❧ The Boke of Nurtur for men seruauntes, and children, with Staus puer ad mensam, newelye corrected, verye vtyle and necessarye vnto all youth.
THERE is fewe thynges to bee v•derstande more necessarye, then to teache and gouerne children in learning and good man•r. For it is a high seruice to god, it encreaseth fauour, it multiplyeth goodes, and increaseth thy good name, it increaseth prai•r, and by prayer grace, and to vse children in v•rtue and good learnynge. The cause of the world being so euill in liuinge, as it is, is for lacke of ver¦tue in youth. Which youth sheweth the disposicid of their parentes or maisters, vnder whome they haue beene go∣uerned. For youth is disposed to take suche as they are ac•ustomed in, good or euill. For if the conuersation of the gouernour bee euill: needes must the childe bee euyll. A•d thus by the chyld ye •hall perceyue the dysposycion of the gouernoure. For of euyll examples many daungers and abhominable sinnes foloweth. For the whiche bothe the disciple and the maister shall suffre, and doth daylye. It is also necessarye for a gouernour to vse them in faire speche, and set to well theyr wordes with good aduyse∣ment without stamerynge. And yf ye putte theym to schole awaye from you, see ye putte theym to a dyscrete maister that canne punisshe sharpelye with pacienc• and no• with rigour, for it doth oft times make them to rebel and run awai. Wherof chaūseth oft times much harme. Page [unnumbered] Also their parentes must oft times instruct them of god, & of his lawes, and vertuous instructions of his woorde▪ and other good examples, and suche like. And thus by ly∣tle and lytle they shall come to the knowledge of reason, faith, and good christen liuing. For as S Paule saith vn¦to Timothie. He that doth not regarde the cure & charge of them that are vnder the charge of •is gouernaunce, he denieth the faith, and is worse th•n a Pagan. And take good hede of anye new seruantes that you take into your house, & how ye put them in authoritie amonge your chil¦dren: and take hede howe they spende that is geuen th•m. Also apose your seruantes of theyr beleife, and also yf they bringe anye thinge home that is misse taken, or tell tales or newes of detraction, ye shall than reproue them sharpely, if they will not learne, auoid them out of your house: for it is great quietnes to haue people of good fa∣•ion in a house. Apparrell not your children or seruauntes that are of lawful discretion in sumtuous apparel: for it encreaseth pride and ob•tinacie, and many other euils oft times. Nor let your childrē go whether thei wil but know where thei go, in what cōpany, and what they haue done, good or euil. Take hede thei speake no wordes of vilany, for it causeth much corruptiō to engender in thē, nor shew them much carnal loue: & s• that thei vse honest sportes & games▪ Marke wel what vice thei are speciallye inclined vnto (breake it be tymes) and oft tymes vse them to heare the worde of god preached, and then enquire of them what thei hard preached, & vse them not to read fained fables, or vaine fantacies, of folysh loue it is time lost. For if thou learne pure and clene doctrine in youth, thou shalt powre out plenty of good and pure waters in thine age: & yf any strife or debate be amōg them at night, charitably cal thē to gether, and with wordes or stripes make thē al to agre in one. Take heede if thy seruaunt or childe murmure or Page [unnumbered] grudge against thee, breake it be time. And when thou hearest thē sweare or curse, lie or fight: thou shalt reproue them sharply. And ye that are frendes or kin, shal laboure how to mak• them to loue and drede you, as wel for loue as for feare.
☞The maner of seruing a knight, squier, or gentleman.
FYrst ye must be diligēt to know your maisters plea¦sure, & to know the order & custome of his house. For diuers maisters are of sūdrie cōdicions & ape∣tites. And if thou be admytted in any office, as buttrie or pantrie, in some places thei are both one: take an inuitory of suche thynges as ye take charge of, howe it is spent. For it pleaseth a maister muche to haue a trew rekenyng: then in your office of the pantry, se that your br•ad be chip¦ped and squared▪ and note how mu•h ye spend in one day. And se your na•ry clean•, and •ort euery •hynge by it selfe, the cleane from the foule, ke•• euery house of office cl•ne, and all that 〈…〉: when your maister will go to his 〈…〉 about your necke, then take a cup 〈…〉, and a towel, to araye your cup∣bord 〈…〉, set on bread, salt, & trenchers, the salt 〈…〉 trēchers before the salt: set your nap¦kins 〈…〉 cupbord readie, and lay euery man a trench••〈…〉, and a spone: and yf ye haue mo meases then 〈…〉 maisters table, considre what degre thei be of, 〈…〉 after ye may serue them: & then set downe euery th•n•• at that mease as before, except your keruing kniues: •f ••ere be many gentlemen or yomen, then set on bread 〈◊〉•renchers, spones after they be set, or els after the cul••••f the house. And some do vse to set before eue¦ry man a lofe of bread and his cup, & some vse the cōtrary thus must yo• haue respect to the order of the house, and in some places it is vsed to set dryncke, and a lofe or two. Page [unnumbered] In some places the ker•er doth vse to shew and set down and goth before the course and beareth no dish, & in some place, he beareth the first dish, and maketh obeysaunce to his maister, & setteth it downe couered before the degre of a knyght, or els not vsed, and take the couers and se• thē by. Also the karuer hath aucthoritie to karue to all at hys maysters mease, and also vnto other that syt io•ninge by them if he liste, see ye haue voyders readye for to auo•de the morsels that they doe leaue on theyr trenchers. Then with your trenchour knife take of suche fragmentes, and put it in your voyder, and set them cleane a gaine. Al your soueraignes trench•urs, or breade, voyde theym once or twise, speciallye when they are wet, or geue theim cleane. And as ye se men leaue eatyng of the fy•st and secōd dishe so auoyd them from the table. And than if that so bee ye haue any more courses than one or two, ye maye make the more hast in voyding, and euer let one dishe or two stande til the next course, and than take vp al, and set downe fresh and cleane voyders withal, and let them not bee to ful or ye emptie them and then set cleane agayn, and loke what sause is ordayned for anye meate, voyde the sause therof when ye take a way the meate. And at the degre of a knyght ye may set down your cup cou•red, & lifte of the couer, and set it on a gayne, and when he lysteth to drinke and taketh of the cou•r, take the couer in thy hand and set it on againe, when he hath dronken loke the cup of wyne or ale be not empt•e, but oft renewed. Also the karuer shall break his dishe before his maister, or at a sidecupbourde, with cleane kniues, & se there lacke not bread nor drinke, & when men haue wel eaten, & do •egin to waxe wery of ea∣ting, or if ye perceyue by the coūtenaunce of your maister when ye shal take vp the mea•, & voyde the table, begin at the lowest mease, take away your spones, if there be anye how be it ye may auoid thē, after brothes & baked meates Page [unnumbered] are past. Then take away your •o•ders & your dyshes of meate as they were se• downe, so take t•em vp in order. Then se• down •hese or 〈◊〉, and that ended void your chese & frui•es and couer your cup, al• or wyne, first vo•de the ale, and then the wine, then set on a brode voyder & put therin the small peces of breade and small cromes, with trenchers & napkyns, & with your trencher knife or nap∣kin make clene the table, then set awaye your bread hole, & also your voyder, then take vp the salte and make ob••∣saunce, marke if your maister vse to wash at the ta•le or standyng, if he be at the table, cast a cleane towell on your table cloth, and set downe your basyn & ewer before your soueraigne, & take the ewer in your hande, and geue them water. Then voide your basin & ewer, and folde the borde cloth togyther with your towelll therin, and so take thē of the bord. And when your soueraigne shal was she set your towel on the left hand of him, & the water before your so∣ueraigne at dinner or supper, if it be to bedwarde, set vp your basin & your towel on the cupbord agayne. And yf your mayster wyll haue any conceytes after dynner, as ap∣ples nuttes, or creame, then lay forth a towel on the bord an• set theron a lofe or two, see ye haue trenchers and sp•nes in a redynes if nede require, then serue forth your mayster wel, and so take it vp agayne with a voyder.
¶Howe to ordre your maisters chamber, at night to bedwarde.
ARay your cupbord with a cupborde cloth with your basin, ewer, candell light, & towell, yf ye haue helpe, ser one to beare a torche or some other lyghte before, and another folowe to bea•e a towell and bread for your table as thou seest nede. And if you haue banket disshes what soeuer it be, as fruites put in sundrie disshes and all o∣ther confections and conceytes of spicerye, also wh•n the Page [unnumbered] di•hes are emp•ie auoide them from the table: if your so∣ueraigne be a knight or squier, set downe your dishes co∣uered and your cup also. And if your soueraigne be not set at the table let your dishes stand couered til he be set, and when he is set, then take the voyders. When your mai∣ster entendeth to bedward, se that ye haue fire and candle sufficient, ye must haue cleane water at nyght and in the mornyng, if your maister ly in fresh shetes, dry of the moi¦stenes at the fyre, if he ly in a strange place se his shetes be cleane, then folde down his bed, and warme his night ker∣cher, and se his house of office be cleane, helpe of his clo∣thinge, and drawe the cortins, make sure the fire & candle, auoyd the dogges, shut the dores. And at night or in the morning, your master being alone, if ye haue anything to say, it is good knowyng his pleasure: in the mornynge yf it be colde make a fyre and haue in cleane water, & bringe him his peticoat warme with his doublet and al his apa∣rel cleane brusht, and his showes made clene, and help to aray hym, trusse his poyntes strike vp his hosen, and see al thynge clenly about him, gyue him good attendaunce and especially among straungers, for attendaunce dothe please masters very wel. Thus doynge with dillygence god wil preferre you to honour and good fortune.