The lives of the noble Grecians and Romanes compared together by that graue learned philosopher and historiographer, Plutarke of Chæronea ; translated out of Greeke into French by Iames Amyot ... ; and out of French into Englishe, by Thomas North.
Plutarch., North, Thomas, Sir, 1535-1601?, Amyot, Jacques, 1513-1593., Acciaiuoli, Donato, 1429-1478., Goulart, Simon, 1543-1628.
Page  970

THE LIFE OF Marcus Antonius.

ANTONIVS grandfather was that famous Orator whome Marius [ A] slue,* bicause he tooke Syllaes parte. His father was an other Antonius surnamed *Cretan, who was not so famous, nor bare any great sway in the common wealth: howbeit otherwise he was an honest man, and of a very good nature, and specially very liberall in giuing, as appea∣reth by an acte he did. He was not very wealthie, and therefore his wife would not let him vse his liberalitie and francke nature. One day a friend of his comming to him to praye him to helpe him to some money, hauing great neede:*Antonius by chaunce had no money to giue him, but he commaunded one of his men to bringe him some water in a siluer basen, & after he had brought it him, he washed his beard as though he ment to haue shauen it, and [ B] then found an arrant for his man to send him out, and gaue his friend the siluer basen, and bad him get him money with that. Shortly after, there was a great sturre in the house among the seruaunts, seeking out this siluer basen. Insomuch as Antonius seeing his wife maruelously of∣fended for it, & that she would examine all her seruaunts, one after another about it, to know what was become of it: at length he confessed he had giuen it away, & prayed her to be con∣tented. His wife was Iulia,* of the noble house and familie of Iulius Caesar: who for her vertue & chastitie, was to be compared with the noblest Lady of her time. M. Antonius was brought vp vnder her, being married after her first husbands death, vnto Cornelius Lentulus, whom Ci∣cero put to death with Cethegas, and others, for that he was of Catilines conspiracie against the common wealth. And this seemeth to be the originall cause and beginning of the cruell and [ C] mortall hate Antonius bare vnto Cicero. For Antonius selfe sayth, that he would neuer giue him the body of his father in law to bury him, before his mother went first to intreat Ciceroes wife: the which vndoubtedly was a flat lye. For Cicero denied buriall to none of them, whom he ex∣ecuted by law. Now Antonius being a fayer younge man, and in the pryme of his youth: he fell acquainted with Curio,* whose friendship and acquaintance (as it is reported) was a plague vnto him. For he was a dissolute man, giuen ouer to all lust and insolencie, who to haue Anto∣nius the better at his commaundement, trayned him on into great follies, and vaine expences Page  971 [ A] vpon women, in rioting & banketing. So that in short time, he brought Antonius into a mar∣uelous great det, & too great for one of his yeres, to wete: of two hundred & fifty talents, for all which summe Curio was his suertie. His father hearing of it, did put his sonne from him, and for bad him his house. Then he fell in with Clodius, one of the desperatest and most wicked Tribunes at that time in ROME. Him he followed for a time in his desperate attempts, who bred great sturre and mischiefe in ROME: but at length he forsooke him, being weary of his rashnes and folly, or els for that he was affraid of them that were bent against Clodius. There∣vppon he left ITALY, and went into GRAECE, and there bestowed the most parte of his tyme, sometime in warres, and otherwhile in the studie of eloquence. He vsed a manner of phrase in his speeche, called Asiatik,* which caried the best grace and estimation at that time, and [ B] was much like to his manners and life: for it was full of oftentation, foolishe brauerie, and vaine ambition. After he had remayned there some tyme, Gabinius Proconsul, going into SY∣RIA, perswaded him to goe with him. Antonius tolde him he would not goe as a priuate man: Wherefore Gabinius gaue him charge of his horsemen,* and so tooke him with him. So first of all he sent him against Aristobulus, who had made the IEVVES to rebell, & was the first man him selfe that got vp to the wall of a castell of his, and so draue Aristobulus out of all his holds: and with those few men he had with him, he ouercame al the IEVVES in set battel, which were many against one, and put all of them almost to the sword,* and furthermore, tooke Aristobu∣lus him selfe prisoner with his sonne.* Afterwards Ptolomy king of AEGYPT, that had bene dri∣uen out of his contry, went vnto Gabinius to intreate him to goe with his armie with him into [ C] AEGYPT, to put him againe into his kingdom: and promised him if he would goe with him, tenne thowsand talents. The most part of the Captaines thought it not best to goe thither, & Gabinius him selfe made it daintie to enter into his warre: although the couetousnes of these tenne thowsand talents stucke sorely with him. But Antonius that sought but for oportunitie and good occasion to attempt great enterprises, and that desired also to gratifie Ptolomyes re∣quest: he went about to perswade Gabinius to goe this voyage. Now they were more affrayd of the way they should goe, to come to the citie of PELVSIVM, then they feared any daunger of the warre besides: bicause they were to passe through deepe sandes & desert place, where was no freshe water to be had all the marisses thorough, which are called the marisses Setho∣nides, which the AEGYPTIANS call the exhalations of sume, by the which the Gyant Typhon [ D] breathed. But in truth it appeareth to be the ouerflowing of the red sea, which breaketh out vnder the ground in that place, where it is deuided in the narrowest place from the sea on this side. So Antonius was sent before into AEGYPT with his horsemen,* who did not onely winne that passage, but also tooke the citie of PELVSIVM, (which is a great citie) with all the souldi∣ers in it: and thereby he cleared the way, and made it safe for all the rest of the armie and the hope of the victorie also certaine for his Captaine. Nowe did the enemies them selues feele the frutes of Antonius curtesie, and the desire he had to winne honor. For when Ptolomye after he had entred into the citie of PELVSIVM) for the malice he bare vnto the citie, would haue put all the AEGYPTIANS in it to the sword: Antonius withstoode him, & by no meanes would suffer him to doe it. And in all other great battells and skirmishes which they fought, and [ E] were many in number, Antonius did many noble actes of a valliant and wise Captaine: but specially in one battell, where he compassed in the enemies behind, giuing them the victorie that fought against them, whereby he afterwards had such honorable reward, as his valliant∣nes deserued. So was his great curtesie also much commended of all, the which he shewed vn∣to Archelaus.* For hauing bene his very friend, he made warre with him against his will while he liued: but after his death he sought for his bodye, and gaue it honorable buriall. For these respects he wanne him selfe great fame of them of ALEXANDRIA, and he was also thought a worthy man of all the souldiers in the ROMANES campe. But besides all this,* he had a noble presence, and shewed a countenaunce of one of a noble house: he had a goodly thicke beard, abroad forehead, crooke nosed, and there appeared such a manly looke in his countenaunce, [ F] as is commonly seene in Hercules pictures, stamped or grauen in mettell.* Now it had bene a speeche of old time, that the familie of the Antonij were discended from one Anton, the sonne of Hercules, whereof the familie tooke name. This opinion did Antonius seeke to confirme in Page  972 all his doings: not onely resembling him in the likenes of his bodye, as we haue sayd before, [ A] but also in the wearing of his garments. For when he would openly shewe him selfe abroad before many people, he would alwayes weare his cafsocke gyrt downe lowe vpon his hippes, with a great sword hanging by his side, and vpon that, some ill fauored cloke. Furthermore, things that seeme intollerable in other men, as to boast commonly, to ieast with one or other, to drinke like a good fellow with euery body, to sit with the souldiers when they dine, and to eate and drinke with them souldierlike: it is incredible what wonderfull loue it wanne him a∣mongest them. And furthermore, being giuen to loue: that made him the more desired, and by that meanes he brought many to loue him. For he would further euery mans loue, and al∣so would not be angry that men should merily tell him of those he loued. But besides all this, that which most procured his rising and aduauncement, was his liberalitie,* who gaue all to [ B] the souldiers, and kept nothing for him selfe: and when he was growen to great credit, then was his authoritie and power also very great, the which notwithstanding him selfe did ouer∣throwe, by a thowsand other faults he had. In this place I will shewe you one example onely of his wonderful liberalitie. He commaunded one day his coferer that kept his money, to giue a friend of his 25. Myriades: which the ROMANES call in their tongue, Decies. His coferer marueling at it, and being angry withall in his minde, brought him all this money in a heape together, to shewe him what a maruelous masse of money it was. Antonius seeing it as he went by, asked what it was: his coferer aunswered him, it was the money he willed him to giue vnto his friend. Then Antonius perceiuing the spight of his man, I thought, sayd he, that Decies had bene a greater summe of money then it is, for this is but a trifle: and therefore he [ C] gaue his friend as much more another tyme, but that was afterwardes. Nowe the ROMANES mainteyning two factions at ROME at that tyme, one against the other, of the which, they that tooke part with the Senate, did ioyne with Pompey being then in ROME: and the contra∣ry side taking part with the people, sent for Caesar to ayde them, who made warres in GAVLE. Then Curio Antonius friend, that had chaunged his garments, and at that tyme tooke parte with Caesar, whose enemie he had bene before: be wanne Antonius, and so handled the matter, partly through the great credit and swaye he bare amongest the people, by reason of his elo∣quent tongue: and partly also by his exceeding expence of money he made which Caesar gaue him: that Antonius was chosen Tribune, and afterwards made Augure.* But this was a great helpe and furtheraunce to Caesars practises. For so soone as Antonius became Tribune [ D] he did oppose him selfe against those thinges which the Consul Marcellus preferred: (who ordeyned that certaine legions which had bene already leauied and billed, should be giuen vnto Cneus Pompey, with further commission and authoritie to leauye others vnto them) and set downe an order, that the souldiers which were already leauied and assembled, should be sent into SYRIA, for a newe supplie vnto Marcus Bibulus, who made warre at that tyme a∣gainst the PARTHIANS. And furthermore, prohibition that Pompey should leauy no more men, and also that the souldiers should not obey him. Secondly, where Pompeys friends and followers would not suffer Caesars letters to be receiued, and openly red in the Senate: Anto∣nius hauing power and warrant by his person,* through the holines of his tribuneship, did read them openly, and made diuers men chaunge their mindes: for it appeared to them that Cae∣sar [ E] by his letters required no vnreasonable matters. At length, when they preferred two mat∣ters of consideracion vnto the Senate, whether they thought good that Pompey, or Caesar, should leaue their armie: there were few of the Senators that thought it meete Pompey should leaue his armie, but they all in manner commaunded Caesar to doe it. Then Antonius rising vp, asked whether they thought it good that Pompey and Caesar both, should leaue their armies. Thereunto all the Senators ioyntly together gaue their whole consent, and with a great crye commending Antonius, they prayed him to referre it to the iudgement of the Senate. But the Consuls would not allowe of that. Therefore Caesars friendes preferred other reasonable de∣maunds and requests againe, but Cato spake against them: and Leutulus, one of the Consuls draue Antonius by force out of the Senate, who at his going out made greuous curses against [ F] him. After that, he tooke a slaues gowne, and speedily fled to Caesar,* with Quintus Cassius, in a hyered coch. When they came to Caesar, they cryed out with open mouth, that all went hand Page  973 [ A] ouer head at ROME: for the Tribunes of the people might not speake their mindes, and were driuen away in great daunger of their liues, as many as stoode with lawe and iustice. Hereup∣pon Caesar incontinently went into ITALY with his army, which made Cicero say in his Philip∣pides: that as Hellen was cause of the warre of TROY, so was Antonius the author of the ciuill warres, which in deede was a starke lye.* For Caesar was not so fickle headed, nor so easily caried away with anger, that he would so sodainly haue gone and made warre with his contry, vpon the sight onely of Antonius and Cassius, being fled vnto him in miserable apparell, and in a hye∣red coche: had he not long before determined it with him selfe. But sith in deed Caesar looked of long time but for some culler, this came as he wished, and gaue him iust occasion of warre. But to say truely, nothing els moued him to make warre with all the world as he did, but one [ B] selfe cause, which first procured Alexander and Cyrus also before him:* to wit, an insatiable de∣sire to raigne, with a senseles couetousnes to be the best man in the world, the which he could not come vnto, before he had first put downe Pompey, and vtterly ouerthrowen him. Now, af∣ter that Caesar had gotten ROME at his commaundement,* & had driuen Pompey out of ITALY, he purposed first to goe into SPAYNE, against the legions Pompey had there: and in the meane time to make prouision for shippes and marine preparacion, to follow Pompey. In his absence, he left Lepidus that was Praetor, gouernor of ROME: and Antonius that was Tribune, he gaue him charge of all the souldiers, and of ITALY.* Then was Antonius straight maruelously com∣mended and beloued of the souldiers,* bicause he commonly exercised him self among them, and would oftentimes eate and drinke with them, and also be liberall vnto them, according to [ C] his abilitie. But then in contrary manner, he purchased diuers other mens euill willes, bicause that through negligence he would not doe them iustice that were iniuried, & delt very chur∣lishly with them that had any sute vnto him: and besides all this, he had an ill name to intise mens wiues. To conclude, Caesars friends that gouerned vnder him, were cause why they ha∣ted Caesars gouernment (which in deede in respect of him selfe was no lesse then a tyrannie) by reason of the great insolencies & outragious parts that were committed: amongst whom Antonius, that was of greatest power, and that also committed greatest faultes, deserued most blame. But Caesar notwithstanding, when he returned from the warres of SPAYNE, made no reckoning of the complaints that were put vp against him: but contrarily, bicause he found him a hardy man, & a valliant Captaine, he employed him in his chiefest affayres, and was no [ D] whit deceiued in his opinion of him. So he passed ouer the IONIAN sea vnto BRVNDVSIVM, being but slenderly accompanied: & sent vnto Antonius, & Gabinius, that they should imbarke their men as soone as they could, and passe them ouer into MACEDON. Gabinius was affrayd to take the sea, bicause it was very roughe, and in the winter time: & therefore fetched a great compasse about by land. But Antonius fearing some daunger might come vnto Caesar, bicause he was compassed in with a great number of enemies: first of all he draue away Libo, who roade at ancker with a great armie, before the hauen of BRVNDVSIVM. For he manned out such a number of pynnasies, barks, and other small boates about euery one of his gallies, that he draue him thence. After that, he imbarked into shippes twenty thowsand footemen, and eyght hundred horsemen, and with this armie he hoysed sayle. When the enemies sawe him, [ E] they made out to followe him:* but the sea rose so highe, that the billowes put backe their gallies that they could not come neare him, and so he scaped that daunger. But withall he fell vppon the rockes with his whole fleete, where the sea wrought very highe: so that he was out of all hope to saue him selfe. Yet by good fortune, sodainely the winde turned South-west, and blewe from the gulffe, driuing the waues of the riuer into the mayne sea. Thus An∣tonius loosing from the lande, and sayling with safetie at his pleasure, soone after he sawe all the coastes full of shippewracks. For the force and boysterousnes of the winde, did cast away the gallies that followed him: of the which, many of them were broken and splitted, and di∣uers also cast away, and Antonius tooke a great number of them prisoners, with a great summe of money also. Besides all these, he tooke the citie of LYSSVS, and brought Caesar a great [ F] supplie of men, and made him coragious, comming at a pynche with so great a power to him. Now there were diuers hotte skytmishes and encownters, in the which Antonius sought so valliantly,* that he caried the prayse from them all: but specially at two seuerall tymes, Page  974 when Caesars men turned their backes, and fled for life. For he stepped before them, and [ A] compelled them to returne againe to fight: so that the victorie fell on Ceasars side. For this cause he had the seconde place in the campe amonge the souldiers, and they spake of no o∣ther man vnto Caesar, but of him: who shewed playnely what opinion he had of him, when at the last battell of PHARSALIA (which in deede was the last tryall of all, to giue the Con∣queror the whole Empire of the worlde) he him selfe did leade the right wing of his armie, and gaue Antonius the leading of the left wing,* as the valliantest man, and skilfullest soul∣dier of all those he had about him. After Caesar had wonne the victorie, and that he was cre∣ated Dictator, he followed Pompey steppe by steppe: howbeit before, he named Antonius ge∣nerall of the horsemen, and sent him to ROME. The generall of the horsemen is the second office of dignitie,* when the Dictator is in the citie: but when he is abroad, he is the chiefest [ B] man, and almost the onely man that remayneth, and all the other officers and Magistrates are put downe, after there is a Dictator chosen. Notwithstanding, Dolabella being at that tyme Tribune, and a younge man desirous of chaunge and innouation: he preferred a law which the ROMANES call Nouas tabulas (as much to saye, as a cutting of and cancelling of all obli∣gacions and specialties, & were called the newe tables, bicause they were driuen then to make bookes of daily receit and expence) and perswaded Antonius his friend (who also gaped for a good occasion to please and gratifie the common people) to aide him to passe this lawe. But Trebellius & Asinius disswaded from it al they could possible. So by good hap it chaunced that Antonius mistrusted Dolabella for keeping of his wife,* and tooke suche a conceite of it, that lie thrust his wife out of his house being his Cosin Germane, & the daughter of C. Antonius, who [ C] was Consul with Cicero: & ioyning with Asinius, he resisted Dolabella, & fought with him. Dola∣bella had gotten the market place where the people doe assemble in counsel, & had filled it ful of armed men, intending to haue this law of the newe tables to passe by force. Antonius by cō∣maundement of the Senate, who had giuen him authoritie to leauy men, to vse force against Dolabella: he went against him, & sought so valliantly, that men were slaine on both sides. But by this meanes, he got the il will of the cōmon people, & on the other side, the noble men (as Cicero saith) did not only mislike him, but also hate him for his naughty life: for they did abhot his banckets & dronkē feasts he made at vnseasonable times, & his extreme wastful expences vpon vaine light huswiues, & then in the day time he would sleepe or walke out his dronken∣nes; thinking to weare away the fume of the aboundaunce of wine which he had taken ouer [ D] night.* In his house they did nothing but feast, daunce, & maske: and him selfe passed away the time in hearing of foolish playes, or in marrying these plaiers, tomblers, ieasters, & such sort of people. As for prose hereof it is reported, that at Hippias mariage, one of his ieasters, he drank wine so lustely all night, that the next morning when he came to pleade before the people as∣sembled in counsel, who had sent for him: he being quesie stomaked with his surfet he had ta∣kē,* was compelled to lay all before them, & one of his friends held him his gowne in stead of a basen. He had another pleasaunt player called Sergius, that was one of the chiefest men about him, & a woman also called Cytheride, of the same profession, whom he loued derely: he caried her vp & downe in a litter vnto all the townes he went,* & had as many men waiting apon her litter, she being but a player, as were attending vpon his owne mother. It greued honest men [ E] also very much, to see that when he went into the contry, he caried with him a great number of cubbords ful of siluer & gold plate, openly in the face of the world, as it had ben the pompe or shewe of some triumphe: & that estsoones in the middest of his iorney he would set vp his hales and tents hard by some greene groue or pleasaunt riuer, and there his Cookes should prepare him a sumptuous dinner. And furthermore. Lyons were harnesed in trases to drawe his carts: and besides also, in honest mens houses in the cities where he came, he would haue common harlots, curtisans, & these tumbling gillots lodged. Now it greued men much; to see that Caesar should be out of ITALY following of his enemies, to end this great warre, with such great perill and daunger: and that others in the meane time abusing his name and authoritie, should commit such insolent and outragious parts vnto their Citizens. This me thinkes was [ F] the cause that made the conspiracie against Caesar increase more and more, and layed the reynes of the brydle vppon the souldiers neckes, whereby they durst boldlier commit many Page  975 [ A] extorsions, cruelties and robberies. And therefore Caesar after his returne pardoned Dolabella, & being created Consul the third time, he tooke not Antonius, but chose Lepidus,* his colleague and fellow Consul. Afterwards when Pompeys house was put to open sale, Antonius bought it: but when they asked him money for it, he made it very straung, and was offended with them, and writeth him selfe that he would not goe with Caesar into the warres of AFRICK, bicause he was not well recompenced for the seruice he had done him before. Yet Caesar did some∣what bridle his madnes and insolencie, not suffering him to passe his faulte so lightly away, making as though he sawe them not. And therefore he left his dissolute manner of life, and married Fuluia that was Clodius widowe,* a woman not so basely minded to spend her time in spinning and housewiuery, and was not contented to master her husband at home, but would [ B] also rule him in his office abroad, and commaund him, that commaunded legions and great armies: so that Cleopatra was to giue Fuluia thankes for that she had taught Antonius this obe∣dience to women, that learned so well to be at their commaundement. Nowe, bicause Fuluia was somewhat sower, and crooked of condition, Antonius deuised to make her pleasaunter, & somewhat better disposed: and therefore he would playe her many prety youthfull partes to make her mery. As he did once, when Caesar returned the last time of all Conqueror out of SPAYNE, euery man went out to meete him: and so did Antonius with the rest. But on the so∣deine there ranne a rumor through ITALY, that Caesar was dead, and that his enemies came a∣gaine with a great armie. Thereuppon he returned with speede to ROME, and tooke one of his mens gownes, and so apparelled came home to his house in a darkenight, saying that he [ C] had brought Fuluia letters from Antonius. So he was let in, and brought to her muffled as he was, for being knowen: but she taking the matter heauily, asked him if Antonius were well. Antonius gaue her the letters, and sayd neuer a word. So when she had opened the letters, and beganne to read them: Antonius ramped of her necke, and kissed her. We haue told you this tale for examples sake onely, and so could we also tell you of many such like as these. Nowe when Caesar was returned from his last warre in SPAYNE, all the chiefest nobilitie of the citie road many dayes iorney from ROME to meete him, where Caesar made maruelous much of Antonius, aboue all the men that came vnto him. For he alwayes tooke him into his coche with him, through out all ITALY: and behind him, Brutus Albinus, and Octauius, the sonne of his Nece, who afterwards was called Caesar, and became Emperor of ROME long time after. [ D] So Caesar being afterwards chosen Consul the fift time, he immediatly chose Antonius his col∣league and companion:* and desired by deposing him selfe of his Consulship, to make Dola∣bella Consul in his roome, and had already moued it to the Senate. But Antonius did stowtly withstand it, and openly reuiled Dolabella in the Senate: and Dolabella also spared him as litle. Thereuppon Caesar being ashamed of the matter, he let it alone. Another time also when Cae∣sar attempted againe to substitute Dolabella Consul in his place, Antonius cryed out, that the signes of the birdes were against it: so that at length Caesar was compelled to giue him place, and to let Dolabella alone, who was maruelously offended with him. Now in truth, Caesar made no great reckoning of either of them both. For it is reported that Caesar aunswered one that did accuse Antonius and Dolabella vnto him for some matter of conspiracie: tushe said he, they [ E] be not those fat fellowes and fine comed men that I feare, but I mistrust rather these pale and leane men, meaning by Brutus and Cassius, who afterwards conspired his death, and slue him. Antonius vnwares afterwards, gaue Caesars enemies iust occasion and culler to doe as they did:* as you shall heare. The ROMANES by chaunce celebrated the feast called Lupercalia, & Caesar being apparelled in his triumphing robe, was set in the Tribune where they vse to make their orations to the people, and from thence did behold the sport of the runners. The manner of this running was this. On that day there are many young men of noble house, and those speci∣ally that be chiefe Officers for that yeare: who running naked vp & downe the citie annoin∣ted with the oyle of olyue, for pleasure do strike them they meete in their way, with white lea∣ther thongs they haue in their hands. Antonius being one amonge the rest that was to ronne, [ F] leauing the auncient ceremonies & old customes of that solemnitie: he ranne to the Tribune where Caesar was set, and caried a laurell crowne in his hand, hauing a royall band or diademe wreathed about it, which in old time was the auncient marke and token of a king. When he Page  976 was come to Caesar, he made his fellow ronners with him lift him vp, & so he did put this lau∣rell [ A] crowne vpon his head,* signifying thereby that he had deserued to be king. But Caesar ma∣king as though he refused it, turned away his heade. The people were so reioyced at it, that they all clapped their hands for ioy. Antonius againe did put it on his head: Caesar againe refu∣sed it, and thus they were striuing of and on a great while together. As oft as Antonius did put this laurell crowne vnto him, a fewe of his followers reioyced at it: & as oft also as Caesar refu∣sed it, all the people together clapped their hands. And this was a wonderfull thing, that they suffered all things subiects should doe by commaundement of their kings: & yet they could not abide the name of a king, detesting it as the vtter destructiō of their liberty. Caesar in a rage rose out of his seate, and plucking downe the choller of his gowne from his necke, he shewed it naked, bidding any man strike of his head that would. This laurel crowne was afterwards put [ B] vpō the head of one of Caesars statues or images, the which one of the Tribunes pluckt of. The people liked his doing therein so well, that they wayted on him home to his house, with great clapping of hands. Howbeit Caesar did turne thē out of their offices for it. This was a good in∣coragemēt for Brutus & Cassius to conspire his death,* who fel into a cōfort with their trustiest friends, to execute their enterprise: but yet stood doubtful whether they should make Antoni∣us priuy to it or not. Al the rest liked of it, sauing Trebonius only. He told them, that when they rode to meete Caesar at his returne out of SPAYNE, Antonius & he alwaies keping company, & lying together by the way, he felt his mind a farre of: but Antonius finding his meaning, would harken no more vnto it, & yet notwithstanding neuer made Caesar acquainted with this talke, but had faithfully kept it to him self. After that they cōsulted whether they should kil Antoni∣us [ C] with Caesar.* But Brutus would in no wise consent to it, saying: that ventring on such an enter∣prise as that, for the maintenāce of law & iustice, it ought to be clere from all villanie. Yet they fearing Antonius power, & the authoritie of his office, appointed certain of the cōspiracy, that when Caesar were gone into the Senate, and while others should execute their enterprise, they should keepe Antonius in a talke out of the Senate house. Euen as they had deuised these mat∣ters, so were they executed: and Caesar was slaine in the middest of the Senate. Antonius being put in a feare withall, cast a slaues gowne vpon him, and hid him selfe. But afterwards when it was told him that the murtherers slue no man els, and that they went onely into the Capitoll: he sent his sonne vnto them for a pledge, & bad them boldly come downe vpon his word. The selfe same day he did bid Cassius to supper, and Lepidus also bad Brutus. The next morning the [ D] Senate was assembled, & Antonius him selfe preferred a lawe that all things past should be for∣gotten, and that they should appoint prouinces, vnto Cassius and Brutus: the which the Senate confirmed, and further ordeyned, that they should cancell none of Caesars lawes. Thus went Antonius out of the Senate more praysed, and better esteemed, then euer man was: bicause it seemed to euery man that he had cut of all occasion of ciuill warres, and that he had shewed him selfe a maruelous wise gouernor of the common wealth, for the appeasing of these mat∣ters of so great waight & importance. But nowe, the opinion he conceiued of him selfe after he had a litle felt the good will of the people towards him, hoping thereby to make him selfe the chiefest man if he might ouercome Brutus: did easily make him alter his first mind.* And therefore when Caesars body was brought to the place where it should be buried, he made a [ E] funeral oration in cōmendacion of Caesar, according to the auncient custom of praising noble men at their funerals. When he saw that the people were very glad and desirous also to heare Caesar spoken of, & his praises vttered: he mingled his oration with lamentable wordes, and by amplifying of matters did greatly moue their harts and affections vnto pitie & compassion. In fine to conclude his oration, he vnfolded before the whole assembly the bloudy garments of the dead, thrust through in many places with their swords, & called the malefactors, cruell & cursed murtherers. With these words he put the people into such a fury, that they presently toke Caesars body, & burnt it in the market place, with such tables & fourmes as they could get together. Then whē the fire was kindled, they toke firebrands, & ran to the murtherers houses to set thē afire, & to make thē come out to fight. Brutus therfore & his accomplices, for safety [ F] of their persons were driuē to fly the city. Then came all Caesars friends vnto Antonius, & speci∣ally his wife Calpurnia putting her trust in him,* she brought the moste part of her money into Page  977 [ A] his house, which amounted to the summe of foure thowsand talents, & furthermore brought him al Caesars bokes & writings, in the which were his memorials of al that he had done & or∣deyned. Antonius did daily mingle with them such as he thought good, and by that meanes he created newe officers, made newe Senators, called home some that were banished, and deli∣uered those that were prisoners: and then he sayde that all those thinges were so appoynted and ordeyned by Caesar. Therefore the ROMANES mocking them that were so moued, they called them CHARONITES:* bicause that when they were ouercome, they had no other helpe but to saye, that thus they were found in Caesars memorialls, who had sayled in Charons boate, and was departed. Thus Antonius ruled absolutely also in all other matters, bicause he was Consul, and Caius one of his brethren Praetor, and Lucius the other, Tribune.* Now thinges re∣mayning [ B] in this state at ROME, Octauius Caesar the younger came to ROME, who was the sonne of Iulius Caesars Nece, as you haue heard before, and was left his lawefull heire by will, remay∣ning at the tyme of the death of his great Vncle that was slayne, in the citie of APOLLONIA. This young man at his first arriuall went to salute Antonius, as one of his late dead father Cae∣sars friendes, who by his last will and testament had made him his heire: and withall, he was presently in hande with him for money and other thinges which were left of trust in his handes, bicause Caesar had by will bequeathed vnto the people of ROME, three score and fifteene siluer Drachmas to be giuen to euery man, the which he as heire stoode charged withall. Antonius at the first made no reckoning of him, bicause he was very younge: and sayde he lacked witte, and good friendes to aduise him, if he looked to take such a charge in [ C] hande, as to vndertake to be Caesars heire.* But when Antonius saw that he could not shake him of with those wordes, and that he was still in hande with him for his fathers goods, but speci∣ally for the ready money: then he spake and did what he could against him. And first of all, it was he that did keepe him from being Tribune of the people: and also when Octauius Caesar beganne to meddle with the dedicating of the chayer of gold, which was prepared by the Se∣nate to honor Caesar with: he threatned to send him to prison, and moreouer desisted not to put the people in an vnprore. This young Caesar seeing his doings, went vnto Cicero and others,* which were Antonius enemies, and by them crept into fauor with the Senate: and he him self sought the peoples good will euery manner of way, gathering together the olde souldiers of the late deceased Caesar, which were dispersed in diuers cities and colonyes. Antonius being af∣frayd [ D] of it, talked with Octauius in the capitoll, and became his friend.* But the very same night Antonius had a straunge dreame,* who thought that lightning fell vpon him, & burnt his right hand. Shortly after word was brought him, that Caesar lay in waite to kil him. Caesar cleered him selfe vnto him, and told him there was no such matter: but he could not make Antonius beleue the contrary. Whereuppon they became further enemies then euer they were: insomuch that both of them made friends of either side to gather together all the old souldiers through ITA∣LY, that were dispersed in diuers townes: & made them large promises, & sought also to winne the legions of their side, which were already in armes. Cicero on the other side being at that time the chiefest man of authoritie & estimation in the citie, he stirred vp al mē against Anto∣nius: so that in the end he made the Senate pronoūce him an enemy to his contry, & appoin∣ted [ E] young Caesar Sergeaunts to cary axes before him, & such other signes as were incident to the dignitie of a Consul or Praetor: & moreouer sent Hircius and Pausa, then Consuls,* to driue Antonius out of ITALY. These two Consuls together with Caesar, who also had an armye, went against Antonius that beseeged the citie of MODENA, and there ouerthrew him in battell: but both the Consuls were slaine there. Antonius flying vpon this ouerthrowe,* fell into great mi∣serie all at once: but the chiefest want of all other, & that pinched him most, was famine. How∣beit he was of such a strong nature, that by pacience he would ouercome any aduersitie,* and the heauier fortune lay vpon him, the more constant shewed he him selfe. Euery man that fe∣leth want or aduersitie, knoweth by vertue and discretion what he should doe: but when in deede they are ouerlayed with extremitie, and be sore oppressed, few haue the harts to follow [ F] that which they praise and commend, and much lesse to auoid that they reproue and mislike. But rather to the contrary, they yeld to their accustomed easie life: and through faynt hart, & lacke of corage, doe chaunge their first mind and purpose. And therefore it was a wonderfull Page  978 example to the souldiers, to see Antonius that was brought vp in all finenes and superfluitie,*•• [ A] easily to drinke puddle water, and to eate wild frutes and rootes: and moreouer it is reported that euen as they passed the Alpes, they did eate the barcks of trees, and such beasts, as neuer man tasted of their flesh before. Now their intent was to ioyne with the legions that were on the other side of the Mountaines, vnder Lepidus charge: whō Antonius tooke to be his friend, bicause he had holpen him to many things at Caesars hand, through his meanes. When he was come to the place where Lepidus was, he camped hard by him: and when he saw that no man came to him to put him in any hope, he determined to venter him selfe, and to goe vnto Le∣pidus. Since the ouerthrow he had at MODENA, he suffred his beard to grow at length and ne∣uer clypt it, that it was maruelous long, and the heare of his heade also without koming: and besides all this, he went in a mourning gowne, and after this sort came hard to the trenches [ B] of Lepidus campe. Then he beganne to speake vnto the souldiers, and many of them their hartes yerned for pitie to see him so poorely arrayed, and some also through his wordes be∣ganne to pitie him: insomuch that Lepidus beganne to be affrayd, and therefore commaun∣ded all the trompetts to sownd together to stoppe the souldiers eares, that they should not harken to Antonius. This notwithstanding, the souldiers tooke the more pitie of him, & spake secretly with him by Clodius & Laelius meanes, whom they sent vnto him disguised in womens apparel, & gaue him counsel that he should not be affraid to enter into their campe, for there were a great number of souldiers that would receiue him, and kill Lepidus, if he would say the word. Antonius would not suffer them to hurt him, but the next morning he went with his ar∣my to wade a ford, at a litle riuer that ranne betweene them: and him selfe was the foremost [ C] man that tooke the riuer to get ouer, seeing a number of Lepidus campe that gaue him their handes, plucked vp the stakes, and layed flat the bancke of their trenche to let him in to their campe.* When he was come into their campe, and that he had all the army at his commaun∣dement: he vsed Lepidus very curteously, imbraced him, and called him father: and though in deede Antonius did all, and ruled the whole army, yet he alway gaue Lepidus the name and honor of the Captaine. Munatius Plancus, lying also in campe hard by with an armye: vnder∣standing the report of Antonius curtesie, he also came and ioined with him. Thus Antonius be∣ing a foote againe, and growen of great power, repassed ouer the Alpes, leading into ITALY with him seuenteene legions, and tenne thowsand horsemen, besides six legions he left in gar∣rison amonge the GAVLES, vnder the charge of one Varius,* a companion of his that would [ D] drinke lustely with him, and therefore in mockery was surnamed Cotylon: to wit, a bibber. So Octauius Caesar would not leane to Cicero, when he saw that his whole trauail and endeuor was onely to restore the common wealth to her former libertie. Therefore he sent certaine of his friends to Antonius, to make them friends againe: and thereuppon all three met together, (to wete,*Caesar, Antonius, & Lepidus) in an Iland enuyroned round about with a litle riuer, & there remayned three dayes together. Now as touching all other matters, they were easily agreed, & did deuide all the Empire of ROME betwene them, as if it had bene their owne inheritance. But yet they could hardly agree whom they would put to death: for euery one of them would kill their enemies, and saue their kinsmen and friends. Yet at length, giuing place to their gre∣dy desire to be reuenged of their enemies, they spurned all reuerence of bloud, and holines of [ E] friendship at their feete.* For Caesar left Cicero to Antonius will, Antonius also forsooke Lucius Caesar, who was his Vncle by his mother: and both of them together suffred Lepidus to kill his owne brother Paulus. Yet some writers affirme, that Caesar & Antonius requested Paulus might be slain, & that Lepidus was contēted with it. In my opinion there was neuer a more horrible, vnnatural, & crueller chaunge then this was. For thus chaunging murther for murther, they did aswel kill those whom they did forsake & leaue vnto others, as those also which others left vnto them to kil: but so much more was their wickednes & cruelty great vnto their friends, for that they put them to death being innocents, & hauing no cause to hate them. After this plat was agreed vpon betwene thē: the souldiers that were thereabouts, would haue this friendship & league betwixt them cōfirmed by mariage, & that Caesar should mary Claudia, the daughter [ F] of Fuluiae, & Antonius wife. This mariage also being vpon, they condēned three hūdred of the chiefest citizens of ROME, to be put to death by proscriptiō. And Antonius also cōmaū∣ded Page  979 [ A] thē to whō he had geuen cōmission to kil Cicero,* that they should strik of his head & right hand, with the which he had written the inuectiue Orations (called Philippides) against Anto∣nius. So whē the murtherers brought him Ciceroes head & hand cut of, he beheld them a long time with great ioy, & laughed hartily, & that oftentimes for the great ioy he felt. Then when he had taken his pleasure of the sight of them, he caused them to be set vp in an open place, o∣uer the pulpit for Orations (where when he was aliue, he had often spoken to the people) as if he had done the dead man hurt, and not bleamished his owne fortune, shewing him selfe (to his great shame and infamie) a cruell man, and vnworthie the office and authoritie he bare. His vncle Lucius Caesar also, as they sought for him to kill him, and followed him hard, fledde vnto his sister. The murtherers comming thither, forcing to breake into her chamber, she [ B] stoode at her chamber dore with her armes abroade, crying out still: you shall not kill Lucius Caesar,* before you first kill me, that bare your Captaine in my wombe. By this meanes she sa∣ued her brothers life. Now the gouernment of these Triumuiri grewe odious and hatefull to the ROMANES, for diuers respects: but they most blamed Antonius,* bicause he being elder then Caesar, and of more power and force then Lepidus, gaue him selfe againe to his former riot and excesse, when he left to deale in the affaires of the common wealth. But setting aside the ill name he had for his insolencie, he was yet much more hated in respect of the house he dwelt in, the which was the house of Pompey the great:* a man as famous for his temperaunce, mo∣destie, and ciuill life, as for his three triumphes. For it grieued them to see the gates common∣ly shut against the Captaines, Magistrates of the citie, and also Ambassadors of straunge na∣tions, [ C] which were sometimes thrust from the gate with violence: and that the house within was full of tomblers, anticke dauncers, iuglers, players, ieasters, and dronkards, quaffing and goseling, and that on them he spent and bestowed the most parte of his money he got by all kind of possible extorcions, briberie and policie. For they did not onely sell by the crier, the goods of those whom they had outlawed, and appointed to murther, slaunderously deceiued the poore widowes and young orphanes, & also raised all kind of imposts, subsidies, and taxes: but vnderstanding also that the holy vestall Nunnes had certaine goods & money put in their custodie to keepe, both of mens in the citie, and those also that were abroade: they went thi∣ther, and tooke them away by force. Octauius Caesar perceiuing that no money woulde serue Antonius turne, he prayed that they might deuide the money betwene them, and so did they [ D] also deuide the armie, for them both to goe into MACEDON to make warre against Brutus and Cassius: and in the meane time they left the gouernment of the citie of ROME vnto Lepidus. When they had passed ouer the seas, and that they beganne to make warre, they being both camped by their enemies, to wit, Antonius against Cassius, and Caesar against Brutus: Caesar did no great matter, but Antonius had alway the vpper hand,* and did all. For at the first battell Cae∣sar was ouerthrowen by Brutus, and lost his campe, and verie hardly saued him selfe by flying from them that followed him. Howebeit he writeth him selfe in his Commentaries, that he fled before the charge was geuen, bicause of a dreame one of his frends had. Antonius on the other side ouerthrewe Cassius in battell, though some write that he was not there him selfe at the battell, but that he came after the ouerthrowe, whilest his men had the enemies in chase. [ E] So Cassius at his earnest request was slaine by a faithfull seruaunt of his owne called Pindarus,* whom he had infranchised: bicause he knewe not in time that Brutus had ouercomen Caesar. Shortly after they fought an other battell againe, in the which Brutus was ouerthrowen, who afterwardes also slue him selfe.* Thus Antonius had the chiefest glorie of all this victorie, spe∣cially bicause Caesar was sicke at that time. Antonius hauing found Brutus body after this battel, blaming him muche for the murther of his brother Caius, whom he had put to death in MA∣CEDON for reuenge of Ciceroes cruell death, and yet laying the fault more in Hortensius then in him:* he made Hortensius to be slaine on his brothers tumbe. Furthermore, he cast his coate armor (which was wonderfull rich and sumptuous) vpon Brutus bodie, and gaue commaun∣dement to one of his slaues infranchised, to defray the charge of his buriall. But afterwards, [ F] Antonius hearing that his infranchised bondman had not burnt his coate armor with his bo∣die, bicause it was verie riche, and worth a great summe of money, and that he had also kept backe much of the ready money appointed for his funerall & tombe: he also put him to death. Page  980 After that Caesar was conueied to ROME, and it was thought he would not liue long, nor scape [ A] the sickenes he had. Antonius on thother side went towardes the East prouinces and regions, to leauie money: and first of all he went into GRAECE, and caried an infinite number of soul∣diers with him. Now, bicause euerie souldier was promised fiue thowsande siluer Drachmas, he was driuen of necessitie to impose extreame tallages and taxacions. At his first comming into GRAECE, he was not hard nor bitter vnto the GRAECIANS, but gaue him selfe onely to heare wise men dispute, to see playes, and also to note the ceremonies & sacrifices of GRAECE,* ministring iustice to euerie man, and it pleased him maruelously to heare them call him Phi∣lellen, (as much to say, a louer of the GRAECIANS) and specially the ATHENIANS, to whom he did many great pleasures. Wherefore the MEGARIANS, to excede the ATHENIANS, thinking to shew Antonius a goodly sight: they prayed him to come & see their Senate house, & coun∣sell [ B] hall. Antonius went thither to see it: so when he had seene it at his pleasure, they asked him, my Lord, how like you our hall? Me thinkes (q he) it is litle, old, and ready to fall downe. Fur∣thermore, he tooke measure of the temple of Apollo Pythias, and promised the Senate to finish it. But when he was once come into ASIA, hauing lest Lucius Censorinus Gouernor in GRAECE, and that he had felt the riches and pleasures of the East partes, and that Princes, great Lordes and Kinges, came to waite at his gate for his comming out, and that Queenes and Princesses to excell one an other, gaue him verie riche presentes, and came to see him, curiously setting forth them selues, and vsing all art that might be to shewe their beawtie, to win his fauor the more: (Caesar in the meane space turmoyling his wits and bodie in ciuill warres at home, An∣tonius liuing merily & quietly abroad) he easely fell againe to his old licētious life. For straight [ C] one Anaxenor a player of the citherne,*Xoutus a player of the flutes, Metrodorus a tombler, and such a rabble of minstrells & fit ministers for the pleasures of ASIA, (who in finenes & flattery passed all the other plagues he brought with him out of ITALIE) all these flocked in his court, & bare the whole sway: & after that, all went awry. For euery one gaue them selues to riot and excesse, when they saw he delighted in it: and all ASIA was like to the citie Sophocles speaketh of in one of his tragedies:

VVas full of vveete perfumes, and pleasant songs,
VVith vvoefull vveping mingled there amongs.

For in the citie of EPHESVS, women attyred as they goe in the feastes and sacrifice of Bac∣chus, came out to meete him with such solemnities & ceremonies, as are then vsed: with men [ D] and children disguised like Fawnes and Satyres. Moreouer, the citie was full of Iuey, & darts wreathed about with Iuey, psalterions, flutes and howboyes, and in their songes they called him Bacchus, father of mirth, curteous, and gentle: and so was he vnto some, but to the most parte of men, cruell, and extreame.* For he robbed noble men and gentle men of their goods, to geue it vnto vile flatterers: who oftentimes begged mens goods liuing, as though they had bene dead, and would enter their houses by force. As he gaue a citizens house of MAGNESIA vnto a cooke, bicause (as it is reported) he dressed him a fine supper. In the ende he doubled the taxacion, and imposed a seconde vpon ASIA. But then Hybraeas the Orator sent from the estates of ASIA,* to tell him the state of their contrie, boldly sayd vnto him: if thou wilt haue power to lay two tributes in one yere vpon vs, thou shouldest also haue power to geue vs two [ E] sommers, two autumnes, and two haruests. This was gallantly and pleasauntly spoken vnto Antonius by the Orator, and it pleased him well to heare it: but afterwardes amplifying his speache, he spake more boldly, and to better purpose. ASIA hath payed the two hundred thowsand talents. If all this money be not come to thy cofers, then aske accompt of them that leauied it: but if thou haue receiued it, and nothing be left of it, then are we vtterly vndone. Hybraeas words nettled Antonius roundly. For he vnderstoode not many of the thefts and rob∣beries his officers committed by his authoritie, in his treasure and affaires: not so muche bicause he was carelesse, as for that he ouersimply trusted his men in all things.* For he was a plaine man, without suttletie, and therefore ouerlate sounde out the fowle saultes they com∣mitted against him: but when he heard of them, he was muche offended, and would plainly [ F] confesse it vnto them whome his officers had done iniurie vnto, by countenaunce of his au∣thoritie. He had a noble minde, as well to punish offendors, as to reward well doers: and yet Page  981 [ A] he did exceede more in geuing, then in punishing. Now for his outragious manner of railing he commonly vsed,* mocking and flouting of euerie man: that was remedied by it selfe. For a man might as boldly exchaunge a mocke with him, & he was as well cōtented to be mocked, as to mock others. But yet it oftentimes marred all. For he thought that those which told him so plainly, & truly in mirth: would neuer flatter him in good earnest, in any matter of weight. But thus he was easely abused by the praises they gaue him, not finding howe these flatterers mingled their flatterie, vnder this familiar and plaine manner of speach vnto him, as a fine de∣uise to make difference of meates with sharpe and tart sauce, & also to kepe him by this franke ieasting & bourding with him at the table, that their common flatterie should not be trouble∣some vnto him, as men do easely mislike to haue too muche of one thing: and that they han∣dled [ B] him finely thereby, when they would geue him place in any matter of waight, and follow his counsell, that it might not appeare to him they did it so muche to please him, but bicause they were ignoraunt, and vnderstoode not so muche as he did. Antonius being thus incli∣ned, the last and extreamest mischiefe of all other (to wit, the loue of Cleopatra) lighted on him, who did waken a stirre vp many vices yet hidden in him, and were neuer seene to any: and if any sparke of goodnesse or hope of rising were left him, Cleopatra quenched it straight, and made it worse then before. The manner how he fell in loue with her was this. Antonius going to make warre with the PARTHIANS, sent to commaunde Cleopatra to appeare personally be∣fore him, when he came into CILICIA,* to aunswere vnto suche accusacions as were layed a∣gainst her, being this: that she had aided Cassius and Brutus in their warre against him. The [ C] messenger sent vnto Cleopatra to make this summons vnto her, was called Dellius: who when he had throughly considered her beawtie, the excellent grace and sweetenesse of her tongue, he nothing mistrusted that Antonius would doe any hurte to so noble a Ladie, but rather assu∣red him selfe, that within few dayes she should be in great fauor with him. Thereupon he did her great honor, and perswaded her to come into CILICIA, as honorably furnished as she could possible, and bad her not to be affrayed at all of Antonius, for he was a more curteous Lord, then any that she had euer seene. Cleopatra on thother side beleuing Dellius wordes, and gessing by the former accesse and credit she had with Iulius Caesar, and Cueus Pompey (the sonne of Pompey the great) only for her beawtie: she began to haue good hope that she might more easely win Antonius. For Caesar and Pompey knew her when she was but a young thing, & knew [ D] not then what the worlde ment: but nowe she went to Antonius at the age when a womans beawtie is at the prime, and she also of best iudgement. So, she furnished her selfe with a world of gifts, store of gold and siluer, and of riches and other sumptuous ornaments, as is credible enough she might bring from so great a house, and from so wealthie and rich a realme as AE∣GYPT was. But yet she caried nothing with her wherein she trusted more then in her selfe, and in the charmes and inchauntment of her passing beawtie and grace. Therefore when she was sent vnto by diuers letters, both from Antonius him selfe, and also from his frendes, she made so light of it, and mocked Antonius so much, that she disdained to set forward otherwise,* but to take her barge in the riuer of Cydnus, the poope whereof was of gold, the sailes of purple, and the owers of siluer, which kept stroke in rowing after the sounde of the musicke of flutes, [ E] how boyes, citherns, violls, and such other instruments as they played vpon in the barge. And now for the person of her selfe: she was layed vnder a pauillion of cloth of gold of tissue, ap∣parelled and attired like the goddesse Venus, commonly drawen in picture: and hard by her, on either hand of her,* pretie faire boyes apparelled as painters doe set forth god Cupide, with litle fannes in their hands, with the which they fanned wind vpon her. Her Ladies and gentle∣women also, the fairest of them were apparelled like the nymphes Nereides (which are the mermaides of the waters) and like the Graces, some stearing the helme, others tending the tackle and ropes of the barge, out of the which there came a wonderfull passing sweete sauor of perfumes, that perfumed the wharfes side, pestered with innumerable multitudes of peo∣ple. Some of them followed the barge all alongest the riuers side: others also ranne out of the [ F] citie to see her comming in. So that in thend, there ranne such multitudes of people one after an other to see her, that Antonius was left post alone in the market place, in his Imperiall seate to geue audience: and there went a rumor in the peoples mouthes, that the goddesse VenusPage  982 was come to play with the god Bacchus, for the generall good of all ASIA. When Cleopatra [ A] landed, Antonius sent to inuite her to supper to him. But she sent him word againe, he should doe better rather to come and suppe with her. Antonius therefore to shew him selfe curteous vnto her at her arriuall, was contented to obey her, & went to supper to her: where he found such passing sumptuous fare,* that no tongue can expresse it. But amongest all other thinges, he most wondered at the infinite number of lightes and torches hanged on the toppe of the house, geuing light in euerie place, so artificially set and ordered by deuises, some round, some square: that it was the rarest thing to behold that eye could discerne, or that euer books could mencion. The next night, Antonius feasting her, contended to passe her in magnificence and finenes: but she ouercame him in both. So that he him selfe began to skorne the grosse seruice of his house, in respect of Cleopatraes sumptuousnes and finenesse. And when Cleopatra found [ B] Antonius ieasts and slents to be but grosse, and souldier like, in plaine manner: she gaue it him finely,* and without feare taunted him throughly. Now her beawtie (as it is reported) was not so passing, as vnmatchable of other women, nor yet suche, as vpon present viewe did enamor men with her: but so sweete was her companie and conuersacion, that a man could not pos∣siblie but be taken. And besides her beawtie, the good grace she had to talke and discourse, her curteous nature that tempered her words & dedes, was a spurre that pricked to the quick. Furthermore, besides all these, her voyce and words were maruelous pleasant: for her tongue was an instrument of musicke to diuers sports and pastimes, the which she easely turned to a∣ny language that pleased her. She spake vnto few barbarous people by interpreter, but made them aunswere her selfe, or at the least the most parte of them: as the AETHIOPIANS, the A∣RABIANS, [ C] the TROGLODYTES, the HEBRVES, the SYRIANS, the MEDES, and the PARTHE∣ANS, and to many others also, whose languages she had learned. Whereas diuers of her pro∣genitors, the kings of AEGYPT, could scarce learne the AEGYPTIAN tongue only, and many of them forgot to speake the MACEDONIAN. Nowe, Antonius was so rauished with the loue of Cleopatra, that though his wife Fuluia had great warres, and much a doe with Caesar for his af∣faires, and that the armie of the PARTHIANS, (the which the kings Lieutenauntes had geuen to the onely leading of Labieaus) was now assembled in MESOPOTAMIA readie to inuade SY∣RIA: yet, as though all this had nothing touched him, he yeelded him selfe to goe with Cleo∣patra into ALEXANDRIA, where he spent and lost in childish sports, (as a man might say) and idle pastimes, the most pretious thing a man can spende, as Antiphon sayth: and that is, time. [ D] For they made an order betwene them,* which they called Amimetobion (as much to say, no life comparable and matcheable with it) one feasting ech other by turnes, and in cost, excee∣ding all measure and reason. And for proofe hereof, I haue heard my grandfather Lampryas report,* that one Philotas a Phisition, borne in the citie of AMPHISSA, told him that he was at that present time in ALEXANDRIA, and studied Phisicke: and that hauing acquaintance with one of Antonius cookes, he tooke him with him to Antonius house, (being a young man desi∣rous to see things) to shew him the wonderfull sumptuous charge and preparation of one on∣ly supper. When he was in the kitchin, and saw a world of diuersities of meates, and amongst others, eight wilde boares rosted whole:* he began to wonder at it, and sayd, sure you haue a great number of ghests to supper. The cooke fell a laughing, and answered him, no ({quod} he) not [ E] many ghestes, nor aboue twelue in all: but yet all that is boyled or roasted must be serued in whole, or else it would be marred straight. For Antonius peraduenture will suppe presently, or it may be a pretie while hence, or likely enough he will deferre it longer, for that he hath dronke well to day, or else hath had some other great matters in hand: and therefore we doe not dresse one supper only, but many suppers, bicause we are vncerteine of the houre he will suppe in. Philotas the Phisition tolde my grandfather this tale, and sayd moreouer,* that it was his chaunce shortly after to serue the eldest sonne of the sayd Antonius, whome he had by his wife Fuluia: and that he sate commonly at his table with his other frendes, when he did not dine nor suppe with his father. It chaunced one day there came a Phisition that was so full of words,* that he made euery man wearie of him at the bord: but Philotas to stoppe his mouth, [ F] put out a suttle proposition to him.* It is good in some sorme to let a man drinke colde water that hath an agew: euerie man that hath an agew hath it in some sorte, ergo it is good for∣man Page  983 [ A] that hath an agew to drinke cold water. The Phisition was so grauelled and amated with∣all, that he had not a word more to say. Young Antonius burst out in such a laughing at him, and was so glad of it, that he sayd vnto him: Philotas, take all that, I geue it thee: shewing him his cubbord full of plate, with great pots of gold and siluer. Philotas thanked him, and told him he thought him selfe greatly boūd to him for this liberality, but he would neuer haue thought that he had had power to haue geuen so many things, and of so great value. But muche more be maruelled, when shortly after one of young Antonius men brought him home all the pots in a basket, bidding him set his marke and stampe vpon them, and to locke them vp. Philotas returned the bringer of them, fearing to be reproued if he tooke them. Then the yoūg gentle∣man Antonius sayd vnto him: alas poore man, why doest thou make it nise to take them? [ B] Knowest thou not that it is the sonne of Antonius that geues them thee, and is able to do it? If thou wilt not beleue me, take rather the readie money they come to: bicause my father per∣aduenture may aske for some of the plate, for the antike & excellent workemanship of them. This I haue heard my grandfather tell oftentimes. But now againe to Cleopatra. Plato wryteth that there are foure kinds of flatterie:* but Cleopatra deuided it into many kinds.* For she, were it in sport, or in matter of earnest, still deuised sundrie new delights to haue Antonius at com∣maundement, neuer leauing him night nor day, nor once letting him go out of her sight. For she would play at dyce with him, drinke with him, and hunt commonly with him, and also be with him when he went to any exercise or actiuity of body. And somtime also, when he would goe vp and downe the citie disguised like a slaue in the night, & would peere into poore mens [ C] windowes & their shops, and scold & brawle with them within the house: Cleopatra would be also in achamber maides array, & amble vp & downe the streets with him, so that oftentimes Antonius bare away both mockes & blowes. Now, though most men misliked this maner, yet the ALEXANDRIANS were commonly glad of this iolity, & liked it well, saying verie gallant∣ly, and wisely: that Antonius shewed them a commicall face, to wit, a merie countenaunce: and the ROMANES a tragicall face, to say, a grimme looke. But to reckon vp all the foolishe sportes they made, reuelling in this sorte: it were too fond a parte of me, and therefore I will only tell you one among the rest. On a time he went to angle for fish,* and when he could take none, he was as angrie as could be, bicause Cleopatra stoode by. Wherefore he secretly com∣maunded the fisher men, that when he cast in his line, they should straight diue vnder the wa∣ter, [ D] and put a fishe on his hooke which they had taken before: and so snatched vp his angling rodde, and brought vp fish twise or thrise. Cleopatra found it straight, yet she seemed not to see it, but wondred at his excellent fishing: but when she was alone by her selfe among her owne people, she told them howe it was, and bad them the next morning to be on the water to see the fishing. A number of people came to the hauen, and got into the fishes boates to see this fishing. Antonius then threw in his line and Cleopatra straight commaunded one of her men to diue vnder water before Antonius men, and to put some old salte fish vpon his baite, like vnto those that are brought out of the contrie of PONT. When he had hong the fish on his hooke, Antonius thinking he had taken a fishe in deede, snatched vp his line presently. Then they all fell a laughing. Cleopatra laughing also, said vnto him: leaue vs (my Lord) AEGYPTIANS (which [ E] dwell in the contry of PHARVS and CANOBVS) your angling rodde: this is not thy profession: thou must hunt after conquering of realmes and contries. Nowe Antonius delighting in these fond and childish pastimes, verie ill newes were brought him from two places. The first from ROME, that his brother Lucius, and Fuluia his wife, fell out first betwene them selues, and after∣wards fell to open warre with Caesar,* & had brought all to nought, that they were both driues to flie out of ITALIE. The seconde newes, as bad as the first: that Labienus conquered all A∣SIA with the armie of the PARTHIANS, from the riuer of Euphrates, and from SYRIA, vnto the contries of LYDIA and IONIA. Then began Antonius with much a doe, a litle to rouse him selfe as if he had bene wakened out of a deepe sleepe, and as a man may say, comming out of a great dronkennes. So, first of all he bent him selfe against the PARTHIANS, and went as farre [ F] as the contrie of PHOENICIA: but there he receiued lamentable letters from his wife Fuluia. Whereuppon he straight returned towards ITALIE, with two hundred saile: and as he went, tooke vp his frendes by the way that fled out of ITALIE, to come to him. By them he was in∣formed, Page  984 formed, that his wise Fuluis was the only cause of this warre: who being of a peeuish, crooked, [ A] and troublesome nature, had purposely raised this vprore in ITALIE, in hope thereby by towards draw him from Cleopatra.* But by good fortune, his wife Fuluia going to meete with Antonius, sickened by the way, and dyed in the citie of SICYONE: and therefore Octauius Caesar, and he were the easelier made frendes together. For when Antonius landed in ITALIE, and that 〈…〉 saw Caesar asked nothing of him, and that Antonius on the other side layed all the fault & bur∣ded on his wife Fuluia: the frendes of both parties would not suffer them to vnrippe any olde matters, and to proue or defend who had the wrong or right, and who was the first procurer of this warre, fearing to make matters wrose betwene them: but they made them frendes to∣gether, and diuided the Empire of ROME betwene them, making the sea Ionium the bounde of their diuision.* For they gaue all the prouinces Eastward, vnto Antonius: and the contries [ B] Westward, vnto Caesar: and left AFRICKE vnto Lepidus: and made a law, that they three one after an other should make their frendes Consuls, when they would not be them selues. This seemed to be a sound counsell, but yet it was to be confirmed with a straighter bonde, which fortune offered thus. There was Octauia the eldest sister of Caesar, not by one mother, for the came of Ancharia, & Caesar him self afterwards of Accia. It is reported, that he dearly loued his sister Octauia, for in deede she was a noble Ladie, and left the widow of her first husband Gaius Mercellus, who dyed not long before: and it seemed also that Antonius had bene widower euen since the death of his wife Fuluia. For he denied not that he kept Cleopatra, but so did he not confesse that he had her as his wife: & so with reason he did defend the loue he bare vnto this AEGYPTIAN Cleopatra. Thereuppon euerie man did set forward this mariage, hoping thereby [ C] that this Ladie Octauia, hauing an excellent grace, wisedom, & honestie, ioyned vnto so rare a beawtie, that when she were with Antonius (he louing her as so worthy a Ladie deserueth) she should be a good meane to keepe good loue & amitie betwext her brother and him. So when Caesar & he had made the matche betwene them, they both went to ROME about this mariage, although it was against the law,* that a widow should be maried within tenne monethes after her husbandes death. Howbeit the Senate dispensed with the law, and so the mariage procee∣ded accordingly. Sextus Pompeius at that time kept in SICILIA, and so made many an inrode into ITALIE with a great number of pynnasies and other pirates shippes, of the which were Captaines two notable pirats, Menas, and Menecrates, who so scoored all the sea thereabouts, that none durst peepe out with a sayle. Furthermore, Sextus Pompeius had delt verie frendly [ D] with Antonius, for he had curteously receiued his mother, when she fled out of ITALIA with Fuluia: and therefore they thought good to make peace with him.* So they met all three to∣gether by the mount of Misena, vpon a hill that runneth farre into the sea: Pompey hauing his shippes ryding hard by at ancker, and Antonius and Caesar their armies vpon the shoare side, di∣rectly ouer against him. Now, after they had agreed that Sextus Pompeius should haue SICILE and SARDINIA, with this condicion, that he should ridde the sea of all theeues and pirats, and make it safe for passengers, and withall that he should send a certaine of wheate of ROME one of them did feast an other, and drew cuts who should beginne. It was Pompeius chaunce to in∣uite them first. Whereupon Antonius asked him: & where shall we suppe? There, said Pompey and shewed him his admirall galley which had six bankes of owers: that (sayd he) is my father [ E] house they haue left me. He spake it to taunt Antonius,* bicause he had his fathers house, that was Pompey the great. So he cast ankers enowe into the sea, to make his galley fast, and then bulls a bridge of wodde to conuey them to his galley, from the heade of mount Misena: and there he welcomed them, and made them great cheere. Now in the middest of the feast,* when they sell to be merie with Antonius loue vnto Cleopatra: Manas the pirate came to Pompey, and whispering in his care, said vnto him: shall I cut the gables of the ankers, and make thee Lord not only of SICILE and SARDINIA, but of the whole Empire of ROME besides? Pompey ha∣uing pawsed a while vpon it, at length aunswered him: thou shouldest haue done it, and nether haue told it me, but now we must content vs with that we haue. As for my selfe, I was neuer taught to breake my faith, nor to be counted a traitor. The other two also did likewise feast [ F] him in their campe, and then he returned into SICILE. Antonius after this agreement made sent Ventidius before into ASIA to stay the PARTHIANS, and to keepe them they should come Page  985 [ A] no further: and he him selfe in the meane time, to gratefie Caesar, was contented to be chosen Iulius Caesars priest and sacrificer, & so they ioyntly together dispatched all great matters, con∣cerning the state of the Empire. But in all other maner of sportes and exercises, wherein they passed the time away the one with the other: Antonius was euer inferior vnto Caesar, and alway lost, which grieued him much. With Antonius there was a soothsayer or astronomer of AE∣GYT, that coulde cast a figure, and iudge of mens natiuities, to tell them what should happen to them. He, either to please Cleopatra, or else for that he founde it so by his art, told Antonius plainly, that his fortune (which of it selfe was excellent good, and very great) was altogether bleamished,* and obscured by Caesars fortune: and therefore he counselled him vtterly to leaue his company, and to get him as farre from him as he could. For thy Demon said he, (that is to [ B] say, the good angell and spirit that kepeth thee) is affraied of his: and being coragious & high when he is alone, becometh fearefull and timerous when he commeth neere vnto the other. Howsoeuer it was, the euents ensuing proued the AEGYPTIANS words true. For, it is said, that as often as they two drew cuts for pastime,* who should haue any thing, or whether they plaied at dice, Antonius alway lost. Oftentimes when they were disposed to see cockefight, or quailes that were taught to fight one with an other: Caesars cockes or quailes did euer ouercome. The which spighted Antonius in his mind, although he made no outward shew of it: and therefore he beleued the AEGYPTIAN the better. In fine, he recommended the affaires of his house vnto Caesar, & went out of ITALIE with Octauia his wife, whom he caried into GRAECE, after he had had a daughter by her. So Antonius lying all the winter at ATHENS, newes came vnto him of [ C] the victories of Ventidius, who had ouercome the PARTHIANS in battel, in the which also were slaine, Labienus, and Pharnabates, the chiefest Captaine king Orodas had.* For these good newes be feasted all ATHENS, and kept open house for all the GRAECIANS, and many games of price were plaied at ATHENS, of the which he him selfe would be iudge. Wherfore leauing his gard, his axes, and tokens of his Empire at his house, he came into the show place (or listes) where these games were played, in a long gowne and slippers after the GRAECIAN facion, and they caried tippestaues before him, as marshalls men do cary before the Iudges to make place: and he himselfe in person was a stickler to part the young men, when they had fought enough. Af∣ter that, preparing to go to the warres, he made him a garland of the holy Oliue, and caried a vessell with him of the water of the fountaine Clepsydra, bicause of an Oracle he had recei∣ued [ D] that so commaunded him. In the meane time, Ventidius once againe ouercame Pacorus,* (Orodes sonne king of PARTHIA) in a battell fought in the contrie of CYRRESTICA, he being come againe with a great armie to inuade SYRIA: at which battell was slaine a great number of the PARTHIANS, & among them Pacorus, the kings owne sonne slaine.* This noble exployt as famous as euer any was, was a full reuenge to the ROMANES, of the shame and losse they had receiued before by the death of Marcus Crassus: and he made the PARTHIANS flie, and glad to kepe them selues within the confines and territories of MESOPOTAMIA, and MEDIA, after they had thrise together bene ouercome in seuerall battells. Howbeit Ventidius durst not vndertake to follow them any further, fearing least he should haue gotten Antonius dipleasure by it. Notwithstanding, he led his armie against them that had rebelled, and conquered them [ E] againe: amongest whome he besieged Antiochus, king of COMMAGENA, who offered him to giue a thowsand talentes to be pardoned his rebellion, and promised euer after to be at Anto∣nius commaundement. But Ventidius made him aunswere, that he should send vnto Antonius, who was not farre of, and would not suffer Ventidius to make any peace with Antiochus, to the end that yet this litle exployt should passe in his name, and that they should not thinke he did any thing but by his Lieutenaunt Ventidius. The siege grew verie long, bicause they that were in the towne, seeing they coulde not be receiued vpon no reasonable composition: determi∣ned valliantly to defende them selues to the last man. Thus Antonius did nothing, and yet re∣ceiued great shame, repenting him much that he tooke not their first offer. And yet at last he was glad to make truce with Antiochus, and to take three hundred talentes for composition.* [ F] Thus after he had set order for the state & affaires of SYRIA, he returned againe to ATHENS: and hauing giuen Ventidius suche honors as he deserued, he sent him to ROME, to triumphe for the PARTHIANS. Ventidius was the only man that euer triumphed of the PARTHIANS vn∣till Page  986 this present day, a meane man borne, and of no noble house nor family: who only came to [ A] that he attained vnto, through Antonius frendshippe, the which deliuered him happie occas∣sion to achieue to great matters. And yet to say truely, he did so well quit him selfe in all his enterprises, that he confirmed that which was spoken of Antonius and Caesar: to wit, that they were alway more fortunate when they made warre by their Lieutenants, then by them selues. For Sossius, one of Antonius Lieutenauntes in SYRIA, did notable good seruice: and Canidius, whom he had also left his Lieutenaunt in the borders of ARMENIA,* did conquer it all. So did he also ouercome the kinges of the IBERIANS and ALBANIANS, and went on with his con∣quest vnto mount Caucasus. By these conquests, the same of Antonius power increased more and more, and grew dreadfull vnto all the barbarous nations. But Antonius notwithstanding, grewe to be maruelously offended with Caesar, vpon certaine reportes that had bene brought [ B] vnto him: and so tooke sea to go towards ITALIE with three hundred saile.* And bicause those of BRVNDVSIVM would not receiue his armie into their hauen, he went futher vnto TAREN∣TVM. There his wife Octauia that came out of GRAECE with him, besought him to send her vn∣to her bother: the which he did. Octauia at that time was great with child, and moreouer had a second daughter by him, and yet she put her selfe in iorney, and met with her brother Octa∣uius Caesar by the way, who brought his two chiefe frendes, Macenas and Agrippa with him. She tooke them aside, and with all the instance she could possible,* intreated them they would not suffer her that was the happiest woman of the world, to become nowe the most wretched and vnfortunatest creature of all other. For now, said she, euerie mans eyes doe gaze on me, that am the sister of one of the Emperours and wife of the other. And if the worst councell [ C] take place, (which the goddes forbidde) and that they growe to warres: for your selues, it is vncertaine to which of them two the goddes haue assigned the victorie, or ouerthrowe. But for me, on which side soeuer victorie fall, my state can be but most miserable still. These words of Octauia so softned Caesars harte, that he went quickely vnto TARENTVM.* But it was a noble sight for them that were present, to see so great an armie by lande not to sturre, and so many shippes aslote in the roade, quietly and safe: and furthermore, the meeting and kindenesse of frendes, louinglie imbracing one an other. First, Antonius feasted Caesar, which he graun∣ted vnto for his sisters sake. Afterwardes they agreed together, that Caesar, should geue Anto∣nius two legions to go against the PARTHIANS: and that Antonius should let Caesar haue a hun∣dred gallies armed with brasen spurres at the prooes. Besides all this, Octauia obteyned of her [ D] husbande, twentie brigantine; for her brother: and of her brother for her husbande, a thow∣sande armed men. After they had taken leaue of eache other, Caesar went immediatly to make warre with Sextus Pompeius, to gette SICILIA into his handes. Antonius also leauing his wife Octauia and litle children begotten of her, with Caesar, and his other children which he had by Fuluia: he went directlie into ASIA. Then beganne this pestilent plague and mis∣chiefe of Cleopatraes loue (which had slept a longe tyme, and seemed to haue bene vtter∣lie forgotten, and that Antonius had geuen place to better counsell) againe to kindle,* and to be in force, so soone as Antonius came neere vnto SYRIA. And in the ende, the horse of the minde as Plato termeth it, that is so hard of rayne (I meane the vnreyned lust of con∣cupiscence) did put out of Antonius heade, all honest and commendable thoughtes: for he [ E] sent Fonteius Capito to bring Cleopatra into SYRIA. Vnto whome, to welcome her, he gaue no trifling things: but vnto that she had already, he added the prouinces of PHOENICIA, those of the nethermost SYRIA, the Ile of CYPRVS, and a great parte of CILICIA,* and that contry of IVRIE where the true balme is, and that parte of ARABIA where the NABATHEIANS doe dwell, which stretcheth out towardes the Ocean. These great giftes muche misliked the RO∣MANES. But now, though Antonius did easely geue away great seigniories, realmes,* & mighty nations vnto some priuate men, and that also he tooke from other kings their lawfull realmes: (as from Antigonus king of the IEWES, whom he openly beheaded, where neuer king before had suffred like death) yet all this did not so much offend the ROMANES, as the vnmeasurable honors which he did vnto Cleopatra. But yet he did much more aggrauate their malice & il wil [ F] towards him, bicause that Cleopatra hauing brought him two twinnes, a sonne and a daughter; he named his sonne Alexander, & his daughter Cleopatra, and gaue them to their surnames; the Page  987 [ A] Sunne to the one, & the moone to the other. This notwithstanding, he that could finely cloke his stramefull deedes with fine words, said that the greames & magnificence of the Empire of ROME appeared most, not where the ROMANES tooke, but where they gaue much: & nobility was multiplied amongest men, by the posterity of kings, when they left of their seede in diuers places: and that by this meanes his first auncester was begotten of Hercules, who had not left the hope and continuance of his line and posterity, in the wombe of one only woman, fearing Solons lawes, or regarding the ordinaunces of men touching the procreacion of children but that he gaue it vnto nature, and established the fundacion of many noble races and families in diuers places. Nowe when Phraortes had slaine his father Orodes,* and possessed the kingdome many gentlemen of PARTHIA forsooke him, and fled from him. Amongst them was Manaset, [ B] a noble man, and of great authority among his contry men, who came vnto Antonius, that re∣ceiued him, & compared his fortune vnto Themistocles, and his owne riches & magnificence, vnto the king of PERSIA. For he gaue Monases three cities, LARISSA, ARETHVSA, & HIERA∣POLIS; which was called before BOMBYCE. Howbeit the king of PARTHIA shortly after called him home againe, vpon his faith & word. Antonius was glad to let him go, hoping thereby as steale vpon Phraortes vnprouided. For he sent vnto him, & told him that they would remaine good frends, & haue peace together, so he would but only redeliuer the standerds & ensignes of the ROMANES, which the PARTHIANS had wonne in the battell where Marcus Crassus was slaine, & the men also that remained yet prisoners of this ouerthrow. In the meane time he sent Cleopatra backe into AEGYPT, & tooke his way towards ARABIA & ARMENIA, & there tooke [ C] a general muster of all his army he had together, & of the kings his cōsederats that were come by his cōmaundement to aide him, being a maruelous number: of the which, the chiefest was Artauasdes, king of ARMENIA, who did furnish him with six thowsande horsemen, and seuen thowsand footemen. There were also of the ROMANES about three score thowsand footmen,* & of horsemen (SPANIARDS & GAVLES reckoned for ROMANES) to the number of ten thou∣sand; & of other nations thirty thowsand men, reckoning together the horsemen and light ar∣med footemen. This so great & puisant army which made the INDIANS quake for feare, dwel∣ling about the country of the BACTRIANS, and all ASIA also to tremble: serued him to no pur∣pose, & all for the loue he bare to Cleopatra.* For the earnest great desire he had to lye all winter with her, made him begin his warre out of due time, and for hast, to put all in hazard, being so [ D] rauished & enchaunted with the sweete poyson of her loue, that he had no other thought but of her, & how he might quickly returne againe: more then he how might ouercome his ene∣mies. For first of all, where he should haue wintered in ARMENIA to refresh his men, wearied with the long iorney they had made, hauing comen eight thowsand furlongs, and then at the beginning of the spring to go and inuade MEDIA, before the PARTHIANS should stirre out of their houses & garrisons: he could tary no lenger, but led them forthwith vnto the prouince of ATROFATENE, leauing ARMENIA on the left hand, & forraged al the contry. Furthermore, making all the hast he coulde, he left behinde him engines of battery which were caried with him in three hūdred carts, (among the which also there was a ramme foure score foote long) being things most necessary for him, and the which he could not get againe for money if they [ E] were once lost or marted. For the hie prouinc〈…〉 ASIA haue no trees growing of such height and length, neither strong nor straight enough to make such like engines of battery. This not∣withstanding, he left them all behind him, as a hinderance to bring his matters & intent spee∣dily to passe: and left a certaine number of men to keepe them, and gaue them in charge vnto one Tatianus. Then he went to besiege the citie of PHRAATA,* being the chiefest and greatest citie the king of MEDIA had, where his wife and children were. Then he straight sounde his owne fault, and the want of his artillerie he left behinde him, by the worke he had in hande: for he was fayne for lacke of a breache (where his men might come to the swords with their enemies that defended the walle) to force a mount of earth hard to the walles of the citie, the which by litle and litle with greate labour, rose to some height. In the meane time [ F] king Phraortes came downe with a great armie: who vnderstanding that Antonius had left his engines of batterie behind him, he sent a great number of horsemen before, which enuironed Tatianus with all his cariage, and slue him, and ten thowsand men he had with him. After this, Page  988 the barbarous people tooke these engines of battery and burnt them,* and got many prisoners, [ A] amongst whom they tooke also king Polemon. This discomfiture maruelously troubled all An∣tonius army, to receiue so great an ouerthrow (beyong their expectacion) at the beginning of their iorney: insomuche that Artahazus, king of the ARMENIANS, dispairing of the good suc∣cesse of the ROMANES: departed with his men, notwithstanding that he was him selfe the first procurer of this warre and iorney. On the other side, the PARTHIANS came coragiously vnto Antonius campe, who lay at the siege of their chiefest citie, and cruelly reuiled and threatned him. Antonius therefore fearing that if he lay still and did nothing, his mens harts would faile them: he tooke ten legions, with three cohorts or ensignes of the Praetors, (which are com∣panies appointed for the gard of the Generall) and all his horsemen, and caried them out to sorrage, hoping therby he should easely allure the PARTHIANS to fight a battell. But when he [ B] had marched about a dayes iorney form his campe, he saw the PARTHIANS wheeling round about him to geue him the onset, & to skirmish with him, when he would thinke to march his way. Therefore he set out his signall of battell, & yet caused his tents and fardells to be trussed vp, as though he ment not to fight, but only to lead his men back againe. Then he marched be∣fore the army of the barbarous people, the which was marshald like a cressant or halfe moone: and commaunded his horsemen, that as soone as they thought the legions were nere enough vnto their enemies to set vpon the voward, that then they should set spurres to their horses,* & begin the charge. The PARTHIANS standing in battell ray, beholding the countenaunce of the ROMANES as they marched: they appeared to be souldiers in deede, to see them marche in so good array as was possible. For in their march, they kept the rankes a like space one from an o∣ther, [ C] not straggling out of order, and shaking their pikes, speaking neuer a word.* But so soone as the allarom was giuen, the horsemen sodainly turned head vpon the PARTHIANS, and with great cries gaue charge on them: who at the first receiued their charge coragiously, for they were ioined nerer thē within an arrowes shoote. But when the legions also came to ioine with them, showting out alowde, & ratling of their armors: the PARTHIANS horses and them selues were so affrayed and amazed withall, that they all turned taile and fled, before the ROMANES could come to the sword with them. Then Antonius followed thē hard in chase, being in great good hope by this conflict to haue brought to end all, or the most part of this warre. But after that his footemen had chased them fiftie furlonges of, and the horsemen also thrise as farre: they found in all but thirty prisoners taken, and about foure score men only slaine. But this did [ D] much discorage them, when they cōsidered with them selues, that obtaining the victory, they had slaine so few of their enemies: and where they were ouercome, they lost as many of their men, as they had done at the ouerthrow when the cariage was taken. The next morning, An∣tonius army trussed vp their cariage, and marched backe towards their campe: and by the way in their returne they met at the first a fewe of the PARTHIANS: then going further, they met a few moe. So at length when they all came together, they reuiled them, & troubled them on e∣uery side, as freshly & coragiously, as if they had not bene ouerthrowen: so that the ROMANES very hardly got to their campe with safety. The MEDES on the other side, that were besieged in their chiefe city of PHRAATA, made a saly out vpon them that kept the mount, which they had forced and cast against the wall of the city, and draue them for feare, from the mount they [ E] kept. Antonius was so offended withall, that he executed the Decimation.* For he deuided his men by ten legions, and then of them he put the tenth legion to death, on whom the lot fell: and to the other nine, he caused them to haue barley giuen them in stead of wheate. Thus this warre fell out troublesome vnto both parties, and the ende thereof muche more fearefull. For Antonius could looke for no other of his side, but famine: bicause he could forrage no more, nor fetche in any vittells, without great losse of his men. Phraortes on the other side, he knew well enough that he could bring the PARTHIANS to any thing els, but to lye in campe abroad in the winter. Therefore he was affrayed, that if the ROMANES continued their siege all winter long, & made warre with him still: that his mē would forsake him, & specially bicause the time of the yere went away apace, & the ayer waxed clowdy, & cold, in the equinoctiall autumne. [ F] Thereupon he called to mind this deuise. He gaue the chiefest of his gentlemē of the PARTHI∣ANS charge, that when they met the ROMANES out of their campe, going to forrage, or to water Page  989 [ A] their horse, or for some other prouision: that they should not distresse them too muche,* but should suffer them to carie somewhat away, and greatly commend their valliantnes and har∣dines, for the which their king did esteeme them the more, and not without cause. After these first baytes and allurements, they beganne by litle and litle to come neerer vnto them, and to talke with them a horsebacke, greatly blaming Antonius selfewill that did not geue their king Phraortes occasion to make a good peace, who desired nothing more, then to saue the liues of so goodly a companie of valliant men: but that he was too fondly bent to abide two of the greatest and most dreadfull enemies he could haue, to wit: winter, and famine, the which they should hardly away withall, though the PARTHIANS did the best they could to aide & accom∣pany them. These words being oftentimes brought to Antonius, they made him a litle pliant, [ B] for the good hope he had of his returne: but yet he woulde not sende vnto the king of PAR∣THIA, before they had first asked these barbarous people that spake so curteously vnto his men, whether they spake it of them selues, or that they were their maisters words. When they told them the king him selfe sayd so, and did perswade them further not to feare or mistrust them: then Antonius sent some of his frends vnto the king, to make demaund for the deliuery of the ensignes and prisoners he had of the ROMANES, since the ouerthrow of Crassus: to the ende it should not appeare, that if he asked nothing, they shoulde thinke he were glad that he might only scape with safety out of the daunger he was in. The king of PARTHIA answered him: that for the ensignes & prisoners he demaunded, he should not breake his head about it: notwith∣stāding, that if he would presently depart without delay, he might depart in peaceable maner, [ C] and without daunger. Wherefore Antonius after he had giuen his men some time to trusse vp their cariage, he raised his campe, & tooke his way to depart. But though he had an excellent tongue at will, and very gallant to enterteine his souldiers and men of warre, and that he could passingly well do it, as well, or better then any Captaine in his time: yet being ashamed for re∣spects, he would not speake vnto them at his remouing,* but willed Domitius AEnobarbus to do it. Many of them tooke this in very ill parte, & thought that he did it in disdaine of them: but the most part of them presently vnderstoode the truth of it, and were also ashamed. Therefore they thought it their dueties to carie the like respect vnto their Captaine, that their Captaine did vnto them: and so they became the more obedient vnto him. So Antonius was minded to returne the same way he came, being a plaine barren contry without wodde. But there came a [ D] souldier to him, borne in the contry of the MARDIANS, who by oft frequenting the PARTHI∣ANS of long time, knew their facions very wel, and had also shewed him selfe very true & faith∣full to the ROMANES, in the battell where Antonius engines of battery and cariage were taken away. This man came vnto Antonius, to counsell him to beware how he went that way, and to make his army a pray, being heauily armed, vnto so great a number of horsemen, all archers in the open field, where they should haue nothing to let them to compasse him round about: and that this was Phraortes fetch to offer him so frendly cōdicions & curteous words to make him raise his siege, that he might afterwards meete him as he would, in the plaines: howbeit, that he would guide him, if he thought good, an other way on the right hand, through woddes & mountaines, a farre neerer way, and where he should finde great plenty of all things needefull [ E] for his army. Antonius hearing what he said, called his counsel together, to consult vpon it. For after he had made peace with the PARTHIANS, he was loth to geue them cause to thinke he mistrusted them: and on thother side also he would gladly shorten his way, and passe by places wel inhabited, where he might be prouided of al things necessary: therfore he asked the MAR∣DIAN what pledge he would put in, to performe that he promised. The MARDIAN gaue himself to be bound hand and foote, till he had brought his army into the contry of ARMENIA. So he guided the army thus bound, two dayes together, without any trouble of sight of enemy. But the third day, Antonius thinking the PARTHIANS would no more follow him, & trusting ther∣in, suffered the souldiers to march in disorder as euery mā listed. The MARDIAN perceiuing that the dammes of a riuer were newly broken vp, which they should haue passed ouer, & that the [ F] riuer had ouerflowen the bankes and drowned all the way they shoulde haue gone: he gessed straight that the PARTHIANS had done it, and had thus broken it open, to stay the ROMANES for getting too farre before them. Therupon he bad Antonius looke to him selfe, and told him Page  990 that his enemies were not farre from thence. Antonius hauing set his men in order, as he was [ A] placing of his archers & sling men to resist the enemies, & to driue them backe: they discried the PARTHIANS that wheeled round about the army to compasse them in on euery side,* & to breake their rankes, & their light armed men gaue charge apon them. So after they had hurt many of the ROMANES with their arrowes, and that they them selues were also hurt by them with their dartes and plummets of leade: they retyred a litle, and then came againe and gaue charge. Vntill that the horsemen of the GAVLES turned their horses, & fiercely gallopped to∣wards them, that they dispersed them so, as al that day they gathered no more together. Ther∣by Antonius knew whatto do, and did not only strengthen the rereward of his army, but both the flanks also, with darters and sling men, and made his army march in a square battell: com∣maunding the horsemen, that when the enemies should come to assaile them, they shoulde [ B] driue them backe, but not follow them too farre. Thus the PARTHIANS foure daies after, see∣ing they did no more hurte to the ROMANES, then they also receiued of them: they were not so hotte vpon them as they were commaunded, but excusing them selues by the winter that troubled them, they determined to returne backe againe. The fist day, Flauius Gallus,* a valliant man of his handes, that had charge in the armie: came vnto Antonius to pray him to let him haue some moe of his light armed men then were alreadie in the rereward, and some of the horsemen that were in the voward, hoping thereby to doe some notable exploite. Antonius graunting them vnto him, when the enemies came according to their maner to set vpon the taile of the army, and to skirmish with them: Flauius coragiously made them retire, but not as they were wont to doe before, to retire and ioyne presently with their army, for he ouerrashly [ C] thrust in among them to fight it out at the sword. The Capteines that had the leading of the rereward, seeing Flauius stray too farre from the army: they sent vnto him to will him to retire, but he would not harken to it. And it is reported also, that Titius himselfe the Treasorer, tooke the ensignes, & did what he could to make the ensigne bearers returne backe, reuiling Flauius Gallus, bicause that through his folly and desperatnes he caused many honest and valliant men to be both hurt & slaine to no purpose. Gallus also fel out with him, and commaunded his men to stay. Wherefore Titius returned againe into the army, and Gallus stil ouerthrowing and dri∣uing the enemies backe whom he met in the voward, he was not ware that he was compassed in. Then seeing him selfe enuironned of all sides, he sent vnto the army, that they should come and aide him: but there the Captaines that led the legions (among the which Canidius, a man [ D] of great estimacion about Antonius made one) committed many faults.* For where they should haue made head with the whole army vpon the PARTHIANS, they sent him aide by small cō∣panies: and when they were slaine, they sent him others also. So that by their beastlinesse and lacke of consideracion, they had like to haue made all the armie flie, if Antonius him selfe had not come frō the front of the battell with the third legion, the which came through the mid∣dest of them that fled, vntill they came to front of the enemies, & that they stayed them from chasing any further. Howbeit at this last conflict there were slaine no lesse thē three thowsand men, and fiue thowsande besides brought sore hurt into the campe, and amongest them also Flauius Gallus, whose body was shot through in foure places, whereof he died.*Antonius went to the tents to visite & comfort the sicke & wounded, and for pities sake he could not refraine [ E] from weeping: and they also shewing him the best countenaunce they coulde, tooke him by the hand, and prayed him to go and be dressed, and not to trouble him selfe for them, most re∣uerently calling him their Emperour & Captaine: & that for them selues, they were whole & safe, so that he had his health. For in deede to say truly, there was not at that time any Empe∣rour or Captaine that had so great & puisant an army as his together, both for lusty youths, & corage of the souldiers, as also for their pacience to away with so great paines & trouble. Fur∣thermore, the obedience & reuerēce they shewed vnto their captaine,* with a maruelous ear∣nest loue & good wil, was so great: & all were indifferētly (as wel great as smal, the noble men, as meane men, the Captaines and souldiers) so earnestly bent to esteeme Antonius good will & fauor, aboue their owne life & safety: that in this point of marshall discipline, the auncient RO∣MANES [ F] could not haue don any more.* But diuers things were cause therof, as we haue told you before: Antonius nobility & ancient house, his eloquence, his plaine nature, his liberality & ma∣gnificence, Page  991 [ A] & his familiarity to sport & to be mery in company; but specially the care he tooke at that time to help, visite, & lament those that were sicke & woūded, seing euery man to haue that which was meete for him: that was of such force & effect, as it made them that were sicke & wounded to loue him better, & were more desirous to do him seruice, then those that were whole & soūd. This victory so encoraged the enemies, (who otherwise were weary to follow Antonius any further) that all night longe they kept the fieldes, and houered about the RO∣MANES campe, thinking that they would presently flie, & then that they should take the spoile of their campe. So the next morning by breake of daye, there were gathered together a farre greater nūber of the PARTHIANS, then they were before. For the rumor was, that there were not much fewer then forty thowsand horse, bicause their king sent thither euen the very gard [ B] about his person, as vnto a most certaine and assured victorie, that they might be partners of the spoyle and booty they hoped to haue had: for as touching the king him selfe,* he was ne∣uer in any conflict or battell. Then Antonius desirous to speake to his souldiers, called for a blacke gowne, to appeare the more pitifull to them: but his friends did disswade him from it. Therefore he put on his coate armor, and being so apparelled, made an oration to his armie: in the which he highly commended them that had ouercome and driuen backe their ene∣mies, and greatly rebuked them that had cowardly turned their backes. So that those which had ouercome, prayed him to be of good chere: the other also to cleere them selues, willing∣ly offred to take the lotts of Decimation if he thought good, or otherwise, to receiue what kind of punishment it should please him to laye vpon them, so that he would forget any more to [ C] mislike, or to be offended with them. Antonius seeing that, did lift vp his hands to heauen, and made his prayer to the goddes, that if in exchaunge of his former victories, they would nowe sende him some bitter aduersitie: then that all might light on him selfe alone, and that they would giue the victorie to the rest of his armie.* The next morning, they gaue better order on euery side of the armie, and so marched forward: so that when the PARTHIANS thought to re∣turne againe to assaile them, they came farre short of the reckoning. For where they thought to come not to fight, but to spoyle and make hauock of all: when they came neare them, they were sore hurt with their slings and darts, and such other iauelings as the ROMANES darted at them, & the PARTHIANS found them as rough and desperat in fight, as if they had bene fresh men they had delt withall. Whereuppon their harts beganne againe to fayle them. But yet [ D] when the ROMANES came to goe downe any steepe hills or mountaines, then they would set on them with their arrowes, bicause the ROMANES could goe downe but fayer and softly. But then againe, the souldiers of the legion that caried great shields, returned backe, and inclosed them that were naked or light armed, in the middest amongest them, and did kneele of one knee on the ground, and so set downe their shields before them:* and they of the second ranck also couered them of the first rancke, and the third also couered the second, and so from ranck to rancke all were couered. Insomuch that this manner of couering and sheading them selues with shields, was deuised after the facion of laying tiles vpon houses, and to sight, was like the degrees of a Theater, and is a most stronge defence and bulwarke against all arrowes and shot that falleth vpon it. When the PARTHIANS saw this countenaunce of the ROMANE souldiers [ E] of the legion, which kneeled on the ground in that sorte vpon one knee, supposing that they had bene wearied with trauell? they layed downe their bowes, & tooke their speares & laun∣ces, and came to fight with them man for man. Then the ROMANES sodainely rose vpon their feete, and with the darts that they threwe from them, they slue the formost, and put the rest to flight, and so did they the next dayes that followed. But by meanes of these daungers and lets, Antonius armie could winne no way in a day, by reason whereof they suffred great famine: for they could haue but litle corne, and yet were they driuen daily to fight for it, and besides that, they had no instruments to grynd it, to make bread of it. For the most part of them had bene∣left behind, bicause the beasts that caried them were either dead, or els imployed to cary them that were sore and wounded. For the famine was so extreame great,* that the eight parte of a [ F] bushell of wheate was sold for fifty Drachmas, and they sold barley bread by the waight of sil∣uer. In the ende, they were compelled to liue of erbes and rootes, but they found few of them that men doe commonly eate of, and were inforced to tast of them that were neuer eaten be∣fore: Page  992 among the which there was one that killed them,* and made them out of their witts. For [ A] he that had once eaten of it, his memorye was gone from him, and he knewe no manner of thing, but onely busied him selfe in digging and hurling of stones from one place to another, as though it had bene a matter of great waight, and to be done with all possible speede. All the campe ouer, men were busily stouping to the ground, digging and carying of stones from one place to another: but at the last, they cast vp a great deale of choller, and dyed sodainly, bicause they lacked wine, which was the onely soueraine remedy to cure that disease. It is re∣ported that Antonius seeing such a number of his men dye dayly, and that the PARTHIANS left them not, nether would suffer them to be at rest: he oftentymes cryed out sighing, and sayd: O, tenne thowsand. He had the valliantnes of tenne thowsand GRAECIANS in such admirati∣on, whome Xenophon brought away after the ouerthrow of CYRVS:* bicause they had comen [ B] a farder iorney from BABYLON, and had also fought against much moe enemies many tymes told, then them selues, and yet came home with safetie. The PARTHIANS therfore seeing that they could not breake the good order of the armie of the ROMANES, and contrarily that they them selues were oftentymes put to flight, and welfauoredly beaten: they fell againe to their olde craftie suttelties.* For when they found any of the ROMANES scattered from the armie to goe forrage, to seeke some corne, or other vittells: they would come to them as if they had bene their friends, and shewed them their bowes vnbent, saying, that them selues also did re∣turne home to their contry as they did, and that they would follow them no further, howbeit that they should yet haue certaine MEDES that would follow them a dayes iorney or two, to keepe them that they should doe no hurt to the villages from the high wayes: and so holding [ C] them with this talke, they gently tooke their leaue of them, and bad them farewell, so that the ROMANES began againe to thinke them selues safe. Antonius also vnderstanding this, being ve∣ry glad of it, determined to take his way through the plaine contry, bicause also they should find no water in the mountaines, as it was reported vnto him. So as he was determined to take this course, there came into his hoast one Mithridates,* a gentleman from the enemies campe, who was Cosen vnto Monaezes that fled vnto Antonius, and vnto whome he had giuen three cities. When he came to Antonius campe, he praied them to bring him one that could speake the PARTHIAN, or SYRIAN tongue. So one Alexander ANTIOCHIAN, a famillier of Antonius, was brought vnto him. Then the gentleman told him what he was, and sayde, that Monaezes had sent him to Antonius, to requite the honor and curtesie he had shewed vnto him. After he [ D] had vsed this ceremonious speeche, he asked Alexander if he sawe those highe Mountaines a farre of, which he poynted vnto him with his finger. Alexander aunswered he did. The PAR∣THIANS (sayd he) doe lye in ambushe at the foote of those Mountaines, vnder the which ly∣eth a goodly playne champion contry: and they thinke that you beeing deceiued with their craftie suttill wordes, will leaue the way of the Mountaines, and turne into the plaine. For the other way, it is very hard and painefull, and you shall abide great thirst, the which you are well acquainted withall: but if Antonius take the lower way, let him assure him selfe to runne the same fortune that Marcus Crassus did. So Mithridates hauing sayd, he departed. Antonius was maruelously troubled in his mind when he heard thus much, & therfore called for his friends, to heare what they would say to it. The MARDIAN also that was their guide, being asked his [ E] opinion, aunswered: that he thought as much as the gentleman Mithridates had sayd. For, sayd he, admit that there were no ambushe of enemies in the valley, yet it is a long crooked way, and ill to hit: where taking the Mountaine waye, though it be stoyne and painefull, yet there is no other daunger, but a whole dayes trauelling without any water. So Antonius chaū∣ging his first mind and determination, remoued that night, and tooke the Mountaine way, commaunding euery man to prouide him selfe of water. But the most part of them lacking vessells to cary water in, some were driuen to fill their salletts and murrians with water, and o∣thers also filled goates skinnes to cary water in. Nowe they marching forwarde, worde was brought vnto the PARTHIANS that they were remoued: whereuppon, contrary to their man∣ner, they presently followed them the selfe same night, so that by breake of day they ouertooke [ F] the rereward of the ROMANES, who were so lame and wearied with going, and lacke of sleepe, that they were euen done. For, beyond expectacion, they had gone that night, two hundred Page  993 [ A] and forthy furlong, and further, to see their enemies so sodainly at their backs, that made them vtterly dispaire: but moste of all, the fighting with them increased their thirst, bicause they were forced to fight as they marched, to driue their enemies backe, yet creeping on still. The voward of the armie by chaunce met with a riuer that was very cleere, and colde water, but it was salt and by venemous to drinke:* for straight it did gnawe the gutts of those that had dronke it; and made them maruelous drye, and put them into a terrible ache and pricking. And not∣withstanding that the MARDIAN had told them of it before, yet they would not be ruled, but violently thrust them backe that would haue kept them from drinking, and so dranke: But Antonius going vp and downe amongst them, prayed them to take a litle pacience for a while, for hard by there was another riuer that the water was excellent good to drinke, & that from [ B] thenceforth the way was so stony and ill for horsemen, that the enemies could followe them no further. So he caused the retreate to be sownded to call them backe that fought, and com∣maunded the tents to be set vppe, that the souldiers might yet haue shadow to refreshe them with. So when the tents were set vp, and the PARTHIANS also retyred according to their man∣ner: the gentleman Mithridates before named, returned againe as before, and Alexander in like manner againe brought vnto him for Interpreter. Then Mithridates aduised him, that af∣ter the armie had reposed a litle, the ROMANES should remoue forthwith, and with all possible speede get to the riuer: bicause the PARTHIANS would goe no further, but yet were cruelly bent to follow them thither. Alexander caried the report thereof vnto Antonius, who gaue him a great deale of gold plate to bestowe vpon Mithridates. Mithridates tooke as much of him as [ C] he could well cary away in his gowne, and so departed with speede. So Antonius raysed his campe being yet day light,* and caused all his army to marche, & the PARTHIANS neuer trou∣bled any of them by the way: but amongest them selues it was as ill and dreadfull a night as e∣uer they had. For there were Villens of their owne company, who cut their fellowes throates for the money they had, and besides that, robbed the sumpters and cariage of such money as they caried: and at length, they set vpon Antonius slaues that draue his owne sumpters and cariage,* they brake goodly tables & riche plate in peeces, and deuided it among them selues. Thereuppon all the campe was straight in tumult and vprore: For the residue of them were affraid it had bene the PARTHIANS that had giuen them this alarom, and had put all the armie out of order. Insomuch that Antonius called for one Rhamnus, one of his slaues infranchised [ D] that was of his gard, and made him giue him his faith that he would thrust his sword through him when he would bid him,* and cut of his head: bicause he might not betaken aliue of his enemies, nor knowen when he were dead. This grieued his friends to the hart, that they burst out a weeping for sorrow. The MARDIAN also did comfort him, and assured him that the riuer he sought for was hard by, and that he did gesse it by a sweete moyst wind that breathed vpon them, and by the ayer which they found fresher then they were wont, and also, for that they fetched their wind more at libertie: and moreouer, bicause that since they did set forward, he thought they were neare their iorneys ende, not lacking much of day. On the other side also, Antonius was informed, that this great tumult and trouble came not through the enemies, but through the vile couetousnes and villany of certaine of his souldiers. Therefore Antonius [ E] to set his armie againe in order, and to pacifie this vprore, sownded the trompet that euery man should lodge. Now day began to breake, and the army to fall againe into good order, and all the hurly burly to cease, when the PARTHIANS drewe neare, and that their arrowes lighted among them of the rereward of his army. Thereuppon the signall of battell was giuen to the light armed men, and the legioners did couer them selues as they had done before with their shields, with the which they receiued & defended the force of the PARTHIANS arrowes, who neuer durst any more come to hand strokes with them: and thus they that were in the vo∣ward, went downe by litle and litle, till at length they spyed the riuer. There Antonius placed his armed men vpon the sands to receiue and driue backe the enemies, and first of all, got o∣uer his men that were sicke and hurt, and afterwards all the rest. And those also that were left [ F] to resist the enemies, had leysure enough to drinke safely, and at their pleasure. For when the PARTHIANS saw the riuer, they vnbent their bowes, and bad the ROMANES passe ouer with∣out any feare, and greatly commended their valliantnes. When they had all passed ouer the Page  994 riuer at their ease, they tooke a litle breath, and so marched forward againe, not greatly tru∣sting [ A] the PARTHIANS. The sixt daye after this last battell, they came to the riuer of Araxes,* which deuideth the contry of ARMENIA from MEDIA: the which appeared vnto them very daungerous to passe, for the depth and swiftnes of the streame. And furthermore, there ranne a rumor through the campe, that the PARTHIANS lay in ambushe thereabouts, and that they would come & set vpon them whilest they were troubled in passing ouer the riuer. But now, after they were all comen safely ouer without any daunger, and that they had gotten to the other side, into the prouince of ARMENIA: then they worshipped that land, as if it had bene the first land they had seene after a long and daungerous voyage by sea, being now arriued in a safe and happy hauen: and the teares ranne downe their cheekes, and euery man imbraced eache other for the great ioy they had. But nowe, keeping the fields in this frutefull contry so [ B] plentifull of all things, after so great a famine and want of all thinges: they so crammed them selues with such plenty of vittells, that many of them were cast into flyxes and dropsies. There Antonius mustring his whole army, found that he had lost twenty thowsand footemen, and foure thowsand horsemen, which had not all bene slayne by their enemies: for the most part of them dyed of sicknes, making seuen and twenty dayes iorney, comming from the citie of PHRAATA into ARMENIA, and hauing ouercome the PARTHIANS in eighteene seuerall bat∣tells.* But these victories were not throughly performed nor accomplished, bicause they fol∣lowed no long chase: and thereby it easily appeared, that Artabazus king of ARMENIA, had reserued Antonius to end this warre.* For if the sixteene thowsand horsemen which he brought with him out of MEDIA, had bene at these battells, considering that they were armed and ap∣parelled [ C] much after the PARTHIANS manner, and acquainted also with their fight: When the ROMANES had put them to flight that sought a battell with them, & that these ARMENIANS had followed the chase of them that fled, they had not gathered them selues againe in force, neither durst they also haue returned to fight with them so often, after they had bene so many times ouerthrowen. Therefore, all those that were of any credit and countenaunce in the ar∣my, did perswade and egge Antonius to be reuenged of this ARMENIAN king. But Antonius wisely dissembling his anger, he told him not of his trechery, nor gaue him the worse counte∣naunce, nor did him lesse honor then he did before: bicause he knew his armie was weake, & lacked things necessary. Howbeit afterwards he returned againe into ARMENIA with a great army, and so with fayer wordes, and sweete promises of Messengers, he allured Artabazus to [ D] come vnto him:* whome he then kept prisoner, and led in triumphe in the citie of ALEXAN∣DRIA. This greatly offended the ROMANES, and made them much to mislike it: when they saw that for Cleopatraes sake he depriued his contry of her due honor and glory, onely to gra∣tifie the AEGYPTIANS. But this was a prety while after. Howbeit then, the great haste he made to returne vnto Cleopatra, caused him to put his men to so great paines, forcing them to lye in the field all winter long when it snew vnreasonably, that by the way he lost eight thowsand of his men, and so came downe to the seaside with a small companye, to a certaine place called BLANCBOVRG, which standeth betwixt the cities of BERYTVS and SIDON, and there taried for Cleopatra. And bicause she taried longer then he would haue had her, he pined away for loue and sorrow.* So that he was at such a straight, that he wist nor what to doe, and therefore [ E] to weare it out, he gaue him selfe to quaffing and feasting. But he was so drowned with the loue of her, that he could not abide to sit at the table till the feast were ended: but many times while others banketted, he ranne to the sea side to see if she were comming.* At length she came, and brought with her a worlde of apparell and money to giue vnto the souldiers. But some saye notwithstanding, that she brought apparell, but no money, and that she tooke of Antonius money, and caused it to be giuen amonge the souldiers in her owne name, as if she had giuen it them. In the meane time it chaunced, that the king of the MEDES, and Phraortes king of the PARTHIANS, fell at great warres together, the which began (as it is reported) for the spoyles of the ROMANES: and grew to be so hot betwene them,* that the king of MEDES was no lesse affrayd, then also in daunger to lose his whole Realme. Thereuppon he sent vnto [ F] Antonius to pray him to come and make warre with the PARTHIANS, promising him that he would ayde him to his vttermost power. This put Antonius againe in good comfort, conside∣ring Page  995 [ A] that vnlooked for, the onely thing he lacked, (which made him he could not ouercome the PARTHIANS, meaning that he had not brought horsemen, and men with dares and slings enough) was offred him in that sort: that he did him more pleasure to accept it, then it was pleasure to the other to offer it. Hereuppon, after he had spoken with the king of MEDES at the riuer of Araxes, he prepared him selfe once more to goe through ARMENIA, and to make more cruell warre with the PARTHIANS, then he had done before. Now whilest Antonius was busie in this preparation, Octauia his wife, whome he had left at ROME, would needes take sea to come vnto him. Her brother Octauius Caesar was willing vnto it, not for his respect at all (as most authors doe report) as for that he might haue an honest culler to make warre with An∣tonius if he did misuse her, and not esteeme of her as she ought to be. But when she was come [ B] to ATHENS,* she receiued letters from Antonius, willing her to stay there vntill his comming, & did aduertise her of his iorney and determination. The which though it griued her much, and that she knewe it was but an excuse: yet by her letters to him of aunswer, she asked him whether he would haue those thinges sent vnto him which she had brought him, being great store of apparell for souldiers, great number of horse, summe of money, and gifts, to bestow on his friendes and Captaines he had about him: and besides all those, she had two thowsand souldiers chosen men, all well armed, like vnto the Praetors bands. When Niger, one of Anto∣nius friends whome he had sent vnto ATHENS, had brought these newes from his wife Octa∣uia, and withall did greatly prayse her, as she was worthy, and well deserued: Cleopatra know∣ing that Octauia would haue Antonius from her, and fearing also that if with her vertue and [ C] honest behauior, (besides the great power of her brother Caesar) she did adde thereunto her modest kind loue to please her husband, that she would then be too stronge for her, and in the end winne him away: she suttelly seemed to languish for the loue of Antonius,* pyning her bo∣dy for lacke of meate. Furthermore, she euery way so framed her countenaunce, that when Antonius came to see her, she cast her eyes vpon him, like a woman rauished for ioy. Straight againe when he went from her, she fell a weeping and blubbering, looked rufully of the mat∣ter, and still found the meanes that Antonius should oftentynes finde her weeping: and then when he came sodainely vppon her, she made as though she dryed her eyes, and turned her face away, as if she were vnwilling that he should see her weepe. All these tricks she vsed, An∣tonius being in readines to goe into SYRIA, to speake with the king of MEDES. Then the flat∣terers [ D] that furthered Cleopatraes mind, blamed Antonius, and tolde him that he was a hard na∣tured man, and that he had small loue in him, that would see a poore Ladye in such torment for his sake, whose life depended onely vpon him alone. For, Octauia, sayd they, that was mary∣ed vnto him as it were of necessitie, bicause her brother Caesars affayres so required it: hath the honor to be called Antonius lawefull spowse and wife: and Cleopatra, being borne a Queene of so many thowsands of men, is onely named Antonius Leman, and yet that she disdayned not so to be called, if it might please him she might enioy his company, and liue with him: but if he once leaue her, that then it is vnpossible she should liue. To be short, by these their flatte∣ries and enticements, they so wrought Antonius effeminate mind, that fearing least she would make her selfe away: he returned againe vnto ALEXANDRIA, and referred the king of MEDES [ E] to the next yeare following, although he receyued newes that the PARTHIANS at that tyme were at ciuill warres amonge them selues. This notwithstanding, he went afterwardes and made peace with him. For he maried his Daughter which was very younge, vnto one of the sonnes that Cleopatra had by him: and then returned, beeing fully bent to make warre with Caesar.* When Octauia was returned to ROME from ATHENS, Caesar commaunded her to goe out of Antonius house, and to dwell by her selfe, bicause he had abused her. Octauia aunswered him againe, that she would not forsake her husbands house, and that if he had no other occa∣sion to make warre with him, she prayed him then to take no thought for her: for sayd she, it were too shamefull a thinge, that two so famous Captaines should bringe in ciuill warres a∣mong the ROMANES, the one for the loue of a womā, & the other for the ielously betwixt one [ F] an other.* Now as she spake the worde, so did she also performe the deede. For she kept still in Antonius house, as if he had bene there, and very honestly and honorably kept his children, not those onely she had by him, but the other which her husband had by Fuluia. Further∣more, Page  996 more, when Antonius sent any of his men to ROME, to sue for any office in the cōmon wealthe [ A] she receiued him very curteously, and so vsed her selfe vnto her brother, that she obtained the thing she requested. Howbeit thereby, thinking no hurt, she did Antonius great hurt. For her honest loue and regard to her husband, made euery man hate him, when they sawe he did so vnkindly vse so noble a Lady: but yet the greatest cause of their malice vnto him, was for the diuision of lands he made amongst his children in the citie of ALEXANDRIA. And to confesse a troth, it was too arrogant and insolent a part, and done (as a man would say) in derision and contempt of the ROMANES. For he assembled all the people in the show place, where younge men doe exercise them selues, and there vpon a high tribunal siluered, he set two chayres of gold,* the one for him selfe, and the other for Cleopatra, and lower chaires for his children: then he openly published before the assembly, that first of all he did establish Cleopatra Queene of [ B] AEGYPT, of CYPRVS, of LYDIA, and of the lower SYRIA, and at that time also, Caesarion king of the same Realmes. This Caesarion was supposed to be the sonne of Iulius Caesar,* who had left Cleopatra great with child. Secondly he called the sonnes he had by her, the kings of kings, and gaue Alexander for his portion, ARMENIA, MEDIA, and PARTHIA, when he had conquered the contry: and vnto Ptolomy for his portion, PHENICIA, SYRIA, and CILICIA. And there∣withall he brought out Alexander in a long gowne after the facion of the MEDES,* with a high copped tanke hat on his head, norrow in the toppe, as the kings of the MEDES and ARMENI∣ANS doe vse to weare them: and Ptolomy apparelled in a cloke after the MACEDONIAN man∣ner, with slippers on his feete, and a broad hat, with a royall band or diademe. Such was the apparell and old attyre of the auncient kinges and successors of Alexander the great. So after [ C] his sonnes had done their humble duties, and kissed their father and mother: presently a com∣pany of ARMENIAN souldiers set there of purpose, compassed the one about, and a like com∣pany of the MACEDONIANS the other. Now for Cleopatra, she did not onely weare at that time (but at all other times els when she came abroad) the apparell of the goddesse Isis, and so gaue audience vnto all her subiects, as a new Isis. Octauius Caesar reporting all these thinges vnto the Senate, and oftentimes accusing him to the whole people and assembly in ROME:* he thereby stirred vp all the ROMANES against him Antonius on thother side sent to ROME likewise to ac∣cuse him, and the chiefest poyntes of his accusations he charged him with, were these. First, that hauing spoyled Sextus Pompeius in SICILE, he did not gaue him his parte of the Ile. Se∣condly, that he did deteyne in his hands the shippes he lent him to make that warre. Thirdly, [ D] that hauing put Lepidus their companion and triumuirate out of his part of the Empire, and hauing depriued him of all honors: he retayned for him selfe the lands and reuenues thereof, which had bene assigned vnto him for his part. And last of all, that he had in manner deuided all ITALY amongest his owne souldiers, and had left no part of it for his souldiers. Octauius Cae∣sar aunswered him againe: that for Lepidus, he had in deede deposed him, and taken his part of the Empire from him, bicause he did ouercruelly vse hid authoritie. And secondly, for the conquests he had made my force of armes, he was contented Antonius should haue his part of them, so that he would likewise let him haue his part of ARMENIA. And thirdly, that for his souldiers, they should seeke for nothing in ITALY, bicause they possessed MEDIA and PAR∣THIA, the which prouinces they had added to the Empire of ROME, valliantly fighting with [ E] their Emperor and Captaine. Antonius hearing these newes, being yet in ARMENIA, com∣maunded Canidius to goe presently to the sea side with his sixteene legions he had: and he him selfe with Cleopatra, went vnto the citie of EPHESVS, & there gathered together his gal∣lies and shippes out of all parts, which came to the number of eight hundred, reckoning the great shippes of burden:* and of those, Cleopatra furnished him with two hundred, and twenty thowsand talents besides, and prouision of vittells also to mainteyne al the whole army in this warre. So Antonius, through the perswasions of Domitius, commaunded Cleopatra to returne againe into AEGYPT, and there to vnderstand the successe of this warre. But Cleopatra, fearing least Antonius should againe be made friends with Octauius Caesar, by the meanes of his wife Octauia: she so plyed Canidius with money, and filled his purse, that he became her spokes [ F] man vnto Antonius, and told him there was no reason to send her from this warre, who defrai∣ed so great a charge: neither that it was for his profit, bicause that thereby the AEGYPTIANS Page  997 [ A] would then be vtterly discoraged, which were the chiefest strength of the army by sea; consi∣dering that he could see no king of all the kings their confederats, that Cleopatra was inferior vnto, either for wisedom or iudgement, seeing that longe before she had wisely gouerned so great a realme as AEGYPT, & besides that she had bene so long acquainted with him, by whom she had learned to manedge great affayres. These fayer perswasions wan him: for it was pre∣destined that the gouernment of all the world should fall into Octauius Caesars handes.* Thus, all their forces being ioyned together, they hoysed sayle towards the Ile of SAMOS, and there gaue them selues to feasts and sollace. For as all the kings, Princes, & communalties, peoples and cities from SYRIA, vnto the marishes Maeotides, and from the ARMENIANS to the IL∣LYRIANS, were sent vnto, to send and bringe all munition and warlike preparation they could: [ B] euen so all players, minstrells, tumblers, fooles, and ieasters, were commaunded to assemble in the Ile of SAMOS. So that, where in manner all the world in euery place was full of lamentati∣ons, sighes and teares: onely in this Ile of SAMOS there was nothing for many dayes space, but singing and pyping, and all the Theater full of these common players, minstrells, and sin∣ging men. Besides all this, euery citie sent an oxe thither to sacrifice, and kings did striue one with another who should make the noblest feasts, & giue the richest gifts. So that euery man sayd, what can they doe more for ioy of victorie, if they winne the battell? When they make already such sumptuous feasts at the beginning of the warre? When this was done, he gaue the whole rabble of these minstrells, & such kind of people, the citie of PRIENE to keepe them withal, during this warre. Then he went vnto the citie of ATHENS, and there gaue him selfe a∣gaine [ C] to see playes and pastimes, and to keepe the Theaters. Cleopatra on the other side, being ielous of the honors which Octauia had receiued in this citie, where in deede she was marue∣lously honored and beloued of the ATHENIANS: to winne the peoples good will also at A∣THENS, she gaue them great gifts: and they likewise gaue her many great honors, and appoin∣ted certaine Ambassadors to cary the decree to her house, amōg the which Antonius was one, who as a Citizen of ATHENS reported the matter vnto her, & made an oration in the be halfe of the citie. Afterwards he sent to ROME to put his wife Octauia out of his house,* who (as it is reported) went out of his house with all Antonius children, sauing the eldest of them he had by Fuluia, who was with her father, bewailing & lamenting her cursed hap that had brought her to this, that she was accompted one of the chiefest causes of this ciuill warre. The ROMANES [ D] did pitie her, but much more Antonius, & those specially that had seene Cleopatra: who nether excelled Octauia in beawtie, nor yet in young yeares. Octauius Caesar vnderstanding the sodain & wonderful great preparation of Antonius, he was not a litle astonied as it, (fearing he should be driuen to fight that sommer) bicause he wanted many things, & the great and grieuous ex∣actions of money did sorely oppresse the people. For all manner of men els, were driuen to pay the fourth part of their goods and reuenue: but the Libertines, (to were, those whose fa∣thers or other predecessors had some time bene bond men) they were sessed to pay the eight part of all their goods at one payment. Hereuppon,* there rose a wonderfull exclamation and great vprore all ITALY ouer: so that among the greatest faults that euer Antonius committed, they blamed him most, for that he delayed to giue Caesar battell. For he gaue Caesar leysure to [ E] make his preparacions, and also to appease the complaints of the people. When such a great summe of money was demaunded of them, they grudged at it, and grewe to mutinie vpon it: but when they had once paied it, they remembred it no more. Furthermore, Titius and Plan∣cus (two of Antonius chiefest friends and that had bene both of them Consuls) for the great iniuries Cleopatra did them, bicause they hindered all they could, that she should not come to this warre: they went and yelded them selues vnto Caesar,* and tolde him where the testament was that Antonius had made, knowing perfitly what was in it. The will was in the custodie of the Vestall Nunnes: of whom Caesar demaunded for it. They aunswered him, that they would not giue it him: but if he would goe and take it, they would not hinder him. Thereuppon Cae∣sar went thither, & hauing red it first to him self, he noted certaine places worthy of reproch: [ F] so assembling all the Senate, he red it before them all. Whereuppon diuers were maruelously offended, and thought it a straunge matter that he being aliue, should be punished for that he had appoynted by his will to be done after his death. Caesar chiefly tooke hold of this that he Page  998 ordeyned touching his buriall: for he willed that his bodie, though he dyed at ROME, should [ A] be brought in funerall pompe through the middest of the market place, and that it should be sent into ALEXANDRIA vnto Cleopatra, Furthermore, among diuers other faultes wherewith Antonius was to be charged, for Cleopatraes sake: Caluisius, one of Caesars friends reproued him, bicause he had franckly giuen Cleopatra all the libraries of the royall citie of PERGAMVM,* in the which she had aboue two hundred thowsand seueral bookes. Againe also, that being on a time set at the table, he sodainly rose from the borde, and trode vpon Cleopatraes foote, which was a signe giuen betwene them, that they were agreed of. That he had also suffred the EPHE∣SIANS in his presence to call Cleopatra, their soueraine Ladye. That diuers times sitting in his tribunall and chayer of state, giuing audience to all kings and Princes: he had receiued loue letters from Cleopatra, written in tables of onyx or christall, and that he had red them, sitting [ B] in his imprerial seate. That one day when Furnius, a man of great accompt, and the elonquentest man of all the ROMANES, pleaded a matter before him:*Cleopatra by chaunce cōming through the market place in her litter where Furnius was a pleading: Antonius straight rose out of his seate, and left his audience to followe her litter. This notwithstanding, it was thought Caluisi∣us deuised the most part of all these accusations of his owne head. Neuertheles they that lo∣ued Antonius, were intercessors to the people for him, and amongest them they sent one Geminius vnto Antonius,* to pray him he would take heede, that through his negligence his Empire were not taken from him, and that he should be counted an enemie to the people of ROME. This Geminius being arriued in GRAECE, made Cleopatra ielous straight of his cōming: bicause she surmised that he came not but to speake for Octauia. Therefore she spared not to [ C] tawnt him all supper tyme, and moreouer to spyte him the more, she made him be set lowest of all at the borde, the which he tooke paciently, expecting occasion to speake with Antonius. Now Antonius commaunding him at the table to tell him what wind brought him thither: he aunswered him, that it was no table talke, and that he would tell him to morrow morning fa∣sting: but dronke or fasting, howsoeuer it were, he was sure of one thing, that all would not go well on his side, vnles Cleopatra were sent backe into AEGYPT. Antonius tooke these wordes in very ill part. Cleopatra on the other side aunswered him, thou doest well Geminius, sayd she, to tell the truth before thou be compelled by torments: but within fewe dayes after, Gemenius stale away, and fled to ROME. The flatterers also to please Cleopatra, did make her driue many other of Antonius faithfull seruaunts and friends from him,* who could not abide the iniuries [ D] done vnto them: amonge the which these two were chiefe, Marcus Syllanus, and Dellius the Historiographer: who wrote that he fled, bicause her Phisitian Glaucus tolde him, that Cleo∣patra had set some secretly to kill him. Furthermore he had Cleopatraes displeasure, bicause he sayde one night at supper, that they made them drinke sower wine, where Sarmentus at ROME drancke good wine of FALERNA. This Sarmentus was a pleasaunt younge boye, such as the Lordes of ROME are wont to haue about them to make them pastyme, which they call their ioyes, and he was Octauius Caesars boye. Nowe, after Caesar had made sufficient pre∣paration, he proclaymed open warre against Cleopatra, and made the people to abolishe the power and Empire of Antonius, bicause he had before giuen it vppe vnto a woman.* And Caesar sayde furthermore, that Antonius was not Maiester of him selfe, but that Cleopatra had [ E] brought him beside him selfe, by her charmes and amorous poysons: and that they that should make warre with them, should be Mardian and Euenuke, Photinus, and Iras, a wo∣man of Cleopatraes bed chamber, that friseled her heare, and dressed her head, and Charmion, the which were those that ruled all the affaires of Antonius Empire. Before this warre, as it is re∣ported, many signes & wonders fel out.* First of all, the citie of PISAVRVM which was made a colony to ROME, and replenished with people by Antonius, standing vpon the shore side of the sea Adriatick, was by a terrible earthquake sonck into the ground. One of the images of stone which was set vp in the honor of Antonius, in the citie of ALBA, did sweate many dayes toge∣ther: and though some wyped it away,* yet it lest not sweating still. In the citie of PATRAS, whilest Antonius was there, the temple of Hercules was burnt with lightning. And at the citie [ F] of ATHENS also, in a place where the warre of the gyants against the goddes is set out in i∣magerie: the statue of Bacchus with a terrible winde was throwen downe in the Theater. Page  999 [ A] It was sayd that Antonius came of the race of Hercules, as you haue heard before, and in the manner of his life he followed Bacchus: therefore he was called the new Bacchus. Further∣more, the same bluftering storme of wind, ouerthrew the great mōstrous images at ATHENS, that were made in the honor of Eumenes and Attalus, the which men had named and intituled, the Antonians, and yet they did hurt none of the other images which were many besides. The Admirall galley of Cleopatra, was called Antoniade,* in the which there chaunced a maruelous ill signe. Swallowes had bred vnder the poope of her shippe, & there came others after them that draue away the first, & plucked downe their neast. Now when all things were ready, and that they drew neare to fight: it was found that Antonius had no lesse then fiue hundred good ships of warre, among the which there were many gallies that had eight & ten bancks of ow∣ers, [ B] the which were sumptuously furnished, not so meete for fight, as for triumphe: a hundred thowsand footemen, & twelue thowsand horsemen,* & had with him to ayde him these kinges and subiects following. Bocchus king of LYBIA, Tarcondemus king of high CILICIA Archelaus king of CAPPADOCIA, Philadelphus king of PAPHLAGONIA, Mithridates king of C)•••••• and Adallas king of THRACIA. All the which were there euery man in person. The residue that were absent sent their armies, as Polemō king of PONT, Manchus king of ARABIA, Herodes king of IVRY: & furthermore, Amyntas king of LYCAONIA, & of the GALATIANS: and besides all these, he had all the ayde the king of MEDES sent vnto him. Now for Caesar,* he had two hun∣dred and fifty shippes of warre, foure score thowsand footemen, & well neare as many horse∣men as his enemy Antonius. Antonius for his part, had all vnder his dominiō from ARMENIA,* [ C] & the riuer of Euphrates, vnto the sea IONIVM & ILLYRICVM. Octauius Caesar had also for his part,* all that which was in our HEMISPHAERE, or halfe part of the world, from ILLYRIA, vnto the Occean sea vpon the west: then all from the Occean, vnto Mare Siculū: & from AFRICA, all that which is against ITALY, as GAVLE, & SPAYNE. Furthermore, all from the prouince of CYRENIA, vnto AETHIOPIA, was subiect vnto Antonius.* Now Antonius was made so subiect to a womans will, that though he was a great deale the stronger by land, yet for Cleopatraes sake, he would needes haue this battell tryed by sea: though he sawe before his eyes, that for lacke of water men, his Captaines did presse by force all sortes of men out of GRAECE that they could take vp in the field, as trauellers, muletters, reapers, haruest men, and younge boyes, and yet could they not sufficiently furnishe his gallies: so that the most part of them were emp∣ty, [ D] and could scant rowe, bicause they lacked water men enowe. But on the contrary side Cae∣sars shippes were not built for pompe, highe, and great, onely for a sight and brauery, but they were light of yarage, armed and furnished with water men as many as they needed, and had them all in readines, in the hauens of TARENTVM, and BRVNDVSIVM. So Octauius Caesar sent vnto Antonius, to will him to delay no more time, but to come on with his army into ITALY and that for his owne part he would giue him safe harber, to lande without any trouble, and that he would withdraw his armie from the sea, as farre as one horse could runne, vntil he had put his army a shore, & had lodged his men. Antonius on the other side brauely sent him word againe, and chalenged the combate of him man to man, though he were the elder: and that is he refused him so, he would them fight a battell with him in the fields of PHARSALIA, as Iulius [ E] Caesar, and Pompey had done before. Now whilest Antonius rode at anker, lying idely in harber at the head of ACTIVM, in the place where the citie of NICOPOLIS standeth at this present Caesar had quickly passed the sea Ionium,* and taken a place called TORYNE, before Antonius vnderstoode, that he had taken shippe. Then began his men to be affraid, bicause his army by land was left behind. But Cleopatra making light of it: and what daunger, I pray you, said she, if Caesar keepe at* TORYNE? The next morning by breake of day, his enemies comming with full force of owers in battell against him, Antonius was affraid that if they came to ioyne, they would take and cary away his shippes that had no men of warre in them. So he armed all his water men, and set them in order of battell vpon the forecastell of their shippes, and then lift vp all his rancks of owers towards the element, as well of the one side, as the other, with the [ F] prooes against the enemies, at the entry and mouth of the gulfe, which beginneth at the point of ACTIVM, and so kept them in order of battell, as if they had bene armed and furnished with water men and souldiers. Thus Octauius Caesar beeing finely deceyued by this stratageame, re∣tyred Page  1000 presently, and therewithall Antonius very wisely and sodainely did cut him of from fresh [ A] water. For, vnderstanding that the places where Octauius Caesar landed, had very litle store of water, and yet very bad: he shut them in with stronge ditches and trenches he cast, to keepe them from salying out at their pleasure, and so to goe seeke water further of. Furthermore, he delt very friendely and curteously with Domitius, and against Cleopatraes mynde. For, he being sicke of an agewe when he went and tooke a litle boate to goe to Caesars campe, Antoni∣us was very sory for it, but yet he sent after him all his caryage, trayne, and men: and the same Domitius,* as though he gaue him to vnderstand that he repented his open treason, he died im∣mediatly after. There were certen kings also that forsooke him, and turned on Caesars side: as Amyntas, and Deiotarus.* Furthermore, his fleete and nauy that was vnfortunate in all thinges, and vnready for seruice, compelled him to chaunge his minde, and to hazard battell by land. [ B] And Canidius also, who had charge of his army by land, when time came to follow Antonius determination: he turned him cleane contrary, and counselled him to send Cleopatra backe a∣gaine, and him selfe to retyre into MACEDON, to fight there on the maine land. And further∣more told him, that Dicomes king of the GETES, promised him to ayde him with a great pow∣er: and that it should be noshame nor dishonor to him to let Caesar haue the sea, (bicause him selfe & his men both had bene well practised & exercised in battels by sea, in the warre of SI∣CILIA against Sextus Pompeius) but rather that he should doe against all reason, he hauing so great skill and experience of battells by land as he had, if he should not employ the force and valliantnes of so many lusty armed footemen as he had ready, but would weaken his army by deuiding them into shippes. But now, notwithstanding all these good perswasions, Cleopatra [ C] forced him to put all to the hazard of battel by sea: considering with her selfe how she might flie, & prouide for her safetie, not to helpe him to winne the victory, but to flie more easily af∣ter the battel lost. Betwixt Antonius campe & his fleete of shippes, there was a great hie point of firme lande that ranne a good waye into the sea, the which Antonius often vsed for a walke, without mistrust of feare or daunger.* One of Caesars men perceiued it, & told his Maister that he would laugh & they could take vp Antonius in the middest of his walke. Thereuppon Caesar sent some of his men to lye in ambush for him, & they missed not much of taking of him: for they tooke him that came before him, bicause they discouered to soone, & so Antonius scaped verie hardly. So when Antonius had determined to fight by sea, he set all the other shippes a fire, but three score shippes of AEGYPT, & reserued onely but the best & greatest gallies, from [ D] three bancks, vnto tenne bancks of owers. Into them he put two & twenty thowsand fighting men, with two thowsand darters & slingers. Now, as he was setting his men in order of battel, there was a Captaine, & a valliant man, that had serued Antonius in many battels & conflicts, & had all his body hacked & cut:* who as Antonius passed by him, cryed out vnto him, & sayd: O, noble Emperor, how commeth it to passe that you trust to these vile brittle shippes? what, doe you mistrust these woundes of myne, and this sword? let the AEGYPTIANS & PHAENICI∣ANS fight by sea, and set vs on the maine land, where we vse to conquer, or to be slayne on our feete Antonius passed by him, and sayd neuer a word, but only beckoned to him with his hand & head, as though he willed him to be of good corage, although in deede he had no great co∣rage him selfe. For when the Masters of the gallies & Pilots would haue let their sailes alone, [ E] he made them clap them on, saying to culler the matter withall, that not one of his enemies should scape. All that day, & the three dayes following, the sea rose so high, & was so boyste∣rous, that the battel was put of. The fift day the storme ceased, & the sea calmed againe, & thē they rowed with force of owers in battaile one against the other: Antonius leading the right wing with Publicola, & Caelius the left, & Marcus Octauius, & Marcus Iusteius the middest. Octa∣uius Caesar on thother side, had placed Agrippa in the left winge of his armye, and had kept the right winge for him selfe. For the armies by lande, Canidius was generall of Antonius side, and Taurus of Caesars side: who kept their men in battell raye the one before the other, vppon the sea side,* without stirring one agaynst the other. Further, touching both the Chieftaynes: An∣tonius being in a swift pinnase, was caried vp and downe by force of owers through his army, [ F] & spake to his people to encorage them to fight valliantly, as if they were on maine land, bi∣cause of the steadines & heauines of their ships: & commaunded the Pilots & masters of the Page  1001 [ A] gallies, that they should not sturre, none otherwise then if they were at anker, and so to re∣ceiue the first charge of their enemies, and that they should not goe out of the straight of the gulfe. Caesar betymes in the morning going out of his tent,* to see his ships thorough out met a man by chaunce that draue an asse before him. Caesar asked the man what his name was. The poore man told him, his name was Eutychus, to say, fortunate: and his asses name Nicon, to say, Conquerer.* Therefore Caesar after he had wonne the battell, setting out the market place with the spurres of the gallies he had taken, for a signe of his victorie: he caused also the man, and his asse to be set vp in brasse. When he had visited the order of his armie thorough out, he tooke a little pinnase, and went to the right wing, and wondered when he sawe his enemies lye stil in the straight, & sturred not. For, decerning them a farre of, men would haue thought [ B] they had bene shippes riding at anker, and a good while he was so perswaded: So he kept his gallies eight furlong from his enemies. About noone there rose a litle gale of winde from the sea, and then Antonius men waxing angry with tarying so long, and trusting to the greatnes and height of their shipps, as if they had bene inuincible: they began to march forward with their left wing, Caesar seeing that, was a glad man, and began a litle to giue backe from the right wing, to allure them to come further out of the straight & gulfe: to thend that he might with his light shippes well manned with water men, turne and enuirone the gallies of the enemies, the which were heauy of yarage, both for their biggenes, as also for lacke of watermen to row them. When the skirmish began, and that they came to ioyne, there was no great hurt at the first meeting, neither did the shippes vehemently hit one against the other, as they doe com∣monly [ C] in fight by sea. For on the one side, Antonius shippes for their heauines, could not haue the strength and swiftnes to make their blowes of any force: and Caesars shippes on thother side tooke great heede, not to rushe & shocke with the forecastells of Antonius shippes, whose proues were armed with great brasen spurres. Furthermore they durst not flancke them, bi∣cause their points were easily broken, which way soeuer they came to set vpon his shippes, that were made of great mayne square peeces of tymber, bounde together with great iron pinnes: so that the battel was much like to a battel by land, or to speake more properly, to the assault of a citie. For there were alwaies three or foure of Caesars shippes about one of Antoni∣us shippes, and the souldiers fought with their pykes, halberds, and darts, and threw pots and darts with fire. Antonius ships on the other side bestowed among them, with their crosbowes [ D] and engines of battery, great store of shot from their highe towers of wodde, that were apon their shippes. Now Publicola seing Agrippa put forth his left wing of Caesars army, to compasse in Antonius shippes that fought: he was driuen also to loose of to haue more roome, & going a litle at one side, to put those further of that were affraid, and in the middest of the battel. For they were fore distressed by Aruntius. Howbeit the battell was yet of euen hand, and the victo∣rie doubtfull, being indifferent to both: when sodainely they saw the three score shippes of Cleopatra busie about their yard masts, and hoysing saile to flie.* So they fled through the mid∣dest of them that were in fight, for they had bene placed behind the great shippes, & did mar∣uelously disorder the other shippes. For the enemies them selues wondred much to see them saile in that sort, with ful saile towards PELOPONNESVS. There Antonius shewed plainely, that [ E] he had not onely lost the corage and hart of an Emperor, but also of a valliant man, & that he was not his owne man: (prouing that true which an old man spake in myrth, that the soule of a louer liued in another body,* and not in his owne) he was so carried away with the vaine loue of this woman, as if he had bene glued vnto her, & that she could not haue remoued without mouing of him also. For when he saw Cleopatraes shippe vnder saile,* he forgot, forsooke, & be∣trayed them that fought for him, & imbarked vpon a galley with fiue bankes of owers, to fol∣low her that had already begon to euerthrow him, & would in the end be his vtter destructi∣on. When she knew this galley a farre of, she lift vp a signe in the poope of her shippe, and so Antonius comming to it, was pluckt vp where Cleopatra was, howbeit he saw her not at his first comming, nor she him, but went and sate down alone in the prowe of his shippe, and said ne∣uer [ F] a word, clapping his head betwene both his hands. In the meane time came certaine light brigantynes of Caesars that followed him hard. So Antonius straight turned the prowe of his shippe, and presently put the rest to flight, sauing one Eurycles LACEDAEMONIAN, that follow∣ed Page  1002 him neare, and prest vpon him with great corage, shaking a dart in his hand ouer the prow, [ A] as though he would haue throwen it vnto Antonius. Antonius seing him, came to the fore ca∣stell of his ship, & asked him what he was that durst follow Antonius so neare? I am, aunswe∣red he, Eurycles the sonne of Lachares, who through Caesars good fortune seketh to reuenge the death of my father. This Lachares was condemned of fellonie, and beheaded by Antonius. But yet Eurycles durst not venter on Antonius shippe, but set vpon the other Admirall galley (for there were two) and fell with him with such a blowe of his brasen spurre, that was so heavy and bigge, that he turned her round, and tooke her, with another that was loden with very rich stuffe and cariage. After Eurycles had left Antonius, he returned againe to his place, and sate downe, speaking neuer a word as he did before: and so liued three dayes alone, without speaking to any man. But when he arriued at the head of Taenarus, there Cleopatraes women [ B] first brought Antonius and Cleopatra to speake together, and afterwards, to suppe and lye to∣gether. Then beganne there agayne a great number of Marchaunts shippes to gather about them, and some of their friends that had escaped from this ouerthrow: who brought newes, that his army by sea was ouerthrowen, but that they thought the army by land was yet whole. Thē Antonius sent vnto Canidius, to returne with his army into ASIA, by MACEDON. Now for him self, he determined to crosse ouer into AFRICK, & toke one of his carects or hulks loden with gold and siluer, and other rich cariage, and gaue it vnto his friends:* commaunding them to depart, and to seeke to saue them selues. They aunswered him weeping, that they would nether doe it, nor yet forsake him. Then Antonius very curteously and louingly did comfort them, and prayed them to depart: and wrote vnto Theophilus gouernor of CORINTHE, that [ C] he would see them safe, and helpe to hide them in some secret place, vntil they had made their way and peace with Caesar. This Theophilus was the father of Hipparchus, who was had in great estimation about Antonius. He was the first of all his infranchised bondmen that reuolted from him, and yelded vnto Caesar, and afterwardes went and dwelt at CORINTHE. And thus it stoode with Antonius. Now for his armie by sea, that fought before the head or foreland of ACTIVM: they helde out a longe tyme, and nothing troubled them more then a great boy∣sterous wind that rose full in the prooes of their shippes, and yet with much a doe, his nauy was at length ouerthrowen,* fiue howers within night. There were not slaine aboue fiue thow∣sand men: but yet there were three hundred shippes taken, as Octauius Caesar writeth him selfe in his commentaries. Many plainely sawe Antonius flie, and yet could hardly beleeue [ D] it, that he that had nyneteene legions whole by lande, and twelue thowsand horsemen vpon the sea side, would so haue forsaken them, and haue fled so cowardly: as if he had not often∣times proued both the one and the other fortune, & that he had not bene throughly acquain∣ted with the diuers chaunges and fortunes of battells. And yet his souldiers still wished for him, and euer hoped that he would come by some meanes or other vnto them. Furthermore, they shewed them selues so valliant and faithfull vnto him, that after they certainly knewe he was fled, they kept them selues whole together seuen daies. In the ende Canidius, Antonius Lieuetenant, flying by night, and forsaking his campe: when they saw them selues thus desti∣tute of their heads and leaders, they yelded themselues vnto the stronger.* This done, Caesar sai∣led towards ATHENS, and there made peace with the GRAECIANS, and deuided the rest of the [ E] corne that was taken vp for Antonius army, vnto the townes and cities of GRAECE, the which had bene brought to extreme misery & pouerty, cleane without money, slaues, horse, & other beastes of cariage. So that my grandfather Nicarchus tolde, that all the Citizens of our citie of CHAERONEA, (not one excepted) were driuen them selues to cary a certaine measure of corne on their shoulders to the sea side, that lieth directly ouer against the Ile of ANTICYRA, & yet were they driuen thether with whippes. They caried it thus but once: for, the second tyme that they were charged againe to make the like cariage, all the corne being ready to be caried, newes came that Antonius had lost the battel, & so scaped our poore city. For Antonius souldi∣ers & deputies fled immediatly, & the citizens deuided the corne amongst them. Antonius be∣ing arriued in LIBYA, he sent Cleopatra before into AEGYPT from the citie of PARAETONIV•• & [ F] he him selfe remained very solitary, hauing onely two of his friends with him, with whom he wandred vp & down, both of them orators, the one Aristocrates a GRAECIAN, & the other Lu∣ciliusPage  1003 [ A] a ROMANE.* Of whom we haue written in an other place, that at the battell where Brutus was ouerthrowen, by the citie of PHILIPPES, he came & willingly put him self into the hands of those that followed Brutus, saying that it was he: bicause Brutus in the meane time might haue liberty to saue him selfe. And afterwards bicause Antonius saued his life,* he still remained with him: and was very faithfull and frendly vnto him till his death. But when Antonius heard, that he whom he had trusted with the gouernment of LIBYA, and vnto whom he had geuen the charge of his armie there, had yelded vnto Caesar: he was so madde withall, that he would haue slaine him selfe for anger, had not his frendes about him withstoode him, and kept him from it. So he went vnto ALEXANDRIA, and there found Cleopatra about a wonderfull enter∣prise, and of great attempt.* Betwixt the redde sea, and the sea betwene the landes that poynt [ B] vpon the coast of AEGYPT, there is a litle peece of land that deuideth both the seas, and sepa∣rateth AFRICKE from ASIA: the which straight is so narrow at the end where the two seas are narrowest, that it is not aboue three hundred furlonges ouer. Cleopatra went about to lift her shippes out of the one sea, and to hale them ouer the straight into the other sea: that when her shippes were come into this goulfe of ARABIA, she might then carie all her gold & siluer away, and so with a great companie of men goe and dwell in some place about the Ocean sea farre from the sea Mediterranium, to scape the daunger and bondage of this warre. But now, bicause the ARABIANS dwelling about the citie of PETRA, did burne the first shippes that were brought alande, and that Antonius thought that his armie by lande, which he left at A∣CTIVM was yet whole: she left of her enterprise, and determined to keepe all the portes and [ C] passages of her realme. Antonius, he forsooke the citie and companie of his frendes,* and built him a house in the sea, by the Ile of PHAROS, vpon certaine forced mountes which he caused to be cast into the sea, and dwelt there, as a man that banished him selfe from all mens com∣panie: saying that he would lead Timons life, because he had the like wrong offered him, that was affore offered vnto Timon: and that for the vnthankefulnes of those he had done good vn∣to, and whom he tooke to be his frendes, he was angry with all men, and would trust no man. This Timon was a citizen of ATHENS, that liued about the warre of PELOPONNESVS, as ap∣peareth by Plato, and Aristophanes commedies:* in the which they mocked him, calling him a vyper, & malicious man vnto mankind, to shunne all other mens companies, but the compa∣nie of young Alcibiades, a bolde and insolent youth, whom he woulde greatly feast, and make [ D] much of, and kissed him very gladly. Apemantus wondering at it, asked him the cause what he ment to make so muche of that young man alone, and to hate all others: Timon aunswered him, I do it sayd he, bicause I know that one day he shall do great mischiefe vnto the ATHE∣NIANS. This Timon sometimes would haue Apemantus in his companie, bicause he was much like to his nature & condicions, and also followed him in maner of life. On a time when they solemnly celebrated the feasts called Choae at ATHENS, (to wit, the feasts of the dead, where they make sprincklings and sacrifices for the dead) and that they two then feasted together by them selues, Apemantus said vnto the other: O, here is a trimme banket Timon. Timon aunswe∣red againe, yea said he, so thou wert not here. It is reported of him also, that this Timon on a time (the people being assembled in the market place about dispatch of some affaires) got vp [ E] into the pulpit for Orations, where the Orators commonly vse to speake vnto the people: & silence being made, euerie man listning to heare what he would say, bicause it was a wonder to see him in that place: at length he began to speake in this maner. My Lordes of ATHENS. I haue a litle yard in my house where there groweth a figge tree, on the which many citizens haue hāged them selues: & bicause I meane to make some building vpon the place, I thought good to let you all vnderstand it, that before the figge tree be cut downe, if any of you be de∣sperate, you may there in time goe hang your selues. He dyed in the citie of HALES, and was buried vpon the sea side. Nowe it chaunced so, that the sea getting in, it compassed his tombe rounde about, that no man coulde come to it: and vpon the same was wrytten this epitaphe.

[ F] Heere lyes a vvretched corse, of vvretched soule bereft,
Seeke not my name: a plague consume you vvicked vvretches left.*

It is reported, that Timon him selfe when he liued made this epitaphe: for that which is Page  1004 commonly rehearsed was not his, but made by the Poet Callimathus. [ A]

Heere lye I Timon vvho aliue all liuing men did hate,
Passe by, and curse thy fill: but passe, and stay not here thy gate.

Many other things could we tell you of this Timon, but this litle shall suffice at this present. But now to returne to Antonius againe. Canidius him selfe came to bring him newes, that he had lost all his armie by land at ACTIVM. On thother side he was aduertised also, that Herodes king of IVRIE, who had also certeine legions and bandes with him, was reuolted vnto Caesar, and all the other kings in like maner: so that, sauing those that were about him, he had none left him. All this notwithstanding did nothing trouble him, and it seemed that he was con∣tented to forgoe all his hope, and so to be ridde of all his care and troubles. Thereupon he left his solitarie house he had built in the sea which he called Timoneon, and Cleopatra receiued [ B] him into her royall pallace. He was no sooner comen thither,* but he straight set all the city of rioting and banketing againe, and him selfe, to liberalitie and giftes. He caused the sonne of Iulius Caesar and Cleopatra, to be enrolled (according to the maner of the ROMANES) amongest the number of young men: & gaue Antyllus, his eldest sonne he had by Fuluia,* the mans gowne, the which was a plaine gowne, without gard or imbroderie of purple. For these things, there was kept great feasting, banketing, and dauncing in ALEXANDRIA many dayes together. In deede they did breake their first order they had set downe, which they called Amimetobion, (as much to say, no life comparable) & did set vp an other which they called Synapothanume∣non (signifying the order and agreement of those that will dye together) the which in excee∣ding sumptuousnes and cost was not inferior to the first.* For their frendes made them selues [ C] to be inrolled in this order of those that would dye together, and so made great feastes one to an other: for euerie man when it came to his turne, feasted their whole companie and frater∣nitie. Cleopatra in the meane time was veríe carefull in gathering all sorts of poysons together to destroy men. Now to make proofe of those poysons which made men dye with least paine, she tried it vpon condemned men in prison. For when she saw the poysons that were sodaine and vehement, and brought speedy death with grieuous torments: & in contrary maner, that suche as were more milde and gentle, had not that quicke speede and force to make one dye sodainly: she afterwardes went about to proue the stinging of snakes and adders, and made some to be applied vnto men in her sight, some in one sorte, and some in an other.* So when she had dayly made diuers and sundrie proofes, she found none of all them she had proued so [ D] fit, as the biting of an Aspicke,* the which only causeth a heauines of the head, without swoun∣ding or complaining, and bringeth a great desire also to sleepe, with a litle swet in the face, and so by litle and litle taketh away the sences and vitall powers, no liuing creature perceiuing that the pacientes feele any paine. For they are so sorie when any bodie waketh them, and taketh them vp: as those that being taken out of a sound sleepe, are very heauy and desirous to sleepe. This notwithstanding, they sent Ambassadors vnto Octauius Caesar in ASIA,*Cleopatra reque∣sting the realme of AEGYPT for her children, and Antonius praying that he might be suffered to liue at ATHENS like a priuate man, if Caesar would not let him remaine in AEGYPT. And bi∣cause they had no other men of estimacion about them, for that some were fledde, and those that remained, they did not greatly trust them: they were inforced to sende Euphronius the [ E] schoolemaister of their children. For Alexas LAODICIAN, who was brought into Antonius house and fauor by meanes of Timagenes, and afterwards was in greater credit with him, then any other GRECIAN: (for that he had alway bene one of Cleopatraes ministers to win Antonius, and to ouerthrow all his good determinations to vse his wife Octauia well) him Antonius had sent vnto Herodes king of IVRIE, hoping still to keepe him his frend, that he should not reuolt from him. But he remained there, and betrayed Antonius. For where he should haue kept He∣rodes from reuolting from him, he perswaded him to turne to Caesar: & trusting king Herodes, he presumed to come in Caesars presence. Howbeit Herodes did him no pleasure: for he was pre∣sently taken prisoner,* and sent in chaines to his owne contrie, & there by Caesars commaunde∣ment put to death. Thus was Alexas in Antonius life time put to death, for betraying of him. [ F] Furthermore, Caesar would not graunt vnto Antonius requests: but for Cleopatra, he made her aunswere, that he woulde deny her nothing reasonable, so that she would either put AntoniusPage  1005 [ A] to death, or driue him out of her contrie. Therewithall he sent Thyreus one of his men vnto her, a verie wise and discreete man, who bringing letters of credit from a young Lorde vnto a noble Ladie, and that besides greatly liked her beawtie, might easely by his eloquence haue perswaded her. He was longer in talke with her then any man else was, and the Queene her selfe also did him great honor: insomuch as he made Antonius gealous of him. Whereupon Antonius caused him to be taken and well fauoredly whipped, and so sent him vnto Caesar: and bad him tell him that he made him angrie with him, bicause he shewed him selfe prowde and disdainfull towards him, and now specially when he was easie to be angered, by reason of his present miserie. To be short, if this mislike thee said he, thou hast Hipparchus one of my infran∣chised bondmen with thee: hang him if thou wilt, or whippe him at thy pleasure, that we may [ B] crie quirtaunce. From thenceforth, Cleopatra to cleere her selfe of the suspicion he had of her, she made more of him then euer she did. For first of all, where she did solemnise the day of her birth very meanely and sparingly, fit for her present misfortune: she now in contrary ma∣ner did keepe it with such solemnitie, that she exceeded all measure of sumptuousnes and ma∣gnificence: so that the ghests that were bidden to the feasts, and came poore, went away rich. Nowe things passing thus, Agrippa by diuers letters sent one after an other vnto Caesar, prayed him to returne to ROME, bicause the affaires there did of necessity require his person and pre∣sence. Thereupon he did deferre the warre till the next yeare following: but when winter was done, he returned againe through SYRIA by the coast of AFRICKS, to make warres against Antonius, and his other Captaines. When the citie of PELVSIVM was taken,* there ran a ru∣mor [ C] in the citie, that Seleucus, by Cleopatraes consent, had surrendered the same. But to cleere her selfe that she did not, Cleopatra brought Seleucus wife and children vnto Antonius, to be re∣uenged of them at his pleasure. Furthermore, Cleopatra had long before made many sumptu∣ous tombes and monumentes, as well for excellencie of workemanshippe, as for height and greatnes of building, ioyning hard to the temple of Isis.* Thither she caused to be brought all the treasure & pretious things she had of the auncient kings her predecessors: as gold, siluer, emerods, pearles, ebbanie, iuorie, and sinnamon, and besides all that, a maruelous number of torches, faggots, and flaxe. So Octauius Caesar being affrayed to loose suche a treasure and masse of riches, and that this woman for spight would set it a fire, and burne it euery whit: he alwayes sent some one or other vnto her from him, to put her in good comfort, whilest he in [ D] the meane time drewe neere the citie with his armie. So Caesar came, and pitched his campe hard by the city, in the place where they runne and manage their horses. Antonius made a faly vpon him, and fought verie valliantly, so that he draue Caesars horsemen backe, fighting with his men euen into their campe. Then he came againe to the pallace, greatly boasting of this victorie, and sweetely kissed Cleopatra, armed as he was, when he came from the fight, recom∣mending one of his men of armes vnto her, that had valliantly fought in this skirmish. Cleo∣patra to reward his manlines, gaue him an armor and head peece of cleane gold: howbeit the man at armes when he had receiued this rich gift, stale away by night, and went to Caesar. An∣tonius sent againe to chalenge Caesar, to fight with him hande to hande. Caesar aunswered him, that he had many other wayes to dye then so. Then Antonius seeing there was no way more [ E] honorable for him to dye, then fighting valliantly: he determined to sette vp his rest, both by sea and lande. So being at supper, (as it is reported) he commaunded his officers and house∣hold seruauntes that waited on him at his bord, that they should fill his cuppes full, and make as muche of him as they could: for said he, you know not whether you shall doe so much for me to morrow or not, or whether you shall serue an other maister: and it may be you shall see me no more, but a dead bodie. This notwithstanding, perceiuing that his frends and men fell a weeping to heare him say so: to salue that he had spoken, he added this more vnto it, that he would not leade them to battell, where he thought not rather safely to returne with victorie, then valliantly to dye with honor. Furthermore, the selfe same night within litle of midnight, when all the citie was quiet, full of feare, and sorrowe, thinking what would be the issue and [ F] ende of this warre:* it is said that sodainly they heard a maruelous sweete harmonie of sundrie sortes of instrumentes of musicke, with the crie of a multitude of people, as they had bene dauncing, and had song as they vse in Bacchus feastes, with mouinges and turninges after the Page  1006 maner of the Satyres: & it seemed that this daunce went through the city vnto the gate that [ A] opened to the enemies, & that all the troupe that made this noise they heard, went out of the city at that gate. Now, such as in reason sought the depth of the interpretacion of this wōder, thought that it was the god vnto whom Antonius bare singular deuotion to counterfeate and resemble him, that did forsake them. The next morning by breake of day, he went to set those few footemen he had in order vpon the hills adioyning vnto the citie: and there he stoode to behold his gallies which departed from the hauen, and rowed against the gallies of his ene∣mies, and so stoode still, looking what exployte his souldiers in them would do. But when by force of rowing they were come neere vnto them, they first saluted Caesars men: and then Cae∣sars men resaluted them also,* and of two armies made but one, and then did all together row toward the citie. When Antonius sawe that his men did forsake him, and yeelded vnto Caesar, [ B] and that his footemen were broken and ouerthrowen:* he then fled into the citie, crying out that Cleopatra had betrayed him vnto them, with whom he had made warre for her sake. Then she being affraied of his fury, fled into the tombe which she had caused to be made, and there locked the dores vnto her, and shut all the springes of the lockes with great boltes, and in the meane time sent vnto Antonius to tell him that she was dead. Antonius beleuing it, said vnto him selfe:* what doest thou looke for further, Antonius, sith spitefull fortune hath taken from thee the only ioy thou haddest, for whom thou yet reseruedst thy life? when he had sayd these words, he went into a chamber & vnarmed him selfe, and being naked said thus: O Cleopatra, it grieueth me not that I haue lost thy companie, for I will not be long from thee: but I am sory, that hauing bene so great a Captaine and Emperour, I am in deede condemned to be iudged [ C] of lesse corage and noble minde, then a woman. Now he had a man of his called Eros, whom he loued and trusted much, and whom he had long before caused to sweare vnto him, that he should kill him when he did commaunde him: and then be willed him to keepe his promise. His man drawing his sworde, list it vp as though he had ment to haue striken his maister:* but turning his head at one side, he thrust his sword into him selfe, and fell downe dead at his mai∣sters foote. Then said Antonius, O noble Eros, I thanke thee for this, and it is valliantly done of thee, to shew me what I should doe to my selfe, which thou couldest not doe for me. There∣withall he tooke his sword, and thrust it into his bellie, and so fell downe vpon a litle bed.* The wounde he had killed him not presently, for the blood stinted a litle when he was layed: and when he came somwhat to him selfe againe, he praied them that were about him to dispatch [ D] him. But they all fled out of the chamber, and lest him crying out & tormenting him selfe: vn∣till at last there came a secretarie vnto him called Diomedes, who was commaunded to bring him into the tombe or monument where Cleopatra was. When he heard that she was aliue, he verie earnestlie prayed his men to carie his bodie thither,* and so he was caried in his mens armes into the entry of the monument. Notwithstāding, Cleopatra would not open the gates, but came to the high windowes, and cast out certaine chaines and ropes, in the which Anto∣nius was trussed: and Cleopatra her owne selfe, with two women only, which she had suffered to come with her into these monumentes, trised Antonius vp.* They that were present to be∣hold it, said they neuer saw to pitiefull a sight. For, they plucked vp poore Antonius all bloody as he was, and drawing on with pangs of death, who holding vp his hands to Cleopatra, raised [ E] vp him selfe as well as he could. It was a hard thing for these women to do, to lift him vp: but Cleopatra stowping downe with her head, putting to all her strength to her vttermost power, did lift him vp with much a doe, and neuer let goe her hold, with the helpe of the women be∣neath that bad her be of good corage, and were as sorie to see her labor so, as she her selfe. So when she had gotten him in after that sorte, and layed him on a bed: she rent her garments v∣pon him, clapping her brest, and scratching her face & stomake. Then she dried vp his blood that had berayed his face, and called him her Lord, her husband, and Emperour, forgetting her owne miserie and calamity, for the pitie and compassion she tooke of him. Antonius made her ceasse her lamenting, and called for wine, either bicause he was a thirst, or else for that he thought thereby to hasten his death. When he had dronke, he earnestly prayed her, and per∣swaded [ F] her, that she would seeke to saue her life, if she could possible, without reproache and dishonor: and that chiefly she should trust Proculeius aboue any man else about Caesar. And as Page  1007 [ A] for him selfe, that she should not lament nor sorowe for the miserable chaunge of his fortune at the end of his dayes: but rather that she should thinke him the more fortunate, for the for∣mer triumphes & honors he had receiued, considering that while he liued he was the noblest and greatest Prince of the world, & that now he was ouercome, not cowardly, but valiantly, a ROMANE by an other ROMANE, As Antonius gaue the last gaspe,*Proculeius came that was sent from Caesar. For after Antonius had thrust his sworde in him selfe, as they caried him into the tombes and monuments of Cleopatra, one of his gard called Dercetaeus, tooke his sword with the which he had striken him selfe, and hidde it: then he secretly stale away, and brought Octa∣uius Caesar the first newes of his death, & shewed him his sword that was bloodied.*Caesar hea∣ring these newes, straight withdrewe him selfe into a secret place of his tent, and there burst [ B] out with teares, lamenting his hard and miserable fortune, that had bene his frende and bro∣ther in law, his equall in the Empire, and companion with him in sundry great exploytes and battells. Then he called for all his frendes, and shewed them the letters Antonius had written to him, and his aunsweres also sent him againe, during their quarrell and strife: & how fierce∣ly and prowdly the other answered him, to all iust and reasonable matters he wrote vnto him. After this, he sent Proculeius,* and commaunded him to doe what he could possible to get Cleo∣patra aliue, fearing least otherwise all the treasure would be lost: and furthermore, he thought that if he could take Cleopatra, and bring her aliue to ROME, she would maruelously beawtifie and sette out his triumphe. But Cleopatra would neuer put her selfe into Proculeius handes, al∣though they spake together. For Proculeius came to the gates that were very thicke & strong, [ C] and surely barred, but yet there were some cranewes through the which her voyce might be heard, and so they without vnderstoode, that Cleopatra demaunded the kingdome of AEGYPT for her sonnes: and that Proculeius aunswered her, that she should be of good cheere, and not be affrayed to referre all vnto Caesar. After he had viewed the place verie well, he came and re∣ported her aunswere vnto Caesar. Who immediatly sent Gallus to speake once againe with her, and bad him purposely hold her with talke, whilest Proculeius did set vp a ladder against that high windowe, by the which Antonius was trised vp, and came downe into the monument with two of his men hard by the gate, where Cleopatra stoode to heare what Gallus sayd vnto her. One of her women which was shut in her monumēts with her, saw Proculeius by chaunce as he came downe, and shreeked out: O, poore Cleopatra, thou art taken. Then when she sawe [ D] Proculeius behind her as she came from the gate, she thought to haue stabbed her selfe in with a short dagger she ware of purpose by her side. But Proculeius came sodainly vpon her,* and ta∣king her by both the hands, said vnto her. Cleopatra, first thou shalt doe thy selfe great wrong, and secondly vnto Caesar: to depriue him of the occasion and oportunitie, openly to shew his bountie and mercie, and to geue his enemies cause to accuse the most curteous and noble Prince that euer was, and to appeache him, as though he were a cruell and mercielesse man, that were not to be trusted. So euen as he spake the word, he tooke her dagger from her, and shooke her clothes for feare of any poyson hidden about her. Afterwardes Caesar sent one of his infranchised men called Epaphroditus, whom he straightly charged to looke well vnto her, and to beware in any case that she made not her selfe away: and for the rest, to vse her with all [ E] the curtesie possible. And for him selfe, he in the meane time entred the citie of ALEXAN∣DRIA, and as he went, talked with the Philosopher Arrius,* and helde him by the hande, to the end that his contrie men should reuerence him the more, bicause they saw Caesar so highly e∣steeme and honor him. Then he went into the show place of exercises, and so vp to his chaire of state which was prepared for him of a great height: and there according to his commaun∣dement, all the people of ALEXANDRIA were assembled, who quaking for feare, fell downe on their knees before him, and craued mercie. Caesar bad them all stande vp, and told them o∣penly that he forgaue the people, and pardoned the felonies and offences they had commit∣ted against him in this warre. First, for the founders sake of the same citie, which was Alexan∣der the great: secondly, for the beawtie of the citie, which he muche esteemed and wondred [ F] at: thirdly, for the loue he bare vnto his verie frend Arrius. Thus did Caesar honor Arrius, who craued pardon for him selfe and many others, & specially for Philostratus, the eloquentest man of all the sophisters and Orators of his time,* for present and sodaine speech: howbeit he falsly Page  1008 named him selfe an Academicke Philosopher. Therefore, Caesar that hated his nature & con∣dicions, [ A] would not heare his surt. Thereupon he let his gray beard grow long, and followed Arrius steppe by steppe in a long mourning gowne, still bussing in his eares this Greeke verse:

A vvise man it that he be vvise in deede,
May by a vvise man haue the better speede.

Caesar vnderstanding this, not for the desire he had to deliuer Philostratus of his feare, as to ridde Arrius of malice & enuy that might haue fallen out against him: he pardoned him. Now touching Antonius sonnes, Antyllus, his eldest sonne by Fuluia was slaine,* bicause his schoole-maister Theodorus did betray him vnto the souldiers, who strake of his head. And the villaine tooke a pretious stone of great value from his necke, the which he did sowe in his girdell, and afterwards denied that he had it: but it was founde about him, and so Caesar trussed him vp for [ B] it. For Cleopatraes children, they were verie honorablie kept, with their gouernors and traine that waited on them. But for Caesarion, who was sayd to be Iulius Ceasars sonne: his mother Cleo∣patra had sent him vnto the INDIANS through AETHIOPIA, with a great summe of money. But one of his gouernors also called Rhodon, euen such an other as Theodorus, perswaded him to returne into his contrie, & told him that Caesar sent for him to geue him his mothers king∣dom. So, as Caesar was determining with him selfe what he should doe, Arrius sayd vnto him.

*Too Many Caesars is not good.

Alluding vnto a certaine verse of Homer that sayth:

Too Many Lords doth not vvell.

*Therefore Caesar did put Caesarion to death, after the death of his mother Cleopatra. Many [ C] Princes, great kings and Captaines did craue Antonius body of Octauius Caesar, to giue him ho∣norable burial: but Caesar would neuer take it from Cleopatra, who did sumptuously and royally burie him with her owne handes,* whom Caesar suffred to take as much as she would to bestow vpon his funeralls. Now was she altogether ouercome with sorow & passion of minde, for she had knocked her brest so pitiefully, that she had martired it, and in diuers places had raised vlsers and inflamacions, so that she fell into a feuer withal: whereof she was very glad, hoping thereby to haue good colour to absteine from meate, and that so she might haue dyed easely without any trouble. She had a Phisition called Olympus,* whom she made priuie of her intent, to thend he shoulde helpe her to ridde her out of her life: as Olympus wryteth him selfe, who wrote a booke of all these thinges. But Caesar mistrusted the matter, by many coniectures he [ D] had, and therefore did put her in feare, & threatned her to put her children to shameful death. With these threats, Cleopatra for feare yelded straight, as she would haue yelded vnto strokes: and afterwards suffred her selfe to be cured and dicted as they listed. Shortly after, Caesar came him selfe in person to see her,* and to comfort her. Cleopatra being layed vpon a litle low bed in poore estate, when she sawe Caesar come into her chamber, she sodainly rose vp, naked in her smocke, and fell downe at his feete maruelously disfigured: both for that she had plucked her heare from her head,* as also for that she had martired all her face with her nailes, and besides, her voyce was small and trembling, her eyes sonke into her heade with continuall blubbering and moreouer, they might see the most parte of her stomake torne in sunder. To be short, her bodie was not much better then her minde: yet her good grace and comelynes, and the force [ E] of her beawtie was not altogether defaced. But notwithstanding this ougly and pitiefull state of hers, yet she showed her selfe within, by her outward lookes and countenance. When Cae∣sar had made her lye downe againe, and sate by her beddes side: Cleopatra began to cleere and excuse her selfe for that she had done, laying all to the feare she had of Antonius. Caesar, in con∣trarie maner,* reproued her in euery poynt. Then she sodainly altered her speache, and prayed him to pardon her, as though she were affrayed to dye, & desirous to liue. At length, she gaue him a breese and memoriall of all the readie money & treasure she had.* But by chaunce there stootle Seleucus by, one of her Treasorers, who to seeme a good seruant, came straight to Caesar to disproue Cleopatra, that she had not set in al, but kept many things back of purpose. Cleopatra was in such a rage with him, that she flew vpon him, and tooke him by the heare of the head, [ F] and boxed him wellfauoredly.*Caesar fell a laughing, and parted the fray. Alas, said she, O Cae∣sar: is not this a great shame and reproche, that thou hauing vouchesaued to take the peines Page  1009 [ A] to come vnto me, and hast done me this honor, poore wretche, and caitife creature, brought into this pitiefull & miserable estate: and that mine owne seruaunts should come now to ac∣cuse me, though it may be I haue reserued some iuells & trifles meete for women, but not for me (poore soule) to set out my selfe withall, but meaning to geue some pretie presents & gifts vnto Octauia and Liuia, that they making meanes & intercession for me to thee, thou mightest yet extend thy fauor and mercie vpon me? Caesar was glad to heare her say so, perswading him selfe thereby that she had yet a desire to saue her life. So he made her answere, that he did not only geue her that to dispose of at her pleasure, which she had kept backe, but further promi∣sed to vse her more honorably and bountifully then she would thinke for: and so he tooke his leaue of her, supposing he had deceiued her, but in deede he was deceiued him selfe. There [ B] was a young gentleman Cornelius Dolabella, that was one of Caesars very great familiars, & be∣sides did beare no euil will vnto Cleopatra. He sent her word secretly as she had requested him, that Caesar determined to take his iorney through SVRIA, & that within three dayes he would sende her away before with her children. When this was tolde Cleopatra,* she requested Caesar that it would please him to suffer her to offer the last oblations of the dead, vnto the soule of Antonius. This being graunted her, she was caried to the place where his tombe was, & there falling downe on her knees, imbracing the tombe with her women, the teares running downe her cheekes, she began to speake in this sorte:

O my deare Lord Antonius, not long sithence I buried thee here, being a free woman:* and now I offer vnto thee the funerall sprinklinges and oblations, being a captiue and prisoner, and yet I am forbidden and kept from tearing & mur∣dering [ C] this captiue body of mine with blowes, which they carefully gard and keepe, onely to triumphe of thee: looke therefore henceforth for no other honors, offeringes, nor sacrifices from me, for these are the last which Cleopatra can geue thee, sith nowe they carie her away. Whilest we liued together, nothing could seuer our companies: but now at our death, I feare me they will make vs chaunge our contries. For as thou being a ROMANE, hast bene buried in AEGYPT: euen so wretched creature I, an AEGYPTIAN, shall be buried in ITALIE, which shall be all the good that I haue receiued by thy contrie. If therefore the gods where thou art now haue any power and authoritie, sith our gods here haue forsaken vs: suffer not thy true frend and louer to be caried away aliue, that in me, they triumphe of thee: but receiue me with thee, and let me be buried in one selfe tombe with thee. For though my griefes and miseries be in∣finite, [ D] yet none hath grieued me more, nor that I could lesse beare withall: then this small time, which I haue bene driuē to liue alone without thee. Then hauing ended these doleful plaints, and crowned the tombe with garlands and sundry nosegayes, and maruelous louingly imbra∣ced the same: she commaunded they should prepare her bath, and when she had bathed and washed her selfe, she fell to her meate, and was sumptuously serued.
Nowe whilest she was at dinner, there came a contrieman, and brought her a basket. The souldiers that warded at the gates, asked him straight what he had in his basket. He opened the basket, and tooke out the leaues that couered the figges, and shewed them that they were figges he brought. They all of them maruelled to see so goodly figges. The contrieman laughed to heare them, and bad them take some if they would. They beleued he told them truely, and so bad him carie them [ E] in. After Cleopatra had dined, she sent a certaine table written and sealed vnto Caesar, and com∣maunded them all to go out of the tombes where she was, but the two women, then she shut the dores to her. Caesar when he receiued this table, and began to read her lamentation and pe∣tition, requesting him that he would let her be buried with Antonius, founde straight what she ment, and thought to haue gone thither him selfe: howbeit he sent one before in all hast that might be, to see what it was. Her death was very sodaine.* For those whom Caesar sent vnto her ran thither in all hast possible, & found the souldiers standing at the gate, mistrusting nothing, nor vnderstanding of her death. But when they had opened the dores, they founde Cleopatra starke dead, layed vpon a bed of gold, attired and araied in her royall robes,* and one of her two women, which was called Iras, dead at her feete: and her other woman called Charmion halfe [ F] dead, and trembling, trimming the Diademe which Cleopatra ware vpon her head. One of the souldiers seeing her, angrily sayd vnto her: is that well done Charmion? Verie well sayd she a∣gaine, and meete for a Princes discended from the race of so many noble kings. She sayd no Page  1010 more, but fell downe dead hard by the bed. Some report that this Aspicke was brought vnto [ A] her in the basket with figs, & that she had cōmaunded them to hide it vnder the figge leaues, that when she shoulde thinke to take out the figges, the Aspicke shoulde bite her before she should see her: howbeit, that when shew would haue taken away the leaues for the figges, she perceiued it,* and said, art thou here then? And so, her arme being naked, she put it to the A∣spicke to be bitten. Other say againe, she kept it in a boxe, and that she did pricke and thrust it with a spindell of golde, so that the Aspicke being angerd withall, lept out with great furie, and bitte her in the arme. Howbeit sewe can tell the troth. For they report also, that she had hidden poyson in a hollow raser which she caried in the heare of her head: and yet was there no marke seene of her bodie, or any signe discerned that she was poysoned, neither also did they finde this serpent in her tombe. But it was reported onely, that there were seene certeine [ B] fresh steppes or trackes where it had gone, on the tombe side toward the sea, and specially by the dores side. Some say also, that they found two litle pretie bytings in her arme, scant to be discerned: the which it seemeth Caesar him selfe gaue credit vnto, bicause in his triumphe he caried Cleopatraes image, with an Aspicke byting of her arme.* And thus goeth the report of her death. Now Caesar, though he was maruelous sorie for the death of Cleopatra, yet he won∣dred at her noble minde and corage, and therefore commaunded she should be nobly buried, and layed by Antonius: and willed also that her two women shoulde haue honorable buriall. Cleopatra dyed being eight and thirtie yeare olde, after she had raigned two and twenty yeres, and gouerned aboue foureteene of them with Antonius. And for Antonius, some say that he liued three and fiue yeares:* and others say, six and fiftie. All his statues, images, and mettalls, [ C] were plucked downe and ouerthrowen, sauing those of Cleopatra which stoode still in their places, by meanes of Archibius one of her frendes, who gaue Caesar a thowsande talentes that they should not be handled, as those of Antonius were. Antonius left seuen children by three wiues, of the which, Caesar did put Antyllus, the eldest sonne he had by Fuluia, to death. Octauia his wife tooke all the rest,* and brought them vp with hers, and maried Cleopatra, Antonius daughter, vnto king Iuba, a maruelous curteous & goodly Prince. And Antonius, the sonne of Fuluia came to be so great, that next vnto Agrippa, who was in greatest estimacion about Cae∣sar, and next vnto the children of Liuia, which were the second in estimacion: he had the third place. Furthermore, Octauia hauing had two daughters by her first husband Marcellus, and a sonne also called Marcellus: Caesar maried his daughter vnto that Marcellus, and so did adopt [ D] him for his sonne. And Octauia also maried one of her daughters vnto Agrippa. But when Marcellus was deade, after he had bene maried a while, Octauia perceiuing that her brother Caesar was very busie to choose some one among his frends, whom he trusted best to make his sonne in law: she perswaded him, that Agrippa should mary his daughter, (Marcellus widow) and leaue her owne daughter. Caesar first was contented withall, and then Agrippa: and so she afterwards tooke away her daughter and maried her vnto Antonius, and Agrippa maried Iulia, Caesars daughter. Now there remained two daughters more of Octauia and Antonius. Domitius AEnobarbus maried the one: and the other, which was Antonia, so fayer and vertuous a young Ladie, was maried vnto Drusus the sonne of Liuia, and sonne in law of Caesar. Of this mariage, came Germanicus and Clodius: of the which, Clodius afterwards came to be Emperour. And of [ E] the sonnes of Germanicus, the one whose name was Caius, came also to be Emperour: who, af∣ter he had licentiously raigned a time, was slaine, with his wife and daughter. Agrippina also, hauing a sonne by her first husbande AEnobarbus called Lucius Domitius: was after∣wardes maried vnto Clodius, who adopted her sonne, and called him Nero Germanicus. This Nero was Emperour in our time, and slue his owne mother, and had almost destroyed the Empire of ROME, through his madness and wicked life, being the fift Emperour of ROME after Antonius.