discouering, and therevpon an alarme giuen, for lacke of time to reduce your piquers into squadron formed, you are faine in the place of assemblie to make them to runne togi∣ther into rankes confused, closing themselues as close as they can to defende the Ring, or entrie of the Campe. By the which comparisons, reasons, and examples of footmen piquers before alledged, such new fancies and lacke of vn∣derstanding in the ordering, or rather disordering of laun∣ces may be easilie discerned by men of reason and iudge∣ment.

And now to the intent that your men at Armes or dimi∣lances may be the better able to charge or receiue a charge of their enemies, it is verie meete, and conuenient that their Captaines and officers should reduce them some time into squadron with a triple, or quatriple frunt.

And being so reduced, that they should be taught,* how to straighten and close themselues in frunt and flankes; and how presently vpon the sound of a charge they should al∣most all at one instant put spurres to their horses galloping vpon the hand about 8. or 10. paces, and then charge their Launces from their tasses or long Cuisses and thighes pre∣sentlie into their restes, and not to carrie their Launces at the Armes ende, as they do commonlie vse at Tilt, to make the fairer shew; and then imagining the squadron of the enemies Launces to be within 15. or 20 paces directly be∣fore them, they should altogither put their horses into their Carrires to the intent to giue the greater blowe and shocke to the ouerthrowing or breaking of their enemies. Then I would wish them to be taught how they should receiue a charge if another squadron of launces should charge them: and that they should doo in this sort.

First when they shall see the squadron of their enemies Page  168 comming to charge them either galloping vpon the hand, or in their full Carrire; then they being straightned & clo∣sed in their rankes by frunt and flankes should stand firme, all the Launces of the three formost rankes ready charged in their restes, but yet the pointes of their launces something high, vntil they do see the enemies squadron within 15. or 20. paces of them: at which time they should with a terri∣ble shout altogither in an instant, as if they were one entire bodie, put spurres to their horses, and fall into their Carrire, and so charge and shock with their enemies, to the disorde∣ring or breaking of them.

All which being by them performed, they should then stop their horses and discharge their launces, setting them againe vppon their thighes: And then they should be in∣structed how with al celeritie to make of flank frunt, by tur∣ning al their horses faces that waie, and by inlarging them∣selues and doubling, and redoubling their rankes to reduce their squadron againe into a triple, or quatriple frunt. Then I would wish that all the squadron of Launces should disor∣der themselues pelle melle out of their rankes: and that they should be instructed either vppon the sound of the Trom∣pet or vpon the pronouncing of these wordes,*Troup, troup Launces, presentlie to fall into troupe, making their frunt, triple, or quatriple, or more in respect of the flankes, as neere as their Captaines or officers can guesse; And being thus fallen into troup, they should be taught how to charge or receiue a charge of their Enemies, without disordering themselues or their launces.

Then I would haue them againe reduced out of troupe into squadron, and taught how they should charge ye flank or corner of a squadron of piques, and how incase they doe not disorder▪ nor breake the piquers, that they should re∣tire againe; and then falling into troupe they should with a terrible shout offer a false charge by making a point & ca∣sting about when they come within 10. or 15. paces of the squadron of piques, incase that the piquers making head with their piques doo not disorder themselues: But if they Page  169 should perceiue the squadron of piquers to waer or swaie (as commonly they do a little before they break) that then they should giue in vpon the piquers with a full charge, to the vtter ouerthrowing of them. And thus with these and such like exercises they should be made skilfull & able with all aduantages to charge any squadron of horsmen or foot∣men with great art and deteritie.

Now peraduenture some not skilful in matters of armes may say that I haue made in a maner no difference betwixt the charging of a fquadron of men at Armes, or Dimi∣launces, and the receiuing of a charge of another squadron of the like Weapons, because I doo allow to the squadron that should charge but 30. paces, that is 20. galloping vp∣on the hand, and 10. for their full Carrire to giue the grea∣ter blow and shocke:* Wherevnto I answer that such as are leaders of any squadron of Launces that will fall into their gallop 12. skores, or 15. skores distant or more, to the in∣tent to charge another squadron of Launces, shall finde themselues in so great a distance greatly disordered & con∣founded in their rankes, and their horses out of breath, and thereby the force of their blow and shocke greatlie weake∣ned when they shall come to encounter with the squadron of their enemies freshe, and not disordered, ho haue put forward their Horses into their Carrire not aboue 10. paces.

Now if it should bee said vnto me that it were more meet that a squadron of launces that is disposed to receaue a charge,* should keepe their ground and stand firme with their launces in their rests rather then to fall into their car∣rire of. 10. paces as aforesaid: I say that their receauing of a charge in standing still, should be greatly to their disad∣uauntage, because that force and violence in this action must be repulsed with the like or greater force & violence. For any man of iudgement by reason may consider that a squadron of launces straightned and closed in frunt and flanks with their iust and proportionate distances cōming to charge their enemies squadron but 30. paces, that is. 20. Page  170 galloping vpon the hand, and. 10. with a terrible shoute in their full carrire will worke a wonderfull effect to the brea∣king of the squadron of launces standing still,* without mo∣uing forward with any force. Besides that the disaduaun∣tage of such a squadron as receaueth a charge standing still without mouing forward with force, is greatly augmented by the terror and thundering of their enemies horses feete vpon the ground comming in their full cartire, as also by the noise of the armors of the horsemen, and with the furi∣ous comming of the horses in squadron with the pointes of so many launces in the eyes and sights of both horses & men standing still in colde blood: whereas contrariwise the squadron comming but. 30. or. 40. paces in hoat blood to charge them, first galloping vpon the hand, & after in their full carrire as is aforesaid, doe gather heate, furie, and force, in such sorte as their blowe and shocke becommeth so vio∣lent, that it doth amaze, disorder and breake the contrary squadron with great facilitie; But a squadron of Launces standing firme vpon their ground vntill they see their ene∣mies within. 20. paces of them, & then putting themselues into their full carrire and meeting with their Enemies. 10. paces of, it is distance enough to receaue and encounter them with as great force as if they had begun their carrire when the squadron of their Enemies was a greater di∣stance of.

But now in this place it is to be noted and obserued that the Ensignebearer if he be of men at Armes, or the Guidon bearer,* if he be of light horsemen, be euer lodged both in Campe and Towne in the Captaines Tent, or lodging, or very neer vnto the same, euer accompanied with the trum∣petor of the same band, to the intent that they may receaue all orders and sudden directions; and hauing receaued the same, may signifie them by the soundes of the trumpet.

Light horsemen borderers I will not take vpon me to set downe any thing for their instructions how they should vse their speares in the field, because that they themselues by their continuall exercise are so skilful with al such weapons Page  171 as they do vse in the seruice of the borders.* But yet I would wish them to learne to reduce themselues into semicircles or halfe moones into two rankes either by right line or else oblique, after the manner of the Turkes and Hongarians; Because I thinke that the same would be of great aduaun∣tage for them, for diuerse purposes, as I haue shewed by di∣uers demonstrations and formes in a Booke by me Com∣posed 1585. and not yet printed, entituled; Certen Military discourses, Arithmeticall Tables, formes and demonstrations to reduce both horsemen and footmen into many formes of squa∣drons. &c.

But because that in my forementioned Booke I haue but only sett downe the formes and demonstrations of those semicircles by figures of little horsemen, and not how nor in what sort they should be reduced into those formes; I will here briefely set downe concerning those reducements, as also of the aduauntages that such light horsemen haue in such semicircles against a squadron of Launces. And there∣fore to reduce them into the aforesaid formes, I say that if therebe (for examples sake) 200. light horsemen; they are to march 2. in a ranke either by right line or oblique: And incase they march 2. in a ranke by right line, then euerie 2. horsemen are of equal frunt throughout from frunt to back as all other sortes of horsemen in their rankes are: But if they march in ranks oblique,* then euerie second light hors∣man doth march retyred and a good distance wide from the first, in such sort as he may march and haue in flanke the midst of the voide ground that is betwixt his fellow formost horseman of his owne ranke, and the formost hor∣seman of the second ranke, that followeth the first, and so likewise the second souldior of the second rane is to follow him in the like sort, but marching and hauing on his flanke likewise the midst of the distance or voide ground that is betwixt his formost fellow of his owne ranke, and the for∣most light horsman of the third ranke; And so subsequent∣lie all the rest of the light horsemen must march in rankes oblique the one to the other.

Now all this band of 200. light horsemen reduced into Page  172 100. rankes marching by right line straight forward, are to be reduced into a semicircle in this sort following, that is, that one Conductor ought to march before all the rankes; And another last of all behinde all the rankes; Then after two other Conductors are to be placed in the verie midst, the one to take care and to see order obserued by the one halfe of the semicircle, that is of his right hand; and the o∣ther to see order obserued by the other halfe of the semicir∣cle that is of his left hand: which conductors being so pla∣ced, and the Cornet either in the midst of the rankes of the light horsemen, or else in one of the formost rankes; then to reduce these 100. rankes into a semicircle, either the Cap∣taine, or formost Conductor must march with his band & fetch a great and a large compasse and circuite of ground, either vpon the right, or left hand, according as he inten∣deth to make the frunt of his semicircle: And thus he must leade his band in compasse and halfe circle, vntill he seeth the hindermost ranke right ouer, and against in semicircle to the formost ranke of all the bande, which he himselfe leadeth: which he perceiuing, then he must commaund his trompettor to sound a stay or pause, which done, the trum∣pettor must gallop towards the midst of the semicircle; I meane of the inner or compasse side, and there must againe sound to make of flanke frunt: which being performed, then of 100. ranks of 2. in a ranke that they were before, they are now becomne to be only 2. rankes of. 100. in each ranke, which being performed, then may they march in this forme of semicircle in their rankes, either by right line or oblique if the fields be large and open (as they are most commonly in Fraunce, and many other Countries) with great facilitie: And incase there were a squadron of. 150.* Launces that would thinke to breake that semicircle by a charge giuen in the midst of the same semicircle, then the aduauntage of the semicircle is, vpon the instant and verie beginning of the charge of the launces to open themselues in the midst; the formost Conductor of the Corner of the right hand galloping large and something in compasse, Page  173 and leading the one halfe of the semicircle of light horse∣men, vpon the one flanke of the squadron of Launces; and the other Conductor of the other ende, or corner of the se∣micircle to galloppe likewise somewhat large in compasse, and lead the other halfe of the semicircle to charge vppon the other flanke of the squadron of Launces, and with ter∣rible noises and shoutes to charge both the flankes, as also the backe of the squadron with their speares al at one time. Or if the Semicircle bee all of stradiots, with their zagaias, which are double headed Launces, then that they beeing lead by their Conductors and opening in the midste, as a∣foresaid, doo charge both the flanks and backe of the squa∣dron with their zagaias striking both forwarde and backe∣ward, killing, and wounding, both horses and men.

By which new, extraordinarie, and vnexpected kinde of charge, the squadron of Launces that thought by right line to haue charged and broken the semicircle in the midst finding nothing there before them to charge but onely the ayre, are forced to make a stay or stand, and to defend them selues with great disaduantage of Weapon; and are com∣pelled to make frunt of both their flankes and backe, all at one time; which they can no waies performe without dis∣ordering themselues out of all forme: whereof, and by the neernesse of the light horsmen bee they speares or zagaias, that haue charged them, as aforesaid, it commeth to passe, that they haue not any ground nor roome to put their hor∣ses into any Carrire, nor to charge their launces into their restes, thereby to giue the greater blow and shocke, or anie other waies to annoy the light horsmen, that haue charged & do with their zagaias, or speares vsed as punching staues, wounde and kill them and their horses both in flanks and backe, as aforesaid, by meanes whereof they haue not onelie vtterlie lost the vse of their Launces, but are driuen with many wounds alreadie receiued to disorder all their ranks & squadron & in tumultuarie and disordred sort, to fight with their swords, and other such short weapons against the said Page  174 light horsemen with their punching staues, to the g〈◊〉 disaduantage and vtter ruine of the Launces.

And whereas I haue shewed this order of marching of a semicircle of two rankes oblique according to the Honga∣rian and Turkie manner: I say that it hath beene and is in respect, that if any other such light horsemen in rankes by right line should charge them, that the hindermost light horsemen of the second ranke, that are oblique in ranke to their fellowes before them, may at the same instant, haue more open and conueniencie of ground to succour their fellowes in the formost ranke, and to charge their enemies, then they otherwise could haue, if they were by right line directly behind the first ranke.