The compleat gentleman fashioning him absolute in the most necessary & commendable qualities concerning minde or bodie that may be required in a noble gentleman. By Henry Peacham, Mr. of Arts sometime of Trinity Coll: in Cambridge.
Peacham, Henry, 1576?-1643?, Delaram, Francis, 1589 or 90-1627, engraver.
Page  66

CHAP. 8.

Obseruations in Suruey of the Earth.

FIrst, how Almightie God by his Diuine prouidence so disposed the Earth in the first Creation (not fal∣ling out by chance, as some haue thought) that one Countrey,* in one place or other, is so neerely ioyned to the next; that if after it might happen to be ouer peo∣pled, as wel man as beast, by some smal streight or passage might easily bee prouided of a new habitation: which Acosta hath well obserued, resoluing vs that doubt, how wilde beasts, as Wolues, Foxes, Beares, and other harm∣full beasts, should swim ouer so vaste Seas, and breede in Ilands.

Secondly,* how the wit, disposition, yea, deuotion and strength of man, followeth the qualitie and temperature of the Climate; and many times the Nature of the soyle wherein he liues: as wee see the Easterne people of the world, very quicke in their inuentions, superstitious vn∣to Idolatry, as in Chin, Calecut, Iaa, and other places. On the contrary, those as farre North in Laplad, ••e∣land, and other places, as dull, and in a manner senclesse of Religion, whereupon they are held the most notori∣ous Witches of the world.

We see those that inhabit Mountaines,* and mountai∣nous places, to be farre more barbarous and vnciuill, then those that liue in the plaines: witnesse the Inhabitants of the huge hils Sierras, and the Andes in America, the mountainous North part of Nua Franci, the Nararrois in Spaine, and the Highland men in Scotland.

We see and finde it by experience, that where the soile is dry and sandy, the ayre is most pure; and consequently, Page  67 the spirits of the Inhabitants actiue and subtile, aboue those who inhabite the Fens and Marishes.

Thirdly, consider the wonder of wonders,* how the Ocean so farre distant, holdeth motion with the Moone, filling our shoares to the brim from the time of her ap∣pearing aboue the Horizon, vntill she hath ascended the Meridian: then decreasing as much vntill she toucheth the line of midnight, making his tide twice in foure and twentie houres and odde minutes: how the Atlantick or Westerne Ocean is most rough and dangerfull, the South Sea,* or Del Zur, albeit of infinite vastnesse, on the con∣trary so calme and quiet, that you seemed rather to saile vpon dry Land then water.

How in the Sea of Calcut it is high water, but at eue∣ry full Moone: in the Sea by the shore of Indus, but at euery new Moone: how in the maine Ocean the cur∣rant runnes from East to West, toward the streight of Magellan, but from West to East in the Meder∣ranean.

Fourthly, how in one place the North-wind, as vpon the Coast of Scythia, neere the mouth of the great Ri∣uer Duin, bloweth in a manner perpetually, so that the West or South-west winds are scarce knowne.

In another,* the East: in the Indian Sea the winds keep their turnes, obseruing the course of the Sunne, which being in Aries and Libra, the Westerne winds blow per∣petually.

Neither lesse admirable are the in-land stoods,* and fresh waters for their properties, as Nilus, who onely by his ouerflowing, maketh Aegypt fertile (where it neuer raineth.) Eurpus an arme of the Sea by Eub••• (an Iland of the Sporades in the Aegean Sea) which bbeth and floweth seauen times in a day. Likewise, much may bee said of our Lakes and Fountaines in England, Scotland, and Ireland, of turning Wood into Stone, Iron, and the like.

Page  68Fiftly,* it is worthy the consideration, how the Diuine wisedome for the behoofe of mankind, hath set an enmi∣tie betweene Birds and Beasts, of prey and rapine, who accompany not by heards: as Lyons, Beares, Dogges, Wolues, Foxes, Eagles, Kites, and the like; which if they should doe, they would vndoe a whole Countrey: whereas on the contrary, those which are necessary and vsefull for mankind, liue gregatim, in heards and flockes, as Kin, Sheepe, Deere, Pigeons, Partridges, Geese, &c.

Sixtly,* how Nature hath prouided for the Creatures of the Northerne parts of the world, as Beares, Dogs, Foxes, &c. not onely thicke skinnes, but great store of haire or feathers, to defend them from the extremitie of the cold there: on the other side, to those in Guiena, by reason of the extreame heate, none at all; as you may see by the Guiney Dogges, which are daily brought ouer.

Seuenthly,* how God hath so disposed the Riuers, that by their crookednesse and winding, they might serue ma∣ny places.

Let vs then consider, how the most fruitfull places and beautifull Cities, haue become the dwellings and homes of the most slaues, as Spaine ouer-runne by the Moors, Italy by the Gothes and Vandals; and at this day, a great part of Europe by the Turke.

How the Earth like an aged mother, is become lesse fruitfull, as we see by the barrennesse sometime of the most fertile places, the decay of the stature and strength of men within these few yeares.

It is also worthy obseruation, to see how the Earth hath beene increased by the accesse of Ilands, and againe beene diminished by inundation and Gulfes breaking a∣gaine into the same.

The Ilands of the Echinades,* were cast vp by the Riuer Achelous, and the greatest part of Aegypt by Nilus, so were the Rhodes and Delos. Of lesser Ilands beyond Me∣lon Anaphe, betweene Lemnos and the Hellespnt Nea,Page  69 (as one would say new-come) and else-where Alône, Thera, Therasia, and Hiera, which also from the euent was called Automate.

And that sundry goodly Countries on the contrary, haue beene eaten vp by the Sea, our neighbour Zeland,* and many other places will giue lamentable testimonie: beside the face of the Earth hath since the Creation, bene much altered by avulsion or diuision of the Sea, as Sicily was diuided and seuered from Italy; Cyprus, from Syria; Eub•• from Boetia, Atlas and Macris from Eub•••, Barbycus from Bythinia, Lencosia from the Promontorie of the Syrenes: and as some suppose, Lebos from Ida, Prochyta and Pth••usa from Misena; and which is more,*Spaine, from Barbarie, as Strabo is of opinion.

Againe,* it is affirmed by Volseus, that our Great Bri∣taine hath beene one Continent with France, and that tract betweene Douer and Calais, hath beene gained by the Sea, there called Mare Gessriacum.

Excellent is that contemplation, to consider how Na∣ture (rather the Almightie wisedome) by an vnsearcha∣ble and stupendious worke, sheweth vs in the Sea, the likenesse and shapes, not onely of Land Creatures, as Elephants, Horses, Dogges, Hogges, Calues, Hares, Snailes, &c. but of Fowles in the Ayre, as Hawks, Swal∣lowes, Vultures, and numbers the like; yea, it affordeth vs men and women, and among men, euen the Monke: but hereof see Iutius in his Batania,* and if you please Alex: ab Alexandris with some others.

Moreouer what inestimable wealth it affoordeth in pearles, Corall, Amber, and the like.

By reading you shall also finde what strange Earth∣quakes, remoouing of whole Townes, Hilles, &c. haue beene vpon the face of the Earth, raising of it in one place, leauing gulfes, and Vastitie in another: and Lucius Marcius, and Sextus Iulius being Consuls in Rome, in the Country of Mutinum, two mountaines met and ioyned themselues together.

Page  70In the raigne of Nero, Vectins Marcellus being ouer∣seer of Nero's affaires, and Steward of his Court, Me∣dowes and Oliue trees were remooued from a Common high way side, and placed a good way off on the contrary side; so whereas they stood before on the right hand, as one trauelled, they were now on the right hand. The like happened within these few yeeres to Pl••rs a towne of the Grisons among the Alpes.

Lastly, let vs take a view of the Earth it selfe, which because it was diuided with the Sea, Riuers, Marshes, &c. yet making one absolute Circle, Homer calleth it 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 and for this cause Numa Pompilius dedicated a Temple to Vesta in a round forme: The roundnesse of it is proo∣ued of Mathematicians by shadowes of Dials, and the Eclipses; also by descent of all heauie things to the Cen∣ter, it selfe being the Center of the vniuerse,* as Aristotle and Ptolomey affirme.*

Now in respect of heauen, it is so small a point, that the least starre is not darkened with the shaddow there∣of: for if the smallest starre, albeit in iudgement of our sence, seemeth but a pricke or point, yet farre exceedeth the bodie of the Earth in greatnesse, it followeth in re∣spect of heauen, that the earth must seeme as little.

Beside, if the earth were of any quantitie in respect of the higher orbes, the starres should seeme bigger or lesse in regard of those Hypsomata (Altitudes) or the Climes: but it is certaine that at the selfe same time, sun∣drie Astronomers finde the same bignesse and eleuation of the selfe same starre obserued by their calculation, to differ no whit at all; whereby we may see if that distance of place which is on the Earth (in respect of the Heauen∣ly orbes) exceedeth all sence, it followes that the Earth (poore little point as it is) seemes the like, if it be com∣pared with Heauen: yet this is that point, which with fire and sword, is diuided among so many Nations, the mat∣ter of our Glorie, our seate; heere we haue our Honours, Page  71 our Armies, our Commands; heere we heape vp riches, at perpetuall warre and strife among our selues, who (like the Toad) shal fall asleepe with most earth in his pawes: neuer thinking how of a moment of time well spent vp∣on this poore plot or dung-hill common to beasts as well as our selues, dependeth Eternitie,* and the fruition of our true Happinesse in the presence of Heauen, and court of the King of Kings for euer and euer.

Now I must take leaue of our common Mother the Earth, so worthily called in respect of her great merits, of vi for shee receiueth vs being borne, shee feedes and cloatheth vs brought forth, and lastly as forsaken wholly of Nature, shee receiueth vs into her ••p, and couers vs vntill the dissolution of all, and the last iudgement.

Thus haue I onely pointed at the principles of Cos∣mographie, hauing as it were giuen you a taste, and stop∣ped vp the vessell againe, referring the rest to your owne diligence and search. And herein you shall haue your helpes, M. Blund••ile in his treatise of Cosmographie and the Sphaere, D. Deo, M. Cooke in his principles of Geometrie, Astronomie and Geographie: Ge••• Fri∣sins,*Ortelius, Copernicus, Clnius the Iesuite, Ioannes de Monte Regis, Mercator, Munster, Hunter, and many o∣thers; of ancient writes Ptolomey, Dionisius Halicar nas∣seus. For mappes I referre you wholly vnto Ortelius and those set last forth by Hondius being later then Plancius, and more perfect by reason of the late discouerie, made by Schoten, vnto the 57. and 58. degrees of Southerly latitude beyond the streight of Magellan; and of late M. Henrie Hudson, to the 61. or 62. to the North-west, be∣yond Terra de Labrador: to omit that terrible voyage of Barentson and his companie, for the discouerie of the North-east passage, by the backe-side of Noua Zmla, which out of a Dutch translation you may reade in Eng∣lish.