The compleat gentleman fashioning him absolute in the most necessary & commendable qualities concerning minde or bodie that may be required in a noble gentleman. By Henry Peacham, Mr. of Arts sometime of Trinity Coll: in Cambridge.
Peacham, Henry, 1576?-1643?, Delaram, Francis, 1589 or 90-1627, engraver.
Page  200

CHAP. 16.

Of Trauaile.

I Will conclude with Trauaile, which many disallow in Gentlemen, yea and some great trauellers themselues; but mee thinkes they are as one who hath filled his owne belly, and denieth the dish to his fellow. In my o∣pinion nothing rectifieth and confirmeth more the iudg∣ment of a Gentleman in forteine affaires, teacheth him knowledge of himselfe, and setleth his affection more sure to his owne Country, then Trauaile doth: for if it be the common Law of Nature,* that the learned should haue rule ouer and instruct the ignorant, the experien∣ced, the vnexperienced, what concerneth more Nobility, taking place aboue other, then to be learned and wise? and where may wisedome be had, but from many men, and in many places? Hereupon we find the most eminent and wise men of the world to haue beene the greatest Trauailers (to omit the Patriarches and Apostles them∣selues in holy writ) as Plato, Pythagoras, Aristotle, Theo∣phrastus, Osyris King of Aegypt, who trauelled a great part of the world, and caused to be engrauen vpon his Sepulcher,*Heere vnder I lie King Osyris, eldest sonne of Saturne, who haue left no part of the world vnsearched, whi∣therto I haue not come, teaching againe whatsoeuer I haue found, for the vse and commoditie of mankinde. And Xe∣nophon to intimate vnto vs the benefit and excellent vse of Trauaile, saith that Cambyses, by his trauaile learned many excellent things, which he taught Cyrus his sonne: and hauing trauailed as farre as Mero (as a perpetuall monument of his long voyage) he built a Citie in the forme of a Persian shield. And it was the vsuall boast of Page  201Alexander (said Archelaus a Cosmographer) that he had found out more with his eies,* then other Kings were able to comprehend in thought: and to no small commenda∣tion of himselfe, Menelaus in Homer, reporteth that hee had beene in Aegypt, Cyprus, Phoenicia, and seene Thebes hauing an hundred gates, and at euery gate two hundred horse-men for the guard. But say some, few of our Gen∣tlemen are bettered by their trauaile, but rather returne home worse then they went in manners, and many times in Religion, therefore it were better they arried still at home, according to Clandian:

Fulix qui patrijs avum transegit in agris,
Ipsa domus puerum quem vidt ipsa senem:
Qui bacule nit••s, in qua reptait arena,
Vni•• numerat Sacula longa casa.
Hee's blest who in's owne Countrie ends his daies,
Whose homestead see's his old age and his birth, &c.

But this happinesse is but purorum bea••tude, as one saith; and the greatest vnhappinesse to the truly generous and industrious minde.

If therefore you intend to trauell, you must first pro∣pound vnto your selfe; the End, which either is ad v∣luptatem vel ad vtilitatem, pleasure or profit. For the first, euery one naturally affecteth, and the foole himselfe is tickled with the sight of strange townes, towers and ha∣bits of people. Therefore you must hold you to the other which is profit, which againe hath two branches, your owne priuate, or the publique; your priuate, as the reco∣uery of your health, by some outlandish meanes, as the water of the Spaw, some Phisitian, famous for his cure in such & such kinds, change of aire, or gaining as a Mer∣chant by trasique, or some profession wherein you excell others. The publique is the generall good of your Coun∣trey, Page  202 for which we are all borne, it challenging a third part of vs.

But before you trauaile into a strange Countrey, I wish you (as I haue heretofore said) to be well acquain∣ted with your owne; for I know it by experience, that many of our yong gallants, haue gone ouer with an in∣tent to passe by nothing vnseene, or what might bee knowne in other places; when they haue beene most ig∣norant here in their owne natiue countrey, and strangers to their iust reproofe could discourse, and say more of England then they.

In your passage, I must giue you in either hand a light, Preseruation, and Obseruation. Preseruation of your minde, from Errors, and ill manners; of your bodie from distemperature, either by ouer eating, drinking, violent or venereal exercise.

For there is not any nation in the world more subiect vnto surfets then our English are, whether it proceedeth frō the Constitution of our bodies, ill agreeing with the hotter climates, or the exchange of our wholsome diet and plentie, for little and ill drest; or the greedinesse of their fruits and hotte wines, wherewith onely wee are sometime constrained to fill our bellies, I am not cer∣taine. No lesse perill there is,*ab istis callidis & calidis Soli••liabus, which almost in euery place will offer themselues, or be put vpon you by others.

Keepe the fountaine of your minde from being em∣poisoned, especially by those Serpents, Error and A∣theisme, which you shall finde lurking vnder the fairest flowers: and though you heare the discourses of all, and listen to the charmes of some, discouer your Religion or minde to none, but resembling the needle of the com∣passe, howsoeuer for a while mooued or shaken, looke Northerly, and be constant to one. To be carried away with euery fancie and opinion, is to walke with Ci in the land of* giddinesse, the greatest punishment that God laied vpon him.

Page  203Before you enter into Obseruation, first seeke the language that you may be fit for conference, and where the language is best spoken there settle, and furnish your selfe with the discreetest and most able Masters. For as heere in England, so in other places, the language is spo∣ken with more elegancie and puritie in some places more then others. For the French, Orleans and thereabouts is esteemed the best. Florence for the Italian, Lipsick for the high Dutch, and Valledolid for the Spanish.

To helpe you in coniugating your verbes, you may vse the helpe a while of a Grammer of that language, but in generall you must expect your perfection from confe∣rence; for hereby the true accent, and the natiue grace of pronunciation (which no booke can teach) is onely at∣tained.

Now aswell for neighbourhood sake, as that the French tongue is chiefely affected among our Nobility, it being a copious and a sweete language, wherein so many fa∣mous workes by as great wits as any euer Europe bred, haue beene published: I wish you first of all to see France, being seated vnder a temperate and most wholesome cli∣mate, and shall not endanger your health so much, as be∣ing sent vpon the suddaine from a colde Countrey, into the scorching heate of another more remote.

I will not stand to make any Topographicall descrip∣tion of the Countrey,* I being herein both preuented long since by a faithfull pen; beside I remember I am to write onely one Chapter, not a volume.

You shall finde the French, I meane of the noblest and better sort, generally free and curteous, vnto whom e∣uen among their Princes, State and Maiesticque retired∣nesse are burthensome, so that sometime you shall see them familiar with the meanest. La Nouë speaking of the French Nobilitie, saith Elle est tres vallerese & Courtoise: et y à Estat en la Chrestienté, on elle soit 〈◊〉 si grand •••brè. They are exceeding valiant and curteous, Page  204 and there is no estate in Christendome where they are in so great number.

They delight for the most part in Horsemanship, Fen∣cing, Hunting, Dancing, and little esteeme of Learning and gifts of the minde; contrary to the Custome of the ancient Romans, as Cate the Censr, Csar, Palus Ae∣mylius and many others, no lesse famous for knowledge then action; whereof themselues and their friends often∣times complaine. Commi••s layeth the fault vpon the re∣missenesse of parents in their education. Il nourissent leur enfans seulement à faire les sts, en habillements et en pa∣rlles: de nulle letre ils n'ont cognoissance, They breed their children to play the waton fooles, both in apparell and words, but as for learning they know nothing.

The French are full of discourse, quicke witted, sud∣den in action, and generally light and inconstant; which Csar found long since, writing of them, quod sunt in con∣silijs capiendis mobiles, & nouis plerumque rebus student,* and else-where, he calles Galloru subita & repentina consilia, Moreouer as among the Spanish and Dutch, one fashion of Apparell still obserued amongst them, argueth a con∣stancie of minde and humour, so their change and varie∣tie, their vainnesse and leuitie; for euery two yeere their fashion altereth.

Their exercises are for the most part Tennise play, Pallemaile, shooting in the Crosse-bow or Peece, and Dancing.

Concerning their dyet, it is nothing so good or plen∣tifull as ours, they contenting themselues many times with meane viandes onely in the solemne feasts, and ban∣quets of entertainment, they are bountifull enough, yea farre exceede vs: as for the poore paisant, he is faine of∣tentimes to make vp his meale with a mushrome, or his grenoilles (in English frogs,) the which are in Paris and many other places commonly sold in the market.

Concerning their building, is it very magnificent Page  205 and I know not whether in all Europe, any buildings may for Maiesty and State be compared with those of France, (though they haue beene miserably spoiled by the last ciuill wars) they being the best Architects of the world; vpon the view of some of which (as breathing on a faire hill) I will detaine you a while. And first wee will begin with the Lovure* in Paris. The Lovure is the royall seate of the kings of France, famous throughout all Europe, si∣tuate neere to the towne walles on the West side: by which runeth the riuer of Se••e, which in old time ser∣ued rather for a fortresse then a Kings house, and herein was a tower wherein were kept the king reuenues and treasure. Which after by King Francis the first, was pul∣led downe, and in this place was begun the building of the front, which is of Masonry, so enriched with pillars, frizes, architr••es and all sort of architecture with such excellent symmetry and beauty, that throughout all Eu∣rope, you shall hardly finde the like. It was begunne by Francis the first, finished by Henry his sonne, vnder the appointment of the Lord of Clagny, and afterwards en∣creased by Francis the second, Charles the 9. Last of all made the wonder of all other workes by that beautifull Gallery, the worke of Henry the 4.

The Tuilleries* sometime belonged to the Suburbes of Saint Honorè in Paris, by the side of the Lovure, and was indeed a place wherein they made tiles, and by reason there were many faire Gardens about it, the Queene mo∣ther drawing the plot her selfe, seeing it a pleasant and fit place, began first to build here. It is a roiall worke all of free stone. The portall or entrance is very stately of marble pillars and Iasper.

Fontaineblea* is scituate in the forrest of Biere, in a plaine encompassed with great woods, and was in olde time a retiring place for the kings of France. Francis the first, who loued to build, tooke great pleasure in this seate and builded here the house, as we see it at this present; the Page  206 base Court hereof is esteemed the fairest of all Franc•• in the second Court there is the purest and fairest fountaine esteemed in the world, wherefore it was called Bellau, and so Fontaine Belle 〈◊〉. R. Francis loued this place so well, that he spent most of his time here, beautifying it while hee liued with all sorts of commodities, goodly galleries, Stoes, &c. and caused the rrest Masters of Eu∣rop in painting tobe sent for, for the beautifying it with all manner of Histories. Also heere he placed the rarest Antiquities he could get. In briefe, whatsoeuer he could wrap or wring, he thought too little for this place; it is about 1. 4. leagues from Paris.

Blis* is an ancient Castle 〈◊〉 from the Riuer of Lo••e vpon an hill. Here the old Kings of France were wont to reside, especially Louis the twelfth tooke delight in this place, who was called Pater patri. It hath belong∣ing vnto it two goodly forrests, one on this side the ri∣ner, the other on the other. Going forth of the gardens of the house, you passe into the forrest vnder foure rowes of elmes, at the least 12. hundred paces: this is rather re∣markeable for the antiquity then the beauty. The towne standeth beneath, about the which are these faire places within 2. or 3. leagues, Bury, B•••••gard, Ville-sansm, Chin∣dny, and some others.

Amboise* is one of the principall buildings of France, it also standeth vpon the Loire vpon a high Sea••; at the foote hereof is the towne, and neere that a goodly For∣rest: this castle is seene a great way off both by the hill, and the valley yeelding so goodly a prospect, as I neuer beheld a better, for from the terrasses that enuiron the Castle, you may easily discerne Tours and the Abbay of Mar•••stier seauen leagues off; the Castle standeth vp∣on a Rocke, at the foote whereof there is a Cloister.

This house is in Picardi,* vpon the way from Paris to Soissons, distant from Paris 16. leagues, 5. from Soissn; it standeth close vpon the forrest of Ret•• it is of very great Page  207 receipt, as may appeare by the enclosure of the pare. Here King Francis (whose onely delight was in building) for many yeares together set Mason a work, the rather because it adioyned vnto the greatest orrest of all France, himselfe louing hunting exceedingly. Here are the goodliest walkes in Europe, for the tres themselues are placed in curious knots, as we vse to set our her••s in gardens.

Charleval* is in Normandy vpon the way from Paris to Rvn, neere to the village of Fl••ry. It was built by Charles the 9. at the instance of the Lord of 〈◊〉 it standeth in a valley enclosed with mountaines aboue, which is the Forrest of Lyons: among hose Mountaines are many goodly prospects one within another, it is 3. leagues by a pleasant valley easily discerned to the ri∣uer Seime had it beene quite finished it had been the chiefe building of France.

This Castle or Royal house is called Bis de Vin••••* it is scituate within one league of Paris, and two of Saint Denuis the place of buriall of the French Kings, so that these three stand in a manner in a triangle. It is a very sumptuous worke and of admirable Art: it was begun by Charles Countie of Valeis, brother to Philiy the faire, and finished a good while after by Charles the fift. This house hath many faire Courts in it, withall about it a Parke, containing in circuit 16, or 17. thousand pace, which a∣mount to two leagues and an halfe, stretching on the South, euen vnto the riuer of Sine, and by North vnto the riuer of Mar••, which ioyning at the village of Con∣stuen•• (so called of their meeting) neere Chare••••• fall downe vnto Paris. This in ancient times was the vsuall Court and abode of the French Kings, but now little free∣quented, and falling in a manner to ruine.

But I omit farther to speake as well of the Royall houses, and those of the Noblesse, being indeed the beau∣ty of France. Whereof there are many other, as S. Ma••, Page  208 Chenncean, Chamb••rg, Boulgu, Creil, Coussie, Folembray, Montargis, S. Germain and la Mutl, which are all the Kings houses and worthy your view and regard, if you happen to finde them in your way. In briefe hold France for one of the most rich, fertilest, and brauest Kingdomes of the World.

And since Spaine* and France, are but one Continent, let vs passe the Pyrenean hils, and take some obseruations there.

Spaine lyeth Southerly from France, in Northerne lati∣tude from 37. to 44. degrees or there about, in the same heigth and paralell with the Azores Ilands. It is farre hotter then Fra••e, a very dry Country, yet abounding in sweet Springs, Riuers, and all sorts of fruites. Pasture there is little or none in respect of the great heat, but in∣finitely furnished with Vineyards, Oliue trees, hauing Corne sufficient saue onely in the skirts of the Coun∣try, which are mountainous, hilly and barren, yet aboun∣ding in Goates and other Cattell.

For victuals you shall finde it very scarce, not that the Counttey affordeth not a sufficiency, but that the people beingby cōstitution, hot & dry, are not able to digest hea∣uy and more solid meat, like vnto ours; but rather chuse Fruits, Sallets and sweet meates, as Mermalade, by them called Membrillada (for membrill is a Quince) and con∣serues of all sorts, for coolenesse and lightnesse of dige∣stion. The people are by nature generally proud and haughty, but withall very ciuill, faithfull to their friend, and aboue all to their Prince, for seldome or neuer haue any of that Nation bin known to haue bin Traitors: their souldiers are infatigable, resolute, and obedient vnto their Commanders, but withall lasciuiously giuen, and too cruell in victory.

The Gentry affect not the Countrey, but desire to liue in walled Townes altogether, where they dedicate themselues either to some imployment of State, or busi∣nesse Page  209 of Warre, saue such who are of the better sort, de∣dicated to the Church, of whom there is at the least a third part.

Their habite in apparell is all one for colour and fashi∣on, which hardly makes a distinction of parties; onely they are discerned by their seruants (in whom they ob∣serue an excellent equipage) their regelado horses, Cao∣ches and horselitters.

The women are blacke, and little, but very well fauou∣red, and for discourse admirable: these haue a more emi∣nent distinction of habit, and are all discerned by their apparell of what qualitie they are, they affect strangers much, and are liberall in their conuerse with them.

The heart of the Countrey is very scarce of fish, that which they haue, are either Tons or Pilchards, brought salted from Biscay, on the one side, and from Valencia on the other: Yea, the Church for want of fish is faine to giue a licence to cate the entrailes of beasts vpon fasting dayes.

All their meate, fruits and bred are sold by the pound, and not except before an Officer which they call Alcal∣da, so that no stranger can be deciued either in waight or price.

They treade their Corne out with Oxen in the fielde assoone as it is reaped, their Mules and horses eating the Straw with Barley, for Oates they are not so well ac∣quainted with. It is a Countrey for Trauaile very com∣bersome in respect of lodging and dyet, except when you come into the walled Townes, where you shall according to their manner be accommodated well enough.

They trauaile all on Mules, keeping their Horses for beautie and shew, putting them to no vse, saue onely to be led vp and downe.

Their Coines are the best of Europe,ince all their neighbours make a gaine of them, as a peece of eight reals (or sixe pence of our money) goeth in France for Page  210 foure shillings & sixe pence: a doublon in gold, that which is a Pistolet with them, being thirteene shillings, is in France and other places 29. reals, which is 14. s. 6. pence of our money. Most of the Coine that passeth for or∣dinay and triuiall things, as Wine, Bread, Melons, Pea∣ches, is of Brasse, which they cal Quartas and Quartillias. Of their Marauedies, twenty make three pence. Their buildings are faire and stately, and the King, though hee hath many goodly houses & palaces, as in Siuill. Grana∣do, Toledo, Cordoa, Valladolid, &c. yet the Escrial, seuen leagues from Madrid, is the place where the King most resides, and this exceedes all the buildings of Christen∣dome, for beauty and curiosity in contriuing, to which i adioyned one of the goodliest Monasteries of the world, wherein are to be seene the rarest Water-workes that men can deuise.

Spaine being diuided into many Kingdomes or Pro∣uinces, you are allowed to carry about you, onely but an hundred reals; what you haue aboue it is forfeited, and for that purpose, at euery bridge or passage where the Countries part, you are to be searched.

And I hope you haue heard so much of the Inquisiti∣on and the danger thereof, that I shall not here need to giue you any caueat.

Naarre affordeth, by reason of the Mountaines,* a ve∣ry hard passage. Whereof Pampelna is the chiefe Ci∣tie, herein are the best Muttons, and made the strongest Wines: this Countrey is so abundant in Rosemary, that they make it their ordinary fewell in heating their Ouens, and for their other vses.

Aragon aboundeth in Wine and Corne, which Portu∣gall so wanteth, that all the Corne in that Kingdome is not able to suffice Lisbone onely, but they are faine to haue it of the Bretaigners, Hollanders, and from the A∣zores Ilands.

Last of all it is worthy the noting, how that in their Page  211 Vniuersities, as Salamanca, Alcala, Cnimbra, &c. and o∣ther of their Colledges, they care little for the Latine, but dispute and keepe their exercises in Spanish or the Portugueze tongue, yet haue they great Schollers in all professions.

Thus haue I onely giuen you a taste how and what, especially to obserue in your trauaile. I willingly omit to speake of Italie, Germany, and other Countries, by rea∣son they haue beene so exactl described by Master Sands and others, vnto whose ample discourses (excep∣ting your personall experience) I referre you, it being here mine onely intent, but to giue you some few directions in generall: and so I conclude, wishing all happinesse to your selfe, and pros∣perous successe to your studies.