The compleat gentleman fashioning him absolute in the most necessary & commendable qualities concerning minde or bodie that may be required in a noble gentleman. By Henry Peacham, Mr. of Arts sometime of Trinity Coll: in Cambridge.
Peacham, Henry, 1576?-1643?, Delaram, Francis, 1589 or 90-1627, engraver.
Page  138

CHAP. 13.

Of Armorie, or Blazon of Armes, with the Antiquity and Dignitie of Heralds.

IT is meete that a Noble or Gentleman who beareth Armes, and is well descended, bee not onely able to blazon his owne proper Coate; deriue by pedegree the descent of his family from the originall, know such matches and allies as are ioyned to him in blood: but al∣so of his Prince, the Nobilitie, and Gentry where he li∣ueth, which is not of meere ornament, as the most sup∣pose, but diuersly necessary and of great consequence: as had I fortuned to haue liued in those times, when that fatall difference of either ROSE was to be decided by the sword; with which partie in aequitie and conscience could I haue sided, had I beene ignorant of the descent and pedegree Royall, and where the right had beene by inheritance of Blood, Match, or Alliance.

How should we giue Nobilitie her true value, respect, and title, without notice of her Merit: and how may we guesse her merit, without these outward ensignes and badges of Vertue, which anciently haue beene accounted sacred and precious; withall, discerne and know an in∣truding vpstart, shot vp with the last nights Mushrome, from an ancient descended and deseruing Gentleman, whose Grandsires haue had their share in euery foughten field by the English since Edward the first? or my selfe a Gentleman know mine owne ranke; there being at this instant the world ouer, such a medley (I had almost said Motley) of Coates, such intrusion by adding or dimini∣shing into ancient families and houses; that had there not beene within these few yeares, a iust and commendable Page  139 course taken by the Right Honorable the Earles Mar∣shals, for the redresse of this generall and vnsufferable a∣buse, we should I feare me within these few yeares, see Yeomen as rare in England, as they are in France.

Besides, it is a contemplation full of pleasing varietie, and for the most part, sympathizing with euery Noble and generous disposition, in substance the most refined part of Naturall Philosophie, while it taketh the princi∣ples from Geometry, making vse almost of euery seue∣rall square and angle. For these and other reasons, I desire that you would bestow some houres in the studie of the same: for a Gentleman Honorably descended, to be vt∣terly ignorant herein, argueth in him either a disregard of his owne worth, a weaknesse of conceipt, or indispo∣sition to Armes and Honorable Action; sometime meere Ideotisme, as Signeur Gaulart, a great man of France (and none of the wisest) inuiting on a time many great perso∣nages and honourable friends to his Table, at the last seruice a March-pane was brought in, which being al∣most quite eaten, hee bethought himselfe, and said; It was told mee, that mine Armes were brauely set out in Gold and Colours vpon this March-pane, but I haue loo∣ked round about it and cannot see them: Your Lordship (said one of his men) eate them vp your selfe but now. What a knaue (quoth Mounsieur Gaulart) art thou? thou diddest not tell me before Ieate them, I might haue seene what they had beene.

The dignitie and place of an Herald, among the an∣cient Romans was very great;* that same lus Feciale, or Law of Armes, being first instituted by Ancus Martius, as Liuis testifieth, though some ascribe it to Numa Pom∣pilius, who ordained a Colledge of Heralds.

The office of an Herald, was to see that the Romanes* made not warre iniustly with any of their confederates; to determine of warre, peace, leagues, agreements, Page  140 wrongs taken or offered by them or their enemies, and the like.

Now if the enemy had offered them wrong, or taken away any thing from them by violence, they first sent Messengers to demaund their right, and the restoring of that they had taken away; which was done in a soleanmnesorme, and the words pronounced distinctly, and with a loud voyce: and this manner of deliuering their mes∣sage, was called Clarigatio. The forme was this, Ioucn••∣egotestem facio, siego impiè iniuslet{que}, illas res dedier populo Romano mibi{que} exposco, unc patriae compotem nunquam sinas esse. If they refused their demaunds, or to make ••stiitu∣tion: first all league and friendship (if any were betwixt them) being renounced and broken, after thirty daies, (which they solemnly obserued) they proclaimed open warre, and with fire and sword inuaded the enemies Countrey, and by force recouered their owne.

Neither was it lawfull, for either Consull or Senate, or any of the common people, to take vp Armes against an enemy, without the consent and approbation of the Heralds.

Among the Heralds,* there was one the cheese and a∣boue the rest, whom they called Pater Patratus; and hee was chosen one who was to haue children, and his owne father aliue: him one of the inferior Heralds, crowning his head and Temples with Veruaine, made him the cheese or King, either in concluding peace, or denoun∣cing warre.

The most ancient forme of denouncing warre, is set downe at large by Liuie.* The Tybarens are reported to haue beene so iust in their making warre, and defiance of their enemies, that they would neuer meete them, but first they would send them word of the day, place, yea, and very houre they meant to fight.

Moreouer, if any complaint by the enemy were made Page  141 of breach of the league, the Heralds examined the truth, and hauing found out the Authours, they deliuered them vp to the enemy to doe with them as hee listed: or if any without the consent of the people, Senate & Heraldes, eyther foght or made peace, entred league, &c. the Ro∣manes freede them∣selues again, by deliuering vp the Au∣thors to their enemies. So were the Consuls T. Veturis. & Sp. Postumius for their error at Caudium, and making peace with the Samnites contrary to the will of the peo∣ple and Senat, together with T. Numicius and Q. Aemili∣us Tribunes, deliuered to the enemy. The words of Postu∣mius himselfe, (who made request that himselfe with the rest, who had offended, might be deliuered to the enemy) are thus recorded by Livie.*Dedamur per ficiales, nudi vincti{que} exlvamus religions populu, fi qua obligavimns: ne quid divini bum••ive obstet, quo minus instuns piun. qu de integreine 〈◊〉 bellum. The forme and words on their deliuery to the enemies hands, were these: Quando∣quidem hice homines iniussu populi Romani, Quiritum soedus ictu iri sposponderunt, atque ob am rem noxam nocuerunt: ob eam rem quo populus Romanus Seelere impio sit so∣lutus, bose homines vobis dedo. And so, many yeares after was C. Mancinus deliuered to the Numan∣tines, with whom hee had entred into league contra∣ry to the will, and without the knowledge of the Se∣nate.*

Heraldes also examined and determined of wrongs and iniuries done vnto Embassadours,* and punished them by deliuering vp in like manner, the parties offending, vn∣to the nation or State offended.

They looked also to the strict obseruing of euery branch of the league, or truce; in briefe their Authority was comprised in these few words,*'Belli, pacis, foederum, induciarum, oratorum feciales indices sunte.

Spurius Fusius was the first Herald that cuer was crea∣ted Page  142 among the Romanes, and had the name of Pter Pa∣tratus in the warre which Tullus Hostitius made against old Latines.

Their priuiledges were great and many, and too long for me here to reckon vp. And to conclude, for farther search of their institution, priuiledges, and Office, I re∣ferre you to Iehan le Feron,* a French Authour.

I purpose not heere to enter into a large field and ab∣solute discourse of Blazonry with all the lawes & termes thereof, hauing beene already preuented by Bara, Vpton, Gerrard Leigh, Master Ferns, Master Guillim (late Port∣culleis pursuiuant) in his Methodicall Display of Heral∣dry, with sundry others. So that, in a manner, more can∣not bee saide then hath beene: my selfe besides hauing written something of this subiect heretofore, but onely to poynt vnto you as a stranger vpon the way, the fairest and shortest cut vnto your iournies end in this Art.

The word Blazon is from the French Eblasonner; and note that we in England vse herein the same tearmes of Art with the French: because the ancients of our Nobi∣lity for the greater part, acknowledge themselues to bee descended out of Normandy, and to haue come in with the Conquerour, many retaining their ancient French names, & Charges vnto this day; as Beauchamp, Beaumont, Sacuill, Neuill, with many others.

Your A. B. C. in this Art, let be the knowledge of the sundry formes of Shieldes or Escotcheons which are, and haue beene ordinarily borne in ancient times. Among all nations we of Europe haue onely two kinds in vse (the Lozens excepted) viz. that we vse in England, France, Germany, &c. and the Ouall they beare in Italy: which forme they yet (from the old Romanes) holde in vse.

The word Escotcheon is deriued from the French un esci, that from the Latine Scutam, and that againe from 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 in Greeke, which is leather; because the ancients had their Shieldes of tanned leather, the skinnes laid thicke Page  143 one ouer another, as appeareth by that of Vlysses, vpbrai∣ding Aiax:

Quae nisi fecissem, frustra Telamone creatus,
Gestasset laeva taurorum tergora septem.

And Caesar (saith Cābrensis) fighting hand to hand with Nennius,* a British King fast had his sword, nayled into Nennius his shield (being of hard leather,) at which ad∣uantage Nennius had slaine him, had not Labienns the Tribune stepped in betweene, and rescued his master.

Now the ancient shields by reason that they were long, and in a manner of that forme as some of the Knights Templers had theirs, as appeareth vpon that their monument in the Temple Church, differed much from the buckler or target which was round, as it may appeare out of Livie.*Clypeis atem Romani vsi sunt (saith he) deinde postquam facti sunt stipendiarij, scuta pro clypeis fectre. And Virgil compareth the great eye of Cy∣clps to an Argolican Target, for who will deny but that an eye is round?

That their shieldes (as I haue said) were long, and in a manner couered the whole body, he saith else-where,

Scutis protecti corporalongis.

Hereupon Scutum was called in Greeke 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, because it resembled a dore, which is euer more long then broad.

The Carthaginians made their shieldes of gold. M. Aufidius tels vs that his ancestours (being Romanes) had theirs of Siluer.

Alexander king of the Iewes opposed against Prolomy 8000. fighting men, which hee tearmed Hcatomachi,* as much to say as, fighting each man against an hundred, because they vsed brasen shields.

The Numidians vsed shieldes made of Elephants hides Page  144 impenetrable to any dart, yet on the other side they had this discommoditie, that in rainy weather they would like a sponge so soake in the water, and become hereby so hea∣uy, the souldiers could hardly beare them.

The shield in times past was had in such honour, that he who lost or alienated the same, was accounted as base∣ly of as he that with vs runnes from his colours, and was seuerely punished: and the Graecians fined him at a grea∣ter rate who lost his shield, then he who lost his sword or speare.* Because that a souldier ought to take more care that he receiueth not a mischiefe, then he should doe it of himselfe.

Bitter was that iest of Scipio, when hee saw a souldier bestow great cost in trimming and glazing his shield: I can not blame thee (quoth he) that thou bestewest so much cost vpon thy shield, because thou trustest more to that then to thy sword.

The Lacaeademonians of all other the most warlike, by the lawes of Lycurgus, brought vp their children to the vse of shields from their infancy; and famous is that La∣caedemonian mother for that her speech to her son, when she deliuered him a shield going to the warre 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Sonne either bring backe this shield, or bee thou brought backe thy selfe (dead) within it. But thus much of the shield or Escotcheon.

Armes or Ensignes at the first had their chiefe vse for distinction of Tribe from Tribe, armie from armie being composed of two or moe colours, whereof one was euer white or yealow, which we now tearme Mettals, and that of necessitie; for without the mixture of one of these, the other as too darke of themselues, could not bee discerned farre, neyther of white and yealow onely, as participa∣ting too much of the light. Hence they say (though not generally true) where there is wanting colour or mettal, it is false armorie.

I will not stand here to dispute ouer philosophically, Page  145 as some haue done, of the praeeminence of one colour a∣boue another, or out of profound ignorance affirme blacke to be the most ancient colour, because darkenesse was vpon the face of the earth in the Chaos; as if colour were not qualitas visibilis luminis beneficio, and privati were formarum susceptibilis; and white the next, because God said fiat Lux, as if light were a qualitie resulting of an lementarie composition, it beeing created be∣fore all mixed bodies: yea with Aristotle I rather affirme blacke properly to be no colour at all, as partaking of the pure Elements nothing at all, for he saith 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉,* of the Elements mingled together, as earth, water, aire, not yet reduced to their proper substance, as wee may see in charcoales, all bo∣dies consuming but not consumed, whereupon it is cal∣led Niger, of the Greeke 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which signifieth dead, as a colour proper to dead things. The colours, to say truth, immediately proceeding from the Elements, are yellow and white: yellow beeing an effect of the fire. and all heate (as we may see in gold) begotten by the heate of the Sunne, by the mixture of the clearest and most pure quicke-siluer, and the finest red brimstone, in fruite and corne ripened by the heate of the same, in choller, vrine, lie boyled, the bellies of hot venemous Serpents and the like. The white is proper to the water and earth, as we way see in all watery bodies congealed, as Ice, Snowe, Christall, glasse, pretious stones beaten in∣to to powder: also the most rootes, the pulpe of apples, peares, and the like of watry substance, of earth in the a∣shes of wood and stones burned, all which turne white, being by the fire purged from water and aire. Concerning the aire it selfe, it hath no colour at all.

Now after your two Mettals, yealow and white, Gold or Siluer, which in Armory we cal Or & Argent, you haue foure principall colours, viz. Sable or blacke, Azure or Blew, Gules or Red, Verd or Greene. There are others, as Page  146Purpure sanguine Tenn, which are in more vse with the French and other Nations then with vs in England.

From simple colours and diuision by bare lines, they came to giue their charges quicke and liuing things, such as sorted best with their fancies and humours, neyther without reason. The Alani a warlike people, and ex∣treame louers of their liberty, gaue in their Ensigne a Cat, a beast which of all other cannot brooke bo•••ge. The Gothes to expresse their crueltie with their ranging resolution, gaue a Beare; the Romanes gaue the Eagle, which euery Legion seuerally bare. The reason whereof Iosephus giueth,*Quòd & vniuersarum anium regnum ha∣beat, & sit valentistima, So did the Thebans and Persians, as Forcatulus reports; beside, Xenophon (saith he,) remem∣breth he saw in the armie of Cyrus a golden Eagle dis∣played, borne vpon a long speare,* as his ensigne. Yet generally Plinie saith, the charges of their ensignes were of Siluer, because that mettall was most sutable to the day light, and was to be discerned farther: so Portius Latro telleth Catiline of his siluer Eagle borne before him as the ensigne of his rebellion and furie. Besides the Eagle, the Romanes vsed to beare in their banners the Wolfe,* in memorie of Remus and Romulus, fed by the milke of a shee-wolfe, as Livie sheweth. When they vn∣dertooke any expedition wherein great secrecy was to be vsed, then they aduanced the Minotaure in their stan∣dards, to shew that the counsaile of Commanders ought to be no lesse kept secret then the Labyrinth which was the abode of the Minotaure. Withall they bare the Horse, as the most Martiall beast, and seruiceable in the warre, being full of furie, and desirous of victorie; and in the Ides of December, a Horse was sacrificed to him who had broken the right wing of his enemies battaile: Last∣ly, they bare a Hogge in their ensignes, because the warre being finished, they vsed to make a truce by sacrificing a young Swine; which whosoeuer violated or went backe Page  147 from, ought forth with as a Hogge to be stoned to death: hereupon they had a forme of Battaglia which they tear∣med the Hogges face.* But all these (the Eagle onely ex∣cepted) were by Caius Marius turned out of vse: but I shall haue elsewhere occasion to write more at large of these and the like Imperiall badges.

The kings of Portugall bare in a field Argent fiue es∣cotcheons Azure,* each charged with as many Plates; on a bordure Gules tenne Castles, or, in remembrance of fiue kings, whom (each seuerally leading a mightie ar∣my) Alphonsus the first, king of Portugall ouerthrew neere to the City of Scallabis in Portugal now called Tru∣gill;* there appearing at the same time (saith Osorius) Christ crucified in the heauen, whose fiue wounds those fiue plates represent. Those Castles are his holds in Bar∣bary which he wonne from the Moores.

The Dukes of Bavaria* haue anciently borne their Armes Palie Bendy arg. and Azure, for that it resembled the party coloured Cassocks of the ancient Bij,* who were those Gaules that attempted the Surprise of the Capitol, whom Virgil describing as by night, saith, Vir∣gatis lucens Sagulis, which hee vnderstandeth by the white, as most easily to bee discerned in the night time.

The towne of Dort or Dordrecht in Holland, from a ci∣uill broile that long since occasioned much slaughter, staining the streetes (being onely two aboue a mile in length, (the riuer running in betweene) with blood, bare in a field gules a pale argent.

The City of Collen, in regard it can shew the monu∣ments of the three kings who offered to our Sauiour, beareth Argent, on a chiefe gules three crownes Or.

The City of Andwarpe in Brabant,* for that sometime a Tyrant Prince was Lord of that place, and punished offenders in cruell manner, by cutting off their hands (whose pourtraiture cut in stone to the life, stands ere∣cted Page  148 ouer one of the Ports toward the Sceld, with a sword in one hand, and a mans hand smitten off in the o∣ther) beares foure hands, Couptè in Salteir, an Eagle dou∣ble necked, displaied in chiefe, to signifie that it is an im∣periall Citie; and hence had it the name of Antwerpe, as much to say as Handwerpen, which in Dutch signifieth to cast or throw away the hand.

The Stoute and warlike Henry Spencer Bishop of Norwich, who supprest by his courage and valour, that dangerous rebellion, and about Nerthwalsham, ouerthrew Litster the Captaine, hath (as it is to bee seene vpon his monument in the body of the Quie of Christ-Church in Norwich) ouer his proper coate of Spencer, vpon an helmet, his Episcopall Miter, and vpon that Michaell the Arch-Angell with a drawne sword.

Marie Coates are conferred by the Prince or State vpon merit and desert, for some honourable act perfor∣med to the Common-wealth, or honour of the Prince; as that deuice vpon Sir Francis Drake (which was Q. Elizabeths owne) now vsurped and borne (the colour of the field changed siō Sable into Azure) by Oliuer à Noert of Vtrecht, who also of late yeares sailed about the earth. And at my last being in the Low Countries, was Captaine of a foot Company of Dutch in Huysden. The said Coate fairely cut in stone, standeth ouer a Porch at the entry of his house there.

The Mound or Ball with the Crosse,* was by Charles the fifth, added by way of augmentation, to the Armo∣ries of the Palsgraue of the Rine, in regard of Vienna, so brauely defended by Phillip Earle Palatine, together with the Count Solmas, against the furie of Solyman,* who laid siedge to it with aboue 300000. men; yet glad (at the rumour of the Emperour Charles his comming) to shew his backe. For Solyman, (as himselfe was wont to say) seared not Charles as he was Emperour of Germany,Page  149 but that good fortune which euer attended him in his greatest enterprises. And no doubt but the blessing of God was vpon him, as being one of the most religious, iust and worthiest Princes that euer liued.

The family of the Haies in Scotland,* bare Arg. three Escotcheons Gules, vpon this occasion. At what time the Danes inuaded Scotland, and in a set batraile had put the Scots to the worst: one Hay with his two sonnes being at plow not farre off,* and seeing his Countrey-men fly∣ing frō their enemies, to come vp a narrow Lane walled with stone on both sides, towards him; with their Plow∣beames in their hands, meeting them at the lanes end, in despite beate them backe to charge their enemies afresh, reuiling their cowardize, that now hazarded the whole kingdome: whereupon with a stout resolution they put themselues againe into array, and returning backe vpon the Danes (who were both disordered, and in a feare lest a new supply had come downe to the Scots succour) ouer∣threw them vtterly, and regained a most memorable vi∣ctory. Heeupon Hay was by the King ennobled, and had giuen him for his bearing, in a field Siluer, three Es∣cotcheons Gules: the rest a Plow-man with his Plow∣beame on his shoulder: and withall for his maintenance, as much Land as a Faulcon put off from hand could sly ouer erc she did alight, which Land in Scotland is to this day called Hay his Land; and the Faulcon alighting vp∣on a stone, about seuen miles off, gaue it the name of the Falcons stone, euen to this day.

Armes againe are sometimes taken from professions, and those meanes by which the bearers haue raised them∣selues to honourable place; as the Dukes of Florence, for that they are descended from the family Di Medic, or Phisitians, bare in a field Azure, sixe Lozenges.

Sometimes they are wonne in the field from Infidels, (for no Christian may directly beare anothers Coate by his sword) as was the Coate of Millan from a Sarace;Page  150 it being an Infant naisant, or issuing from the mouth of a Serpent.* And after the winning of Granad from the Moores, in the times of Ferdin 〈◊〉 and Isbell, Kings of Castile, the Pomgranate the Armes of that kingdome, was placed in the bast of the Escotcheon Royall; and in regard it was gained principally by the meanes of Ar∣cherie, the Bow and Quiuer of Arrowes was stamped vpon the Spanish sixpence, which remaineth at this day to be seene.

Coates sometimes are by stealth purchased, shuffled into Records and Monuments, by Painters, Glasiers, Caruers, and such: But I trust so good an order hath beene lately established by the Right Honorable, the late Cōmissioners for the Office of the Earle Marshalship, & carefull respect of the Heralds with vs, that all hope of sinister dealing in that kind, is quite cut off from such mercenary abusers of Nobilitie.

Many times gained at a cheaper rate, by bearing, as the Boores in Germany, and the Netherlands, what they list themselues; neither can their owne Inuentions con∣tent them, but into what land or place soeuer they tra∣uaile, if they espy a fairer Coate then their owne (for they esteeme Coates faire or good, as our Naturals, ac∣cording to the varietie of colours) after their returne they set it vp in Glasse for them and their heires, with the Crest and open Beauer, as if they were all Princes; as at Wodrichom or Worcom, hard by Louestein, I found ouer a Tradesman Coate, no worse Crest then the three Feathers in the Crown, and in many other places whole Coates of the French Nobilitie. Heereof examples in those parts are so frequent, that I must say, Inopem me copia fecit.

Now being acquainted with your colours, the points and euery place of the Escotchcon, which the Accidence of Armorie of Master Guillims Display, will at large in∣struct you in, begin to practise the Blazon of those Coats Page  151 which consist of bare and simple lines, without charge, as that ancient Coate of Waldgra••, who beareth onely party per pale Arg. and Gules; and the Citie of Virecht partie per bend of the same.

Then your fields equally compounded of moe lines,* as Quarterly, Bndey, Barrey, Gyronned, Checkey, Masculie, &c. Withall, know the names and vse of all manner of your crooked lines, as Endemed, Embatelled, Nebulè, or Vndeè, Danncé•••è, &c. Know then those Honorable and prime places, or Ordinaries, with their Species, as the cheese, so called of Chef in French, that of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, because it possesseth the head, or vpper third part of the Escotcheon.

The Fesse holding the middle third part of the shield,* containeth vnder it the Barre, Barrulet, Coste, Barres∣gemells, &c. The Bend, the Bendlet, single and double Cotize.

Next know the Furres, Counterchangings, Bordures, Tressures, Orles, Frets; all formes of Crosses, differen∣ces of Brothers, Roundles of euery kind; as Beasans, Plaes, Pommices, &c.

Then proceede to the blazon of all vegetable things, as Flowers, Trees, &c.

Then to all quicke and liuing things, as Beasts, Birds, Fishes, Serpents, and the like.

When you haue done, know Honorable additaments, whether they be by way of augmentation, or markes and differences of alliance.

Coates of augmentation, as those of Queene Ka∣therine Parre, Queene Katherine Howard, and Queene Iane Seymor, conferred by King Henry the eight.

By Cantons, as Ferdinand King of Spaine,* honoured Sir Henry Guilford with a Canton of Granado: and King Iames, Molin, the Vneian Embassadour, with a Can∣ton of the Rose of England, and Thistle of Scotland empaled.

Page  152Then ensue differences of alliance, by Bordures, Labels, Bends, Quarterings, and the like.

By the Bordure,* no where more frequent then in the Soueraignes Coate, when the blood Roiall was deriued into so many veines, to the distemper of the whole body, vnder the dissention of Yorke and Lancaster.

Thomas of Woodstocke, as also Humphrey Duke of Glo∣cester (who lyeth buried in the Abbey of S. Albanes, vpon the South-side of the Quire, and not in Paules) bare the Soueraigne Coate within a Bordure Argent.

Richard Plantagenet (sonne and heire of Richard Earle of Cambridge) Duke of Yorke, and father to Edward the fourth, bare quarterly France and England, within a Bor∣dure Argent, charged with Lionceeaux purpure.

Edmund of Hadham, sonne of Owen Tuder, by Queene Katherine, the Soueraigne Coat within a Bordure Azure, with Martlets and Flower-de-luces Or.

Iohn Beaufort, sonne of Iohn of Gaunt, and his posteri∣tie, the same within a bordure Componeè, Argent and Azure.

Charles the seuenth,* King of France, in the yeare 1436. gaue leaue vnto Nicholas Duke of Ferrara, to beare the Armes of France in a Shield, within a Bordure Componeè Or and Gules, before the Armes of Ferrara, in recog∣nisance of the league and fidelitie, wherein hee promi∣sed to stand bound to serue the King at his own charges.

And for the like respect, Lewis the eleuenth, in May, 1465. allowed Pietro de Medici, to beare three Flower-de-luces in his shield, which I haue seene borne in cheife, vpon one of his sixe Lozenges.

Of Difference by the Labell.

A second difference is by the Labell, borne chieefely as the difference of the elder Brother. As Edward the blacke Prince, and all our Princes of Wales, eldest sonnes Page  153 to the King, beare their Fathers Soueraigne Coate, with a Labell of three points, Siluer.

Iohn of Gauns had his Labell Ermin.

Edmond of Langley Duke of Yorke, on his Labell Sil∣uer, nine Torteauxes.

Edmond Plantagenes, sonne and heire of Richard Duke of Yorke, Earle of Ruland, (who being a Child scarce twelue yeares of age, was stricken to the heart with a Dagger by the Lord Clifford at the battaile of Wakefield) had vpon his Labell of fiue points Argent, two Lion∣ceaux Gules, with nine Torteauxes. The Coate of Vlser and Mortimr being mpaled with his owne, as may be seene in the windowes of Fderinghay Castle, the man∣sion house of the Duke of Yorke, where by his father Ri∣chard Duke of Yorke, and Cicely Nevill his mother, hee lyeth buried; whose bodies remoued out of Fderinghay Church-yard, (for the Chancell, in the Quire wherein they first were laid, in that fury of knocking Churches and sacred Monuments in the head, was also felled to the ground) lapped in Lead, were buried in the Church by the commandement of Queene Elizabeth, and a meane Monument of Plaister wrought with the Trowell, ere∣cted ouer them, very homely, and farre vnfitting so No∣ble Princes.

I remember Master Creuse, a Gentleman, and my wr∣thy friend, who dwelt in the Colledge at the same time, told me, that their Coffins being opened, their bodies ap∣peared very plainly to be discerned; and withall, that the Dutchesse Cicely had about her necke, hanging in a Silke riband, a pardon from Rome, which penned in a ve∣ry fine Romane hand, was as faire and fresh to be read, as it had beene written but yesterday.

Of Difference by the Bend.

A third difference, is by the Bend Baston, &c. as the Page  150 house of Bur••• beareth Fr••••, with a Btune Gules, though the proper and true Coate of 〈◊〉 is Of, a Ly∣on Gules, within an Orle of Escallops Azure.

Lewis Earle of Eureux in Normandy, brother to Phi∣lip le Bll, bare Seme de France, with a Batune Componeè, Argent and Gules.

Iohn Earle of L•••aster, and Brother to Richard the first (afterward King) bare for his difference a Batune Azure.

If the mother be of the ligne Royall, many times her Coate is preferred into the first quarter; as Hnry Earle of D•••nshire, and Marqusse of Exeter,••re his mother Ktharines Coate, who was daughter to King Edward the fourth. And the like Humphrey Stafford, who was the first Duke of Buckingham by Anne Platagn••: his mother, the Coate of Thomas of Woodstocke, whose daughter she was. This Coate, I remember, standeth in the great Chancell window in the Church of Kimbal∣tn.

In France it hath beene,* and it yet a custome among the Nobilitie, to 〈◊〉 their owne proper Coates, and take others; as perhaps their Wies, or the Armes of that Srig••••, whereof they are Lords: or whence they haue their Titles, as Mons. Hugues, brother to King Phi∣lip, marrying the daughter and heire of Herbere Earle of Ver•••d•••s, forsooke his proper Coate, and bare his Wiues, which was Checky, Or, and Azure, onely three Flower-de-luces added in chiefe, to shew he was of the blood. And Robert Coun de Dreux, albeit he was brother to King Lewis 〈◊〉, bare Checky, Azure and Or, with a Bordure Gules.

Robert Duke of Burgogne, brother to Henry the first, tooke for his bearing, the ancient Armes of the Dukes of Burgogne, which was bendy Or and Azure, within a Bordure Gules, giuen by Charlemaigne to Sanson Duke of Burgogne.

Page  151And whereas we in England allow the base sonne his Fathers Coate, with the difference of a bend Batune, si∣nister, or bordure engrailed, or the like: it was in France a long time forbidden (I thinke vnder the Capets) to the Princes of the blood; as 〈◊〉 Earle of Mmfort, base sonne to King Robert, was forced to leaue his Fa∣thers Coate, and beare Gules, a Lion à la queue fourcheè Or, passeè per à lentour, Argent; for, Le maison de France ••••tant les bastardes, no leur endurè son armeirè, &c. saith Tillet.

The last and least obseruation is of Crests, the Helmet, the Mantle, and doubling thereof, which according to the manner of diuers Countries, are diuersly borne. In Ger∣many they beare their Beauers open with Barres, which we allow in England to none vnder the degree of a Ba∣ron: in some places they haue no Crests at all. If you would farther proceed in Nobilitie or Heraldry, I would wih you to reade these bookes of 〈◊〉 ob••itie in gener•••:

Simon Simonius de N••ilit••e, 〈…〉 at Leipsig. 1572.

Chassan••••, his Catalogus Gloria mun••.

Hippolitus à Collibus, his Axumata Nobilitatis.

Conclusiones de Nobilitate & Doctorain. published by one of Meckleburg, who concealeth his name, printed 1621. dedicated to the Archbishop of Breme.

Petrus Eritzius, Coun••••er to the Elector of Branden∣burge, published Conclusiones de Nobilitate, in quarto.

Lionellus De pracedentia omium.

Of the Spanish Nobilitie these Authors haue written.

Ioannes ab Arce Offalora, in folio.

Priuilegios y Franquezas y libertades des bijos dalgos De Senniorio de Vizcaia, &c. in fol.

Ludovicus de Moll••a, De primogniorm Hispanicorum iure, &c. in fol.

Page  156Iosephus de Sesse, in Decis. Aragon. Decis. 8. 9. 10. &c.

Gonzales de Crte, his Nobliza del Andaluzia, in fol.

Of Italy, Sicily, Naples, &c.

Scipie Mazzella nelle Neapoli Illustrata, in quarto.

Paulus Merula in Cosmograph. lib. 3. pt. 3. in Italian.

Of France.

The Workes of Tillet, Fer••, Charles L'Ois•••, Chop∣pin, Theatre d'Honneur.

Of Germany, or the Empire.

Fran. Contzen, his Politiques, in fol.

The Collections of Goldastus, with some others.

The practise of Blazonrie.

[illustration]
HE beareth Azure, a Sal∣teir Or. This was the Coate of the pious and deuout Off a King of the Mer∣cians, who liued about the yere of Christ 793. and in the three and thirtieth yere of his raigne, builded the goodly Monasterie of S. Albanes in Hrtfordshire, vpon the way of Watlingstreet, to entertain Pilgrims: the King himselfe laying the first stone of the foundatiō therof, with these words; Ad Honorem Di Patris, Filij, & Spiritus Sancti, & Mar∣tyris sui Albani terra me Proto∣martyris. Hee ordained it a Conuent of an hundred Monkes of the order of S. Benedict, electing Willegod who was his Kinsman, to be the first Abbot; he endow∣ed it with goodly reuenues, as here appeareth. After he Page  157 had begun this magnificent worke,* within foure or fiue yeares, he dyed, and was buryed in a little Chappell hard without the towne of Bedford, vpon the banke of the riuer of Ouse or Vse, which by the riuer long since hath beene eaten and worne away.

Willeged the first Abbot dyed the same yeare that Off a did, of very griefe it was thought, for the death of his king and kinsman, whom he dearely loued.

Anno 88. After him succeeded these in order.

  • Eadricke.
  • Vulsigus.
  • Wul•••us.
  • Eadfrithus.

Wulsinus, Who built Saint Peters Church, Saint Michaels and Saint Stephens, and made a faire mar∣ket place in the towne.

  • Alfricke.

Aldredus, Who digged vp and searched the ruines of Verlam-cesire, which in his time were dens of theeues and whores; saued all the tile and stone for the repaire of the Church, and in digging vpon the North side in the vale found oaken plankes pitched, Shelles peeces of oares, and a rusty Anchor or two.

Eadmer, after his death (being a religious and a good man) imitating his predecessour, saued all the ancient coines, vrnes and other antiquities hee could finde there.

Leofricke, was sonne to the Earle of Kent, and after be∣ing chosen to be Archbishop of Canterburie, he refused it: this Abbot in a time of dearth solde all the Iewels of his Church to buy bread for the poore. After him succee∣ded

  • Alfricke.
  • Leostan.
  • Frtheric.

Paul. In this Abbot were giuen to the Mo∣nastery Page  158 of Saint Albanes, the Celles of Wallingford, of Tinnemuth, of Bealvare, of Hertford and Binham.

Richard, who liued in the time of William Rusus, when the Cell of Saint Marie de Wymonaham or Windham in Norfolke was giuen vnto this Abbey, beeing sounded by William de Albeney, father to William de Albeney first Earle of Arundell.

Gaufridus, who founded the Nunnery of Sopwell ther∣by on the other side of the riuer, founded and so called vpon this occasion: two poore women hauing built them∣selues a small cabben, liued in that place a very austere life, praying, and seruing God with great deuotion; and for that they liued for the most part with no other suste∣nance, saue bread and the water of a Well there, wherein they vsed to soppe or dippe their bread, it had (saith mine Author (a Monke sometime of that Abbey) the name of Sopwell. Then

  • Radulphus.
  • Robert.
  • Simon.
  • Garmus.
  • Iohn.
  • William &c.

Off a gaue to this his Abby of Saint Albans, these towns following, viz. Theil, Edel•••••, Wiclesfield, Cageso cum suis, Berechund, Rikearesworth, Bacheworth, Crokleie, Michelfield, Britchwell, Watford, Bilsey, Merdell,* Hal∣denham, Sprt, Enefeild, St••••••, H•••••ted, Winelesham, Biscopsco, Cd•••dune, and Mild••dune.

Egelsride his sonne and successour gaueaSandruge and Penefield.

Alfrick Abbot of this Church, (after Archbishop) & Leofrick his brother gaue Kingesbury, Cealdwich, West∣wic, Flamsted, Nort•••, R••••hang W••••field, Birstan, and Vpton.

Page  159AEthelwold Bish. of Dorchester gaue Girshuna, Cuicumba, Tyme, Aegelwin, Redburne, Thuangnā, Lingley, Grenburga.

One Tholfe gaue Estune and Oxaw.

One Sexi gaue Hchamsted.

One Hadh gaue Newha and Beandise.

Therefeld, a religious woman gaueaSceanla & Bridel.

Aegelwina another gaue Batesden, Offal and Standune.

One Aegelbert gaue Craniford.

A••an, Cutesham.

Winsimus gaue Esenden.

Osulsus and his wife gaue Stdham and Wilsin••: o∣thers Walden, Cudicote, Scephal, Bethell, with sundry other Celles, Churches, and goodly possessions of me vnnamed. If I should set you downe the inestimable wealth consi∣sting in Plate, Iewells, Bookes, costly Hangings, Altar∣cloathes, and the like, which by our English Kings, No∣bilitie and others haue from the foundation vnto the dis∣solution, with the sundry priuiledges this Abby had, I should weary my selfe with writing, and you with rea∣ding; but I omit them, hauing onely proposed a mirrour to the eyes, not of the Church pillars of ancient, but the Church pillers of our times.

[illustration]
He beareth quarterly Or and Gules, ouer all a bend Vaire. This is the Coate Ar∣mour of the Right Honoura∣ble, Richard Sackuill Baron of Buckhrst, and Earle of Dor∣set, none of whose Aunce∣stors (nor yet himselfe) did euer desire to quarter any o∣ther Coats with it, (although of Right they may (for it is a very auncient Coate Ar∣mour, as appeareth by the booke of Knights of King Edward 1. as also by diuers Page  160 Seales of these very Armes, fixed to sundry deeds, made by this familie in the time of King Henry the third, a∣bout which time they were painted and set vp in the windowes of their Mannor house, called Sackuills, and in the Churches of Bergholt and Mount Bures in Essex, where they yet remaine, as also in the Abbey of Begham in Kent, sometime of their foundation in the Raigne of King Iohn: and in Withyham Church in Sussex, where successiuely they haue beene buried more then 300. yeeres, with seuerall Tombes.

The Auncestors of this Noble family were French∣men borne, taking their Surname of a Towne in Nor∣mandy called Sackuill, whereof they were Lords, and came into England, to the aide of Duke William the Conque∣rour, as appeareth by an auncient Manuscript or Chroni∣cle of Brittaine, now in the Custody of Mr. Edward Gwinn, where he is called a Chiefetaine, and is the seauenth man ranked in a Catalogue of names there; for as it may be obserued out of Mr. Camdens Remaines, that the better sort about the time of the Conquest began to take vp Surnames, so againe they were not setled amongst the common people vntill the Raigne of King Edward the second. He moreouer affirmeth, that the most ancient and of best account, were deriued from places, whereof this name of Sackuill is one, and to adde yet more vnto it, Ordericus Vitalis the Monke, in his Normane story saith, that Herbrann de Sackuill, was liuing in the time of William the Conquerour, being father of three Noble Knights, Iordan, William, and Robert de Sackuill, and of a vertuous and beautifull Ladie, named Auice, who was married to Walter Lord of Alfage & Hugleuill, by whom shee had issue; Iordan L. of Alfage & Hugleuill, that mar∣ried Iulian the daughter of one Godsall, who came into England with Q. Adelize, of Lo••ine, the Wife to King Henry the first: After whose death, the said Queene marri∣ed to William de Albency Earle of Arundell, from whom the now Right Honorable, Thomas Earle of Arundell, and Page  161Surry, and Earle Marshall of England is descended. S. Iordan de Sackuill Knight, the eldest sonne, was Sewer of England by the gift of the said Conquerour, but liued and died in Normandy. S. Robert de Sackuill Knight, the yon∣ger sonne liued in England, and gaue together with his body the Mannor of Wickham in Suffolke to the Abbey of S. Iohn Baptist in Colchester, leauing issue a son named S. Iordan de Sackuill, a very eminent man in the time of King Richard the first, as appeareth by a Charter of the said King, made to the Monkes of Bordesey in Bucking∣hamshiere. S. Iordan de Sackuill, that obtained of King Iohn a Friday Market weekely, and a Faire once a yeare in his Towne of Sackuill in Normandy, as saith the Kings Publike Records in the Tower of L••don. Holiinshed, fol. 186. doth there ranke Iordan de Sackuill, as a Baron, cal∣ling him one of the assistants to the 25. Peeres of this Realme, to see the Liberties of Magna Charta confirmed. And for further proofe, that they were men of no meane anke, it is apparent in the Red booke of the Exchea∣quer in the 12. and 13. yeeres of the said Kings Raigne, in these words, Hubertus de Anestie tenes, 2. food. in Ane∣stie, & parua Hornmcad, & dimid. 〈◊〉. in Anestie de Ho∣nore Richard de Sackyle. Agaie, S. Iordan de Sackuill Knight, grand childe to the said Iordan de Sackuill, was taken prisoner at the battaile of Eesham, for siding with the Barons against King Henry, the third, in the 49. yeare of His Raigne, whose sonne and heire, named An∣drew Sackuill, being vnder age at the time of his fathers death, and the Kings Wad, was like wise imprisoned in the Castle of Deuer, Ann. 3. En. 1. and afterward by the speciall command of the said King, did marry Ermyn∣••de an Honourable Ladie, of the houshold to Queene 〈◊〉 or, whereby he not onely gained the Kings fauour, but the greatest part of his Inheritance againe. From whom the aforesaid Richard Earle of Dorset, with S. Edward Sackuill Knight of the Bathe, his brother (and Page  162 others) are descended; one of whose Auncestors, by marrying a daughter and co-heire of Rase de Denn, sonne of Rodbert Pincerna, that held the Lordship of Buckhurst, with diuers other Mannors and Lands in Sussex, about the time of the Normain Conquest. In right of which marriage they haue euer since continued Lords of the said Mannor of Buckhurst with diners other Manors and Lnds in Sussex, &c.

[illustration]
He beareth Sable 3. Hartes heads cabbaged argent, tired or, by the name of Cavendish, & is borne by the right Honora∣ble, William, Baron Cavendish of Hardwick in the Countie of Derbie, Earle of Deuonshiere, and Vncle to William Caven∣dish, Knight of the Bath, Baron Ogle, and Viscount Mansfield.

Which William Earle of Devonsh was sonne of S. Wil∣liam Cavendish, of Chattesworth in the said Countie of Derby knight, Treasurer of the Cham∣ber to King Henry the eight, Edward the sixt, and Queene Marie; by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of lohn Hardwick, of Hardwick Esquire.

The Auncestors of this Noble Familie, called them∣selues Grms, whose issue in processe of time, assumed to themselues, the Surname of Cavendish, as being Lords of the Towne and Mannor of Cavendish in Suffolke; out of which familie disbranched that famous Trauailer, Mr. Thomas Cavendish, who was the third that trauailed a∣bout the world, whose voyage you shall finde, set downe at large in the English Discouerers, written by Mr. 〈◊〉.

Page  161

[illustration]
He beareth pearle on a bend of the Diamond, three Roses of the first with a Crescent vpon a Crescent for a diffe∣rence, by the name of Carey. This is the proper coate of the Right Noble Henry Lord Ca∣rey, Baron of Hunsdn, and Viscount Rchford, descended from the ancient family of the Careys in the countie of De∣vn.

[illustration]
This forme of bearing, is tearmed a Lozenge, and is proper to women neuer marryed, or to such in cour∣tesie as are borne Ladies; who though they be marryed to Knights, yet they are com∣monly stiled and called after the Sirname of their fathers, if he be an Earle;for the grea∣ter Honour must euer extin∣guish the lesse: for example, the bearer hereof is the Lady Mary Sidney, the late wife of Sir Robert Wroth Knight, and daughter of the right Honourable, Robert Lord Sidney of Penshurst, Viscount Lise, Earle of Leicester, and companion of the most no∣ble Order of the Gater, who seemeth by her late published Vrania an inheritrix of the Diuine wit of her Page  162 Immortall Vncle. This coate you shall blaze thus: shee beareth (on a Lozenge) Or, a Pheon Azure, which is the head of a dart (saith Leigh, in his Accedence of Armo∣y.)

[illustration]
Hee beareth of the Rubie, three Roses pearle, on a cheie of the first, three Roses of the second. This coate appertay∣neth to the right Honourable Sir lulius Caesar Knight, Master of the Roules, and one of his Maiesties most Honourable priuie Counsell, who is descen∣ded of the Noble and ancient family of the Dalmarii in ••aly, a gentleman worthy to be honoured, aswell for his since∣rity, as his loe to good learning and all excellent parts, vnto whom I acknowledge my selfe to bee many wayes obliged.

[illustration]
Hee beareth Sable, Deux anches Ermine, Sur le tout vnè est••••le a buict ras, ••raions d'or. The first institution of this Coate was with a starre of 8. points, as appeareth by sun∣dry Churches in Nrfolke, where this family had its be∣ginning, where it is as I haue seene it drawne with sixe. It is ignorantly mistaken, for the 8. Page  163 points were fitted to the proportion of the field, there∣by adding more lustre and beautie to the Coare, dispred∣ding themselues from the nombrill or middle part of the Escotcheon.

It is borne by the name of Hobart, and was the pro∣per Coate of Sir Iames Hobart Knight, Atturney Gene∣rall vnto King Henry the seauenth; a right good man, withall of great learning and wisedome: hee builded the Church of Loddn, and Saint Olaues, commonly called Saint Toolies bridge in the County of Norfolke.

This worthy Knight lyeth buryed vnder a faire mo∣nument in the middle lle on the Northside in Christs Church in Norwich But it is now borne (with the Coate of Vister by the gift of King Iames vnto him as a Barronet) by the Honourable and Nobly minded Sir Henry Hobart Knight and Baronet,* Lord chiefe Iustice of the Common Pleas, of Blickling in the County of Norfolke; whose vprightnesse in Iustice, and loue to his country, hath (like his owne Starre communicatiue of it selfe) dispersed the fairer beames into all places.

[illustration]
He beareth Azure, an Eagle displayed Siluer, by the name of Cottn. It is thus borne (with an Escotcheon of Vlster) by the learned and Honourable Sir Robert Cottn Knight and Baronet of Cunningtn in the Countie of Huntingdn, descen∣ded anciently by a yonger bro∣ther from the Bruces of Scot∣land; a Gentleman, vnto whom not onely our Brittaine but Europe her selfe is obliged, for his industry, cost, and care in collection of so many Page  164 rare Manuscripts and other Monuments of venerable Antiquity, being of the same most free and communica∣tiue, to all men of learning and quality.

[illustration]
He beareth Sable, a Cheveron betweene three Cinque soiles Ermine, a Canton dexter of Vster, as he is Baronet by the name of Woodhouse. This coate thus borne belongeth to Sir Philip Woodhouse, Knight and Barronet of Kimberly in the County of Norfolke: this family is very ancient, for they were gentlemen of good ranke in the time of King lohn, as it appeareth by many ancient Gants and Euidences of theirs, which I haue seene. Moreouer, I inde out of a faire parchment Manuscript in French, or collection of the Parliaments all the time of Edward the third (which my Honoured and worthy friend Sir Robert Cotten hath) and in the fourth yeare of his raign, at a Parliment to be holden at Westminster, a writ thus diected to one Robert de Woodhouse, his Chaplaine and Treasurer.

Rx dilect〈◊〉 so Roberto de Woodhouse, Archidia∣cone de Richmnd Thesarario so salutem. Negotiaos & statum regni contingentia, &c. vobis mandamus irmiter i∣iungentes quod omnibus alijs praterissis &c. Beside I haue sene the will of King Henry the fourth, and Herie the fifth,* where one was a gentleman of Henry the fourth's chamber, and by his will made one of his executors; as also he was to Henry the fifth, who wrote his letter to the Pior, and Chapter of the Church of the Trinitie in Norwich, to giue him leaue to build himselfe a Chappell in their Church. So that from time to time, they haue Page  165 held an Honourable place, and at this day are worthy stayes and pillars of Iustice in their Countries. Nor must I heere let fall the worth of two sons of this Gentleman, Sir Thomas Woodhouse Knight (who marryed Blanch Si∣ster to the right Honourable Henry now Viscount Roch∣frt) and Master Roger Woodhouse his brother, Gentle∣men, not onely learned, but accomplished in what euer may lend Lustre to worth and true gentilitie.

[illustration]
He beareth Pearle, a Cheue∣ron Saphire, betweene three Squerrels Seiant of the Rubi, by the name of Louell. This Coat is thus borne by the Right Worshipfull Sir Francis Louell, Knight, in the Countie of Nor∣folke.

This was also the Coate of Sir Thomas Louell, Knight of the Garter, made by King Henrie the seuenth, of whose hose hee was Treasurer, and President of the Counsell. This Sir Thomas Louell was a fift sonne of Sir Ralphe Louell of Barton Bendish, in the Countie of Norfolke. This his Coate with the Garter about it, standeth ouer Lincolnes Inne Gate. He founded the Nunnery of Halliwell (where was also his house) on a wall of which not may yeares since was to be read this inscription.

All ye Nuns of Halliwell,
Pray ye both day and night:
For the Soule of Sir Thomas Louell,
Whom Harry the 〈◊〉 made Knight.

Page  166It appeareth also that Sir William Louell Lord Morley, was Knight of the Garter: for in Morley* Church the seate of his Baronnie, is yet remaining in a Glasse win∣dow (which I haue seene) this Coate with the Garter about it.

[illustration]
He beareth Argent, 3. pallets Gules, ouer all a Cheueron Or. This Coate is thus borne by the Right Honourable Sir Edward Barkham Knight, now Lord Maior of the Citie of London; who for his care and wisedome, in the discharge of his so high a place, worthily meriteth to bee ranked with the most deser∣uing.

[illustration]
Hee beareth Sable, a Fesse engrailed between three Flo∣wer-de-luces Siluer, by the name of Ashfield of Stow Langton in the Countie of Suffolke.

This Coate Armour is verie ancient, as is proued by sundry bookes of Armes, Church win∣dowes, and seuerall deeds, wher∣of I haue seene two bearing date Anno 18. Richard the 2. with seales of this very Coate fixed thereunto, with this in∣scription about the same (viz:) Sigillum Robertide Ash∣field; as also another deed bearing date, Anno 3. HenriePage  167 the fixt, made from Robert the sonne of Iohn Ashfeild of Stow-Langton, Esquire, to Simon Finchan, and Iohn Whitlocke, with a faire Seale of red Waxe: whereupon was a Griff•• Siant, with his wings displayed, ouer whose body is this Armes, with this inscription about the whoe Seale (viz:) S. Robertide Ashfeild Armig. The aboue named Robert Ashfeild builded the Church of Stow Lang∣ton, in the Quire whereof (which I haue seene) hee ly∣eth butied vnder a faire Marble; he was seruant vnto the blacke Prince, whom he followed in his warres in France. This Coate is thus borne by Sir lohn Ashfeild, Knight, sole heire of that Family, now Gentleman of the bedde Chamber to Prince Charles.

[illustration]
He beareth partie per pale, Argent and Gules, a bend coun∣terchanged. This was the pro∣per Coate of our famous Poet, Sir Geoffrey Chaucer Knight, who was sometime Master of the Custome-housd in London, and allyed by Katherine Swin∣ford to lohn of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster. Hee lyeth buried at Wstminster: his Epitaph being made ouer him by Master Nicholas Brigha.

Page  168

[illustration]
He beareth Fusilie, Ermine and Sable, on a cheife of the se∣cond three Lillies. This is the Coate of Magdalen Colledge in Oxford, founded by that fa∣mous Prelate William de Wain∣flet, sirnamed Patten. He was borne in Waineflet, a little towne by the Sea in Lincolnshire, Anne 1459.

[illustration]
Heere are two Coates impa∣led: and thus the husband bea∣reth his Wies Coate: In the first hee beareth Luna, on a cheife Mars, three Lions heads erazed of the Sunne, by the name of Richardson: and it is thus borne by Sir Thomas Ri∣chardson of Hunningham, in the Countie of Norfolke, Knight, Serieant at the Law, and late Speaker of the house of Com∣mons in Parliament: the second is borne by the name of Southwell, and appertaineth to Dame Vrsula his Wife, who was daughter to Master lohn Southwell of Barham, in the Countie of Suffolke, Esquire, a very good Ladie: Master Serieant himselfe deseruing much to be respected, for his diligence and depth of iudgement in his profes∣sion.

Page  169

[illustration]
He beareth quarterly, eight Coats, (viz.) the first, quarter∣ly Gules and Vaire, ouer all a Bend Dor, by the name of Con∣stable: the second Gules, a pale Fusile Or, by the name of Haul∣••n: the third Or, a cheife azure by the name of Lizors: the 4. Checkey Or & Gules, on a cheif argent, a Lyon passant sable, by the name of Comberworth: the fist, argent, tow barres in∣raled sable, by the name of Staines:* the fixt, argent, a cheueron betweene three Martlets, sable, by the name of Argum: the seauenth Or, a plaine crosse Vert, by the name of Hussey: the eight and last, Argent on a cheife sable, two Mullets Or, peirced Gules, by the name of Salueyne; vpon the Center, an Eschocheon, with the Armes of Vlster, being an augmentation of honour gi∣uen by our Soueraigne Lo. King Iames, to the Order of Barroners, &c. which are the quarterings of the much respected, Sir William Constable of Flamburgh in the County of Yorke, Barronet. Here I can not passe, (ha∣uing occasion, but giue a little touch of the Antiquity of this Family of Constable, taking their Sirname from the office of Constable of Chester, called in Latine, Conesta∣bilis, & Constabular••s, sie magister milium, which their ancestors held. For King william the Conquerout pre∣sently after the Conquest, made Hugh Lupus the first Earle Palatine of Chester, to hold the said whole County of him, it libere ad gladium set ipse Rex tenebat Angli∣am ad Coronam; And the said Earle Hugh, for the peace∣able gouernment of his country, &c. ordained vnder him, (as the learned Camden saith) eight Barons, they all be∣ing his trusti friends; whereof the principallest was Ni∣gellPage  170 his cosen, whom he created Baron of Haulten: and for the valiant courage and boldnes which Earle Hugh had often experenced to be in the man, he ordained him al∣so Constable of Chester, an office of speciall trust, as in whom is reposed the charge and guiding of all the soul∣diours, horses, Armor, and other prouision of warres, ap∣pertaining to the said Lupus, which then was a Princely person, and of great dignity. The said Nigell was sonne of Iuon, Viscount Constantyn in Normandy, by E•••, si∣ster to Adam, Earle of Britaine; and had issue, William the Constable of Chester, founder of the Abbey of Nor∣ton, whose daughter Agnes heire to his brother William, was marryed to Eustace Fitz-Iohn (a noble Baron) the son of Iohn Monoculus,* Lord of Knarsburgh, brother and heire of Serlo de Burg, who in the Raigne of the Con∣querour builded the Castle of Knarsburgh, in the County of Yorke the said Serl and Iohn, being the sonnes of Eu∣stace a Norman; And the aboue named Eustace Fitz Iohn, with the consent of the said Agnes his first wife, founded the Monastery of Watton in the County of Yorke. After her death, he marryed Beatrix, the onely daughter and heire of I••, Lord Vescy, with whom he had the Barronies of Malton and Alnwick; and with her consent, he also founded the Abbeys at Malton and Aln∣wick, and the hospitall of Broughton: & shortly after, the said Eustace Fitz Iohn lost all his lands; but by mediati∣on of friends, hee recouered them all againe of the King, except Knarsburgh. He was a great man, and mi∣nent amongst the chiefest of the Realme, both for his great Estate and wisedome; at last hee was slaine in the warres against the Welch, together with Robert Courcy and many others, in the first yeare of Henry the second; leauing issue by the said Beatrix, William, who assumed to himselfe and his posterity, the Sirname and Armes of Vesey, from whom by the Attons and Bro••fletts, the La∣dy Anne Clifford, Countesse of Dorset is lineally descen∣ded. Page  171 And the said Eustace Fitz Iohn, by his first wife Ag∣nes, had issue, Richard Fitz Eustace, Baron of Haulton and Constable of Chester, who in the beginning of the raigne of King Henry the second, held one Knights see in S•••th, in the County of Yorke.* The said Richard Fitz Eustace marryed Albred daughter and heire of Eude de Lizours, and sister by the mother, but not by the father, of Robert de Lacy, Baron of Pontesract, and his heire, quia non habuit aliam tam propinquam,* as Master Camden noteth: in whose right her posterity enioyed 60. Knights Fees of the Ho∣nour of Ponteract. The said Richard Fitz Eustace and Albred, had issue Iohn Constable of Chester, and Baron of Haulton, Lord of the Mannour of Flamburgh, who liued in the 18. yeare of Henry 2. and Roger Lord of Wark∣worth in Northumberland, from whom the ancient Ba∣rons of Clauering, the Baron Euers, and Sir Iohn Cla∣uering of Caloley in Northumberland are descended. The said Iohn Constable of Chester dyed in the holy land, in the first yeare of Richard. at Tyre (as Roger Houden hath) leauing issue, Roger Constable of Chester, Baron of Haul∣ton, &c. (father of Iohn de Lacy, Earle of Lincolne) and Robert Lacy, whose posterity assumed vnto themselues the surname of Constable: from which Robert in a direct line are descended, Sir William Constable of Flamburgh, Baronet; Marmaduke Constable of Eueringham, Esquire, sonne of Sir Philip Constable, Knight, late decased; Chri∣stopher Constable of Hatfield, Esquire; Iames Constable of Cliffe, Esquire, Iohn Constable of Carthorpe, Esquire; Mar∣maduke Constable of Kerby, Esquire,—Constable of Wassam, Esquire; Sir Iohn Constable of Dromandby Knight, with many others also liuing this present yeare, 1622.

Page  172

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He beareth quarterly foure Coats, (viz.) the first Gules a cheueron Or, betweene three Cocks Argent, beaked, combed and membred Or, by the name of Crow: the second parted per∣pale Gules and azur, a Lyon ram∣pant Argent pelleted, by the name of Stockets: the third Gules a Boare passant Argent, by the name of Boare: the fourth & last quarterly Or and Gules, a bend Vaire distinguished with a Cressant Sable for a difference, by the name of Sackuill. And for his Creast on a wreath of his colours a Cocke argent, beaked, combed and membred Or.

This ancient name and family of Crow, was anciently of Suffolke; for about the time of K. Edward the 4. Thomas Crow of Suffolke the elder, purchased Bradsted in Kent, whose sonne Thomas Crow the yoger married Ioane the onely daughter and heire of Nicholas Boare, son of Iohn, sonne of Richard Boare, that married Lora the daughter of Simon Stocket of Bradsted in Kent. The aforesaid Ioane brought to Thomas her husband, his house called Stockets with a Chancell built by the aboue named Simon Stockets, as appeareth by a French deede tempore Edw. 2. As also a house and certaine land called Boars, by whom shee had issue Iohn Crow the elder, father of Henry Crow, father of William Crow of Bradsted Esq. who married Anne the second daughter and coheire of Iohn Sackuill of Chidding∣leigh in Sussex Esq. The said Mannor of Chiddingleigh hath beene in the possession of the Sackuills aboue three hundred yeeres, and at this day is part of the inheritance of the Right Honorable Richard Sackuill Earle of Dorset and Baron of Buckurst; which William Crow and Ann his wife, hath issue, Sackuill Crow their sonne and heire now liuing, with others.

Page  166

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He beareth Azure, two Lions endorsed Or. This is an Hono∣rable bearing; and was (saith Gerard Leigh) the Coate of Achilles at the siedge of Try.

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Hee beareth Pearle, a Fesse betweene sixe Annulets of the Rubie, by the name of Lucas. This Coate belongeth vnto M. Thomas Lucas of Colchester in the Countie of Essex, Esquire. This worthy Gentleman is much to bee commended in the education of his children, spa∣ring neither cost not diligēce to funish them with the best and most commendable Qualities. I know not (I speak free∣ly) whether not onely Essx, but England, can shew a young Gentleman of fifteene yeares of age, more ac∣complished euery way then M Iohn Lucas his sonne, who not onely vnderstandeth and speaketh the Latine, French, Italian; and is well entred into the Spanish, a good Logician, playeth his par on the Violl, daunceth, rideth a great horse admirable well, yet neuer trauailed, or saw Vniuersitie: but by his Father for the languages, and the diligence of Masters in other qualities, Intra do∣mesticos pariees, heerein he hth attained for his yeares Page  170 to no meane perfection. And if hereto personage, carri∣age and good demeanor may adde ought, I thinke him second to none of his age and ranke whatsoeuer. I speake the more liberally, for that I see great numbers of our hopefull Gentry, to spend many yeares abroad in fruit∣lesse trauaile, returning for the most part worse then they went, and to waste much time and Money to no end in the Vniuersities, which it had beene better for some they had neuer seene.

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He beareth Vert, fretted Or, with a Cressant for a difference, by the name of Whitmore. This is the proper Coat of the Right Worshipfull and worthy Mr. George Whitmore, at this time one of the Sheriffes of the Ho∣norable Citie of London. Green of all colours is saide most to comfort and preserue the sight, and naturally gladdeth the hart of man; the earth in her greatest pride being of this colour: so that Vert and Gold are colours most glorious to behold, and to the bearer imply Riches and Comfort, which I wish he may not want, being reputed a right ho∣nest Gentleman.

Page  171

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He beareth Ermine, a bend Gules, cotized Or, by the name of Ienney. It is a faire and an ancient Coate, the field being Ermine, it is esteemed the ri∣cher: the Duke of Bretaign•• Coate being onely Ermine, without any other charge, is esteemed one of the fairest bea∣rings of Europe. And for that the Lord Zuch is descended from the Dukes of Bre∣taigns, hee beareth with his Beasants a Canton Ermine. This Coate is borne (though with a difference) by M. Arthur Ienney, Esquire, a Gentleman in his owne worth answering euery way the goodnesse of his Coate.

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He beareth Or, a Lion Ram∣pant Sable, armed and langued Gules, betweene three Flower-de-luces Azure, by the name of Faireclough. This is an an∣cient Family in the Countie of Lancaster, whence the Fairecloughes of Weston in Hertfordshire, and those of Bedfordshire deriuethemselues; as also my selfe and my bro∣ther Mr. Richard Peacham of Leerton, in Holland, in the Countie of Lincolne, our mother being of the same name and Family. A Gentleman of this house was Standard∣bearer vnto the Lord Stanley at the battaile of Bosworth, who came with his Lancashire forces to the aide of the Earle of Richmond, who next vnder God was assuredly the meanes of gaining that day.

Page  172

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He beareth quarterly in the first quarter Gules; a Salteir be∣tweene oure Croslets Fitchees Siluer, by the name of Brampton of Brampton. The second Ermin, a cheife endented Gules, by the name of Brome; the third as the second, the fourth as the first. Either of these Coates are ancient, and borne thus quarte∣red by M. Henry Brampton of Blo-Norton, in the Countie of Norfolke, Esquire.

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He beareth Or, a Dolphine hariant Azure; if hee stood in Fesse hee were naiant or swim∣ming: the Dolphine is to bee reckoned among those Crea∣tures which are 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or friendly to man. For hee will follow a shippe at sea many leagues to enjoy the sight of men. Our Painters commonly draw him crooked and ben∣ding, when he is as straight a Fish as any other. Hee is borne (of these colours) naiant by the Dolphine of France.

Page  173

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He beareth Gules, three keies Siluer betweene three flower∣deluces Or, had the field beene Azure, I would haue suppo∣sed it to haue beene the Armes of some great City or port towne in France; those keyes borne as a signe of the great trust they were put in, and as a remembrance of their fidelitie.

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He beareth Siluer, a Pine tree with the Apples propper, it is borne by the name of Pine. The Pine groweth abundantly vpon the cold mountaines of Nor∣way, in Denmarke, Lies••nd, and those countries whence wee haue them for Mastes for shippes. There are two sorts of them, the male and female, the one called Piaster or the wilde Pine, the other female, onely Pinus: which hath caused a generall errour among our Schoolemasters in construing that in the Grammar, Mas pinus, Mas oleaster,* whereof the most ignorant construe it Pinus, a Pine tree, Mas, the Masculine. Those that thinke themselues of better iudgement turne it to Spinus, (and so many Grammars haue it printed) but that is as false as the other, Spinus being euer by consent of all Di∣ctionaries and Authors the foeminine gender: the truth Page  174 is, Mas Pinus, the male or he Pine tree; for indeed Lillie might had said to haue put it out of question, Pina∣ster, Mas Oleaster, but then it had beene an harsh and vn∣pleasing Cacemphaton, as your owne eare will tell you, but this by the way.

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He beareth empaled, the first Argent on a bend Gules cotized Sable, three wings em∣paled of the first (with a mul∣let for a difference) by the name of Wingfeild, the se∣cond pearle betweene three Talbots passant of the Dia∣mond, a Cheveron of the Ru∣bie, by the name of Talbot. I giue you more instances of empalements: because I desire you should be better acquainted with the same.

This Coate of Talbot belongeth vnto the Right wor∣shipfull Master Thomas Talbot, Doctour of the Ciuill Law of Miliers Hall in Wimndham in the Countie of Norfolke, a very learned and honest Gentleman.

Page  175

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He beareth Argent, three Pheons Sable. This coate is anci∣ent, and borne by a worthy Gentleman a friend to the Mu∣ses in all good parts, and now liuing beyond the seas.

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He beareth Azure, two cres∣sents in chiefe Or, and one in bast Siluer. I know not the ow∣ner of this Coate, onely I found it in a Church in Bra∣ban, and for the raritie, (for seldome haue I seene the like) placed it here to conclude the rest.

Page  176

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He beareth argent: a Cheue∣ron azure between three Trey∣foiles vert. The Treyfoile is the Herald of the Spring, & the first grase that appeareth, hereupon it was the Embleme of Hope. For Hope anciently was pain∣ted like a young and a beauti∣full child of a sweete and smi∣ling countenance,* standing on tiptoe, in a long and wide roabe of white and greene, with a treifoile in the hand; the ten∣der age sheweth the Infancy of Hope; the smiling cheare, the sweetnesse and pleasure shee apprehendeth in her thoughts; standing on tiptoe, sheweth her vncertainty and vnsteddinesse: the long and wide roabe declareth, she euer pincheth or bindeth her conceipt, but alloweth her imagination the largest scope: the trey foile signifieth, it is alwayes Spring with her, whose colours white and greene, she is clad in.

If you would proceede further in blazonry, and the true knowledge of the des•••ts of our English Nobility, I refer you to that exact,* iust and elaborate worke of my singular and learned friend Master Augustine Vincent, Rouge-croix, very shortly to be published which let it be vnto you (of all that haue written in that kinde) instar omnium. So I referre you henceforward to your priuate reading and obseruation.