A true relation of such occurrences and accidents of noate as hath hapned in Virginia since the first planting of that collony, which is now resident in the south part thereof, till the last returne from thence written by Captaine Smith [Cor]one[ll] of the said collony, to a worshipfull friend of his in England.
Smith, John, 1580-1631.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

A True relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned in Vir∣ginia, since the first planting of that Collony, which is now resident in the South part thereof, till the last returne.

KInde Sir, commendations re∣membred, &c. You shall vnderstand that after many crosses in the downes by tempests wee arriued safely vppon the Southwest part of the great Ca∣naries: within foure or fiue daies after we set saile for Dominica, the 26. of Aprill: the first land we made, wee fell with Cape Henry, the verie mouth of the Bay of Chissiapiacke, which at that present we little ex∣pected, hauing by a cruell storme bene put to the Northward: anchoring in this Bay twentie or thirtie went a shore with the Captain▪ and in comming aboard, they were assalted with certaine Indians, which charged them within Pistoll shot: in which conflict, Captaine Archer and Mathew Morton were shot: wherupon, Captaine Newport seconding them, made a shot at them, which the Indians little respected, but hauing spent their arrowes retyred without harme and in that place was the Bar opened, wherin the Counsell for Virginia was nonnnated: and arriuing at the place where we are now sea∣ted, the Counsell was sworne, the President elected, which for that yeare was Maister Edm. Maria Wingfield, where was Page  [unnumbered] made choice for our scituation, a verie fit place for the erect∣ing of a great cittie, about which some contention passed be∣twixt Captaine Wingfield and Captaine Gosnold, not-with∣standing all out prouision was brought a shore, and with as much speede as might bee wee went about our fortifica∣tion.

The two and twenty day of Aprill, Captain Newport and my selfe with diuers others, to the number of twenty two persons, set forward to discouer the Riuer, some fiftie or sixtie miles, finding it in some places broader, & in some narrower, the Countrie (for the moste part) on each side plaine high ground, with many fresh Springes, the people in all places kindely intreating vs, daunsing and feasting vs with straw∣berries, Mulberies, Bread, Fish, and other their Countrie prouisions wherof we had plenty: for which Captaine New∣port kindely requited thei least fauours with Bels Pinnes, Needles, beades or Glasses, which so contented them that his liberallitie made them follow vs from place to place, and euer kindely to respect vs. In the midway staying to refresh our selues in a little Ile foure or fiue sauages came vnto vs which described vnto vs the course of the Riuer, and after in our iourney, they often met vs, trading with vs for such prouision as wee had, and ariuing at Aratecke, hee whom we supposed to bee the chiefe King of all the rest, moste kindely entertained vs, giuing vs in a guide to go with vs vp the Riuer to Pow∣hatan, of which place their great Emperor taketh his name, where he that they honored for King vsed vs kindely. But to finish this discouerie, we passed on further, where within an ile we were interrepted with great craggy stones yt in midst of the riuer, where the water falleth so rudely, and with such a violence, as not any boat can possibly passe, and so broad dis∣perseth the streame, as there is not past flue or sire Foote at a low water, and to the shore scarce passage with a barge, the water floweth foure foote, and the freshes by reason of the Rockes haue left markes of the inundations 8. or 9. foote: The sooth side is plaine low ground, and the north side high Page  [unnumbered] mountaines, the rockes being of a grauelly nature, interlace with many vains of glistring spangles That night we retur∣ned to Powhatan: the next day (being Whitsunday after din∣ner) we returned to the fals, leauing a mariner in pawn with the Indians for a guide of theirs, hee that they honoured for King followed vs by the riuer. That afternoone we trifled in looking vpon the Rockes and riuer (further he would not goe) so there we erected acrosse, and that night taking our man at Powhatans, Cap. Newport congratulated his kindenes with a Gown and a Hatchet: returning to Arsetecke, and stayed there the next day to obserue the height therof, & so with many slgnes of loue we departed. The next day the Queene of Aga∣matack kindely intreated vs, her people being no lesse conten∣ted then the rest, and from thence we went to another place, (the name whereof I doe not remember) where the people shewed vs the manner of their diuing for Mussels, in which they finde Pearles.

That night passing by Weanock some twentie miles from our Fort, they according to their former churlish condition, seemed little to affect vs, but as wee departed and lodged at the point of Weanocke, the people the next morning seemed kindely to content vs, yet we might perceiue many signes of a more Iealousie in them then before, and also the Hinde that the King of Arseteck had giuen vs, altered his resolution in going to our Fort, and with many kinde circumstances left vs there. This gaue vs some occasion to doubt some mischiefe at the Fort, yet Capt. Newport intended to haue visited Pas∣pahegh and Tappahanocke, but the instant change of the winde being faire for our return, we repaired to the fort with∣all speed, where the first we heard was that 400. Indians the day before had assalted the fort, & supprised it, had not God (be∣yond al their expectations) by meanes of the shippes at whom they shot with their Ordinances & Muskets, caused them to retire, they had entred the fort with our own men, which were then busied in setting Corne, their armes beeing then in drie∣sats & few ready but certain Gentlemē of their own, in which Page  [unnumbered] conflict, most of the Counsel was hurt, a boy slaine in the Pin∣nas, and thirteene or fourteene more hurt Withall speede we pallisadeed our Fort: (each other day) for sixe or seauen daies we had alarums by ambuscadoes, and foure or fiue cruelly wounded by being abroad: the Indians losse wee know not, but as they report three were slain and diuers hurt.

Captaine Newport hauing set things in order, set saile for England the 22 of June, leauing prouision for 13. or 14 weeks. The day before the Ships departure, the King of Pa∣maune sent the Indian that had met vs before in our disco∣uerie, to assure vs peace, our fort being then palisadoed round, and all our men in good health and comfort, albeit, that throgh some discentented humors, it did not so long continue, for the President and Captaine Gosnold, with the rest of the Coun∣sell, being for the moste part discontented with one another in so much, that things were neither carried with that discretion nor any busines effected in such good sort as wisdome would, nor our owne good and safetie required thereby, and through the hard dealing of our President, the rest of the counsell bee∣ing diuerslie affected through his audarious commaund, and for Captaine Martin, (albeit verie honest) and wishing the best good, yet so sicke and weake, and my selfe so disgrac'd through others mallice, through which disorder God (being angrie with vs) plagued vs with such famin and sicknes, that the liuing were scarce able so bury the dead: our want of suffi∣cient and good victualls, with continuall watching, foure or fiue each night at three Bulwarkes, being the chiefe cause: onely of Sturgion wee had great store, where∣on our men would so greedily surfet, as it cost manye their liues: the Sack, Aquauitie, and other preseruatiues for our health, being kept onely in the Presidents hands, for his owne diet, and his few associates: shortly after Captaine Gos∣nold fell sicke, and within thrée wéekes died, Captaine Rat∣cliffe being then also verie sicke and weake, and my selfe ha∣uing also tasted of the extremitie therof, but by Gods assistāce being well recouered. Kendall about this time, for diuers Page  [unnumbered] reasons deposed from being of the Councell: and shortly after it pleased God (in our extremity) to moue the Indians to bring vs Corne, ere it was halfe ripe, to refresh vs, when we ra∣ther expected when they would destroy vs: about the tenth of September there was about 46. of our men dead, at which time Captaine Wingefield hauing ordred the affaires in such sort that he was generally hated of all, in which respect with one consent he was deposed from his presidencie, and Cap∣taine Ratcliffe according to his course was elected.

Our prouision being now within twentie dayes spent, the Indians brought vs great store both of Corne and bread rea∣dy made: and also there came such aboundance of Fowles in∣to the Riuers as greatly refreshed our weake estates, where∣vppon many of our weake men were presently able to goe a∣broad. As yet we had no houses to couer vs, our Tents were rotten, and our Cabbins worse then nought: our best com∣moditie was Yron which we made into little chissels, the pre∣sident, and Captaine Martins sicknes, constrayned me to be Cape Marchant, and yet to spare no paines in making houses for the company, who notwithstanding our misery, little ceased their mallice, grudging and mattering. As at this time were most of our chiefest men either sicke or discontented, the rest being in such dispaire, as they would rather starue and rot with idlenes, then be perswaded to do any thing for their owne reliefe without constraint: our victualles being now within eighteene dayes spent, and the Indians trade decrea∣sing, I was sent to the mouth of y riuer, to Kegquouhtan an Indian Towne, to trade for Corne, and try the riuer for Fish, but our fishing we could not effect by reason of the stormy weather. The Indians thinking vs neare famished, with carelesse kindnes, offred vs little pieces of bread, & small hand∣fulls of beanes or wheat, for a hatchet or a piece of copper: In the like maner I entertained their kindnes, and in like scorne offered them like commodities, but the Children, or any that shewed extraordinary kindenes, I liberally contented with free gifte, such trifles as wel cōtented them▪ finding this co••e Page  [unnumbered] comfort, I anchored before the Towne, and the next day re∣turned to trade, but God (the absolute disposer of all heartes) altered their conceits, for now they were no lesse desirous of cut commodities then we of their Corne: vnder colour to fetch fresh water, I sent a man to discouer the Towne, their Corne, and force, to trie their intent, in that they desi∣red me vp to their houses: which well vnderstanding, with foure shot I visited them, with fish, oysters, bread and déere, they kindly trades with me and my men, beeing no lesse in doubt of my intent, then I of theirs, for well I might with twentie men haue fraighted a Shippe with Corne: The Towne conteineth eighteene houses, pleasantly seated vpon three acres of ground, vppon a plaine, halfe inuironed with a great Bay of the great Riuer, the other parte with a Baye of the other Riuer falling into the great Baye, with a lit∣tle Ile fit for a Castle in the mouth thereof, the Towne adioyning to the mains by a necke of Land of sixtie yardes. With sixteene bushells of Corne I returned towards our Forte: by the way I encountred with two Canowes of In∣dians, who came abord me, being the inhabitants of waros∣koyack, a kingdome on the south side of the riuer, which is in breadth 5. miles and 20 mile or neare from the mouth: with these I traded, who hauing but their hunting prouision, re∣quested me to returne to their Towne, where I should load my boat with corne, & with near thirtie bushells I returned to the fort, the very name wherof gaue great comfort to our de∣sparing company: time thus passing away, & hauing not aboue 14. daies vituals left, some motiōs were made about our pre∣sidents & Capt. Archeri going for England, to procure a sup∣ply, in which meane time we had reasonablly fitted vs with houses, and our President & Capt. Martin being able to walk abroad, with much ado do it was concluded, that the pinnace and barge should goe towards Powhatan, to trade for corne: Letts were cast who should go in her, the chance was mine, & while she was arigging. I made a voiage to Topohanack, where a∣riuing, there was but certain women & children who fled from their houses, yet at last I drew them to draw néere, truck they Page  [unnumbered] durst not, corne they had plenty, & to spoile I had no cōmission: In my resume to Paspahegh, I traded with that churlish & trecherous nation: hauing loaded 10 or 12 bushels of corne, they offred to take our pieces and swords, yet by stelth, but sée∣ming to dislike it, they were ready to assault vs, yet stāding v∣pon our guard in coasting the shore, diuers out of the woods would meet with vs with corn & trade, but least we should be constrained, either to indure ouermuch wrong or directly fal to reuenge, séeing them dog vs, from place to place, it being night, & our necessitie not fit for warres, we tooke occasion to returne with 10 bushells of corne: Cap. Martin after made 2 iournies to that nation of Paspahegh but eache tune returned with 8. or 10. bushells. All things being now ready for my iourney to Powhatan, for the performance thereof, I had 8. men and my selfe for the barge, as well for discouerie, as trading, the Pin∣nace, 5. Marriners, & 2. landmen to take in out ladings at con∣uenient places. The 9 of Nouember I set forward for the dis∣couery of the country of Chikhamania, leauing the pinnace the next tide to followe and stay for my comming at Point weanock, 20 miles from our fort: the mouth of this riuer fal∣leth into the great riuer at Paspahegh, 8 miles aboue our fort: that afternoone I stayed the eb, in the bay of Paspahegh with the Indiās: towards the euening certaine Indians haled me, one of them being of Chikahamania, offred to cōduct me to his country, the Paspabegheans grudged therat: along we went by moonelight, at midnight he brought vs before his Towne, desiring one of our men to go vp with him, whom he kindely intertained, and returned back to the barge: the next morning I went vp to the towne, and shewed them what copper and hatchets they shold haue for corne, each family seeking to giue me most content: so long they caused me to stay yt 100 at least was expecting my comming by the riuer with corne, what I liked I bought, and least they should perceiue my too great want I went higher vp the riuer: this place is called Manos∣quosick a quarter of a mile from the riuer, conteining thirtie or fortie houses, vppon an exceeding high land: at the foote of the hill towards the riuer, is a plaine wood, watered with many springes, which fall twentie yardes right downe Page  [unnumbered] into the riuer: right against yt same is a great marsh, of 4. or 5. miles circuit, deuided in 2 Ilands, by the parting of the riuer, abounding with fish & fouls all sorts a mile from thence is a Towne called Oraniocke, I further discouered the Townes of Mnsa, Apahaock, Werawahone, & Mamanahūt at eche place kindely vsed, especially at the last, being the hart of the Country, where were assembled 200. people with such aboū∣dāce of corne, as hauing laded our barge, as also I might haue laded a ship: I returned to Paspahhegh, & considering yt want of Corne at our Fort, it being night, with yt ebb, by midnight I ariued at our fort, where I found our Pinnis run aground: the next morning I vnladed seauē hogsheds into our store, the next morning I returned againe: the second day I ariued at Mamanahūt, wher y people hauing heard of my cōming, were ready with 3 or 400. baskets litle & great, of which hauing la∣ded my barge, with many signes of great kindnes I returned: at my departure they requested me to hear our pieces, being in the midst of the riuer, which in regard of y eccho séemed a peale of ordnance, many birds and fowles they see vs dayly kil that much feared them, so desirous of trade wer they, yt they would follow me with their canowes, & for any thing giue it me, ra∣ther then returne it back: so I vnladed again 7 or 8. hogsheads at our fort. Hauing thus by Gods assistance gotten good store of corne, notwithstanding some bad spirrits not content with Gods prouidence, still grew •••tinous, in so much, that our president hauing ocasion to chide the sith for his misdeame∣nor, he not only gaue him bad language, but also offred to strike him with some of his tooles, for which rebellious act, the smith was by a Jury condemned to be hanged, but being vppon the ladder continuing verry obstinate, as hoping vpon a rescue: when he saw no other way but death with him, he became pe∣nitent, & declared a dangerous conspiracy, for which Captains Kendall as principal, was by a Jury condēed & shot to death. This conspiracy appeased, I set forward for the discouery of the Riuer of Checka Hamania: this third time I discouered y Townes of Matapamient, Morinogh, Ascacap, moysenock Righkahauck, Nechanichock, Mattalūt, Attamuspincke, & diuers others, their plenty of corne I found decreased, yet la∣ding Page  [unnumbered] the barge, I returned to our fort: our store being now indifferently wel prouided with corne, there was much adoe for to haue the pinace goe for England, against which Captain Martin & my selfe, standing chiefly against it, and in fine after many debatings, pro & contra, it was reolued to stay a ur∣ther resolutiō: this matter also quieted, I set forward to finish this discouery, which as yet I had neglected in regard of y ne∣cessitie we had to take in prouision whilst it was to be had: 4. miles I passed vp yt riuer, which for the most part is a quarter of a mile broad, & 3. fatham & a half deep, exceeding vsey, many great low marshes, & many high lāds, especially about yt midst at a place called Moysonicke, a Peninsule of 4. miles cicuit, betwixt two riuers ioyned to the main, by a neck of 40. or 50. yards, and 40. or 50 yards from the high water marke: on both sides in the very necke of the maine, are high hills and dales, yet much inhabited, the Ile declining in a plaine fertile corn field, the lower end a low marsh, more plentie of swannes, cranes, geese, duckes, and mallards, & diuers sorts of fowles none would desire: more plaine fertile planted ground, in such great proportions as there I had not seene, of a light blacke sandy mould, the cliffes commonly red, white and yellowe co∣loured sand, & vnder red & white clay, fish great plenty, & people aboundance, the most of their inhabitants, in view of yt neck of Land, where a better seat for a towne cannot be desired: at the end of forty miles this riuer inuironeth many low Ilands, at each high water drowned for a mile, where it vniteth it selfe, at a place called. Apokant the highest Towns inhabited. 10. miles higher I discouered with the barge; in the mid way, a great tree hindred my passage which I cut in two: heere the ri∣uer became narrower, 8. 9 or 10. foote at a high water, and 6. or 7. at a lowe: the streame exceeding swift, & the bottom hard channell, the ground most part of a low plaine, sandy soyle, this occasioned me to suppose it might issue from some lake or some broad ford, for it could not be far the head, but rather then I would endanger the barge, yet to haue beene able to resolue this doubt, & to discharge the imputation of malicious tungs, that halfe suspected I durst not for so long delaying, some of the company as desirous as my self, we resolued to bier a Ca∣now, Page  [unnumbered] and returne with the barge to Apocant, there to leaue the barge secute, and put our selues vppon the aduenturs: the country onely a vast and wilde wildernes, and but onely that Towne: within three or foure mile we hired a Canow, and 2. Indians to row vs yt next day a fowling: hauing made such prouision for the barge as was needfull, I lett her there to ride, with expresse thrge not any to go ashore til my returne. Though some wise men may condemn this too bould attempt of too much indiscretion, yet if they well cōsider the friendship of the Indians, inconducting me, the desolatenes of the coun∣try, the propabilitie of some lacke, & the malicious iudges of my actions at homeas also to hae some matters of worth to in∣courage our aduenturers in england, might well haue caused any honest 〈◊〉 to haue done the like, as wel for his own dis∣charge as for the publike gd: hauing 2 Indians for my guide & 2 of our own company, I set forward, leauing 7 in the bargs: hauing discoered 20 miles further in this desart, the riuer stil kept his depth and bredth, but much more combred with trées: here we went ashore (being some 12 miles higher then yt barge had bene) to refresh our selues, during the boyling of our vitu∣als: one of the Indians I toke with me, to sée the nature of the soile, & to crosse the bought of the riuer, the other Indian I lest with M. Robbinson and Thomas Emry, with their mat∣ches light and order to discharge a peace, for my retreat at the first sight of any Indian, but within a quarter of an houre I heard a leud cry, and hollowing of Indians, but no warning peece, supposing them surprised, and that the Indians had be∣traid vs, presently I seazed him & bound his arme fast to my hand in a garter, with my pistoll ready bent to be reuenged on him: he aduised me to fly, and seemed dignorant of what was done, but as we went discoursing, I was struck with an ar∣row an the right thigh, but without harme: vpon this occasion I espied 2 Indians drawing their bowes, which I preuented in discharging a french pistoll: by that I had charged againe 3 or 4 more did the like, for the first fell downe and fled: at my discharge they did the like, my hinde I made my barricado who offeced not to striue, 20. or 30. arrowes were shot at me but short, 3 or 4 times I had discharged my pistoll re the Page  [unnumbered] king of Pamaūck called Opeckākenough with 200 men, in∣uironede, eache drawing their bowe, which d••e they laid them vpon the ground, yet without shot, my hinde treated be∣twixt them and me of conditions of peace, he discouered me to be the Captaine, my request was to retire to yt boate, they de∣maunded my armes, the rest they saide were slaine, onely me they would reserue: the Indian importuned me not to that. In retiring being in the midst of alow quagmire, and minding them more then my steps, I slept fast into the quag∣mire, and also the Indian in drawing me forth: thus sur∣prised, I resolued to trie their mercies, my armes I casts from me, till which none durst approch me: being ceazed on me, they drew me out and led me to the King, I presented him with a compasse diall, describing by my best 〈◊〉 the vse therof, whereat he so amazedly admired, as he suffered me to proceed in a discourse of the roundnes of the earth, the course of the sunne, moone, starres and plannets, with kinde speeches and bread he requited me, conducting me where the Canow lay and Iohn Robbinson slaine, with 20 or 30. arrowes in him. Emry I saw not, I perceiued by the aboundance of fires all ouer the woods, at each place I expected when they would execute me, yet they vsed me with what kindnes they could: approaching their Towne, which was within 6 miles where I was taken, onely made as arbors and couered with mats, which they remoue as occasion requires: all the wo∣men and children, being aduertised of this accident, came foorth to meet them, the King well guarded with 20 bowmen 5 flanck and rear, and each flanck before him asword & a péece, and after him the like, then a bowman, then I on each hand a boweman, the rest in file in the reare, which reare led foorth amongst the trees in a vishion, eache his bowe and a handfull of arrowes, a quiner at his back gumly paintes: on eache flnck a sargeant, the one running alwaies towarde the front the other towards the reare, each a true pace and in excéeding good order, this being a good time continued, they 〈◊〉 them∣selues in a ring with a daunce, and 〈◊〉 eache man departed to Page  [unnumbered] his lodging, the Captain conducting me to his lodging a quar∣ter of Venison and some ten pound of bread I had for supper, what I left was reserued for me, and sent with me to my ld∣ging: each morning 3. women 〈◊〉 me three great platters of fine bread, more venison then ten men could deuour I had, my gowne, points and garters, my compas and a tablet they gaue me again, though 8 ordinarily guarded me, I wanted not what they could deuise to content me: and still our longer acquaintance increased our etter affection: much they threat∣ned to assault our forts, as they were solicited by the King of Paspahegh, who shewed at our fort great signes of sorrow for this mischance: the King too he great delight in vnderstanding the manner of our ships and sayling the seas, the earth & skies and of our God: what he knew of the dominious he spared not to acquaint me with, as of certaine men cloathed at a place cal∣led Ocanahonan, cloathed like me, the course of our riuer, and that within 4 or 5 daies iourney of the falles, was a great tur∣ning of salt water: I desired he would send a messenger to Pas∣pahegh, with a letter I would write, by which they shold vn∣derstand, how kindly they vsed me, and that I was well least they should reuenge my death: this he granted and sent three men, in such weather, as in reason were vnpossible, by any na∣ked to be indured: their cruell mindes towards the fort I had deuerted, in describing the ordinance & the mines in the fields, as also the reuenge Captain Newport would take of them at his returne, their intent, I incerted the fort, the people of Oca∣nahonum and the back sea, this report they after found diuers Indians that cnfirmed the next day after my letter, came a saluage to my lodging, with his sword to haue slaine me, but being by my guard intercepted, with abowe and arrow he of∣fred to haue effected his purpose: the cause I knew not, till the King vnderstanding thereof came and told me of a man a dying, wounded with my pistoll: he tould me also of another I had slayne, yet the most concealed they had any hurte: this was the father of him I had slayne, whose fury to pre∣ent, the King presently conducted me to another Kingdome, Page  [unnumbered] vpon the top of the next northerly riuer, called Youghtanan, hauing feasted me, he further led me to another branch of the ri∣uer, called Mattapament, to swo other hunting townes they led me, and to each of these Countries, a house of the great Em∣perour of Pewhakan, whom as yet I supposed to bee at the Fals, to him I tolde him I must goe, and to returne to Paspa∣hegh, after this foure or fiue dayes marsh, we returned to Ra∣sawrack, the first towne they brought me too, where binding the Mats in bundels, they marched two dayes iourney, and crossed the Riuer of Youghtanan, where it was as broad as Thames: so conducting me to a place called Menapacute in Pamaunke, where ye King inhabited: the next day another King of that nation called Kekataugh, hauing receiued some kindnes of me at the Fort, kindly inuited me to feast at his house, the peo∣ple from all places flocked to sée me, each shewing to content me. By this the great King hath foure or fiue houses, each containing fourescore or an hundred foote in length, pleasantly seated vpon an high sandy hill, from whence you may sée wester∣ly a goodly low Country, the riuer before the which his crooked course causeth many great Marshes of excéeding good ground. An hundred houses, and many large plaines are here togither inhabited more abundance of fishe fowle, and a pleasanter seat cannot be imagined: the King with fortie Bowmen to guard me, intreated me to discharge my Pistoll, which they there pre∣sented me with a mark at six score to strike therwith but to spoil the prctise I broke the cocke, whereat they were much discon∣tented though a chaunce supposed.

From hence this kind King conducted mee to a place called Topahanocke, a kingdome vpon another Riuer northward: the cause of this was, that the yeare before, a shippe had béene in the Riuer of Pamaunke, who hauing beene kindly entertai∣ned by Powhatan their Emperour, they returned thence, and discouered the Riuer of Topahanocke, where being receiued with like kindnesse, yet he slue the King, and looks of his people, and they supposed I were hee, but the people reported him a great man that was Captaine, and vsing mee kindly, the Page  [unnumbered] next day we departed.

This Riuer of Topahanock, séemeth in breadth not much lesse then that we dwell vpon. 〈◊〉 the 〈◊〉 of the Riuer is a Countrey called Cuttata women vpwards is Marough ta∣cum Tapohanock, Appamatuck, and Nantengs acum; at Topmanahocks, the head issuing from many Mountaines, the next night I lodged at a hunting town of Powhaams, and the next day arriued at Warancomoco vpon the riuer of Pa∣mancke, where the great king is resident: by the way we pas∣sed by the top of another little riuer, which is betwixt the two called Payankatank. The most of this Countrey though De∣sert, yet excéeding fertil, good timber, most hils and dales, in each valley a cristall spring.

Arrioing at Weramocomoco their Emperour, proudly lying vppon a Bedstead a foote high vpon seune or twelue Mattes, richly hung with manie Chaynes of great Pearles about his necke, and couered with a great Coucring of Rahaughcums: At heade sat a woman, at his feete ano∣ther, on each side sitting vppon a Matte vppon the ground were raunged his chiefe men on each side the fire, tenne in a ranke, and behinde them as many yong women, each a great Chaine of white Beades ouer their shoulders: their heades painted in ridde and with such a graue and Maiesticall counte∣nance, as draue me into admiration to sée such state in a naked Saluage, hee kindly welcomed me with good wordes, and great Platters of sondrie Vctuals, assuring mee his friend∣ship, and my libertie within foure dayes, hee much delighted in Opechan Comoughs relation of what I ha described to him, and oft examined me vpon the same. Hee asked mee the cause of our comming, I tolde him being in fight with the Spani∣ards our enemie, beeing ouer powred neare put to retreat, and by extreame weather put to this shore, where landing at Che∣sipiack, the people shal vs, but at Keuughtan they kindly vsed vs, we by signes demaunded fresh water, they described vs vp the Riuer was all fresh water, at Pspahegh, also they kindly vsed vs, one Pinnsse being leake wee were inforced to Page  [unnumbered] stay to mend her, till Captaine Newport my father came to conduct vs away. He demaunded why we went further with our Boae, I tolde him, in that I would haue occasion to talke of the backe Sea, that on the other side the maine, where was salt water, my father had a childe flaine, whiche wée supposed Mnocan his enemie, whose death we intended to reuenge.

After good deliberation, hée began to describe mee the Countreys beyonde the Falles, with many of the rest, con∣firming what not onely Opechancanoyes, and an Indian which had beene prosoner to Pewhatan had before tolde mee, but some called it fiue dayes, some sixe, some eight, where the sayde water dashed amongest many stones and rockes, each storme which caused off tymes the heade of the Riuer to bee brackish: Anchanachuck he described to bee the people that had slaine my brother, whose death hée would reuenge. Hée described also vpon the same Sea, a mighty Nation called Pocoughtronack, a fierce Nation that did eate men, and warred with the people of Moyaoncer, and Pataromerke, Nations vpon the toppe or the heade of the Bay, vnder his territories, where the yeare before they had slein an hundred, he signified their crownes were shauen, long haire in the necke, tied on a knot, Swords like Pollaes.

Beyond them he described people with short Coates, and Sléeues to the Elbowes, that passed that way in Shippes like ours. Many Kingdomes hée described mée to the heade of the Bay, which séemed to bée a mightie Riuer, issuing from mightie Mountaines betwixt the two Seas, the people cloathed at Ocamahowan. He also confirmed, and the Sou∣therly Countries also, as the rest, that reported vs to be within a day & a halfe of Mangoge, two dayes of Chawwonock, 6. frō Rooock, to the south part of the backe sea: he described a coun∣trie called Anone, where they haue abundance of Brasse, and houses walled as outs. I required his discourse, see∣ing what pride hée had in his great and spacious Domini∣ons, seeing that all hee knewe were vnder his Territories.

Page  [unnumbered] In describing to him the territorles of Europe, which was subiect to our great King whose subiect I was, the innumerable multitude of his ships, I gaue him to vnderstand the noyse of Trumpets, and terrible manner of fighting were vnder captain Newport my father, whom I intituled the Meworames which they call King of all the waters, at his greatnesse hee admired, and not a little feared: hee desired mee to forsake Paspaliegh, and to liue with him vpon his Riuer, a Countrie called Capa Howasicke: hée promised to giue me Corne, Venison, or what I wanted to feede vs, Hatchets and Copper wee should make him, and none should disturbe vs. This request I promised to performe: and thus hauing with all the kindnes hee could de∣uise, sought to content me: hee sent me home with 4. men, one that vsually carried my Gowne and Knapsacke after me, two other loded with bread, and one to accompanie me.

This Riuer of Pamaunke is not past twelue mile from that we dwell on, his course northwest, and westerly, as the other. Weraocomoco, is vpon salt water, in bredth two myles, and to keepeth his course without any tarrying some twenty miles, where at the parting of the fresh water and the salt, if diuideth it selfe into two partes, the one part to Goughland, as broad as Thames, and auigable, with a Boats threescore or foure score miles, and with a Shippe 〈◊〉, excéeding crooked, and manie low grounds and marishes, but inhabited with aboundance of warlike and tall people. The Countrey of Youghtomam, of no lesse worth, onely it is lower, but all the soyle, a fatte, fertill, sandie ground. Aboue Manapacumter, many high sandie Mountaines. By the Riuer is many Rockes, seeming if not of seuerall Mines: The other branch a little lesse in breadth, yet extendeth not neare so farre, nor so well inbabited, somewhat lower, and a white sandle, and a white clay soyle: here is their best Terra Sigillata: The month of the Riuer, as I see in the discouerie therof with captain Newport, is halfe a wile broad, & within foure miles not aboue a Musket shot: the channell excée∣ding good and dées, the Riuer straight to the 〈◊〉. Kiskirk the nearest Nation to the entrances.

Page  [unnumbered] Their religion and Ceremonie I obserued was thus: thrée or foure dayes after my taking seuen of them in the house where I lay, each with a rattle began at ten a clocke in the morning to sing about the fire, which they inuironed with a Circle of meale, and after a foote or two from that, at the end of each song, layde downe two or thrée graines of wheate, continuing this or∣der till they haue included sixe or seuen hundred in a halfe Circle, and after that two or thrée more Circles in like maner, a hand bredth from other: that done, at each song, they put betwixt eue∣rie three, two or fiue graines, a little slicke, so counting as an old woman her Pater noster.

One disguised with a great Skinne, his bead ung round with little Skinnes of Weasels, and other vermine, with a Crownel of feathers on his head, painted as vgly as the diuell, at the end of each song will make many signes and demonstra∣tions, with strange and vehement actions, great cakes of Déere suet, Deare, and Tobacco he casteth in the fire, till sixe a clocke in the Euening, their howling would continue ere they would depart. Each morning in the coldest frost, the principall to the number of twentie or thirtie, assembled themselues in a round circle, a good distance from the towne, where they told me they there consulted where to hunt the next day: so fat they fed nice, that I much doubted they intended to haue sacrificed mee to the Quiyoughquosicke, which is a superiour power they wor∣ship, a more vglier thing cannot be described: one they haue for chief sacrifices, which also they call Quiyoughquosick: to cure the sick, a man with a Rattle, and extreame howling, showting, singing, and such violent gestures, and Anticke actions ouer the patient will sucke out blood and flegme from the patient out of their vnable stomacke, or any diseased place, as no labour will more tire them, Tobacco they offer the water in passing in fowle weather. The death of any they lament with great sorrow and weeping: their Kings they burie betwixt two mattes within their houses, with all his beads, tewels, hatchets, and copper: the other in graues like ours. They acknowledge no resurrection. Powhatan hath thrée brethren, and two sisters, each of his bre∣theren Page  [unnumbered] succéeded other.

For the Crowne, their heyres inverite not, but the first heyres of the Sisters, and so successiuely the weomens heires: For the Kings haue as many weomen as they will, his Sub∣iects two, and most but one.

From Weramocomoco is but 12. miles, yet the Indians trifled away that day, and would not goe to our Forte by any perswasions: but to certaine olde hunting houses of Paspa∣hegh we lodged all night. The next morning ere Sunne rise, we set forward for our Fort, where we arriued within an houre, where each man with the truest signes of ioy they could expresse welcommed mee, except M. Archer, and some 2. or 3. of his, who was then in my absence, sworne Counsellour, though not with the consent of Captaine Martin: great blame and impu∣tation was laide vpon mée by them, for the losse of our two men which the Indians slew: inso much that they purposed to depose me, but in the midst of my miseries, it pleased God to send Cap∣taine Nuport, who arriuing there the same night, so tripled our ioy, as for a while these plots against me were deferred though with much malies against me, which captain Newport in short time did plainly see. Now was maister Scriuener, captaine Martin, and my selfe, called Counsllers.

Within fiue or sixe dayes after the arriuall of the Ship, by a mischaunce our Fort was burned and the most of our apparell, lodging and priuate prouision, many of our old men diseased, and of our new for want of lodging perished. The Empercur Powhatan each wéeke once or twice sent me many presents of Deare, bread Raugroughcuns, halfe alwayes for my father, whom he much desired to sée, and halfe for me: and so continually importuned by messengers and presents, that I would come to fetch the corne, and take the Countrie their King had giuen me, as at last Captaine Newport resolued to go see him. Such acquaintance I had amongst the Indians,and such confidence they had in me, as neare the Fort they would not come till I came to them, euery of them calling me by my name, would not sell any thing till I had first receiued their presents, and what Page  [unnumbered] they had that I liked, they deferred so my discresion: but after acquaintance, they vsually came into the Fort at their plea∣sure: The President, and the rest of the Councell, they kenew not, but Captaine Newports greatnesse I had so described, as they conceyued him the chiefe, the rest his children, Officers, and seruants. We had agreed with yt king of Paspahegh to conduct two of our men to a place called Panawicke beyond Ronok, where he reported many men to be apparelled. Wee lended him at Warraskoyack, where playing the villaine, and delu∣ding vs for rewards, returned within thrée or foure dayes after without going further. Captaine Newport, maister Scrine∣ner, and my selfe, found the mouth of Pamauncks riuer, some 25. or 30. miles northward from Cape Henricke, the chanell good as before expressed.

Arriuing at Weramocomoca, being iealous of the intent of this politick saluage, to discouer his intent the better, I with 20. shot armed in Jacks went a shore, the Bay where he dwelleth hath in it 3. cricks, and aile and a halfe from the chanel all est, being conducter to the towne, I found my selfe mistaken in the creke, for they al there were within lesse then a mile, the Empe∣rors sonne called Naukaquawis, the captaine that looke me, and diuerse others of his chiefe men conducted me to their kings ha∣bitation, but in the mid way I was intercepted by a great créek ouer which they had made a bridge of grained stakes & ratles, the king of Kiskieck, and Namontack, who all the iourney the king had sent to guide vs, had conducted vs this passage, which caused me to suspect some mischiefe: the barge I had sent to méet me at the right lanting, when I found my selfe first deceyued, and knowing by experience the most of their courages to pro∣céede from others feare, though fewe lyked the passage, I in∣termingled the Kings sonne, our conductors, and his chiefe men amongst ours, and led forward, leauing halfe at the one ende to make a guard for the passage of the Front. The Indians seeing the weakenesse of the Bridge, came with a Canow, and tooke me in of the middest with foure or flue more, bring landed wee made a guard for the rest till all were passed, two in Page  [unnumbered] a ranke we marched to the Emperors house. Before his house stood fortie or fiftie great Platters of fine bread, being entred the house, with loude tunes they all made signes of great ioy. This proude saluags, hauing his finest women, and the principall of his chiefe men assemble, sate in rankes as before is expressed, himselfe as vpon a Throne at the vpper ende of the house, with such a Maiestie as I cannot expresse, nor yet haue often seene, either in Pagan or Christian, with a kinde countenance hee has ••ce welcome, and caused a place to bee made by himselfe to sit, I presented him a sute of red cloath, a white Greyhound, and a Hatte, as Jewels he estéemed them, and with a great Oration made by thrée of his Nobles, if there be any amongst Saluages, kindly accepted them, with a publike confirmation of a perpetuall league and friendship.

After that, he commaunded the Quéen of Apamatuc, a comely yong Saluage, to giue water water, a Turkie-cocke, and breade to eate: being thus feasted, hee began his discourse to this purpose. Your kinde visitation doth much content mee, but where is your father whom I much desire to see, is he not with you. I told him he remained aboord, but the next day he would come vnto him, with a merrie coūtenance he asked me for certaine péeces I which promised him, when I went to Paspa∣hegh, I told according to my promise, that I proffered the man that went with me foure 〈◊〉 Coluerings, in that he so desi∣red a great Gunne, but they re••sed to take them, whereat with alowde laughter, he desired to giue him some of lesse burthen, as for the other I gaue him them, being sure that none could carrie them: but where are these men you promised to come with you, I told him without, who thervpon gaue order to hau them brought in, two after two, euer mainteining the guard without. And as they presented themselues euer with thankes, he would sainte me, and caused each of them to haue foure or fiue pound of bread giuen them. This done, I asked him for the corne and ground he promised me He told me I should haue it, but he expected to haue all these men lay their armes at his féet, as did his subiects. I tolde him that was a ceremonie our ene∣mies Page  [unnumbered] desired, but neuer our Friends, as we presented our selues vnto him, yet that he should 〈◊〉 doubt of our friend∣ship: the next day my Father would giue him a child of is, in full assurance of our loues, and not only that, but when he should thinke it conuenient, wée would deliuer vnder his subiection the Country of Manacam and Pocoughao∣nack his enemies.

This so contented him, as immediatly with attentiue si∣lence, with a lowd oration he proclaimed me Awerowanes of Powhaton, and that all his subiects should so estéeme vs, and no man account vs strangers nor Paspaheghans, but Powhatans, and that the Corne, weomen and Country, should be to vs as to his owne people: this proffered kind∣nes for many reasons we contemned not, but with the best Languages and signes of thankes I could expresse, I tooke my leaue.

The King rising from his seat, conducted me foorth, and caused each of my men to haue as much more bread as hée could beare: giuing me some in a basket, & as much he sent a board for a present to my Father: victuals you must know is all there wealth, and the greatest kindnes they could shew vs: arriuing at the Riuer, the Barge was fallen so low with the ebbe, though I had giuen order and oft sent to preuent the same, yet the messengers deceiued mée, the Skies being very thicke and rainie, the King vnderstanding this mis∣chance, sent his Sonne and Mamontacke, to conduct mée to a great house sufficient to lodge mée, where entring I saw it hung round with bowes and arrowes.

The Indians vsed all diligence to make vs fires, & giue vs content: the kings Orators presently entertained vs with a kinde oration, with expresse charge that not any should steale, or take out bowes or arrowes, or offer any iniury.

Presently after he sent me a quarter of Venizon to slay my stomacke: in the euening hée sent for mee to come onely Page  [unnumbered] with two shot with me: the company I gue order to stand vpon their guard, & to maintaine two sentries at the ports all night. To my supper he set before me meate for twenty men, & seeing I could not eate, hee caused it to be giuen to my men: for this is a generall custome, that what they giue, not to take againe, but you most either eate it, giue it away, or carry it with you: two or thrée houres we spent in our a••∣ent discourses, which done, I was with a fire stick lighted to my lodging.

The next day the King conducting mée to the Riuer, shewed me his Canawes, and described vnto me how hée sent them ouer the Baye, for tribute Beades: and also what Countries paide him Beads, Copper or 〈◊〉. But séeing Captaine Nuport, and Maister Scriuener, comming a shore, the King retuned to his house, and I went to meete him, with a trumpet before him, wée marched to the King: who after his old manner kindly receiued him, especially a Boy of thirtéen yeeres old, called Thomas Saluage, whom he gaue him as his Sanne: he requited this kindnes with each of vs a great basket of Beanes, and entertaining him with the former discourse, we passed away that day, and a∣gréed to bargaine the next day, and so returned to our Pin∣nis: the next day comming shore in like order, the king hauing kindly entertained vs with a breakfast, questioned with vs in this manner.

Why we came armed in that sort, séeing hée was our friend, and had neither bowes nor arrowes, what did wée doubt? I told him it was the custome of our Country, not doubting of his kindnes any waies, wherewith though hée séemed satisfied, yet Captaine Nuport caused all our men to retire to the water side, which was some thirtie score from thence: but to preuent the worst, Maister Scriuener or I were either the one or other by the Barge, experience had wll taught me to beléeue his friendship, till conuenient op∣portunity suffed him to betrey vs, but quickly this politi∣tian Page  [unnumbered] had perceiued my absence, and unningly sent for mée; I sent for Maister Scriuener to supply my place, the King would demaund for him, I would againe relée•• him, and they sought to satisfie our suspition with kind Language, and not being agréed to trade for corne, hée desired to sée all our Hatchets and Copper together, for which he would giue vs corne, with that auncient trick the Chick ahamaniens had oft acquainted me: his offer I refused, offering first to sée what hée would giue for one piece, hée séeming to despise the nature of a Merchant, did scorne to sell, but we freely should giue him, and he liberally would requite vs.

Captaine Nuport would not with lesse then twelue great Coppers try his kindnes, which he liberally requited with as much corne as of Chickahmania, I had for one of lesse proportion: our Hatchets hée would also haue at his owne rate, for which kindnes ée much séemed to affect Captaine Nuport, some few bunches of blew Beades I had, which he much desired, and seeing so few, he off••d me a basket of two pecks, and that which I drew to be thrée pecks at the least, and yet séemed contented and desired more: I agréed with him the next day for two bushells, for y ebbe now constrai∣ned vs to returne to our Boate, although he earnestly vesi∣ed vs to stay dinner which was a prouiding, and being rea∣dy he sent aboard after vs, which was bread and venizon, sufficient for fiftie or sixtie persons.

The next day hee sent his Sonne in the morning not to bring a shore with vs any pieces, least his weomen and chil∣dren should fears. Captaine Nuports good beliefe would haue satisfied that request, yet twentie or twentie five shot we got a shore: the King in portuning mée to leave my armes aboard, much misliking my sword, pistol and target, I told him the man that slew my Brother with the like tearmes had perswaded me, and being vnarmed shot at vs, and so betraide vs.

He oft entreated Captaine Nuport that his men might Page  [unnumbered] leane their armes, which still hée commanded to the water side, this day we spent in trading for blew Beads, and ha∣uing neare straighted our Barge.

Captaine Nuport returned with them that came abord, hauing me and Maister Scriuener a shore, to follow in Ca∣nowes; into one I got with sixe of our men, which béeing lanhed a stones cast from the shore stuck fast in the Ose: Maister Scriuener séeing this example, with seuen or eight more passed the dreadfull bridge, thinking to haue found déeper water on the other cr••ke, but they were in forced to stay with such entertainment as a saluage, being forced a∣shore with wind and raine, hauing in his Canow, as com∣monly they haue, his house and houshold, instantly seeing 〈◊〉 vp a house of mats which succoured them from the storme. 〈◊〉

The Indians seeing 〈◊〉 pestred in the Ose, called to me, sixe or seuen of the Kings chiefs men threw off their skins, and to the middle in Ose came to bear me out on their heads, their import••acie caused me better to like the Canow then their curtese, excusing my deniall for feare to fall into the Ose, desiring them to bring me some w••d, fire, and mats, to couer me, and I would content them: each presently gaue his helpe to satisfie my request, which paines a horse would scarce haue indured, yet a couple of bells richly contented them.

The Emperors sent his Seaman Mantiuas in the eue∣ning with bread and victuall for me and my men, he no more scrip•••s then the rest séemed to take a pride in shewing how 〈◊〉 he regarded that miserable cold and drty passage, though a dggs would scarce haue indured it, this kindnes I found, when I litle expected lesse then a mischiefs, but the black night parting our companies, ere midnight the 〈◊〉 serued to carry vs aboard: the next day we came a∣shore, the King with a solemne discourse causing all to de∣part, but his principall men, and this was the effect, when as hée perceiued that we had a desire to inuade Monacum, a∣gainst Page  [unnumbered] whom he was no professed enemy, yet thus farre hée would assist vs in this enterprise: First hée would send his spies, perfectly to vnderstand their strength and ability o fight, with which he would acquaint vs himselfe.

Captaine Nuport would not be séene in it himselfe, be∣ing great Werowances, they would stay at home, but I, Maister Scriuener, and two of his Sonnes, and Opechan∣kanough. The King of Pamaunke should haue 100. of his men to goe before as though they were hunting, they giuing vs notise where was the aduantage we should kill them, the wcomen and young children he wished we should spare, & bring them to him, only 100. or 150. of our men he held sufficient for this exploit: our boats should stay at the falls, where we might hew timber, which we might conuey each man a piece till we were past the stones, and there ioyne them, to passe our men by water, if any were shot, his men should bring them backe to our boats, this faire tale had almost made Captaine Nuport vndertake, by this meanes to discouer the South sea, which will not be with∣out trecherie, if wée ground our intent vpon his constan∣cie.

This day we spent in trading, dancing, and much mirth, the King of Pamaunke sent his messenger, as yet not know∣ing Captaine Nuport, to come vnto him: who had long expected mée, desiring also my Father to visite him: the messenger stayed to conduct vs, but Powhatan vnderstan∣ding that we had Hatchets lately come from Paspahegh, desired the next day to trade with vs, and not to go fur∣ther.

This new tricke he cunningly pot vpon him, but onely to haue what hee listed, and to try whether we would go or stay, Opechankeoughs messenger returned that wée would not come: the next day his Daughter came to entreat me, shewing her Father had hurt his legge, and much sor∣rowed he could not see me.

Page  [unnumbered] Captaine Nuport being not to bée perswaded to goe in, that Powhatan had desired vs to stay: sent her away with the like answer, yet the next day vpon better consideration intreatie preailed, and wée anchored at Cinquoateck, the first waine aboue the parting of the riuer, where dwelled two Kings of Pamaunke, Brothers to Powhatan: the one called Opitchapam, the other Katatough, to these I went a shore, who kindly intreated mée and Maister Scriuener, sending some presents aboard to CaptainNuport, whilst we were trucking with these Kings.

Opechankanough his wife, weomen, and children came to méete me with a naturall kind affection, hée séemed to reioyce to sée me.

Captaine Nuport came a shore, with many kind dis∣courses wée passed that foren••ne: and after di••er, Cap∣taine Nuport went about with the Pinnis to Menapacant which is twenty miles by water, and not one by land: O∣pechankanough, conducted me and Maister Scriuener by land, where hauing built a feasting house a purpose to en∣tertaine vs with a kind Oralin, after their manner and his best prouision, kindly welcomed vs, that day he would not trucks, but did his best to delight vs with content: Cap∣taine Nuport arriued towards euening, whom the King presented with sixe great platters of fiue bread, and Pansa∣owm••a, the next day till none wée traded: the King feasted all the company, and the afternoone was spent in playing, dauncing, and delight, by no meanes hée would haue vs depart till the next day, he had feasted vs with veni∣on, for which he had sent, hauing spent his first and second prouision in expecting out comming: the next day he perfor∣med his promise, giuing more to vs three, then would haue sufficed 30. and in that we carried not away what we le••, hée sent it after vs to the Pinnis, with what words or signes of loue he could expresse, we departed.

Captaine. Nuport in the Pinnis, leauing mée in the Page  [unnumbered] Barge to digge a rocke, where wée supposed a Mine at Cinquaoreck, which done, ere midnight I arriued at We∣racmco, where our Pinnis anchored, bing 20. miles from Cinquaoecke, the next day we tooke leaue of Pow∣hatan, who in regard of his kindnes gaue him an Indian, he will affected to goe with him for England in stéed of his Sonne, y cause I assure me was to know our strength and Countries condition: y next day we arriued at Kiskiack, the people so scornefully entertained vs, as with what signes of scorne and discontent we could, we departed and returned to our Fort with 250. bushells of Corne, our president be∣ing not wholy recouered of his sicknes, in discharging, his Piece brake and split his hand off, which he is not yet well recouered.

At Captaine Nuports arriuall, wée were victualled for twlue wéekes, and hauing furnished him of what hée thought good, hée set saile for England the tenth of Aprill: Maister Scriuener and my selfe with our shallop, accom∣panied him to Captaine Hendrick.

Powhatan hauing for a farrewell, sent him fiue or sixe mens loadings, with Torkeyes for swords, which hée sent him in our return to yort: we discouered the 〈◊〉 of Nau∣samd, a proud warlike Nation, as well we may testified, at our first arriuall at Chesiapiack: but that iniury Cap∣taine Nuport well reuenged at his returne, where some of them ini••ng him to their 〈◊〉 by a dance, hee perceiuing their intent, with a vally of musket that, slew one, and shot one or two more, as themselues confesse, the King at our ariuall sent for me to come vnto him: I sent him word what commodities I had to exchange for wheat, and if he would as had the rest of his Neighbours, conclude a Peace, we were contented, at last he came downe before the Boate which rid at anchor some fortie yards from y shore, he signified to me to come a shore, and sent a Canow with foure or fiue of his men, two whereof I desired to come a∣board Page  [unnumbered] & to stay, & I would send two to talke with their King a shore, to this hée agréed: the King wée presented with a piece of Copper, which he kindly excepted, and sent for vic∣tualls to entertaine the messengers.

Maister Scriuener and my selfe also, after that went a shore: the King kindly feasted vs, requesting vs to stay to trade till the next day, which hauing done, we returned to the Fort, this riuer is a musket shot broad, each side being should bayes, a narrow channell but three fdom, his course for eightéene miles, almost directly South, and by West, where beginneth the first inhabitants, for a mile it turneth directly East, towards the West, a great bay and a white chaukie Iland, conuenient for a Fort: his next course South, where within a quarter of a mile, the riuer diuideth in two, the neck a plaine high Corne field, the wester bought a high plaine likewise, the Northeast answerable in all res∣pects: in these plaines are planted aboundance of houses and people, they may containe 1000. Acres of most excel∣lent fertill ground, so sweéete, so pleasant, so beautifull, and so strong a prospect, for an inuincible strong Citty, with so many commodities, that I know as yet I haue not seene: This is within one deies iourney of Chawwonocke, the riuer falleth into the Kings riuer, within twelue miles of Cape-hendicke.

At our Fort, the ooles we had were so ordinarily stolen by the Indians, as necessity inforced vs to correct their bra∣uing théeuerie: for he that stol to day, durst came againe the next day. One amongst the rest, hauing stolen two swords, I got the Counsels consent to set in the bilboes: the next day with three more, he came with their woodden swords in the midst of our men to steale, their custome is to take any thing they can ceaze off, onely the people of Pa∣maunke, wee haue not found stealing: but what others can steale, their King receiueth.

I had them depart, but flourishing their swords, they Page  [unnumbered] séemed to defend what they could catch but out of our hands, his pride vrged me to turne him from amongst vs, whereat he offred to strike me with his sword, which I pre∣uented, striking him first: the rest effing to reuenge the blow, receiued suck an incounter, and sled; the better to affright them, I pursued them with fiue or sixe shot, and so chased them out of the Iland: the beginning of this broyle, litle expecting by his carriage, we durst haue resisted, hauing euen till that present, not béene contradicted, especially them of Paspahegh: these Indians within one houre, hauing by other Saluages, then in the Fort, vnderstood that I threat∣ned to be reuenged, came presently of themselues, and fell to working vpon our wears, which were then in hand by o∣ther Saluages, who séeing their pride so incountred, were so so submissiue, and willing to doe any thing as might be, and with trembling feare, desired to be friends within thrée daies after: From Nawsamond which is 30. miles from vs, the King sent vs a Hatchet, which they had stollen from vs at our being there: the messenger as is the custome, also wée well rewarded and contented.

The twenty of Aprill, being at worke, in hewing downe Trees, and setting Corne, an alarum caused vs with all speede to take our armes, each expecting a new assault of the Saluages: but vnderstanding it a Boate vnder saile, our doubts were pr••ently satisfied, with the happy sight of Maister Nelson, his many perrills of extreame stormes and tempests. His ship well, as his company could testifie his care in sparing our prouision, was well: but the proui∣dence thereof, as also of our stones, Hatchets, and other fooles, onely ours excepted, which of all the rest was most necessary, which might inforce vs, to think either a seditious traitor to our action, or a most vnconscionable deceiuer of our treasures. This happy arriuall of Maister Nelson in the Phenix, hauing beene then about thrée monethes mis∣sing, after Captaine Nuports arriuall, being to all our ex∣pectations Page  [unnumbered] lost: albeit, that now at the last, hauing béene long crossed with tempestous weather, and contrary winds, his so vnexpected comming, did so rauish vs with ex∣ceeding ioy, that now we thought our selues as well filled, as our harts could wish, both with a competent number of men, as also for all other néedfull prouisions, till a further supply should come vnto vs: whereupon the first thing that was concluded, was, that my selfe, and Maister Scriuener, should with 70. men goe with the best meanes we could prouide, to discouer beyond the Falls, as in our iudgements conueniently we might: sixe or seauen daies we spent only in trayning, our men to march, fight, and scirwish in the woods, their willing minds to this action, so quickned their vnderstanding in this exercise, as in all iudgements wée were better able to fight with Powhatans whole force: in our order of battle amongst the Trées, (for Thicks there is few) then the Fort was to rep••s 400. at the first assult, with some tenne or twenty shot, not knowing what to doe, nor how to vse a Piece: our warrant being saled, Maister Nelson refused to 〈◊〉 vs with the voluntary Marriners, and himselfe as be promised, vnlesse we would stand bound to pay the hire for shippe, and Marriners, for the time they stayed: and further there was some controuersie, through the diuersitie of Contrary opinions, some alleadging, that how profitable, and to what good purpose soeuer our iour∣ney should portend, yet our commission, commanding no certaine designe, we should be taxed for the most indiscréete men in the world, besides the wrong we should doe to Cap∣taine Nuport, to whom only all discoueries did belong, and 〈◊〉 no other: the meanes for guides, beside the vncertaine courses of the riuer, from which we could not erre much, each night would fortifie vs in two houres, better then that they first called the Fort, their Townes vpon the riuer, each within one dayes iourney of other, besides our ordinary prouision, might well be suppsed to adde reliefe: for truck Page  [unnumbered] & dealing only, but in loue & peace, as wt the rest; if they assal∣ted vs, their Townes they cannot defend, nor their lnggage to conuey, that we should not share, but admit the worst, 16. daies prouision we had of Ch••se, Otmeale, and b••ket be∣sides our randnous, we could and might haue hid in the ground. With sixe men, Captaine Martin, would haue vn∣dertaken it himselfe, leauing the rest to defend the Fort, and plant our Corne: yet no reason could be reason, to procéed forward, though we were going aboard to set saile: These discontents caused so many doubts to some, and discourage∣ment to others, as our iourney ended: yet some of vs pro∣cured petitions to set vs forward, only with hope o our owne confusions, our next course was to turne husband∣men, to fell Trées and set Corne. Fiftie of our men, we im∣ployed in this seruice, the rest kept the Fort, to doe the com∣mand of the president, and Captaine Martin, 30. dayes the ship lay expecting yt triall of certain matters, which for some cause I keepe priuate: yt next exploit was an Indian hauing stolen an Are was so pursued by Maister Scriuener, & them next him, as he threw it downe, and flying, drew his how at any that durst incounter him: within foure or fiue dayes alter, Maister Scruener and I, being a little from the Fort, among the Corne, two Indiants, each with a codgell, and all newly painted with Trrasigillate, came circling about mée, as though they would haue clubed me like a hare: I knew their faining loue is towards me, not withort a dead∣ly hatred, but to preuent the worst, I calling maister Scriue∣ner retired to the Fort: the Indians seeing me suspect them, with good 〈◊〉, asked me for some of their men, whom they would beate, and went with me into our Fort, ••nding one that lay ordinarily with vs, only for a spie: they offered to beat him, I in perswading them to forbeare, they offered to beginne with me being now foure for two other arrayed in like manner, came in on the other side the Fort: where∣vpon I caused to shut the Ports, and apprehend them. The Page  [unnumbered] president and Counsell, being presently acquainted, remem∣bring at the first assault, they came in like manner, and ne∣uer else but against some villauie, concluded to commit them to prison, and expect the euent, eight more we ceazed at that present, an houre after came three or foure other strangers, extraordinarily fited with arrowes, sinnes, and shooting gloes, their iealousie and feare, bewrayed their bad intent, as also their suspitious departure.

The next day came first an Indian, then another as Em∣bassaors for their men, they desired to speake with me, our discourse was, that what Spades, Shouells, swords, or fooles they had staine, to bring home (if not the next day, they should hang) the next newes was, they had taken two of our men, ranging in the woods, which mischiefe no pu∣nishment will preuent bat hanging, and these they would should redeeme their owne 16. or 18. thus brauing vs to our doores, we desired the president, and Captaine Mar∣tin, that afternoone to sally vpon them, that, they might but know, what we durst to doe, and al night mand our Barge, and burnt their Townes, and spoiled, and destroyes, what we could, but they brought our men, and fréely deliuered them: the president released one, the rest we brought well guarded, to Morning and Euening prayers Our men all in armes, their trembling feare, then caused them to much sorrow, which till then scoffed, and scorned at what we durst doe, the Counsell concluded, that I should terrifle them with some torture, to know if I cold know their intent the next day I bound one in hold, to the maint Mast, and pre∣senting fire Muskets with match in the cockes, forced him to desire life, to answere my demaunds he could not, but one of his Comouodos was of the counsell of Paspahegh, that could satisfie me: I releasing him out of sight, I affrigh∣ted the other, first with the rack, then with Muskets, which séeing, he desired me to stay, and hée would confesse to this execution Maister Scriuener came, his discourse was to Page  [unnumbered] this effect, that Paspehegh, the Chickahamaniar, Youghta∣num, Pamaunka, Mattapanient, & Kiskiack. These Nati∣ons were altogether a hunting that tooke me, Paspahegh, & Chicahamanya, had entended to surprise vs at worke, to haue had our tools: Powhatan, & al his would sme friends, till Captaine Nuports returne, that he had againe his men, which he called Namontack, where with a great feast hee would so enamor Captain Nuport & his men, as they should ceaze on him, and the like traps would be laied for 〈◊〉.

This trap for our fooles, we suspected the chiefe occasion was foure daies before Powhatan〈◊〉 sent the boy he had to vs, with many Turkies to Maister Scriuener, and mée, vnderstanding I would go vp into his Countries to destroy them, and he doubled it the more, in that I so oft practised my men, whose shooting he heard to his owne lodging, that much feared his wiues, and children; we sent him word, we entended no such thing, but only to goe to Powhatan, to séeke stones to make Hatchets, except his men shoot at vs, as Paspahegh had told vs they would, which if they did shoote but one arrowe, we would destroy them, and least this mischiefe might happen, sent the boy to acquaint him thus much, and request him to send vs Weanock, one of his subiects for a guide, yt boy he returned backe with his Chest, & apparell, which then we had giuen him, desiring another for him, y cause was, he was practising with the Chikaha∣manias, as the boy suspected some vnlanie, by their extraordi∣nary resort, & secret conference 〈◊〉: whence they would send him. The boy we keepe, now we would send him many mes; sengers, & presents, the guide we desired be sent vs & with∣all requested vs to returne him, either the boy or some order, but none he could haue, & that day these Indians were ap∣prehended, his sonne with others yt had loaded at our Fort, returned & being out of the Fart, rayld on me, to 〈…〉 our 〈…〉 enemies to 〈◊〉 & to y〈…〉 after Wanock yt had 〈◊〉 with 〈…〉 kept to haue 〈…〉Page  [unnumbered] returned, and secretly after him, Amocis toe Paspaheyan, who alwaies they kept amongst vs for, 〈◊〉, whom the better to auoide suspition, presently after they came to beae away: these presumptions induced me to take any occasi∣on, not onely to try the honesty of Amocis, the spie but al∣so the meaning o these cunning crickes of their Emperour of Powhatan; whose true 〈◊〉 Captaine Ma•••n most confidently pleades.

〈…〉 of Mcano, which was the counseller of Pasp•••gh: first I then Maister 〈◊〉, vpon their seuerall examinations, ound by them all confirmed, that Paspahegh, and C•••kahammania did hate vs, and in∣tended some mischiefe, and who they were that tooke me, the names of them that stole our tooles, and swords, and that Powhatan receiued them, they all agreed: certaine vo••lies of shot we caused to be discharged, which caused each other to thinke that their fellowes had beene slaine.

Powhatan vnderstanding we detained certaine Sal∣uages, seat his Daughter, a child al tenne yeares old, which not only for feature, countenance, & proportion much excee∣deth any of the rest of his people, but for wit, and spirit, the only Nonpariel of his Country: this hee sent by his most trustie messenger, called Rawhunt, as much ex∣céeding in 〈…〉 person, but of a subtill wit, and crafty vnderstanding, he with a long circumstance, told mee, how well Powhatan, loued and respected mée, and in that I should not doubt any way of his kindnesse, e had sent his child, which he most esteemed, to see me, a Deere, and bread, besides for a present: desiring me that the Boy might come againe, which he loued exceedingly, his little Daughter hée had taught this lesson also: not taking notice at all of the Indans that had beene prisoners three daies, till that mor∣ning that she saw their fathers are friends come quietly, and in good earmes to entreate their libertie.

Opechaukanough, sent also vnto vs, that for his sake, we Page  [unnumbered] would release two that were his friends, and for a token sent me his shooting Gloue, and Bracer, which the day our men was taken vpon, 〈◊〉 himselfe from the rest a long time, intreated to speake with me, where in token of peace, he had preferred me the same: now all of them hauing found their perempsorie conditions, but to increase our ma∣lice, which they seeing vs begin to threaten to destroy them, as familiarly as before, without suspition, or feare, came a∣mongst vs, to begge libertie for their men: In the afternoone they being gone, we guarded them as before to the Church, and after prayer, gaue them to Pocahuntas, the Kings Daughter, in regard of her fathers kindnesse in sending her: after hauing well fed them, as all the time of their im∣prisonment, we gaue them their bowes, arrowes, or what else they had, and with much content, sent them packing: Pocahuntas, also we requited, with such trifles as contented her, to tel that we had vsed yt Paspaheyans very kindly in so releasing them. The next day we had suspition of some other practise for an Ambuscado, but perfectly wée could not discouer it, two daies after a Paspheyan, came to shew vs a glistering Minerall stone: and with signes de∣monstrating it to be in great aboundance, like vnto Rockes, with some dozen more, I was sent to seeke to digge some quantitie, and the Indean to conduct me: but suspecting this some tricke to delude vs, for to get some Copper of vs, or with some ambuscado to betray vs, séeing him falter in his tale, being two miles on our way, led him ashore, where abusing vs from place to place, and so seeking either to haue drawne vs with him into the 〈◊〉, or to haue giuen vs the sppe: I shewed him Copper, which I promised to haue gi∣uen him, if he had performed his promise, but for his scoffing and abusing vs, I gaue him twentie lashes with a Rope, and his bowes and arrowes, bidding him 〈◊〉 if he durst, and so let him goe.

In all this time, our men being all or the most part well Page  [unnumbered] recouered, and we not willing to trifle away more time then necessitie enforced vs vnto, we thought good for the better content of the aduenturers, in some reasonable sort to raight home Maister Nelson with Cedar wood, about which, our men going with willing minds, was in very good time effected, and the ship sent for England; wee now re∣maining being in good health, all our men wel cōtended, free from mutinies, in loue one with another, & as we hope in a continuall peace with the Indians, where we doubt not but by Gods gracious assistance, and the aduenturers willing minds, and speedie furtherance to so honorable an action in after times, to sée our Nation to enioy a Country, not onely excéeding pleasant for habitation, but also very profitable for comerce in generall, no doubt pleasing to almightie God, honourable to our gracios Soueraigne, and commodious generally to the whole Kingdome.

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