A true reporte of the laste voyage into the west and northwest regions, &c. 1577. worthily atchieued by Capteine Frobisher of the sayde voyage the first finder and generall With a description of the people there inhabiting, and other circumstances notable. Written by Dionyse Settle, one of the companie in the sayde voyage, and seruant to the Right Honourable the Earle of Cumberland.

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A true reporte of the laste voyage into the west and northwest regions, &c. 1577. worthily atchieued by Capteine Frobisher of the sayde voyage the first finder and generall With a description of the people there inhabiting, and other circumstances notable. Written by Dionyse Settle, one of the companie in the sayde voyage, and seruant to the Right Honourable the Earle of Cumberland.
Settle, Dionyse.
Imprinted at London :: By Henrie Middleton,
Anno. 1577.

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Subject terms
Frobisher, Martin, -- Sir, ca. 1535-1594.
Scientific expeditions -- Canada -- Early works to 1800.
Northwest Passage -- Early works to 1800.
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Cite this Item
"A true reporte of the laste voyage into the west and northwest regions, &c. 1577. worthily atchieued by Capteine Frobisher of the sayde voyage the first finder and generall With a description of the people there inhabiting, and other circumstances notable. Written by Dionyse Settle, one of the companie in the sayde voyage, and seruant to the Right Honourable the Earle of Cumberland." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. https://name.umdl.umich.edu/A11947.0001.001. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed June 16, 2024.


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¶A true report of Cap∣teine Frobisher his last voyage into the West and Northwest regions, this present yere 1577. With a description of the people there inhabiting.

ON Whitsunday last past, being the 26. of May, in this present yeare of our Lorde God 1577. Capteine Frobisher departed from Blacke Wall▪ with one of the Quéenes Maiesties shippes, called The Aide, of nine score tunne, or there aboutes: and two other little Barkes likewise, the one called The Gabriel, whereof Maister Fenton a Gentlemā of my Lord of Warwicks was Capteine: and the other, The Mi∣chael, whereof Maister Yorke a Gentle∣man of my Lorde Admerals was Cap∣tein, accompanied with seuen score gen∣tlemen, souldiers and saylers, well fur∣nished

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with victuals, and other prouisiō necessarie for one halfe yere, on this his seconde voyage, for the further discoue∣ring of the passage to Cataa, and other countries therevnto adiacent, by West and Northwest Nauigations: whiche passage, or way, is supposed to be on the North and Northwest partes of Ame∣rica: and the sayd America to be an Is∣lande inuironed with the sea, where∣through our Merchaunts might haue course and recourse with their mer∣chandize, from these our Northernmost parts of Europe, to those oriental coasts of Asia, in much shorter time, and with greater benefit then any others, to their no little commoditie and profite that doe traffique the same. Oure sayde Capteine and Generall of this present voyage and companie, hauing the yere before, with two little Pinnisies, to his great daunger and no small com∣mendations, giuen a worthy attempt towardes the performaunce thereof, is also prest (when occasion shall be mini∣stred, to the benefite of his Prince and natiue countrie) to aduenture him selfe

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further therein. As for this second voy∣age, it séemeth sufficient, that he hath better explored and searched the com∣modities of those people and countries, with sufficient commoditie vnto the ad∣uenturers, which in his first voyage the yeare before he had found out.

Upon which considerations, the day and yeare before expressed, we departed from Blacke Wall to Harwiche, where making an accomplishment of thinges necessarie, the last of Maye we hoysed vp sailes, and with a mery winde the 7. therof we arriued at the Islands called Orchades, or vulgarly Orkney,* 1.1 being in number 30. subiect and adiacent to Scotland, where we made prouision of freshe water: in the doing whereof, our Generall licenced the Gentlemen and Souldiers, for their recreation, to go on shoare. At our landing,* 1.2 the people fled from their poore cotages, with shrikes and alarums, to warne their neighbors of enimies: but by gentle persuasions we reclaimed them to their houses. It séemeth they are often frighted with Pi∣rates, or some other enimies, that mo∣ueth

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them to such souden feare. Their houses are very simplie builded with pibble stone,* 1.3 without any chimneys, the fire being made in the middest thereof. The good man, wife, children, and other of their familie, eate and sléepe on the one side of the house, and their cattell on the other, very beastly and rudely, in re∣spect of ciuilitie. They are destitute of wood,* 1.4 their fire is turffes and Cowe shardes. They haue corne, bigge, and oates, with whiche they paye their Kinges rente, to the maintenance of his house. They take great quantitie of fishe, which they drie in the winde and Sunne. They dresse their meate very filthily, and eate it without salt. Their apparell is after the rudest sort of Scot∣land. Their money is all base. Their churche and religion is reformed accor∣ding to the Scots. The fisher men of England,* 1.5 can better declare the disposi∣tions of those people than I: wherfore, I remit other their vsages to their re∣portes, as yearely repairers thither, in their course to and from Island for fish.

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Wée departed herehence, the 8. of Iune,* 1.6 and followed our course betwéene West and Northwest, vntill the 4. of Iulie: all which time, we had no night, but that easily, and without any impedi∣ment, we had when we were so dispo∣sed, the fruition of our bookes, and other pleasures to passe awaye the time: a thinge of no small moment, to such as wander in vnknowen seas and longe Nauigations, especially, when both the winds, and raging surges, do passe their common and wonted course. This be∣nefite endureth in those partes not sixe wéekes, whilest the Sunne is néere the Tropike of Cancer: but where the Pole is raised to 70. or 80. degrées, it continu∣eth the longer.

All along these seas, after we were 6. dayes sayling from Orkney, we met flo∣ting in the sea, great Firre trées, which as wee iudged, were with the furie of great floudes rooted vp, and so driuen in∣to the sea. Island hath almost no other wood nor fewel, but such as they take vp vpon their coastes. It séemeth, that these

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trées are driuen from some parte of the New found land, with the Current that setteth from the West to the East.

The 4. of Iulie, we came within the making of Freeseland.* 1.7 From this shoare 10. or 12. leagues, we met great Islands of yce,* 1.8 of halfe a mile, some more, some lesse in compasse, shewing aboue the sea 30. or 40. fathomes, and as we supposed, fast on ground, where, with oure leade wée could scarse sound the bottome for deapth.

Here, in place of odoriferous and fra∣grant smelles of swéete gummes, and pleasant notes of musicall birdes, which other Countries in more temperate Zone do yéeld, we tasted the most boiste∣rous Boreall blasts, mixt with snow and haile,* 1.9 in the moneth of Iune and Iulie, nothing inferiour to oure vntemperate Winter: a soudeine alteration, and e∣specially in a place or Paralele, where the Pole is not eleuate aboue 61. degrées: at which height other countries more to the North, yea, vnto 70. degrées, shewe thēselues more temperat than this doth.

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All along this coast yce lyeth,* 1.10 as a continuall bullworke, and so defendeth the countrie, that those whiche would land there incurre great daunger. Our Generall thrée dayes together, attemp∣ted with the shippboate to haue gone on shoare, whiche, for that without great daunger he could not accomplishe, he de∣ferred it vntil a more conuenient time. All along the coast lye very highe moun∣teines couered with snowe,* 1.11 excepte in such places, where, through the stéepe∣nesse of the mounteines, of force it must néedes fall.

Foure dayes coastinge along this Land, we found no signe of habitation. Little birdes,* 1.12 whiche we iudged to haue lost ye shoare, by reason of thicke fogges, which that countrie is much subiect vn∣to, came fléeing to oure shippes,* 1.13 whiche causeth vs to suppose, that the countrie is both more tollerable, and also habita∣ble within, then the outward shoare ma∣keth shewe or signification.

From hence we departed the eight of Iulie: and the 16. of the same, we came

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within the making of land, whiche land our Generall, the yeare before, had na∣med The Queenes foreland,* 1.14 béeing an Island, as we iudge, lying néere the sup∣posed continent with America: & on the other side, opposite to ye same, one other Island called Halles Isle, after the name of the Maister of our shippe,* 1.15 néere adia∣cent to the firme land, supposed conti∣nent with Asia. Betwéene the which two Islandes, there is a large entrance or streight,* 1.16 called Frobishers streight, af∣ter the name of oure Generall, the first finder thereof. This said streight, is supposed to haue passage into the Sea of Sur, which I leaue vnknowne as yet.

It séemeth, that either here, or not farre hence, the Sea should haue more large entraunce, than in other partes, within the frosen or vntemperate Zone: and that some contrarie tide, either from the East or West, with maine force ca∣steth out that great quantitie of yce, which commeth floating from this coast, euen vnto Freesland, causing that coun∣trie to séeme more vntemperate than o∣thers,

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muche more Northerly than they are.

I cannot iudge, that any tempera∣ture vnder the Pole, béeing the time of the Sunnes Northerne declination, halfe a yeare together and one whole day, (considering, that the Sunnes ele∣uation surmounteth not 23. degrées and 30. minutes,) can haue power to dissolue such monstruous and huge yce,* 1.17 compa∣rable to great mounteines, excepte by some other force, as by swift Currents and tydes, with the helpe of the said day of halfe a yeare.

Before we came within the making of these Landes, we tasted cold stormes, insomuch that it séemed, we had chaun∣ged Summer with winter, if the length of the dayes had not remoued vs from that opinion.

At our first comming, the streightes séemed to be shutt vp with a long mure of yce, whiche gaue no little cause of dis∣comfort vnto vs all: but our Generall, (to whose diligence, imminent daun∣gers,* 1.18 and difficult attemptes séemed no∣thing,

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in respect of his willing mind, for the commoditie of his Prince and coun∣trie,) with two little Pinnises prepa∣red of purpose, passed twise thoroughe them to the East shoare, and the Islands therevnto adiacent: and the shippe, with the two barks, lay off and on something further into the sea, from the daunger of the yce.

Whilest he was searching the coun∣trie néere the shoare,* 1.19 some of the people of the countrie shewed themselues, lea∣ping and dauncing, with straunge shri∣kes and cryes, whiche gaue no little ad∣miration to our men. Our Generall de∣sirous to allure them vnto him by faire meanes, caused kniues, & other thinges, to be proferred vnto them, whiche they would not take at our handes: but bée∣ing layd on the ground, & the partie go∣ing away, they came and tooke vp, lea∣uing something of theirs to counter∣uaile ye same. At the length, two of them leauing their weapons, came downe to our Generall and Maister, who did the like to them, commaunding the compa∣nie

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to stay, and went vnto them: who, after certeine dumbe signes and mute congratulations, began to lay handes vpon them, but they deliuerly escaped, and ranne to their bowes and arrowes,* 1.20 and came fiercely vppon them, (not re∣specting the rest of our companie, which were readie for their defence) but with their arrowes hurt diuerse of them: we tooke the one, and the other escaped.* 1.21

Whilest our Generall was busied in searching the countrie and those Islands adiacent on the East shoare, the ship and barckes hauing great care, not to put farre into the sea from him, for that he had small store of victuals, were forced to abide in a cruell tempest, chancing in the night, amongst and in the thickest of the yce, which was so monstruous, that euen the least of a thousand had béene of force sufficient, to haue shiuered oure shippe and barkes into small portions, if God (who in all necessities, hath care vpon the infirmitie of man) had not pro∣uided for this our extremitie a sufficient remedie, through the light of the night,

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whereby we might well discerne to flée from such imminent daungers, whiche wée auoyded with 14. Bourdes in one watch the space of 4. houres. If we had not incurred this danger amongst these monstrous Islandes of yce, wée should haue lost our Generall and Maister, and the most of our best sailers, which were on the shoare destitute of victualls: but by the valure of our Maister Gunner,* 1.22 being expert both in Nauigation and o∣ther good qualities, we were all content to incurre the dangers afore rehearsed, before we would, with oure owne safe∣tie, runne into the Seas, to the destru∣ction of oure said Generall and his com∣panie.

The day following, being the 19. of Iulie, oure Capteine returned to the shippe, with good newes of great riches, which shewed it selfe in the bowelles of those barren mounteines, wherewith we were all satisfied. A souden mutati∣on. The one parte of vs being almost swallowed vp the night before, wt cruell Neptunes force, and the rest on shoare,

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taking thought for their gréedie paun∣ches, how to find the way to New found land:* 1.23 at one moment we were all rapt with ioye, forgetting, both where we were, and what we had suffred. Behold the glorie of man, to night contemning riches, and rather looking for death than otherwise: and to morrowe deuising howe to satisfie his gréedie appetite with Golde.

Within foure days after we had ben at the entraunce of the Streightes, the Northwest and West windes dispersed the yce into the Sea, and made vs a large entrance into the Streights, that without any impediment, on the 19. of Iulie, we entred them, and the 20. ther∣of oure Generall and Maister, with great diligence, sought out and sounded the West shoare, and found out a fayre Harborough for the ship and barkes to ride in, and named it after our Maisters mate, Iackmans sound,* 1.24 and brought the ship, barkes, and all their companie to safe anchor, except one man, whiche dyed by Gods visitation.

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Who so maketh Nauigations to these contries, hath not only extreme winds, and furious Seas,* 1.25 to encounter with∣all, but also many monstrous and great Islandes of yce: a thing both rare, won∣derfull, and greatly to be regarded.

We were forced, sundrie times, while the ship did ride here at anchor, to haue continuall watch,* 1.26 with boates and men readie with Halsers, to knit fast vnto such yce, which with the ebbe and floud were tossed to and fro in the Harbo∣roughe, and with force of oares to hale them away, for indaungering the ship.

Our Generall, certeine dayes sear∣ched this supposed continent with Ame∣rica, and not finding the commoditie to aunswere his expectation, after he had made tryall thereof, he departed thence with two little barkes, and men suffici∣ent, to the East shoare, being the suppo∣sed continent of Asia, & left the ship with most of the Gentlemen, Souldiers, and Saylers, vntill such time as he, eyther thought good to send, or come for them.

The stones of this supposed conti∣nent

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with America,* 1.27 be altogether spark∣led, and glister in the Sunne like Gold: so likewise doth the sande in the bright water,* 1.28 yet they verifie the olde Pro∣uerbe: All is not golde that glistereth.

On this West shoare we found a dead fishe floating, whiche had in his nose a horne streight & torquet, of lengthe two yardes lacking two ynches, being bro∣ken in the top, where we might perceiue it hollowe, into which some of our Say∣lers putting Spiders, they presently dyed. I sawe not the tryall hereof, but it was reported vnto me of a trueth: by the vertue whereof,* 1.29 we supposed it to be the sea Unicorne.

After our Generall had founde out good harborough for the Ship and Bar∣kes to anchor in: and also suche store of Golde oare as he thought him selfe sa∣tisfied withall, he sent backe oure Mai∣ster with one of the Barkes, to conducte the great Ship vnto him, who coasting along the West shoare, perceiued a faire harborough, and willing to sound the same, at the enterance thereof they

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espyed two tentes of Seale skinnes.

At the sight of oure men, the people fled into the mounteines: neuerthelesse, our sayde Maister went to their tents, and left some of our trifles, as Kniues, Bels, and Glasses, and departed, not ta∣king any thing of theirs, excepte one Dogge to our Shippe.

On the same day, after consultation had, we determined to sée, if by fayre meanes we could eyther allure them to familiaritie, or otherwise take some of them, and so atteine to some knowlege of those men, whome our Generall lost the yeare before.

At our comming backe againe, to the place where their tentes were be∣fore,* 1.30 they had remoued their tentes fur∣ther into the said Bay or Sound, where they might, if they were driuen from the land, flee with their boates into the sea. Wee parting our selues into two companies, and compassing a moun∣teine, came soudeinly vppon them by land, who espying vs, without any tary∣ing fled to their boates, leauing the most

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part of their oares behind them for hast, and rowed downe the Bay, where our two Pinisses met them, & droue them to shoare: but, if they had had all their oares, so swift are they in rowing, it had bene lost time to haue chased them.

When they were landed,* 1.31 they fierce∣ly assaulted oure men with their bowes and arrowes, who wounded three of them with our arrowes: and percey∣uing them selues thus hurt,* 1.32 they despe∣rately leapt off the Rocks into the Sea, and drowned them selues: which if they had not done, but had submitted them selues: or if by any meanes we could haue taken them aliue, (being their enimies as they iudged) we would both haue saued them, and also haue sought remedie to cure their woundes receiued at our handes. But they, altogether voyde of humanitie,* 1.33 and ignorant what mercy meaneth, in extremities looke for no other then death: and perceiuing they should fall into our hands, thus mi∣serably by drowning rather desired death, then otherwise to be saued by vs:

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the rest, perceiuing their fellowes in this distresse, fled into the highe moun∣teines.* 1.34 Two women, not being so apt to escape as the men were, the one for her age, and the other being incombred with a yong childe,* 1.35 we tooke. The olde wretch, whome diuers of oure Saylers supposed to be eyther a Diuell, or a Witche, plucked off her buskins, to sée, if she were clouen footed, and for her ougly hewe and deformitie, we let her goe: the young woman and the childe, we brought away. We named the place where they were slayne, Bloudie point: and the Bay or Harborough,* 1.36 Yorkes sound, after the name of one of the Cap∣teines of the two Barkes.

Hauing this knowledge, both of their fiercenesse and crueltie, and perceiuing that fayre meanes,* 1.37 as yet, is not able to allure them to familiaritie, we disposed our selues, contrarie to our inclination, something to be cruel, returned to their tentes, and made a spoyle of the same. Their riches are neyther Gold, Siluer, or precious Draperie, but their sayde

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tentes and boates,* 1.38 made of the skinnes of red Deare and Seale skinnes: also, Dogges like vnto Woolues, but for the most part black, with other trifles, more to be wondred at for their strangenesse, then for any other commoditie néedeful for our vs.

Thus returning to our Ship,* 1.39 the 3, of August, we departed from the West shoare, supposed firme with America, after we had anchored there 13. dayes: and so, the 4. thereof, we came to our Generall on the East shoare, and ancho∣red in a fayre Harborough named Anne Warrwickes sound, vnto whiche is an∣nexed an Islande both named after the Countesse of Warrwicke,* 1.40 Anne Warr∣wickes sound and Isle.

In this Isle, our Generall thought good, for this voyage,* 1.41 to frayght both the Ship and Barkes, with suche Stone or Gold minerall, as he iudged to counter∣uaile the charges of his first, and this his second Nauigation to these contries, wt sufficient interest to ye venturers, wher∣by they might bothe be satisfied for this

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time, and also in time to come, (if it please God and our Prince,* 1.42) to exspect a much more large benefite, out of the bowells of those Septentrionall Para∣lels, which long time hath concealed it self, til at this present, through the won∣derfull diligence, & great danger of our Generall and others, God is contented with the reuealing thereof. It riseth so aboundantly, that from the beginning of August, to the 22. thereof, (euery man following the diligence of our General) we raysed aboue grounde 200. tunne,* 1.43 whiche we iudged a reasonable fraight for the Shippe and two Barkes, in the sayde Anne Warrwicks Isle.

In the time of our abode here, some of the countrie people,* 1.44 came to shewe them selues vnto vs, sundrie times on ye maine shoare, néere adiacent to the sayd Isle. Our Generall, desirous to haue some newes of his men,* 1.45 whome he lost the yeare before, with some companie with him repayred with the Ship boat, to common, or signe with them for fa∣miliaritie, wherevnto he is persuaded

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to bring them. They, at the first shewe, made tokens,* 1.46 that thrée of his fiue men were aliue, and desired penne, ynck, and paper, and that within thrée or foure dayes, they would returne, and (as we iudged) bring those of our men, whiche were liuing, with them.

They also made signes or tokens of their King, whom they called Cacough,* 1.47 and how he was carried on mens shoul∣ders, and a man farre surmounting a∣ny of our companie, in bignesse and sta∣ture.

With these tokens and signes of writing, penne, yncke, nd paper was deliuered them, which they woulde not take at our handes: but being layde vp∣on the shoare, and the partie gone a∣way, they tooke vp: which likewise they doe, when they desire any thing for chaunge of theirs,* 1.48 laying for that which is left, so much as they think wil coūter∣uaile the same, and not comming neare together. It séemeth they haue bene v∣sed to this trade or traffique, with some other people adioyning, or not farre di∣stant

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from their Countrie.

* 1.49After 4. dayes, some of them shewed themselues vpon the firme land, but not where they were before. Our General, very glad thereof, supposing to heare of our men, went from the Islande, with the boate, and sufficient companie with him. They séemed very glad, and allu∣red him,* 1.50 about a certeine point of the land: behind which they might perceiue a companie of the craftie villains to lye lurking, whome our Generall woulde not deale withall, for that he knewe not what companie they were, and so with fewe signes dismissed them, and retur∣ned to his companie.

* 1.51An other time, as our said Generall was coasting the contrie, with two litle Pinisses, whereby at oure returne hée might make the better relation thereof, thrée of the craftie villains, with a white skin allured vs to them. Once againe, our Generall, for yt he hoped to heare of his men, went towardes them: at oure comming neere the shoare, wheron they were,* 1.52 we might perceiue a number of

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them lie hidden behinde great stones, & those thrée in sight labouring by al mea∣nes possible, that some woulde come on land: & perceyuing wée made no hast by words nor friendly signes, which they v∣sed by clapping of their handes,* 1.53 and bée∣ing without weapon, and but thrée in sighte, they sought further meanes to prouoke vs therevnto. One alone layd flesh on the shoare,* 1.54 whiche we tooke vpp with the Boate hooke, as necessarie vi∣ctualls for the relieuing of the man, wo∣man, & child, whom we had taken: for yt as yet, they could not digest oure meate: whereby they perceiued themselues de∣ceiued of their expectation, for all their craftie allurements. Yet once againe, to make (as it were) a full shewe of their craftie natures, and subtile sleightes,* 1.55 to the intent thereby to haue intrapped and taken some of our men, one of them counterfeyted himselfe impotent and lame of his legges, who seemed to des∣cend to the water side, with great diffi∣cultie: and to couer his crafte the more, one of his fellowes came downe with

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him, and in such places, where he séemed vnable to passe, hée tooke him on his shoulders, set him by the water side▪ and departed from him, leauing him (as it should séeme) all alone,* 1.56 who playing his counterfeite pageant very well, thought thereby to prouoke some of vs to come on shoare, not fearing, but that any one of vs might make oure partie good with a lame man.

Our Generall, hauing compassion of his impotencie,* 1.57 thought good (if it were possible) to cure him therof: wher∣fore, hée caused a souldiour to shoote at him with his Caleeuer, which grased be∣fore his face. The counterfeite villeine deliuerly fled, without any impediment at all, and gott him to his bowe and ar∣rowes, and the rest from their lurking holes, with their weapons, bowes, ar∣rowes, slings, and dartes. Our Gene∣rall caused some Caléeuers to be shot off at them,* 1.58 whereby some being hurt, they mighte hereafter stand in more feare of vs.

This was all the aunswere, for this

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time, wée could haue of our men, or of our Generalls letter.* 1.59 Their craftie dea∣ling, at these thrée seuerall times, being thus manifest vnto vs, maye plainely shewe, their disposition in other thinges to be correspondent. We iudged, that they vsed these stratagemmes, thereby to haue caught some of vs, for the deliue∣ring of the man, woman, & child whome we haue taken.

They are men of a large corpora∣ture, and good proportion:* 1.60 their colour is not much vnlike the Sunne burnte Countrie man, who laboureth daily in the Sunne for his liuing.

They weare their haire somethinge long, and cut before,* 1.61 either with stone or knife, very disorderly. Their women weare their haire long, and knit vp with two loupes, shewing forth on either side of their faces, and the rest foltred vp on a knot. Also, some of their women race their faces proportionally, as chinne, chéekes, and forehead, and the wristes of their handes, wherevpon they lay a co∣lour, which continueth darke azurine.

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They eate their meate all rawe, both fleshe,* 1.62 fishe, and foule, or something per∣boyled with bloud & a little water, whi∣che they drinke. For lacke of water, they wil eate yce, that is hard frosen, as plea∣santly as we will doe Sugar Candie, or other Sugar.

If they, for necessities sake, stand in néede of the premisses,* 1.63 such grasse as the countrie yéeldeth they plucke vppe, and eate, not deintily, or salletwise, to allure their stomaches to appetite: but for ne∣cessities sake, without either salt, oyles, or washing, like brutish beasts deuoure the same.* 1.64 They neither vse table, stoole, or table cloth for comelinesse: but when they are imbrued with bloud, knuckle déepe, and their kniues in like sort, they vse their tongues as apt instruments to licke them cleane: in doeing whereof, they are assured to loose none of their victuals.

They franck or kéep certeine doggs, not much vnlike Wolues,* 1.65 whiche they yoke together, as we do oxen and horses, to a sled or traile: and so carrie their ne∣cessaries

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ouer the yce and snowe, from place to place: as the captiue, whom we haue, made perfecte signes. And when those Dogges are not apt for the same vse:* 1.66 or when with hunger they are con∣streyned, for lacke of other victuals, they eate them: so that they are as néedefull for them, in respect of their bignesse, as our oxen are for vs.

They apparell themselues in the skinnes of such beastes as they kill, se∣wed together with the sinewes of them.* 1.67 All the fowle which they kill, they skin, and make thereof one kinde of garment or other, to defend them from the cold.

They make their apparell with hoods and tailes, which tailes they giue,* 1.68 when they thinke to gratifie any friendshippe shewed vnto them: a great signe of friendshippe with them. The men haue them not so syde as the women.

The men and women weare their hose close to their legges,* 1.69 from the wast to the knée, without any open before, as well the one kinde as the other. Uppon their legges, they weare hose of lether,

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with the furre side inward, two or thrée paire on at once, and especially the wo∣men. In those hose, they put their kni∣ues, néedles, and other thinges néedefull to beare about.* 1.70 They put a bone with∣in their hose, whiche reacheth from the foote to the knée, wherevpon they drawe their said hose, and so in place of garters, they are holden from falling downe a∣bout their féete.

They dresse their skinnes very softe and souple with the haire on. In cold weather or Winter, they weare ye furre side inward: and in Summer outward. Other apparell they haue none, but the said skinnes.

Those beastes, flesh, fishes, and fow∣les,* 1.71 which they kil, they are both meate, drinke, apparel, houses, bedding, hose, shooes, thred, saile for their boates, with many other necessaries, whereof they stande in néede, and almost all their ri∣ches.

Their houses are tentes, made of Seale skinns,* 1.72 pitched with foure Firre quarters, foure square, méeting at the

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toppe, and the skinnes sewed together with sinowes, and layd therevppon: so pitched they are, that the entraunce in∣to them, is alwayes South, or against the Sunne.

They haue other sortes of houses, whiche wée found, not to be inhabited, which are raised with stones and What bones, and a skinne layd ouer them, to withstand the raine, or other weather: the entraunce of them béeing not much vnlike an Quens mouth, whereto, I thincke, they resort for a time, to fishe, hunt, and fowle, and so leaue them for the next time they come thether againe.

Their weapons are Bowes,* 1.73 Ar∣rowes, Dartes, and Slinges. Their Bowes are of a yard long of wood, si∣newed on the back with strong veines, not glued too, but fast girded and tyed on. Their Bowe stringes are likewise sinewes. Their arrowes are thrée pée∣ces, nocked with bone, and ended with bone, with those two ends, and the wood in the middst, they passe not in lengthe halfe a yard or little more. They are f∣thered

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with two fethers, the penne end being cutte away, and the fethers layd vppon the arrowe with the broad side to the woode: in somuch that they séeme, when they are tyed on, to haue foure fe∣thers.* 1.74 They haue likewise thrée sortes of heades to those arrowes: one sort of stone or yron, proportioned like to a heart: the second sort of bone, much like vnto a stopte head, with a hooke on the same: the thirde sort of bone likewise, made sharpe at both sides, and sharpe pointed. They are not made very fast, but lightly tyed to, or else set in a nocke, that vppon small occasion, the arrowe leaueth these heades behinde them: and they are of small force, except they be ve∣ry néere, when they shoote.

* 1.75Their Darts are made of two sorts: the one with many forkes of bone in the fore ende, and likewise in the mid∣dest: their proportions are not muche vnlike our toasting yrons, but longer: these they cast out of an instrument of wood, very readily. The other sorte is greater then the first aforesayde, with a

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long bone made sharp on both sides, not much vnlike a Rapier, which I take to be their most hurtfull weapon.

They haue two sorts of boates,* 1.76 made of Lether, set out on the inner side with quarters of wood, artificially tyed toge∣ther with thongs of the same: the grea∣ter sort are not much vnlike our Wher∣ries, wherein sixtéene or twentie men may fitte: they haue for a sayle, drest the guttes of such beastes as they kyll, very fine and thinne, which they sewe toge∣ther: the other boate is but for one man to sitte and rowe in, with one oare.

Their order of fishing, hunting, and fowling, are with these sayde weapons:* 1.77 but in what sort, or how they vse them, we haue no perfect knowledge as yet.

I can not suppose their abode or ha∣bitation to be here,* 1.78 for that neither their houses, or apparell, are of no such force to withstand the extremitie of colde, that the countrie séemeth to be infected with all: neyther doe I sée any signe likely to performe the same.

Those houses, or rather dennes,

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which stand there, haue no signe of foot∣way, or any thing else troden, whiche is one of the chiefest tokens of habitation. And those tents, which they bring with them,* 1.79 when they haue sufficiently hun∣ted and fished, they remoue to other places: and when they haue sufficient∣ly stored them of suche victuals, as the countrie yeldeth, or bringeth foorth, they returne to their Winter stations or ha∣bitations. This coniecture do I make, for the infertilitie, whiche I perceiue to be in that countrie.

They haue some yron, whereof they make arrowe heades,* 1.80 kniues, and other little instrumentes, to woorke their boa∣tes, bowes, arrowes, and dartes withal, whiche are very vnapt to doe any thing withall, but with great labour.

It seemeth, that they haue conuersa∣tion with some other people, of whome, for exchaunge, they should receiue the same. They are greatly delighted with any thinge that is brighte,* 1.81 or giueth a sound.

What knowledge they haue of God,

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or what Idol they adore, wée haue no perfect intelligence. I thincke them ra∣ther Anthropophagi,* 1.82 or deuourers of mans fleshe, then otherwise: for that there is no flesh or fishe, which they finde dead,* 1.83 (smell it neuer so filthily) but they will eate it, as they finde it, without any other dressing. A loathsome spectacle, ei∣ther to the beholders, or hearers.* 1.84

There is no maner of créeping beast hurtful, except some Spiders (which, as many affirme,* 1.85 are signes of great store of Golde:) and also certeine stinging Gnattes, which bite so fiercely, that the place where they bite,* 1.86 shortly after swelleth, and itcheth very sore.

They make signes of certeine peo∣ple,* 1.87 that weare bright plates of Gold in their forheads, and other places of their bodies.

The Countries,* 1.88 on both sides the streightes, lye very highe with roughe stonie mounteynes, and great quantitie of snowe thereon. There is very little plaine ground, and no grasse,* 1.89 except a li∣tle, whiche is much like vnto mosse that

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groweth on soft ground, such as we gett Turfes in.* 1.90 There is no wood at all. To be briefe, there is nothing fitte, or profi∣table for ye vse of man, which that Coun∣trie with roote yéeldeth, or bringeth forth: Howbeit, there is great quantitie of Deere, whose skinnes are like vnto Asses,* 1.91 their heads or hornes doe farre ex∣ceed, as wel in length as also in breadth, any in these oure partes or Countrie: their féete likewise, are as great as oure oxens, whiche we measured to be seuen or eight ynches in breadth. There are also Hares,* 1.92 Wolues, fishing Beares, and Sea foule of sundrie sortes.

As the Countrie is barren and vn∣fertile, so are they rude and of no capa∣citie to culture the same, to any perfec∣tion: but are contented by their hun∣ting, fishing, and fowling, with rawe flesh and warme bloud, to satisfie their gréedie panches, whiche is their onely glorie.

There is great likelyhood of Earth∣quakes,* 1.93 or thunder: for that huge and monstruous mounteynes, whose grea∣test

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substaunce are stones, and those sto∣nes so shaken with some extraordinarie meanes, that one is separated from ano∣ther, whiche is discordant from all other Quarries.

There are no riuers,* 1.94 or running springes, but such, as through the heate of the Sunne, with such water as des∣cendeth from the mounteines and hills, whereon great driftes of snowe doe lie, are ingendred.

It argueth also, that there should be none: for that the earth,* 1.95 which with the extremitie of the Winter, is so frosen within, that that water, whiche should haue recourse within the same, to main∣teine Springes, hath not his motion, whereof great waters haue their origi∣nall,* 1.96 as by experience is seene other∣where. Such valleies, as are capable to receiue the water, that in the Summer time, by the operation of the Sunne, des∣cendeth from great abundance of snow, whiche continually lyeth on the moun∣teines, and hath no passage, sinketh into the earth, and so vanisheth awaye, with∣out

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any runnell aboue the earth, by which occasion, or continual standing of the said water, the earth is opened, and the great frost yeldeth to the force there∣of, whiche in other places, foure or fiue fathoms within the ground,* 1.97 for lacke of the said moysture, (the earth, euen in the very Summer time,) is frosen, and so combineth the stones together, that scarcely instruments, with great force, can vnknitte them.

Also, where the water in those val∣lies can haue no such passage away, by the continuaunce of time, in such order as is before rehearsed, the yearely des∣cent from the mounteines, filleth them ful, that at the lowest banck of the same, they fall into the next vallie, and so con∣tinue, as fishing Pondes or Stagnes in the Summer time full of water, and in the Winter hard frosen: as by skarres that remaine thereof in Summer,* 1.98 may easily be perceiued: so that, the heate of Summer, is nothing comparable, or of force, to dissolue the extremitie of colde, that commeth in Winter.

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Neuerthelesse, I am assured,* 1.99 that be∣lowe the force of the frost, within the earth, the waters haue recourse, and emptie themselues out of sighte into the sea, which through the extremitie of the frost, are constreyned to doe the same,* 1.100 by which occasion, the earth within is kept the warmer, and springes haue their re∣course, which is the onely nutriment of Gold and Minerals within the same.* 1.101

There is much to be said of the com∣modities of these Countries, which are couched within the bowels of the earth, which I let passe till more perfect triall be made thereof.

Thus coniecturing, till time,* 1.102 with the earnest industrie of our Generall and o∣thers (who by al diligence remaine prest to explore. the truth of that which is vn∣explored, as he hath to his euerlasting praise found out that whiche is like to yéelde an innumerable benefite to his Prince & countrie:) offer further triall, I conclude.

The 23. of August,* 1.103 after wée had sa∣tisfied our mindes with frayght suffici∣ent,

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for oure vessels, though not our co∣uetous desires, with such knowledge of the countrie people and other commodi∣ties as are before rehearsed, the 24. ther∣of wée departed therehence:* 1.104 the 17. of September we fell with ye lands end of England, and so to Milford hauen, from whence our General rode to the Court, for order, to what port or hauen to con∣duct the shippe.

We lost our two Barkes in the way homeward,* 1.105 the one, the 29. of August, the other, the 31. of the same moneth, by oc∣casion of great tempest and fogge. How∣beit, God restored the one to Bristowe, and ye other making his course by Scot∣land to Yermouth. In this voyage wée lost two men, one in the waye by Gods visitation, and the other homewarde cast ouer borde with a surge of the sea.

J Could declare vnto your Honour, the Latitude and Longitude of such pla∣ces and regions,* 1.106 as wée haue béene at, but not altogether so perfect as our mai∣sters and others, with many circum∣stances

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of tempests and other accidents incident to sea faring men, which séeme not altogether straunge, I let passe to their reportes as men most apte to sett forth and declare the same. I haue also left the names of the countries on both the shoares vntouched, for lacke of vn∣derstanding the Peoples language: as also for sundrie respectes, not néedfull as yet to be declared.

Countries new explored, where com∣moditie is to be loked for, doe better ac∣cord with a new name giuen by the ex∣plorers, then an vncerteine name by a doubtfull Authour.

Our General named sundrie Islands, Mounteines, Capes, and Harboroughs after the names of diuers Noble men, and other gentlemen his friends, as wel on the one shoare, as also on the other: not forgetting amongest the reste your Lordship: whiche hereafter (when occasion serueth) are to be de∣clared in his own Mapps or Charts.



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