The famous game of chesse-play truely discouered, and all doubts resolued; so that by reading this small booke thou shalt profit more then by the playing a thousand mates. An exercise full of delight; fit for princes, or any person of what qualitie soeuer. Newly published by A.S. Gent.
Saul, Arthur.
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The famous game of Chesse-play, Truely discouered, and all doubts resolued; So that by reading this small Booke thou shalt profit more then by the playing a thousand Mates. An Exercise full of delight; fit for Princes, or any person of what qualitie soeuer.

Newly published by A. S. Gent.

If on your man you ight
The first draught shall you play,
If not tis mine by right
At first to lead the way

Printed at London for Roger Iackson, and are to be sould at his shop neere Fleetstreet-Conduit. 1614.

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TO THE RIGHT Honourable and Vertuous Lady, the Lady LVCY, Countesse of Bedford, and one of the Ladyes of her Maie∣sties Priuie-Chamber, A. S. wish∣eth all gifts of Honour, with eternall happinesse.

RIGHT Honourable and vertuous Lady, hauing receiued many courtesies from your Honourable Father, late deceased; whose misse hath caused many to mourne for the losse of so Honourable and worthy a friend, and from your Honourable and worthy selfe, who in duty I doe euer reuerence, I haue in desire of shewing thankfulnes made bould to present to your Honour this small Booke, hauing no other gift to tender you; and knowing you euer to Page  [unnumbered] be a fauourer of all Vertue: Therefore may it please you to accept this Worke, being a Princely exercise, whose grace will be a chiefe ornament to the subiect I treat of: It is the discouery of all the secrets of Chesse-play, which of all o∣ther games is the worthiest that euer was deuised, and hath beene practised now 2227. yeers. This therefore being so excellent a game, and so much estee∣med of by the Nobility and Gentry of this our Kingdome, as also in all other Countryes in Christendome. This consi∣dered, J haue therefore imbouldned my selfe to referre the perusing hereof to your Honour, and my selfe to your good opinion, which I tender as that I esteeme most deere: euer remayning in all duety at

Your Honours commaund Arthur Saul.

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To the courteous Reader.

THere haue beene diuers which haue written of the game of Chesse-play, who haue neglected to write the particulars of the Game, but haue spoken some thing which is as much as nothing, for the instruction of the Reader: therefore doe I imagine they wrote all they knew, or otherwise, not so much as they might; wherefore Cour∣teous Reader, if it shall please thee to read this small Booke, which to doe will soone be performed, thou shalt finde in it more then yet hath beene written by any other; in very briefe manner. In this booke shalt thou learne first; the manner how to place the men; next their quality or worth; after that to know how they ought to be playd: then followeth that you vnderstand the Lawes of the game rightly: and after I haue shewed thee some reasons that there can be no rule for this game (as some hold Page  [unnumbered] opinion) then shalt thou finde many plea∣sing playes to giue thee delight and in∣couragement to proceede in exercising this game Also thou shalt learne directly what a darke Mate is; and likewise what a Stale is, and how it falleth out that it is giuen; and lastly, how to giue a Mate all the men being in the field at two draughts without a guard, so that the King checked shall haue no couer nor meanes to relieue himselfe, but of force it shall bee mate.

Vale. A. S.

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To the World.

GOe forth my little Booke,
Thou art no longer mine;
Each man may on thee looke,
The shame or praise is thine.
But seeke thou for no praise,
No thankes, nor yet reward;
Yet all men for to please
Haue thou a chiefe regard.
The labour hath beene mine,
The trauaile and the paine;
Reproches shall be thine.
To beare thou must be faine.
For as to pleasure many
'Twas that I wished euer;
Right so to displease any
I purpose to doe neuer.
But if thou please the best
And such as be of skill,
I passe not for the rest,
Good men accept good-will.
Hadst thou remain'd with me
Thou shouldst haue had no blame;
Since thou abroad wouldst be,
Goe forth and seeke thy fame.

Arthur Saul.

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To the Reader.

THe order of the men in verse,
here also shalt thou finde
Thy knowledge better to increase,
and satisfie thy minde.
First, for the Pawnes here vnderstand
their march is right forth still,
And who so doth before them stand,
they haue no power to kill.
But as they march who so they finde
doe in their colour stand,
Such may they kill or checke a slope,
to the right or left hand.
Not any in the reare of them,
they can once checke or spoile
Forth must they march and not retreate,
but keepe their rancke or file.
Till by command they pointed are,
their King for to releeue;
Then must they bouldly vnto warre,
his foes to vexe and greeue.
And comming at the last in place,
where Knights and Lords did dwell,
Their King shall giue to them like grace,
because they serued him well.
Page  [unnumbered]Thus being Bishops, Knights, or Dukes,
their Kings they'le better steede
The Kings may make of them a Queene,
if they haue any neede.
Yet ere they can such honour haue,
all stormes they must a bide,
And doe their best the Kings to saue,
what danger ere betide.
The Bishops that attend the Kings
a slope doe vse to fight,
The one in blacke doth helpe the King,
the other in the white.
Their checke in field extends as farre
as any of the rest,
What colours they are placed in,
there must they doe their best.
The Bishop blacke in blacke must march
and therein vse his skill,
For in the white he may not come,
no man to hurt or kill.
The Bishop white in white must serue,
so long as he doth liue,
To any which in blacke doth stand,
he cannot one checke giue.
The Duke in valew is halfe a Queene
and halfe her draughts hath he,
Right forth and backe and from each side,
he can giue checke for thee.
Page  [unnumbered]Through all the colours of the field
in such wise may hee checke,
And also when occasion serues
relieue the King with necke.
Like to a horseman doth the Knight
assist the King alwayes,
And ouer ranke or file hee leapes,
his honour for to raise.
When hee giues checke vnto the King,
and is not for it slaine,
The King must moue out of his place,
else-where for to remaine.
The Knights being forth, and comming in
such houses as are white
May help or harme eight wayes them fro,
during the time they fight.
Like all the men within the field,
the Queene may ayde the King,
Yet like a Knight no ayde at all,
she can vnto him bring.
Through all the houses of the field
the Queene may take her pleasure,
And vse her power to help her King
still in a modest measure.
If in the martch she proue seuere,
and taketh all she may,
'Tis for the safegard of the King,
that she makes cleere the way.
Page  [unnumbered]For this she may not blamed be,
that seekes her King to saue,
It is her glory for to striue,
her King in peace to haue.
The King in Maiestie doth martch,
one step at once he goes,
Further no time can he goe forth,
for feare of forraine fooes.
If the blacke King shall bring a man
vnto the white Kings side,
And then and there giue him one guard,
he may there still abide.
Without which help if he presume,
so neere the King to stand,
If neede require such one the King
may kill with his owne hand.
None of the Kings can take a man,
that standeth on a guard,
'Twere checke at once if he doe so,
therefore hee must be spar'd.
Thus may you learne the Kings no time
can into a checke goe,
In places where no perrill is
they may march too and fro.
Know you that this shall read or see,
I wish nought for my paine
If it thee please I haue content,
I seeke no other gaine.

Arthur Saul.

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The contents of this Booke.

  • OF the antiquitie, profit, and pleasure of the game, and what it representeth. Cap. I
  • How to set the men. Cap. Cap. II
  • Controuersies resolued. Cap. III
  • To vnderstand how the men guard each other. Cap. IIII
  • For passing the guard of a Pawne that is aduanced into the fift house. Cap. V
  • The difference, or the aduantage by playing the first draught. Cap. VI
  • What difference there is in the great men and their true worth. Cap. VII
  • The true valew of the Pawnes. Cap. VIII
  • The deniall of rule-play. Cap. IX
  • Aduises for the assailant or defendant. Cap. X
  • How you may giue a Mate at two draughts, all the men being in the field. Cap. XI
  • What benefit may begoten by exchanging man for man. Cap. XII
  • The satisfaction of controuersies by tediousnesse of play. Cap. XIII
  • How a darke Mate, which some call a blind-Mate, is giuen. Cap. XIIII
  • What a stale is, and how that is giuen. Cap. XV
  • For retreating. Cap. XVI
  • When aduantage is gotten how to make vse of it. Cap. XVII
  • A play which one author is of opinion not to be pre∣uented, which I denie. Cap. XVIII
  • The first way to defend that hard play before menti∣oned. Cap. XIX
  • The second way to preuent the former play. Cap. XX
  • A third way to hinder the same play at two draughts. Cap. XXI
  • For the checking of the King without guard. Cap. XXII
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CHAPTER I. Of the Antiquity, Profit and Pleasure of the Game, and what it representeth.

FOr the Antiquitie of this game, I finde vpon Record that it was deuised 614. yeares before the Natiuity of Christ, so that it is now 2227. yeeres since it hath beene first pra∣ctised; and it is thought that Xerxes, who was a King, deuised this game. Secondly, there be some of opinion that it vvas made by learned and wise men, as may appeere by the wonderfull inuention of of the game, for it requireth the whole minde of man, during the time he practi∣seth the same, otherwise hee shall not discerne the purpose of his aduersary, vn∣till Page  [unnumbered] it be too late. Thirdly, whosoeuer he be that is desirous to learne this game of Chesse-play, he ought to be of good ap∣prehention, and a great memory, with∣out the which hee shall neuer play well. Fourthly, if those which play be of equall iudgement, the standers by shall take great delight and pleasure in behoulding them, if they haue knowledge in the game, when they shal see one Kings forces incounter with the other, sometime the blacke King assaulting the white King, who valiantly defendeth the assault, and per∣aduenture putteth him to the worst vpon the least neglect that may be. O that this game were rightly esteemed of, according to his worth: It is many yeeres since I could play this game, and as yet I neuer knew any fall out at the same: for a man cannot be offended with him who he play∣eth withall, but rather blame himselfe for not gouerning his owne men better.

Fiftly, it is apparant what quarrels and so∣daine stabbings happen at other games, with cheating and cosening one another, from all which enormities this is free, ha∣uing Page  [unnumbered] the glory aboue all other games, for a peaceable and a Princely exercise. Sixt∣ly, it is to be vnderstood that this game representeth two Armies encountring each other: so that when the blacke King shall assault the white, the white King may presently draw forth many of his men to make good the place assaulted. And for as much as the number of chesse-men are but few, you will say when an assault is made at any time there cannot many men be drawne forth to make good the place assaulted: for by bringing too much ayde to one place, you shall weaken another, so that thereby you may hazard all: to which I answere, that albeit the number of the men is small, yet by the playing forth of one man you shall hinder the assault of two or three; as for example.

Imagine that the blacke King for his first draught playeth his owne Pawne into the third house in his owne file, and that the white King entertaineth another pur∣pose, not comming into the field in such manner as the blacke King doth, but play∣eth his Queenes Dukes pawne into the Page  [unnumbered] third house in his owne file, then the black King for his second draught brings forth his Queene, and placeth her in the third house, in the front of his Bishops pawne, entending at his fourth draught to giue mate to the white King, al which the white King seeth, & yet for his second draught playeth carelesly somewhere els, and doth not seeme to take knowledge what the blacke King intendeth to doe: the blacke King for more assurance of preuayling bringeth forth his owne Bishop into the fourth house, before his Queenes bishop; all which is as much as nothing: for that the white King by playing his own pawne into the third house in his owne file, the blacke King by such play shall fayle of his purpose: but if the white King shall forget to hinder the blacke Kings assault at his third draught, then the blacke King shall giue mate at his fourth draught to the white King by taking the white Kings bi∣shops pawne with his Queene, who shal be guarded with his owne Bishop, so that it is a schollers mate, but there is no man of iudgement in Chesse-play will take such a Page  [unnumbered] mate; it may be called also a treacherous mate; for otherwise it were vnpossible a King should be deliuered into the hands of his enemyes, without the losse of some men, vnlesse the white Kings power would make sleepe a defence for treason, and so suffer their King to be taken before they would take any knowledge thereof.

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It on your man you ight,
The first draught shall you play,
If not 'tis mine by right,
At first to lead the way.

CHAP. II. How to place the men.

THe boord standing here as thou seest thou shalt place the blacke King in the fourth house being white, and the white King you shall place in a blacke house being the fourth house on the other side, iust opposite against the blacke King; then Page  [unnumbered] place the white Queene next her King in a white house, which is the fourth house on that side of the field; Likewise you shall place the black Queene in a blacke house next to her king, which shall also be the fourth house on the blacke Kings side.

Thus when you haue placed the Queenes next to their Kings, then shal you place on the other side of the Kings, first a Bishop, then a Knight, and next to the Knight you shall place a Duke, whose place is in the first house of the field: the Queenes haue either of them likewise one Bishop, one Knight, and one Duke; the Kings haue ei∣ther of them foure Pawnes, and three No∣ble-men, and the Queenes haue the like, the Kings Pawnes are these: first, their owne Pawnes, next their Bishops Pawnes, then their Knights Pawnes, and last of all their Dukes Pawnes: the Queenes they haue also three Noble-men and foure Pawnes, which are these: first, their owne Pawnes, then their Bishops Pawnes, next their Knights Pawnes, and last of all their Dukes Pawnes. The Pawnes stand before the Noble-men from one corner of the Page  [unnumbered] field to the other, the Pawnes haue all one manner of proceeding, which shall be shewed vnto thee, when wee come to speake of the aduancing of the men and of the difference that is betweene them.

CHAP. III. A Controuersie resolued.

ANd for as much as many times in play some men will be fingering and taking vp of his aduersaries men, and then out of the abundance of his vvit, thinketh to play better in some other place, and so setteth downe his aduer∣saries man againe, this is very fowle play, for albeit it is true he cannot play his ad∣uersaries man, so also it is true hee may not take him off his place, vnlesse hee throw him out of the field, and install his owne man in the same house where the other stood, for by the taking vp of a man in such a fashion and not to play it, some a iudge the player for his punish∣ment, Page  [unnumbered] to kisse the foote of the man which he so taketh vp, but indeed of right hee ought to loose halfe his stake that at any time vseth such play, and if a man touch a man of his owne, and will not play him, then hee ought directly to loose the game, and it is knowne vnto all men that can play, that if you touch any of your owne men you must play him, and looke what colour you touch with your man so taken vp, in the same colour or house shall hee stand; and if at any time the player which so playeth refueth so to doe, the other may lawfully take vp his owne stake and play no further of that game.

A chiefe lesson to be obserued in this play.

And for as much as some in the time their aduersary is framing his pur∣pose where to play, they will be talking, or singing, or vsing some apish trickes to trouble the minde of him vvhom they play against, this is held also very fowle play, and ought not to be vsed at this game, vpon paine of loosing the third Page  [unnumbered] part of his stake, that vseth it, for it is a game in which silence is to be vsed, and all deuises whatsoeuer layde a side, that may trouble one another in the time of their play: this being obserued thou art freed from the penalty before menti∣oned.

A Caueate for such as will condition to giue a Mate.

Imagine that two were a playing, and that many men on both sides were lost and no odes in the men of either side, so that the game were indifferent, that then I say, one of the gamsters should giue ouer the game and draw his stake, the other at this seeming to be a grieued, thinking his men standeth better then the others which hath giuen ouer, he saith, had you playd out the game I should haue wonne it, & the other replying, demandeth what hee will lay more one the game, the party a∣grieued vpon this offereth a crowne more, that hee will winne the Mate, now here is a condition, which if hee performe Page  [unnumbered] not he looseth both his first and last stake: The way for him that taketh any man vpon such condition, is still to change, and to bring it vnto a dead game, and so shall he this way winne the stakes, by reason the other had tyed himselfe by obligation to giue the Mate, wherefore let any one take heed how he entreth into such condition; for who so doth it giueth the other aduantage, whether it be at the beginning of the mate, or after, it is all one.

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CHAP. IIII. How the men guard each other.

THe Kings haue either of them seauen men a piece, and the Queenes as many to attend them: The King, whether hee be blacke or white, giueth guard to fiue persons before hee goeth forth, and being once aduanced forward into the Page  [unnumbered] field, although it be but into the second house, hee then, and still after, in all his march giueth guard to eight houses, till he come to one side or other of the field againe. Now those fiue whom hee guar∣deth before hee goeth forth are these: first of all hee guardeth his Queene, on whom his greatest care dependeth: se∣condly his owne Bishop: thirdly his owne Pawne: fourthly his Queenes Pawne; and lastly his Bishops Pawne. The Queene protecteth her King, her Bishop, her owne Pawne, her Kings Pawne, and her Bishops Pawne: by this you see the Queene guardeth as many as the King, before she goeth forth, and after till the field be wonne or lost: the Kings Duke giueth guard to his owne Pawne, and the Kings Knight, and to no more, till hee be from the side of the field, and then hee giueth guard to foure houses, and in like sort is the power of the Queenes Duke: the Kings Bishop giueth guard to the Kings Pawne, and the Kings Knights Pawne: the Queenes Bishop giueth guard to the Queenes Pawne, and the Queenes knights Page  [unnumbered] Pawne, the Knights giueth guard but to three houses before they goe forth, and after they are from the side of the field, they giue guard to as many houses as the King or the Queene doth. Now those houses whom the Knights guard ere they goe forth, are these, the Kings Knight giueth guard to the Kings Pawne, and to the third house in the front of the Kings Bishops Pawne, and to the third house in the front of the Kings Dukes Pawne: the Queenes Knight giueth guard to her owne Pawne, and to the third house in the front of her Bishops Pawne, as also to the third house in the front of her owne Duke: The Bishops of either side are tyed to one onely colour, out of the vvhich they may not goe, the vvhite Bishops haue the command of the white field, and the blacke Bishops the command of the blacke field, and they martch sloping forward or backward if way be made for them, and can indanger or giue checke from one corner of the field to the other: The Pawnes who stand in rancke before the King and the Nobility, I shal shew you Page  [unnumbered] their manner of guard which they giue before they be aduanced or moued off their places: The Kings Pawne giueth guard to the third house before the Queene, and the third house before the Kings Bishop: the Queenes Pawne giueth guard to the thrid house before the King, & the third house before her owne Bishop, the Kings Bishops Pawne giueth guard to the third house before the King, and the third house before the Kings Knight: the Queenes Bishops Pawne giueth guard to the third house before the Queene, and the third house before the Queenes Knight, the Kings Knights Pawne giueth guard to the third house before the Kings Bishop, and to the third house before the Kings Duke: the Queenes Knights Pawne giueth guard to the third house before the Queenes Bishop, and to the third house before the Queenes Duke: the Kings Dukes Pawnes, and the Queenes Dukes Pawnes giueth but one guard a peice, and that is to the third houses before the Knights, by reason they stand on the side of the Page  [unnumbered] field: Thus haue I shewed you from the King to the Pawne, how the men guard each other before there be any of them stirred off their places.

CHAP. V. For passing the guard of a Pawne.

FOr as much as many times there is question made, whether a Pawne of the white Kings, may passe the guard of the blacke Kings, at his first going forth, if the blacke King haue aduanced a Pawne into the fift house, without leaue of the blacke King: whereunto I answere no, for this is a rule strictly obserued in martiall dissipline, from whence this game had his first beginning, that no man shall be permitted to passe by any guard with∣out leaue first obtained, yet at this game the Pawnes may passe the guard one of another, this house, or houses, onely ex∣cepted: for if a Pawne be aduanced into the fift house by the blacke King, and Page  [unnumbered] that the white Kings Pawne might passe without leaue, it would many times be the ouer-throwing of the blacke Kings game: and further it is held fowle play, to play forth your Pawne by the guard of another Pawne so aduanced, vvithout crauing leaue: so then if the King, who hath aduanced a Pawne into the fift house, will suffer you to passe you may, because there is power in him to deny you such a fauour, as well as to grant you the priuiledge of such a liberty: and thus much for the readers satisfaction, that you may not passe the guard of a Pawne that is aduanced into the fift house with∣out leaue. Some therebe also that are per∣swaded if the King be once checked, hee shall loose the benefit of releeuing him∣selfe in any of the Dukes quarters, what extremity soeuer he be driuen vnto, albe∣it the King checked doth couer the checke giuen him: such as are of this opinion are in the wrong, for so long as the checked King can couer the checke giuen him, and not remoue to auoyd the checke, nor hath not moued before vp∣on Page  [unnumbered] no occasion he hath still the benefit of exchanging vvith any of his Dukes, but if hee be once remoued from his place, whither it be for the releeuing of one of his men, or vpon compulsion for the auoyding of a checke, he shall then after such time loose the benefit of ex∣changing with the Duke.

CHAP. VI. Whether it be aduantage to haue the first draught, yea or no.

FOr satisfying the reader in this point, it is certaine there is aduantage by playing first,* for vvho so hath the first draught, if hee can play well, shall make the other still defendant, and will visit him vvith such attempts and assaults, wherein if the King defendant faile in the least point to answere, he shall assured∣ly loose the field; but betweene such as know not the game rightly, it is no mat∣ter which of them playeth first, by reason Page  [unnumbered] they know not when they haue vantage one of another, and if it fall out that the one of them should haue such cleere eyes, as to discerne hee hath the better of the game, and cannot make vse of his aduantage, betweene such young scollers it skilleth not who playeth first.

CHAP. VII. What difference there is in the great men, and of their true worth.

MAny there are who can play a little at this game,* that perswade them∣selues if they can take one great man for another they shall doe well enough, but it is not so, for there is a great deale of difference in the men, and first of all for the King, who albeit he is King, and that his command is to be obayed of his sub∣iects, yet it is in all the Counsaile of warre held vnfit for the King to hazard his person at any time, and therefore hee doth ordaine a Generall vnder him, to Page  [unnumbered] haue the command of the army, which generall shall haue vnder him Coronels, Captaines, and other inferiour officers for his assistance, for the better gouer∣ning of the army: Euen so at this game there is a generall, which is the Queene, for shee doth more seruice then any too Dukes can, and if it happen at any time that shee should be lost, the King, whose Queene is taken, must forsake the field of force, vnlesse the aduerse King, be a very silly King, and cannot make vse of such aduantage. And yet to make the Reader to vnderstand this better, know this, if the white King should in the taking the blacke Kings Queene lose two of his Noble-men, as his two Dukes, or his two Bishops, or his two Knights, yet the white King shall haue the better, for his losse is not so great as the blacke Kings, vvho hath lost his Queene. Some that write of Chesse-play calleth the Queene the A∣mazon, because the Amazonites goe to warre as familiarly as the men. Next to the Queene for valew is a Duke, for by how much a Queene is more in worth Page  [unnumbered] then a Duke, by so much a Duke is more in valew then a Bishop or a Knight, for a Duke is vvorth two Bishops or two Knights, by reason hee can giue a Mate himselfe with the help of the King, which a Bishop or a Knight cannot doe. Now you say two Bishops can giue a Mate with the help of the King, it is true, but the Duke will doe it sooner: also a Mate is to be giuen vvith a Bishop and a Knight, and this is also true, but hee must play well that can giue a Mate with them, yet you see euery Scoller at Chesse-play can giue a Mate with a King and a Duke Be∣sides a Dukes checke goeth from one side of the field to the other throughout all the colours, and a Bishops checke serueth but for one colour in the field, therefore you must haue both the Bishops to doe the seruice vvhich one Duke can discharge: and therefore I con∣clude, that a Duke is better then two Bishops, and for the Bishops they are bet∣ter then the Knights, by reason they can giue a Mate vvith the King, vvhen no other men are left to help them, which Page  [unnumbered] the Knights cannot doe, and therefore they are counted better then the Knights; but I had rather loose a Bishop at any time then a Knight, for his checke is more dangerous then a Bishops: the Bishop is tyed to one colour in the field, out of the which hee may not passe, the Knight passeth into all the houses in the field: the Bishops checke may be couered, the Knights checke cannot: there is couer for all the checkes in the field that may be giuen, from the Queene to the Pawne, the Knights onely excepted, for whose checke there is no couer: and if it fall out at any time that a Knight giueth checke, and the King that is checked cannot take the Knight without great losse, he must needes flye of force, there is no couering for his checke, as I haue sayd before. I could say more in the behalfe of the Knights; as thus, when the one King hath no other men left but his Bishops, and the other King no help but his Knights, the King that hath the Knights, may happely in checking the King that hath the Bishops, take one of the Bishops, Page  [unnumbered] and so after by another checke take the other, by reason the Bishops cannot guard one another, which the Knights can doe, and at the beginning of the game, I had rather loose my Bishops for my aduersaries Knights, then that I should exchange my Knights for the gayning my aduersaries Bishops: and thus much shall serue for the explaining of the difference of the great men.

CHAP. VIII. The worth of the Pawnes.

ANd for the Pawnes, there is not so much to be said of them, as there hath beene of the Noble-men, by reason there is not so much variety in their draughts, as there is in the great men: The Kings Bishops Pawne is the best Pawne in the field, and therefore there ought more care to bee had ouer him, then any other Pawne in the field; for if it should happen that the blacke King Page  [unnumbered] should loose his Bishops Pawne, for the gaining of the white Kings Pawne: yet the blacke Kings losse were the greater, for that hee after such losse can neuer be able to make a rancke of Pawnes, with three in a rancke, no more on that side of the field, for his owne safty which is a great disaduantage, vvherefore it vvere better for any of the Kings to loose his owne Pawne, then to loose his Bishops Pawne. But you will say, if any of the Kings should loose his Bishops Pawne, can he not releeue himselfe on the other side of the field, by turning ouer into his Queenes Dukes quarter, where he shall haue Pawnes enough to succor him: I an∣swer he may doe so, but he will be longer ere he bring his purpose to effect, because he hath more men betweene his Queenes Duke and him, then there is betweene him and his owne Duke by one draught, in the playing of which draught, ere hee can bring his King into safty, he shall be sure to loose the game, if hee play with one that can make vse of any idle draught: thus much shall suffice for the Page  [unnumbered] worth of the Kings Bishops Pawne, the Kings Pawne is next vnto him in worth, then the Queenes Pawne after the Knights Pawne, and last of all the Dukes Pawnes, for they giue guard but to one house in the field: and thus I end with the Pawnes for their valew and worth.

The diuersity of Mates, and which are worthy of praise, or disspraise.

THe Mate with a Queene, a louing mate.

A Mate with the Bishop, a gentle mate.

The Mate giuen with a Duke, a graci∣ous mate.

A Mate with the Knight, an honoura∣ble mate.

The Mate giuen with a Pawne, a dis∣gracefull mate.

A Mate by discouery, the worthiest of all.

The Mate giuen in a corner of the field, was Alexanders mate.

A Mate in the Midea of the field, an vn∣fortunate Page  [unnumbered] fortunate Mate.

The Mate giuen on the side of the field, a foolish Mate.

A blinde Mate, a shamefull mate.

The Stale, a dishonourable mate.

CHAP. IX. That there is no Rule for this game.

FOR as much as some are perswaded there is a Rule for this game, I thought good to giue the Reader, as I may, some satisfaction to the contrary. If there were a Rule for this game euery Woodcocke would bee a Chesse-player; but indeede there is none: if there were a Rule for it, then there should be but one manner of beginning, and one manner of ending, which cannot be; for hee that can play knoweth, sometime the game is begunne with some of the Pawnes, another time with any of the Knights: againe, one while marching forth with some of the Pawnes, and some of the Noble-men; at Page  [unnumbered] another time giuing an assault onely with Noble-men. Also if there were a Rule for the game how commeth it to passe that a Mate is to be giuen with any of the men in the field vpon guard, and some of the men will giue a Mate without a guard? and that is when the distressed King is driuen to the side of the field, or a corner of the field, the pursuing King lodging in the third house opposite against him: then the Queene assaylant, or one of the Dukes assailant, giueth the Mate to the distres∣sed King, by falling into any of the houses, in the same rancke where the distressed King standeth; but vpon guard any of the Pawnes, or of the Bishops, or any of the Knights can also giue a Mate: further, it is certaine, that a Mate may be giuen in any house in the field: now there are 64. houses, then you will say there must be as many rules, to bring to passe that the King may be Mated in any of these houses, and when you haue proued that, then you must bring forth so many seuerall rules as there are men in the field: for that they all can vpon guard Page  [unnumbered] giue a Mate, after all this I will demand for rules how to giue a Mate vpon disco∣uery, and then you must finde as many more rules for that, by reason euery man can discouer whereby a Mate may bee giuen. Thus mayest thou see courteous reader that I haue shewed thee, if there be a rule, there must be more then one, or a hundreth: and from the first time I knew this game to this present day, I neuer could meete with any man, that could shew me one rule for this game, for indeed it is according to the pur∣poses of them that play, and not by any rule: also I doe perswade my selfe, if any man would play with me, and obserue a rule in his play, and not regard my com∣ming forth against him, I shall assuredly giue him a Mate, doe what he can.

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CHAP. X. Aduises for the assaylant and defendant.

NOw for the Reader that is desirous to practise this game, hee must obserue one thing diligently, which is, if hee chance to haue the first draught, and find himselfe able to assault, let him follow it well; if better able to defend, then giue the other leaue to assault; in both there is great pollicie to bee vsed: and first for him that assaulteth. Hee that assaulteth ought to hold his passages free, for him to retreat as occasion shall serue; least his negligence herein procure his ouerthrow when hee shall be constrayned to retreat. The defendant, if hee be excellent in the game, will not onely answere the assault sufficiently, but hee will also deuise plots to grieue the assailant when he shall take occasion to retreat. A pawne is soone in∣trapped, because hee cannot goe backe to relieue himselfe: the Bishops and the Dukes are more harder to be intrapped, Page  [unnumbered] because they can flye from one side of the field to the other, if they feare any euill; but the Knights, and the Queene is the hardest of all to be betrayed, by reason they haue so many places for to relieue themselues in, and specially the Queene.

CHAP. XI. How you shall giue a Mate at two draughts all the men being in the field.

FIrst, take the Boord, and all the men, and when you haue placed them right, then let the blacke King, for his first draught, aduance his Bishops Pawne into the third house, before his owne Bishop; then cause the white King for his first draught to play his owne Pawne into the third house before himselfe: then the blacke King for his second draught shall play his Knights Pawne into the fourth house, before his owne Knight, and then the white King for his second draught shall play his Queene into the fift house, Page  [unnumbered] before his owne Duke, where she shall giue checke and mate to the blacke King. Here you may see a Mate may be giuen at two draughts; but seldome or neuer shall you see a good player receiue such a Mate.

CHAP. XII. By exchanging Man for Man, what benefit hee shall reape that vseth it.

VVHen you shall play with any one that playeth better with his Queene then hee can with his other men, with such an one change Queene for Queene; for there are many after they haue lost their Queene doe not know how to play, by reason they vnderstand not the right vse of the men: Other some will also in like manner play better with their Knights; with such also vse exchange, and for the other men doe the like. You see for example, some men can play very well with Rapier and Poniard, that cannot vse Page  [unnumbered] any other weapon; whereas he is esteemed for a Maister that is skilfull at all manner of weapons: so at this game, he that hath the right vse of all his men, with such a one you shall profit nothing by exchang∣ing man for man, yet who so vseth such play is not to be blamed, for there is much aduantage to be gotten by such play, if you consider rightly of it: this much shall suffice for the exchanging of men vpon euen termes, the men being both of one quallity and power.

CHAP. XIII. For satisfaction of controuersies by tedious∣nesse of play.

THere are some of opinion, that a Mate may be giuen at fifty draughts, and if so be it be not giuen you at fifty draughts, you may take vp your stakes and beg on: to such I answere, it is true, a Mate may be so soone woone and at fewer draughts also, but put the case Page  [unnumbered] that any King being in a Citie or Towne, should bee by some forraine King be∣siged, and that after some ten, twenty, forty, or fift dayes were expired, the King within the Citie, should say to the forraine King, for as much SYR King, as you haue continued now your sige fifty dayes, and cannot make mee yeeld, nor take me your prisoner, therefore you must depart: no, this ought not to be imbraced, for if hee cannot winne it in fifty dayes, he will proue fifty weekes, or fifty months, but he will haue it: so also is this game of Chesse, if the one King cannot Mate the other at fifty draughts, he may proue a hundreth more, for hee is not to be tyed to any certaine number of draughts: for I haue knowne some haue beene a playing one game a whole day, and sometime againe I haue seene fiue, or sixe, played in one hower, but be it many draughts or few, if you giue the Mate you shall be sure to winne.

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CHAP. XIIII. How a darke Mate, which some call a blind-Mate, may be giuen.

A Darke Mate, or a blind-Mate is all one, for if a Mate be giuen, and hee which giueth it seeth it not, you may say it was darke, he wanted light, or hee was blind, otherwise hee would haue seene it. When two playeth earnestly, and that one of them followeth the checke vpon the other, and if it fall out that one of the checkes be also a Mate, and hee that giueth it seeth it not, as I haue sayd before, then is such a Mate called a blind-Mate: and for as much as there are some vvhich stand vpon this, that a blind-Mate should be a lost game, know this, it may not be so; for if a man hath a horse that falleth blind, the owner there∣of shall haue his former right in him, which hee had before hee was blind, and shall be esteemed for a horse for all his blindnesse, so hee which giueth a blind-Mate Page  [unnumbered] shall not loose the Mate, but shall notwithstanding winne. To end this con∣trouersie and blemish of dishonour, let him that can giue checke at any time, see first whether it will not be Mate also to the other King, before hee giue the checke, and finding it will be a Mate, then to vse these words, checke Mate, and straight vvay the controuersie is ended. Let this therefore resolue the reader, that a Mate vvhich wee call a blind-Mate, is a Mate, and shall winne.

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CHAP. XV. What a stale is, and how it is giuen.

NOw for as much as a stale is very dishonourable to him that giueth it, I will shew the reader, or any other that is desirous to be resolued what it mea∣neth, and for such as vnderstand the game already, they shall witnesse with me whether I explaine it rightly vnto you or no: first, you shall vnderstand a stale is a lost game by him that giueth it, and no question to be made further ther∣of: therefore let him that followeth the flying King take heede that hee forbeare not a checke, if he doe see that the distres∣sed King haue a place to flye vnto, for the nearer that the dissressed King is brought to be mated, the sooner a Stale may bee giuen.

Imagine the white King were in the middle of the field, or any other place of the field, beset round about, hauing onely Page  [unnumbered] but one way to escape, which way the blacke King likewise stoppeth, without gi∣uing checke, and this way commeth the Stale; for if the white King haue lost all his men, or hauing any left he cannot play them, and himselfe so inclosed about with the enemie, that now hee hath but one place to flye vnto, which his enemie the blacke King also stoppeth without checke, then this is a stale: wherefore I shall aduise those which are desirous to practise this game, that they take heede they giue not a stale, least thereby they purchase vnto themselues such shame, which will not after be put away without much blushing.

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CHAP. XVI. What care ought to be vsed in retrea∣ting.

FOR retreating, if the blacke King maketh a retreate, and not vpon con∣straint, the white King may be assured it is to get some further aduantage a∣gainst him, wherefore it is wisedome not to be too earnest in following such retreat, least your rash pursuite be too late la∣mented.

CHAP. XVII. For aduantage gotten, how to make vse thereof.

VVHen it shall happen that the blacke King hath gotten aduan∣tage of the white King, let him weaken Page  [unnumbered] the white King so much as hee can, by changing with him man for man, till he be assured his aduantage shall profit him, for we see if two Kings armies meete and fight, the one hauing gotten the better of the other, hee forth-with vseth the sword till hee maketh him that hath the worst yeeld the glory of the field vnto him: I remember that a Noble-man vpon a time said, too much mercy was rigor, wherefore he that hath the better of his enemy let him make vse of it, hee ought not to be blamed, but that King is worthy of much blame, who after hee hath the better of his enemie, doth not∣withstanding loose the same againe, by forbearing his sword, when with praise and honour he might bouldly vse it, and for reward be crowned King of the field.

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CHAP. XVIII. A play which one author affirmeth that no man possibly can preuent, and this is the play.

FIrst take your boord and the men, and after you haue set vp the men, then play thus: let the white King for his first draught aduance his owne Pawne into the fourth house in his owne file, then the blacke King shall aduance his Pawne as farre forth in the same manner, then the white King for his second draught playeth his owne Knight into the third house, before his owne Bishop, and the blacke King for his second draught shall bring forth his owne Knight in the same order: then the white King for his third draught, with his Knight taketh the blacke Kings Pawne, and the blacke King at his third draught, with his Knight taketh the white Kings Pawne; then the white King Page  [unnumbered] at his fourth draught bringeth forth his Queene, which he placeth in the second house in his owne file, this being perceiued by the blacke King at his fourth draught, his Knight to retreate into some place of more safty for feare of the white Kings Queene; the white King at his fift draught shall aduance his Knight into the third house, before the blacke Kings Queenes Bishop, and so giueth checke by discoue∣ry to the blacke King, with the white Kings Queene, which checke the blacke King howsoeuer hee couereth it, yet hee shall loose his Queene remedilesly, for the white Kings Knight at his sixt draught shal ouerthrow the blacke Kings Queene, who cannot be played out of the Knights guard howsoeuer the checke be couered, this being the play which is so hard to be preuented, I shall shew you three seue∣rall wayes to make this easie euen at to draughts.

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CHAP. XIX. The first way to make a defence for the hard play before mentioned.

IMagine the white King for his first draught playeth his owne pawne into the fourth house before himselfe, and the blacke King for his first draught playeth his Pawne in the like manner; then the white King shall play for his second draught, his owne Knight, into the third house before his owne Bishop, and the blacke King to hinder the comming on of the white Kings Knight, for his se∣cond draught aduanceth his Queenes Pawne into the third house, before his Queene for to guard his owne Pawne, so that the white Kings purpose this way is made frustrate.

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CHAP. XX. Another way to hinder the same play.

SEcondly, imagine the white King for his first draught, playeth forth his owne Pawne into the fourth house before himselfe, and that the blacke King doth the like for his first draught, then the white King commands his owne Knight into the third house before his owne Bishop, then you shall play the blacke Kings Knight in the same order, then the white King with his Knight taketh away the blacke Kings Pawne, and the blacke King with his Knight at his third draught taketh away the white Kings Pawne, then the white King at his fourth draught aduanceth his Queenes Pawne into the third house before his Queene, whereby the blacke Kings Knight shall be forced to flye: after this the white King for his fift draught may couer his King, Page  [unnumbered] as he will, for the game is equall, and this is also the second defence for the play spoken of before.

CHAP. XXI. The third way to hinder the same play at the second draught.

IMagine the blacke King for his first draught aduanceth his Pawne into the fourth house before himselfe, then shall you play the white Kings Pawne for his first draught in the same order, then the blacke King for his second draught playeth his owne Knight into the third house before his owne Bishop, after this the white King shall place his Queene in the second house before himselfe, for his second draught: So then the blacke King dares not medle vvith the vvhite Kings Pawne, for feare of loosing his Knight, by reason the white Queene Page  [unnumbered] guardeth the Pawne, and this is done at two draughts: I could shew you also other playes for the same; but this shall suffice.

CHAP. XXII. For the checking of the King without guard.

IF a Pawne, or any other man in the field be so hardy, as to giue checke vn∣to any of the Kings without a guard, and that his checke bee giuen the King in such a house where the King may indan∣ger, those men may the King destroy himselfe, but if they haue guard he may not medell vvith them for going into checke: yet the King that is so braued by his enemie, may cause any of his vnder-officers, that hath guard vpon that house wherein the King is checked, to kill any such one which shall presume to checke the King without guard.

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For your last lesson learne this.

The Kings, what danger soeuer they are in, may not presse one vpon another, for there must be alwayes one house free betweene them, neither can they checke one another: and when it shall happen that there is no place for the distressed King to flye vnto, but that hee must seeke for reliefe in his aduerse Kings bosome, then is it Mate.

The Conclusion.

THus gentle Reader, after thou hast learned to know thy men, and how to place them, which by this booke thou shalt easily doe, then not to play forth a man without a guard; after that to know well the difference and valew of the men, how much one is better then another, and what aduantage it is to play first, then to be carefull when you exchange Page  [unnumbered] that you exchange not for the worst; then to practise, and it shall suffice, for practise is the chiefest of all to bring thee to perfectnesse. Read this booke often, and obserue vvell vvhat thou findest in it, and it shall profit thee more then the playing of a hundreth games: as for the lawes of the game thou shalt finde them in this booke also. Thus hauing indeuoured my selfe to shew thee courteous Reader what I can, for thy in∣struction, wishing thy loue to this game may be equall to the worthinesse thereof, then shall all other games by thee be little respected and lesse practised, which no doubt shall giue thee much quietnesse and profit. Farewell.