An accidence or The path-way to experience Necessary for all young sea-men, or those that are desirous to goe to sea, briefly shewing the phrases, offices, and words of command, belonging to the building, ridging, and sayling, a man of warre; and how to manage a fight at sea. Together with the charge and duty of every officer, and their shares: also the names, vveight, charge, shot, and powder, of all sorts of great ordnance. With the vse of the petty tally. Written by Captaine Iohn Smith sometimes governour of Virginia, and admirall of New England.

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An accidence or The path-way to experience Necessary for all young sea-men, or those that are desirous to goe to sea, briefly shewing the phrases, offices, and words of command, belonging to the building, ridging, and sayling, a man of warre; and how to manage a fight at sea. Together with the charge and duty of every officer, and their shares: also the names, vveight, charge, shot, and powder, of all sorts of great ordnance. With the vse of the petty tally. Written by Captaine Iohn Smith sometimes governour of Virginia, and admirall of New England.
Smith, John, 1580-1631.
London :: Printed [by Nicholas Okes] for Ionas Man, and Benjamin Fisher, and are to be sold at the signe of the Talbot, in Aldersgate streete,

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Naval art and science -- Early works to 1800.
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"An accidence or The path-way to experience Necessary for all young sea-men, or those that are desirous to goe to sea, briefly shewing the phrases, offices, and words of command, belonging to the building, ridging, and sayling, a man of warre; and how to manage a fight at sea. Together with the charge and duty of every officer, and their shares: also the names, vveight, charge, shot, and powder, of all sorts of great ordnance. With the vse of the petty tally. Written by Captaine Iohn Smith sometimes governour of Virginia, and admirall of New England." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed July 18, 2024.


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An Accidence for Young Sea-men: OR, Their Path-way to Experience.

* 1.1THE Captaines charge is to commaund all, and tell the Maister to what Port he will go, or to what height, In a fight he is to giue direction for the ma∣naging thereof, and the Maister is to see to the cunning the Ship, and trim∣ming

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the sailes.

* 1.2 The Maister and his Mate is to direct the course, commaund all the Saylors, for steering, trimming and sayling the Ship, his Mates are onely his Seconds, allowed sometimes for the two Mid∣ships men, that ought to take charge of the first prize.

* 1.3 The Pilot when they make land, doth take the charge of the Ship till he bring her to Harbour.

* 1.4 The Cape merchant and Purser hath the charge of all the Caragasoune or Merchandize, and the Purser doth keepe an Account of all that is receiued and deliuered, but a Man of Warre hath onely a Purser.

* 1.5 The Maister Gunner hath the charge of the Ordinances, Shot, Powder, Match, Ladles, Spunges, Cartrages, Armes and Fire-workes, and the rest e∣uery one to receiue his charge from him according to directions, and to giue an account of his store.

* 1.6

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The Carpenter and his Mate is to haue the Nayles, Clinches, roue and clinch-nailes, spikes, plates, rudder-irons, called pintels and gudgions, pumpe-nailes, skupper-nailes and lea∣ther, sawes, files, hatchets and such like, and euer ready for calking, breaming, stopping leakes, fishing or spliceing the Masts or Yards, as occasion requi∣reth, and to giue an account of his store.

* 1.7The Boteswaine is to haue the charge of all the Cordage, tackling, sailes, fids, and marling spikes, needles, twine, and saile-cloth, and rigging the shippe, his Mate the command of the long boate, for the setting forth of Anchors, way∣ing and fetching home an Anchor, warping, towing, and moreing, and to giue an account of his store.

* 1.8The Chirurgion is exempted from all duty but to attend the sicke, and cure the wounded, and good care Would be

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had, he haue a certificate from the Bar∣ber-surgions Hall of his sufficiency, and also that his Chest bee well furnished both for Physicke and Chyrurgery, and so neere as may bee proper for that clime you goe for, which neglect hath beene the losse of many a mans life.

* 1.9 The Marshall is to punish offendors, and to see Iustice executed according to directions, as ducking at Yards arme, hawling vnder the Keele, bound to the Capsterne, or maine Mast with a bas∣ket of shot about his necke, setting in the bilbowes, and to pay the Cobty or the Morryoune. But the Boyes, the Boteswaine is to see euery Munday at the chist to say their Compasse, which done, they are to haue a quarter can, and a bisket of bread.

* 1.10 The Corporall is to see the setting and releeuing the watch, and see all the souldiers and saylors keepe their Armes cleane, neate and yare, and teach them their vse.

* 1.11

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The Steward is to deliuer out the vi∣ctuall, according to the Captaines di∣rections, and messe them 4, 5, or 6, as there is occasion.

* 1.12The quarter Maisters hath the charge of the hold for stowage, rommageing, and trimming the shippe, and of their squadrons for their Watch, a Sayne, a Fisgigg, a Harping iron, Fish-hookes, for Porgos, Bonetos, or Dorados, &c. and rayling lines for Mackerell.

* 1.13The Cowper is to looke to the caske, hoopes and twigges, to staue or repaire the buckets, Baricoes, Cans, steepe-tubs, runlets, hogsheads, pipes, buts, &c. for wine, beere, syder, beuerage, fresh water, or any liquor.

* 1.14The Coxswaine is to haue a choyce to attend the Skiffe to go to and againe as occasion commandeth.

* 1.15The Cooke is to dresse and deliuer out the Victuall, he hath his store of quarter cans, small cannes, platters, spoones, lanthornes, &c. and is to giue

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his account of the remainder.

* 1.16 The Swabber is to wash and keepe cleane the ship and maps.

* 1.17 The Lyer is to holde his place but for a weeke, and hee that is first taken with a lye, euery Monday is so proclai∣med at the maine Mast by a generall cry, A lyer, a lyer, a lyer, he is vnder the Swabber, and onely to keepe cleane the beake-head and chaines.

* 1.18 The Saylers are the antient men for hoysing the sailes, getting the tackes a∣boord, hawling the Bow-lines, and steering the ship.

* 1.19 The Younkers are the yong men cal∣led Fore-mast men, to take in the Top∣sayles, or Top and yeard, Furle, and Sling the maine Saile, Bousing or Try∣sing, and take their turne at Helme.

* 1.20 The Lieuetenant is to associate the Captaine, and in his absence to execute his place, he is to see the Marshall and Corporall doe their duties, and assist them in instructing the Souldiers, and

Page 7

in a fight the Forecastle is his place, to make good, as the Captaine doth the halfe decke, and the quarter Maisters, and mid-ships men, but in the States men of Warre he is allowed as necessa∣ry as a Lieuetenant on shore.

* 1.21When you set sayle and put to sea, the Captaine is to call vp the company, and the one halfe to goe to the Starre∣boord, the other to the Larboord, as they are chosen, the Maister chusing first one, then his mate another, and so forward till they bee deuided in two parts, then each man is to chuse his Mate, Consort, or Comrado, then de∣uide them into squadrons according to your numbers and burthen of your ship: but care would be had, that there be not two Comorados vpon one watch, because they may haue the more roome in their Cabons to rest.

To giue a true Arithmeticall and Geo∣metricall proportion for the building of ships, were they all built after one

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mould, as also of their Yeards, Masts, Cables, Cordage and Sayles, were all the stuffe of like goodnesse, a methodi∣call rule might bee Proiected, but it would bee too curious for this Dis∣course, and as much too troublesome either for the Reader or Author, but the principall names of the timbers a∣bout the building of a ship, according to his vnderstanding followeth, and how being framed they are fixed.

* 1.22First lay the Keele, the Stemme, and Starne, in a dry docke, or vppon the stockes, and binde them with good knees, then lay all the Flore timbers, and cut your Limber holes aboue the keele, to bring the water to the well for the pumpe. Next your Nauell tim∣bers, and bind them all with sixe foote Skarfe at the least, the Garbell strake is the outside plancke next the keele, be sure you haue a good sufficient Kelson, and then plancke your outside and in∣side vp, with your Top timbers, but the

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lengthes, breadthes, depthes, rakes and burdens are so variable and different, that nothing but experience can possi∣bly teach it.

* 1.23A Shippe of 400, Tunnes requires a planke of foure inches, 300. Tunnes three inch, small Ships two inch, but none lesse. For clamps, middle bands and sleepers, they be all of 6. inch planke for binding within. The rest for the sparring vp of the workes of square 3. inch planke; Lay the beames of the Or∣lope, if the be 400. Tunnes at ten foote deepe in howle, and all the beames to be bound with two knees at each ende, and a stardard knee at euery beames end vpon the Orlope, all the Orlope to be layd with square three inch plancke, and all the planckes to be treenailed to the beames.

Sixe foote would bee betweene the beames of the Decke and Orlope, and ten ports on each side vpon the lower Orlope, all the binding betweene them

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should be with three inch, or two inch plancke, and the vpper Decke should be layd with so many beames as are fit∣ting with knees to bind them; laying that Decke with spruce deale of 30. foot long, the sap cut off, and two inches thicke, for it is better then any other.

Then for the Captaines Cabben or great Cabben, the stearage, the halfe Decke, the round house, the Fore-castle and to binde an ende with a Capsterne and all things fitting for the Sea, the Smiths worke, the caruing, ioyning, and painting excepted, are the principall things I remember to be obserued, for a Charter-party betwixt the Merchant, the Maister and the Owner, you haue Presidents of all sorts in most Scriue∣ners shops.

* 1.24 A dry Docke, the stockes, the keele, the steme, the sterne, the starne-post, the flowre, the sleepers, rising timbers, garble strake, her rake, the fore reach, plankes, bindings, knees, boults, truni∣ons,

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brasers, riders, the Orlope, the ports, the bend, the bowe, the hawse, the hawses, the decke, the partners, a flush decke, fore and aft, the ram heads, the Knights, a halfe decke, a quarter decke, the bulke, the bulkes head, the skuttle, the hatches, the hatches way, the holes in the commings, pitch, tarre, rosen, okum, calking. In the stearage roome, the whip, the bittakell, the tra∣uas boord, the Compasse, the Fly, the needle, the lanthorne, the socket. About the Gun-roome, the Tiller, the rudder, the pintels, the gudgions, the bread-roome, the ships runne. The powder-roome, the Stewards roome, the cooke roome, the great cabbon, the gallery, a cabben, a hanging cabben, a Hamacke, the lockers, the round-house, the coun∣ter, the wayst, the wayst-boords, the gunwayle, stations for the nettings, a chaine through the stations, or breft-ropes.

* 1.25The Pumpe, the pumpes well, the

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pumpes brake, the pumpes can, the pumpes chaine, the spindle, the boxe, the clap, the pumpe is choaked, the pumpe suckes, the ship is stanche.

* 1.26 The forecastle, or prow, the beake-head, the bits, the fish-hooke, a loufe hooke, and the blot at the Dauids ende, the Cat, Cats head and Cats holes, the ships draught.

* 1.27 The boule spret, the pillow, the stur∣rop, the spret sayle, the spret sayle yeard, the spret sayle top mast; the spret sayle top sayle yard, the foremast, the fore yard, the fore top, the fore top mast, the fore top sayle yard, the fore top gal∣lant mast, the fore top gallant sayle yeard, coates and wouldings for all masts and yeards, Grummets and sta∣ples for all yeards. The trussell trees or crosse trees, the maine mast, the step in the kelson, where it puts its heele, as doth also the fore mast, the maine yard, the maine top, the maine top mast, the maine top sayle yeard, the top gallant

Page 13

mast, the maine top gallant sayle yeard, the truck, or flagge staffe. The misen, the misen yeard, the misen top mast, the misen top sayle yeard, in great ships they haue two misens, the latter is cal∣led the boneauentuer misen, then the poope, Lanthorne and flagge staffe: when a mast is borne by the boord, they make a Iury-mast, which is made with yards, rouftrees, or what they can, splised or fished together.

* 1.28The Capsterne, the pawle, the whelps, the capsterne bars, a Ieare cap∣sterne is onely in great ships to hoyse their sayles, the can hookes, slings and parbunkels, ports and ringbolts and hooks, the skuppers, the skupper holes, the chaines, the steepe tubs, an entring ladder or cleats, a boy, a can boy, a ship cranke sided, Iron sicke, spewes her okum, a leake ship, the sheathing, fur∣ring, carrying, washing and breaming, lanching, caruing, guilding and pain∣ting a ship, ballast, kintlage, canting

Page 14

coynes, standing coynes, roufe trees, a grating, netting or false decke for your close fights.

* 1.29The entring rope, the boate rope, the bucket rope, the boy rope, guest rope, the cat rope, the port ropes, the keele rope, the rudder rope, the top ropes, the bolt ropes, the brest ropes are now out of vse, the water line is.

* 1.30 The tacklings are the fore stay, the maine stay. The tackles, the mison stay, the collers, the maine shrouds and chaines, the maine top shroudes, the fore shroud, the fore top shroud, the swifters, the mison shroudes, the mison top shroudes, and their rat∣lings, and the parels to all masts, the maine hallyards, the maine top sayle hallyards, the top gallant saile halyards, the fore hallyards, the fore top sayle hallyard, the misen hallyard, and the spret sayle hallyeard, the horse, the maine sheats, the maine top sayle sheats, the maine braces, the maine top sayle

Page 15

braces, the maine bowling and bridles, the maine top sayle bowlin, the bunt lines, the trusses, the lifts, the earring, the cat harpings; a Ieare, leatch lines; the Robins, garnit, Clow garnits, tyes, martlits, the most of all these are also belonging to the fore-mast, misen and bowlespret, and hath the same denomi∣nation after their masts, only the boule∣spret hath no bowlines, and the misen sheats, are called the starne sheats, they haue all of them pullies, blockes, shi∣uers and dead mens eyes, Lanyeards, caskets and crowes feete. A snap blocke is seldom vsed but in heauing of goods and ordinances.

There is also diuerse other small cordage, as head lines, the knaulings gassits or furling lines, marlines, rop yearne, Caburne, Sinnet, paunches and such like.

The Cables, hawsers or streame cables, are most vsed in the water by the Anchors, when they are too short,

Page 16

they shoote one into another when they are galled or breake, they splice them, when that way vnseruiceable, they serue for Iunkes, fendors and bra∣ded plackets for brests of defence, and then as the rest of the ouerworne tack∣ling: for rope yarne, caburne, sinnit an okum, sheeps feet is a stay in setling a top mast, and a guie in staying the tackles when they are charged with goods.

* 1.31 The Anchor hath a stocke, a ring, a shanke, a flouke, the greatest in euery ship is called the sheat Anchor, the rest Anchors, a streame Anchor, graplings or kedgers, bend your cables to your Anchors.

* 1.32 The maine sayle, the fore sayle cal∣led sometimes the fore course, the maine course or a paire of courses, each of them hath a bonnet and a drabler, the maine top sayle, the top gallant sayle, and in a faire gaile your studding sayles, then your mison, your misen

Page 17

top sayle, your spret sayle, and spret sayle top sayle, a drift sayle, a crosiack, a netting sayle, twyne, a munke seame, a round seame, a suite of sayles, a shift of sayles, top Armours, wayst clothes, pendants and colours.

* 1.33A channell, a bay, a rode, a sound, an offen, a coue, a crike, a riuer, cleere ground, very fast ground, or good an∣choring, foule ground, osie ground, sandy ground, clay ground, a head∣land; a furland, a ketch; a land marke.

* 1.34A calme, a brese, a fresh gaile, a plea∣sant gayle, a stiffe gayle, it ouerblowes, a gust, a storme, a spoute, a loumegaile, an eddy wind, a flake of wind, a Tur∣nado, a mouthsoune, a Herycano.

* 1.35A calme sea, becalmed, a rough sea, an ouergrowne sea, the rut of the sea, roaring of the sea, it flowes, quarter floud, high water, or a still water, a full sea, a spring tide, ebbe, a quarter ebbe, halfe ebbe, three quarters ebbe, a lowe water, a dead low water, a nepe tide, a

Page 18

shoule, a ledge of rockes, a breach, a shallow water, deepe water, soundings, fdome by the marke, 3 0d. and a shaftment lest. 4 0d. disimboage, a gulph, the froth of the sea.

* 1.36 Starbord is the right hand, Larbord is the left, starboord the helme, right your helme a loufe, keepe your loufe, come no neere, keepefull, stidy, so you goe well, port, warre, no more; beare vp the helme, goe roumy, beyare at the helme, a fresh man at the helme.

* 1.37 A sayle, how stands she, to wind ward or leyward, set him by the Compasse, he stands right a head; or on the wea∣ther bow, or ley bow, out with all your sayles, a stydy man to the helme, sit close to keep her stydie. Giue chase or fetch him vp, he holds his owne, no we gather on him, out goeth his flag and pendance or streames, also his Colours, his wast-clothes and top armings, he furles and slings his maine saile, in goes his spret sayle and misen, he makes rea∣dy

Page 19

his close fights fore and after; well, we shall reach him by and by. What is all ready? Yea, yea. Euery man to his charge, Dowse your top sayle, salute him for the sea; Hale him: whence your ship, of Spayne, whence is yours, of England, are you Merchants or Men of Warre, We are of the Sea. He wayses vs to leyward for the King of Spaine, and keepes his loufe. Giue him a chase peece, A broad side, and runne a head, make ready to tacke about, giue him your sterne peeces, be yare at helme, hale him with a noyse of Trumpets. We are shot through and through, and betweene winde and water, trye the pumpe. Maister let vs breathe and re∣fresh a little, sling a man ouer-boord to stop the leake, done, done, is all ready againe, Yea, yea: beare vp close with him, with all your great and small shot charge him; Boord him on his wether quarter, lash fast your graplins and sheare off, then runne stemlins the

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mid ships. Boord and boord, or thwart the hawse; we are foule on each other: The ships on fire; Cut any thing to get cleere, and smother the fire with wet clothes, We are cleere, and the fire is out, God be thanked. The day is spent, let vs consult. Surgion looke to the wounded, wind vp the slaine, with each a waight or bullet at his head and feete, giue three peeces for their fune∣rals. Swabber make cleane the shippe. Purser record their names; Watch bee vigilant to keepe your berth to wind∣ward: and that wee loose him not in the night. Gunners spunge your Or∣dinances; Souldiers skower your pee∣ces; Carpenters about your leakes. Boteson and the rest, repaire the sayles and shroudes. Cooke see you obserue your directions against the morning watch. Boy, Holla Maister, Holla, Is the kettleboyled, yea, yea, Boteswaine, call vp the men to Prayer and Break∣fast.

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Boy fetch my celler of Bottles, a health to you all fore and afte, courage my hearts for a fresh charge: Maister lay him a bord loufe for loufe; Mid ships men see the tops and yeards well maned with stones and brasse bals, to enter them in the shrouds, and every squadron else at their best aduantage, sound Drums and Trumpets, and St. George for England

They hang out a flag of truse, stand in with him, hale him a mayne, a base or take in his flagge, strike their sayles and come aboard, with the Captaine, Purser, and Gunner, with your Com∣mission, Cocket, or bills of loading: out goes their Boate, they are lanched from the Ship side, Entertayne them with a generall cry, God saue the Cap∣tayne, and all the Company, with the Trumpets sounding, examine them in particuler, and then conclude your conditions with feasting, freedome, or punishment, as you finde occasion;

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other wayes if you surprize him or en∣ter perforce, you may stow the men, rifle, pillage, or sacke, and crye a prize.

To call a Councell in a Fleete: there is the Councell of Warre, and the com∣mon Councell, which hangs their flags out in the mayne shrouds, or the misen.

Nor betweene two Navies they use often, especially in a Harbour or rode, where they are at anchor, to fill olde Barkes with pitch, tar, trayne oyle, lin∣sed oyle, brimstone, rosen, reedes, and dry wood and sutets combustable things, sometimes they linke three or foure together, towed together in the night, and put a drift as they finde oc∣casion. To passe a Fort, some will make both shippe and sayles all blacke, but if the Fort keepe but a fire on the other side, and all their peeces poynt blanke with the fire, if they discharge, what is betwixt them and the fire, the shot will

Page 27

hit, if the rule be truely observed. To conclude, there is as many stratagims, advantages, and inventions to be vsed, as you finde occasions, and therefore experiences must be the best Tutor.

* 1.38Bend your passerado to the mayne-sayle, git the sailes to the yeards, about your geare on all hands, hoyse your sayles, halfe mast high, make ready to set sayle, crosse your yeards, bring your Cable to the capsterne. Boatswaine fetch an Anchor aboord, break ground, or way Anchor, heaue a head, men in∣to the tops, men vpon the yeards, come is the Anchor a pike, heaue out your topsayles, haule your sheates; What's the Anchor away, yea, yea; Let fall your fore sayle, whose at the helme there, coyle your cable in small slakes, hawle the cat, a bitter, belay, loufe, fast your Anchor with your shanke pain∣ter, stow the boate, Let sayle your maine saile, on with your bonnets and drablers, steare study before the wind.

Page 28

The wind veares, git your star-boord tacks aboord, hawle off your ley sheats, ouerhawle the ley bowlin, ease your mayne brases, out with your spret-saile, flat the fore sheat, pike vp the misen or brade it, The ship will not wayer, loure the maine top saile, veare a fadome of your sheat, a flown sheate, a faire winde and a boune voyage, the wind shrinks, get your tacks close aboord, make rea∣dy your loufe howks and ley fagnes, to take off your bonnits and drablers, hawle close your maine bowline: It ouercasts, we shall haue winde, sattle your top sailes, take in the spret sayle, in with your topsayles, lower your maine sayles, tallow vnder the parrels, in with your maine sayle, lower the fore sayle, the sayle is split, brade vp close all your sayles, lash sure the Ordinances, strike your top masts to the cap, make sure your sheepes feete, a storme, hull, lash sure the helme a ley, lye to try our drist, how capes the ship, cun the ship,

Page 29

spoune before the winde, she lusts, she lyes vnder the Sea, trie her with a crose-jacke, bowse it vp with the out▪loo∣ker, she will founder in the Sea, runne on shore, split or billage on a Rocke, a wracke, put out a goose-winge, or a hullocke of a sayle, faire weather, set your fore sayle. Out with all your sailes, get your Larbord tackes aboord, hawle off your Starboord sheats, goe large, laske, ware yawning, the ships at stayes, at backe-stayes, ouer set the ship, flat about, handle your Sayles, or trim your sayles, let rise your tacks, hawle of your sheats. Rocke-weede, a∣drift, or flotes,) one to the top to looke out for Land, a ships wake, the water way, the weather bow, weather coyle, lay the ship by the Ley, and heaue the lead, try the dipsie line, bring the ship to rights, fetch the log-line to try what way shee makes, turne vp the minute glasse, obserue the hight, Land, to make Land, how beares it, set it by the Com∣passe,

Page 30

cleare your leach-lines, beare in, beare off, or stand off, or sheare off, beare vp, outward bound, home-ward bound, shorten your Sailes, take in your Sailes, come to an Anchor vn∣der the Ley of the weather shore, the Ley shore, nealed too, looke to your stops, your Anchor comes home, the ships a drift, vere out more Cable, let fall your sheat Anchor, land-locked more the ship, a good Voyage, Armes; arme, a skiffe, a frigot, a pinnace, a ship, a squadron, a fleete, when you ride amongst many ships, pike your yards.

* 1.39To the boate or skiffe belongs oares, a mast, a saile, a stay, a halyard, sheats, a boat-hook, thoughts, thoules, rudder, irons, bailes, a trar-pawling; or yaw∣ning, carlings, carling-knees for the Dauid, the boates-wayles, a dridge, to row, a spell, hold-water, trim the boate vea, vea, vea, vea, vea, who s••••es Amen, one and all, for a dram of the bottle.

* 1.40

Page 31

A Basillisco, double Cannon, Can∣non Pedrea, demy Cannon, Culve∣ring, Sakar, Minion, Falcon, Falco∣net, Rabbenet, Murderers, slings, Chambers, Curriors, Hargabusacrock, Musquets, bastard Musquets, Coliners, Carbines, Crabuts, long Pistols, short Pistols, Charges, Cartrages, Match, Spunges, Ladles, Rammers, Rammers heads, tomkins, a worme, a bore, a barrell, taper bore, hunicomed, lint∣stockes, carrages, trukes, linch-pins, trunions, axell-trees, beds, coynings, the peeces in the prow, the chase pee∣ces in the sterne, the quarter peeces, the mid-ships, the vpper tyre, the mid∣dle tyre, the lower tyre, their fids and leads to keepe dry the touch hole: Tra∣uers a peece, dispect a peece, compasse Calipers, a gunners quadrant, a hand spike, a crow of iron, to mount a peece, to dismount a peece, a darke Lant∣horne, a budge barrell, a horne, a priming iron: wyer, round-shot, crosse-barre-shot,

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chayne-shot, langrill shot, a case, case-shot, lead, melting ladles, moulds, bullet bagges, Musquet shot, Colyuer shot, quartred shot, Pistol shot, poysoned bullets, brasse bals, iron bals, granadoes, trunkes of wilde fire, pikes of wild fire, arrowes of wild fire, pots of wild fire, or dragouns? To cloye a peece: To loade a peece: To poyson a peece, hookes for gunner or tacklings.

* 1.41Concerning the particuler theormes, or tearmes for great Ordnances, as the concaue, trunke, cylinder, the soule or bore of a peece: To know whether she be equally bored, camber, taper, or belbored, the severall names of her mettle, the thinnesse and thicknesse, her carnooze, or base ring at her britch, her shaft or chase, her trunnions, mousell-rings at her mouth, to dispart her, know her leuell poynt blanke and best at randome, her fortification, the diffe∣rences of powder, be it serpentine or corned powder, if she be well moun∣ted

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vppon a leuell plot-forme or no, besides there are so many vncertaine ac∣cidents, both in the peece, shot, and powder, the ground, the ayre and differences in proportion, they can no certaine artificiall rules be proscribed. Those proportions following are neere the matter, but for your better satis∣faction, read Mr. Digs his Pantrymetria, Mr. Smith, or Mr. Burnes Arte of gun∣ry, or Mr. Robert Nortons expositions vpon maister Digs, any of these will shew you the Theoricke; but to be a good Gunner, you must learne it by practise. The Gunners scale is made in brasse at Tower Hill, with prospe∣ctiue glasses, and many other instru∣ments by Mr. Bates.

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A Table of Proportions for the vse of great Ordi∣nance.The weight of the Pee∣ces in poūds.The weight of the shot in poūds.The Circū∣frence of the shot in inches.The height of the shot in inches.The length of the Ladle in inches.The bredth of the Ladle in inches.The weight of the pow∣der in poūds.Skores of pa∣ces at poynt blank.
A Cannon.80006324 1/47 3/423154626
Demy Cannon.60003218 /6622 /11 1/22430
A Culuering.55001815 /752291433
Demy Culvering.4500912 4/74208939
A Sacar.35005 1/410 /243 1/416 /66 /25 /426
A Minion.150049 3/73156425
A Falcon.11002 1/47 6/72 1/212 1/252 1/414
A Falcones.5001 /46 1/721041 /48

Note that seldome in any Ships they vse any Ordinance greater then a demy Cannon.

* 1.42

Page 35

The Ship hath one third part; the Victuler the other third; the other third part is for the Company, and this is sub∣devided thus.

  • The Captaine hath 9.
  • The Master hath 7.
  • The Mates hath 5.
  • The Gunners hath 5.
  • The Carpenter hath 5.
  • The Boteswaine hath 4.
  • The Marshall hath 4.
  • The Corporall hath 3.
  • The Chyrurgion hath 3.
  • The quarter Masters hath 4.
  • The Steward hath 3.
  • The Cooke hath 3.
  • The Coxon hath 3.
  • The Trumpeter hath 4.
  • ...The Sailers, two or one and a halfe.
  • ...The Boyes a single share.
  • ...The Leiuetenant what the Captaine will giue him, or as they can agree.

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They vse to appoint a certaine re∣ward extraordinary to him that first discries a Sayle if they take her, and to him that first enters her.

For to learne to obserue the Altitude, Latitude, Longitude, Amplitude, the variation of the Compasse, the Sunnes Azimuth and Almicanter, to shift the Sunne and Moone, and to know the tydes, your roomes, pricke your card, and say your Compasse, get some of those bookes, but practise is the best.

  • Mr. Wrights errors of Nauigation.
  • Mr. Taps Sea-mans Kallender.
  • ...The Art of Nauigation.
  • ...The Sea Regiment.
  • ...The Sea-mans secrets.
  • ...Wagganour.
  • Mr. Gunters workes.
  • ...The Sea-mans glasse for the skale.
  • ...The new attracter for variation.
  • Mr. Wright for the vse of the Globe.
  • Mr. Hewes for the same.

    Page 37

    Good Sea Cards.
    • ...Two paire of Compasses.
    • ...An Astralobe quadrant.
    • ...A Crosse staffe.
    • ...A backe staffe.
    • ...An Astrolobe.
    • ...An Nocturnall.

    If you haue a Divine, his pay is most commonly both from the Aduentu∣rers and the Saylors, so also is the Chy∣rurgion.

    * 1.43Young Gentlemen that desires com∣maund ought well to consider, the condition of his ship, victuall, and Company; for if there be more lear∣ners then Saylers, how sleightly soe∣uer many esteeme Saylers, all the worke to saue Ship, goods, and liues, must lye vpon them, especially in foule wea∣ther, the labour, hazard, wet and cold is so incredible I cannot expresse it. It is not then the number of them that here will say at home, what I cannot

    Page 38

    doe, I can quickly learne, and what a great matter it is to sayle a Ship, or goe to Sea, surely those for a good time will doe most trouble then good, I con∣fesse it is more necessary such should go, but not too many in one ship, for if the labour of sixty should lye vppon thirty, as many times it doth; they are so ouer-charged with labour, bru∣ses, and ouer-strayning themselues, for there is no dallying nor excuses, with stormes, gusts, over growne seas, and Icy shores; they fall sicke of one disease or other, and then if their Victuals be putrified, it indangers all. Men of all other professions in lightning, thun∣der, stormes and tempests, with raine, and snow, may shelter themselues in dry houses, by good fires, and good cheare; but those are the chiefe times, that Sea-men must stand to their tacke∣lings, and attend with all diligence their greatest labour vpon the Deckes: Many supposeth any thing is good e∣nough

    Page 39

    to serue men at sea, and yet no∣thing sufficient for them a shore, either for their healthes, for their ease, or e∣states, or state. A Commaunder at sea should do well to thinke the contrary, and prouide for himselfe and company in like manner; also seriously to consi∣der what will be his charge, to furnish himselfe at sea, with bedding, linnen, armes and apparell; how to keepe his table aboord, his expences on shore, and his petty tally, which is a compe∣tent proportion according to your number, of these particulars following.

    Fine wheat flower, close and well packed, Rise, Currands, Sugar, Prunes, Cinamon, Ginger, Pepper, Cloues, Greene-ginger, Oyle, Butter, Olde Cheese, or Holland, Wine vinegar, Canary Sacke, Aqua vitae, the best Wines, the best Waters, the iuyce of Lemons for the Scuruey, white Bisket, Oate-meale, Gammons of Ba∣on, dried neates tongues, Rosted Beefe, packed vp in vineger.

    Page 40

    Legges of Mutton minced and stewed and close packed vp with butter in ear∣then pots.

    To entertaine strangers, Marmelet, Suckets, Almonds, Comfits, and such like.

    Some it may bee will say, I would haue men rather to feast then fight. But I say the want of those necessaries, occa∣sions the losse of more men, then in any English fleet hath bin slaine in any fight since 88. for when a man is ill sicke, or at the poynt of death, I would know whether a dish of buttered Rice, with a little Cinamon and Sugar, a little min∣ced meate, or roast beefe, a few stewed Prunes, a race of greene ginger, a flap-Iacke, a Can of fresh water brued with a little Cinamon, Ginger and Sugar, be not better then a little poore Iohn, or salt fish, with oyle and mustard, or bis∣ket, butter, cheese or oatemeale pottage on fish dayes, salt beefe, porke and pease and sixe shillings beere, this is your or∣dinary ships allowance, and good for

    Page 41

    them are well, if well conditioned, which is not alwayes, as sea-men can too well witnesse: and after a storme, when poore men are all wet, and some not so much a cloth to shift him, sha∣king with cold, few of those but will tell you, a little Sacke or Aquavitae, is much better to keepe them in health, then a little small beere or cold water, although it be sweete, now that euery one should prouide those things for himselfe, few of them haue either that prouidence or meanes. And there is nei∣ther Alehouse, Tauerne, nor Inne to burne a fagot in, neither Grocer, Poul∣terie, Apothocary, nor Butchers shop: and therefore the vse of this petty tally is necessary, and thus to be imployed as there is occasion, to entertaine stran∣gers as they are in quality, euery Com∣mander should shewe himselfe as like himselfe as he can, as well for the credit of the ship and his settors forth as him∣selfe, but in that heerein euery one

    Page 42

    may moderate themselues according to their owne pleasures, therefore I leaue it to their owne discretions. And this briefe Discourse, and my selfe, to their friendly construction and good opinion.



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